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MODULE BIOLOGY PAPER 3

CHAPTER 7:

RESPIRATION

DISEDIAKAN OLEH:

CG. NOR NAZILAH BINTI MOHAMAD ZULDIN (SM IMTIAZ KUALA BERANG)

Respiration is a vital process carried out by all living organism. Organisms that respire aerobically involve the oxidation of glucose in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy.

Based on the information, design an experiment to demonstrate the process of aerobic respiration. Your experimental planning should include the following aspects:

Problem Statement: What is the effect of difference number of cockroach (aerobic respiration) to the height of the coloured liquid?

Objective of the study: to demonstrate the process of aerobic respiration in cockroach

Hypothesis: The higher the number of cockroach, the higher the height of the coloured liquid.

Variables.

Manipulated Variable : the presence of aerobic respiration/ number of cockroach

Responding Variable :

the height of the coloured liquid

Controlled Variable

: initial level of the coloured liquid

Materials and apparatus: Water, coloured liquid, living organism (cockroach), soda lime, Vaseline, boiling tubes, 500ml beaker, 250ml beaker, capillary tubes, screw clips, rubber tubings, ruler and wire gauze.

Technique used: Measured and record the height of the coloured liquid in the capillary tubes using the ruler.

Experimental procedure:

1. Four boiling tubes labelled A , B, C and D are prepared. 2. All the
  • 1. Four boiling tubes labelled A , B, C and D are prepared.

  • 2. All the boiling tubes are filled with equal amounts of soda lime.

  • 3. A wire gauze is placed in the middle of boiling tubes.

  • 4. A cockroach is placed on the wire gauze in boiling tube A.

  • 5. The screw clips of both boiling tubes are closed. Make sure the system

is air tight by sealing the stoppers with Vaseline.

  • 6. The initial heights

of coloured

liquid

in

both

capillary tubes are

observed and recorded.

 
  • 7. After an

hour,

the

height of

coloured liquid in

both capillary

are

measured and recorded using ruler.

  • 8. Repeat the step 4 until 7 using difference number of cockroach: Boiling Tube A: 1 cockroach Boiling Tube B: 2 cockroach Boiling Tube C: 3 cockroach Boiling Tube D: 4 cockroach

  • 9. The

rate of aerobic

formula= height/ time.

respiration are calculated and recorded using

  • 9. All the data are record in the table.

Presentation of data:

Number of

initial heights

the final height

Rate of

cockroach

of coloured

of coloured

aerobic

liquid (cm)

liquid (cm)

respiration (cmmin -1 )

1

     

2

     

3

     

4

     

Conclusion:

The higher the number of cockroach, the higher the height of the coloured liquid. Hypothesis is accepted.

ACTIVITY 7.2:

IN YEAST.

STUDYING THE PROCESS OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

Anaerobic respiration is the process of releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen. Yeast can carry out anaerobic respiration in a glucose solution.

Glucose ---> Ethanol + Carbon dioxide + Energy

The rate of anaerobic respiration is affected by several factors temperature, pH values and nutrients.

such

as

Based on the above information and equation, design a laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast.

Problem Statement: What is the effect of temperature on the rate of anaerobic respiration (in yeast)?

Objective of the study: To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast.

Hypothesis: The higher the temperature, the higher the rate of anaerobic respiration (in yeast).

Variables. Manipulated Variable : Temperature

Responding Variable : Rate of anaerobic respiration//No of bubbles released//Time taken for lime water to turn chalky

Controlled Variable

: Volume/conc. of yeast

suspension/glucose/pH/Time taken

Materials and apparatus: Boiling tube, Manometer/Capillary tube, Water bath//Beaker + thermometer,Stopwatch, Marker/thread, Rubber stopper, Ruler, Rubber tubing, Retort stand, measuring cylinder, Yeast suspension / Yeast, Glucose solution, Paraffin oil (Yeast & Glucose – must have)

Technique used: Using a ruler to record the change in height of the colored liquid/Record the number of bubbles released (after 10 minutes) using a stopwatch

//Calculating the rate of anaerobic respiration (in yeast) by using the formula :

Number of bubbles / Change in height

Time taken

//Take and record the time taken for the lime water to turn chalky using a stopwatch

Experimental procedure:

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in diagram. 2. Place the boiling tube with 15
  • 1. Set up the apparatus as shown in diagram.

