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Cellular Mobile

Communications-I
An In tr oduction
Dr. Nasir D.
Gohar

http://www.stanford.edu/class/ee359/lectures.html
Lecture Notes by Professor Reynold Cheung
www.nmscommunications.com
Other Internet Resources
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

Cell Phone Growth in Pakistan & Worldwide


 According to a Media Report (Goliath, May 25, 2005),
Cell Phones in Pakistan to Touch 15M mark in December
2005
 Another Media Report (Middle East Times, June 20,
2006) Predicts the number of Cell Phones will rise from
2.2 Billion to 3 Billion worldwide by the end of Year 2008
 According to MOBILEDIA (Jan 20, 2006)
 U.S. offers more room for growth than Russia, and Japan offers
greater future growth than South Africa
 The number of mobile subscribers worldwide reached over 2
billion by the end of 2005, and is predicted to rise to 3.96 billion by
2011
 The Asia Pacific Region will account for 50% of the total number of
subscribers worldwide by the end of this decade with a staggering
1.067 billion subscribers shared between China and India alone,
the world's two biggest mobile markets
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

Several Types of Mobile Radio Systems


 Garage Door Controller [<100 MHz]
 Remote Controllers [TV/VCR/DISH][Infra-Red: 1-100 THz]
 Cordless Telephone [<100 MHz]
 Hand-Held Radio [Walki-Talki] [VHF-UHF:40-480 MHz]
 Pagers/Beepers [< 1 GHz]
 Cellular Mobile Telephone[<2 GHz]
Classification
 Simplex System: Communication is possible in only one direction :
Garage Door Controller, Remote Controllers [TV/VCR/DISH] Pagers/Beepers
 Semi-Duplex System: Communication is possible in two directions but
one talks and other listens at any time[Push to Talk System]: Walki-Talki
 Duplex System: Communication is possible in both directions at any time:
Cellular Telephone [FDD or TDD]
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

Paging System: For Transmission of Brief Numeric/Alpha-


numeric/Voice Messages [Pages] to Subscriber
 To Notify/Alert the User
 Simplex Service
 Modern Paging Systems Can Send News Head-Lines, Stock Info, or Fax
 Application Dependent System Range [2 Km to World-wide]

City 1

Land Line Link Paging Terminal

PSTN
City 2

Land Line Link


PAGING CONTROL
Paging Terminal
CENTRE

City N

Paging Terminal
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

Cordless Telephone System: To Connect a


Fixed Base Station to a Portable Cordless Handset
 Early Systems (1980s) have very limited range of few
tens of meters [within a House Premises]
 Modern Systems [PACS, DECT, PHS, PCS] can provide a
limited range & mobility within Urban Centers

Cordless Handset

Fixed Base
PSTN
Station
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

Limitations of Simple Mobile Radio Systems


The Cellular Approach
 Divides the Entire Service Area into Several Small Cells
 Reuse the Frequency
Basic Components of a Cellular Telephone System
 Cellular Mobile Phone: A light-weight hand-held set
which is an outcome of the marriage of Graham Bell’s Plain Old
Telephone Technology [1876] and Marconi’s Radio Technology
[1894] [although a very late delivery but very cute]
 Base Station: A Low Power Transmitter, other Radio
Equipment [Transceivers] plus a small Tower
 Mobile Switching Center [MSC] /Mobile Telephone
Switching Office[MTSO]
 An Interface between Base Stations and the PSTN
 Controls all the Base Stations in the Region and Processes User ID
and other Call Parameters
 A typical MSC can handle up to 100,000 Mobiles, and 5000
Simultaneous Calls
 Handles Handoff Requests, Call Initiation Requests, and all Billing &
System Maintenance Functions
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 The Cellular Concept


