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D14 Appendix III

Glossary of terms used in bridge engineering

Axis 1

Axis 2

Bridge deck Joint Main carrying element

Parapet

Wing wall

Abutment

Bearing Pier Pier foundation Piles

Embankment

Many of the terms used in bridge engineering in the different countries of the BRIME project have been translated into the six languages of the partner countries. The terms used are based on the Handbook for Bridge Inventory produced by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration as part of the inventory module of the bridge management system BRUTUS International.

Axis 3

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INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................... 4 DEFINITIONS AND DESCRIPTIONS ................................................................................... 4 2.1 GENERAL ....................................................................................................................... 4 Definition of a bridge................................................................................................. 4 The Code System ...................................................................................................... 4 Bridge Category ........................................................................................................ 5 Types of Structures ................................................................................................... 5 Principal Parts of a Bridge ......................................................................................... 5 Simply Supported System.......................................................................................... 8 Continuous System.................................................................................................... 9 Cantilever System...................................................................................................... 9 Arch Systems ...........................................................................................................10 Frame Systems .........................................................................................................11 Culverts....................................................................................................................11 Pipe culverts.........................................................................................................12 Box Culverts ........................................................................................................12 Vault culverts .......................................................................................................13 Frame culverts......................................................................................................13 Slab Culvert..........................................................................................................13 Types of Slab Bridges; W/D 5 ...............................................................................14 Solid Slab Bridges ................................................................................................14 Voided Slab Bridges .............................................................................................15 Rib Slab Bridges ...................................................................................................15 Types of Beam/Girder Bridges..................................................................................16 Beam Bridges .......................................................................................................16 Girder Bridges ......................................................................................................17 Arch/Vault and Frame Bridges..................................................................................18 Arch Bridges ........................................................................................................18 Vault Bridges .......................................................................................................19 Frame Bridges ......................................................................................................20 Strut Frame Bridges..............................................................................................20 Truss Bridges ...........................................................................................................21 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.1.1 2.3.1.2 2.3.1.3 2.3.1.4 2.3.1.5 2.3.2 2.3.2.1 2.3.2.2 2.3.2.3 2.3.3 2.3.3.1 2.3.3.2 2.3.4 2.3.4.1 2.3.4.2 2.3.4.3 2.3.4.4 2.3.5

STATIC SYSTEM............................................................................................................ 8

DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRUCTURES .......................................................................11

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2.3.5.1 2.3.5.2 2.3.5.3 2.3.6 2.3.6.1 2.3.6.2 2.3.7 2.3.7.1 2.3.7.2 2.3.7.3 2.3.7.4 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.2.1 2.4.2.2 2.4.2.3 2.4.3 2.4.3.1 2.4.3.2 2.4.3.3 2.4.3.4 2.4.3.5 2.4.3.6 2.4.3.7 2.4.4 2.4.4.1 2.4.4.2 2.4.4.3 2.4.4.4 2.4.4.5 2.4.4.6 2.4.4.7 2.4.5

Through and Half -Through Truss Bridges............................................................21 Arch Truss Bridges...............................................................................................22 Deck Truss Bridges ..............................................................................................22 Cable supported Bridges...........................................................................................23 Suspension Bridges...............................................................................................23 Cable Stayed Bridges............................................................................................24 Moveable Bridges.....................................................................................................25 Bascule Bridges ....................................................................................................25 Swing Bridges ......................................................................................................26 Rolling bridges......................................................................................................28 Ferry Quays ..........................................................................................................28 General.....................................................................................................................29 The Ground..............................................................................................................30 The River Course..................................................................................................30 The Embankment..................................................................................................32 Retaining walls .....................................................................................................32 Substructure .............................................................................................................33 General.................................................................................................................33 Abutments............................................................................................................33 Piers .....................................................................................................................37 Towers .................................................................................................................39 Anchoring.............................................................................................................40 Culvert sections ....................................................................................................41 Walls ....................................................................................................................44 The Superstructure ...................................................................................................45 Slabs.....................................................................................................................45 Beams ..................................................................................................................46 Girders .................................................................................................................50 Bridge Deck .........................................................................................................52 Arch Structures ....................................................................................................53 Vault Structures ...................................................................................................56 Truss Structures ...................................................................................................57 Superstructure of Cable Bridges ...............................................................................59

BRIDGE ELEMENTS.....................................................................................................29

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2.4.6 2.4.6.1 2.4.6.2 2.4.7 2.4.7.1 2.4.7.2 2.4.7.3 2.4.7.4 2.4.7.5 2.4.7.6 2.4.7.7 2.4.8 2.4.8.1 2.4.8.2 2.4.8.3 2.4.8.4

Superstructure of Moveable Bridges.........................................................................60 Bascule Bridges ....................................................................................................60 Swing Bridges ......................................................................................................61 Structure Components..............................................................................................62 Bearings ...............................................................................................................62 Joints....................................................................................................................65 Bridge Deck Surfacing..........................................................................................68 Drainage...............................................................................................................70 Parapets................................................................................................................71 Pedestrian Walkways ............................................................................................73 Edge Beams..........................................................................................................74 Accessories ..............................................................................................................75 Lighting................................................................................................................75 Access equipment .................................................................................................75 Signs ....................................................................................................................76 Pipes/Cables .........................................................................................................77

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INTRODUCTION
This glossary contains some 400 bridge terms. As such it can by no means be considered a complete glossary of all terms used in bridge engineering but does give a useful introduction into the diversity of terms used. The task of compiling a complete glossary would be arduous, not to mention voluminous. This stems from the fact that bridges have been built since ancient times and their design, calculation and construction materials have evolved through the ages. As a result of national or even local practice not all bridge types or bridge elements are to be found in all countries. This combined with fundamental theoretical differences between countries means that certain bridge engineering terms do not exist in all languages. Part 1 or the descriptive part of this glossary is taken from the Handbook for Bridge Inventory produced by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. The aim of the Handbook is to assist users in completing the inventory module of the bridge management system (BMS) BRUTUS International. As this differs from the objectives of a glossary, certain passages have been modified or deleted to make it more compatible with its current purpose general description of bridge engineering terms. However, to facilitate cross-referencing between the two documents, the list of contents and figure numbering has remained unchanged. As a consequence, certain sections are empty and the word Blank is written in. As the original text was written for users of the Norwegian BMS, most of the examples describe the Norwegian system. However, an effort has been made to make these examples as general and non-system specific as possible. Nevertheless, the resulting glossary is not to be considered as a BRIME approved glossary but rather an introduction to bridge engineering terms.

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2.1

DEFINITIONS AND DESCRIPTIONS


GENERAL 2.1.1 DEFINITION OF A BRIDGE A bridge is a structure spanning and providing passage over a river, chasm, traffic intersection area, fjord, inlet or other physically obstacles and with a span length equal to or exceeding a certain distance. This distance is defined by national authorities and is usually in the range 2 - 6 m. All types of structures such as road bridges, pedestrian bridges, movable bridges, floating bridges as well as culverts, pipes and vaults in fills are defined as bridges.

2.1.2 THE CODE SYSTEM Some countries have established a code system for defining all bridge elements in their stock. The code system is an unambiguous description of bridge related terms such as functional

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categories, systematic description of structure types or static systems, elements of a bridge and other related issues connected with bridges. The code may be numeric or an abbreviation of the term. When the code comprises two or more digits, it normally is built up as an hierarchical code. That means, a two digit code provides more detailed information than a one digit code, e.g. Type of Elements; Substructure = 2 while Abutment = 21. This makes the system consistent in terms of selecting the correct description for a bridge. It is also easier to computerise digits rather than terms and more convenient as regards safety since only valid codes can be used in the database.

2.1.3 BRIDGE CATEGORY The bridge category indicates what purpose the bridge has been constructed for, namely what kind of traffic the bridge is intended to serve. Examples of bridge category codes are:. Road Bridge Pedestrian Railway Bridge Pedestrian Underpass Culvert

2.1.4 TYPES OF STRUCTURES A bridge is usually defined as a Types of Structure where the type of structure is given by the bridges principal load carrying element. Within each Type of Structure, there are frequently different sub-types, for example Truss Bridges. :Through Truss Bridge, Deck Truss Bridge etc. One bridge may also comprise several structure types. Normally, the bridge with the longest span length is referred to as the main type. An example of a bridge comprising a slab and a beam structure is shown below; where the main type is the beam bridge:

Slab structure

Beam structure

Figure 2.1.4: Example of several structures within the same bridge

2.1.5 PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A BRIDGE A bridge and the ground immediately surrounding it are divided into principal parts as follows:

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Ground Substructure including foundation Superstructure Structure components Accessories

Structure components Superstructure

Substructure Ground
Figure 2.1.5 - a: Principal parts of a bridge

Substructure

Ground
Figure 2.1.5 - b: Principal parts of culverts

Ground The Ground in this context that which takes the loads from the foundations and the surrounding area, inclusive of the approach road, which can have an influence on the structure. Examples of the elements which the Ground is divided into: River course Embankment Retaining walls For a more detailed description see Chapter 2.4.2.

The Substructure The substructure carries the loads from the superstructure together with its own weight through the foundations to the supporting ground.

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All elements below the superstructure inclusive of the foundation form the substructure. Examples of elements which the Substructure is divided into: Abutments Piers Towers Anchoring For further description, see Chapter 2.4.3.

The Superstructure The superstructure carries the traffic together with its own weight to the substructure through the bearings. All elements of a bridge situated above the supports are regarded as the Superstructure. Examples of elements belonging to the superstructure can be: Slab Beam Deck Additionally, some elements which form part of a superstructure are listed under Structure Components and Accessories. For a more detailed description see Chapter 2.4.4.

Special Superstructure Components for Cable Structures Examples of components are: Cables Saddles/Bearings for the cables Hangers

For a more detailed description see Chapter 2.4.5

Special Superstructure Components for Moveable Bridges Examples of components are: Counterweight Machinery Trunnion

For a more detailed description see Chapter 2.4.6

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Structure Components Structure Components are normally elements belonging to the superstructure of a bridge. Examples of elements can be: Bearings Joints Parapets For a further description see Chapter 2.4.7.

Accessories All non structural installations or items connected to a bridge that do not strictly belong to it are collected under Accessories. Examples of elements can be: Lighting Access equipment Signing Pipes/cables For a more detailed description see Chapter 2.4.8

1.1

STATIC SYSTEM The static system indicates how the superstructure acts when carrying loads. There is a wide range of different static systems, but only the most commonly used will be referred to.

1.1.1 SIMPLY SUPPORTED SYSTEM A Simply Supported Static System means that the structure is freely supported at the ends. The simplest form consists of one span with two end supports. For wider gaps, several simply supported spans are used with intermediate supports. The Simply Supported Static System is the most common type of Static System for bridges.

Movable Fixed bearing bearing Simply supported (Single span)

Movable bearing

Fixed bearings Simply supported (Multi span)

Movable bearing

Figure 2.2.1 a: Simply Supported Single and Multi-span Structures

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Fig. 2.2.1 b: Photos of Simply Supported Single and Multi-span bridges

1.1.1 CONTINUOUS SYSTEM A Continuous Static System means that the Superstructure is designed to take flexural moments as well as shear forces in the intermediate supports. A bridge using the Continuous System has a superstructure which extends over one or more intermediate supports with no joints.

Fixed bearing

Movable bearings Continuous - multi span

Figure 2.2.2 a: Continuous Multi-span Bridge

Fig. 2.2.2 b: Photo of Continuous Multi-span bridge

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1.1.1 CANTILEVER SYSTEM This Static System is continuous over one or several supports simultaneously as it is cantilevered from the supports themselves. In some cases the Cantilever System may have one or several suspended spans. An example of a bridge with a Cantilever System with Suspended span is shown below:

Cantilever

Suspended span

Hinge

Figure 2.2.3 Cantilever Bridge with one Suspended Span

1.1.2 ARCH SYSTEMS These Types of Static Systems have arched superstructures, sometimes hinged at both supports, in the middle of the span length or at both supports as well as in the middle of the span as shown below. A further type can be cantilevered at the supports with no hinges.

Hinge Arch

Arch

Arch with one hinge

Arch
Arch

Hinge

Hinge

Hinge

Hinge

Hinge

Arch with two hinges

Arch with three hinges

Figure 2.2.4 Different types of Static Arch Systems

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2.2.5 FRAME SYSTEMS In a Frame System, the load bearing elements are normally mutually connected to each other offering the possibility of transferring flexural moments as well as shear forces through the connection points. Frame Structures may have abutments, but normally they do not have any independent free standing abutments as end supports, only side walls as substitutes. The Static System of frame structures can often be difficult to determine, but the most common types are mentioned below. Additionally, the superstructure may be cantilevered.

Frame without hinges /cantilevered

Frame with two hinges /cantilevered with support

Frame without hinges

Frame with two hinges

Frame with 3 hinges

Figure 2.2.5 Different types of Static Frame Systems

2.3

DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRUCTURES The purpose of this chapter is to establish consistent definitions of the different types of structures. This chapter deals with examples and descriptions of the main types of structures.

2.3.1 CULVERTS A culvert is a structure, usually a drainage or stream crossing beneath a roadway embankment, which does not interrupt the embankment and has no bridge deck. Culverts are different from other bridge types because their structural elements are normally internally connected to each other without any possibility of mutual movement. In most cases culverts are made of concrete or steel, but also masonry, timber and plastic are used. Steel culverts are usually made from corrugated steel plates and can be shaped like pipes

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or vaults. The most common type of concrete culvert is the box culvert, so named because they are shaped like a box; but concrete culverts formed as pipes or vaults are also common. They can be cast in situ or prefabricated.

2.3.1.1 Pipe culverts Pipe culverts are usually of a circular or elliptical shape and can be made of steel (normally corrugated steel), PVC or concrete. The function of pipe culverts is provided by the interaction between the culverts and the surrounding soil. A common type of steel culvert has an upper part that is elliptical, or circular and a more flat bottom part. (See below) The most common types are shown below.

Barrel

Barrel Horizontal Elliptical Pipe Culvert

Barrel Arch Pipe Culvert

Barrel

Circular Pipe Culvert

Vertical Elliptical Pipe Culvert

Figure 2.3.1.1:Different shaped Pipe Culvert Sections

2.3.1.2 Box Culverts Box culverts are in most cases square-shaped and usually made of reinforced concrete, They can be single or multi-barrelled (The opening of a culvert is sometimes named the barrel). Box culvert types are most commonly used in soil of a low bearing strength and for small spans. The most usual types of box culvert are shown below:

Top Slab

Interior wall

Barrel Bottom Slab

Barrel

Barrel

Figure 2.3.1.2: Single Cell Box Culvert

and

Multi Cell Box Culvert

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2.3.1.3 Vault culverts Vault culverts are shaped like a curved slab and can be made of reinforced concrete, stones, masonry or steel. One type of vault culvert is shown below.

