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A SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT

ON

Effectiveness of Training Programmes for the Benefit of Employees in --------


SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF MASTER IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 2010-12

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: Ms./ Mr./ Dr./ Prof. __________ Assistant Professor/ Associate Professor/ Professor, RDIAS SUBMITTED BY: Name of the Student Enrollment No._______ MBA, Semester ______ Batch 20__ - 20__

RUKMINI DEVI INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES


An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institute
(Approved by AICTE, HRD Ministry, Govt. of India) Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi 2A & 2B, Madhuban Chowk, Outer Ring Road, Phase-1, Delhi-110085

Certificate

This is to certify that the project report titled Pronouncement, processing & Distribution of Basmati Rice is a bonafide work carried out by Ms. Type ur name here in partial fulfillment for award of the Post graduate degree in management( MBA).

TO Whomsoever It May Concern

This is to certify that type ur name student of RUKMINI DEVI INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES Of Professional studies has successfully completed his Summer Training .She has submitted a project

report on Pronouncement, processing & Distribution of Basmati Rice

During his training period from _______ , she was hard working, discipline, punctual & conduct was satisfactory. We wish him all the success in the future.

Reference name

Acknowledgment
I thank the almighty for providing me the opportunity and giving me the strength to finish my job in Jagat Agro Industries. I feel deep senses of gratitude from the core of my heart to Jagat Agro Industries for the guidance, extensive help, providing facilities, critism, admiring my good job and motivation to get the job done.

I express my sincere appreciation to Mr. Anshul Mathur in the Current Account Section for extending full support and continuous guidance throughout the project.

PREFACE

This project submitted in completion of the summer Training under taken by the trainees at Jagat Agro Industries.

During this period the trainees were involved in to lead a team of 3-5 employee under him for opening of current account & maintain the relation with customer.

This project is classified in to different sections. One section provides the instruction to verification of documents of customer regarding the opening of current account.

Another section provides instruction, objective of the project, analyzed report of the market or field and other studies including future enhancement suggestion and recommendation.

Executive Summary
Working with Jagat Agro Industries has been a good experience and exposure to the real working of the organization. Its been a good chance of learning. My project objective was to find out the clear picture of the given current account product of Jagat Agro Industries, verified the documents of the customer so that the bank will not face the problem of fraud or any misconduct in operating of account. For first 2 weeks I got the product training .during which I went to the Jagat Agro Industries. After this I have to recruit the employees under me for this I have to contact some coaching centers, computer centers etc. Normally a decide made a 15-20 calls daily and out of which 1-2 lead were generated but many times not a single lead was generated. After generation of lead my work was started I made a phone call to customer to got ready with his documents & I had to appointed the time with customer .On the date of appointment I went to customer & clear all his remaining queries & verified the Photostats of original documents with original documents, after this completed the account opening form, took all Photostats and completed the lead. This is beginning of my work after this I filled the form with information given in the document .and sends it to Delhi office for scanning. If there was some rejections in application form then I had to corrected it, and again send for scanning ,If scanned got completed without any fault the customer got his account opened within a week. Major finding includes that no doubt we enjoy a good reputation on the market but still many ignorant about Industries so we have to promote our current account products. As Industries is spending lots of money on advertising so no further policy is required for this, but we can indulge in other promotional techniques like taking part in exhibitions, window display, customer offers, introduction of sachets to make current account popular in urban market potential is maximum. Strength, I also carried out weakness, Opportunities and threat (SWOT) analysis. The database annexed to the report could not used to devise the current account marketing strategy.

CONTENTS
Student declaration Acknowledgement Executive Summary CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION About the Industry About Organization/ Company Profile CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW Literature CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1.1 Purpose of the study..... 1.2 Research Objectives of the study.. 1.3 Method of data collection.. CHAPTER -4 Analysis & Interpretation . CHAPTER -5 Findings & Suggestions..................................................................................................... CHAPTER -6 Conclusion Bibliography

CHAPTER 1

1.0 Introduction:
The Govt. of India has been emphasizing planned development of small scale industries in the country. Various policies, planning & programmes are made from time to time to promote this sector which contributes significantly in economic development, employment generation & up-liftmen of the society. There more than 34 lakhs SSI units in the country producing 8000 items and contributing nearly 34% to the National Exports. This sector provides employment to 35 lakh people and has been assigned the target of annual growth of 12% and creation of 4.4 million additional jobs during 10 Five Year Plan. The Small Industries Development Organisation (SIDO) of Ministry of SSI, Govt. of India is the key agency responsible for planning, coordinating & monitoring the development of this sector in the country. Various schemes & policies are announced by Govt. of India which effectively promotes this sector by providing direct & indirect assistance. In order to further develop this sector in a planned & effective matter, the SIDO, Govt. of India has come up with an innovative project of CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME. This is a time bound project and aims to systematically develop & upgrade cluster group of Industries as a whole with the involvement of Govt., supporting institutions & the industry. Out of 358 clusters identified in the country, the cluster development programme has been initially taken up for at least one cluster group from every state. In Haryana, out of 21 clusters identified for development, the start has been given with taking up of RICE MILLING INDUSTRY CLUSTER AT KARNAL. Under the programme, the in depth study of this cluster industry has been taken up and necessary developmental interventions have been identified in consultation with the industry, associations & other cluster actors. These interventions will be implemented in a phased manner in the identified net works / groups of desiring units to achieve the improved/tangible results to upgrade the industry in the state. Rice is intimately involved in the culture as well as the food ways and economy of many societies. For example, folklore tells us that when the Kachins of northern Myanmar (Burma) were sent forth from the center of the Earth, they were given the seeds of rice and were directed to a wondrous country where everything was perfect and where rice grew well. Rice is an integral part of their creation myth and remains today as their leading crop and most preferred food. In Bali, it is believed that the Lord Vishnu caused the Earth to give birth to rice, and the God Indra taught the people how to raise it. In both tales, rice is considered a gift of the gods, and even today in both places, rice is treated with reverence, and its cultivation is tied to elaborate rituals. Chinese myth, by contrast, tells of rice being a gift of animals rather than of gods. China had been visited by an especially severe period of floods. When the land had finally drained, people came down from the hills where they had taken refuge, only to discover that all the plants had been destroyed and there was little to
th

eat. They survived through hunting, but it was very difficult, because animals were scarce. One day the people saw a dog coming across a field, and hanging on the dog's tail were bunches of long, yellow seeds. The people planted these seeds, rice grew, and hunger disappeared. Throughout China today, tradition holds that "the precious things are not pearls and jade but the five grains", of which rice is first. According to Shinto belief, the Emperor of Japan is the living embodiment of Ninigo-no-mikoto, the god of the ripened rice plant. While most modern Japanese may intellectually dismiss this supernatural role, they cannot deny the enormous cultural importance of rice on life in their country - and so it is in much of the rice world. Origin and Diffusion of Rice The origins of rice have been debated for some time, but the plant is of such antiquity that the precise time and place of its first development will perhaps never be known. It is certain, however, that the domestication of rice ranks as one of the most important developments in history, for this grain has fed more people over a longer period of time than has any other crop.

The earliest settlements of those persons responsible for domestication undoubtedly were in areas offering a wide range of plant and animal associations within a limited geographical area. Such sites offered a variety of food sources over a span of seasons to societies dependent on hunting and gathering for their food supply. These earliest settlements might well have been near the edge of the uplands, but on gently rolling topography and close to small rivers that provided a reliable water supply. For centuries, humans maintained themselves by fishing in the rivers, hunting in the forests, and gathering edible plant products. The earliest agriculture, a simple form of Sweden, may have developed by accident when women of the settlement recognized that the mix of plant life growing around the midden was especially rich in edible forms. The earliest agriculture was probably focused on plants that reproduced vegetative, but the seeds of easily shattering varieties of wild rice such as Oryza fatua may have found their way to the gardens at an early date. Cultivated rice belongs to two species, O. sativa and O. glaberrima. Of the two, O. sativa is by far the more widely utilized. O. sativa is a complex group composed of two forms endemic to Africa but not cultivated, and a third from, O. rufipogon, having distinctive partitions into South Asian, Chinese, New Guinean, Australian, and American forms. The subdivision of O. sativa into these seven forms began long ago and came about largely as a result of major tectonic events and worldwide climatic changes. It is postulated, based on measurements by electrophoresis that the Australian form of O. sativa began to diverge from the main forms about 15 million years ago. At that time, during the Miocene, the Asian portion of Gondwanaland collided with the Australia/New Guinea portion, creating a land bridge across which O. sativa migrated. Once the blocks separated, the Australian form was free to follow an evolutionary path somewhat different from that followed by the O. sativa on the mainland.

Divergence between the South Asian and Chinese forms, the ancestors of what are commonly referred to today as Indica and japonica (or sinica) types, is believed to have commenced 2-3 million years ago. At that time, migration of fauna across the proto-Himalayas was still possible, and with the animals went wild rice. The climate was suitable for rice even in what today is Central Asia, and north China had almost ideal conditions. Botanical evidence concerning the distribution of cultivated species is based chiefly on the range and habitat of wild species that are believed to have contributed to the cultivated forms. The greatest variety of such rices is found in the zone of monsoon rainfall extending from eastern India through Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, northern Vietnam, and into southern China. This diversity of species, including those considered by many to have been involved in the original domestication process, lends support to the argument for mainland Southeast Asia as the heartland of rice cultivation. Linguistic evidence also points to the early origin of cultivated rice in this same Asian arc. In several regional languages the general terms for rice and food, or for rice and agriculture, are synonymous. Such is not the case in any other part of the world. Religious writings and practices are also seen as evidence of the longevity of rice as a staple item of the diet. Both Hindu and Buddhist scriptures make frequent reference to rice, and in both religions the grain is used as a major offering to the gods. In contrast, there is no correspondingly early reference to rice in Jewish scriptures of the Old Testament, and no references exist in early Egyptian records. Archeologists have found evidence that rice was an important food in Mohenjo-Daro as early as 2500 B.C. and in the Yangtze Basin in the late Neolithic period (Chang 1967a). The earliest and most convincing archeological evidence for domestication of rice in Southeast Asia was discovered by Wilhelm G. Solheim II in 1966. Pottery shards bearing the imprint of both grains and husks of O. sativa were discovered at Non Nok Tha in the Korat area of Thailand. These remains have been confirmed by 14C and thermo luminescence testing as dating from at least 4000 B.C. This evidence not only pushed back the documented origin of cultivated rice but, when viewed in conjunction with plant remains from 10,000 B.C. discovered in Spirit Cave on the Thailand-Myanmar border, suggests that agriculture itself may be older than was previously thought. No parallel evidence has been uncovered in Egyptian tombs or from Chaldean excavations.

Eary Spread of Rice From an early beginning somewhere in the Asian arc, the process of diffusion has carried rice in all directions until today it is cultivated on every continent save Antarctica. In this early hearth area, rice was grown in forest clearing under a system of shifting cultivation. The crop was grown by direct seeding and without standing water. Rice was grown on "farms" under conditions only slightly different from those to

which wild rice was subject. A similar but independent pattern of the incorporation of wild rices into an agricultural system may well have taken place in one or more locations in Africa at approximately the same time. It was in China that the processes of pudding soil and transplanting seedlings were likely refined. Both operations became integral parts of rice farming and remain very widely practiced to this day. Pudding breaks down the internal structure of soils, making them much less subject to water loss through percolation. With the development of pudding and transplanting, rice became truly domesticated. In China, the history of rice in river valleys and low-lying areas is longer that its history as a dryland crop. In Southeast Asia, by contrast, rice was originally produced under dryland conditions in the uplands, and only recently did it come to occupy the vast river deltas. Migrant peoples from South China or perhaps northern Vietnam carried the traditions of wetland rice cultivation to the Philippines during the second millennium B.C., and DeuteroMalays carried the practice to Indonesia about 1500 B.C. From China or Korea, the crop was introduced to Japan no later than 100 B.C. Movement to western India and south to Sri Lanka was also accomplished very early. The date of 2500 B.C. has already been mentioned for Mohenjo-Daro, while in Sri Lanka, rice was a major crop as early as 1000 B.C. The crop may well have been introduced to Greece and neighboring areas of the Mediterranean by the returning members of Alexander the Great expedition to India 344-324 B.C. From a center in Greece and Sicily, rice spread gradually throughout the southern portions of Europe and to a few locations in North Africa. Interestingly enough, medical geographers in the 16th century played an important role in limiting the adoption of rice as a major crop in the Mediterranean area. During the 16th and early 17th centuries, malaria was a major disease in southern Europe, and it was believed to be spread by the bad air (hence the origin of the name) of swampy areas. Major drainage projects were undertaken in southern Italy, and wetland rice cultivation was discouraged in some regions. In fact, it was actually forbidden on the outskirts of a number of large towns. Such measures were a significant barrier to the diffusion of rice in Europe.

