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Prepared By: Rajesh Kumar Roll No. 0829021033 ABES INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

I am extremely thankful & indebted to the numerous UPPTCL Engineers, who provided vital information about the functioning of their respective departments thus helping me to gain an overall idea about the working of organization. I am highly thankful for the support & guidance of each of them.

I am highly indebted to my project guide, Mr. Rajiv Chaun(A.E.), Mr.Satya Prakash(J.E.), Mr. P.K. Mishra (A.E.-T&C) for giving me his valuable time and helping me to grasp the various concepts of switchyard equipments and their control instruments and their testing.

Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents & all my fellow trainees who have been a constant source of encouragement & inspiration during my studies & have always provided me support in every walk of life.


What is an Electrical Substation? Energy growth in UP Grid map of UP Introduction: about substation Overview of substation Single line digram of substation Brief description : Power transformer Isolators Circuit breaker Lightning arrestor Current transformer Capacitor voltage transformer Wave trap Protective relays Shunt reactor for bus voltage Capacitor bank Clearance at glance Power line communication & SCADA system Other definitions Appendix References

What is an Electrical Substation

Electric Power is generated in Power Stations and transmitted to various cities and towns. During transmissions, there are power (energy) loss and the whole subject of Transmission and Distribution... An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers. Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plant and consumer, and may be changed in voltage in several steps. The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. The first substations were connected to only one power station where the generator was housed, and were subsidiaries of that power station. Elements of a substation Substations generally have switching, protection and control equipment and one or more transformers. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short-circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use reclose circuit breakers or fuses for protection of distribution circuits. Substations do not usually have generators, although a power plant may have a substation nearby. Other devices such as power factor correction capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation. Substations may be on the surface in fenced enclosures, underground, or located in special- purpose buildings. High-rise buildings may have several indoor substations. Indoor substations are usually found in urban areas to reduce the noise from the transformers, for reasons of appearance, or to protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions. Where a substation has a metallic fence, it must be properly grounded (UK: earthed) to protect people from high voltages that may occur during a fault in the network. Earth faults at a substation can cause a ground potential rise. Currents flowing in the Earth's surface during a fault can cause metal objects to have a significantly different voltage than the ground under a person's feet; this touch potential presents a hazard of electrocution.

Transmission substation:
A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The simplest case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In such cases, the substation contains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or isolated for fault clearance or maintenance. A transmission station may have transformers to convert between two transmission voltages, voltage control devices such as capacitors, reactors or static VAr compensator and equipment

such as phase shifting transformers to control power flow between two adjacent power systems. Transmission substations can range from simple to complex. A small "switching station" may be little more than a bus plus some circuit breakers. The largest transmission substations can cover a large area (several acres/hectares) with multiple voltage levels, many circuit breakers and a large amount of protection and control equipment (voltage and current transformers, relays and SCADA systems).

Distribution substation:
A distribution substation in Scarborough, Ontario, Canada disguised as a house, complete with a driveway, front walk and a mown lawn and shrubs in the front yard. A warning notice can be clearly seen on the "front door". A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity consumers to the high-voltage main transmission network, unless they use large amounts of power, so the distribution station reduces voltage to a value suitable for local distribution. The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or sub transmission lines. Input voltage may be, for example, 115 kV, or whatever is common in the area. The output is a number of feeders. Distribution voltages are typically medium voltage, between 2.4 and 33 kV depending on the size of the area served and the practices of the local utility.

GENERATING SUBSTATION:A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage while decreasing the current, while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage while increasing the current for domestic and commercial distribution. The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. The first substations were connected to only one power station, where the generators were housed, and were subsidiaries of that power station. Early electrical substations required manual switching or adjustment of equipment, and manual collection of data for load, energy consumption, and abnormal events. As the complexity of distribution networks grew, it became economically necessary to automate supervision and control of substations from a centrally attended point, to allow overall coordination in case of emegencies and to reduce operating costs. Early efforts to remote control substations used dedicated communication wires, often run along side power circuits.

Energy growth in UP:

Grid map of UP:

Introduction: about substation

400 kv Agra substation is one important substation of UPGCL & UPPTCL. It is one of the largest power grids in the state of UP and the north India. It is situated at 13 mile stone NH 39( Aligarh agra Road) The construction of this substation completed during 1994-98 by CGL(Crompten Grives Limted).The area of this substation is about 66 acre. The whole substation is divided in Three parts: 1. 400kv switchyard 2. 220kv switchyard 3. 132kv switchyard

For 400kv &220kv, 132kv switchyard a common control room is used Crompton Greaves Limited (CG), an Indian Multinational with manufacturing bases in 8 countries, have signed the contract on 5th March2010 with Uttar Pradesh Power Transmission Corporation Ltd for construction of 765/400 kV Substation at Agra, in Uttar Pradesh. The value of contract is Rs 302 Corers . A 765/400 kV substation is the highest grade system voltage for transmission in India. UPPTCL is first state utility to enter into 765 kV arena. The scope of the project includes Design, Engineering, Manufacture, Supply, Erection, Testing and Commissioning of 8 Bays of 765 kV & 2 Bays of 400kV, along with 3No. of 315 MVA (Single Phase) 400 kV Power Transformers and 2 No.of 31.5 MVAR .The project is expected to be commissioned in July 2011. The project is of strategic importance for entry into market of 765 kV Substations global y and widens up the horizon for the entire product range of CGL Approximate Cost :- 59 Cr.(OECF) 11.89 Cr.(Taj Trapezium) 9.71 Cr.(Mission Management) Construction Period :- 4year(OECF) 1 year(TT) Date of Energisation :- 220 kv switchyard:10 July 1998 :- 400kv switchyard: 3 Nov. 1998 :- 132kv switchyard:16 Jan. 1998