Figure 2.3.1.3: Vault culvert

2.3.1.4 Frame culverts The shape of a frame culvert is more or less similar to the box culvert type except for the bottom slab which has been replaced by spread footing. These type of structures are usually made of reinforced concrete. The frame culvert is characterised by the fact that the top slab is rigidly fixed at both ends into the side walls or piers of the structure.

Slab

Side wall

Spread footing

Figure 2.3.1.4: Frame Culvert with spread footing A bracing construction may also be provided between the Spread Footing of the side walls when foundation conditions are difficult.

2.3.1.5 Slab Culvert Slab Culverts are culverts of small span lengths, and are normally not frame structures because

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they do not have any mutual connections between the top slab and the walls. In some cases a composition of masonry walls and reinforced slabs also exists. Example of a Slab Culvert is shown below.

Top Slab

Barrel Bottom Slab

Fig. 2.3.1.5: Slab Culvert

2.3.2 TYPES OF SLAB BRIDGES; W/D 5 The characteristic feature of a slab bridge is the fact that the slab is the main carrying load element of the bridge and it is also the slab that transmits the loads directly to the substructure. Bridges are referred to as slab bridges if the ratio between W/D5, where W is the total width and D is the depth of the slab. If W/D < 5, the structure is a beam bridge. See the figures below. Slab bridges may be of either solid, voided or rib construction. The cross section can be either rectangular, with sloping slab edges or of the cantilever type.

2.3.2.1 Solid Slab Bridges If a slab is solid, it means that the cross section is homogenous. Examples of solid slab bridges are shown in Figure 2.3.2.1-a, 2.3.2.1-b and 2.3.2.3.

Figure 2.3.2.1 - a: Cross section of a Solid Slab Bridge

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Figure 2.3.2.1 - b: Cross section of a Solid Slab Bridge with sloped edges

2.3.2.2 Voided Slab Bridges A voided slab is not homogenous, but has circular shaped voids inside. An example of a voided slab is shown below.
W

Figure 2.3.2.2: Cross section of a Voided Slab Bridge

2.3.2.3

Rib Slab Bridges

If the ratio between w/D 1 and the superstructure is solid above the supports, the type of Structure is called a Rib Slab Bridge. For this type of structure, the slab and the ribs are cast homogeneously. If w/D < 1, the structure is defined as a Beam Bridge. See below
W

Figure 2.3.2.3: Rib Slab Bridge

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2.3.3 TYPES OF BEAM/GIRDER BRIDGES In a Beam Bridge, the beams constitute the main carrying element. They have to carry the loads from the traffic and the weight of the bridge deck as well as its own weight and transfer the vertical and horizontal forces down to the substructure of the bridge. The Beam Bridge type of structure includes in situ casting and prefabricated beams and girders. A Beam Bridge is made of either standardised beams or specially made beams. If the beams are of the standardised type, they are called beams and if they have been specially made or are bigger than standard, then they are normally called girders. Examples of some typical Beam Bridges are shown below.

2.3.3.1

Beam Bridges

Beams are made of different materials of which the most common are concrete, steel, timber or aluminium. Beams may be used in different parts of a structure, but in this context, as main carrying elements, they normally support the bridge deck. Examples of some types of Beam Structures are shown below. Bridges with T - Beams For T-Beams, the beams and the deck are rigidly connected to each other in one type, while in others, the beam itself is shaped like a T.
W

Figure 2.3.3.1 - a: Cross section of a Beam Bridge, made of concrete T-beams

Bridges with Rectangular Beams Rectangular Beams normally support the bridge deck without any mutual connection between the beams and the deck.

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Fig. 2.3.3.1 b: Sketch of Rectangular Concrete Beams Bridges with I- and H - Beams These types are mostly made of steel, but other materials like timber and aluminium are also common. In most cases there is no connection between the beams and the deck, but it might happen. Standardised steel Beam Bridges are some of the most common types for bridges.
W

Figure 2.3.3.1 - c: Cross section of a Beam Bridge made of steel I-beams The difference between I- and H-beam is mainly that an H-beam has wider flanges than an I-beam. 2.3.3.2 Girder Bridges

Girder bridges have girders as the load bearing element. Girders are normally bigger than beams and can support longer span lengths. Girders may have different shapes and be made from different materials. The most common materials are concrete, steel and timber. Descriptions and sketches of the most common types of girder structures are shown below: Box Girder Bridge Box Girders are so named because of their appearance since they look like a box. Compared to normal beams the bridge deck of a box girder is identical to the top flange, the walls form the web, and the bottom plate is similar to the bottom flange. Box Girder Bridges can be made of either concrete or steel. In steel box bridges, the box girder(s) are normally made of steel while the deck is made of concrete. For the concrete box girder type both box girder(s) and the deck are made of concrete. These are the most common

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types of Box Girder Structures. In both cases the structure consists of hollow box-like girder(s) as illustrated below. Box Girder Bridges are normally used for longer spans.

Figure 2.3.3.2: Cross section of a Girder Bridge made of concrete Box Girders

Plate Girder Bridge A Plate Girder Bride is normally designed for taking longer spans than a Beam Bridge, and it is the Plate Girders that take both dead and traffic loads from the superstructure to the substructure. Plate Girders can be both welded and riveted constructions, of which the former have been the most common type in the past and the latter the most common today. For more detailed information about types of Beam/Girder Bridges, see chapter 2.4.4.2 and 2.4.4.3.

2.3.4 ARCH/VAULT AND FRAME BRIDGES The main elements of these types of bridges are respectively the arches, the vaults and the frames. The difference between an arch bridge and a vault bridge is that the arch of an arch bridge is a curved beam, whereas the vault of a vault bridge is a curved slab. Arch bridges take normally longer span lengths than vault bridges because the ribs are designed to resist a load combination of axial compression and bending moment, while vault bridges normally are designed to resist only axial compression. A more detailed elaboration on the two types is given below. A frame bridge can be said to be a multi-sided configuration in which the sides are rigidly connected in such a way that applied loads are distributed to each side. Please see below for a more detailed elaboration.

2.3.4.1

Arch Bridges

The type of structure termed arch includes open and closed spandrel arch bridges as well as

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earth filled arch bridges. The bridge deck can be either above, between or underneath the arches. So far as new arch bridges are concerned, the arch ribs are usually made of concrete or steel and they are either solid or hollow and sometimes formed as a truss. The open spandrel arch bridge is a development of the closed spandrel arch bridge where the earth fill is replaced by vertical columns which carry the bridge deck. In an arch bridge, the main carrying elements are the arch ribs or the arch itself. For open spandrel arch bridges there are usually two main arch ribs of the bowstring type, interconnected by cross bracing which provides lateral stability and resists wind forces. An open spandrel arch bridge is usually constructed of reinforced concrete or in combination with steel. A closed spandrel arch rib bridge has its side walls connected to the arch ribs where the walls are usually made of reinforced concrete. Different types of arch bridges are shown below.

Arch rib Columns Span length


Fig. 2.3.4.1 a: Open Spandrel Arch Bridge with deck on top

Arch

Deck

Fig. 2.3.4.1 b: Arch bridge with underlying deck

2.3.4.2 Vault Bridges The type of structure termed Vault Bridge has the vault as the main load bearing element. In the case of earth filled vault bridges, the loads are carried by compression in the vault. Old vault bridges are normally made of stone, but newer vaults are mostly made of reinforced concrete and are in most cases solid. In the case of smaller span lengths, corrugated steel plates are common, but in this handbook they are mentioned under Vault Culverts. For vault bridges, the bridge deck always has to be above the vault.

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Vault

Span length
Figure 2.3.4.2 Vault Bridge

2.3.4.3

Frame Bridges

The characteristic for Frame Bridges is that the carrying elements are mutually connected to each other without the possibility of internal movements. The superstructure and substructure are designed as a single unit. A Frame Bridge can either be single or multi-span. Single - span Frame Bridges with small span lengths are normally of the slab frame design, while the frame beam design is designated for longer span lengths. Because the frame sides(walls) contribute to the structures overall capacity, increased span lengths and material savings can be realised. The most common material in Frame Bridges is reinforced concrete, but also steel Frame Bridges exist.

Slab

Bridge deck

Side wall

Beam(s)

Spread footing

Fig. 2.3.4.3: Examples of Frame Bridges with spread footing

2.3.4.4

Strut Frame Bridges

The principles for strut frame bridges can be quite different from the frame structures mentioned in chapter 2.3.4.3, due to the fact that the struts of a strut frame bridge may act only as a support for the main load bearing element, which can be a concrete slab, steel girders etc. However, if the struts are rigidly connected to the main load carrying element(s), the interaction behaviour between the elements are similar to the ones of a frame structure. The connection between the carrying element and the struts can be either rigid or hinged.

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Strut frame

Span

Span

Span

Fig. 2.3.4.4: Sketch of a Strut Frame Bridge

2.3.5 TRUSS BRIDGES For this type of bridge the main load carrying element is the truss, and it is the truss that transfer the loads to the substructure. The bridge deck may be above, between or underneath the trusses. If the deck is above the trusses, it means that the deck is above the top chord of the trusses. If the deck is underneath the trusses, it means that the deck is situated at the same level as the bottom chord of the trusses. If the deck is between the trusses, this means that the deck is situated somewhere between the bottom and top chord of the trusses. A truss can be compared with a girder, where the top and bottom booms are similar to the top and bottom flanges of a girder, and the truss members between the booms are similar to the webs of a girder. The most common types of truss bridges are described below.

2.3.5.1

Through and Half -Through Truss Bridges

In the case of Through and Half - Through Truss Bridges, the truss walls are parallel to each other. If the bridge is of the Half - Through truss type, the top bracing between the walls is omitted. Examples of Through and Half Through Truss Bridges are shown below:

Fig. 2.3.5.1 - a: Through Truss Bridge

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Fig. 2.3.5.1 b: Half Trough Truss Bridge

2.3.5.2

Arch Truss Bridges

An Arch Truss Bridge usually has its truss walls parallel to each other, but with a bowed top or bottom boom. Example are shown below:

Fig. 2.3.5.2: Truss Bridge with arched top chord

2.3.5.3

Deck Truss Bridges

If the deck is above the trusses, it means that the deck is above the top chord of the trusses. The type of structure is then named a Deck Truss Bridge. Sometimes the top chords may be cast into the concrete deck. Examples of some Deck Type Truss Bridges are shown below:

Fig. 2.3.5.3 a: Type of Deck Truss Bridge

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Fig. 2.3.5.3 -b: Type of Deck Truss Bridge

2.3.6 CABLE SUPPORTED BRIDGES A Cable Bridge is a bridge in which the superstructure is directly or indirectly supported by cables, and where the cables pass over or are attached to the towers. The Static System of a Cable Supported Bridge is dependant on how the Stiffening Structure is supported on the towers. It can be either simply supported or continuously.

2.3.6.1 Suspension Bridges Suspension Bridges have normally two towers on which the cables rest, and the tensile forces of the cables are transmitted to the anchoring at the extreme ends of the cables.. If there is more than one main span, a suspension bridge might have more than two towers. The hangers are connected to the cables at one end and to the cross beams or the stiffening structure at the other. The stiffening structure of a suspension bridge may be one of the following types: H beams, box girder(s) or trusses. Adjacent to the main span(s), a suspension bridge may have suspended side spans or separate supported spans (viaducts).

Side span Viaduct

Main span

Side span Viaduct

Figure 2.3.6. 1 - a: Sketch of a Suspension Bridge

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Fig. 2.3.6.1 b: Photo of a Suspension Bridge

2.3.6.2 Cable Stayed Bridges Cable Stayed Bridges must have at least one tower, but if there are more than two main spans, two or more towers have to be provided. In the case of Cable Stayed Bridges, the bridge deck is carried by cables anchored to the upper part of the tower(s) at one end and to the bridge deck at the other. Normally the tensile forces of the cables are transmitted to the tower(s) with anchoring only in the bridge deck at each side of the tower. Sometimes, however, the cables can be anchored to the deck at one side of the tower and in the ground or rock at the other side.

Fig. 2.3.6.2: Photo of a Cable Stayed Bridge in Riga

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2.3.7 MOVEABLE BRIDGES A Moveable bridge is a bridge having one or more spans capable of being raised, turned, lifted, or slid from its closed position in order to provide passage to navigable traffic. A Moveable Bridge is in most cases an ordinary beam/girder bridge equipped with machinery which allows the bridge to move in the desired direction. The most common types of moveable bridges are:

2.3.7.1

Bascule Bridges

A Bascule Bridge is a bridge crossing a waterway with one or two leaves which rotate from a horizontal to a near-vertical position, providing unlimited clear headway. The superstructure of a bascule bridge turns around a horizontal trunnion - in the vertical plane. The principal systems for Bascule Bridges are: - Fixed Trunnion Bascule Bridge - Rolling Lift Bascule Bridge - Bascule Draw Bridge - Double Leaf Bascule Bridge The Fixed Trunnion Bascule Bridge acts as a balanced system, with the longest part of the superstructure crossing the waterway and the shortest carrying a counterweight. The nose of the superstructure rests on bearings. Some bascule bridges have nose-locks which engage the support. In some cases the bascule bridge may be of the double leaf bridge type which means that the superstructure is divided into two parts, one on either side of the waterway and fitted with nose-locking arrangements where the two parts meet, normally at the middle of the spans length above the waterway.

Fig. 2.3.7.1 a: A Fixed Trunnion Double-Leaf Bascule Bridge A Rolling Lift Bascule Bridge is carried on curved rollers which roll on special tracks. The movement of the bridge is caused by special draw bars or by hydraulic jacks at the tail ends. Different from the fixed trunnion bascule bridge where the superstructure turns around the trunnion, the superstructure of a rolling lift bascule bridge can be moved in both a horizontal

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and vertical direction. Bascule Draw Bridges differ from the above mentioned types by having the counterweight placed on a separate balance arm above the roadway. The superstructure turns around a fixed trunnion at the end of the superstructure. Adjacent to this end, there are two columns on which the balance arms together with counterweights rest. The principle of a drawbridge is shown below.

Counterweight

Balance arm

Columns

Figure 2.3.7.1 -b: Example of a Bascule Draw Bridge

2.3.7.2 Swing Bridges A Swing Bridge is a moveable bridge in which the superstructure rotates horizontally about a centre pier (pivot), to permit the passage of navigable traffic. There are two main systems of swing bridges: A Balanced Cantilever Bridge is located on top of a pier and rests on a pivot. The superstructure of the bridge has two leaves of the same length which can span two waterways. A sketch of a balanced cantilever bridge is shown below. The spans are usually, but not necessarily equal. When open, the swing spans are cantilevered from the pivot. When closed, the spans are supported by the pivot pier and by two rest piers (outer) or abutments.

