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How to manage different Types of Performers? Managers have to get things done through their subordinates.

How well their subordinates perform reflects their performance. Therefore, their subordinates success is their success. The success of a subordinate depends on his competencies and behavior. Competencies imply knowledge, skills and know-how to carry out a task and achieve its target. Behavior implies the subordinates goodself and lesser self. Thus performance of a subordinate is dependent on these two factors. A subordinate can be either relatively competent or incompetent to carry out a task. Competent implies the knowing aspects of the job. Thus, all employees lie at a point in the continuum of: I know how To do a job I do not know how to do a job

A subordinate has both the good self and the lesser self that reflects his attitude. He can either possess relatively good attitude or bad attitude. Attitude implies the caring aspect of the job. Thus all employees lie at a point in the continuum of: I care I dont care

Cross the two continuums, a Performance Quadrant Analysis is derived to identify four types of performer as shown below:

I know how to do a job Q1: Star I care Q2: Learner Q3: Maintainer I dont care Q4: Laggard

I do not know how to do a job Quadrant 1: The Star Performer The star performance knows and cares about his job. The knowing aspect ensure that he achieves the performance target set for a specific task. The caring aspect guarantees that he delivers the job to his boss on time. Quadrant 2: The Learner The learner cares about his job but do not know or uncertain in getting the job done. He delivers his work on time. When his boss checks his work, he finds the work lacking quality with some errors. In the process of doing his job, learners tend to waste material, use wrong tools, damage equipment and injure themselves. Learners are

usually made up of new employees or incumbent employees doing a newly assigned job. Quadrant 3: The Maintainer The maintainer is competent to do a job but he does not want to do it well because he is frustrated and dissatisfied. Maintainers often postpone or hand up shoddy work. In the process of working, they tend to take our own pace and time in getting the job done. Maintainers are usually made up of experienced employees who are disgruntled with their bosses and management. Quadrant 4: The Laggard The laggard is incompetent with poor working attitude. Laggards deliberately shirk their duties, and their performance is far below the target set. They are often made up of new employees with serious personal problems. How to identify the types of performers? When assigning a task, the manager has to set performance target together with his subordinate. It is important that he uses TRAMPS C to set performance goals. T = Time bound the time allotted to do a specific job R = Realistic The quantity of work is manageable within the time frame and the resources allocated

A = Achievable Sufficient resources and time is given to Achieve the target M = Measurable Task can be measured in term of quantity and quality P = Precise S = Stretching Communicating target must be specific, clear and easy to understand The target is stretchable to enable the subordinate to exceed the target if he puts in more effort

C = Challenging Subordinate needs to put in some an effort to achieve the target Ideally, the manager and his subordinate set target together using TRAMP-C to negotiate with each other to reach an agreement. The target becomes the performance goal and set direction for the subordinate what his performance target should be. A subordinate can compare his current performance target (What it is?) against the performance goal (What it should be?) If there is no gap (What it is? = What it should be?), the subordinate is a star performer. If there is a gap, the manager and his subordinate should do a gap analysis together to identify the causes of the gap. If the cause is due to the lack of competencies on the part of the subordinate, he is a learner. If the cause is due to the irresponsibility of the subordinate in doing a job well, he is

a maintainer. If the subordinate lacks competencies and is irresponsible, he becomes a laggard. How to lead the four types of performers? Generally, there are 4 types of leadership styles

Autocratic style Do the job my way

Manager using autocratic style makes decisions for their subordinates. They decide: What target to achieve What resources are required What procedures and rules to follow What is to be done Who to do what Where should it be done When should it be done How to do it

Autocratic manager leaves no leeway for his subordinate to make decisions in getting the job done. Subordinates are expected to follow strictly to his instructions. Advantages of using the autocratic style The manager is in full control of his subordinates work

Errors will be minimized on condition that the manager is an expert in that specific job Manager has the opportunity to coach his subordinate on site in areas where the subordinate lacks the know how Disadvantages of using the autocratic style It will encourage the subordinate to be more dependent on the manager to make decision thus depriving the time for manager to carry out his duties and responsibility The subordinate esteem will be adversely affected and his confidence in doing a the job well by himself will be shaken It will affect the initiative of the subordinate to carry out his duties The subordinate may feel that his manager lacks the confidence and trust in him and thus adversely affect his motivation and morale The subordinate will not be satisfied as he does not own the processes of the job

Participative Style Lets do the job together

Participative style is used when manager and his subordinates make decision together to get the job done. There are discussion and interactions on What target to achieve What resources are required What procedures and rules to follow What is to be done Who to do what Where should it be done When should it be done How to do it