Overview of substation

As we said earlier the whole substation is divided in three parts:132kv site ,400 kv &220kv site. The civil work is completing by L&T Company. Other part of project Design, Engineering, Manufacture, Supply, Erection, Testing and Commissioning of Bays wil complete by CGL. In 400/220kv switchyard following outdoor instrument used: Two 165MVA 220/132kv autotransformer Three 315MVA 400/220kv autotransformer Two 31.5MVAR shunt reactor 15 lighting tower SF6 circuit breaker Capacitor voltage transformer(CVT) Current transformer(CT)

In switchyard one room for mulsi fire system and one for generator system is also present. In 400kv switchyard fol owing lines are present for incoming and outgoing power:


220kv Outgoing Agra I Agra II Trans Yamuna Nagar

132kv Outgoing Foundry nagar Sadabad Taj Etmadpur Shamsabad

One 400kv transfer bus control bus coupler. Two 100MVA 220/132 KV auto transformer manufactured from BHEL. Three 315 MVA 400/220 BHEL,ALSTHOM,SIEMENS KV auto transformer manufactured from

Two 31.5 MVAR shunt reactor manufactured from BHEL. Circuit breaker from CGL. Isolators from S&S. Current transformer by SCT CVT Wave trap Lighting arrester Surge capacitor Capacitor Bank Bus Coupler Marshalling box Conservator and Breather Substation Fuse Relay

Brief Description Of all Outdoor Equipment

Power transformer:
Various types of transformers have been provided at 220& 400 KV Substation from UPPTCL. Capacity and voltage ratio wise 100 MVA , 315MVA & 160 MVA and 220/132/11 kV. 400/220 kV, These transformers are of TELK, BHEL, ALSTHOM,SIMENCE C & G, Hitachi and Bharat Bijlee make and have most of the features common except few accessories which may be different. In this substation al transformers made by BHEL. These transformers have fol owing main components:


BUSHING :backelised with paper wound capacitor have been provided. Innermost of the capacitor layer is electrically connected to the tube and outermost to the mounting flange on insulating body. The central tube insulating body and mounting flange are oil fil ed assembled. High dielectric Strength oil is fil ed between central tube and insulating body. Oil level indicators are provided on the bushing. Condenser type bushings with insulating body and central conducting tube-

(b) 132 kV Medium voltage bushing: These bushing are also of condenser type and are of similar construction as in the case of 220 kV bushing in 200 MVA transformers. In 40 & 20 MVA transformers 132 kV bushings are also of oil fil ed type in which oil is fil ed up when the transformer tank is topped up. Necessary air vent

screws are provided on top of the bushings for release of trapped air at the top of oil fitting.

(c) 66 kV. 33 kV. & 11 kV. Bushings: These are oil fil ed bushing and simpler in construction.

3. TAP CHANGER: The transformers have been provided with on load tap changer, which consists of diverter switch instal ed in an oil compartment separated from transformer oil and the tap selector mounted below it. The tap changer is attached to the transformer cover by means of tap changer head, which also serves for connecting the driving shaft and the oil conservator.

4. PROTECTIVE RELAYS: General y there are two protective buchholz relays, one for main transformer tank and other for tap changer. In 40MVA GEC transformers oil surge relay has also been provided in tap changer.

5. PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE: 40 MVA GEC make transformers have been provided with pressure relief valve which operates in case of sudden pressure formation in side the transformer.

6. COOLING SYSTEM : 100 MVA transformers have been provided with cooling bank instal ed on separate structures. These cooling banks have provided with to groups of fans and 2 nos. pumps. These fans and pumps automatical y operate, depending upon the settings of winding temperature Indicator.

The fol owing electrical protection have been provided on the transformers : Differential Protection Restricted Earth Fault Winding temp high Oil temp high Pressure relief valve Oil surge relay Over current relay

The transformers that are used in Agra substation have following specification: Specification of 100 MVA 220/132/11 KV 3- auto transformer: Types of cooling Rating of H.V. & I.V.(MVA) Rating of L.V. (MVA) Line current H.V.(Amps) Line current I.V. (Amps) 437.4 Line current L.V. (Amps) 1574.6 No load voltage H.V. No load voltage I.V. No load voltage L.V. Temp. Rise winding C 60 Temp. rise oil C Phase Frequency 50 3 50Hz 220kv 132kv 11kv 55 55 OFAF 944.8 1259.7 ONAN 60 18 157.4 262.4 ONAF 80 24 209.9 349.9 OFAF 100 30 262.4

Specification of 315 MVA 400/220 KV 3- auto transformer: Types of cooling Rating of H.V. & I.V.(MVA) Rating of L.V. (MVA) Line current H.V.(Amps) Line current I.V. (Amps) Line current I.V. (Amps) Line current L.V. (Amps) No load voltage H.V. No load voltage I.V. No load voltage L.V. Temp. Rise winding C ONAN 189 105 272.76 495.96 262.4 944.8 220kv 132kv 11kv 55 55 ONAF 252 105 363.68 661.28 349.9 1259.7 315 105 454.6 826.6 437.4 1574.6