  • 2. Place the boiling tube with 15 cm 3 of glucose solution in a beaker at 20 o C for 5

minutes.

  • 3. Add 15 cm 3 of yeast suspension into the boiling tube.

  • 4. Mark the initial height of coloured liquid in manometer.

  • 5. Start the stopwatch and mark the level of coloured liquid in the manometer

after 10 minutes.

  • 6. Record all data in a table.

  • 7. Repeat step l, 3, 4, 5 and 6 by placing the boiling tubes in a water bath at

temperatures of 30 o C, 40 o C and 50 o C.

  • 8. Make sure all the joints of the apparatus are air tight //Repeat the experiment

for each temperature to get average readings.

  • 9. Plot a graph of rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast against temperature.

Precaution :

  • 1. Ensure the temperature is stablised at the fixed temperature before taking the

reading if the height of the coloured liquid//counting the number of bubbles

released.

  • 2. Make sure all the joints of the apparatus are air tight //Repeat the experiment

for each temperature to get average readings.

Presentation of data:

Temperature

No of bubbles

Time taken for

Rate of anaerobic

( o C)

released (unit)

lime water to turn chalky (min)

respiration

(min -1 )

20

     

30

     

40

     

50

     

Conclusion:

Hypothesis is accepted. The higher the temperature, the higher the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast.

ACTIVITY 7.6: INVESTIGATING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INHALED AND EXHALED AIR IN TERMS OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENTS.

Inhaled air is the atmospheric air around us which we breath in while exhaled air is
Inhaled
air
is
the
atmospheric air around us which
we
breath in while exhaled air is the air we breath out.

Based on the information, design an experiment to investigate the differences between inhaled air and exhaled air in terms of their oxygen and carbon dioxide contents. Your experimental planning should include the following aspects:

Problem Statement: Does inhaled air contain the same amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide as exhaled air?

Objective of the study: To investigate the differences between inhaled air and exhaled air in terms of their oxygen and carbon dioxide contents.

Hypothesis: Inhaled air has a higher percentage of oxygen as compared to exhaled air. // Exhaled air has a higher percentage of carbon dioxide as compared to inhaled air.

Variables.

Manipulated Variable : Inhaled air and exhaled air

Responding Variable : percentage of oxygen and carbon dioxide

Controlled Variable

: initial length of air column

Materials and apparatus: Potassium hydroxide solution, potassium pyrogallate solution, J-tube, screw, boiling tubes, rubber tubings, ruler, water basin and stopwatch.

Technique used: Measured and recorded the length of air columns occupied by the gases using J-tube and metre ruler

Experimental procedure:

2.

The open end of the J-tube is lowered into the a water basin filled with water. The screw is turned slowly in an anticlockwise direction to draw a length of 5 cm of water into capillary tube.

3.

The

tube

is removed from the

water and the screw

is turned

in

an

anticlockwise direction to draw a length of about 10 cm of air into the J- tube.

  • 4. The open end of the tube is placed in the water to seal the air column in the tube between the two length of water.

  • 5. The screw is adjusted so that the air column is positioned in the middle of tube.

  • 6. The tube is immersed in a basin of water for about two minutes. This must be done before the length of air column is measured.

  • 7. After two minutes,

the

length

of

the

air column

is measured and

measurement is recorded as x cm. The air column is measured while it is

still immersed in the water.

  • 8. The screw is turned clockwise again to expel some of the water. The air column is brought to within 2 to 3 mm from the end of the tube.

9.

The

open

end

of

the

tube

is

dipped

into the potassium

hydroxide

solution and the screw is turned anticlockwise to draw 2 to 3 cm of

potassium hydroxide into the capillary tube.

  • 10. The tube is removed from solution, and by using the screw, the air column is moved to and fro several times.