Advantages Opportunity to build relationship with his subordinate Opportunity to share ideas and experiences in getting the job done Opportunity to identify subordinates personal and workrelated problem and help the subordinate to actualize by initiating counseling and guidance program Opportunity to ensure that work is done according to schedule Enhance commitment among the subordinates in implementing shared ideas

Disadvantages: Take time to work with his subordinate depriving manager the time to do his own work Laissez Faire style/Free Rein Do the job your way Laissez Faire style is used when managers do not make decision and give a free hand to his subordinate to get the job done. Manager using this style communicates his expectation and empowers his subordinates to decide: What is to be done Who to do what Where should it be done When should it be done What resources are required What procedures and rules to follow How to do it

Advantages: Manager will have more time of his own to do his own work Subordinate morale will be boosted and he will become more motivated in doing a better job Subordinates job satisfaction will be greatly enhanced as he owns the job and can see the results of his effort

Subordinate will become more creative and innovative, given the freedom and leeway to decide what to do for a job assigned to him Subordinate learn to do his work independently Disadvantages Subordinates who lack the know-how may feel loss and become tense and stressful Subordinates with the wrong attitude may take too much time to get the job done Manager may not get anything results from problematic employees Authoritative Style Do the job the hard way

Authoritative style is used when other styles fail to get the subordinate to do his job. Thus managers are forced to use his position power to coerce and pressurize his subordinate to get him to do his fair share of work.

Advantages: May get some results from problematic employees

Disadvantages Create frustrated subordinates who may become uncooperative and hostile Good employees may decide to adopt a careless attitude Good employees may leave the organization Increased in absenteeism and medical leave on the part of the subordinates suffering from psychological pains Certain employees may resort to fight and sabotage the manager Low motivation and morale among the subordinates An emergence of an informal leader who may lead the group against the management An effective leader makes things happen through others. It does not matter what style or combination of styles he adopted to get things done. He understands that there is no best leadership style. The best leadership style/s is the style/s that works.

Managing a star performer

The most appropriate style to manage a star performer is the laissez faire style do the job your way. The rationale for choosing this style is a. A star performer has the know-how and skills of doing the job. It is unnecessary to instruct him what to do. b. A star performer is responsible, trustworthy and reliable and will deliver your expectation of his performance target on time. You do not need to monitor a star performer as he has the right attitude towards work. Managing a learner Rationale: Opportunity for the manager to coach (transfer of knowhow and skills) the learner Improved productivity as the learner improves his skills and know-how , he will take less time to get the job done Improved quality of work Save cost in terms of errors, rejects and material wastage

When making a choice to manage learner, the manager must classify the learner into two types:

a. New learner -Learners who do not have any know-how and skills of the job I do not know anything at all how to do the job. For example a new recruit or an incumbent who is assign a new job b. Incumbent learner - Learners who are not sure in doing certain parts of the job process I am not sure of certain aspects of the job. Incumbent learner is identified as a subordinate who has been working for sometime and yet make errors in certain aspects of the job Managing a fresh learner The most appropriate style to manage a fresh learner is the autocratic style. Since the subordinate does not know anything about the job, the manager has to start from scratch in coaching him. Managing an incumbent learner The most appropriate style is the autocratic-participative style Autocratic style on the aspects of the job the learner does not have any know how, followed by coaching Participative style on the aspects of the job the learner has some knowledge and skills. This will reinforce his knowhow thus building up his confidence to work independently Managing a maintainer The most appropriate style is the participative style

Rationale: Opportunity for the manager to share his work experience and tap the vast experiences of the maintainer to find better, simpler, easier and cheaper way to get the job done. Opportunity to build relationship with the maintainer Opportunity to motivate and help the maintainer to actualize Opportunity to counsel and guide the maintainer to effect a change of attitude Managing a laggard Begin with participative-autocratic style, failing to help him use authoritative style Rationale for beginning with participative style When the manager wants to help a laggard he begins with the participative-autocratic style. Participation in doing the job together provides the opportunity for the manager to build relationship, motivate, counsel and guide the laggard with the hope that it will

effect a change of attitude. Should the laggard persist not to change his attitude after all the help given, the manager should switch to authoritative style. Adopting the authoritative style is to get the message across to the laggard that either he shapes up or ship out. Should authoritative style failed, the manager has to collect evidences and take the necessary disciplinarily measures to manage out the laggard. Should participative style successfully effect a change of attitude, the manager should switch to autocratic style, designing a coaching program to equip him with the competencies to get the job done.