 RF spectrum is a valuable and scarce commodity
 RF signals attenuate over distance
 Cellular network divides coverage area into cells, each
served by its own base station transceiver and antenna
 Low (er) power transmitters used by BSs; transmission
range determines cell boundary
 RF spectrum divided into distinct groups of channels
 Adjacent cells are (usually) assigned different channel
groups to avoid interference
 Cells separated by a sufficiently large distance to avoid
mutual interference can be assigned the same channel group ⇒
frequency reuse among co-channel cells
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 An Example of Frequency Reuse


 Suppose we have spectrum
for 100 voice channels
 Scenario 1: a high power
base station covering entire
area – system capacity = 100
channels
 Scenario 2: divide spectrum
into 4 groups of 25 channels
each; cells (1, 7), (2, 4), (3,
5), 6 are assigned distinct
channel groups – system
capacity = 175 channels
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

Frequency Reuse Factor

 Frequency Reuse Factor N = No. of Distinct Channel Groups = Maximum Cluster Size
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

Frequency Reuse Example-2


 Suppose W = 25 MHz and B = 25 KHz/voice channel
 W/B = 1000 voice channels can be supported over the spectrum
 Scenario 1: a high power base station covering entire area (M = N =
1) ⇒ system capacity n = 1000 users
 Scenario 2:
 Coverage area divided into M = 20 cells with reuse factor N = 4
 Each cluster accommodate 1000 active users
 5 clusters in coverage area ⇒ system capacity n = 5000 users
 Scenario 3:
 M = 100 cells, N = 4 ⇒ system capacity n = 25000 users
 Scenario 4:
 M = 100 cells, N = 1 ⇒ system capacity n = 100000 users
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Common Air Interface (CAI)


Common Air Interface: A
Standard that defines Communication
between a Base Station and Mobile
Specifies Four Channels [Voice
Channels and Control / Setup
Channels] Reverse Channel
FVC: Forward Voice Channel
RVC: Reverse Voice Channel
FCC: Forward Control Channel Forward Channel
RCC: Reverse Control Channel
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Call Setup Procedure


Cellular Phone Codes: Special Codes are associated with each Cell
Phone to identify the phone, its owner, and service provider:
Electronic Serial Number(ESN) -A Unique 32-bit Code
Mobile Identification Number(MIN): A Subscriber’s Telephone Number
 Station Class mark (SCM): Indicates the Max Tx Power for the User
When a Cellular Phone is turned on and Initiates a Call:[see
next slide]
Monitors the Control Channels and gets hold on to the strongest one
Makes a Call Initiation Request[Dials the Called part Number, MIN , ESN and SCM
automatically transmitted]
Validation Procedure at MSC & Voice-Frequency pair Allocation
Base Station Pages the Information for the Mobile
MSC Connects the Mobile with the Called Party[Another Mobile/Landline Phone]
Call is Established and Communication Starts
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Call Setup Procedure (Cont’d)


4. Locates the
3. Receives a Call
Called Party, 7. Connects the
Initiation Request from
Allocates a VFPs Called Party[on
MSC Base Station, and
and Instructs the PSTN]/Mobile to the
Verifies that User has a
Base Stations via Mobile
Valid MIN & ESN pair
FCC
5. Pages for the Called
Mobile, the Mobiles are
FCC instructed to move to the
Allocated VFPs
respectively
2. Receives a Call
Base Station Initiation Request, with
RCC
MIN, ESN, SCM and
Called Part Number

FVC
8. Begins Voice
Transmission

RVC
8. Begins Voice
Reception
6. Receives [Called
Mobile] the Page and
Matches the MIN, the
FCC
Mobiles get ready to
move to the respective
Allocated VFPs

Mobile 1. Makes a Call Initiation


RCC Request, with MIN and
Called Part Number

FVC
8. Begins Voice
Reception

RVC
8. Begins Voice
Transmission
TIME
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Handoff and Roaming