The suspicion that rice fields cased "mal-air" did not entirely disappear with the end of the Renaissance. In late 1988, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the National Science Foundation both issued reports on the "greenhouse effect" They agreed that there has already been some warming of the earth; that irrespective of whatever action governments may take, the world is destined for a further temperature increase of at least 2o C; and that without strong human intervention the increase may be much

greater. The greenhouse effect is caused in large part by the release, through human activity, of certain gases that dirty the atmospheric window and prevent the escape of the earth's heat to outer space. Carbon dioxide has long been the prime suspect, but it is now known that, molecule for molecule, methane traps 20 times more energy. Both reports also agree that methane concentrations are increasing at the rate of approximately 1%/yr. A major methane source, perhaps even the largest of all, is flooded Riceland. Not only do methane-producing bacteria thrive in such an environment, but rice plants themselves act as gas vents, putting greater than expected concentrations into the atmosphere. The problem is, of course, magnified by the extension of rice area, by the expansion of irrigation facilities, and especially by the enlargement of double-cropped rice areas. Rice fields are suspected of putting 115 million tonnes of methane into the atmosphere each year. This is at least equal to the total production from all of the world's natural swamps and wetlands. As a result of Europe's great Age of Exploration, new lands to the west became available for exploitation. Rice cultivation was introduced to the New World by early European settlers. The Portuguese carried it to Brazil, and the Spanish introduced its cultivation to several locations in Central and South America. The first record for North America dates from 1685, when the crop was produced on the coastal lowlands and island of what is now South Carolina. The crop may well have been carried to that area by slaves brought from Madagascar. Early in the 18th century, rice spread to Louisiana, but not until the 20th century was it produced in California's Sacramento Valley. The introduction in the latter area corresponded almost exactly with the timing of the first successful crop in Australia's New South Wales. India is an agricultural land and with the blend of technology in agro field and lots of immense work in R&D the country have developed many new varieties of rice, few are completely new and few are hybrid of existing. Few varieties of rice in India are given below:

Rice

1009 Kar

ADT 39

Alur Sanna

Ambemohor Basmati

Amira Mogra Basmati

Amira Tibar Basmati

Amire Full Basmati

Amras Non Basmati

andra Sanna

anekombu Sanna

anekowe

Annapoorna

AP Raw Rice 5293

AP Raw Rice Baptla Ponni

AP Raw Rice PLR Soma

AP Raw Rice SilkyRaw

AP Raw Rice-1001

AP Raw-Rice Sona Ponni

Arcot Kichikdi

Arti Mashuri

BPT

Balesuli

Bangar Kaddi

Bangarkhovi

Bangarsanna

Bantwal

Basamti Dawat

Basmati (Rose)

Basmati Car

Basmati Charmi

Basmati Dawat Roz-(20KG)

Basmati Golden Sela New

Basmati Golden Sela Old

Basmati Haryana Raw (New)

Basmati Haryana Raw (Old)

Basmati Haryana Sela(New)

Basmati Haryana Sela(Old)

Basmati Mogra (Raw/New)

Basmati Mogra (Raw/Old)

Basmati Paddy

Basmati Silky Kohinoor

Basmati Super Kohinoor

Basmati Trophy

Basmati U.P. (New)

Basmati U.P. (Old)

Basmati-370

Basmati-385

Basmati-386

Basmatibar (Raw/New)

Basmatibar (Raw/Old)

Basmatidubar Raw/New

Basmatidubar Raw/Old

Basumathi

Bellary Sanna

Bile Kagga

Boiled Rice

Broken Rice

Broken Rice(Kanki)

BT Sona

Byra (Red Rice)

Champakali

Chikkahalga

China Sanna

Chinoor

Chinoor Non Basmati

Chintamani Sanna

CO 36

CO-43 (Medium) Boiled

Coarse

Coarse (I.R.20)

Coimbatore Kaddi

Coimbatore Sanna

Common

CR 1009 (Coarse) Boiled

Culture Ponni1

Culture Ponni2

Dappa

Dash Non Basmati

Dawal Full Basmati

Dawat

Dawat Kinki

Dawat Mogra

Dawat Tiwar

Dhoon Full Basmati

Dhoon Mogra Basmati

Dhoon Tibar Basmati

Dilkhus Basmati

Doly Non Basmati

Doon Dubar

Doon FUll Basmati

Doon Kinki Basmati

Doon Mini

Doon Mogra (Basmati

Doon Tiwar Basmati

Dosa Rice

Dubraj Daboo Ji Non Basmati

Duplicate Basmati

Durbar Basmati

Early St.

EMR Boiled

Export Parmal

Farm Kaddi

FCI Non Basmati

FCI Parmal

Fine

Fine(Basmati)

GMR Steam

Golden Sela Best

Govt. Quality

Gowrisanna

H.Y.V.

Hallo Dubar Basmati

Hallo Full Basmati

Hallo Mogra Basmati

Hallo Tibar Basmati

Halubbulu (H 137)

Hamsa St.

Hansa

Hassan Dappa

HMT Fine Raw

Hmt Rice-Non Basmati

HMT Sona Best

HMT Sona Medium

III

Intan

IR 20

IR 20 Fine Raw

IR 20 Medium Boiled

IR 50

IR20 Parboiled

IR-8

IR-8 Raw (New)

IR-8 Raw (Old)

IR-8 Sela (New)

IR-8 Sela (Old)

IR-8 Wand

Jaya

Jeera Samba

Jenugudu

Jhilli Medium

Jirigesanna

Kachha Basmati

Kaddi

Kalimuch

Kapila Sanna

Karekagga

Kattasambar

Kesari (Coorg)

Kichudi

Kohinoor Durbar Basmati

Kohinoor Full Basmati

Kohinoor Kinki Basmati

Kohinoor Mini Durbar Basmati

Kohinoor Mogra Basmati

Kohinoor Tibar Basmati

Kohinoor Trophy Basmati

Kohinoor Trophy Durbar

Kolam-Non Basnati

Lajbab Non Basmati

Lashkari

Long Bold

Madhu (MR 136)

Maharani Dubar Basmati

Maharani Kinki Basmati

Maharani Mini Dubar Basmati

Maharani Mino Mogra basmati

Maharani Mogra Basmati

Maharani Tiwar Basmati

Malnad gidda

Mandya-vani

Mangal (MR 272)

Manila

Masoori-Non Basmti

Masuri

Mataa Parboiled

Medium

Milled

Mini Basmati

Mnadyavani

Mogra Basmati

Motta (Coarse) Boiled

Mull Bhatte

Naya

Nellore Sanna

Non Basmati Jhilli Safri Best

Non Basmati Kalimunch

Noorjahan Non Basmati

NT2

Original Basmati

Other

Padma

Parimal (New)

Parimal (Old)

Parmal

Parmal (Paddy)

Parmal Kachha

Parmal Raw (New)

Parmal Raw (Old)

Parmal Sela

Parmal Sela (Old)

Parmal Sels (New)

Parmal Wand

Parmal Wand (Old)

Phalguna

Ponni

Ponni (Fine) Boiled

Ponni Fine Raw

Ponni parboiled

Popular Basmati

PR-103

PR-106

PR-108

PR-111

Prakash

Punjab Parmal Non Basmati

Pusa Basmati (Paddy)

Pusa Basmati Raw (New)

Pusa Basmati Raw (Old)

Pusa Basmati Sela (New)

Pusa Basmati Sela (Old)

Puspa (MR 301)

Putta Bhatta (White Rice)

Rajahamsa

Rajbhog

Rasi

Ratnachudi (718 5-749)

Rice Bran(Kukuf)

Rice Floor

Sadharan

Sambar

Sanna Bhatta

Sanna Honsu

Sannaanekal

Sarbati Raw

Sarbati Raw (New)

Sarbati Raw (Old)

Sarbati Sela

Sarbati Sela (New)

Sarbati Sela (Old)

Sela Basmati

Shakti

Sharbati (Paddy)

Sona

Sona Boiled

Sona Coarse

Sona Fine

Sona Mansoori Non Basmati

Sona Medium

Sona Raw New

Sona Raw Old

Sona St.

Sujatha (B. T)

Super Fine

Suvarna Best

Suvarna Medium

Swadras Non Basmati

Tallahamsa (Bilihamsa)

Tericot Sela

Tini Basmati

Vani (Jet 2295)

Vijaya

White Car

White Parboiled

Zeeraga Samba Rawrice

Basmati group varieties are called superfine varieties whereas the Non basmati Group PR varieties are medium fine & other are thick rice varieties.

1.1 About Organization/ Company Profile:

Jagat', although registered in 1986 was formally launched in November 1992 when the group took over a mill in Delhi under the stewardship of its Directors, Mr. Satish Pawa and Mr. Sant Lal Aggarwal. In 1994, Ms. Sudha Pawa, a textile designer by qualification, took over the reins of Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt. Ltd. and began supervising promotions and sales of the products. The company, on January 3,1995 had the honour of receiving Award for excellence in quality from the Institute of Economic Studies, presented by Honourable Deputy Chief Minister of Goa, Shri Wilfred D'Souza. Jagat has successfully established its Quality Management System according to ISO 9001:2000. This means that all workflow, from the beginning up to the manufacturing and test procedures, is done to the highest, precisely defined quality standard. The company, with its network of offices in major man dies of rice-producing states has full infrastructure to procure the best quality of paddy. This paddy is then milled in two rice milling plants at Delhi and Rai (Haryana), all having modern machines and equipments based on foreign technology, to produce the finest Jagat Basmati Rice with supreme flavor and fragrance.

In a short span of nine years, this Delhi based company has carved a niche for itself in the domestic market, and today Jagat Basmati Rice has become a name synonymous with quality.

With its network of over 200 distributors and three lakh retailers, Jagat Basmati Rice has launched its products in various parts of India. The company is on its path of achieving its target turnover of Rs. 100crores ($23 million) for the year ending. After being consistently rated as one of the major basmati rice manufacturers in India, Jagat is all geared up to enter the exports market.

1.1.1Jagat Products: Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt. Ltd. has established itself as a processor of world class basmati rice. The premium brand of basmati from the company is adored by all and consumed by those who value taste and expect nothing but the best. In synergy with prevailing market dynamics, the company offers various grades of raw basmati rice and par boiled rice to suit different budgets and tastes.

JAGAT MALAI

JAGAT PEARL

JAGAT KHUSHBU

PRODUCTS
JAGAT SPECIAL SELLA

JAGAT MANPASAND

JAGAT EVERYDAY/SUPER EVERYDAY

JAGAT SADABAHAR

JAGAT MALAI: Call it the 8th wonder of the world or the Jacob Diamond from the Nizam's collection, Jagat Malai Basmati Rice is the best rice to fill the palate of the elite. A perfect blend of traditional basmati 370 and 386 is sourced entirely from Punjab near the Himalayan Belt. With an average length of 7.25mm, it elongates to over double the length on cooking. With a perfect separation and aroma, it will leave a lingering taste in the mouth for quite a long period.[Available in 1kg, 5kg, 20kg and 35kg packs]

JAGAT KHUSHBU: As the name suggests, the aroma of Jagat Khushbu Basmati Rice fills the room once it is cooked and served at the dining table. A blend of Taraori basmati and basmati 1 is sourced from the Belt of Haryana. With an average length above 7.1 mm, it is one of the best rice available in this price range. [Available in 1kg, 5kg, 20kg and 35kg packs]

JAGAT MANPASAND: Jagat Manpasand Basmati Rice is everybody's delight. A perfect blend of basmati 1, Taraori basmati and desi basmati has made it affordable without disturbing the inherent qualities of traditional basmati rice.[Available in 1kg, 5kg, 20kg and 35kg packs]

JAGAT SADABAHAR: A fast moving item, it is the real value for money. It is a blend of basmati 1 and desi basmati, where the latter is basmati originating from Dehradun, entirely grown now in the foothills of Nainital in Uttaranchal. The elongation of the same is almost 2 times on cooking and gives the perfect taste and aroma.[Available in 1kg, 5kg, 20kg and 35kg packs]

JAGAT EVERYDAY/SUPER EVERYDAY: As the name suggests, Jagat Everyday Basmati Rice is priced at almost the rate of non basmati rice. It consists of 40% full grain and 60% or broken basmati rice, much better than the so called Tukra in the market. [Available in 1kg, 5kg, 20kg and 35kg packs]

JAGAT SPECIAL SELLA: Biryani rice eater's delight, Jagat Special Sella Basmati Rice is a blend of Taraori and basmati 1 rice parboiled at the paddy stage with a processing of steaming and drying. When cooked for biryani or pulao, each grain separates out, thus making rice eating a memorable experience. [Available in 5kg and 35kg packs]

JAGAT PEARL: Each grain is treated to make Jagat Pearl Parmal Rice silky. It is the perfect match for people who eat only non basmati rice. With less than 2% brokens, it is like the beads in a plate. [Available in 5kg, 10kg and 35kg packs]

1.1.2. Production: At Jagat process, products to make them excel in the quality conscious market.

PROCURING PADDY: Our network of offices in major man dies enables us to procure the best quality in paddy. After the distribution of selected seeds in the productive hands of our farmers, the paddy is procured.

PADDY DRYER: Paddy is uniformly dried and processed through dryers to reduce the moisture content and stored in warehouses for maturing. Our quality expertise continues to play a key role in the paddy storage area where stringent internal checking procedures are used to ensure proper storage and protection.

DE-HUSKING: A fully automatic rubber roll control system enables automatic rice hulling operation.

PADDY SEPARATORS: The rice after the hulling process still contains about 10%-15% of paddy kernels. It is fed onto the separating trays and given special sideway motions till it rolls down to the lower front end of the separating trays. This separates the rice from the paddy kernels.

FINE CLEANERS: Cleaners are used for grading of light and heavy seeds, cereal and granular materials. The machines manufactured in accordance with good quality principles and having multiple features are used for the purpose.

POLISHING AND SORTING: Polishers are so specially designed that brown rice is polished by its mutual friction among rice grains in polishing chamber to perform the even polishing effect. During the milling process, at the color sorting stage, close checks at various levels are carried out to ensure conformity with the requisite color parameters.

GRADING, DESTONING AND COLOUR SORTING: The 90000 monochromatic is the world's standard rice machine for small and large millers, removing brown and yellow grains and tip defects. The performance of the machinery is enhanced by 90000 dichromatic, and the addition of infra-red gives the rejection of glass and other foreign matter. The laboratory also plays a key role in respect of maintaining checks on several other aspects such as size, length and the removal of broken tips.

The above production process gives our rice the delicate texture, flavor and aroma only unique to Jagat Basmati Rice. Our machineries enable maximum yield of full grains so as to minimize the cost of production. This ensures the competitiveness of our products, in turn ensuring that only the finest quality of rice reaches our valued customer.

1.1.3 Distribution: With its network of over 150 distributors and three lakh retailers, Jagat Basmati Rice has launched its products in various parts of India. STATE-WISE DETAILS OF DISTRIBUTORS

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OF JAGAT AGRO COMMODITIES PVT. LTD.