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Pivot

Column

Figure 2.3.7.2 - a: Balanced Cantilever Swing Bridge

Figure 2.3.7.2 b: Photo of a three-span balanced cantilever Swing Bridge

A Bobtail Swing Bridge has a short tail span and a longer main span. It is used preferably on sites where a narrow canal is to be bridged and the space is limited. In order to obtain coincidence between the centre of gravity and the centre of rotation, the shorter span must have a counterweight. A sketch of a bobtail type bridge is given below.

Pivot

Figure 2.3.7.2 - c: Bobtail Swing Bridge

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2.3.7.3 Rolling bridges A Rolling Bridge is devised to roll backwards and forwards upon supporting beams when operated through an open and closed cycle. When opened, the bridge moves backwards in the longitudinal direction of the road. The principle is shown in the sketch below.

Access ramp Rollers

Figure 2.3.7.3: Example of a Rolling Bridge

2.3.7.4

Ferry Quays

Ferry Quays are in principle similar to a Fixed Trunnion Single-Leaf Bascule Bridge, except for the fact that the outermost end of the superstructure of a Ferry Quay rests on the ferryboat when the bridge is closed. It is connected to the superstructure by a locking system. In most cases the static system of a Ferry Quay is of the simple supported type. A sketch and photo of a Ferry Quay is shown below.

The Lifting and Lowering Machinery The Ferry Quay Bridge Superstructure

Fig. 2.3.7.4 - a: Example of a Ferry Quay

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Fig. 2.3.7.4 b: Photo of a Ferry Quay

2.4

BRIDGE ELEMENTS 2.4.1 GENERAL The different types of elements maybe coded in accordance with their location in relationship to the principal parts of a bridge. Normally a bridge is divided into the following principal parts: Ground, Superstructure, Substructure, where each part is divided into elements.(See Figure 2.4 below.) Additionally, special elements belonging to Cable Structures and Moveable Structures are gathered under Special Cable Superstructure Components and Special Components of Moveable Structures, while other structural and non-structural elements are gathered under Structure Components and Accessories. If a Code System is adopted it usually provides options for selecting the information listed below for most of the elements: Type of elements Materials Surface treatment Foundation Protection facilities However, not all elements share all the information specified above. Types of elements: Type of abutments - gravity or cantilever. Types of piers - single or multicolumn, wall pier etc.. Types of towers such as A or H towers etc. Material: What kind of material the different elements are made of. Surface treatment provides information on the type of surface treatment of the element in question. The treatment is directly dependant on the material(s) of the element.

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Foundation gives information about the type of foundation in question, for example spread footing, different types of piles, caissons etc.. Protection facilities. Protection facilities are different types of protective measures that are established in order to prevent scouring or erosion underneath the foundations of abutments or piers, along the river banks, in the river bed, at the inlet or outlet of a culvert or bridge, along embankments etc. An extensive explanation of the different types of protection facilities with fundamentals is given below.

Axis 1

Axis 2

Bridge deck Joint Main carrying element

Parapet

Wing wall

Abutment

Bearing Pier Pier foundation Piles

Embankment

Figure 2.4: Examples of elements of a bridge

2.4.2 THE GROUND The Ground supports the abutment foundations, the pier foundation(s) as well as the approach road and may consist of one or several types of materials. The Ground in this context is divided into the following elements: River Course Embankment Retaining wall

2.4.2.1

The River Course

The River Course includes the river bed and river banks. The river bed is defined as the bed of the river between the banks, namely the part of the river that normally is below water. The river banks are defined as the slopes on either side of the river bed.

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Axis 3

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Riv ban er k

River bed River course

er Riv nk ba

Figure 2.4.2.1 - a: Sketch showing River Course Protection facilities for a River Course: Protection facilities for a river course are defined as devices arranged to protect the river course from scouring, erosion or similar processes. Gabions are steel wire baskets filled with stones and are differentiated into gabion boxes and gabion mattresses. Generally speaking, gabion mattresses (also known as Reno mattresses) are wider and flatter than gabion boxes. An apron - a form of scour protection consisting of concrete, stone pitching, timber, paving, gabion mattresses, or other construction placed adjacent to abutments, piers, at the inlet or outlet of a culvert. Rip rap consists of large stones or concrete blocks placed on river bank slopes or river. Since no binding material is used to hold them together, they must be heavy enough not to be washed away by the river current. Stone pitching consists of stones that are smaller than those used for rip rap. They are bound together by mortar and are normally used to protect steep slopes especially at the abutments. Piled walls are made from timber or steel. The piles are hammered into the ground at the bottom of the slope. Check dams are small retaining walls normally built in steps to reduce water speed in rivers. Check dams are usually made of gabions, timber or stone.

River bank Piled wall

Rip rap or stone pitching Gabion mattresses Retaining walls etc River bed

Figure 2.4.2.1 - b: Examples of locations of Protection Facilities for River Course

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2.4.2.2 The Embankment The embankment transmits the traffic loads and its own weight to the subsoil and can form the approach road to the bridge. Generally speaking the embankment supports the road. The slope of the access embankment is usually terminated by a rounded portion of stones at the side of the abutments which acts as support for the embankment and provides protection against erosion and scouring of the abutment. Materials for an Embankment can be stones, gravel, sand etc Protection Facilities for an Embankment can be gabion mattresses, piled walls, rip rap etc.

Fig. 2.4.2.2: Example of Embankment

2.4.2.3 Retaining walls The function of the retaining walls is to retain the embankment or fill slopes of the road. The difference between a wing wall and a retaining wall is the connection to the abutment. While wing walls are connected to the abutment, retaining walls are provided as free-standing extensions of wing walls (and thereby unconnected to the abutment), but also for retaining slopes outside the abutment area. Materials for a Retaining Wall are normally either concrete or stones. If the Retaining Wall is made of concrete, it can be either with or without reinforcement. Protection of a Retaining Wall can be piled walls, rip rap, stone pitching etc..

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Wing wall parallel with the road

Inclined wing wall Retaining wall

Figure 2.4.2.3 Example of a Retaining Wall

2.4.3 SUBSTRUCTURE 2.4.3.1 General

The following elements belong normally to the Substructure : Abutments Piers Towers Anchoring Culvert section Walls

2.4.3.2 Abutments The function of an abutment is to support the end of a single span or the extreme end of a multispan superstructure, to transmit the loads to the foundations and, in general, retain or support the approach embankment. There are four main types of abutments, namely: Cantilever abutments Gravity abutments Pile abutments Bank-seated abutments

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All types are more thoroughly described with appurtenant parts below. Cantilever Abutments For cantilever abutments, the abutment wall is fixed rigidly to the foundation. Acting like a cantilever beam, the abutment wall transmits the horizontal pressure from earth and traffic to the footing which maintains its stability by virtue of the dead weight of the abutment and of the soil mass resting on the remaining part of the abutment foundation (base slab). Such a type of abutment is usually made of reinforced concrete.
Ballast wall Bearing shelf Wing wall

Abutment wall Weep holes Abutment foundation

Figure 2.4.3.2 a: Sketch showing a Cantilever Abutment

Gravity Abutments Gravity abutments are heavy abutments that resist the pressure from the earth and traffic by their own weight and are normally made of solid masonry, hewn stones, mass concrete, reinforced concrete or gabions.

Ballast wall

Gravity abutment
Figure 2.4.3.2 - b: Sketch showing a Gravity Abutment Pile-Abutments Pile-abutments are named so because the pile(s) is taking the loads to the foundation/ground from the top portion of the abutment. The pile(s) and the supporting top portion are mutually connected and constitute together the abutment. Examples of pile-abutments are shown below

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Pile

Piles

2.4.3.2 c: Different types of Pile Abutments Bank-Seated Abutments Bank-seated abutments are normally small abutments that rest at the banks of the river or at the slopes of the embankment. They have to be protected extremely well from scouring, as they are as exposed to scouring as the material of the embankment/river banks. Examples of bankseated abutments are shown below.

Fig. 2.4.3.2 d: Examples of Bank-Seated Abutments Details of Abutments The ballast wall is situated immediately behind the bearing seat and forms the upper part of the abutment. Apart from retaining the approach road, it also in some cases supports the approach slab(run-on slab).

Ballast wall

Bearing shelf Approach slab (run-on slab)

Figure 2.4.3.2 - c: Details of an abutment

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The bearing shelf is the part of the abutment that provides a seat for the bearings. This part is heavily reinforced in order to resist stresses from the loads on the superstructure. In some cases the superstructure is placed directly on the bearing shelves without any bearings. The abutment wall is the stem or main part of the abutment between the foundation and the bearing shelf. (See Figure 2.4.3 - a) The abutment wall transmits the loads from the superstructure to the abutment foundation and resists the pressure from the earth in the road embankment. The abutment foundation is the lowest part of the abutment and transmits loads to the ground, sometimes via piles. Abutments can have three types of foundations. Spread foundations or footing which is usually a reinforced concrete base wider than the abutment. Spread footing is normally placed directly on the soil or rock. When the soil is weak, it cannot support the weight of the bridge through spread footing alone. In such cases the footing is supported either by piles or caissons which can transmit the loads to deeper and stronger soil strata. The footing acts then as a pile cap. The wing walls/end walls retain the embankment fill and make it possible for the bridge to have a shorter span. A Wing Wall is always connected to the abutment wall and is thus of the type cantilever.

Wing wall paralell with the road

Inclined wing wall

Figure 2.4.3.2 - d: Examples of Wing Walls End walls are normally used in the case of pipe culverts in order to retain the filling of the road body. Sometimes the outer ends of the end wall form an angle with the centre line of the inlet. In such cases they may look like wing walls, but are still called end walls because they are not connected to any abutment. When the wall is separate from the end or wing wall it is termed a retaining wall.

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End wall Pipe culvert Pipe culvert Inclined end wall


Figure 2.4.3.2 - e: Examples of end walls with parallel pipes Weep Holes are found in the abutment. When water enters the approach embankment fill, more pressure is exerted on the abutment. In order to reduce this pressure, water must be drained out by placing through-holes in the abutment wall. These are called weep holes. The approach slab runs from the embankment to the bridge deck and is normally supported by a nose at the rear of the abutment wall.

2.4.3.3 Piers Piers are the intermediate supports of the superstructure in the case of multi-span bridges. They are made of different materials of which concrete, steel and stones are the most common. Both in situ manufactured and prefabricated piers are usual. There is a wide range of different pier types, of which the most common are listed below. Types of Piers: Single Column Pier Multi Column Pier Wall Pier Gravity Pier Column/wall Pier Pile Pier

Column Piers may have one or several columns. The columns can be of different shape. A Wall Pier has the part between the pier cap and the pier foundation formed like a wall. Example of a wall pier is shown in fig. 2.4.3.3. b. Gravity Piers are heavy structures that resist the influence from loads by their own weight and are normally made of solid masonry, hewn stones, mass concrete, reinforced concrete or gabions.

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A Column/Wall Pier consists of a different upper- and bottom-part of the pier. The bottompart may for instance consist of a Wall Pier type, while the upper-part may consist of a Sigle or Multi Column Pier. An example is shown in fig. 2.4.3.3. A Pile Pier consists of only one or several piles with normally a pile cap as the topmost portion of the pier. The piles replace the columns and transfer the loads to the ground. Example of a pile pier is shown in fig. 2.4.3.3 A sketch giving information of the most important components of a pier and where they are located is given below.

Pier cap (pier head) Pier column or pier wall Pier foundation

Figure 2.4.3.3 a: Parts of a Pier

Fig. 2.4.3.3 b: Photo of a Wall Pier

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Column

Wall

Pile

Column-wall pier

Pile pier

Fig. 2.4.3.3 - c: Sketch of a Column/wall Pier Description of Pier parts:

Fig. 2.4.3.3 - d: Sketch of a Pile Pier

A pier cap is the topmost portion of a pier which distributes uniformly over the pier the concentrated loads from the superstructure. In circular pier columns, the top of the column is called the column head and may be flared to improve the transmission of loads, and shear forces in particular. The pier column or pier wall is the middle part of the pier between the cap (or head) and the foundations. A pier column is named a pier wall when w > 5 t and as a square when w 5 t, where w is the width of the pier column and t the thickness.(See above) The pier foundations are the lowest part of the pier that carry and distribute the loads to the ground. The foundations are usually made of reinforced concrete and may be spread footing or supported on piles or caissons.

2.4.3.4

Towers

Towers are one of the most conspicuous elements in a Suspension Structure and function more or less in the same manner as piers. However, towers are different from piers that support the superstructure in that they transmit loads from the cables to the ground (mostly vertical components of the forces). Towers are normally made of reinforced concrete, steel or timber. Types of Towers The most common types of tower are the A - tower and the H - tower, but a wide range of other tower-types that are not outlined in this handbook exist too. The A - tower is formed like the letter A and the H - tower like the letter H. (See below) Towers are normally made of either concrete, steel or timber. Concrete and steel are the most common materials for towers, but also timber is used for small bridges. On modern, and very big bridges, concrete is

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the most dominating material of today. Normally a Tower comprises the following components: - Top cross beam - Cable saddle - Tower legs - Deck cross beam - Foundation

Cable saddle Top cross beam Tower leg

Bridge deck Foundation

Figure 2.4.3.4: A - Tower for Cable Stayed Bridges H - Tower for Suspension Bridges

The foundation slab transmits the loads from the substructure to the ground, in some cases via piles or caissons. There are two types of piles, friction piles and head bearing piles. Friction piles distribute the loads from the foundation slab of the towers to the subsoil in cases where the ground is not strong enough to resist the compression. Head bearing piles are used for transferring loads from the foundation slab to the rock or to a level in the ground capable of taking the loads. Piles can be made of concrete, steel or timber.

2.4.3.5

Anchoring

An anchorage is a complete assemblage of members and parts designed to hold back the cables in their correct position. The anchoring can be constructed as a gravity reinforced concrete block in or on top of the ground, or as a fixing deep into the rock on the land side of the towers in order to retain the anchoring-ends of the cables. Sometimes, however, the anchoring can be a part of the abutments. In soft ground anchoring by concrete blocks is commonly used.

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Fig. 2.4.3.5 Sketch showing the Anchoring of a suspension bridge

2.4.3.6

Culvert sections

There is a wide range of different types of culvert sections such as box, pipe and vault elements. These are normally named in accordance with their shape,e.g. box, pipe, elliptical etc., and are normally structures with short span lengths. Below are shown the most common types of culvert sections. Types of Culvert Sections Type of section in question: Box section, circular section, elliptical section, vault section etc.. Pipe sections may be circular, elliptical or with a flat bottom as shown below. They are normally made of corrugated steel plates or concrete, but also masonry exists.

Barrel

Barrel

Barrel

Barrel

Fig. 2.4.3.6 -a Circular, Horizontal Ellipse, Pipe Arch and Vertical Ellipse Pipe Sections

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Fig. 2.4.3.6 b: Photo showing Multi-cell Circular Pipe Sections Box sections can be square or rectangular in shape. They are mostly made of concrete.