This type of construction has three insulator stacks per pole. The two one each side is fixed and one at the center is rotating type. The central insulator stack can swing about its vertical axis through about 900C. The fixed contacts are provided on the top of each of the insulator stacks on the side. The contact bar is fixed horizontally on the central insulator stack. In closed position, the contact shaft connects the two fixed contacts. While opening, the central stack rotates through 900C, an contact shaft swings horizontal y giving adouble The isolators are mounted on a galvanized rol ed steel frame. The three poles are interlocked by means of steel shaft. A common operating mechanism is provided for al the three poles. One pole\ of a triple pole isolator is closed position. This type of construction has three insulator stacks per pole. The two one each side is fixed and one at the center is rotating type. The central insulator stack can swing about its vertical axis through about 900C. The fixed contacts are provided on the top of each of the insulator stacks on the side. The contact bar is fixed horizontally on the central insulator stack. In closed position, th contact shaft connects the two fixed contacts. While opening, the central stack rotates through 900C,

Pantograph isolator:

il ustrates the construction of a typical pantograph isolator. While closing, the linkages of pantograph are brought nearer by rotating the insulator column. In closed position the upper two arms of the pantograph close on the overhead station bus bar giving a grip. The current is carried by the upper bus bar to the lower bus bar through the conducting arms of the pantograph. While opening, the rotating insulator column is rotated about its axis. Thereby the pantograph blades break. col apse in vertical plane and vertical isolation is obtained between the line terminal a pantograph upper terminal. Pantograph isolators cover less floor area. Each pole can be located at a suitable point and the three poles need not be in one line, can be located in a line at desired angle with the bus axis. Isolator with earth switches (ES): The instrument current transformer (CT) steps down the current of a circuit to a lower value and is used in the same types of equipment as a potential transformer. This is done by constructing the secondary coil consisting of many turns of wire, around the primary coil, which contains only a few turns of wire. In this manner, measurements of high values of current can be obtained. A current transformer should always be short-circuited when not connected to an external load. Because the magnetic circuit of a current transformer is designed for low magnetizing current when under load, this large increase in magnetizing current wil build up a large flux in the magnetic circuit and cause the transformer to act as a step-up transformer, inducing an excessively high voltage in the secondary when under no load.

The main use of using the earth switch (E/S) is to ground the extra voltage which may dangerous for any of the instrument in the substation.

Circuit breaker:
A circuit breaker is an automatical y-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manual y or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from\ smal devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city. Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit; some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the contacts, although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. Smal circuit breakers may be manual y operated; larger units have solenoids to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy to the springs.

The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heating, and must als withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting the circuit. Contacts are made of coppe or copper al oys, silver al oys, and other materials. When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated. This arc must be contained, cooled, and extinguished in a control ed way, so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Different circuit breakers use vacuum, air, insulating gas or oil as the medium in which the arc forms. Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc including: Lengthening of the arc Intensive cooling (in jet chambers) Division into partial arcs Zero point quenching (Contacts open at the zero current time crossing of the AC waveform, effectively breaking no load current at the time of opening. The zero crossing occures a twice the line frequency i.e. 100 times per second for 50Hz ac and 120 times per second for 60Hz ac )

Connecting capacitors in paral el with contacts in DC circuitsFinally, once the fault condition has been cleared, the contacts must again be closed to restore power to the interrupted circuit.

Types of circuit breaker: Many different classifications of circuit breakers can be made, based on their features such as voltage class, construction type, interrupting type, and structural features. Electrical power transmission networks are protected and control ed by high-voltage breakers. The definition of high voltage varies but in power transmission work is usual y thought to be 72.5 kV or higher, according to a recent definition by the International Electrotechnical Commission(IEC). High-voltage breakers are nearly always solenoid-operated, with current sensing protective relays operated through current transformers. In substations the protection relay scheme can be complex, protecting equipment and busses from various types of overload or ground/earth fault. High-voltage breakers are broadly classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc. Bulk oil Minimum oil Air blast Vacuum SF6 In unnao substation only SF6 circuit breaker is used. The breaker uses SF6 (Sulpher Hexa fluoride) gas for arc extinction purpose. This gas has excel ent current interrupting and insulating properties, chemical y, it is one of the most stable compound in the pure state and under normal condition it is physical y inert, non-flammable, non toxic and odorless and there is no danger te personnel and fire hazard. It's density is about. 5 times that of air insulating strength is about 2-3 times that of air and exceeds that of oil at 3 Kg/Cm pressure. SF6 breaker cal ed as maintenance free breaker, has simple construction with few moving parts: The fission products created during breaking and not ful y recombined are, either precipitated as metal ic fluoride or absorbed by a static filter which also absorbs the residual moisture. Since no gas is exhausted from the breaker and very little compressed air is required for operation, noise during the operation is also very Jess. Since SF6 gas is inert and stable at normal temperature, contacts do not settler from oxidization or other chemical reactions, whereas in air or oil type breakers oxidation of contacts would cause high temperature rise. SF6 gas circuit breakers, designed to conform to the same standards as air or oil breakers, but in operation it is possible to get better service even at higher fault levels.