Handoff
When a Mobile is on the edge of a Cell
RSL of the Mobile in that Cell gets bellow a set Level
Base Station of the Cell originates a Handoff request
MSC gets RSL Info from all the Candidate Cells
MSC asks the Originating Cell and the Strongest
Candidate Cell to Coordinate MSC
In Case the Handoff is Successful, the Mobile is asked
to switch to another VFP
All this happens in a matter of seconds and you hear a
little CLICK sound
Roaming
When SID of the Control Channel and that
programmed in the Mobile does not match:
The Mobile is in another Service Provider’s Area
MSC of the Cell contacts the MSC of the Mobile’s
Home System
After Verification, if the Mobile is Allowed, the new
MSC is ready to Serve.
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Comparison of Common Wireless Communication


Systems

Comparison of Mobile Communication Systems - Mobile/Base Station

Required
Coverage Hardware Carrier
System Infra- Complexity Functionality
Range Cost Frequency
Structure
Tv Remote Control Low Low Low Low Infra-Red Tx/Rx

Garage Door Contol Low Low Low Low <100 Mhz Tx/Rx

Paging System High High Low/High Low/High <1GHz Rx/Tx

Cordless Phone Low Low Moderate/Low Low/Moderate <100 MHz Transceiver

Cellular Phone High High High Moderate/High <1 GHz Transceiver

Tx = Transmitter Rx = Receiver
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Cellular Mobile Access Technologies


FDMA Assigns each Call a Separate Frequency
Works like Radio Stations
Mainly Analogue Technology-used by AMPS, NAMPS, E-TACS, NMT-450, JTACS
Not an Efficient Method for Digital Transmission

849 MHz

869 MHz
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Cellular Mobile Access Technologies


TDMA Assigns each Call a
certain Time-Slot on a Designated
Frequency

Each Mobile/User gets one-third of


a total Channel Time-Slot[6.7 ms]
Courtesy of Compression
Techniques: Speech Data in Digital
Form takes considerably less time
Optimal Frequency Usage: System
Capacity improves by three times
Operates both in 800 MHz[IS-54]
and 1900 MHz[IS-136]
Digital Access Technology use by
GSM, USDC, IDEN, PDC and PCS
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Cellular Mobile Access Technologies


CDMA Assigns a Unique Code to
each Call and Spreads it over the entire
bandwidth available
 A form of Spread Spectrum
Technology
Speech Data is sent in small pieces
over number of Discrete Frequencies
available at any time in a specified range
 Receiver uses the same unique Code
to Recover the Speech Data
GPS used for Exact Time Stamp
Can handle 8-10 Calls in the same
Channel Space as one Analogue Channel
An Access Technology for 3G Mobile
Systems[IMT-2000]
Supports both Bands [800 MHz and
1900 MHz]
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Cellular System vs. Personal Communication


System/Network (PCS/PCN)
 Personal Communication Services [PCS] is a system, very
similar to Cellular Phone Service with great emphasis on
personal services (such as Paging, Caller ID, and E-mail]
and mobility
 Originated in UK, to improve its competitiveness in the
field
 PCS has smaller Cell size, therefore, requires more infra-
structure
 PCS works in 1.85-1.99 GHz band
 PCS uses TDMA Technology but with 200 KHz Channel
Bandwidth with eight time-slots[as compared to 30 KHz
and 3 time-slots used by Digital Cellular Phone System IS-
54/IS-136]
 GSM and Cellular Digital Packet Data[CDPD] also use PCS
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Dual Band/Dual Mode Cellular Phones


Dual Band Phone: Supports both bands 800 MHz
and 1900 MHz
Dual Mode Phone: Supports both FDMA and TDMA
Access Technologies
Dual Band/Dual Mode Phone: Supports both
Bands and Both Access Technologies
Tri-Mode Phone: It can Support
FDMA/TDMA/CDMA all Access Tech. A popular version of
Tri-Mode Cellular Phone is the one which supports GSM
[800 MHz as well as 1900 MHz (USA version)] as well as
FDMA.
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Trends in Cellular radio and Personal