  • 11. The length of air columns is measured, by repeating step 6 and 7. The measurement is recorded as y cm.

  • 12. The screw is turned clockwise

again

to expel

some of

potassium

hydroxide. 2 to 3 mm of potassium hydroxide into the capillary tube.

  • 13. Repeat the step method stated step 9 and 10 by replaced with the potassium pyrogallate solution. The measurement it is recorded as z cm.

  • 14. Repeat

the

step

1

until

13

to

investigate exhaled air by changed

inhaled air in step 4 by the air is exhaled through a rubber tubing and

the end of the rubber tubing is pinched firmly

and inserted the end of

the rubber tubing into a boiling tube filled with water.

Presentation of data:

 

Inhaled

Exhaled

air

air

Initial length of air column (x cm)

   
     

Length of air column upon adding potassium

   

hydroxide solution

(y cm)

Length of air column upon adding potassium

   

pyrogallate solution (z cm) Change in length of air column due to the

   

removal of carbon dioxide (x-y) cm Change in length of air column due to the removal of oxygen (y-z) cm

   

Percentage of carbon dioxide (%)

   

Percentage of oxygen (%)

   

Conclusion: Hypothesis is accepted. Inhaled air has a higher percentage of oxygen as compared to exhaled air. // Exhaled air has a higher percentage of carbon dioxide as compared to inhaled air.

ACTIVITY 7.8: STUDING THE EFFECTS OF VIGOROUS EXERCISE ON THE BREATHING AND HEARTBEAT RATES.

During vigorous exercises such as running, jumping and walking, the muscle required more oxygen and glucose to release energy during cellular respiration. Therefore the rate of respiration will increase.

During vigorous exercises such as running, jumping and walking, the muscle required more oxygen and glucose
During vigorous exercises such as running, jumping and walking, the muscle required more oxygen and glucose
During vigorous exercises such as running, jumping and walking, the muscle required more oxygen and glucose

Based on the information, design an experiment to study the effects of vigorous exercise on the breathing and heartbeat rates. Your experimental planning should include the following aspects:

Problem Statement: What is the effect of difference vigorous exercise on the breathing and heartbeat rates?

Objective of the study: To study the effects of difference vigorous exercise on the breathing and heartbeat rates.

Hypothesis:

When the vigorous exercise increased, the breathing and heartbeat rates will be increase// when vigorous exercise is running, the breathing and heartbeat rates will be increase compared to the jumping, walking and relaxing.

Variables. Manipulated Variable : Resting or vigorous exercise

Responding Variable : Breathing rates and heartbeat rates

Controlled Variable

: The duration of exercise

Materials and apparatus: students, stopwatch

Technique used: Counting and Record the number of breath per minute and the number of heartbeats per minute.

Experimental procedure:

  • 1. The experiment is carried out in pairs. Your friend is asked to sit on chair and relax for 5 minute.

  • 2. The pulse rate is measured by placing two fingers on the underside of your friend wrist, directly below the base of the thumb. The number of heart beat is counted for 15 seconds, and then multiplied by four to obtain the number of heartbeat per minute.

3.

The breathing rate of each student in the group is counted by placing your palm on your friend’s chest for one minute. The reading is recorded in a table.

  • 4. Repeat the step 2 and 3 are repeat three times to obtain the average reading of the heartbeat rate and breathing rate.

  • 5. Repeat step 1-4 by change the type of exercise for 5 minutes such as:

    • a. Walking

    • b. Jumping

    • c. Running

  • 6. After 5 minutes, the breathing and the heartbeat rates of student are measured immediately.

  • 7. The result is recorded in table.

  • Presentation of data:

    conditi

    Breathing rate (breaths per minute)

    Heartbeat Rate (beats per minute)

    on

    1

    2

    3

    Avera

    1

    2

    3

    Averag

    ge

    e

    Relaxi

                   

    ng

    walkin

                   

    g

    jumpin

                   

    g

    runnin

                   

    g

    Conclusion:

    When the vigorous exercise increased, the breathing and heartbeat rates will

    be increase //when vigorous exercise is running, the breathing and heartbeat rates will be increase compared to the jumping, walking and relaxing.