Sulphur hexafluoride gas is prepared by burning coarsely crushed rol sulphur in the fluorine gas, in a steel box, provided with staggered horizontal shelves, each bearing about 4 kg of sulphur. The steel box is made gas tight. The gas thus obtained contains other fluorides such as S2F10, SF4 and must be purified further SF6 gas general y supplier by chemical firms. The cost of gas is low if

During the arcing period SF6 gas is blown axial y along the arc. The gas removes the heat from the arc by axial convection and radial dissipation. As a result, the arc diameter reduces during the decreasing mode of the current wave. The diameter becomes smal during the current zero and the arc is extinguished. Due to its electro negativity, and low arc time constant, the SF6 gas regains its dielectric strength rapidly after the current zero, the rate of rise of dielectric strength is very high and the time constant is very smal .

Gas circuit breaker: high voltage side \ Type 220-SFM-20B Voltage rating: 220kv Rated lightening impulse withstand voltage: 1050 kVp Rated short circuit breaker current: 40 kV Rated operating pressure: 16.5 kg/ cm2g First pole to clear factor 1.3 Rated duration of short circuit current is 40 kA for 30 sec. Rated ling charging breaker breaking current 125 Amp Rated voltage 245 kV Rated frequency 50 Hz Rated normal current 1600 Amp Rated closing voltage: 220 V dc Rated opening voltage 220 V dc Main parts: (a) Power circuit (b) Control circuit Gas circuit breaker: low voltage side \Type 120-SFM-32A Voltage rating: 220kv Rated lightening impulse withstand voltage: 650 kVp Rated short circuit breaker current: 31.5 kV Rated operating pressure: 15.5 kg/ cm2g

Lightning arrester:
High Voltage Power System experiences overvoltages that arise due to natural lightning or the inevitable switching operations. Under these overvoltage conditions, the insulation of the power system equipment are subjected to electrical stress which may lead to catastrophic failure. Broadly, three types of overvoltages occur in power systems: (i) temporary over-voltages,(ii) switching overvoltages and(iii) lightning overvoltages. The duration of these overvoltages vary in the ranges of microseconds to sec depending upon the type and nature of overvoltages. Hence, the power system cal s for overvoltage protective devices to ensure the reliability. Conventional y, the overvoltage protection is obtained by the use of lightning / surge arresters . Under normal operating voltages, the impedance of lightning arrester, placed in parallel to the equipment to be protected, is very high and al ow the equipment to perform its respective function. Whenever the overvoltage appears across the terminals, the impedance of the arrester col apses in such a way that the power system equipment would not experience the overvoltage. As soon as the overvoltage disappears, the arrester recovers its impedance back. Thus the arrester protects the equipment from overvoltages. The technology of lightning arresters has undergone major transitions during this century. In the early part of the century, spark gaps were used to suppress these overvoltages. The silicon carbide gapped arresters replaced the spark gaps in 1930 and reigned supreme til 1970. During the mid 1970s, zinc oxide (ZnO) gapless arresters, possessing superior protection characteristics, replaced the silicon carbide gapped arresters. Usage of ZnO arresters have increased the reliability of power systems many fold.

Current transformer: Current Transformers (CTs) are instrument transformers that are used to supply a reduced value of current to meters, protective relays, and other instruments. CTs provide isolation from the high voltage primary, permit grounding of the secondary for safety, and step-down the magnitude of the measured current to a value that can be safely handled by the instruments. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR CURRENT TRANSFORMERS 1.0 GENERAL 1.1 This specification covers manufacture, test, & supply of LT Current transformers ofclass 0.5 accuracy. 1.2 The CTs shal be suitable for metering purpose. 2.0 TYPE: 2.1 The CTs shal be of ring type or window type (bar type or bus-bar type CTs shal not be accepted). 2.2 The secondary leads shal be terminated with Tinned Cooper rose contact terminals with arrangements for sealing purposes. 2.3 Polarity (both for primary and second leads) shal be marked. 2.4 The CTs shal be varnished, fiberglass tape insulated or cast resin, aircooled type. Only super enameled electrolytic grade copper wires shal be used. 2.5 The CTs shal conform to IS 2705:Part-I & II/IEC:185 with latest amendments. 3.0 TECHNICAL DETAILS: 3.1 Technical details shal be as given below: 1. Class of Accuracy 2. Rated Burden 3. Power Frequency Withstand Voltage 4. Highest System Voltage 5. Nominal System Voltage 6. Frequency 0.5 5.00VA 3KV Current Transformer 433V 400V 50hz Wave Trap


1CT 1U1 500/1 1CT 1V1 1CT 1W1

1CT 2U1 500/1


40AT Vk/2 PS



40AT Vk/2 PS


1CT 2V1 1CT 2W1 1CT 3U1 2000/1 1CT 3V1 1CT3W1


30AT Vk/2 PS

Differenti al

2CT 3U1 2000/1


40AT Vk/2 PS


2CT 3V1 2CT 3W1

3CT 3U1 2000/1

3CT 3V1 3CT 3W1 WCT 1U2




198/3.0 1.7VA -2.5


Capacitor voltage transformer:

In high and extra high voltage transmission systems, capacitor voltage transformers (CVTs) are used to provide potential outputs to metering instruments and protective relays. In addition, when equipped with carrier accessories, CVTs can be used for power line carrier (PLC) coupling. A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step-down extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage signals either for measurement or to operate a protective relay. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the voltage signal is split, an inductive element used to tune the device to the supply frequency and a transformer used to isolate and further step-down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay. The device has at least four terminals, a high-voltage terminal for connection to the high voltage signal, a ground terminal and at least one set of secondary terminals for connection to the instrumentation or protective relay. CVTs are typical y single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical. In practice the first capacitor, C1, is often replaced by a stack of capacitors connected in series. This results in a large voltage drop across the stack of capacitors that replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively smal voltage drop across the second capacitor, C2, and hence the secondary terminals.