Communications
 PCS/PCN: PCS calls for more personalized services
whereas PCN refers to Wireless Networking Concept-any
person, anywhere, anytime can make a call using PC.
PCS and PCN terms are sometime used interchangeably
 IEEE 802.11: A standard for computer communications
using wireless links[inside building].
 ETSI’s 20 Mbps HIPER LAN: Standard for indoor
Wireless Networks
 IMT-2000 [International Mobile Telephone-2000
Standard]: A 3G universal, multi-function, globally
compatible Digital Mobile Radio Standard is in making
 Satellite-based Cellular Phone Systems
 A very good Chance for Developing Nations to
Improve their Communication Networks
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Important First Generation Analog Systems


Type AMPS ETACS NTT
Region America Europe Japan

Multiple FDMA FDMA FDMA


access
Duplexing FDD FDD FDD

Forward band 869 - 894 935 – 960 870 – 885


MHz MHz MHz
Reverse band 824 – 849 890 – 915 925 – 940
MHz MHz MHz
Channel 30 KHz 25 KHz 25 KHz
spacing
No. of 831 1000 600
channels
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Important Second Generation Digital Systems


Type IS-54 IS-95 GSM PDC
Region America America Europe Japan

Multiple TDMA/FDD CDMA/FDD TDMA/FDD TDMA/FDD


access
/Duplexing
Modulation π/4 DQPSK QPSK/OQPSK GMSK π/4 DQPSK

Forward Band 869 - 894 869 - 894 935 – 960 810 – 826
MHz MHz MHz MHz
Reverse Band 824 – 849 824 – 849 890 – 915 940 – 956
MHz MHz MHz MHz
Channel 30 KHz 1.25 MHz 200 KHz 25 KHz
Spacing
Data/chip Rate 48.6 Kbps 1.2288 Mcps 270.833 42 Kbps
Kbps
Codec Rate 7.95 1.2/2.4/4.8/9. 13.4 6.7
Kbps 6
Users/channel 3 Up to 55 8 3
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Difference Between First & Second Generation


Systems
Traffic Channels – 1G systems use analog FM
modulation; 2G systems use low bit-rate voice coding and
digital transmission
Channel Access – 2G systems allow each frequency
channel to be shared by a number of users, using TDMA or
CDMA techniques
Error Detection and Correction – 2G digital traffic
channels incorporate FEC for error detection and correction,
giving higher power and bandwidth efficiency
Encryption – all 2G systems provide encryption to
prevent eavesdropping
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 World-wide Subscriber Base as a Function of


Technology (June 2006)
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 GSM (Global System for Mobile)


 « Groupe Special Mobile » later changed to « Global
System for Mobile »
 Developed by ETSI as a pan-European 2G mobile standard
 Standard activity started in 1982, deployed in 1992
 A complete system standard for ISDN-like mobile services
 Time division multiple access (8 users per 200KHz)
 900 MHz band; later extended to 1800MHz
 Added 1900 MHz (US PCS bands)
 GSM is dominant world standard today
•Well defined interfaces; many competitors
•Tri-band GSM phone can roam the world today
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 GSM Growth – From 1993 to June 2006


Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 North American Standards


Published by the Telecommunications Industry
Association (TIA) as “Interim Standards” (IS)
2G air interface standards (PCS) include
IS-54/136 – TDMA over 30 KHz channels
IS-95 – CDMA standard developed by Qualcomm in 1991 and
adopted by TIA in 1993
IS-634 standard for MSC-BSC interface
IS-41 standard for MSC-MSC interface
Services, interoperability, compatibility and performance
issues are addressed by TR-45/46 committees
TR-45/46 reference model is similar to the GSM
architectural model
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Properties of CDMA Cellular


Frequency Diversity – frequency-dependent transmission
impairments have less effect on wide-band signal
Multipath Resistance – can use RAKE receiver to coherently
combine multipath signals
Privacy – privacy is inherent since spread spectrum is obtained
by use of noise-like signals
Graceful Degradation – system only gradually degrades as
more users access the system
Soft Handoff – mobile acquires new cell before disconnecting
from the old; diversity combining of signals from the two cells
enhance performance
Near-far Problem – without power control, signals from MS
closer to the BS will overwhelm signals from MS farther away
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Problems with CDMA Cellular


