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IR-CFBC Boiler Design & Concept

Jayaraman Rajavel
Thermax Ltd., Pune

25th June 2010 IR-CFBC Boiler Conference

Outline
Concept of IR-CFBC boiler Comparison between CFBC and AFBC boiler technologies Features of IR-CFBC design Comparison of various CFBC technologies

Fluidization concept

Fluidization concept

WHY CFBC BOILER ?


HIGH THERMAL EFFICIENCY

EFFECTIVE REDUCTION OF Sox EMISSIONS THROUGH LIME INJECTION REDUCTION OF NOX FORMATION BY REDUCED THERMAL NOX GENERATION REDUCED CO EMISSION LEVELS FUEL FLEXIBILITY
CFBC.PPT-8

Better combustion- Why?


Uniform combustion temperature High Turbulence in bubbling bed zone Higher Residence time Smaller fuel particles.

Emission..
Controlled combustion temperature Sox control through Lime addition Nox control through lower operating temperature Staging of combustion Lower excess air utilization

Fuel Flexibility.
COAL LIGNITE WASHERY REJECTS CHAR PETCOKE BIOMASS INDUSTRIAL REJECTS (CHAR ,ETP SLUDGE ETC). OIL GAS

B&W IR-CFBC Boiler Fuel Flexible Technology


Accepts

wide range of fuels


matter, % 4 40 0 70 value, Kcal/kg % > 1500 < 55 %

Volatile Ash,

Heating

Moisture,

Use Fuel

of lower rank fuels reduces fuel costs flexibility - minimizes fuel supply uncertainties to burn low cost and waste fuels

Ability

Difference between AFBC and CFBC


Circulating bed, burning particles travel entire furnace Particle separation device ( U-beam , cyclone) is used, solids are recycled. No heating surfaces are provided in the bed ( which are prone for erosion)

Difference between AFBC and CFBC Design parameters


Low temperature High residence time Air split High heat transfer rate Uniform furnace temperature Low un-burnt carbon in ash Bed material size Lime stone size Bed velocity

Internal Recirculation Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler

Boiler System Overview

B&W Internal Recirculation - Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boilers A simplified approach to improved flexibility and reliability Design Features High combustion efficiency Compact, economical design Higher reliability and availability Lower maintenance costs Reduced erosion Fuel flexibility Low emissions

U-Beam Separators
1
1. Sidewall membrane panel 2. U-beam - SS309H/ SS310H/RA253MA 3. Seal baffle 4. Refractory

4 3

Flue Gas & Solid Flow

Flue Gas

U-BEAMS IN IR-CFBC BOILER

U-Beam Separators

SEGMENTAL U BEAMS

IR-CFBC U-Beam Segments

U-Beams

Water-cooled Support Tubes

Multicyclone Secondary Collector (Mechanical Dust Collector or MDC)

Proven modular design Predictable high performance Low maintenance


Easy access High hardness cyclone tubes No refractory

Multicyclone Secondary Collector (Mechanical Dust Collector or MDC)

High-hardness alloy casting Ceramic shape

Overall Grade Separation Efficiency Comparison


B&W IR-CFBC Two Stage Solids Collection vs Hot Cyclone CFBC Collection
100

90

Efficiency, %

80

B&W IRCFBC Cyclone -Based CFBC

70

60

50

40 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Particle Size, Micron

B&W IR-CFBC Two-Staged Solids Separation System


Benefits
High

overall solid collection efficiency ~ More than 99.7% Precise furnace temperature control ~ By controlling solid recycle rate from the secondary collector Extended turndown ratio without use of auxiliary fuel (oil/gas) ~ 100% to 20% MCR Low auxiliary power requirements compared to cyclone-based CFBC technologies ~ 2-4 w.c. (50-100 mm w.c.)

Thin Cooled Refractory

Low gas velocity through U-beam collector significantly reduces need for refractory

(Refractory highlighted in yellow)

Lower Furnace Refractory Construction


Studs anchor and cool the thin layer of refractory Minimal refractory maintenance

Refractory Reduced Diameter Zone

Significant reduction in tube and refractory erosion at refractory interface

Pin studs & refractory highlighted in yellow

Typical Bubble Cap


Fluidizing air jets

Bubble Cap Bed

CFBC Boiler Design Comparison


B&W IR-CFB
Solids Separation System Two-stage (100% efficiency for particles of d>80 micron*)

Hot-Cyclone
Single-stage (100% efficiency for particles of d>100 micron)

Integral Cyclone
Single-stage (100% efficiency for particles d>100 micron)

Cold-Cyclone
Single-stage (100% efficiency for particles of d>100 micron)

* Recycling finer particles increases furnace heat transfer rate, improves combustion efficiency and limestone utilization. Upper Furnace Density lb/ft3 (kg/m3) Furnace Temperature Control 0.7 1.0 (11 16) Desired temperature can be maintained within +/10 F interval for wide range of fuels and operating conditions by adjusting secondary recycle rate. 5:1 0.5 0.7 (8 11) Temperature is predetermined by furnace and heat exchanger design along with fuel and limestone properties and sizing. 3.5 : 1 0.5 0.7 (8 11) Temperature is predetermined by furnace and heat exchanger design along with fuel and limestone properties and sizing. 3.5 : 1 0.3 0.5 (5 8) Lower bed temperature is controlled by adjusting cold cyclone ash recycle rate. Temperature span across furnace height is up to 200 F. 3.5 : 1

Boiler Turndown Without Auxiliary Fuel Refractory: Thickness, in. (mm) Covered Areas