INSULATING SYSTEMS: The external insulation is provided by the porcelain housing and coordinated with the capacitor stack, consisting of virtual y identical elements so that the axial voltage distribution from the line terminal to ground is essential y uniform. The capacitor elements have a mixed dielectric material consisting of alternating layers of polypropylene film and Kraft paper. The Kraft paper layers serve as a wicking agent to ensure homogenous synthetic oil impregnation. The electromagnetic unit (EMU) is housed in an oil-fil ed tank at the base of the capacitor stack. Mineral oil is employed as the insulating medium instead of air because of its superior insulating and heat transfer properties. The use of an oil-fil ed base tank removes the need for space heaters in the secondary terminal box as this area is warmed by heat transfer from the insulating oil. This results in a more reliable and cost effective design.

INSULATING OIL: We use insulating oils with excel ent dielectric strength, aging, and gas absorbing properties. The synthetic oil used for the capacitor units possesses superior gas absorption properties resulting in exceptional y low partial discharge with high inception/extinction voltage ratings. The oil used for

CAPACITOR STACK: The capacitor stack is a voltage divider which provides a reduced voltage at the intermediate voltage bushing for a given voltage applied at the primary terminal. The capacitor stack is a multicapacitor-unit assembly. Each unit is housed in an individual insulator. A cast aluminum cover is on top of the upper capacitor assembly and is fitted with an aluminum terminal. An adapter for mounting a line trap on top of the CVT can be
1 - Primary terminal

provided with an optional (and removable) HV terminal.

2 - Cast aluminum bellow housing

The capacitor units are mechanical y coupled together by

3 - Stainless steel expansion bellow 4 - Compression spring 5 - Insulated voltage connection 6 - Capacitor elements 7 - Insulator (porcelain or composite) 8 - Voltage divider tap connection 9 - Cast-epoxy bushing 10 - HF terminal connection 11 - Ferro-resonance suppression device 12 - Secondary terminals 13 - Oil level sight-glass 14 - Aluminum terminal box 15 - Intermediate transformer 16 - Oil/air block 17 - Oil sampling device 18 - Compensating reactor 19 - Aluminum cover plate

means of stainless steel hardware passing through the corrosion resistant cast aluminum housing. The mechanical connection also establishes the electrical connection between capacitor units. This facilitates field assembly of the CVT

1. High Voltage terminal 2. Compensation reactor 3. Intermediate voltage transformer 4. Ground terminal 5. Ferro-resonance suppression device 6. Damping resistor 7. Carrier (HF) terminal (optional) 8. Overvoltage protective device 9. Secondary terminals 10. Link, to be opened for test Purposes

Wave trap:Line trap also is known as Wave trap. What it does is trapping the high frequency communication signals sent on the line from the remote substation and diverting them to the telecom/teleportation panel in the substation control room (through coupling capacito andLMU). This is relevant in Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) systems for communication among various substations without dependence on the telecom company network. The signals are primarily teleportation signals and in addition, voice and data communication signals. The Line trap offers high impedance to the high frequency communication signals thus obstructs the flow of these signals in to the substation busbars. If there were not to be there, then signal loss is more and communication wil be ineffective/probably impossible.

Protective relays: Protective relaying is one of the several features of power system design. Every part of the power system is protected. The protective relaying is used to give an alarm or to cause prompt removal of any element of power system from service when hat element behave abnormal y. The relays are compact and self contained devices which can sense abnormal conditions. Whenever abnormal condition occur , the relays contacts get closed. This in turn closes the trip circuit of a circuit breaker. For switchyard protections fol owing type relays are used: 1. Overcurrent relay 2. Earth fault relay 3. REF relay 4. Differential relay 5. Directional relay 6. Over flux relay 7. Buchoolz relay 8. IDMT relay

Buchholz relay:
In the field of electric power distribution and transmission, a Buchholz relay, also cal ed a gas relay or a sudden pressure relay, is a safety device mounted on some oil-fil ed power transformers and reactors, equipped with an external overhead oil reservoir cal ed a conservator. The Buchholz Relay is used as a protective device sensitive to the effects of dielectric failure inside the equipment. The relay has two different detection modes. On a slow accumulation of gas, due perhaps to slight overload, gas produced by decomposition of insulating oil accumulates in the top of the relay and forces the oil level down. A float switch in the relay is used to initiate an alarm signal that also serves to detect slow oil leaks. If an arc forms, gas accumulation is rapid, and oil flows rapidly into the conservator. This flow of oil operates a switch attached to a vane located in the path of the moving oil. This switch normal y wil operate a circuit breaker to isolate the apparatus before the fault causes additional damage. Buchholz relays have a test port to al ow the accumulated gas to be withdrawn for testing.

