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How to Memorise the DSM-IV Criteria Mnemonics 1. 2. 3. 4. Mood Psychotic Substance abuse Anxiety 5. Somatoform 6. Cognitive 7.

Personality

MOOD DISORDERS Major Depression SIGECAPS 4/8 + Mood or Anhedonia 2 weeks 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Sleep / Interest Guilt Energy Concentration Appetite / Psychomotor / Suicide

(anhedonia)

Dysthymia ACHEWS allergic to happiness 2/6 2 years 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Appetite Concentration Hopeless Energy Worthless Sleep / /

Manic DIG FAST 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Distractable Indiscretion Grandiose Flight of ideas Activity Sleep Talkative

Mood + 3 / 7 Irritable + 4 / 7 1 week

(excessive involvement in pleasurable activities)

(pressured speech)

PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS Schizophrenia Delusions Herald Schizophrenics Bad News 2 / 5 for 1 mth + 5 mths prodromal 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Delusions Hallucinations Speech disorg. Behaviour disorg. Negative sx Flat affect Alogia (inability to speak)

Schizophreniform As above, except last 1 6 mths (at least 1, but less than 6) then return to baseline Schizoaffective Concurrent features of both schizophrenia and mood disorder that cannot be diagnosed as either one separately. SUBSTANCE ABUSE

Substance Abuse all Tempted With Cognac 1. Tolerance: need amts for toxication 2. Withdrawal 3. Control: loss of control i. Larger amts ii. Unsuccessful attempts to iii. Time spent obtaining, consuming or recovering iv. Give up or other activities v. Use continues despite knowledge of physical/psych. problems caused

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Alcohol dependence CAGE questions 1. Cut back have you ever felt you should Cut back on your drinking? 2. Annoyed has anybody ever Annoyed you w. comments on your drinking? 2/4 3. Guilty have you ever felt Guilty about your drinking? 4. Eye-opener have you ever had an Eye-opener in the morning to get rid of a hangover? ANXIETY DISORDERS Panic Attack Imagine a panicking pnt clutching their chest (heart cluster), hyperventilating (breathlessness cluster) and shaking with fear (fear cluster). Then imagine them screaming out Three-five-five! Three-five-five to distract themselves from the panic attack. Heart Cluster: 3 Symptoms that accompany a heart attack. 1. Palpitations 2. Chest pain 3. Nausea

(butterflies)

Breathlessness Cluster: 5 Symptoms assoc. w. hyperventilation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Shortness of breath Choking Dizziness Paresthesia Chills or hot flushes

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Fear Cluster: 5 Fear, shaking and sweating and a method of psychologically escaping panic. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Agoraphobia 2/2 Fear of dying Fear of going crazy Shaking Sweating Derealisation or depersonalisation

1. Fear of being in places where escape is difficult 2. Avoidance

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessions or compulsions: Obsessions: 1. Recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses or images

2. Not simply excessive worries about real-life problems 3. Pnt attempts to ignore or neutralise thoughts 4. Pnt recognises thoughts are product of own mind (not thought insertion) Compulsions: 1. Repetitive behaviours or mental acts that person must perform in response to obsession or some rigid rule/s. 2. Behaviours or mental acts are aimed at preventing distress abut some event or situation, but are not connected with this event or situation

Pnt understands these O or C are excessive. O or C cause marked distress, time consuming (> 1 hr/day) or interfere w. functioning.

Examples: Washing and Straightening Make Clean Houses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Washing Straightening Mental rituals (praying, magical words or numbers) Checking Hoarding

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Remembers Atrocious Nuclear Attacks 1/3 1. Re-experiencing i. Memories ii. Flashbacks iii. Nightmares 2. + 3. Avoidance and Numbing i. Avoiding things assoc. w. event ii. Amnesia iii. Restricted affect and activities iv. Detachment v. Foreshortened future 4. Arousal i. Insomnia ii. Irritability iii. Hypervigilance iv. Startle response v. Concentration poor

1/5

2/5

Generalised Anxiety Disorder Macbeth Frets Constantly Regarding Illicit Sins Imagine what you would experience if you were constantly worrying about something: insomnia fatigue irritable + concn muscle tension + restlessness 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Muscle tension Fatigue Concentration Restless Irritable Sleep problems

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SOMATOFORM AND EATING DISORDERS Somatisation Disorder Recipe 4 pain: convert 2 stomachs to 1 sex 8/8 1. 2. 3. 4. Pain symptom Conversion symptom Gastrointest. symptom Sexual symptom 1 2 1 4

Bulimia Nervosa Bulimics Over-Consume Pastries 4/4 1. 2. 3. 4. Bingeing Out-of-control feeling while eating Concern w. body shape Purging

Anorexia Nervosa Weight Fear Bothers Anorexics 4/4 1. 2. 3. 4. Weight < 85% of ideal body weight Fear of fat Body image distortion Amenorrhoea

COGNITIVE DISORDERS Dementia Memory BREW Memory + 1 / 4 BREW 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Memory Behaviour disorg. Recognition Executive fx Word problems (apraxia) (agnosia) (aphasia)

Delirium Medical FRAT because delirium is caused by a general medical condition, being a part of the medical fraternity helps to diagnose it. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Medical cause Fluctuating course Recent onset Attention disturbance Thinking (cognitive) disturbance

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Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ** Not really relevant in adult psychiatry dont need to learn this one