DISTRIBUTORS IN HARYANA FARIDABAD MR. PARVEEN GOYAL GURGAON AMBALA CANTT BALLAB GARH PALVAL REWARI SONIPAT GOHANA SAMALKHA PANIPAT KARNAL ROHTAK TAURU BAHADUR GARH MR. BALRAM MR. DARSHAN LAL MR. VINOD KUMAR MR. DINESH BINDAL SH. ASHOK JAIN MR. SANJEEV KUMAR MR. ASHOK KUMAR MR. SHRI. KRISHAN MR. ROSHAN LAL GUPTA MR. RAJESH ARORA MR. RAJENDER PRASAD MR. PRASHANT GOYAL MR. SUBASH

PARVEEN TRADING CO. DAULAT RAM JHARIA MAL DARSHAN LAL & SONS CO. MAM CHAND & SONS KISHAN CHAND BRIJ MOHAN SUMER AGENCY GOPI RAM SHRI BHAGHWAN JAGDISH RAI ASHOK KUMAR DAYA NAND SHRI KRISHAN SANJAY TRADING CO. JIWAN DAS HUKUM CHAND PANKAJ AGRO SALES.

HARCHAND RAI BISHAMBER DAYAL BALAJI ENTERPRISES

RAGHAV SHARAN RATTAN LAL. ROSHAN LAL NAVEEN KUMAR ANKUR TRADING CO. AGGARWAL TRADING CO. ARORA TRADERS

NARNAUL HISSAR BALLAB GARH BAHADURGARH PANCHKULA

MR. RATTAN LAL MR. NAVEEN KUMAR MR. VED PRAKASH MR. SURESH AGGARWAL MR. SANJAY ARORA

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MANOHAR LAL SAT PAL

DISTRIBUTORS IN CHANDIGARH CHANDIGARH MR. ANIL KUMAR


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JAGAT RAM MUKUNDI LAL

DISTRIBUTORS IN HIMACHAL PRADESH PARWANOO MR. MUKUNDI LAL PARWANOO KULLU SHIMLA PARWANOO PARWANOO PARWANOO PARWANOO MR. PAWAN
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LAXMAN DASS SAI DATTA MAL (P) LTD KRISHNA TRADING CO HEERA LAL SHALIGRAM SURAJ BHAN SADHU RAM D.R. OIL & FLOUR MILL TAKSH ENTERPRISES VINAY TRADING CO.

MR. SAI DATTA MAL MR. MOHINDER CHAWLA MR. RAMESH CHAND MR. SADHU RAM

V.K. TRADERS KAMAL TRADING CO. PRAVEEN KUMAR & CO. LAKSHMI KIRYANA STORE ARYA TRADING CO.

DISTRIBUTORS IN PUNJAB MOHALI KHARAR BARNALA SARHIDA NABHA

MR. VINEET GOEL MR. KAMAL KUMAR MR. SOHAN LAL MR. JASBIR SINGH MR. VINAY KUMAR

RAJESH TRADERS SURESH OIL & FLOUR MILL JODHA RAM TARLOK CHAND

SARHIDA KHANNA LUDHIANA

MR. RAJESH MR. SURESH MR. RAJEEV KUMAR MR. VIRENDER KUMAR
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NARENDER KUMAR VIRENDER KUMAR AHMEDGARH

RAJEEV TRADERS SHIVAM AGENCIES RAJESH TRADING COMPANY

DISTRIBUTORS IN UTTAR PRADESH JHANSI MR. RAJEEV AGRA MATHURA SH. MAHESH CHAND JAIN MR. K.C. GUPTA
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KASHMIRI LAL & SONS

DISTRIBUTORS IN UTTARANCHAL DEHRADOON MR. SURESH KUMAR


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JAGAT RAM SUNDER DAS SURENDER & CO.

DISTRIBUTORS IN MADHYA PRADESH INDORE MR. JAGAT RAM GWALIOR MR. MAHENDER SHARMA
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R.K.TRADERS

DISTRIBUTORS IN RAJASTHAN JAIPUR MR. RAJENDER AGARWAL ALWAR AJMER DAUSA BHARATHPUR SH. MURARI LAL MR. SAMANUMAN MR. ASHOK MR. VISHNU KUMAR
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GANGA SAHAI GIRIRAJ PRASAD KEWAL RAM SAMANOMAL ASHOKA AGENCIES DHAU DAYAL & SONS

SWADESHI TRADING CO. DEEP CHAND & CO.

DISTRIBUTORS OF GUJARAT RAJKOT MR. NANJI BHAI GUJARAT MR. DEEP CHAND
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DISTRIBUTORS IN MAHARSHTRA JAGAT AGRO COMMODITIES (P) LTD VASAI (W) MR. DAVINDER PANDY N.V. SAVARDEKER SONI MAHENDRA KUMAR & CO. MATIN TRADERS HIRAJ SON RAHUL PRADEEP SAVARDEKAR RAJ TRADING CO. PURENDRA BABRO CHAKOTE OSWAL TRADERS VIJAY ANAJ BHANDHAR HAZI YUSUF ABDUL KARIM GAGAN DADU MAL MOTU MAL SIMANDHAR TRADERS VARDHMAN TRADING CO. SHREE GANESH ENTERPRISES VIKRAM TRADERS MUNNA LAL & CO. SUBHASH TRADING CO. SHAH NANJI NAGSI P. RAM BHAI & CO. ABHINANDAN TRADERS KAM SONS TRADERS VISAL TRADING CO. KOLHAPUR VASHI SOLAPUR PUNA SANGLI VASAI (W) ICCHAL KARANJI YAWATMAL NAGPUR AURANGABAD NAGPUR MUMBRA AMRAWATI MEERA ROAD THANE JALAN LATUR NAGPUR KALYAN KOLHAPUR KOLHAPUR PUNE MR. VINOD KUMAR MR. VIKRAM MR. ABHINANDAN MR. ASHOK AGGARWAL MR. DILIP GANDHI MR. LAXMAN DAS MR. ABHINANDAN MR. RAJESH BAHI MR. LAXMINARAYAN AGGARWAL MR. VINOD MR. ANIL AGGARWAL/MR.EBRAHIM MR. EBRAHIM BHAI MR. RAJU SETH MR. RAHUL MR. RAJPUROHIT MR. RISHAB MR. ANIL MR. VIJAY SINGANIA MR. RAFIQ BHAI MR. VEERBHAN TULSWANT MR. TARUN

JALARAM KIRAN STORES MUSTAPHA MARKETING PVT LTD

BHIWANDI CHANDRAPUR

MR. CHAMAL LAL

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VANDANA ENTERPRISES

DISTRIBUTORS IN ASSAM GUWAHATI

MR. RAJ KUMAR


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ANNAPURNA TRADERS

DISTRIBUTORS IN ANDHRA PRADESH HYDERABAD MR. VIJENDER SINGLA


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GOEL TRADERS SHIV TRADERS JAI MATA TRADERS M. G. TRADING CO. LAXMI STORE SANJAY & BROTHERS JAIN TRADING CO. NAVEEN SALES CORP. MANISH STORE AGGARWAL & SONS GARG TRADING CO. TEJPAL SHIV KUMAR

DISTRIBUTORS IN NORTH DELHI TRI NAGAR MR. D. P. GOEL RANI BHAG KRISHNA VIHAR GANDHI NAGAR ROHINI SEC-2 DEV NAGAR ROHINI SEC-7 SHALIMAR BAGH TRI NAGAR SHAKTI NAGAR FILMISTAN SHAHADRA MR. SHIV NARAIN BANSAL MR. PRAVEEN GARG MR. NARENDER GUPTA MR. GOPAL MR. PREM CHAND MR. VIJENDER JAIN MR. JAGDISH CHAND GUPTA MR. D. P. GOYAL MR. MAHAVIR PRASHAD MR. VIJAY KUMAR MR. SHIV KUMAR

BANSAL TRADERS RAHUL TRADERS

DISTRIBUTORS IN EAST DELHI NEW KUNDLY MR. VINOD KUMAR BHAJANPURA MR. PARMOD GUPTA

RAJEEV TRADERS MAHLAWT TRADING CO. A LAL & SONS GIRDHAR STORE OM STORE HARI OM STORE BALU RAM MANOJ KUMAR RANA STORE PANKAJ STORE VISHAL TRADING CO. AMRIT LAL SETHI NITIN FLOUR MILL SINGHAL TRADING CO. VIKASH TRADING CO. OM FLOUR MILL AGGARWAL AGENCIES JANAK TRADING CO.

DISTRIBUTORS IN WEST DELHI SUBASH NAGAR MR. SANJEEV KUMAR PALAM TILAK NAGAR UTTAM NAGAR TILAK NAGAR JAHANGIRPURI MADIPUR MOTI NAGAR TILAK NAGAR VISHNU GARDEN TILAK NAGAR GHANTA GHAR CHANKYA PALACE UTTAM NAGAR TIHAR DHAKKAMAIN JANAKPURI MR. RAKESH KUMAR MR. SATBIR SINGH MR. SANJAY CHAWLA MR. SANJEEV KUMAR MR. RAJ KUMAR MR. SANJAY MR. KRIPA RAM MR. SURESH KUMAR MR. DARSHAN KHURANA MR. GHAN SHYAM MR. AMRIT LAL MR. NITIN MR. J. P. SINGH MR. PAWAN MR. OM PRAKASH

DISTRIBUTORS IN SOUTH DELHI VARDHMAN SALES CORPORATION MUNIRKA MR. BIJENDER JAIN GARG ENTERPRISES A.C. GUPTA & CO. PAWAN TRADING CO. KARWALA NAGAR BHOGAL JAITPUR MR. MANAK CHAND AGGARWAL MR. SUDHEER GUPTA MR. SURENDER KUMAR

NAFAD CDC BRANCH A.P. TRADERS CHET RAM JAI PRAKASH

DISTRIBUTORS IN CENTRAL DELHI LODHI ROAD MR. TOMAR GOLE MARKET NAYA BAZAR NAYA BAZAR TELIWARA MR. RAKESH MR. JAI PRAKASH AGGARWAL MR. NAVAL KISHOR MR. DAVINDER PAL SODHI

RAMESHWAR DASS RAMNARAYAN SODHI & CO.

TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR SALE OF JAGAT RICE Goods will be dispatched on advance payment basis by demand draft. Rates will be applicable as per price list prevailing on the date of dispatch. Transportation will be to the buyers account on a "to pay" basis. Insurance charges will be to the buyers account. The concerned dealers will stock and sell our products of rice in their territory only. This is on the condition that they will not stock and sell any other brand.

All benefits and promotional expenses will be to the company account. All help will be provided for the sales promotion from time to time by the company's sales personnel visiting and through localized promotional advertisements.

All schemes and promotional activities will be given to all our distributors from time to time. Tax, Freight and D.D. commission as per applicable in the State will be to the buyers account. In case we feel that one dealer is not sufficient to distribute properly in the area as assigned, we have the right to sub divide the territory and assign it to any other dealer.

The concerned dealer should obtain all Statuary Government licenses, the copies of which are to be filed with the Company.

Prices are Ex-Delhi based.

1.1.4 Exports: Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt. Ltd. was established in 1986 with a view to export basmati rice. With the hard work of the promoters of the company, Jagat Agro made a significant breakthrough into the exports of basmati rice to the buyers having their own brands. It was a turning point for Jagat when it became the sole processor for a leading multinational export house. In fact, by 1989,

the company was exporting substantial quantities totaling a turnover of above Rs10 crores ($10 million in that year convertibility) during the year. Thereafter, with the induction of Mr. Santlal Aggarwal, the company started promoting its own brand 'Jagat'. Instead of concentrating on the exports market, the company visualized the potential of this market in India with its vast population. Soon it established itself as one of the top brand players in basmati rice. Today the brand 'JAGAT' is a name to reckon within India, with a turnover of above Rs.85 crores ($17 million) per annum.

Having established themselves significantly in the domestic market, Jagat Agro is now all geared up to make a breakthrough in exports front by launching their brand 'JAGAT' in the foreign market and for this purpose. In fact, we are already in negotiations with a few distributors in the Middle East to promote and market our brand. With 'MAGIC' Color Sortex from Satake Corporation Japan, which removes chalky grains along with other foreign materials and yellow discolored grains, one of the first of its kind of machinery in India and the Nitrogen Reusable Flushed Packing, Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt. Ltd. is confident of achieving success in the international market.

1.1.5 Quality Control: With the objective of providing the best rice to the customers, Jagat has made long term investments in manufacturing, research and development facilities. In 1995, Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt. Ltd. became the proud recipient of the prestigious Award for excellence in quality from the Institute of Economic Studies. Our quality expertise starts from the very beginning i.e. purchase and storage of paddy. The laboratory plays a key role in respect of maintaining checks on several aspects such as size, length and removal of broken tips. The high technology instruments enable the company to monitor quality parameters at each and every stage of processing.

IN HOUSE FUMIGATION AND TESTING: Meticulous adherence to quality and hygiene is ensured through the use of totally dust free machines. One of the key focus areas for Jagat is the control and reduction in the level of chemical and pests residues in rice. All this is made possible by using cyclones along with fumigation and pest control measures. This is to ensure that the product conforms to the strict standards of international product control.

GRADING, DESTONING AND COLOUR SORTING: The 90000 monochromatic is the world's standard rice machine for small and large millers, removing brown and yellow grains and tip defects. The performance of the machinery is enhanced by 90000 dichromatic, and the addition of infra-red gives the rejection of glass and other foreign matter.

MISCELLANEOUS SORTING: At all stages, close checks at various levels are carried out to ensure conformity with the requisite parameters.

1.1.6 Fact File: WHAT IS BASMATI RICE? Many a times people have asked what the meaning of basmati rice is. Basmati rice has been reported in India since the early days of the 19th Century though it may have been named differently. Bas in Hindi language means aroma and Mati means full of hence the word Basmati i.e. full of aroma. This rice is different from other rice mainly due to the aroma and elongation post cooking. No other rice has this combined characteristic. The post cooking elongation of more than twice its original length, the aroma and its sweet taste has made basmati rice a delicacy. Basmati rice is grown only in Northern India and in parts of Pakistan touching India. One can easily call it the Champagne of India.