IDMT relay:
The IDMT relay work on the induction principle, where an aluminum or copper disc rotates between the poles of electromagnet and damping magnet. The fluxes induce eddy current in the disc which interact and produce rotational torque. The disc rotates to a point where it operates a pair of contact that breaks the circuit and removes the fault condition.

Shunt reactor for bus voltage:

In EHV substations, it is a common practice to use breaker switched bus reactors to maintain the bus voltage within permissible limits under varying load conditions. With the development of

Control ed Shunt Reactor (CSR) which is a thyristor control ed high impedance transformer, a stable bus voltage can be maintained by providing variable reactive power based on the bus voltage deviations due to the load variations. The high impedance transformer which is also known as reactor transformer (RT) can be made to any size without any limitation unlike gapped core shunt reactors. As a single CSR of large capacity can be realized with suitable control mechanism, this approach proves to be technically superior and economical compared to the existing practice of breaker switched bus reactors. A CSR with a detailed control system is modeled along with a typical EHV system in PSCAD/EMTDC environment. The study includes the effectiveness of filters introduced in the tertiary of the reactor transformer in controlling the harmonics generated during partial conduction of thyristors. The transient and steady state performance of the CSR system for varying system conditions is studied and the same is compared with the conventional practice. The paper presents and discusses the results of the study. Keywords: High impedance transformer, shunt reactor, reactive power, compensation, EHV systems, voltage control, thyristors. Shunt reactors which are meant to be used for control ing the bus voltage of sub station are known as bus reactors. These are always connected through a circuit breaker and switched on or off, based on the voltage variations. In large switching substations, it is not uncommon to find multiple bus reactors when the total reactor capacity required is large. Due to limited standard ratings of gapped core shunt reactors, it is necessary to provide in multiples of standard ratings along with associated bay equipment and space for accommodating the same. The CSR mentioned above is based on a high impedance transformer known as Reactor Transformer (RT) with a provision to control from the secondary side through thyristor valves. As RT of any large capacity can be realized as a single three phase unit or three single phase units, it is possible to provide variable reactive power support by control ing the firing angle of the thyristor valves. This continuously variable CSR as bus reactor offers fol owing

1. Continuously variable reactive power based on the voltage variation. 2. Fast Response to dynamic conditions like load throw off 3. Reduced losses with optimized reactive power support. 4. Better economy in terms of substation space and auxiliary equipment.

Shunt capacitor bank:

Shunt capacitor banks are used to improve the quality of the electrical supply and the efficient operation of the power system. Studies show that a flat voltage profile on the system can significantly reduce line losses. Shunt capacitor banks are relatively inexpensive and can be easily instal ed anywhere on the network. Shunt capacitor banks (SCB) are mainly instal ed to provide capacitive reactive compensation/ Power factor correction. The use of SCBs has increased because they are relatively inexpensive, easy and quick to instal and can be deployed virtual y anywhere in the network. Its instal ation has other beneficial effects on the system such as: improvement of the voltage at the load, better voltage regulation (if they were adequately designed), reduction of losses and reduction or postponement of investments in transmission. The main disadvantage of SCB is that its reactive power output is proportional to the square of the voltage and consequently when the voltage is low and the system need them most, they are the least efficient.

Various clearances required to be maintained as per Indian Electricity Rules and Code o practice etc. during construction of a transmission line are given at appropriate places in various chapters. However, for convenience, the various clearances required to be maintained in the construction of a transmission line at a glance are given in the fol owing table:


SI. No. 1.


Unit s

Clearance required to be maintained for 132 KV 220 KV 400 KV

Live Metal Clearance (a) Suspension Towers (b) Tension towers mm mm m in mm 30 m 1525(0- 25 swing) 1075(25 - 45 swing) 1525 6.1 6.1 3900 30 3.05 (from other lines of 11 KV to 132KV) 3.05 14.60 27.60 4.0 2130 (0 - 20) 1675 (20 -50") 2130 7.0 8.5 5130 30 4.58 (from other lines of 11 KV to 220 KV) 3.05 15.40 35.00 4.6 2600 (V - string) 2600 8.84 9.0 7000 20 6.10 (front other lines of 11-KV to 400KV) 3.05 17.90 52.00 5.5

3. 4.

Ground Clearance Mid Span Clearance Phase to Phase Clearance Maximum Shielding Angle PowerLine Crossing Clearance between Lines Clearance Between lines and Tramway Crossing Clearance from Railway^ Track Prescribed Corridor for Forest clearance etc. Minimum Clearances from Trees Clearance over Rivers from HFL (i) Non Navigable River (ii) Navigable River




m m m m



10. 11.

m m




To be maintained in relation to tallest mast in consolation with navigation authorities


Clearances from Buildings

Power line communication & SCADA system of UPPTCL:

Uttar Pradesh Power Transmission Corporation Ltd. (UPPTCL) has a very large network of hig voltage transmission lines in whole UP (about 24,000Km). Transmission lines transfer power from power houses to substations and from one substation to many other substations or vice versa. Power is generated at low Voltage (of the order of 3.3KV to 25KV) and is stepped-up to high voltage (765KV, 400KV, 220KV & 132KV) for evacuating power into the grid network through transmission lines.