0.6 2.0 (15 50) Lower furnace, U-beam zone enclosure walls None 15 18 (4.9 5.5) 21 23 (6.4 9.8) Not required 4 (1.0) (U-beams + MDC) Lower

~3 (~75) on studded tubes 8-12 (200-300) on casing Lower furnace, cyclone recycle loop (5 10 times more than @ B&W CFB) 3 5 per cyclone 16 18 (4.9 5.5) 75 85 (22 26) Required for J-valves 6 8 (1.5 2.0) Higher

~3 (~75) Lower furnace, cyclone recycle loop (3 5 times more than @ B&W CFB) Number varies with arrangement 16 18 (4.9 5.5) 75 85 (22 26) Required for J-valves ~6 (~1.5) Higher

~2 (~50) Entire furnace, cyclone (3 4 times more than @ B&W CFB) None 13 15 (4.0 4.5) N/A N/A Required for siphons 4 6 (1.0 1.5) Moderate

Hot-Temperature Expansion Joints Furnace Shaft Velocity [Design Range] , ft/s (m/s) Furnace Exit Velocity, ft/s (m/s) High-Pressure Air Total Pressure Drop Across Solids Separator(s), in. wc (kPa) Auxiliary Power Consumption

IR-CFBC Features / Benefits


High

upper furnace heat transfer rate and precise furnace temperature control

AND
Extended

turndown ratio (no oil/gas) 100% to 20%

MCR
Are both the result of the B&W IR-CFB two stage solids collection / recycle system characteristics

Low

auxiliary power requirements

Due to low flue gas P and no fluidizing blower

IR-CFB Features / Benefits


Fast

shut down / cool down

80%+ of bed material is drained during cooldown. Can shutdown / cool / enter / re-start within a 24 hour period compared to 2 to 3 times longer for other CFB design types

Low

Maintenance Costs

No refractory maintenance, no hot expansion joints, no fluidized sealing system, low furnace exit velocity, low gas velocity in convective heating surfaces

FEATURES OF INTERNAL RECIRCULATION CFB

INTERNAL RECIRCULATION U-BEAMS OF SS 309H / SS253 MA MATERIAL

- MORE THAN 95 % BY U - BEAMS - NO MAINTENANCE HIGH TEMP WITHSTAND CAPACITY ( 940deg.C) - ALLOWS QUICK START UP - LESS OIL CONSUMPTION

LESS REFRACTORY WORK (Only 15% as compared to cyclone design CFB) WITH CYCLONE DESIGN CFBs LOWER POWER CONSUMPTION LOW GAS VELOCITY

Draft loss across U-BEAMS - 1 INCH Draft loss across CYCLONE - >5 INCH

- IN U-BEAM AREA 5 TO 6 m /s - CYCLONE INLET 20 TO 25 m / s - FASTER LOAD RESPONSE - FURNACE TEMP. IS MAINTAINED TO BOTTOM OF FURNACE - FD AIR COOLES BED ASH IN FLUID BED BED ASH COOLER - PARTICULATE COLLECTION EFF. OF U-BEAMS IMPROVES AT PART LOADS - FUEL IS INJECTED TO FURNACE WITH FD AIR PRESSURE

CONTROLLED EXTERNAL FLY ASH RECYCLE WITHIN +/- 15 DEG.C FROM TOP

WATER NOT REQUIRED FOR COOLING GAS RECIRCUL. NOT REQUIRED

ROOTS BLOWER NOT REQUIRED

ADVANTAGE OF CFBC BOILER FROM TBW

HIGH INTERNAL CIRCULATION Improved furnace performance High operating efficiency LOW EXTERNAL CIRCULATION No J valve / L valve Finer control on performance COMPACT PRIMARY COLLECTOR Small footprint area Boiler plant size reduced NO THICK REFRACTORY Quick start up TOP SUPPORTED INTEGRATED UNIT No hot expansion joints Reduced maintenance UNIFORM LOW VELOCITY IN FURNACE & SUPERHEATER CFBC.PPT-7 Reduces potential for erosion Reduced maintenance

LOWER MAINTENANCE - HIGH AVAILABILITY - BETTER RELIABILITY

LESS USE OF REFRACTORY (TYPICALLY 75 TONS VS 450) (NO THICK REFRACTORY) FLUID BED ASH COOLER - NO MOVING PARTS AIR -SWEPT COAL FEEDER- NO MOVING PARTS METAL COATING / RDZ FOR REFRACTORY INTERFACE- COUNTERS EROSION BETTER S/H SUPPORT SYSTEM USED FOR ENHANCED RELIABILITY - NO SLINGER TUBES PRONE TO EROSION DENSE STUDS PATTERN (96 per Ft2)- BETTER HEAT TRANSFER - BETTER REFRACTORY ADHERENCE NO REFRACTORY LINED DIP - LEG, J, L VALVE HIGH MAINTENANCE ITEM ELIMINATED TRADITIONAL PENDANT VERTICAL LEG SUPERHEATER - NO FOULING NO SOOT BLOWERS REQUIRED - LESS MAINTENANCE -SAVING IN BLOW STEAM LOW GAS VELOCITY IN CONVECTION PASS. NO EROSION OF PRESSURE PARTS LOW GAS VELOCITY AND IN-LINE ARRANGEMENT OF ECONOMISER AND AIR HEATER TUBES REDUCED EROSION POTENTIAL ASH RECYCLE SYSTEM (MDC) GIVES FASTER LOAD CHANGE RESPONSE. LOWEST NOX EMISSION LEVEL IN THE INDUSTRY -<100 PPM

THANKS