THE BASMATI CONTROVERSY: A well known Company in USA had applied for the Patent of Basmati Rice i.e. it could label its product as Basmati Rice and in turn nobody else could use this nomenclature for its product. It is like somebody, say in India, gets a patent registered for Champagne and then nobody, even people in France (where Champagne originated from) would be allowed to call its product as Champagne. Though the authorities in USA have rejected the claim however they have allowed their three strains of rice to be called basmati rice. This is also against the principles as basmati rice is only grown in UP, Punjab, Haryana and J&K in India and Punjab in Pakistan since decades. Any rice grown elsewhere other than the above regions cannot be called Basmati, as it cannot have the combined characteristic of aroma and elongation post cooking because of the soil and weather conditions.

WHAT

ARE

THE

DIFFERENT

KINDS

OF

NON-

BASMATI

RICE?

Any rice other than basmati rice is called non- basmati rice. In the world it has been reported that there are 10000 varieties of rice, the maximum number being in India. . In fact, basmati rice equals to only 1% production of the total rice grown in India. Non- basmati rice comes in all kinds of different shapes and sizes. Some are long and slender, some are short and thick, some are like beads, and some may be round. None have the same characteristics as basmati rice i.e. they do not have both the aroma and post cooking elongation. Only some of the long slender rice is shaped like basmati rice and may have either the aroma or the elongation but not both. Some names of non basmati rice are Sharbati, Haryana Gaurav, shaped like basmati rice and PR, 104 IR8, from the Punjab and Haryana, Surti colon from Gujarat and Maharashtra, Kala Joya from Nagaland, Culture from MP, IR 64, Masuri from Andhra, Govind Bogh from W. Bengal, Tilak, Masuri from U.P.

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORDINARY AND SELLA (PAR BOILED) RICE: Many a people have the misconception that Sella Rice is a different variety of Rice. This is not so, Sella is a Rice Milled differently i.e. the Paddy (Raw Material) is steamed and then dried for milling. The yellow color, which it adapts, is because of this process. The color can be also be darkened according to the requirements. Any rice can be milled with this process basmati or non- basmati rice. The advantage of this rice is that on post cooking each grain separates out perfectly hence it is widely used in preparing Biryani or Pulao. WHATS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BASMATI AND NON - BASMATI RICE? As mentioned, basmati rice has both and elongation post cooking and no other rice in the world has these characteristics in combination. The taste is also different. Once the taste buds get used to basmati rice no other rice will be likened. But since the yield of basmati rice, per acre of land, is less than half of that of nonbasmati rice and because of higher inputs - basmati rice has become unaffordable for most people. However Jagat Agro Commodities (P) Ltd. has made basmati rice affordable for people of various income bracketswith its different varieties of basmati rice, starting with Rs.15 per kg to Rs.70 per kg.

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF EATING BASMATI RICE? Each grain of matured old basmati rice on cooking, separates out and with its unique characteristics of aroma and elongation post cooking, it is a treat for the diner. Also its elongation requirement on weight basis will be less than any other rice per meal.

HOW TO RECOGNIZE THE VARIOUS VARIETIES? It is true that recognizing pure basmati rice is as difficult as recognizing a diamond. Like a diamond, the cut of the grain indicates whether it is basmati or any other rice.

A basmati grain is shaped like a sword and post cooking each grain elongates at least twice that of its original size. The rich aroma is another way by which one can recognize basmati rice. All other varieties do not match the above qualities, and non basmati is recognized only by its various sizes and shapes.

1.1.6 The Promoters: SATISH PAWA: A Maths graduate from St. Stephens College, New Delhi started his career in business in the commodity market in edible and non edible oils, but soon he switched to rice. His constant contact with multinationals made him realize the importance of brand value and he applied for registration of the brand 'JAGAT' in 1987. SANTLAL AGGARWAL: After completing his education, he started broking for an export house for their requirement of rice for the foreign market. With his agricultural background (his family has been farmers for decades), honesty and hard work, soon the company realized his potential and made him the key broker. Thereafter he was the sole broker for a multinational for more than 10 years.

His thorough knowledge makes him indispensable to JAGAT. The total purchase and blending of the brand is his responsibility and he makes sure that only the best quality product is delivered to the market.

SUDHA PAWA: A graduate from Lady Shriram College, New Delhi and a textile designer switched from a business of ladies garments to promotion and sales of 'JAGAT'. Without her innovative ideas in packaging and promotions, Jagat Agro would not be what it is today.

1.1.7 The Team UMESH SHRIVASTAVA: After a good experience of sales in other small firms he joined the company as a sales representative in the year 1995. Soon he was heading the sales team of total 10 sales people for Delhi alone. He is now working towards spreading the market to other parts of the country and has made significant breakthrough. ANUPAM JAIN: An MBA from Indore, he joined the company as the factory manager. In a short span the whole culture of the company has changed to an equivalent of a big corporate company.

RAJEEV TANEJA: A Commerce post graduate, he joined the company in 2006 and took charge of the Accounts Department. Today, with full system in place, he is heading the department, always keeping in mind to change according to the times.

MAHESH: He joined the company in 1998 and learned the importance of quality from Mr. Santlal Aggarwal. With his team of 5 QC supervisors and 10 helpers, each consignment is thoroughly inspected in the company's well-equipped laboratory before dispatch to ensure the quality of the product.

CHAPTER-2

LITRATURE REVIEW: By Champagne, Elaine T ABSTRACT Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and aroma/flavor. A number of oxidation products have been tagged as likely causing stale flavor. However, the amounts of oxidation products, singly or collectively, that need to be present for rice to have stale or rancid flavor have not been established. Only one compound, 2- acetyl-l-pyrroline (2-AP; popcorn aroma) has been confirmed to contribute a characteristic aroma. Furthermore, 2-AP is the only volatile compound in which the relationship between its concentration in rice and sensory intensity has been established. This article discusses the challenges of measuring aroma and flavor instrumentally and by human sensory panels and reviews research examining the effects of genetic, preharvest, and postharvest factors on volatile compound profiles and the aroma and flavor of cooked rice. Rice is an important provider of nourishment for the worlds population. Unlike most food crops, rice is generally eaten whole without seasoning, making the sensory properties of the rice grain itself important. Small variations in sensory properties, especially aroma, can make rice highly desired by or unacceptable to consumers (Yau and Liu 1999). Consequently, aroma and flavor have been rated as the major criteria for preference among consumers (Del Mundo and Juliano 1981). There has been a quest for >30 years to understand how genetic, preharvest (e.g., environment, cultural methods), and postharvest (e.g., drying, milling, storage, cooking method) factors affect the aroma and flavor of cooked rice and to relate these effects to the numerous volatile compounds in rice. The desired outcome is to identify important marker compounds that will allow preharvest and postharvest strategies to be enacted to assure that cooked rice will have the expected aroma and flavor. Most researchers have taken the approach of correlating preharvest and postharvest variables with changes in volatile compounds and have drawn conclusions as to which compounds possibly affect aroma and flavor based on concentration or aroma value (AV). Few have conducted preference or descriptive sensory analyses with concurrent volatile analyses. The result is that, with the exception of 2-acetyl-l-pyrroline (popcorn aroma), no single marker compound has been identified to allow monitoring and control of preharvest and postharvest factors that affect aroma and flavor. This article will focus on the challenges of measuring rice aroma and flavor and using these measures to understand what effects these sensory properties in cooked rice.

ISOLATING AND QUANTIFYING VOLATILE COMPOUNDS Methods for the determination of the volatile compounds in rice have schemes for collection, concentration, separation, and quantification. Traditional methods have involved static headspace, purge and trap, steam distillation-solvent extraction (including simultaneous distillation/extraction), and direct solvent extraction for collection/concentration (Reineccius 2006). Separation is by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization or mass spectrometer (MS) as detector. The GC effluent to the MS can be split with a portion going to a sniffer port for human detection. Vogue since introduction in the mid 1990s (Yang et al 1994; Steffen et al 1996) has been collection of rice volatile compounds using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by GC-MS (Grimm et al 2001; Lam and Proctor 2003; Wongpornchai et al 2004; Champagne et al 2004b, 2005; Zheng et al 2007). In this technique, an inert fiber coated with an adsorbent is placed in the headspace above a rice sample and allowed to adsorb volatile compounds. The fiber containing the adsorbed volatile compounds is then thermally desorbed into a GC carrier gas flow. The number and amount of volatile compounds isolated from rice are method dependent. In static headspace analyses using a gas- tight syringe for collection, only the most abundant volatile compounds (>10^sup -7^ g/L) are detectable. In purge and trap methods, the compounds with the highest vapor pressure are preferentially removed and, of these, the compounds trapped on Tenax depend on their polarity. Tenax has low adsorption capacity and a low affinity for polar compounds and a high affinity for nonpolar compounds (Reineccius 2006). In steam distillation-solvent extraction, the volatile profile obtained is influenced by volatility of the aroma compounds (initial isolation), solubility during solvent extraction of the distillate, and volatility again during the concentration of the solvent extract (Reineccius 2006). In simultaneous distillation/extraction, the prepared aroma isolate contains nearly all the volatile compounds in rice; however, their proportions may poorly represent the true profile. In direct solvent extraction, recoveries of volatile compounds depend on the solvent chosen. The number and amount of volatile compounds isolated from rice also depend on how the sample is prepared. The volatile profile of cooked rice differs from that of uncooked rice; the profile of flour differs from that of intact grains. Higher amounts of lipid oxidation products are observed in flour compared with intact grains. This may be a matrix effect or due to accelerated oxidation. The composition of the headspace of rice can be readily changed by the addition of water and temperature. For targeted analysis, such as 2acetyl-l-pyrroline (2-AP), the addition of a small amount of water is advantageous, whereas for other compounds the addition of water may suppress recovery (Grimm et al 2002). The addition of water can further complicate analysis because it can induce enzymatic action, leading to increases in volatile compounds.

Quantification is difficult with the described methods. In headspace methods, the data obtained reflects the amount of volatile compounds in the headspace which is influenced by the food matrix. Interactions between volatile compounds and starch matrices may increase retention (Arvisenet et al 2002; Boutboul et al 2002; Jouquand et al 2006). In particular, the linear amylose of starch is able to form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of volatile compounds that may affect the intensity of perceived aromas. Interactions of aroma compounds with lipids and proteins also affect their volatility. Quantifying 2-AP and Distinguishing Fragrant and Nonfragrant Cultivars The high demand for fragrant rice cultivars in markets worldwide has driven the development of methods for quantifying 2-AP and distinguishing fragrant and nonfragrant cultivars. Fragrant rice cultivars contain <<0.04-0.09 ppm of 2-AP; whereas nonfragrant cultivars have <<="" p=""> Purge and trap (Buttery et al 1988), simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction (Buttery et al 1986; Lin et al 1990; Petrov et al 1996; Widjaja et al 1996; Tava and Bocchi 1999; Mahatheeranont et al 2001), microsteam distillation-solvent extraction (Tanchotikul and Hsieh 1991), direct solvent extraction (Fushimi et al 1996; Bergman et al 2000; Mahatheeranont et al 2001; Itani et al 2004), SPME (Grimm et al 2001; Wongpornchai et al 2004), and static headspace (Sriseadka et al 2006) have been used for the isolation and concentration of 2-AP from rice samples. The long extraction time in steam distillation-solvent extraction methods, and thus low sample throughput per day, makes them impractical for use in breeding programs. The extraction method developed by Bergman et al (2000) requires only 0.3 g of brown or milled rice, a 2.5 hr extraction in methylene chloride at 850C, and a 25-min GC run allowing 50 samples to be analyzed per day. One extraction solubilized <<80% of the 2-AP with a coefficient of variation of 7.9% and standard error of 14. GC analysis had a coefficient of variation of 3. 1% and a standard error of 5.0. SPME has been reported as a successful tool for screening but not for the quantitation of 2-AP in fragrant rice (Grimm et al 2001). In the Grimm et al (2001) study, SPME gave <0.3% recovery. Because of this low recovery, there was a large error associated with absolute concentrations of 2-AP in rice. The average standard deviation was 11% with white rice and 20% error with brown rice. The static headspace gas chromatography method developed by Sriseadka et al (2006) was validated for quantitative analysis of 2-AP. The most effective amount of rice sample (1 g) provided a 51% recovery. The sensitivity of the method was enhanced by using a megabore-fused silica capillary column in conjunction with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. Method validation demonstrated 5-8000 ng of 2-AP/g of rice sample. The limit of detection was 5 ng of 2-AP and limit of quantitation was 0.01 g of brown rice. Reproducibility calculated as intraday and interday coefficients of variation were 1.87% RSD (n = 15) and 2.85% RSD (n = 35), respectively. Identification of the fragrance gene and a molecular marker for detecting it led to the development of a PCR assay for fragrance genotyping (Bradbury et al 2005). The allele specific amplification (ASA) technique allows discrimination between fragrant cultivars that carry the 8-bp deletion and those without. An alternative method for rapid discrimination of fragrant and nonfragrant cultivars is by SPME/MS coupled