Transmission of Data

Figure 1: Transmission of Data from substation/Power house to subLDC

Current Transformers (CTs) and Potential Transformers (PTs), instal ed on transmission lines, provide inputs to transducers of SIC (Supervisory Interface & Control) & RTU (Remote Terminal Unit) panel. Circuit breakers & isolators' status are extended up to SIC panel. If for such extension extra potential free contacts are not available in the Control Panels, Contact Multiplying Relays (CMRs) are used to provide potential free contacts. The output of RTU is connected to the communication equipment, through Modem. In between substation & subLDC, a communication link has been shown. Telephone exchanges are connected with the communication equipment. Such communication links can be of any type. UPPTCL has got its own three different type of communication systems, i.e. PLCC (Power Line Carrier Communication), microwave and fibreoptic. PLCC system is more prevalent in UPPTCL. Modem output at receive side is connected with the CFE (Communication End Frame). Its output is connected with data takes over. Each RTU is automatical y pol ed by Server of subLDC to obtain each data of repeats at least once in 10 sec and is stored in the database of subLDC. This data is processed in database formats and is retrieved for different applications. These formats or graphics are displayed or printed as per requirement. At subLDC, System Control Officers use this data to monitor and analyze position of the grid.

Below in Figure 2, main equipment from subLDC to SLDC, Lucknow has been shown in a very simple form.

A systematical y combined/processed data of al RTUs, in server of subLDC, is transmitted t SLDC Lucknow. This data in the form of 64Kb/s signal is sent through multiple paths/channels.Presently four channels are used. For this purpose 'Routers' are used. Routers basical y work asmodem but is has multiple paths for LAN, WAN or internet, etc. In UPPTCL, for transmission of data, from subLDC to SLDC, only wideband communication system (microwave or fibre-optic links) is being used. In SLDC, data from al other subLDCs is also received simultaneously and are processed for different purposes and applications. From Inter-Control Centre Communications Protocol (ICCP) Servers of SLDC, complete data of al subLDCs is sent to NRLDC, New Delhi through wideband communication system. This way communication plays a major role in grid management.

Communication for Power System

Fol owing are mainly three inter-related areas of functions in UPPTCL for management of power system: A) Telecommunication B) SCADA- Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System. C) EMS- Energy Management System A) TELECOMMUNICATION There are three different types of telecommunication systems in UPPTCL i.e. Microwave Communication System, Fibre-optic Communication System, PLCC-Power Line Carrier Communication.

Voice Frequency (VF) channels of al these systems have been integrated/interconnected to make a hybrid communication system. Microwave & Fibre Optic are multi-channels communication systems and are also cal ed 'Wideband communication system'. PLCC is single channel communication system.

In SCADA system measured values, i.e. analogue (measured value) data (MW, MVAR, V, Hz Transformer tap position), and Open/Closed status information, i.e. digital data (Circuit Breakers/Isolators position i.e. on/off status), are transmitted through telecommunication channels to respective sub-LDCs. For this purpose Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) at 400KV, 220KV and few important 132KV sub-stations have been instal ed. System values & status information below 132 KV have not been picked up for data transmission, except for 33KV Bus isolator position and LV side of generators. Secondary side of Current Transformers (CT) and Potential Transformer (PT) are connected with 'Transducers'. The output of transducers is available in dc current form (in the range of 4mA to 20mA). Analogue to digital converter converts this current into binary pulses. Different inputs are interleaved in a sequential form and are fed into the CPU of the RTU. The output of RTU, containing information in the form of digital pulses, is sent to subLDC through communication links. Depending upon the type of communication link, the output of RTU is connected, directly or through Modem, with the communication equipment. At subLDC end, data received from RTU is fed into the data servers. In general, a SCADA system consists of a database, displays and supporting programmes. In UPPTCL, subLDCs use al major functional areas of SCADA except the 'Supervisory Control/Command' function. The brief overview of majo 'functional areas' of SCADA system is as below: 1. Communications - Sub-LDC's computer communicates with al RTU stations under its control, through a communication system. RTU pol ing, message formatting, polynomial checking and message retransmission on failure are the activities of 'Communications' functional area. 2. Data Processing - After receipt of data through communication system it is processed. Data process function has three sub-functions i.e. (i) Measurements, (ii) Counters and (ii ) Indications. 'Measurements' retrieved from a RTU are converted to engineering units and linearised, if necessary. The measurement are then placed in database and are checked against various limits which if exceeded generate high or low limit alarms. The system has been set-up to col ect 'Counters' at regular intervals: typical y 5 or 10 minutes. At the end of the hour the units is transferred into appropriate hour slot in a 24- hour archive/history. 'Indications' are associated with status changes and protection. For those statuses that are not classified as 'alarms', logs the change on the appropriate printer and also enter it into a cyclic event list. For those statuses, which are defined as an 'alarms' and the indication goes into alarm, an entry is made

into the appropriate alarm list, as wel as in the event list and an audible alarm is generated in the subLDC.