 Self-Jamming – arriving transmissions from multiple users not
aligned on chip boundaries unless users are perfectly
synchronized
 Near-far Problem – signals closer to the receiver are received
with less attenuation than signals farther away
 Soft Handoff – requires that the mobile acquires the new cell
before it relinquishes the old; this is more complex than hard
handoff used in FDMA and TDMA schemes
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 1G and 2G – Voice Centric Systems

Cellular coverage is designed for voice


service
Area outage, e.g. < 10% or < 5%.
Minimal, but equal, service everywhere
Cellular systems are designed for voice
20 ms framing structure
Strong FEC, interleaving and decoding delays
Spectral Efficiency
around 0.04-0.07 bps/Hz/sector
comparable for TDMA and CDMA
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 3G Vision –Multimedia (Voice, Data, and Video)


Universal global roaming
Multimedia (voice, data & video)
Increased data rates
384 kbps while moving
2 Mbps when stationary at specific locations
Increased capacity (more spectrally
efficient)
IP architecture
Problems
No killer application for wireless data as yet
Vendor-driven
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Standardization Bodies
ITU (International Telecommunication
Union)
Radio standards and spectrum
IMT-2000
ITU’s umbrella name for 3G which stands for
International Mobile Telecommunications 2000
National and regional standards bodies
are collaborating in 3G partnership
projects
ARIB, TIA, TTA, TTC, CWTS. T1, ETSI
3G Partnership Projects (3GPP & 3GPP2)
Focused on evolution of access and core
networks
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 IMT-2000 Vision-Integration of Services and


Networks
Global
Satellite

Suburban Urban
In-Building

Picocell
Microcell
Macrocell

Basic Terminal
PDA Terminal
Audio/Visual Terminal
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 IMT-2000 Radio Standards


IMT-SC* Single Carrier (UWC-136): EDGE
GSM evolution (TDMA); 200 KHz channels; sometimes
called “2.75G”
IMT-MC* Multi Carrier CDMA: CDMA2000
Evolution of IS-95 CDMA, i.e. cdmaOne
IMT-DS* Direct Spread CDMA: W-CDMA
New from 3GPP; UTRAN FDD
IMT-TC** Time Code CDMA
New from 3GPP; UTRAN TDD
New from China; TD-SCDMA
IMT-FT** FDMA/TDMA (DECT legacy)
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Cellular Network Evolution Path


2.75G 3G
Multimedia
Intermediate
2.5G Multimedia

2G Packet Data
1G Digital Voice
Analog Voice
GPRS W-CDMA
GSM
EDGE (UMTS)
115 Kbps
NMT 9.6 Kbps 384 Kbps Up to 2 Mbps

GSM/
TD-SCDMA
TDMA GPRS
(Overlay)
TACS 2 Mbps?
115 Kbps
9.6 Kbps

iDEN iDEN
9.6 Kbps PDC (Overlay)
9.6 Kbps
AMPS CDMA 1xRTT cdma2000
CDMA 1X-EV-DV

14.4 Kbps
PHS
(IP-Based) 144 Kbps Over 2.4 Mbps
/ 64 Kbps
64 Kbps
PHS 2003 - 2004+
2003+
2001+
1992 - 2000+ Source: U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray
1984 - 1996+
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Cellular Network Evolution Path-2


First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation

Advanced Wireless Integrated Voice/Data Tele-Presenting


Voice Services & Wireless/Wireline
Mobile Telephone Distance Learning
Service Wireless Data Multimedia Services
Intelligent Agent
Services Services

?
Location Services
Digital Cellular Broader Bandwidth Channels
with High Spectrum Efficiency
Technology
Analog Cellular Advanced Network/Software Knowledge-Based
Technology Microcellular & Architectures Network Operations
Picocellular Advanced Coding & Signal
Macrocellular Technologies Processing Techniques Unified Service
Technology
Intelligent Antennas Networks
Wireless Intelligent
Network Wideband Radios

Mid-80s Mid-90s Year 2000+ Year 2010 ?