with SIMCA statistical analysis (Laguerre et al 2007). 2-AP, pyridine, 2-acetylpyrrole, and an unidentified fragment (145 m/z) contributed to the discriminating fingerprint. Laguerre et al (2007) concluded that pyridine and 2- acetyl-pyrrole may serve as indirect indicators of aroma. The odor thresholds for these compounds are too high to play significant roles in rice aroma. Identifying Volatile Compounds Affecting Rice Aroma and Flavor A large number of compounds contribute to the aroma and flavor of rice. However, of the >200 volatile compounds observed in rice, only a few have been identified as affecting the aroma and flavor of cooked rice. Determining which volatile compounds are responsible for the perceived aroma/flavor of rice is a difficult task. With the exception of 2-AP (popcorn aroma), no one single compound can be said to contribute a characteristic aroma. Additionally, perceived aroma/flavor is not strictly additive but may result from interactions of several volatile compounds. Several researchers (Buttery et al 1988; Jezussek et al 2002; Lam and Proctor 2003) have taken methodical approaches to determining which of the numerous volatile compounds in rice are candidates as important contributors to its aroma and flavor. Buttery et al (1988) and Lam and Proctor (2003) calculated and compared aroma values (AV) to determine which lipid oxidation products are likely contributors to off-flavor. The higher the ratio of a volatile compound concentration to its odor threshold (AV), the more probable that the compound will contribute to the overall aroma or flavor of rice. Buttery et al (1988) found that the aldehydes (E)2-nonenal (threshold [T] = 0.08 ppb) and (E,E)- 2,4-decadienal (T = 0.07 ppb) had the lowest odor threshold and, considering the amounts in rice, were considered to likely contribute to the aroma. Other aldehydes with relatively low thresholds that are also likely to contribute were (E)-2-decenal (T = 0.4 ppb), octanal (T ? 0.7 ppb), nonanal (T = 1 ppb), and decanal (T = 2 ppb). Lam and Proctor (2003) concluded, based on AV, that hexanal (grassy flavor) and 2-pentylfuran (beany) probably contributed more to flavor change in milled rice early in storage rather than later. 2Nonenal (rancid flavor) and octanal (fatty flavor) contributed more to the overall flavor of milled rice during long-term storage. The approach of calculating and comparing AV has been extended to a screening method referred to as aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) in which the volatile components in serial dilutions of a rice extract are evaluated by gas chromatography/ olfactometry. The greater the number of dilutions a volatile compound is sensed, the higher its dilution value (DV), which would correspond with AV. Jezussek et al (2002) used this method to identify 41 odor-active compounds in cooked brown rice. Among newly identified constituents, 2-amino acetophenone (medicinal, phenolic) had the highest DV and was concluded to be an important odorant. The previously unknown rice aroma compound 3-hydroxy4,5-dimethyl-2(5H) furanone (Sotolon; seasoning-like) differed in DV among the cultivars. Table I lists olfactory-active volatile compounds identified in rice that may affect aroma and flavor. Another approach for determining which volatile compounds are important contributors to aroma and flavor or serve as markers for sensory quality has been through examining how genetic, preharvest, and postharvest

factors affect formation and concentration and subsequently the aroma and flavor of the rice. Following this approach, a degree of success has been achieved in determining which lipid oxidation products may be likely contributors to the off- flavor of stale rice. As discussed above, Buttery et al (1988) and Lam and Proctor (2003) identified key oxidation products based on the increase during storage and AV. However, researchers have not discerned at what level particular lipid oxidation products need to be present to result in stale aromas and flavor. A side-by-side comparison of odor-active compounds in rice with those in other grains has not been published. Hougen et al ( 1 97 1 ) noted that different grains commonly have similar volatile compound profiles but in different concentrations. This is observed particularly for oxidation products, which, as in rice, are also important contributors to aroma and flavor in other grains. For example, oxidation products locten-3-ol, 3-methylbutanal, 2- methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-hexenal, 2-heptenal, 2-nonenal, and decanal were identified as key aroma compounds in 12 barley cultivars based on odor thresholds in water (Cramer et al 2005). In wholemeal and white wheat flour, (E)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)-and (E,E)-2,4- decadienal, 4,5-epoxy-(E)2-decenal, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl- 2(5H)-furanone were odor-active based on AEDA (Czerny and Schieberle 2002). Most of these compounds are also odor-active in rice. Of interest would be to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition differences in odor-active compounds that differentiate the sensory properties of rice from other grains. Such a comparison has been reported for the rye and wheat flour (Czemy and Schieberle 2002; Kirchhoff and Scieberle 2002). The search for understanding the composition of fragrant rices and how it differs from nonfragrant cultivars has been through comparisons of volatile profiles. Buttery et al (1982, 1983) reported 2-AP to be the volatile compound defining the characteristic popcorn aroma of fragrant rice. Only fragrant rice cultivars possess the genetic potential (Lorieux et al 1996; Bradbury et al 2005) for accumulating 2-AP. Hussain et al (1987) compared the volatile profiles of an aromatic Basmati rice with a nonfragrant rice. More pentadecan-2-one, hexanol, and 2-pentylfuran were found in the Basmati rice. In another comparison, Petrov et al (1996) found nine compounds to discriminate fragrant and nonfragrant rice: pentanol, hexanol, 2-AP, (E)-hept-2-enal, benzaldehyde, octanal, pentadecan-2-one, 6, 10, 14-trimethyl-pentadecan-2-one, and hexadecanol. However, based on AV, only 2-AP would be olfactory- discriminant. Widjaja et al (1996), in a comparative study of nonfragrant and fragrant rice, found nonfragrant rice contained much more n-hexanal, (E)-2-heptenal, locten-3-ol, n-nonanal, (E)-2- octenal, (E)-2, (E)-4-decadienal, 2-pentylfuran, 4-vinylguaiacol, and 4vinylphenol, than the four fragrant rices. In these three studies, oxidation products were identified as discriminants. However, the preharvest and postharvest growing/handling of nonfragrant and fragrant rices were not the same for the two rice types in these studies. Therefore, the predominance of lipid oxidation products in one type may have been due to growing/ handling differences and not whether or not it was fragrant. Comparison studies need to be conducted on larger sets of fragrant and nonfragrant cultivars grown under identical conditions and handled identically postharvest.

Olfactory-Active (AV or FD > 1) Volatile Compounds Identified in Rice That May Affect Aroma and Flavor A new approach was taken by Laguerre et al (2007) to identify volatile compounds that differentiate the aroma of 61 rice cultivars (29 fragrant and 32 nonfragrant). Of particular interest, was determining compounds contributing to the diversity of aroma encountered in fragrant rices. It is unlikely that 2-AP is the only compound that contributes to the unique aroma of these rices. Their method used SPME for volatile collection coupled directly with mass spectrometry with no chromatography for selection. No differentiating compounds, other than 2-AP, were found in the fingerprints with odor thresholds low enough to contribute to rice aroma. Tava and Bocchi (1999) also observed through a comparison of fragrant cultivars that the only differences were in contents of 2AP and lipid oxidation products, with the latter being ascribed to differences in postharvest handling. In conclusion, other than lipid oxidation products and 2-AP, researchers have not been successful in conclusively identifying specific volatile compounds or classes of compounds that contribute to other desirable or undesirable aroma or flavor attributes in rice. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF AROMA AND FLAVOR The aroma of rice is detected when its volatile compounds enter the nasal passage and are perceived by the millions of tiny, hair- like cilia that cover the epithelium located in the roof of the nasal cavity (Meilgaard et al 2007). The sensitivity of receptors to different volatile compounds varies over a range of >10^sup 12^ (Harper 1972; Meilgaard 1975). Generally there is only a 100-fold difference between the threshold (minimum detectable level) and concentration that produces saturation of the receptors. A good perfumer can differentiate 150-200 odorous qualities (Meilgaard et al 2007). Rice aroma is typically described by trained panelists using a lexicon with 10-12 descriptors. Flavor is the impression perceived through the chemical senses from a product in the mouth (Caul 1957). According to Meilgaard et al (2007), when defined in this manner, flavor includes aromatics (olfactory perceptions caused by volatile substances released from a product in the mouth through the posterior nares); tastes (gustatory perceptions [salty, sweet, sour, bitter] caused by soluble substances in the mouth); chemical feeling factors that stimulate nerve ends in the soft membranes of the buccal and nasal cavities (astringency, spice heat, cooling, bite, metallic flavor, umami taste). The aroma and flavor of rice can be characterized and analytically measured by panelists trained in descriptive sensory analysis (Meilgaard et al 2007). Descriptive analysis is useful in evaluating sensory changes over time with respect to preharvest and postharvest conditions and shelf life (Meilgaard et al 2007). Combined use of descriptive and preference sensory panels can provide accurate assessment and

identify quality characteristics desired by various markets. Descriptive scores can also be correlated to volatile compound concentrations using various statistical methods to determine which compounds are responsible for perceived aroma and flavor or serve as markers for these attributes. Some researchers have developed statistical correlations based primarily on linear regression (Bett and Boylston 1992), while others have used multivariate statistics to correlate two sets (or more) of measurements. Multivariate statistical analysis (multiple linear regression, principle component analysis, and partial least squares) allows for the integration of all the individual volatile compounds in a mixture to be related to sensory responses (Meilgaard et al 2007). The advantage of this approach is that it more accurately models the synergistic and interactive nature of flavor and nonflavor active components that produce the total sensory impression. The disadvantage is that some components may be chosen for the flavor model only because they were highly correlated but not causative agents (Nobler and Ebler 2002). To eliminate this problem, researchers have developed models from only those compounds shown to be flavor active from gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC- O) (Luning et al 1994; van Ruth and Roozen 1994). Following the principles and concepts of descriptive sensory analysis, lexicons for aroma and flavor are developed by having a panel rigorously evaluates various rice samples to identify and describe the aroma and flavor. References are established and the panel uses them to come to consensus on the definitions of the descriptors. As described by Goodwin et al (1996), a rice aroma/ flavor lexicon was developed in the early 1990s by panelists at the Sensory Analysis Center of Kansas State University. The trained descriptive panel at the USDA ARS Southern Regional Research Center uses this lexicon to evaluate rice aroma and flavor. Similar rice lexicons were developed by Meullenet et al (1999, 2000) and Park et al (2001). Figure 1 lists the aroma and flavor descriptors, the definitions, and references as developed by Goodwin et al (1996), Meullenet et al (1999, 2000), and Park et al (2001). Other groups have developed lexicons that contain these and other descriptors. Piggott et al (1991) recruited 18 Malyasian students to develop descriptors for aroma and flavor of undermilled and well-milled rice. The resulting descriptors developed were fragrant, pungent, sour, smooth, sweet, sulphury, muddy, earthy, bread-like, hay-like, buttery, nutty, coconut, oily grassy, mouldy, and musty. The descriptive panelists trained by Yau and Liu (1999) described 11 attributes in cooked rice defined by raw and cooked grains: cold- steam bread aroma, hot-steam-bread aroma, raw-dough aroma, rice- milk aroma, corn aroma, corn-leaf aroma, pear-barley aroma, burnt aroma (dried baked rice), stale aroma (raw flour), fermented-sour aroma (fermented dough), and brown rice aroma. Using descriptive analysis, the intensity of each descriptor is scored by the panelists. The choice of scale and references used to rate intensities is particularly important in rice, where aroma and flavor differences can be small. The spectrum descriptive analysis method uses a universal scale for all foods (Meilgaard et al 2007). Champagne et al (2004, 2005) and Meullenet et al (1999) have employed this scale in their research programs. The scale is 0-15 with flavor components of U.S. name brand products with defined intensities. For example, the soda flavor in Nabisco saltine crackers has an intensity rating of 2; the grape flavor of Kool-Aid has a rating of 4.5. With the absolute values on this scale, sensory intensities can be compared

even if testing dates are spread over a long period of time. The maximum rating for rice aroma/flavor descriptors is generally >>5 when this scale is used. Most rice descriptors, however, have intensity ratings in the 1-3 range. This is problematic if panelist use integers (whole numbers) to rate the intensities. This leads to large standard deviations, and therefore significant differences are not observed. The established universal scale does not have enough reference points between integers to allow panelists to be more precise with their ratings. Of value for the world rice community would be to develop additional low intensity references for the universal scale. FACTORS AFFECTING RICE AROMA AND FLAVOR Genetics Fragrance in rice has been shown to be due to an eight-base pair deletion in exon 7 of a gene on chromosome 8 (Lorieux et al 1996; Jin et al 2003; Chen et al 2006) that encodes a putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BAD2) (Bradbury et al 2005). This deletion results in a loss of function of the encoded enzyme and, consequently, 2-AP accumulates in fragrant cultivars. Recently, Fitzgerald et al (2008) analyzed 464 samples recorded as fragrant from the Genetic Resources Center of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). A number of these cultivars, primarily from South and Southeast Asia, did not carry the 8-bp deletion even though they contained 2-AP. After eliminating the possibility of a Maillard reaction product, the authors concluded that the 8-bp deletion in the fragrance allele is not the only cause of aroma, and that at least one other mutation drives the accumulation of 2-AP. Preharvest Environment, fertilization, and cultural practices affect the amylose and protein contents of rice cultivars which in turn may influence the aroma and flavor of the cooked rice. Low protein rice samples of the same cultivar are reported to be more flavorful than those with higher protein (Juliano et al 1965). This observation was corroborated by two descriptive sensory panels (Park et al 200 1 ; Champagne et al 2004), who found rice with lower protein content to have higher levels of desirable sweet aroma/taste and lower levels of undesirable flavor attributes. In 17 diverse cultivars grown over two crop years in one location, hay-like and sweet aromatic flavors were significantly (P < 0.005) correlated positively (r = 0.53) and negatively (r = -0.49), respectively, with protein content (Champagne et al 2004). In the Park et al study (2001), protein content of a short grain cultivar milled to different degrees (8- 14%) correlated highly and positively with hay-like (r = 0.90), puffed corn (r = 0.94), raw rice (r = 0.91), and wet cardboard (r = 0.92) and negatively with sweet taste (r = -0.90). Other studies did not find a relationship between protein content and aroma or flavor. In a recent study by Champagne et al (2007), the aroma and flavor of five diverse cultivars grown conventionally with 50 and