3. Alarm/Event Logging - The alarm and event logging facilities are used by SCADA data processing system. Alarms are grouped into different categories and are given different priorities. Quality codes are assigned to the recently received data for any 'limit violation' and 'status changes'. Alarms are acknowledged from single line diagram (or alarm lists) on display terminal in LDCs. 4. Manual Entry - There is a provision of manual entry of measured values, counters and indications for the important sub-station/powerhouse, which are uncovered by an RTU or some problem is going on in its RTU, equipment, communication path, etc. 5. Averaging of Measured Values - As an option, the SCADA system supports averaging of al analogue measurements. Typical y, the averaging of measured values over a period of 15 minutes is stored to provide 24 hours trend. 6. Historical Data Recording (HDR) - The HDR, i.e. 'archive', subsystem maintains a history of selected system parameters over a period of time. These are sampled at a pre-selected interval and are placed in historical database. At the end of the day, the data is saved for later analysis and for report generation. 7. Interactive Database Generation - Facilities have been provided in such a way that an off- line copy of the SCADA database can be modified al owing the addition of new RTUs, pickup points and communication channels. 8. Supervisory Control/Remote Command - This function enables the issue of 'remote control' commands to the sub-station/powerhouse equipment e.g. circuit breaker trip command. Though, there is provision of this function in this system, yet it is not used in U.P. As such, related/associated equipment have not been ordered. 9. Fail-over - A 'Fail-over' subsystem is also provided to secure and maintain a database of devices and their backups. The state of the device is maintained indicating whether it is 'on- line' or 'failed'. There is a 'backup' system, which maintains database on a backup computer and the system is duplicated. SLDC Lucknow has a large and active 'Mimic Board' in its Control room. This mimic board displays single line diagram of intra State transmission system i.e. grid network of 400KV, 220KV and important 132KV sub-stations, transmission lines, thermal & hydro powerhouses. Outgoing feeders, shown in the mimic board, have 'achieve' (LED display) colored indications, of three different colors, to show the range of power flow at any moment i.e. 'Normal', 'Nominal' or 'Maximum' of its line capacity. UPPTCL's transmission network is expanding rapidly and thereby number of RTUs is also increasing. For new substations and lines, displays in active and passive forms are required to be made in the Mimic diagram. But, Mimic Board has a limitation that it cannot incorporate/add large volume of displays for substations/power houses/transmission lines in 'active' form due to space constraint and congestion. Due to this Mimic Board is going to be supplemented with a Video Projection System

(VPS) at SLDC, Lucknow in near future. Also in SLDC & subLDCs, displays of single line diagrams of RTU sub-stations/power house are viewed on VDUs of large size (21").

Other definitions and terms:

What is OLTC in a transformer:

Onload Tap Changer (OLTC) is used with higher capacity transformers where HT side voltage variation is frequent and a nearly constant LT is required. OLTC is fitted with the transformer itself. Multiple tappings from HV windings are brought to the OLTC chamber and conacted to fixed contacts. Moving contacts rotates with the help of rotating mechanism having a spindle. This spindle can be rotated manual y as wel as electrically with a motor. Motor is connected in such a way that it can rotate in both the directions so as to rotate the OLTC contacts in clockwise and anticlock-wise direction. Two push buttons are fitted on the LCP (local control panel) to rotate the motor and hence the OLTC contacts in clockwise and anti- clockwise direction. This movement of contacts thus controls the output LV voltage of the transformer. So rotating of OLTC contacts with spindle or push buttons in this way is a manuall process. In case this process of rotating the OLTC contacts and hence control ing the LV side voltage is to be done automatical y then a RTCC (Remote Tap Changer Control er) is instal ed with the transformer HT Panel. The RTCC sends signals to LCP and LCP in turn rotates the motor as per the signals received from the the RTCC.

Interposing CT:
Transformer differential relays compare the phase and magnitude of the current entering one winding of the transformer with that leaving via the other winding(s). Any difference in Phase or magnitude between the measured quantities wil cause current to flow through the operate winding of the relay. If this current exceeds the relay setting, tripping of the Transformer circuit breakers wil be initiated. To enable a comparison to be made, the differential scheme should be arranged so that the relay wil see rated current when the ful load current flows in the protected circuit. In order to achieve this, the line current transformers must be matched to the normal ful load current of the transformer. Where this is not the case it is necessary to use an auxiliary interposing current transformer to Provide amplitude correction. The connection of the line CTs should compensate for any phase shift arising across the transformer. Alternatively the necessary phase correction may also be provided by the use of an interposing CT.

Local backup protection: The primary objective of back-up protection is to open all sources of generation to an uncleared fault on the system. To accomplish this objective, an adequate back-up protective system must meet the following functional requirements:

1. It must recognize the existence of all faults which occur within its prescribed zone of protection. 2. It must detect the failure of the primary protection to clear any fault as planned. 3. In clearing the fault from the system, it must a. Initiate the tripping of the minimum number of circuit breakers. b. Operate fast enough (consistent with coordination requirements) to maintain system stability, prevent excessive equipment damage, and maintain a prescribed degree of service continuity.

Table for insulators string: Line voltage 132 KV 220KV 400KV Single suspension 9 14 Single tension 10 16 Double suspension 2*9 2*14 2*21 Double tension 2*10 2*16 2*21

Corona ring:
A corona ring, also cal ed anti-corona ring, is a toroid of (typical y) conductive material located in the vicinity of a terminal of a high voltage device. It is electrical y insulated. Stacks of more spaced rings are often used. The role of the corona ring is to distribute the electric field gradient and lower its maximum values below the corona threshold, preventing the corona discharge. Corona rings are typical y instal ed on very high voltage power line insulators. Manufacturers suggest a corona ring on the line end of the insulator for above 230 kV and on both ends for above 500 kV. Corona rings prolong lifetime of insulator surfaces by suppressing the effects of corona Discharge

A. Protection diagram .1

C.Terminal on tank cover of transformer