NMT GSM W-CDMA


TACS IS-54/ 136 TDMA UWC-136
Analog AMPS IS-95/ cdmaOne cdma2000 Source: IEEE Communications Magazine
PDC
DECT
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) for


2.5G GSM
Part of GSM Phase 2 development
Use dedicated TDMA time slots for circuit switched data
Each time slot yields a data rate of 14.4 Kbps
Up to 4 time slots can be used for a data rate up to 57.6 Kbps
HSCSD connection using multiple time slots can be pre-empted by
voice calls to give up the extra slots
Suitable for streaming data applications such as digital audio/video
Inefficient for applications with bursty data traffic, such as Web
surfing
The service is not widely supported
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for 2.5G


GSM
Part of GSM Phase 2 development
Also supported by IS-136 TDMA in N. America
Use shared TDMA time slots for packet switched data
MS uses a reservation MAC protocol to indicate needs for data
bandwidth to BSC which schedules reserved time slots for the MS
Up to 8 time slots can be used for a data rate up to 171.2 Kbps; in
practice MS’s are not assigned 8 time slots
GPRS using multiple time slots can be pre-empted by HSCSD or voice
calls to give up the extra slots
Much more efficient for applications with bursty data traffic, such as
Web surfing
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)


for 2.5G GSM
Provides an evolution path from existing GSM/TDMA standards to
deliver 3G services in existing spectrum bands
Reuses GSM carrier bandwidth and time slot structure
Can be introduced in GSM using a minimum of only one time slot
per BS
Reuse of existing GSM and TDMA/IS-136 infrastructure
Can be deployed using as little as 600 kHz of total bandwidth
384 Kbps data capability to satisfy the IMT-2000 requirements for
pedestrian (microcell) and low speed vehicular (macrocell)
environments
144 Kbps data capability for high speed vehicular environment
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 3G WCDMA (UMTS) – Pros and Cons


Wideband CDMA
Standard for Universal Mobile Telephone Service
(UMTS)
Committed standard for Europe and likely
migration path for other GSM operators
Leverages GSM’s dominant position
Requires substantial new spectrum
5 MHz each way (symmetric)
Legally mandated in Europe and elsewhere
Sales of new spectrum completed in
Europe
At prices that now seem exorbitant
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 3G cdma2000
Specification developed by the Third Generation Partnership
Project 2 (3GPP2)
CDMA 2000 1x
currently deployed as 2.5G overlay on IS 95 systems
1.25 MHz channel bandwidth same as IS 95
max data rate 144 Kbps now increasing to 307 Kbps in the future
CDMA 2000 1xEV (evolution using 1x channel bandwidth)
1xEV-DO data only, 384 Kbps - 2.4 Mbps max
1xEV-DV for data and voice, specified by 2003/4, up to 4.8 Mbps
CDMA 2000 3x uses 3x1.25 MHz bandwidth, 2-4 Mbps
CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO and CDMA 2000 3x are ITU
approved, IMT-2000 (3G) standards
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 3G cdma2000 – Pros and Cons


Evolution from original Qualcomm CDMA
Now known as cdmaOne or IS-95
Better migration story from 2G to 3G
cdmaOne operators don’t need additional
spectrum
1xEVD0 promises higher data rates than UMTS,
i.e. W-CDMA
Better spectral efficiency than W-CDMA(?)
Arguable (and argued!)
CDMA2000 core network less mature
cmdaOne interfaces were vendor-specific
Hopefully CDMA2000 vendors will comply w/
3GPP2
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 3G TD-SCDMA (Time-Division, Synchronous


CDMA)
Time division duplex (TDD)
Chinese development
Will be deployed in China
Good match for asymmetrical traffic!
Single spectral band (1.6 MHz) possible
Costs relatively low
Handset smaller and may cost less
Power consumption lower
TDD has the highest spectrum efficiency
Power amplifiers must be very linear
Relatively hard to meet specifications
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Major 3G Standardization Bodies and Forums