100% of the typically used nitrogen rate and with chicken litter using organic management were compared. The low protein (mean 7.7% with organic management; 7.5% with 50% N rate) rice samples did not differ in aroma or flavor from those with higher protein (mean 9.2% with 100% N rate). In support of this finding, Terao et al (2005) found that growing the rice cultivar Akitakomachi under elevated CO2 concentration decreased the protein content but did not change the sensory properties to a level the could be detected by taste panel evaluation. Fig. 1. Descriptive sensory analysis attributes and definitions used to evaluate cooked rice aroma and flavor. Amylose content, the most important determinant of cooked rice texture, correlated highly and negatively (P < 0.05) with grain flavor (r = -0.88) in the study of 17 diverse cultivars (Champagne et al 2004). With delay (15-day interval) in transplanting seedlings from eight cultivars, amylose content increased and protein content decreased (Akbar et al 1993). Aroma score for the cooked rice increased. The concentration of 2-AP varies with environmental conditions. The 2-AP concentration was higher in brown rice ripened at a low temperature (day 250C; night 2O0C) than that ripened at a high temperature (day 35 0C; night 30[degrees]C) in both short-grain cultivar Hieri and long-grain cultivar Sari (Itani et al 2004). Drain and Harvest Dates Timing of field draining and harvesting of rice with consideration of physiological maturity, moisture content, and meteorological conditions can allow growers to foster conditions for high head rice yield. However, there may be a trade-off in flavor. Draining fields early may cause moisture stress in grains before they are physiologically mature, affecting metabolic processes and, in turn, volatile flavor compounds. Harvesting early at higher moisture contents, while improving head rice yield (Kester et al 1963), may lead to problematic microbial growth with associated off- flavor metabolites if drying is delayed (Champagne et al 2004b). In a study to determine the effects of varying drain and harvest dates on rice sensory properties, M-202, the predominant cultivar produced in California, demonstrated stable flavor with timing of field draining (14-day span) and harvesting (32-48 days after flowering) (Champagne et al 2005). The lowest levels of lipid oxidation products 1-pentanol, hexanal, and nonanal occurred in rice with the lowest harvest moisture content. However, differences in levels of lipid oxidation products did not lead to significant (P > 0.05) differences in flavor. Rice cultivar IR42 was harvested at seven times 20-38 days after 50% flowering (Marzempi et al 1990). With increase in harvesting time, amylose and protein content increased. Aroma and flavor decreased with maturity, with the best flavor found at 20 days after 50% flowering. Arai and Itani (2000) found that when rice was harvested 10 days before the ordinary time of harvesting (42 days after heading), the cooked rice was sweeter and more delicious. Tamaki et al (1989) also found flavor declined with maturity. Playing a

role in the flavor of rice, the amount of free amino acids in the exterior of cooked rice declined continuously with maturation. Flavor was considered to be rich in immature rice but poor in over-ripened rice. The influence of harvest time during ripening on the 2-AP concentration in two cultivars was examined (Itani et al 2004). During grain development in an early-heading cultivar, the 2-AP concentration in the brown rice reached a peak at four or five weeks after heading (WAH) and then decreased rapidly to 20% of the maximum at seven or eight WAH. In a late-heading cultivar, the 2-AP concentration peaked at four WAH then gradually decreased to 40% of the maximum at eight WAH. Harvest Moisture Content Between harvest and the start of drying, paddy may be held for more than 24 hr at moisture contents from 16 to >26%. Microbes found on the freshly harvested rice grow under these conditions and may produce volatile compounds that affect the flavor or aroma of the white rice obtained after drying and milling. A comparison was made of the contents of 10 volatile microbial metabolites in white rice obtained from paddy (cvs. M-202 and Akitakomachi) harvested at differing moisture contents and immediately dried or held for 48 hr before drying (Champagne et al 2005). No increases in volatile microbial metabolite levels were observed in white rice obtained from paddy rice that was stored at 17-21% moisture contents for 48 hr. No changes in the intensities of the flavor attributes were observed. This was in agreement with the observations of Meullenet et al (1999). Wet holding of rice harvested at 20.5% moisture for 86 hr did not significantly affect starch note (grain flavor), cardboard note (stale), sulfur note (off-note), or overall flavor impact. In white rice from paddy rice stored at >24% moisture content, 3-methyl-butanol, 2-methylbutanol, acetic acid, 2,3- butandiol, and ethyl hexadecanoate increased markedly with time (Champagne et al 2005). Also, in these samples, as determined by a descriptive panel, sour/silage and alfalfa/grassy/green bean flavors significantly increased (P < 0.1) in intensity. Sour/silage correlated highly with 2,3-butandiol (r = 0.98) and ethanol (r = 0.99). Rough Rice Drying Conditions, Final Moisture Content, and Storage Conditions Meullenet et al (1999) examined the effects of rough rice drying conditions on the starch note (grain flavor), cardboard note (stale), sulfur note (off-note), and overall flavor impact. Drying treatment (high 54.3[degrees]C and 21.9%rh and low 33[degrees]C and 67.8% rh) did not significantly affect these flavor notes in cooked rice before storage. Likewise, Champagne et al (1997) observed no trends indicating an increase or decrease in flavor attributes with increased drying temperatures (18-600C). Higher levels of the aroma compound 2-AP and lower levels of off-flavor compounds, such as 2- pentylfuran and n-hexanal, were obtained at lower drying temperatures when rice was dried by sun, in modified air (at 3040[degrees]C), and in hot air (at 40, 50, and 700C) (Wongpornchai et al 2004). In contrast, Sunthonvit et al (2005) reported that 2-AP tended to increase in concentration with increasing drying temperature from 100 to 1500C.

Intensities of desirable and undesirable flavor attributes were higher in rice dried to 15% moisture compared with 12% moisture (Champagne et al 1997). The temperature and time rough rice is stored can affect the aroma and flavor of the white rice obtained from it upon milling. Rice dried at 43.40C and 38.2% rh was allowed to equilibrate in air- controlled chambers until reaching moisture contents of 10, 13, and 14% and stored at 4, 21, and 380C for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 36 weeks (Meullenet et al 2000). At each storage temperature, sulfur notes increased with storage time; the increase was slight at the highest storage temperature (Meullenet et al 2000). In an earlier study, however, Meullenet et al (1999) observed a significant decrease in sulfury notes after 20 weeks over the same storage temperatures (4, 21, 38[degrees]C). In both studies, sulfur notes significantly decreased as storage temperature increased from 4 to 38[degrees]C. Sulfur compounds were probably volatilized at a higher rate as temperature increased (Meullenet et al 1999). Cardboard notes, an indicator of slightly oxidized fats and oils, increased with storage duration and storage temperature (Meullenet et al 1999, 2000). Starchy aroma notes decreased with increasing storage duration (Meullenet et al 2000). Grainy notes consistently decreased with time for the first 25 weeks of storage and increased during subsequent storage (Meullenet et al 2000). The panelists may have perceived off-flavors developing during storage as grainy notes. Cardboard notes, an indicator of slightly oxidized fats and oils, increased with storage duration and storage temperature. Drying rice at high temperature lowered 2-AP concentrations (Itani and Fushimi 1996). Regardless of drying method (sundried, modified air at 30 or 400C, hot air at 40, 50, or 700C), 2-AP decreased during 10 months storage for rough rice, with the highest rate of decrease at the beginning of storage (Wongpornchai et al 2004). The average concentration of 2-AP of all of the rice samples subjected to the six different drying methods after one month storage (4.02 + 0.60 ppm) was slightly more than double that after four months (1.88 + 0.27 ppm) and more than four times that after 10 months of storage (0.89 + 0.12 ppm). In another study, 2-AP in stored rice was about half that of a fresh rice sample (Laksanalamai and Ilangantileke 1993). Degree of Milling The aroma of milled rice differs with the degree of milling. Four types of rice milled to different degrees (92, 85, 75, and 50% milled rice) were subjected to odor evaluation. Significant differences in odor of cooked rice and in quantity of volatile components between 92% milled rice and 85, 75, and 50% of milling were observed (Tsugita et al 1980). Higher concentrations of lipid oxidation products in the 92% milled rice compared with levels in deeper milled rice was probably because these products were contained in residual bran on the surface of the 92% milled rice.

Puffed corn flavor, raw rice flavor, wet cardboard flavor, hay- like flavor, and bitter taste were lower, while sweet taste was higher with increased milling from 8 to 14% (Park et al 2001). Samples milled 6% were more sour, less smooth (mouthfeel), more pungent, less smooth (aroma), and had less sweet taste than those milled at 8.8% (Piggott et al 1991). Champagne et al (1997) found the effects of degree of milling on flavor attribute intensities to be dependent on moisture content and cultivar or location. Milled Rice Storage Temperature and Time Milled rice develops stale or komai-shu flavor during storage. During storage, surface lipids undergo hydrolysis to form free fatty acids that are susceptible to oxidation (Yasumatsu and Moritaka 1964). Lipase of residual bran on the surface of the milled rice will contribute to the formation of these free fatty acids. Additionally, oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic and linolenic acids, proceeds with the eventual formation of various secondary oxidation products such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, furanones, acids, lactones, and hydrocarbons that are ultimately responsible for the development of off-flavors and odors (Yamamatsu et al 1966; Grosch 1987). The milling process accelerates the process by disrupting cells, releasing lipoxygenase. Numerous researchers (Tsugita et al 1983; Piggott et al 1991; Tsrai 1995; Widjaja et al 1996; Lam and Proctor 2003; Tran et al 2005) have examined the effects of different storage conditions on volatile components and flavor properties. GC analyses of the volatiles of cooked rice showed that a larger amount of pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, alkenals, ketones, 2-pentylfuran, 4-vinylphenol, and a smaller amount of 1pentanol and 1-hexanol was found in milled rice stored for 60 days at 4O0C compared with rice stored 4[degrees]C (Tsugita et al 1983). These authors found that 4- vinylphenol has a characteristic off-flavor and may partly contribute to the offflavor of cooked old rice (Fujimaki et al 1977). Widjaja et al (1996) found an increase in levels of most of the carbonyl compounds and in n-pentanol, 2-pentylfuran, l-octen-3- ol, and 4 vinylguaiacol in milled rice stored for three months at 30[degrees]C. (E)-22, (E)-4-Decadienal, identified earlier by the authors as an important contributor to the character of fragrant rice flavor, also increased in concentration with storage. This compound imparts a desirable flavor at relatively low levels and a distinct rancid aroma at higher concentrations. In a more recent study (Lam and Proctor 2003), the concentrations of 2-nonenal, hexanal, and octanal increased during storage (370C, 70% rh) and remained high during the 50day time frame. The concentrations of heptanal, 2-pentylfuran, and 3-penten-2-one remained low. As discussed earlier, the authors concluded, based on aroma values (AV) that hexanal (grassy flavor) and 2pentylfuran (beany) probably contributed more to flavor change in milled rice early in storage rather than later. 2Nonenal (rancid flavor) and octanal (fatty flavor) contributed more to the overall flavor of milled rice during long-term storage.

Hydrogen disulfide (H2S) is an indispensable component of cooked rice aroma and it is thought that H2S is generated from the sulphydryl groups of proteins. The amount of H2S in the volatiles of cooked rice was higher in rice stored at 50C than in rice stored at 4O0C (Moritaka and Yasumatsu 1972). Sugars such as glucose and sucrose, and amino acids such as glutamic acid and aspartic acid, are the main components that affect the sweetness and umami tastes of rice (Fukui and Nikuni 1959; Tajima et al 1992; Saikusa et al 1994; Kasai et al 2001). The sweetness (sucrose) and umami tastes of rice were reduced during storage, whereas glucose and fructose increased (Tran et al 2005). Rice content of 2-AP decreased 40-50% in all forms of rice (paddy, brown, white), irrespective of whether three-month storage was in air or under partial vacuum (Widjaja et al 1996). 2-AP content decreased faster at higher storage temperature (Yoshihashi et al 2005). Fat acidity of rice increased during storage and was inversely correlated with 2-AP content at an early stage of storage. Packaging material moderately affected preservation of 2-AP. The effects of storage on the flavor of undermilled and wellmilled rice were determined by a descriptive panel (Piggott et al 1991). Samples stored at 30[degrees]C had higher scores for pungent, oily, moldy/musty, sour (taste), bitter, sour (aroma), and muddy/ earthy, while those stored at -20[degrees]C had higher scores for sweet (taste), fragrant, smooth (aroma), sweet (aroma), grassy, and smooth (mouthfeel). Scores for oily and starchy (mouthfeel), fragrant, smooth (aroma), and muddy/earthy increased with storage time. Both the under-milled and well-milled samples underwent these changes during storage at 30[degrees]C but they were greater for the under-milled rice. Free fatty acids (FFA) formed a greater proportion of the total surface lipid in the under-milled than in the wellmilled samples for the high-temperature stored samples. Storage at 20[degrees]C completely suppressed this increase in FFA. Hexanal and carbonyls followed the same trend as the FFA. Washing Rice that had been washed three times showed less deterioration in flavor during holding of the cooked rice for up to 24 hr than for rice washed once (Fukai and Tukada 2006). Monsoor and Proctor (2002) demonstrated that >>60-80% of total surface lipids were removed by water washing, with a reduction of free fatty acid and conjugated dienes relative to unwashed control samples. The total surface free fatty acid content of first-, second-, and third-break milled rice was reduced by >50% of the original value by washing. Increases in free fatty acids and conjugated dienes in washed rice after seven days storage at 37[degrees]C and 70% rh were much lower than those of unwashed controls. Water washing may be a practical means of reducing off-flavor development in milled rice (Monsoor and Proctor 2002). Soaking

Water soaking for >30 min before cooking is a traditional practice in Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. Soaking facilitates uniform cooking and shortens gelatinization time. Soaking also leads to chemical changes in the grain that could affect the aroma and flavor of the rice. A considerable amount of oligosaccharides are formed through activation of amylases in the outer layers (510% of the milled kernel) during soaking (Tajima et al 1992). Water soaking of flours prepared from outer layers of milled kernels also led to increases in most free amino acids (Saikusa et al 1994). Contents of free sugars and free amino acids are believed to play a role in the flavor of cooked rice by influencing sweetness and umami (Matuzaki et al 1992; Tajima et al 1992; Tamaki et al 1993; Saikusa et al 1994; Tran et al 2005). Recently a study was undertaken to determine the effects of presoaking on the flavor of cooked rice and whether flavor differences are associated with textural changes that could influence retention of the aroma compounds (Champagne et al, in press). Eleven samples of short-, medium-, and long-grain milled rice representing scented and nonscented rice and a wide range of amylose contents were presented to a descriptive sensory panel. For the set of all rice samples, undesirable sewer/animal flavor significantly increased and sweet taste significantly decreased with presoaking for 30 min. Presoaking also resulted in significant increases in summed negative flavor attributes and significant decreases in summed positive flavor attributes for the set of all rice samples. The effects of presoaking on texture, as measured by TPA hardness and chewiness, did not explain the observed increases in negative flavor attributes. An increase in free-sulfurcontaining free amino acids with presoaking could have resulted in an increase of their breakdown products, thereby contributing to the increase in sewer/animal flavor. The decreases in sweet taste and summed positive flavor attributes were likely the result of masking caused by the increases in sewer/animal and summed negative flavor attributes. Cooking Method Methods for cooking rice include the excess water to optimum cooking time method (Excess method), rice cooker optimum water method (Pilaff method), and steaming (Juliano 2003). In a comparison of the Excess and Pilaff methods, a consumer panel found rice cooked by the Pilaf method had more acceptable flavor than excess cooking (Crowhurst and Creed 2001). Possibly flavor compounds were lost during draining following cooking using the Excess method. Influence of Water-to-Rice Ratio on Cooked Rice Flavor The water-to-rice ratio used in the Pilaff method did not significantly affect flavor attributes across all cultivars (Bett- Garber et al 2007).