Road surface Overfill Top slab Haunch Side wall (leg) Bottom slab

2.4.3.6 c: Cross section of box element with details

- The Top slab of a culvert is the topmost portion of the culvert. - The Bottom slab of a culvert is similar to the spread footing of an abutment. - The Side Walls of a culvert have the same function as the breast wall of an abutment. - The Haunch is a thickening of the slab at the support and is provided to increase the capacity to accept shear forces. - The Barrel is the opening of a culvert. Culverts may have one or several barrels.

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Fig. 2.4.3.6 d: Photo of a Box Culvert Section

Fig. 2.4.3.6 e: Photo of a Vault Culvert Section A vault section has an arch shaped upper part like a curved slab and can be made of stone, concrete, corrugated steel or masonry. Normally, vault sections have fill on top. Different types of constructions exist, one of which is illustrated in the photo below. A Culvert Valve Plate is sometimes being used at the outlet of the culvert in order to regulate the water flow direction. The Valve Plate is hinged at the top portion of the culvert as shown in fig. 2.4.3.6 - f, and can be made of steel, timber or aluminium.

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Hinge

Steel plate Culvert

Culvert with valve plate

Fig. 2.4.3.6 f: Example of culvert with a Valve Plate

2.4.3.7 Walls Walls in this connection are referred to as all types of walls connected to a bridge or culvert. Types of Walls - End Walls - Wing Walls - Side Walls - Interior Walls End Walls are found mostly at the ends of pipe culverts. The purpose of these types of Walls is mainly to retain the filling of the embankment, but also to prevent scouring of the embankment slope. (For more information, see chapter 2.4.3.2) Wing Walls are found mostly on abutments. (For more information, see chapter 2.4.3.2) Side Walls are similar to wing walls and have the same function. While a wing wall forms an angle with the centre-line of the road, a Side Wall is parallel to it. Both are rigidly connected to the abutment wall. Interiors Walls are mainly found as intermediate walls in box-culverts, box-girders, large abutments etc..

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2.4.4 THE SUPERSTRUCTURE All the elements of a bridge that bear loads situated above the supports on abutments or walls are regarded as the superstructure. It is the superstructure that carries the traffic. Elements that belong to the superstructure are elaborated in the sub-chapters below.

2.4.4.1

Slabs

In the case of a slab structure, the main carrying element is the slab itself. The loads are carried and transmitted directly to the substructure by the slab. A slab can also be compared to a flat beam which supports loads through flexure. Slabs are in most cases made of reinforced or prestressed concrete and have different shapes, e.g., rectangular, rectangular with diagonal edge, rectangular with wing edge etc.. They can be either solid or voided. For both types the concrete can be pre-cast or cast in situ. Type of Slabs The types of slabs are named after their geometrical shape. Only the most common ones are sketched below. For several types, look up the Codes.

Solid Slab Element with sloping slab-wings

Rectangular Slab Element-Solid

Rectangular Slab Element-Voided

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Rib Slab Element -Solid

2.4.4.2 Beams Beams are commonly the main load bearing element in bridges on which the bridge deck rests. The deck may be simply supported by the beams, or the two elements may be connected to each other forming a composite member in order to increase the load carrying capacity. Beams may be made of reinforced or pre-stressed concrete, steel or timber. In bridge terminology, however, it is common to use the expression girder instead of beam if the beam is larger than standardised. Type of Beams Beams are named in accordance with their geometrical shapes. Below are listed the most common ones. I-Beams can be made in different materials and shapes. In most cases, I-Beams made of steel, are standard rolled elements, but in some cases, and especially in old bridges, the top and bottom flanges can be connected to the web by steel angle brackets and rivets or bolts. Welded I-Beams also exist. Some I-Beam profiles are shown below.
Top flange

Web

Bottom flange Sloping flanges

I NP-Beam

Fig. 2.4.4.2 -a: Sketch of a steel I-Beam

and

Concrete I-Beam

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Top flange Cover plate Web plate Side plate Flange Angle Bottom flange Cover plate

Riveted I-Beam

Welded I-Beam

Fig. 2.4.4.2 b: Sketch of riveted and welded steel I-Beams T-Beams can be made in different materials and shapes, but the most commonly used material for this type is concrete. They can be monolithically cast to the bridge deck or separated where the only purpose of the deck is to distribute the loads to beams. Pre-stressed string and wire concrete T-Beams are also common.

T-Beams with deck, concrete


Fig. 2.4.4.2 c: Sketch of concrete T-Beams

Single T-Beam, concrete


Fig. 2.4.4.2 d: Single concrete T-Beam

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Double T-Beam

Bulb-tee and Bulb T-Beam, concrete

Fig. 2.4.4.2 e: Double T-Beam,

H-Beam is the most common type of steel beams;, H-Beams made of other materials also exist, but they are more rear. In Europe, standard rolled steel shaped H-Beams are among the most commonly used beams for bridges of short span lengths. An H-Beam has a wider flange than an I-Beam, but for both the flanges are parallel to each other.

Fig. 2.4.4.2 f: H-Beam made of steel Box Beams are shaped like a box and can be made of both concrete, steel and timber. However, concrete is the most commonly used for this type of beam, but also riveted and welded Box Beams exist as well as timber Box Beams. They can be of the Single- or Multi-Cell configuration.
Wearing course Edge beam Bridge deck

Multi-Cell Box Beam, concrete


Fig. 2.4.4.2 g: Multi-Cell Box Beam made of concrete

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Plate

Channel

Lacing

Angle

Spread Box Beams, concrete

Riveted Box Beams, steel

Fig. 2.4.4.2 h: Spread Box Beams, concrete and Riveted Box Beams, steel Channel Beams are formed in the shape of a C and placed legs down when erected. They are mostly made from concrete and function as both beam element and deck and are typically used for shorter span bridges. A wearing course is often added to provide the riding surface. Channel Beams are usually pre-cast rather than cast-in-situ.

Channel Beams, concrete


Fig. 2.4.4.2 i: Channel concrete Beams Rectangular Beams are formed like a rectangle and are in most cases made of concrete or timber. In the case of timber, they can be of the glued laminated type or of the sawn solid type. This particular shape, if the material is concrete, can be pre-cast or cast-in-situ and have prestressed or normal reinforcement. Below are shown some typical Rectangular Beams.

Sawn solid Rectangular Beam

Rectangular Beam

Glued laminated Rectangular Beam

Fig. 2.4.4.2 j: Rectangular Beams made of concrete and timber

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Circular Beams are in most cases made of timber and are normally found on timber bridges of rather short span. They are also named log beams because they normally are made of logs. In order to elongate the span length, they sometimes are made double (in the vertical plane) with shear connectors between the logs. However, bridges with beams of the timber log type, are not used on bridges with dense traffic, and are found usually only in rural areas. Below are shown single and double Circular Beams (Log Beams).

Shear connection Log Beam Double log Beam

Fig. 2.4.4.2 k: Circular Beams made of timber

2.4.4.3 Girders Girders are similar to beams in shape and are produced from the same materials, but they are generally larger than beams. Girders are the main load bearing element in bridges on which the bridge deck rests. The deck may be simply supported on the girders, or the two elements may be connected to each other forming a composite unit in order to increase the load carrying capacity. Girders may be made of reinforced or pre-stressed concrete, steel or timber. The most common type of Girders are shown below. Types of Girders: Plate Girders are welded elements made of steel plates, where the top and bottom flanges are welded to the web as shown below. In some old bridges the top and bottom flanges are connected to the web by steel angle brackets with rivets or bolts. Box Girders are in principle similar to Box Beams, except they are larger. They are normally made of concrete or steel. Sometimes however, the element may consist of a composition of steel and concrete, where usually the bottom part of the box might be made of steel and the top part, which normally is the deck, may be made of concrete.

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Top flange Web Stiffener Bottom flange Flanges, web and stiffener are connected by welding Plate Girder
Figure 2.4.4.3 - a: Example of Steel Plate-Girders

I-Girder, steel

Box Girder
Fig. 2.4.4.3 -b: Box Girder made of concrete

Multi-cell Box Girder


Fig. 2.4.4.3 c: Multi-cell Box Girder made of concrete V-Girders are shaped like the letter V, and can like the Box Girders, be made of different materials like concrete, steel or timber. Sometimes however, the element may consist of a composition of steel and concrete, where usually the V might be made of steel and the top part, which normally is the deck, may be made of concrete.

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2.4.4.4

Bridge Deck

The Bridge Deck is a secondary load-bearing element that transmits loads to the primary loadbearing elements, e.g. main girders or beams, box beams, trusses etc.. The bridge deck can be made of reinforced concrete, steel or timber etc. The specific function of a deck is determined by whether the deck is composite or noncomposite. A composite deck is designed to join together the deck and supporting members, such that they structurally behave as one member. A composite deck spans between its supports, but also functions to increase the carrying capacity or the span length. A non-composite deck does not contribute to the structural capacity of the main carrying members, only to span between the carrying members and to provide a wearing surface for the traffic. Type of Decks In situ cast deck means that the deck is made on site on top of, for instance beams, girders etc.. The material for this type is always concrete. This type of bridge deck is made with or without edge beams, and the edge beams may be designed above or below the deck or with a combination of both. An example of an in - situ cast deck is shown below.

Drain pipe
Fig. 2.4.4.4 a: Example of an in-situ cast Bridge Deck Pre-cast bridge deck means that the deck is factory made, normally somewhere outside the bridge site and is erected on top of, for instance, the main carrying element(s). Sometimes, however, the bridge deck is merged into the carrying element, as in the case of channel beams. Thin-plate decks are named so because they are very thin. Normally, they are made of different shapes of steel plate, like plain steel plates, corrugated etc., but also aluminium exists. Sometimes the bridge deck is merged into the carrying element, as in the case of steel Box Girders. An example of a Thin-Plate Deck is shown below. Plank deck constitutes the timber deck above the carrying element and is always made of timber. It includes the entire flooring system with floor-beams (cross beams) and running strips as well.

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Example of a Plank deck is shown below. The most common deck types are shown in the figure below:

Timber running strips Timber cross beams

Steel deck

Concrete deck

Timber deck

Figure 2.4.4.4 - b: Examples of different types of Bridge Decks

Lattice deck is normally used only on bridges with low carrying capacity or on bridges where it is important to limit the dead weight. Normally this type of deck is made of steel, but on bridges exposed only to light traffic loads, also aluminium is used. Lattice deck includes also floor-beams and longitudinal stringers if any. In the case of a steel deck, the deck element may consist of a steel plate on top of cross girders or a combination of cross girders and longitudinal secondary girders. For concrete decks, the most common combination is main girders and cross girders made of steel with a concrete deck on top. For timber deck timber planks on top of cross timber beams are common.

2.4.4.5

Arch Structures

An arch is a curved element primarily in compression, producing at its supports reactions having both vertical and horizontal components. A true arch has an elliptical shape and functions in a state of pure axial compression. It can be thought of as a long curved beam. However, the true arch form is often compromised so as to adjust for a specific bridge site. Because of this compromise, modern arches have to resist a load combination of axial compression and bending moment. Arches are usually designed as rigid or two pinned. As far as information on different types of Static Systems for arches is concerned, please refer to Figure 2.2.4. Types of Arch Structures Types of arches are named in accordance with the location of the bridge deck. There are three main types of arch structures as follows: Arch structure with deck on top

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Arch structure with intermediate deck Arch structure with underlying deck

Also other types of arch structures exist, but they are not elaborated in this handbook. Arch structure with deck on top may include both Open- and Closed Spandrel Arches and means that the roadway is above the arches.

Arch rib Columns Span length


Fig. 2.4.4.5 a: Arch Structure with Deck on top Arch structure with intermediate deck means that the roadway is between the arches.

Fig. 2.4.4.5 b: Example of an Arch Bridge with intermediate Deck Arch structure with underlying deck means that the roadway is located on the bottom section of the arch structure. Different types of arch bridges are shown below.

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Deck

Fig. 2.4.4.5 c: Example of Arch Structure with underlying deck and suspenders

Fig. 2.4.4.5 d: Example of Truss Arch Structure with underlying deck Primary members of an arch structure Spandrel Columns - of an open spandrel arch transfer the loads from the bridge deck to the arch ribs when the deck is situated above the arch. Spandrel column cap - transverse beam member of the spandrel column

Fig. 2.4.4.5 e: Photo showing Arch Ribs, Spandrel Columns and the Bridge Deck of an Arch Structure with Deck on top

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The Suspenders support the bridge deck when it is situated between or below the arches.

Fig. 2.4.4.5 f: Arch Structure with Suspenders (Hangers) Arch ribs are usually formed like beams, curved in the vertical plane. Arches are normally made of reinforced concrete, but also materials such as pre-stressed concrete, mass concrete, stones, bricks, steel or timber are common. In cases where the arch is made of stones, mass concrete or bricks, it normally tolerates only compression.

2.4.4.6

Vault Structures

A vault structure is a curved element, designed only for taking compression if it is made of stones or masonry, but capable of taking bending moments if it is made of reinforced concrete. Different from arch structures, Vault structures always have the deck above the Vault. The area between the Vault and the roadway is called the spandrel. The vault itself is the primary loadcarrying element of the superstructure. A closed spandrel vault structure with no fill material between the spandrel walls exists, but this section deals only with filled closed spandrel vaults. Types of Vault Structures Vault structures with open spandrel walls receive traffic and dead loads from the deck through spandrel columns to the Vault. Example of a vault structure with open spandrel walls is not shown here, but is similar to the structure in .fig. 2.4.4.6 a, except that the arched spandrel walls are replaced by columns of different shape. Vault structures with arched spandrel walls receive traffic and dead loads from the deck through the arches of the spandrel walls to the Vault.

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Example of a vault structure with arched spandrel walls is shown below.

Fig. 2.4.4.6 a: Vault Structure with Arched Spandrel Walls Vault structures with closed spandrel walls receive traffic and dead loads from the deck through the fill material which is contained by the spandrel walls. The spandrel area, i.e. the area between the vault and the roadway, is occupied by fill retained by vertical walls. Example of a Vault structure with closed spandrel walls is shown below.

Vault

Spandrel wall

Fig. 2.4.4.6 - b: Example of a Vault Structure with closed spandrel walls

2.4.4.7 Truss Structures The superstructure of a truss bridge consists of two trusses. The trusses are the main loadcarrying elements on the bridge and consist of many members, such as Top Boom, Bottom Boom, End Struts, Diagonal and Vertical Struts. These members form the truss walls. The Top Wind Bracing is located between the Top Booms. The bottom part of a truss acts as a support for the deck and comprises the following members: Cross Girders, Longitudinal Girders or Stringers, and Sway or Bottom Braces. All truss members are mutually connected

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by bolts or rivets. Truss members are fabricated from eye-bars, rolled shapes, and built-up members. In the case of a half - through truss bridge, the Top Wind Bracing is missing. The truss walls have the same function in a truss bridge as a beam in a beam bridge. The Top and Bottom Boom of a truss are similar to the Top and Bottom Flange of a beam, and the End, Vertical and Diagonal Struts are similar to the Web of the beam.