Standard Organization Region

International Telecommunications International


Union (ITU)
European Telecommunications Europe
Standard Institute (ETSI)
Telecommunications Industry North America
Association (TIA)
Association of Radio Industries and Japan
Business (ARIB)
American National Standard Institute North America
(committee T1P1)
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Major 3G Standardization Bodies and Forums-Cont’d


3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
Focus on setting global standard for UMTS Terrestrial Radio
Access (UTRA)
Involve ETSI (Europe), ARIB (Japan), T1P1 (USA), etc.
3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2)
Focus on setting global standard for cdma2000
More of a N. American focus
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 UTRA Parameters
UTRA FDD UTRA TDD
Official name IMT-DS IMT-TC
Uplink frequency 1920 - 1980 MHz 2010 - 2025 MHz
Downlink 2110 - 2170 MHz 2010 - 2025 MHz
frequency
Carrier spacing 5 MHz 5 MHz
Duplex scheme FDD TDD
Chip rate 3.84 Mcps 3.84 Mcps
Modulation QPSK QPSK
Frame length 10 ms 10 ms
Time slots/frame N/A 15
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Mobile Wireless Spectrum


Bands Frequencies GSM/
(MHz) (MHz) Regions EDGE WCDMA CDMA2000

450 450-467 Europe x x


480 478-496 Europe x
800 824-894 America x x
900 880-960 Europe/APAC x x
1500 Japan PDC x
1700 1750-1870 Korea x
1800 1710-1880 Europe/APAC x x x
1900 1850-1990 America x x x
1885-2025 &
2100 Europe/APAC x x
2100-2200
2500 2500-2690 ITU Proposal x
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Prospectus for Global Roaming


Multiple vocoders (AMR, EVRC, SMV,…)
Six or more spectral bands
800, 900, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2500, …? MHz
At least four modulation variants
GSM (TDMA), W-CDMA, CDMA2000, TD-SCMDA
The handset approach
Advanced silicon
Software defined radio
Improved batteries
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Biggest Threats to Today’s 3G-Wireless LANs


Faster than 3G
11 or 56 Mbps vs. <2 Mbps for 3G when
stationary
Data experience matches the Internet
With the added convenience of mobile
Same user interface (doesn’t rely on small
screens)
Same programs, files, applications, Websites.
Low cost, low barriers to entry
Organizations can build own networks
Like the Internet, will grow virally
Opportunity for entrepreneurs!
Opportunity for wireless operators?
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)


Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Wireless LAN Standards


Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Bluetooth
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Ultra-Wideband Radio (UWB)


Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Why UWB is more Interesting?


Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 IEEE 820.15.4 (ZigBee Radios)


Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 WLANs Data Rates


Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 WLANs Range
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 WLANs Power Dissipation


Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Technology Trends
Improvements in system capacity through advanced signaling,
detection and signal processing techniques:
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing OFDM
Turbo coding
Multiple-user detection (interference cancellation)
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) processing
Software radio
Improvements in features and capabilities for better services:
Full integration into the Internet for multimedia services
Seamless roaming between cellular, wireless LAN, and satellite
networks
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 Beyond 3G?
 Need to provide: “beyond data”
Higher data rates (at least on downlink)
More multimedia contents
Voice, data, video, WWW access.
broadcast as well as cellular
Wideband (10 MHz or more)
 Main Candidates
WOFDM
WCDMA
Multi-Carrier CDMA
Other???
 How will these systems access the Internet
and coexist with wireless LANs?
Cellular Mobile
Communications-I
An Introduction

 In Short …
Wireless data and multimedia are the main
drivers for future generations of cellular systems

Several competing standards (as in 2G)


Evolutionary path unclear
Killer application unknown
What do mobile users want?
Will wireless LANs or cellular systems
dominate the future wireless data landscape?