Serving Temperature of Cooked Rice Yau and Huang (1996) found that the aroma of cooked rice would change with serving temperatures and that aroma should be the summation or mixture of specific attributes. In a follow-up study, Yau and Liu (1999) found that there was no clear temperature effect trend for all rice samples. In terms of total volatile content (TVC), TC Sen 10 contained higher TVC at 60[degrees]C, TNu 67 at 25[degrees]C, and TC 189 and TNu 70 at 18[degrees]C. Temperature affected the contents of certain compounds of individual cultivars differently. Aromas for samples held at 60[degrees]C were higher for hot steam bread, corn, corn-leaf, and brown rice, while 18[degrees]C samples were higher in cold-steam bread and fermented-sour aromas. In another study (Liu et al 1996), aroma of cooked samples of four cultivars was evaluated at 18 and 60[degrees]C using modified descriptive analysis. Sweet, earthy, burnt rice, rancid, acid, moldy, and sulfur attributes were assessed. Samples evaluated at 18[degrees]C rated higher in sweetness, while samples evaluated at 60[degrees]C scored higher in earthy, burnt rice, rancid, moldy, and sulfur.

CHAPTER-3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: The report is based on the information & data gathered from industries, associations, institutions, periodicals & literature on the subject matter. For this, various meetings, interactions & interviews were held with the concerned identified cluster actors. For gathering information from the industries & associations, a Performa was devised and necessary information was obtained through personal visits & interaction. The informations & data from Institutions & other cluster actors was based on the specific requirement of this report. Since this was a time bound assignment, the emphasis was made on personal visits & interactions.

3.1 Objective of the study: to analyze the jagat products such as jagat royal and jagat malai to know the customer satisfaction level after consuming the product to meet the require meant of price conscious consumers to dispatch goods in a given period of time to analyze sub brands with their patent brands of jagat agro to find out ways to promote jagat royal, jagat malai manpasand , sadabahar, and many other products to enquire roceting demand of jagat basmati rice and reason behind it 3.2 Data Collection: In the data collection method, we have collected both primary and secondary data to meet our objective. Primary data: The primary data was collected by a survey based on the questionnaire. It was formulated on the basis of information gathered by me with the help of Mr. who provide useful guidelines and objective of our study. Secondary data: The secondary data was collected from books and internet.

Research Approach: The required information in the form of data is collected through survey method, with the help of personal interview through questionnaire method. Sampling plan: There is a stage where the planning is done about the sample units, sample size, sampling procedures, etc. Sampling units: This means, which is to be surveyed. So as mention earlier that the sample units is potential peoples.. Sample size: The sample size means how many people should be surveyed. So that total sample size is 45, which cover from different area of Delhi Sampling Procedures: I choose convenient and judgmental sampling for my research. Data collection method: Personal interview method is used for collection of primary data in the form of questionnaire from respondents. Research Instruments: Once the source of data collection is decided then comes the instrument for data collection or the research instrument. In this survey method a questionnaire was framed. This is Philip by the potential people though personal interview

CHAPTER -4

Analysis & Interpretation

Q1 TO WHICH COMPANY YOU WILL GIVE PREFERANCE WHILE PURCHASING

JAGAT

45

KOHINOOR

25

INDIAGATE

10

DAVAT

20

50 40 30
response

20 10 0

Interpretation: Jagat is one of the bestselling brands in the market

Q2WHICH OF THERE TWO BRANDS U PREFER THE MOST?

ROYAL

60

MALAI

40

60 50 40 30 20 10 0
response

Interpretation: Royal is the most preferable brand by the consumers

0 TO 1 KG 1 KG TO 5 KG 5 TO 10 KG

10 20 40

MORE THAN 10 20 KG

Q3 WHAT IS THE CURRENT DEMAND OF CUSTOMERS IN MARKET?

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
response

Interpretation: The consumers mostly prefer to purchase 5 to 10 kg hic is there current demand Q4 WHICH OF THE FOLLOWIN INFLUENCE THE MOST WHILE PURCHASING THE PRODUCT?

NAME

& 25

REPUTATION OF THE

COMPANY HIGH QUALITY MORE ADITIONAL SERVICESS PRICE .. 10 20 45

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

response

Interpretation: The consumers are now a days more quality conscious than any other factor

Q5 DOES THE SUPPLY OF THE PRODUCT IS ACORDANCE TO THE MATKET FORCESS?

QUALITY ADVERTISEMENT BRAND NAME ANY OTHER

40 30 25 5

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
response

Interpretation: The market equilibrium is always maintained by JAGAT

Q6 ON WHAT BASIS YOU ARE INFLUENCED BY THE PRODUCT?

POOR

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
esponse

Interpretation: The quality of JAGAT products are more influence to the consumers

Q.7 HOW WOULD YOU RATE JAGAT BASMATI AFTER CONSUMING IT ?

70 60 50 40
reason

30 20 10 0

Interpretation: Most of the consumers are satisfied after consuming JAGAT products.

TV

10

HOARDINGS

35

DEALERS

45

OTHER

10

Q.8 FROM WHICH AVERTISEMENT U CAME TO KNW ABOUT JAGAT BASMATI RICE AND ITS PRODUCT?

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
response

Interpretation: The dealers play a major role in advertising the product and make it available to them

CHAPTER -5

Finding & Suggestions:


With the objective of providing the best rice to the customers, Jagat has made long term investments in manufacturing, research and development facilities. In 1995, Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt. Ltd. became the proud recipient of the prestigious Trans World Gold Star Award for excellence in quality from the Institute of Economic Studies. Our quality expertise starts from the very beginning i.e. purchase and storage of paddy. The laboratory plays a key role in respect of maintaining checks on several aspects such as size, length and removal of broken tips. The high technology instruments enable the company to monitor quality parameters at each and every stage of processing. Rice is judged on 4 main parameters: 1. Appearance 2. Taste 3. Aroma 4. Cooking Quality. Taste and Aroma are subjective characteristic. The parameters for determining appearance of rice are:On the basis of average length of Kernels milled rice is classified into following categories :-

Scale 1 2 3 4

Size Extra Long Long Medium short

Length (mm) > 7.50 6.61 7.50 5.51 6.60 5.50 or less

Grain Shape is estimated by length/breath ratio of kernels.

Scale 1 2 3 4

Size Slender Medium Bold Round

Length (mm) Over 3.0 2.1 3.0 1.1 2.0 1.0 or less

Cooking and eating qualities of rice largely dependent upon the properties of Starch that makes up 90% of milled rice. Several components traits collectively determine cooking and eating qualities, these are:

A. Amy lose Content The cooking qualities of milled rice are function of ratio of amylase and amyl pectin of the rice grain. Amy lose content also determines hardness of cooked rice, gloss of the final product and rice water ratio.

Type Waxy(glutinous) Low Amylose Inter. Amylose High Amylose

Range of Amylose Type of cooked rice 0.8% 8.20% 20 25% 25 32% Moist, sticky, glossy Sticky, soft Dry, flaky, soft Cook hard dry,

Rice water ratio 1 : 1.3 1 : 1.7 1 : 1.9

flaky, 1 : 2.1

B. Grain Elongation Lengthwise expansion upon cooking increase in girth is considered a desirable trait in high quality rice. C. Aroma Basmati emits specific aroma in the field, at harvest, in storage, during milling , cooking and eating. D. Gelatinisation Temperature It is the range of temperature within which the starch granules begin to swell irreversibly in hot water and ranges from 55 to 79 degree centigrade. It is also called resistance to cooking, as time required for cooking is determined by gelatinisation temperature. E. Gel Consistency Varieties with same gelatinisation temperature and amylose content differed in acceptability. This difference is due to gel consistency. It is differentiated by cold milled rice paste and is classified into hard( >60 mm). Basmati and other high elongating rice have medium gel length, which is most preferred. F. Volume Expansion The gloss of final product is related to volume expansion and water absorption during cooking, which are affected by amylose content. Volume expansion may be about 2-4.3 times.

IN HOUSE FUMIGATION AND TESTING Meticulous adherence to quality and hygiene is ensured through the use of totally dust free machines. One of the key focus areas for Jagat is the control and reduction in the level of chemical and pests residues in rice. All this is made possible by using cyclones along with fumigation and pest control measures. This is to ensure that the product conforms to the strict standards of international product control.

GRADING, DESTONING AND COLOUR SORTING The 90000 monochromatic is the world's standard rice machine for small and large millers, removing brown and yellow grains and tip defects. The performance of the machinery is enhanced by 90000 bichromatic, and the addition of infra-red gives the rejection of glass and other foreign matter.

MISCELLANEOUS SORTING At all stages, close checks at various levels are carried out to ensure conformity with the requisite parameters

CLASSIFICATION OF RICE Sr.no 1 2 3 4 Class Common variety Fine variety Superfine variety Scented variety Criteria for Classification L / B ratio below 2.5 L / B ratio 2.5 3.0 L / B ratio 3.0 and above Varieties having natural scent

GENERAL SPECIFICATION FOR INDIAN LONG GRAIN RICE Description Moisture Specification 14% Maximum(Max)

Damaged grain Red & Streaked Chalky Grain

1.5% 25 Max 4 6 % Max

Foreign matter Yellow Grain Paddy

1% Max 2% Max 30 Pcs / kg Max

SPECIFICATION FOR PARBOILED RICE ( Fine & superfine)

Description Broken percentage

Superfine 15%

Fine 20% 8%

Foreign matter including 1% paddy Damped & crust formed 1.5% grain Chalky grain Discoloured / Yellow grain Admixture Moisture Polish Infestation Split grains 6% 1% 1% 14% Well polished Nil 1%

5%

6% 15% Reasonably polished -

SPECIFICATION OF RAW RICE

Description Broken Moisture Foreign matter Chalky grain Milling degree Packing

Specifications 20 25% Max 14% 1% Max 6% Max Well milled 50 kg nett.

PROCUREMENT PROCEDURE

The procurement may be done in one of the following ways: Directly from the farmers (in the raw form). From the Food Corporation of India (in the semi-processed or processed form). From various state govt. agencies (in the semi-processed or processed form). From the rice millers (mainly in processed form).

Once the trader identifies the type he wants, the next step is to select the correct quality and grade. Samples are tested at various laboratories ands institutions (private or Govt. run) for conformity to various specifications like moisture content, percentage broken, foreign matter, paddy, infestation etc. Once satisfied the supplier(s) is identified and a contractual agreement is reached for the supply of specific quality and quantity of rice within a certain time period subject to specified conditions of conformity to specification,

packaging, transportation and price. The contract is usually for a particular price to be paid at the future date and outlines the delivery schedule and terms of payment. LOGISTICS INVOLVED The grain is usually packed in standard sized gunny bags of 50 kgs. International standards lay down that the weight should not exceed 50 kgs. Smaller pack sizes are made if the buyer demands so. The gunny bags usually have a protective inner lining to prevent moisture from getting in. The warehouses as far as possible should have ceiling and should be properly ventilated. They should be dry, clean, warm, moisture proof, termite resistant and rat proof. Regular fumigation is usually carried out especially if the grain is stored for long periods of time. Rice is usually transported in trucks and to a lesser extent in railway wagons. Trucks are often more effective and are considered more reliable than the railways. Adequate arrangements for transportation have to be made whatever the mode. The bags must be piled properly. The trucks or wagons must be as clean as possible and the bags, once loaded, should be covered with water proof/resistant covers. Process of Cultivation: The cultivation of rice is a relatively easy and simple process and does not require hi-tech innovations or methods. The process involves sowing seeds in nurseries, then transplanting the saplings into ploughed fields and flooding the fields. Adequate and proper drainage is a must as is the timely and regular application of various water soluble fertilizers (mainly DAP) and pesticides. The harvesting can be done either manually or with machines. In India manual harvesting is still very common. The production methods of paddy are, in general, highly labour intensive. Cycle time: Normal cycle time for rice is 3 months. However there have been some recent innovations in this arena and a new hybrid variety called Basmati has been developed , the cycle time for which is mere 45 50 days.