Top boom Top wind bracing Vertical strut Cross girder Stringers Bottom boom End strut

Figure 2.4.4.7 - a: Sketch showing Truss Bridge Components

Longitudinal Beams (stringers) distribute traffic loads and the weight of the deck to the cross beams (floor beams). Sometimes, however, the truss bridge is designed without stringers, only with a deck, where the deck takes the loads to the cross beams or the bottom booms.

Fig. 2.4.4.7 b: Photo showing a Trough Truss Bridge with Deck, Walls and Top Wind Bracing

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Fig. 2.4.4.7 c: Photo of a Half Through Truss bridge with Deck and Walls

2.4.5 SUPERSTRUCTURE OF CABLE BRIDGES Despite covering different ranges of span lengths, the types of elements are more or less similar for this type of structure. This chapter covers elements and members that are unique to both Suspension and Cable Stayed Bridges. The main elements of a Suspension Structure are as follows: Types of elements: The most conspicuous elements on a Cable Structure are elaborated below: Main Cables The main cables take the loads from the hangers in the case of a Suspension Bridge and transmit them to the towers and the anchoring. In the case of a Cable Stayed Bridge the cables transmit the loads directly from the attachment of the bridge deck to the towers. They are normally made of high quality steel threads spun into thick wires. Suspender Cables(Hangers) The hangers support the bridge deck and are usually connected to the cross girders or the stiffening structure. In most cases they are made of special steel wires of high durability so as to take tensile forces. Hangers are not applicable to Cable Stayed bridges. The Stiffening Structure The stiffening structure may consist of longitudinal stiffening girders, whose purpose is to distribute/spread concentrated loads from the deck to a greater length of the bridge(to several hangers). This type of Stiffening Structure is common to small suspension bridges. For large bridges, however, a Wind Bracing System, whose main purpose is to resist the stresses induced by wind forces, is employed. For smaller bridges, wind bracing can be omitted, but for bigger

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bridges it is normally constructed as a box girder or a truss. Saddles Saddles are found on suspension bridges and are located upon the topmost portions of the towers and act as bearing surfaces for the main cables passing over them. The main components of a suspension bridge are shown in fig. 2.4.5.

Cable saddles Tower Hangers Cables

Bridge deck Longitudinal stiffener girder Wind bracing Cross girder

Columns Longitudinal stiffening girder

Side span Viaduct

Main span

Side span Viaduct

Figure 2.4.5: Components of a Suspension Bridge

2.4.6 SUPERSTRUCTURE OF MOVEABLE BRIDGES Moveable structures are constructed in order to permit access to Navigable Waters of waterway users when crossing the roadway, and it is always the superstructure of these bridges that is moveable. This handbook will describe the main elements of moveable bridges, e.g. Bascule bridge, swing bridge, vertical lift bridge and rolling bridge.

2.4.6.1

Bascule Bridges

In bascule bridges the leaf(moveable portion of the span) lifts up by rotation vertically about a horizontal axis. Bascule bridges may be either single- or double leafed. In the former case, the entire span lifts about one end. A double-leafed bascule has a centre joint, and half of the span rotates about each end. Main elements for this type of bridge are more or less similar to a Beam bridge, except the machinery and some other special components that are unique for this type of bridge. The

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machinery moves the span in the desired position by means of hydraulic transmission for modern Bascule Bridges, but in the past mechanical transmission was common.. The counterweight balance the weight of the superstructure in order to ease the moving of it. Sketches of different types of Bascule Bridges are shown below.

Fig. 2.4.6.1 - a: Double-Leafed Bascule Bridge


Counterweight Balance arm

Columns

Fig. 2.4.6.1 b: Example of Bascule Draw Bridge

2.4.6.2

Swing Bridges

Swing bridges consist of two-span trusses or continuous girders which rotate horizontally about the centre(pivot) pier. The spans are usually, but not necessarily, equal. When open, the swing spans are cantilevered from the pivot(centre) pier and must be balanced longitudinally and transversely about the centre. When closed, the spans are supported at the pivot pier and at two resting (outer) piers or abutments. Main elements for this type of bridge are similar to a Truss bridge, a Beam bridge etc., except the bearings that normally have to be made especially for this bridge type. There are two types of bearings that are most common, namely: Centre-Bearing: Carries the entire load of the bridge on a central pivot. Balance wheels are

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placed on a circular track around the outer edges of the pivot pier to prevent tipping. Rim-Bearing: Transmits all loads, both dead and live, to the pivot pier through a circular girder or drum to bevelled rollers. The rollers move on a circular track situated inside the periphery of the pier. The bridge is rotated horizontally by a circular rack and pinion arrangement, or cylinders.
Pivot

Column

Fig. 2.4.6.2 a: Sketch of a Swing Bridge


Pivot

Fig. 2.4.6.2 b: Sketch of a Bobtail Swing Bridge

2.4.7 STRUCTURE COMPONENTS The elements collected under this chapter heading have no direct influence on the static system of the bridge.

2.4.7.1

Bearings

Bearings transmit loads from the superstructure to the substructure and provide an interface between the two bridge parts. The three primary functions of a bridge bearing are: -To transmit all loads from the superstructure to the substructure -To permit longitudinal movement of the superstructure due to thermal expansion and contraction -To allow rotation caused by dead load and live load deflection Bearings that do not allow for translation or movement of the superstructure are referred to as fixed bearings. Bearings that do allow for translation or movement of the superstructure are known as

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expansion bearings. Both fixed and expansion bearings permit rotation. . The main types of bearing are as follows: - Sliding Plate Bearing(Expansion) - Roller Bearing(Expansion) - Pin and Link Bearing(Expansion) - Hinged bearings(Fixed) - Pot Bearings(Fixed + expansion) - Elastomeric Bearings(Expansion) - Restraining Bearings - Rocker Bearings A Sliding Plate Bearing is normally comprised of an upper and lower plate. The upper plate is connected to the superstructure and the lower plate to the substructure. The movement of the superstructure is taken by the sliding of the plates towards each other. In the case of steel beams, the upper plate may be omitted.

Fig. 2.4.7.1 - a: Plate Bearings fixed and moveable Roller Bearings are similar to sliding plate bearings in that they have the upper and lower plates, but additionally they have rollers that take the movement. The rollers can be of the single or multi type and they can vary in size.

Fig. 2.4.7.1 b: Photo of different types of Roller Bearings

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Pin and Link Bearings have upper and lower pins connected to an arm that takes the movement.

Fig. 2.4.7.1 c: Pin and Link Bearing

Hinged Bearings have vertical pins to which the two parts of the bearing are interlinked. They can take only vertical rotation of a structure.

Fig. 2.4.7.1 -d: Photo showing a Hinged Bearing Pot Bearings allow for the multi-dimensional rotations of a structure. There are two different pot bearing configurations: Neoprene and spherical.

Fig. 2.4.7.1 e: Examples of Pot Bearings Elastomeric Bearings include both plain and laminated neoprene pads.

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Fig. 2.4.7.1 -f: Photo of an Elastomeric Bearing

Restraining Bearings are designed to hold a bridge down in case of uplift, which may occur on cantilever anchor spans. The devices used to resist uplift can be as simple as long bolts running through the bearings on short span bridges, or as complex as chains or eye-bars on larger structures. Rocker Bearings function in a similar manner to roller bearing and are generally used where a substantial amount of movement is required. Rocker bearings come in different forms, such as segmental rockers, rocker nests and pinned rockers.

Fig. 2.4.7.1 g: Example of Rocker Bearing A superstructure has always movable bearings at one end of the span. Each of the above mentioned main types is divided into several different sub-types.

2.4.7.2 Joints Due to changes in temperature the superstructure can change in length. When it is colder the superstructure contracts and shortens, while it expands and elongates when it becomes warmer. For this reason joints are provided in the superstructure at the free ends to accommodate these movements. Joints are also provided at the fixed ends in order to allow for rotation and to fill the gap between the deck and the ballast wall. In addition, the joints provide a smooth transition from the approach roadway to the bridge deck. Bridges with short span lengths normally have no joints. There are two main types of joints as follows: - Open joints

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- Closed joints
Expansion gap Steel angles Bridge deck

Beam

Ballast wall Moveable bearing Abutment

Fig. 2.4.7.2 -a: Sketch of a Formed Open Joint(with armour) Open Joints allow water and debris to pass through the joints. Of open joints there are two subtypes as follows: - Formed joints - Finger plate joints Formed joints can be a wide or narrow gap between the bridge deck and the abutment ballast wall or, in the case of multiple span structure, between adjacent deck sections. They are usually designed for very short span bridges where expansion is minimal. A formed joint can be unprotected or armoured with steel angles. Finger plate joints consist of two steel plates with interlocking fingers. They are normally used when greater expansion is required. Old finger plate joints belong normally to the open type, while new finger joints are provided with an underlying rubber membrane that seals the opening thereby making them closed.

Fig. 2.4.7.2 - b: Example of a Finger Plate Joint

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Closed Joints do not allow water and debris to pass through the joints. Of closed joints, four subtypes are considered here as follows: Pour Joint Seal Compression Seal Sliding Plate Joint Elastomeric Seal Rolling Joint

Pour Joint Seal is made of two materials: A base and a poured sealant. The base consists of a pre-formed expansion joint filler which has to be mixed with the poured sealant

Fig. 2.4.7.2 c: Example of a Pour Joint Seal Compression Seal consists of a rectangle of neoprene with a honeycomb cross section. The honeycomb design allows the compression seal to fully recover after being distorted during bridge expansion and contraction. Sliding Plate Joint is composed of two plates sliding on top of each other. Although classified as a closed joint, the sliding plate joint is not watertight.

Fig. 2.4.7.2 -d: Example of Sliding Plate Joints

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Elastomeric Seal may consist of reinforced neoprene which is bolted to the deck. Another type consists of hollow, rectangular neoprene block seals, interconnected with steel and supported by its own stringer system.

Fig. 2.4.7.2 e: Example of Elastomeric Seal Joint Rolling Joints are normally designed for taking extensive movements. They have normally a curved top plate connected to the superstructure and which is sliding underneath a horizontal plate connected to the abutment when the bridge elongate or contracts. The principle of a Rolling Joint is shown in the sketch below.

Fig. 2.4.7.2 f: Example of a Rolling Joint

2.4.7.3

Bridge Deck Surfacing

The pavement on a bridge deck normally comprises one, two or a maximum of three layers. If the bridge deck is made of concrete or steel the bottom layer ought to be waterproof so as to prevent the penetration of water into the bridge deck. The mid layer, if any, is called the spread course, and serves as a dispersing layer for traffic loads to the deck below and simultaneously acts as protection for the waterproofing layer if the top layer is worn out. The top layer is designated the wearing course. Sometimes the spread course and the wearing course are combined and laid directly on the waterproofing. The spread course and the wearing course are commonly bituminous. The wearing course may also be a part of the concrete deck, either homogeneously solid(extra thickness) or cast afterwards on top of the bridge deck. A wearing course made of timber represents another type of wearing course material that is still common in many countries. They normally occur on girder bridges. In some cases the wearing course material is gravel. This type is most typical on arch structures, but they can also be seen on concrete and timber decks. The Waterproofing forms a watertight barrier which prevents the penetration of water and chlorides(pollution) into the bridge deck. There are many different types of waterproofing, but the most important are bituminous mastic waterproofing and different types of prefabricated waterproofing mats.

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Bridge deck surfacing with a hard surface usually comprises a bituminous waterproofing layer, a spreading course and a wearing course. A waterproofing layer is necessary when de-icing salt is used. For concrete bridge decks the concrete itself constitutes the wearing course, and in that case there is normally an extra thickness of the covering. The wearing course of a timber bridge deck is made of timber and is then called running strips. Types of Surfacing that are the most common ones: - Bituminous - Concrete - Timber - Gravel Bituminous surfacing consists normally of different types of asphalt. When asphalt is placed on concrete or steel, it is recommended that a waterproof membrane be placed on the concrete or steel deck to protect the reinforcement or steel from the adverse effects of water; especially the effects from de-icing salt can be destructive when the water passes through the permeable asphalt layer. Concrete wearing surfaces have normally two types: Integral and overlays. An integral concrete wearing surface is cast with the deck, typically adding an extra 50 mm of thickness to the slab. A concrete overlay wearing surface is cast separately over the previously cast concrete deck. Timber Surfacing may consist of different types of timber floorings, such as timber planks laid transversely across the bridge, timber planks running longitudinally in the direction of the bridge span, or nailed laminated deck planks running longitudinally to the bridge etc.. Gravel Surfacing consists normally of crushed stones, but can also be of natural gravel.

Joint sealer

Wearing course Spread course Waterproofing layer Bridge deck

Figure 2.4.7.3: Pavement on concrete deck

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2.4.7.4 Drainage The function of the drainage system is to remove water from the bridge deck or from other components related to the bridge.. Drain pipes should be placed at intervals along the sides of a bridge deck near the kerbs to allow water to drain out from the deck. In order to avoid damage to elements below the bridge deck, it is extremely important that the outlet pipes are long enough to lead the water away from the bridge deck and the elements below. Sometimes is it necessary also to install downspout pipes when a bridge is located over a roadway, over a parking place etc.. Types of drainage that are the most common for bridges: - Drainage from the deck - Drainage from the abutments - Drainage from the joints - Drainage from embankment Drainage from the deck takes the water off the bridge deck and includes all components installed for this purpose. There are two types of deck drainage, surface drainage and ground drainage. The surface drainage is leading the water on the wearing course off the bridge deck, while the ground drainage is leading the water which has penetrated through the wearing and spread course off the deck. Drainage from the abutments includes all components involved in the process of leading the water off the abutment, such as weep holes, pipes etc.. Drainage from joints includes all components involved in the process of leading the water off the joints. Drainage from the embankment includes all components involved in the process of leading the water off the embankment, e.g. ditches, channelling the water down slopes, pipes etc.

Drain pipe
Figure 2.4.7.4 a: Example of a Drain Pipe

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Fig. 2.4.7.4 -b: Photo showing a Drain Pipe through the deck

2.4.7.5

Parapets

The primary function of a bridge parapet is to keep errant vehicles from driving off the bridge. Bridge parapets must also smoothly direct the vehicles in such a manner that they do not overturn and consequently fail. Parapets include rail posts or supports and railings. The parapet posts are connected to the edge beam or the rim of the bridge deck by bolts or have been cast into or form part of the concrete slab or edge beam. In the case of timber bridges the posts can be connected to the main beams or the cross beams. Types of Parapets: In this section mention is made of the most common types of parapets on bridges, for instance: - Guard rail - Barrier - Bar railing - Pipe railing - Wire fence - Expanded metal - Concrete parapet Guard rail consists of posts and flex beams. This type of parapet is normally used only between the driving lanes and the pedestrian lanes or at the side of the approach road.