    Hypothesis accepted.

    ACTIVITY 7.9: DEMONTRASTRATING THE EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKE ON LUNGS.

    Smoking is the act of inhaling smoke from burning tobacco. During smoking heat, tar and nicotine

    Smoking is the act of inhaling smoke from burning tobacco. During smoking heat, tar and nicotine are released by cigarette smoke

    Merokok ialah satu tindakan menyedut asap dari pembakaran tembakau. Semasa merokok haba, tar dan nikotin dibebaskan dari asap rokok.

    Based on your biological knowledge, plan a laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on our lungs by using the laboratory material and apparatus like thermometer, universal indicator and cotton wool after intake different number of cigarette.

    Berdasarkan pengetahuan biologi anda, rancangkan satu eksperimen makmal untuk menyiasat kesan asap rokok ke atas peparu dengan menggunakan bahan dan radas makmal seperti termometer, penunjuk universal dan kapas selepas pengambilan bilangan rokok yang berbeza.

    Problem Statement:

    What are the effect (of cigarette smoke) on the lungs /the colour changes of cotton wool/the colour changes of universal indicator /temperature after intake different number of cigarette?

    Objective:

    To investigate the effect (of cigarette smoke) on lungs/the colour changes of cotton wool/the colour changes of universal indicator/temperature after intake different number of cigarette

    Hypothesis:

    The higher the number of cigarette intake, the higher the effect (of cigarette smoke) on the lungs /the colour changes of cotton wool/the colour changes of universal indicator / temperature

    Variables:

    Manipulated Variable : The number of cigarette intake

    Responding Variable : The effect (of smoke cigarette) on lungs/the effect on the colour changes of cotton wool/the effect on the colour changes of universal indicator /temperature

    Controlled Variable

    cigarette

    The time for cigarette lighted (5 minutes) // type of

    Materials : Cotton wool, Universal indicator, Cigarette,

    Apparatus : U-tube/ glass tube, Thermometer, Boiling tube, Filter pump

    Technique:

    Observe and record the effect of cotton wool, universal indicator and temperature by using the thermometer.

    Procedure:

    K1 : Preparation of material and apparatus

    thermometer To suction pump cigarette U-tube Bottle/ conical flask/ Cotton Universal test tube indicator
    thermometer
    To suction
    pump
    cigarette
    U-tube
    Bottle/
    conical
    flask/
    Cotton
    Universal
    test tube
    indicator
    • 1. Diagram with 5 correct labels.

    • 2. 50ml of universal indicator is measured using measuring cylinder and poured into thé test tube/ conical flask / bottle .

    • 3. Conical flask / test tube is connected to U-tube and tap water as

    suction pump.

    5.

    Thé initial colour of cotton wool / universal indicator is recorded

    • 6. One cigarette smoke is placed at P

    • 7. Thé cigarette is lighted up and thé suction pump is switched on.

    K2 :

    Operating constant variable

    50 ml of universal indicator is measured …

    Initial temperature 27 0 C of air is recorded

    K3 : Operating manipulated variable

    • 9. Repeat steps 6 to 8 by

    using 2, 3 and 4 cigarettes

    K4 : Operating responding variable

    • 8. Record thé change of colour in cotton wool / universal indicator

    / increase in temperature using thermometer after cigarette

    stopped burning (in a table).

    K5 : Precaution

    The number

    The effect/the changes (RV)

    of cigarette

    intake (unit)

    Temperatur

    Colour and

    Colour of

     

    e (C)

    smell of

    universal

    (MV)

    cotton

    indicator

    wool

    1

         

    More than 1

         

    Conclusion:

    9.

    Make sure all thé

    joinings are air tight /

    connected tightly …

    Result experiment:

    The higher the number of cigarette intake, the higher the effect (of cigarette smoke) on the lungs/the colour changes of cotton wool/the colour changes of universal indicator//temperature

    Hypothesis is accepted