Crop Cycle: Due to the diverse weather conditions in India, rice is available throughout the year from the Southern states in Winter ( November to February) and from the Northern states in Spring / Summer ( February end to October). Yield The yield varies from states, but on the average is about 1600 2000 kgs of paddy / hectare of which about 67% is rice content. Weather The most essential climatic requirement for rice cultivation is humidity or adequate moisture and moderate to high temperatures that is why it is grown mainly in the rainy seasons and in the regions of moderate to high rainfall. Levels of rainfall have a major role to play. Vagaries in weather, especially factors like EL NINO effects, influence production patterns and yields. As a consequence there are sometimes sudden shifts in the pattern of imports and exports of this commodity, so much so, that an exporting country, can in a particular year, become an importer.

MARKETING OF RICE AGRICULTURE Agriculture, a core sector of the Indian economy, accounts for 30 per cent of the country's GDP, 20 per cent of total export earnings, two thirds of country's workforce and livelihood for 70 per cent of the total population. The past accomplishments of this sector are a great strength to face the current problems and future challenges in the areas of greater efficiency (competitiveness), sustainability, poverty alleviation and continued food self-sufficiency. With trade liberalization, agricultural exports have also become an important national goal. The new economic regime, initiated since early nineties, has led to resetting of the goals of Indian agriculture towards global competitiveness and export orientation without compromising the basic premise of self-reliance. The emergence of the concept of sustainability of agricultural production has made the task more difficult for all those who are associated with agricultural production systems in the country. Agricultural marketing plays an important role not only in stimulating production and consumption, but in accelerating the pace of economic development. The agriculture marketing system plays a dual role in economic development in countries whose resources are primarily agricultural. Increasing demands for money with which to purchase other goods leads to increasing sensitivity to relative prices on the part of the producers, and specialization in the cultivation of those crops on which the returns are the greatest, subject to socio-cultural, ecological and economic constraints. It is the marketing system that transmits the crucial price signals. 1. Agricultural Marketing is one of the manifold problems, which have direct bearing upon the prosperity of the cultivators, as India is an agricultural country and about 70% of its population depends on agriculture. 2. Most of the total cultivated area (about 76%) is to under food grains and pulses. Approximately 33% of the output of food grains, pulses and hearly all of the productions of cash crops like cotton, sugarcane, oilseeds etc. are marketed as they remain surplus after meeting the consumption needs of the farmers. Development of technology, quick means of communication and transportation has introduced specialization in agriculture. 3. Agriculture supplies raw materials to various industries and therefore, marketing of such commercial crops like cotton, sugarcane, oilseeds etc. assumes greater importance. 4. With the introduction of green revolution agricultural production in general and food grains in particularly has substantially increased. Agriculture once looked as a subsistance sector is slowly changing to a surplus and business proposition.

5. The interaction among producers, market functionaries, consumers and government that determine the cost of marketing and sharing of this cost among the various participants. 6. The producer, middleman and consumer look upon the marketing process from their own individual point of view. The producer is primarily concerned with selling his products. 7. Any increase in the efficiency of the marketing process, which results in lower costs of distribution at lower prices to consumers, really brings about an increase in the national income. 8. A reduction in the cost of marketing is a direct benefit to the society. 9. Marketing process brings a new varieties, qualities and beneficial goods to consumers and therefore, marketing acts as a line between production and consumption. 10. Scientific, systematic marketing stabilizes the price level. 11. An improved marketing system will stimulate the growth of number of agrobased industries mainly in the field of processing. 12. A marketing system can become a direct source of new technical knowledge and induce farmers to adopt upto date scientific methods of cultivation. Marketing is therefore, playing an important role in the economic development and stability of a country.

Market functions Agriculture marketing comprises of all the operations involved in the movement of produce from the farm till it reaches the ultimate consumer. Several functions are involved in this process. They are as follows: 1. Buying and assembling. 2. Transporting and loading/unloading. 3. Grading. 4. Storing/warehousing.

5. Processing. 6. Financing. 7. Risk-bearing. 8. Retailing. Functionaries: The above functions are carried out by various functionaries which are as follows : 1. Traders. 2. Transporters. 3. Hamals. 4. Graders. 5. Weigh men. 6. Financers/Bankers. 7. Warehouses.

Agencies Following agencies carry out marketing (buying and selling) at various stages : 1. Village/Itinerant merchant. 2. Wholesaler in assembling market. 3. Commission agent or Dalal. 4. Preharvest contractor (in fruit crops). 5. Wholesaler in consuming markets. 6. Processor. 7. Retailer. Types of markets 1. Wholesale markets. i) ii) In producing area. In consuming area.

2. Retail market in consuming area. 3. Daily Mandis and weekly markets in rural areas Producers selling directly to local consumers.

4. Annual and occasional fairs. Perfect and imperfect Markets As per definition, agricultural markets should be perfectly competitive markets as there are large number of buyers and sellers. But these markets are not really perfectly competitive. The traders as buyers are generally educated, have full knowledge of market-practices (demand, supply, prices, etc.) and are organizationally strong. This is not the case with farmers-sellers. They are mostly ignorant, weak and unorganized. When the prices are fixed in the open market, the farmers do not get the reasonable and correct prices as they sell their produce under forced or distress situation. Therefore these markets are imperfect markets. Methods of sale Following methods of fixing prices are observed in various markets 1. Open auction. 2. Closed tender. 3. Under cover or Hatter system. 4. Private agreement. 5. Quoting on sample. 6. Dara sale. First method i.e. open auction, is most popular and is followed in regulated markets as prices are fixed in the presence of all concern. Channels of marketing Government. Co-operative. Private traders.

1. Government Channel Producer - Govt. Department - consumer. 2. Co-operative channel Producer>co-operatives->consumer. 3. Private channel Producer->village merchant->wholesaler-> commission agent (Dalal) -> Retailer-> consumer.

In some fruit crops, in addition to the above, there is preharvest contractor who takes fruit gardens while fruits are still on the trees. In private channel, there are many intermediaries, which result into high costs and market margins. Therefore, the commodities become costly for the final consumer and this reduces the producers share in consumers prices. This is a traditional channel and is quite popular with the farmers. Nearly 60 to 70% agricultural produce is sold through this channel. The co-operative channel is quite weak in the country. In Maharashtra, this channel is used partially in important fruit crops like grapes, pomogranate, banana, ber, orange along with private channel. It is also used in milk in Maharashtra, Gujrathi etc. along with Govt. and private channels. Government channel is used mainly for foodgrains like rice, wheat and sugar. In some essential commodities, when the prices are unduly high or low the Govt. enters into market to buy the commodities and sell them to protect the interests of both-producer and consumer. The examples are onion, edible oils etc. Government channel operates with the co-operative or private channels. In Maharashtra, Govt. channel operates in the marketing of milk along with co-operative and private channels. The channels of marketing are an important aspect of agricultural marketing affecting the prices paid by consumers and shares of them received by the producer. The shorter the channel, lesser the market costs and cheaper the commodity to the consumer. When the channel is long with more intermediaries, prices are more and producers is less. The channels of marketing and price for different commodities have been the main focus of research in agricultural marketing. The channel which provides commodities at cheaper price to consumer and also ensures greater share to producer is considered as the most efficient channel Several studies have been carried out in India on this topic for different commodities and in different regions and the results are of mixed nature due to local socio-economic conditions and infrastructure facilities. Normally producers shares in different commodity groups are as follows 1. Food grains- 55 to 65% 2. Other commodities- 60 to 70% 3. Fruits- 30 to 40% 4. Vegetables- 40 to 50%

Price Fixation and Open Market Price Fixation Another method of intervention in the market mechanism has been the announcement of different administered prices viz., minimum support prices, statutory minimum prices, procurement prices and issue prices. These prices are announced for different agricultural crops by the govt. of India on the recommendations of Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices. (CACP). Aspects while recommending the price

The need for incentives to farmers for the adoption of improved technology and maximization of production.

The need for ensuring a rational utilization of land and other production resources. The likely effect of the price policy on the rest of the economy.

The Commission has been recommending two sets of administered prices viz., minimum support prices and procurement prices. Minimum Support Price This is the price fixed by the Govt. to protect the producer farmers against excessive fall in price during bumper production years. In case the market price for the commodity falls below the announced minimum price due to bumper production and glut in the market, govt. agencies purchase the entire quantity offered by the farmers at the announced minimum price. Minimum support prices for different agricultural crops viz., Foodgrains, oilseeds, fibre crops, sugarcane and tobacco are announced by the govt. of India before the start of the sowing season of the crop. Procurement prices Procurement price of a commodity refers to the price at which govt. procures the commodity from producers/manufactures for maintaining the buffer stock or the public distribution system. These prices are announced by the govt. of India on the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices before the harvest season of the crop. At these announced prices, govt. procures the foodgrains (wheat, paddy and coarse grains) in the needed quantity either for maintaining the buffer stock or for the distribution through fair price shops. Procurement prices are fixed generally at a level, which is somewhat higher than the level of minimum support prices but lower than the prevailing market prices. The procurement prices are lower in relation to the actual market prices and as such farmers and traders are not willing to sell their stocks voluntarily to the govt. In such circumstances, the govt. procures food grains at the announced procurement prices either by imposing a levy on the farmers, or on the traders or through other methods. Procurement prices are announced before the sowing season. As a result, the procurement price itself become the support price at which the govt. purchased all the foodgrains offered for sale. Procurement

prices also become the minimum support prices because the govt. was bound to purchase the foodgrains offered by the producers for sale. Open Market Under this system arhatia or broker invites bids for the produce of the highest bidder is sold the produce. It is better than any other system as sale is by an open auction. The buyers and sellers know clearly the price quoted and leaves no room for being cheated. The system ensures fair dealing to the parties and secures a premium for superior quality. Types

Phar System

By this method, one bid is given for all the lots in a particular shop and all the lots are sold at that price

Random bid System

By this method, the commission agent invites a few buyers when the produce is brought to his shop for sale. All the prospective buyers are not informed. As a result, the competition is poor.

Roster Bid System

Bidding starts from a point in the market at a notified time about which the prospective buyers are given information in advance. The bidding party after the auction of the produce at one shop, moves to the next in a clock-wise or anti-clockwise direction till the auction of the produce at all shops is over, or the scheduled auction time expires. On the following day, the auction starts from the next point, and so on. The auction is supervised by the auction clerk or the person nominated by the market committee.

CHAPTER -6

Conclusion:
Growth trend of the Rice milling industry in the last three years has been on the negative side. With 306 units in the year 2000-01 in the district their number declined to 260 in year 2001-02 registering down fall of 15.3%. in the year 2002-03 with another fall of 15% with respect to the figure of year 2001-02. Accordingly the Rice production in terms of Qty. & Value has also fallen. The down ward trend has been noticed mainly in the non-exporting units where as the exporting units have almost remained same in this period. The reason of downward trend of these units is increased cost of production by about 20-25%then the exporters due to various benefits provided by Govt. agencies to the exporters. These benefits include reduced rate of interest, subsidized Rice supply by Govt. agencies to the exporters and exemption from VAT and duty draw back etc. Many of the units have either closed down or have shifted to the neighbouring states. I.e. Punjab & U.P. where VAT & local/Mandi levies / taxes are either exempted or are extremely low. crore with export of Rs. 700 crores. With the decrease in no. of units in the last three years, this figure has also gone down substantially. Similar is the case with the investment in plant & machinery. In the year 2000-01 the same was Rs. 49 crore which declined to Rs.40 cr. In the year 2002-03 by 18.3%. the food / rice stock level in the Central Pool on the other hand. To affect this regulations Govt. of India announces a minimum support price for purchase of Kharif crops i.e. Paddy, Bajra, Maize & Jawar for farmers to safeguard their interest to get them a minimum price of their crops, against exploitation by intermediaries. To control this mechanism a State Level KHARIF PROCUREMENT POLICY is made by Govt. of Haryana. The brief of this policy for year 2003-04 is highlighted as below in respect of Paddy crop. The farmers bring their produce in various Mandis which is sold against open auction as per the procedure. In case of auction price falling down from the minimum support price the designated six Govt. procurement agencies come forward & buy the huge stock of Paddy at MSP & Maintain the Minimum Support Price in the market as announced by Govt. of India every year. A) The various logistics are involved in marketing of JAGAT product such as AGRICULTURE Market functions They are as follows: 9. Buying and assembling. 10. Transporting and loading/unloading. 11. Grading. 12. Storing/warehousing. 13. Processing.

14. Financing 15. Risk-bearing Retailing Functionaries: The above functions are carried out by various functionaries which are as follows: 8. Traders. 9. Transporters. 10. Hamals. 11. Graders. 12. Weigh men. 13. Financers/Bankers. 14. Warehouses. Agencies Following agencies carry out marketing (buying and selling) at various stages : 8. Village/Itinerant merchant. 9. Wholesaler in assembling market. 10. Commission agent or Dalal. 11. Preharvest contractor (in fruit crops). 12. Wholesaler in consuming markets. 13. Processor. 14. Retailer. Types of markets 5. Wholesale markets. i) ii) In producing area. In consuming area.

6. Retail market in consuming area. 7. Daily Mandis and weekly markets in rural areas Producers selling directly to local consumers. 8. Annual and occasional fairs.

B) Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt. Ltd. has established itself as a processor of world class basmati rice. The premium brand of basmati from the company is adored by all and consumed by those who value taste and expect nothing but the best. C) PRODUCTS JAGAT MALAI JAGAT KHUSHBU JAGAT SADABAHAR JAGAT MANPASAND JAGAT EVERYDAY/SUPER EVERYDAY Among them JAGAT mail is mostly preferable C) Jagat is not only sold in India but in abroad also with the help of promoters and its brand name D) Jagat always meet the market demand and maintains the supply chain with the help of farmers middle men and end users E) The distributors play a major role in advertising the product it should try other sources also in promoting the product like T.V. advertising etc.

BIBLIOGRAPHY www.satnamindia.com www.grocernewstoday.com www.indiawest.com www.almondz.com www.dawaatindia.com www.FnBnews.com www.lalquilla.com KRBLindia.com Food grain milling industry-report Indian Agriculture 2006 http:/indiabudget.nic.in