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Fig. 2.4.7.5 -a: Photo showing Guard Rail Barriers in this handbook are normally identified as concrete barrier of the New Jersey type or similar. Steel or aluminium railings may be attached to the top of the parapets. A concrete Barrier is shown in fig. 2.4.7.5 b below. Bar Railing is normally composed of vertical steel bars attached to an upper and lower box steel member. Other types also exist.

Fig. 2.4.7.5 -b: Examples of Barrier and Bar Railing Pipe Railing is normally composed of horizontal steel bars running through the posts or attached to them.

Fig. 2.4.7.5 c: Example of Pipe Railing Wire Fence is normally composed of horizontal wires running through the posts or attached to them. This type is never used on bridges, only at the side of the approach road.

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Expanded Metal is normally composed of expanded metal welded to an upper and lower box steel member. Other types also exist.

2.4.7.6

Pedestrian Walkways

Pedestrian walkways are situated at the side(s) of the bridge deck or form part of it. Sometimes they can be as a cantilevered part of the bridge deck, whilst other times they can be connected to the bridge at the side of the bridge deck as a separate element. They are separated physically from the traffic lanes by kerbs or parapets and are usually designed for pedestrians and bicyclists only. The main types of walkways are as follows: Separated walkways are named so when they are separated from the traffic by railings, barriers or the suchlike, but still form part of the bridge deck.

Fig. 2.4.7.6 -a: Example of a Separate Walkway Raised walkways(Sidewalks) can be cantilevered from the deck and are in most cases of the same construction as a separated walkway, except they are raised from the deck.

Sidewalk(Raised) Sidewalk

Fig. 2.4.7.6 - b: Example of Raised Sidewalk Additionally hung-on walkways are normally constructed after the bridge itself has been completed and are hung-on at either one or both sides of the bridge deck.

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Hung-on sidewalk

Fig. 2.4.7.6 c: Example of Hung-on Sidewalk

2.4.7.7

Edge Beams

Edge beams provide support for the parapets as well as acting as load-bearing elements in the case of cantilever decks. They also provide stiffening of the bridge deck and are visible due to the local increase in the slab thickness. They normally have extra reinforcement. The increase in thickness can occur underneath the deck as a combination of underneath and above the deck, or only above the deck. Types of Edge Beams are shown below.

Edge beam above deck

Fig. 2.4.7.7 - a: Edge Beam above deck cast in-situ

Edge beam above and below deck

Fig. 2.4.7.7 - b: Edge Beam above and below deck cast in-situ

Edge beam below deck

Fig. 2.4.7.7 - c: Edge Beam below deck cast in-situ

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2.4.8 ACCESSORIES Accessories are items on or in the vicinity of the bridge that do not strictly belong to the bridge, but are equipment for servicing the different needs of bridge users. 2.4.8.1 Lighting

For long bridges the lighting posts are connected to the bridge deck, but for short ones they normally are placed outside the bridge structure. Type of lighting that are most common on bridges are as follows: Highway lighting (standard) consists of a lamp or light source attached to a bracket arm which again is attached to a pole or shaft. The pole is generally tapered towards the top.

Fig. 2.4.8.1: Examples of Highway Lighting and Walkway Lighting Navigation lights are used for the safe guidance of waterway traffic Aerial obstruction lights are used to alert aircraft pilots that a hazard exists below and around the lights. Traffic control lights may be used to control the traffic flow on a bridge.

2.4.8.2

Access equipment

Access equipment described in this chapter is referred to as permanent access equipment designed and connected to one or several parts of a bridge to gain easier access for inspection purposes. Examples of Types of access equipment: Steps are normally designed in order to improve the accessibility of abutments or other elements of the substructure. They are normally placed on the embankment slopes beside the abutments.

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Fig. 2.4.8.2 a: Example of Steps at the embankment Ladders are in most cases designed to improve the accessibility of superstructure elements and towers and piers. Catwalk is a narrow walkway, making access easier to some parts of a structure. It is in most cases found on the top or bottom booms of truss bridges, below the deck of a suspension bridge or at the sides of large girders.

Fig. 2.4.8.2 b: Catwalk on top of the top chords

2.4.8.3

Signs

Signing serves to inform the motorists about bridge or roadway conditions. Types of signs: (The most common ones)

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Weight limit signs indicate the maximum vehicle load allowable on the bridge. Vertical clearance signs indicate the minimum vertical clearance for the structure Lateral clearance signs indicate the maximum width between obstacles on a bridge. For instance, between truss walls. Obstacle sign indicates that there is an obstacle, normally at the entrance of the bridge ends.

Fig. 2.4.8.3: Example of Obstacle Sign

2.4.8.4 Blank.

Pipes/Cables

Types of pipes/cables can be like: Water pipes carrying water from one place to another. Sewage pipes carrying sewage. Telephone cables transmit telephone signals or electronic signals. Electric cables transmit electric current.

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List of words collected from the Handbook for Bridge Inventory - a handbook within the BRUTUS International Project and translated by BRIME partners

Chp ref
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Chp. 2.1.1 Chp. 2.1.1 Chp. 2.1.1 Chp. 2.1.1 Chp. 2.1.1 Chp. 2.1.1 Chp. 2.1.1 Chp. 2.1.1 Chp. 2.1.1 Chp. 2.1.1 Chp. 2.1.2 Chp. 2.1.2 Chp. 2.1.2 Chp. 2.1.2 Chp. 2.1.3 Chp. 2.1.3 Chp. 2.1.4 Chp. 2.1.4 Chp. 2.1.4 Chp. 2.1.4

Word/Expression
Chasm Traffic intersection area

French - franais

German deutsch
Abgrund Verkehrsknotenpunkt

Norwegian norsk

Slovenian slovensko
Soteska Preckanje prometnih poti Razpetina polja Cestni most Nadhod Premicni most Plavajoci most Propust Cevovod Obok Sistem ifriranja Terminologija elementov mostu Staticni sistem Element mosta Kategorija mosta elezniki most Tip konstrukcije Glavni tip konstrukcije

Spanish - espanol
Barranco Enlace Luz Puente de carretera Pasarela Puente mvil Puente flotante Obra de drenaje Tubera Bveda Codificacin Terminologa de puentes Esquema esttico Elemento de puente Clase de puente Puente de ferrocarrril Tipo de estructura Tipo principal de estructura Puente de celosa

Brche Zone de croisement de trafic Span length Longueur de trave Road bridge Pont routier Pedestrian bridge Passerelle Movable bridge Pont mobile Floating bridge Pont flottant Culvert Buse Pipe Tuyau Vault Vote Code system Systme de codage Bridge related terms Termes relatifs aux ponts Static system Systme statique Bridge element Element de pont Bridge category Catgorie de pont Railway bridge Pont ferroviaire Type of structure Type de structure Principal type of structure Type principal de structure Truss bridge Pont treillis Through truss bridge Pont treillis tablier intermdiaire Pont treillis tablier suprieur

Klft Omrd med kryssende trafikk Spannweite Spennvidde Straenbrcke Vegbru Fugngerbrcke Gangbru Bewegliche Brcke Bevegelig bru Schwimmende Brcke Flytebru Durchlass Kulvert Rohr, Rhre Rr Gewlbe Hvelv Verschlsselung, Kodierung Kodesystem Bezeichnungen mit Brckenbezug Begreper relatert til bruer Statisches System Statisk system Brckenelement Bruelement Brckenkategorie Brukategori Eisenbahnbrcke Jernbanebru Bauwerksart Byggverkstype Hauptbauwerksart Hovedbyggverkstype Fachwerkbrcke Fachwerkbrcke mit untenliegender Fahrbahn Fachwerkbrcke mit obenliegender Fahrbahn Fagverkbru Paralellfagverk m/ overliggende vindavstivning Paralellfagverk m/overliggende brudekke

Palicna mostna konstrukcija Palicna mostna Puente celosa con doble konstrukcija s podgradnjo arriostramiento Palicna prekladna mostna Puente de celosa de konstrukcija tablero superior

21

Chp. 2.1.4

Deck truss bridge

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22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Chp. 2.1.4 Chp. 2.1.4 Chp. 2.1.4 Chp. 2.1.4 Chp. 2.1.4 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5

Slab Beam structure Beam bridge

Dalle Structure poutres Pont poutres

Platte Balkenartiges Tragwerk Balkenbrcke

Plate Bjelkekonstruksjon Bjelkebru

Slab structure Structure en dalle Beam structure Structure poutres Principal parts of a bridge Parties principales d'un pont Ground Sol Substructure including Appuis incluant les foundation fondations Superstructure Structure Structure component Composants de structure Accessories Principal parts of a culvert Approach road River course Embankment Retaining wall Supporting ground Abutment Pier Tower Anchoring Bearing The supports Slab Beam Deck Special Superstructure Component Cable structure Cables

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5

Plattenartiges Tragwerk Platekonstruksjon Balkenartiges Tragwerk Bjelkebru Grundstzliche Teile einer Brcke Hovedbruelementer Hoveddeler p ei bru Baugrund Grunn Unterbau inclusive Grndung Underbygning inkl. fundamentering berbau Overbygning Bestandteile des Bauwerks, Bauteile Konstruksjonselemen t Equipements Zubehr Utstyr Parties principales Hauptteile eines Durchlasses Hoved deler av d'une buse kulvert Route daccs Zufahrtsstrae Tilkomst veg Cours dune rivire Flulauf Elvelp Remblai Straendamm Fylling Murs de soutnement Sttzwnde Stttemur Sol support Tragender Baugrund Brende grunn Cule Widerlager Landkar Pile Pfeiler Bropilar Pylne Gittermast, Turm Trn Ancrage Verankerung Forankring Appareil dappui Lagerung Lager Les appuis Untersttzungen Understttelser Dalle Platte Plate Poutre Balken Bjelke Tablier Fahrbahnplatte Brudekke Elment spcial de Spezielle Bauteile des berbaus Spesielle overstructure bygningselementer Structure cbles Kabel-/Seilstrukturen Hengekonstruksjon Cbles Kabel, Seile Kabler

ploca Gredna konstrukcija Most z gredno prekladno konstrukcijo Plocasta konstrukcija Gredna konstrukcija Glavni deli mostu Temeljna tla Podporna konstrukcija Prekladna konstrukcija Elementi konstrukcije

Losa Estructura de vigas Puente de vigas Estructura losa Estructura de vigas Partes principales de un puente Terreno Subestructura incluida la cimentacin Superestructura Elementos estructurales

Oprema objekta Glavni deli prepusta Dostopna cesta Recno korito Breina Podporni zidovi Nosilna tla Krajni opornik Vmesni opornik Pilon Sidrice Leice Podpore Ploca Nosilec Vozicna ploca Posebni elementi prekladne konstrukcije Visece konstrukcije Nosilni kabli

Equipamiento Partes principales de una obra de drenaje Carretera de acceso Cauce de ro Terrapln Muros de contencin Terreno soporte Estribo Pila Torre Anclajes Aparato de apoyo Apoyos Losa Viga Tablero Elementos especiales de la superestructura Estructura de cables Cable

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51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.1.5 Chp. 2.2 Chp. 2.2.1 Chp. 2.2.1 Chp. 2.2.1 Chp. 2.2.1 Chp. 2.2.1 Chp. 2.2.1 Chp. 2.2.1 Chp. 2.2.1 (Fig. 2.2.1) Chp. 2.2.1 (Fig. 2.2.1) Chp. 2.2.1

Saddle Hanger Special Superstructure Component Cable Structure Components Counterweight Machinery Trunnion Joint Parapet Signing Pipe/cable Static system Simply supported static system Freely supported Gap Simply supported span Intermediate supports Movable bearing Fixed bearing Single span Multi-span

Selles Suspentes Elment spcial de structure Elements de structure cbles Contrepoids Machinerie Tourillon ou axe Joint Parapet Signalisation Tuyau/cble Systme statique Systme isostatique Simplement appuy Brche Trave isostatique Appuis intermdiaires Appareil dappui mobile Appareil dappui fixe Trave unique Traves multiples

Sattel Hnger, Aufhngevorrichtung Spezielle Bauteile des berbaus

Sadel Hengestag Spesielle overbygningselementer Bauteile von Kabel-/Seilstrukturen Elementer p hengekonstruksjonen Gegengewicht Motvekt Maschinenanlage Maskineri Kolbenbolzenlager Svingtapp Fuge Fuge Brstung Rekkverk Beschilderung Skilting Rohr/Kabel Rr/kabel Statische Systeme Statisch bestimmtes System Frei aufliegend Lcke Einfeldtrger Zwischensttzen Bewegliches Lager Festes Lager EinfeldMehrfeldStatisch bestimmte ein- und mehrfeldtrger Statisk system Fritt opplagt bresystem Fritt opplagt pning Enkeltspenn fritt opplagt Mellomliggende opplegg Bevelig lager

Sedla Vealke, Obese Posebni elementi prekladne konstrukcije Elementi visece konstrukcije Protiute Strojnica Tecaj Vozlice Ograja, parapet Signalizacija Cevovod, komunikacijske intalacije Staticni sistemi Prostoleeci staticni sistem Prosto podprt Dolina premostitve Prostoleeca konstrukcija preko enega polja Vmesne podpore Pomicne podpore

Sillas Pndola Elementos especiales de la estructura Elementos de una estructura de cables Contrapeso Maquinaria Junta Pretil Sealizacin Tuberas/cables Esquema esttico Esquema de viga simplemente apoyada Simplemente apoyado Vado Vano simplemente apoyado Apoyos intermedios

Simply supported Single Structures a trave and Multi-span Structures unique isostatique et a traves multiples Continuous static system Flexural moment

73 74

Chp. 2.2.2 Chp. 2.2.2

Systme Durchlaufendes statisches System hyperstatique Moments flchissants Biegemomente

Aparato de apoyo deslizante Fastlager Vpeta podpora Aparato de apoyo fijo Enkeltspenn Konstrukcije preko enega Vano nico polja Flere spenn Konstrukcija preko vec Varios vanos polj Fritt opplagt enkelProstoleeca konstrukcija Estructuras simplemente og preko enega polja in apoyadas de uno o varios flerspennskonstruksjo preko vec polj vanos ner Kontinuerlig Kontinuirni staticni Esquema de viga hovedbresystem sistem continua Byemoment Upogibni momenti Momentos flectores

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75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95

Chp. 2.2.2 Chp. 2.2.3 Chp. 2.2.3 Chp. 2.2.3 Chp. 2.2.4 Chp. 2.2.4 Chp. 2.2.4 Chp. 2.2.4 Chp. 2.2.4 Chp. 2.2.4 Chp. 2.2.4 Chp. 2.2.5 Chp. 2.2.5 Chp. 2.2.5 Chp. 2.2.5 Chp. 2.2.5 Chp. 2.2.5 Chp. 2.2.5 Chp. 2.2.5 Chp. 2.2.5 Chp. 2.2.5

Continuous Multi-span bridge Cantilever System Suspended span Hinge Arch System Arched Superstructure Hinged Arch with one hinge Arch with two hinges Arch with three hinges Arch without hinges Frame Systems Load bearing element Mutually connected Shear force Connection points Side wall Free-standing abutment Frame structure Static Frame Systems Frame without hinges/cantilevered

Pont traves continues systme cantilever Trave suspendue Articulation Systme en arc Structure en arc Articul Arc une articulation Arc deux articulations Arc trois articulations Arc encastr Systme en portique Element supportant la charge Encastr Effort tranchant Jonctions Pidroits Cule auto-portante Structures en portique systeme statique de portique Portique encastr / avec traverse prolonge par des consoles

Durchlauftrgerbrcke Auskragendes System Einhngefeld Gelenk Bogensystem Bogenfrmiger berbau Mit einem Gelenk verbunden Bogen mit einem Gelenk Bogen mit zwei Gelenken, Zweigelenkbogen Bogen mit drei Gelenken, Dreigelenkbogen Bogen ohne Gelenk, eingespannter Bogen Rahmensystem Tragendes Bauteil Gegenseitig verbunden Scherkrfte, Querkrfte Verbindungspunkte Seitenwnde Freistehende Widerlager Rahmentragwerke Statische Rahmensysteme

Kontinuerlig flerspennsbru Utkraget system Innhengt spenn Ledd Buesystem Bue i overbyggning Leddet Buebru med ett ledd Buebru med to ledd Buebru med tre ledd Buebru uten ledd Rammesystemer Breelement

Kontinuirni most preko vec polj Konzolni sistem Obeeno polje Clenek Locni sistem Locna prekladna konstrukcija Clenkast Lok z enim clenkom Dvoclenski lok Troclenski lok Vpeti lok Okvirni sistemi Nosilni element

Puente continuo Esquema voladizo Tramo apoyado Rotula Esquema arco Superestructura en arco Articulado Arco monoarticulado Arco biarticulado Arco triarticulado Arco biempotrado Esquema de prticos Elemento portante Interconectados Esfuerzo cortante Puntos de conexin Muros laterales Estribo exento Estructura aporticada Prtico esttico Prtico empotrado con voladizos

Monolittisk forbundet Medsebojno povezan (spojen) Skjr kraft Strina sila Bindeledd Vozlica Sidevegg Celni zid Frittstende landkar Prostostojeci krajni opornik Rammekonstruksjon Okvirne konstrukcije

Statisk Okvirni staticni sistemi rammekonstruksjoner Rahmen ohne Gelenke/auskragend Rammekonstruksjon Odprti okvir s krajnima uten ledd/ utkraget previsnima poljema

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96

Chp. 2.2.5

Frame with two hinges/cantilevered with supports

97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111

Chp. 2.2.5 Chp. 2.2.5 Chp. 2.3.1 Chp. 2.3.1 Chp. 2.3.1 Chp. 2.3.1 Chp. 2.3.1 Chp. 2.3.1 Chp. 2.3.1 Chp. 2.3.1 Chp. 2.3.1 Chp. 2.3.1 Chp. 2.3.1 Chp. 2.3.1.1 Chp. 2.3.1.1

Frame without hinges Frame with two hinges Drainage Stream crossing Embankment Bridge deck Structural elements Internally connected Mutual movement Corrugated steel plates Box culvert In situ cast Prefabricated Pipe culvert Interaction between the culverts and the surrounding soil Circular Pipe Culvert Horizontal Elliptical Pipe Culvert Vertical Elliptical Pipe Culvert Pipe barrel

Portique articul en pied /avec traverse prolonge par des consoles appuyes leur extrmit Portique encastr Portique deux articulations Drainage Passage dun cours deau Remblai Tablier de pont Elments de pont Connects intrieurement Mouvement relatif Tles ondules Buse rectangulaire Coul en place Prfabriqu Buse de forme cylindrique Interaction entre les buses et le sol environnant Buse circulaire Buse de forme elliptique horizontale Buse de forme elliptique verticale Conduit de forme cylindrique

Zwei-Gelenkrahmen, Rahmen mit zwei Gelenken/ auskragend mit Auflagerung

Rammekonstruksjon med to ledd/utkraget med opplegg

Okvir s clenkastima podporama in podprtima krajnima previsnima poljema Odprti okvir Odprti okvir z dvema clenkoma Odvodnjavanje Potok Nasip Vozicna konstrukcija Konstrukcijski elementi Notranje povezan Medsebojni pomik Valovite jeklene plocevine katlasti propust Na mestu betoniran Prefabriciran, montaen Cevni propusti Interakcija med propustom in okolino zemljino Okrogli cevni propust Horizontalno elipticni cevni propust Vertikalni elipticni cevni propust Cev

Prtico biarticulado con voladizos apoyados

Rahmen ohne Gelenke, eingespannter Rahmen Zwei-Gelenkrahmen, Rahmen mit zwei Gelenken Drainage Fluquerung Damm, Straendamm Brckenfahrbahnplatte Bauelement Miteinander verbunden Gegenseitige Bewegung Wellblechplatten, Profilpaltten Rechteckdurchlass Vor Ort hergestellt Vorgefertigt Rohrdurchlsse Wechselwirkung zwischen Durchlssen und dem umgebenden Baugrund/Erdreich Kreisfrmige Rohrdurchlass Horizontal elliptischer Rohrdurchlass Vertikal elliptischer Rohrdurchlass Rohrdurchlass

Rammekonstruksjon uten ledd Rammekonstruksjon med to ledd Vannavlp Gjennomlp Fylling Brudekk Bruelementer Innternt forbundet Innbyrdes bevegelse Korrugert stlplater Firkantkulvert Stpt p stedet Prefabrikert Rrkulvert Samvirke mellom kulvert og omkringliggende masser Sirkulr rrkulvert Liggende elliptisk rrkulvert Stende elliptisk rrkulvert Rrformet pning (lp)

Prtico empotrado Prtico biarticulado Drenaje, desage Arroyo que cruza Terrapln Tablero de puente Elementos estructurales Conectados internamente Movimientos relativos Chapas de acero corrugadas Obra de drenaje en cajn Fabricado in situ Prefabricado Tubera de drenaje Interaccin entre la obra de drenaje y el terreno

112 113 114 115

Chp. 2.3.1.1 Chp. 2.3.1.1 Chp. 2.3.1.1 Chp. 2.3.1.1

Tubera de drenaje circular Tubera de drenaje elptica horizontal Tubera de drenaje elptica vertical Cao, tubo

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116 117 118

Chp. 2.3.1.2 Chp. 2.3.1.2 Chp. 2.3.1.2 Chp. 2.3.1.2 Chp. 2.3.1.2 Chp. 2.3.1.2 Chp. 2.3.1.2 Chp. 2.3.1.3 Chp. 2.3.1.3 Chp. 2.3.1.3 Chp. 2.3.1.3 Chp. 2.3.1.4 Chp. 2.3.1.4 Chp. 2.3.1.4 Chp. 2.3.1.4 Chp. 2.3.1.4 Chp. 2.3.1.4 Chp. 2.3.1.4

Square-shaped culvert Reinforced concrete Single or Multi-barrelled culvert Top slab Bottom slab Single cell Box culvert Multi cell Box culvert Vault culvert Curved slab Masonry Stones Frame culvert Spread footing Rigidly fixed Pier Side wall Compression member Bracing construction

Buse de forme rectangulaire Bton arm Buse conduit unique ou conduits multiples Hourdis suprieur Hourdis infrieur Buse rectangulaire uni-cellulaire Buse rectangulaire multi-cellulaire Buse arche Dalle courbe Maonnerie Pierres Buse portique Semelle Encastr Pile Pidroits Buton Contreventement

Rechteckdurchlass Bewehrter Beton, Stahlbeton Einzelliger oder mehrzelliger Durchlass Deckplatte Bodenplatte Einzelliger Rechteckdurchlass Mehrzelliger Rechteckdurchlass Gewlbedurchlass Gebogene Platte Mauerwerk Steine, Mauersteine Rahmendurchlass Flchengrndung Fest verbunden Pfeiler, Grndungspfahl Seitenwand Druckglied Aussteifungskonstruktion

Firkantkulvert Armert betong Enkel eller flerlps kulvert Toppplate Bunnplate Enkelcelle kulvert Flercelle kulvert Hvelvkulvert Bueformet plate Murverk Stein Rammekulvert Sle Fast forbundet Pilar Sidevegg Trykkstag

katlasti propust Armirani beton Eno ali veccevni prepust

Marco Hormign armado Cajn monocelular o multicelular Losa superior Losa inferior Marco monocelular Marco multicelular Bveda

119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133

Zgornja ploca Talna ploca Enocelicni katlasti propust Veccelicni katlasti propust Obokani propust

Ploca v vertikalni krivini Losa curva Zidan Kamnit Okvirni propust Pasovni temelj Togo povezan Steber Celna stena Tlacni element Mampostera Piedra Prtico Zapata corrida Empotramiento Pila Muro lateral Pieza comprimida

Avstivningskonstruks Zavetrovalna konstrukcija Arriostramiento jon

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134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152

Chp. 2.3.1.4 Chp. 2.3.1.5 Chp. 2.3.2 Chp. 2.3.2 Chp. 2.3.2.1 Chp. 2.3.2.1 Chp. 2.3.2.2 Chp. 2.3.2.3 Chp. 2.3.3 Chp. 2.3.3 Chp. 2.3.3.1 Chp. 2.3.3.1 Chp. 2.3.3.1 Chp. 2.3.3.1 Chp. 2.3.3.1 Chp. 2.3.3.2 Chp. 2.3.3.2 Chp. 2.3.3.2 Chp. 2.3.3.2

Foundation conditions Slab culvert Slab bridges - W/D5 Main carrying load element Solid slab bridge Slab bridge with sloped edges Voided slab bridge Rib slab bridge Beam/Girder bridges Standardised beams T-beams Rectangular beams I-beams H-beams Flange Load bearing element Box girder bridge Steel Box bridge Box girder

Conditions de Grndungsbedingungen fondation Buse en U recouverte Abgedeckter Durchlass dune dalle Pont-dalle Plattenbrcken Breite/Dicke5 Principal lment porteur Pont dalle pleine Pont dalle avec encorbellements Pont dalle lgie Haupttragglied/-element Massive Plattenbrcke (Unusual construction in Germany) Hohlkrperplattenbrcke

Grunnforhold Platekulvert Platebru Hovedbreelement Massiv platebru

Pogoji temeljenja Plocnati propust Plocnati most Glavni nosilni element

Condiciones de cimentacin Losa Puente losa ancho/canto $5 Elemento portante principal Puente losa maciza Puente losa con bordes ataluzados Puente losa aligerada Puente losa nervada Puente de vigas Vigas normalizadas Vigas en t Vigas rectangulares Vigas en i Vigas en h Ala Elemento portante Puente con seccin cajn Puente metlico con seccin cajn Viga cajn

Pont dalle nervure Plattenbalkenbrcke Ponts poutres Balkenbrcke

Poutres standardises Standardisierte Balken Poutres en T Plattenbalken Poutres de section rectangulaire Poutres en I Poutres en H Semelle Elment porteur Balken mit Rechteckquerschnitt Balken mit I-Querschnitt (refer to 146) Flansch Tragendes Element

Most s polno nosilno ploco Platebru med skr Most s ploco s poevnimi kant bocnimi robovi Platebru med Most z votlo nosilno sparerr ploco Ribbeplatebru Most z rebrasto nosilno ploco Bjelkebru Most z gredno prekladno konstrukcijo Standardiserte bjelker Standardizirani nosilci T-bjelker T-nosilci Rektangulre bjelker I-bjelker H-bjelker Flens Pravokotni nosilci I-nosilci H-nosilci Pasnica Nosilni element Most s katlastim nosilcem Most z jeklenim katlastim nosilcem katlasti nosilec

Breelement Kassebru Stlkassebru Kasse

Pont poutre caisson Hohlkastenbrcke Pont caisson mtallique Poutre caisson Stahlhohlkastenbrcke Hohlkastentrger

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153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162

Chp. 2.3.3.2 Chp. 2.3.3.2 Chp. 2.3.3.2 Chp. 2.3.3.2 Chp. 2.3.3.2 Chp. 2.3.3.2 Chp. 2.3.4 Chp. 2.3.4.1 Chp. 2.3.4.1 Chp. 2.3.4.1 Chp. 2.3.4.1 Chp. 2.3.4.1 Chp. 2.3.4.1 Chp. 2.3.4.1 Chp. 2.3.4.1 Chp. 2.3.4.1 Chp. 2.3.4.2 Chp. 2.3.4.2

Concrete Box girder Box girder structures Hollow Box-like girder Plate girder bridge Plate girder Welded and riveted constructions Applied loads Arch bridges Open spandrel arch bridge Closed spandrel arch bridge Earth filled arch bridge

Poutre caisson en bton Structures poutres caisson Poutre creuse en forme de caisson Pont poutres principales planes Poutre principale plane Constructions soudes et rivetes Charges appliques Ponts en arc Pont en arc sans tympan Pont en arc avec tympans Pont en arc avec tympans rempli par de la terre Arcs Colonne

Betonhohlkasten Hohlkasten-tragwerke Hohlkasten-hnliche Trger Vollwandtrgerbrcke Vollwandtrger Geschweisste und genietete Konstruktionen Angewandte Lasten Bogenbrcke Bogenbrcke mit aufgestnderter Fahrbahnplatte Bogenbrcke mit Bogenscheiben

Betongkassebru Kassekonstruksjoner Hul kasse-bjelke Platebrerbru Platebrer Sveist og naglet konstruksjoner Anvendt belastning Buebruer pen buebru Buebru med langsgende brevegger Buebru med hel overmur Buer Syle Buer Tveravstivning Sidevis stabilitet Hvelvbruer Hvelv

Betonski katlasti nosilec katlaste konstrukcije Votli katlasti nosilec Most s plocnatim nosilcem Plocnati nosilec Varjene in kovicene konstrukcije Delujoce sile Locni mostovi Locni most z odprtim celnim zidom Locnii most z zaprtim celnim zidom Locni most z zasipom

Viga cajn de hormign Estructuras con seccin cajn Viga cajn hueco Puente de vigas de alma llena Viga de alma llena Soldadas y roblonadas Cargas aplicadas Puentes arco Puente arco con tmpanos aligerados Puente arco con tmpanos macizos Puente arco relleno de tierra Arcos Pilares, pndolas Arco bowstring Arriostramiento transversal Estabilidad lateral Puentes bveda Bveda

163

Bogenbrcke mit Fllung (zwischn Bogen und Platte) Bogenaussteifung Pfeiler, Sttze Zugband Queraussteifung, Kreuzverband Querstabilitt Gewlbebrcke Gewlbe

164 165 166 167 168 169 170

Arch ribs Column

Locni nosilci Steber Locni nosilec z natezno vezjo Precna povezava Bocna stabilnost Obokani mostovi Obok

Ribs of the bowstring type Arc de type bowstring Cross bracing Contreventement Lateral stability Vault bridges Vault Stabilit latrale Ponts-votes Vote

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Chp. 2.3.4.3 Chp. 2.3.4.3 Chp. 2.3.4.4 Chp. 2.3.4.4 Chp. 2.3.4.4 Chp. 2.3.4.4 Chp. 2.3.5 Chp. 2.3.5 Chp. 2.3.5 Chp. 2.3.5 Chp. 2.3.5.1 Chp. 2.3.5.1 Chp. 2.3.5.1 Chp. 2.3.5.1 Chp. 2.3.5.2 Chp. 2.3.5.2 Chp. 2.3.5.3

Overall capacity of a structure Frame bridges Strut frame bridge also known as Portal frame bridge Strut Interaction behaviour Rigid connection Truss bridges Bottom chord Top or bottom flange Web Through truss bridge

Capacit globale d'une structure Portiques (Ponts-) Pont bquilles

Gesamttragfhigkeit des Bauwerks Breevnen til en konstruksjon Rahmenbrcke Rammebruer Schrgstielrahmenbrcke; Sprengwerk Sprengstrebe, Druckglied Wechselwirkung Steife Verbindung Fachwerkbrcken Untergurt Ober- oder Untergurt Netz Fachwerkbrcke mit Queraussteifung und untenliegender Fahrbahn Fachwerkbrcke mit untenliegender Fahrbahn ohne Queraussteifung Das Fachwerk Obenliegende Queraussteifung Sprengverksbru

Celokupna nosilnost konstrukcije Okvirni mostovi Most s poevnimi stebri

Capacidad total de una estructura Puentes prtico Puentes prtico con jabalcones Jabalcones Interaccin Conexin rgida Puentes de celosa Cordn inferior Ala superior o inferior Alma Puente celosa con doble arriostramiento Puente celosa con simple arriostramiento Vigas en celosa Arriostramiento superior Puentes arco de celosa

174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181

Bquille Comportement interactif Connexion rigide Pont treillis Membrure infrieure Semelle suprieure et infrieure Ame Ponts poutres latrales en treillis contreventes Ponts poutres latrales en treillis Poutre en treillis Contreventement suprieur Bowstring

Sprengverk Vekselvirkning Stiv forbindelse

Poevni steber, podpiralo Medsebojno sodelovanje Toga povezava

Fagverksbruer Palicni mostovi Undergurt Spodnja pasnica Topp- eller bunnflens Zgornja ali spodnja pasnica Steg Stojina See 20 Palicni most s podgradnjo

182

Half-through truss bridge

183 184 185

Truss walls Top bracing Arch truss bridge

Paralellfagverk u/overliggende vindavstivning Fagverksvegger Vindavstivning (vre) Buet fagverksbru

Palicni most s spucenim vozicem Palicni nosilec Zgornje zavetrovanje Locni palicni most

186

Bowed top or bottom boom Deck truss bridge

187

Fachwerkbogenbrcke, Fachwerkbrcke mit bogenfrmigem Obergurt Membrure suprieure Bogenfrmiger Ober- oder en arc ou tirant Untergurt infrieur Pont poutres treillis Fachwerkbrcke mit sous chausse obenliegender Fahrbahn

Buet topp eller undergurt Fagverksbru med overliggende dekke

Lok zgoraj ali spodaj

Cordn superior o inferior en arco Puente de celosa de tablero superior

Palicna vozicna konstrukcija

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188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Chp. 2.3.6 Chp. 2.3.6.1 Chp. 2.3.6.1 Chp. 2.3.6.1 Chp. 2.3.6.1 Chp. 2.3.6.1 Chp. 2.3.6.1 Chp. 2.3.6.2 Chp. 2.3.7 Chp. 2.3.7 Chp. 2.3.7.1 Chp. 2.3.7.1 Chp. 2.3.7.1 Chp. 2.3.7.1 Chp. 2.3.7.1 Chp. 2.3.7.1 Chp. 2.3.7.1 Chp. 2.3.7.1 Chp. 2.3.7.1

Cable bridges Suspension bridge Tensile forces Anchoring Stiffening structure Viaduct Main span Cable stayed bridges Moveable bridges Navigable traffic Bascule bridge Trunnion - See 57 Fixed Trunnion Bascule bridge Nose-lock Rolling lift Bascule bridge Rollers Draw bar Hydraulic jack Tail end

Ponts cbles Pont suspendu Forces de traction Ancrage Poutre de rigidit Viaduc Trave principale Ponts haubans Ponts mobiles Trafic de navigation Pont basculant Tourillon ou axe Pont axe de basculement fixe Dispositif de blocage de l'about Pont basculant poutres circulaires Rouleaux Barres de traction Vrin hydraulique Extrmits de la contre-vole

Kabel-/Seilbrcke Hngebrcke Zugkrfte Verankerung Aussteifungselement Viadukt, Vorlandbrcke Hauptspannweite Schrgseilbrcken Bewegliche Brcken Schiffverkehr Zugbrcke Kolbenbolzenlager ------Rollen Drehstange Hydraulische Presse ---

Kalelbruer Hengebru Strekkraft Forankring

Mostovi na nosilnih kablih Viseci most Natezne sile Sidranje

Puentes de cables Puentes colgantes Traccin Anclaje Estructura rgida Viaducto Vano principal Puentes atirantados Puente mvil Trfico fluvial, martimo Puentes basculantes

Avstivningskonstruks Ojacitvena greda jon Viadukt Viadukt Hovedspenn Skrkabelbruer Bevegelig bruer Sjtrafikk Klaffebru Svingtapp Klaffebru m/motvekt Nesels Rulle - klaffebru Ruller/valser Strekkstag Hydraulisk jekk Klaffeende Glavni razpon Most s poevnimi zategami Premicni mostovi Plovni promet Dvini most Tecaj --Blokada celnega stika Valjcni dvini mostovi Valjcki Dvine palice Hidravlicni bat Konec

Puente levadizo Cerrojos Puente levadizo rodante Rodillo Barras izadoras Gato hidrulico Extremos

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Chp. 2.3.7.1 Chp. 2.3.7.2 Chp. 2.3.7.2 Chp. 2.3.7.2 Chp. 2.3.7.2 Chp. 2.3.7.2 Chp. 2.3.7.2 Chp. 2.3.7.2 Chp. 2.3.7.2 Chp. 2.3.7.3 Chp. 2.3.7.4 Chp. 2.3.7.4 Chp. 2.3.7.4 Chp. 2.3.7.4 Chp. 2.4.1 Chp. 2.4.1 Chp. 2.4.1 Chp. 2.4.1 Chp. 2.4.1

Bascule draw bridge Swing bridge Pivot Balanced Swing Bridge

Pont-levis Pont tournant Pivot

Hubbrcke Drehbrcke Angel, Zapfen ---

Klaffebru m/lftearm Dvini most Svinge bru Dreiekrans Vrtljiv most Os vrtljive konstrukcije

Puente basculante de balancn superior Puente giratorio Pivote Puente giratorios compensados Puente giratorio con vano de compensacin Vano extremo

211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225

Bobtail Swing Bridge Tail span To be bridged Centre of gravity Centre of rotation Rolling bridge Single -leaf Bascule bridge Double-leaf Bascule bridge Fixed Trunnion Bascule bridge Ferry quay Surface treatment Protection facilities Gravity abutment Cantilever abutment A-tower

Pont tournant deux voles symtriques ou non Pont tournant vole unique Contre-vole Nebenfeld tre franchi Centre de gravit Centre de rotation Pont rtractable Pont basculant vole unique Pont basculant double vole Pont axe de basculement fixe Quai pour ferry Traitement de surface Elements de protection Cule-poids Cule remblaye

Svingbru - likearmet Uravnoteeni konzolni rotirajoci most Svingbru - ulikearmet Konzolni rotirajoci most z repom Endespenn Dolina repa Skal krysses Tyngdepunkt Omdreiningspunkt Rullebru Klaffebru - enarmet Klaffebru - toarmet Klaffebru m/motvekt Ferjekai Overflatebehandling Premostiti Teice Sredice rotacije Most na valjckih Enojni dvini most Dvojni dvini most --Trajektni pomol Povrinska obdelava

---

berbrckt sein Schwerpunkt Drehpunkt Rollbrcke Einflgelige Hubbrcke Zweiflgelige Hubbrcke --Fhranleger Oberflchenbehandlung Schutzeinrichtung Schwergewichtswiderlager Auskragendes Widerlager

Centro de gravedad Centro de rotacin Puente rodante Puente levadizo de una hoja Puente levadizo de doble hoja Puente levadizo Muelle de ferry Tratamiento superficial Medidas de proteccin Estribo de gravedad Estribo en voladizo Pilonos en a

Beskyttelseselementer Varnostne naprave Massivt landkar Kasse-/vinkel/skivelandkar A-trn Tenostni opornik Konzolni opornik A-pilon

Pylne en forme de A A-frmiger Turm

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226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237

Chp. 2.4.1 Chp. 2.4.2 Chp. 2.4.2 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.1 Chp. 2.4.2.2 Chp. 2.4.2.2 Fig 2.4.3.2a Fig 2.4.3.2a

H-tower Retaining wall Element codes River course River bed River bank Scouring Erosion Gabions Gabion boxes Gabion mattresses Apron

Pylne en forme de H Mur de soutnement Codes des lments Rivire Lit de la rivire Berge de la rivre Affouillement Erosion Gabions Gabion (en forme de cages) Matelas de gabions Protection contre laffouillement Enrochement Perr Rideau de palpieux Digue Affouillement Sol de fondation Mur garde-grve Sommier

H-frmiger Turm Sttzwand Elementverschlsselung Flusslauf Flussbett Flussufer Abrieb Erosion Gabionen Gabionenksten Gabionenplatten Frontschrze

H-trn Stttemur Elementkoder See 35 Elveleie Elvebredd Erosjon under vann/undergraving Erosjon Gabioner Gabionkasser Gabionmatter

H-pilon Podporni zid ifrant elementov Recno korito Dno recnega korita Breine recnega korita Spodjedanje Erozija Zacitne zgradbe Zacitni bloki Zacitne imnice

Pilonos en h Muros de contencin Cdigo del elemento Cauce Lecho Margen del ro Socavacin Erosin Gavin Jaula de gaviones Muro de gaviones Proteccin

238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245

Riprap Stone pitching Piled walls Check dams Under-scouring Subsoil Ballast wall Bearing shelf

Steinpackung Steinschttung Pfahlwand berwachungsdam Untersplung Baugrund Kammerwand Auflagerbank

InnlpsZacitna obloga /utlpsplate/erosjonsb eskyttelse Erosjonsbeskyttelse Kamnomet av stein Steinlegging Kamniti tlak Spuntvegg Reguleringsterskel i elvelp Undergraving Undergrunn, dypere jordlag Bakmur Lageropplegg Zagatnice Prag Spodjedanje Nosilna plast zemljine Stena za leicno polico Leicna polica

Escollera Mampostera Tablestacas Diques de retencin Socavacin inferior Subsuelo Murete de contencin Superficie de apoyo

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Fig 2.4.3.2a Abutment wall Fig 2.4.3.2a Weep holes

Mur de cule Barbacanes

Widerlagerwand Entwsserungsffnungen

Frontmur Dreneringshull

248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263

Fig 2.4.3.2a Abutment foundation Chp. 2.4.3.2 Chp. 2.4.3.2 Chp. 2.4.3.2 Chp. 2.4.3.2 Chp. 2.4.3.2 Chp. 2.4.3.2 Chp. 2.4.3.2 Chp. 2.4.3.2 Chp. 2.4.3.2 Chp. 2.4.3.3 Chp. 2.4.3.3 Chp. 2.4.3.3 Chp. 2.4.3.3 Chp. 2.4.3.3 Chp. 2.4.3.3 Approach slab (Run-on slab) Solid masonry Hewn stones Mass concrete Spread foundation or footing Pile Caissons Pile cap End wall Single column pier Multi column pier Wall pier Gravity pier Pier cap (Pier head) Pier column

Fondation de la cule Widerlagergrndung Dalle de transition Maonnerie pleine Pierres de taille Bton de masse --Massives Mauerwerk Naturwerkstein Massenbeton

Landkarfundament Last fordelingsplate Massivt murverk Huggen stein Uarmert betong Slefundamerting Pel Senkekasse Pelehode Endevegg Enkelsyle pilar Flersyle pillar Skivepilar Gravitasjonspilar Pilarhode Pilarsyle

Stena krajnega opornika, krajni opornik Barbakane (luknje za odvodnjavanje iza opornikov) Temelji krajnega opornika Prehodna ploca Zidana zgradba Rezani kamni Masivni beton Pasovni temelji Pilot Keson Pilotna kapa Celni zid Samostojni steber Vec Stenasti podpornik Tenostni podpornik Precka nad podpornikom Steber

Muro del estribo Orificios de drenaje

Cimentacin del estribo Losa de transicin Fbrica Piedra labrada Hormign en masa Zapata corrida Pilote Cajn Encepado Murete Pila de un fuste Pila de multiples fustes Pila tabique Pila de gravedad Cabeza de pila Fuste

Semelle de fondation Flach- oder Flchengrndung Pieu Caissons Chevtre sur pieux Mur de tte Pfeiler, Pfahl Senkkasten Pfalkopf(-platte) Abschlusswand

Pile colonne unique Eingliederiger Pfeiler Pile colonnes multiples Pile mur Pile massive Chevtre de pile Pile colonne mehrfach Wandpfeiler Schwergewichtspfeiler Pfahlkopf Pfahl

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Chp. 2.4.3.3 Chp. 2.4.3.3 Chp. 2.4.3.4 Chp. 2.4.3.4 Chp. 2.4.3.4 Chp. 2.4.3.4 Chp. 2.4.3.4 Chp. 2.4.3.4 Chp. 2.4.3.6 Chp. 2.4.3.6 Chp. 2.4.3.7 Chp. 2.4.3.7 Chp. 2.4.3.7 Chp. 2.4.4.2 Fig 2.4.4.2b Fig 2.4.4.2b

Pier wall Pier foundation Top cross beam Cable saddle Tower leg Deck cross beam Friction pile Head bearing pile The haunch Curved slab Interior walls Coating Impregnation Pre-stressed concrete Flange angle Riveted or welded beams

Voile de lappui Fondation de lappui

Pfahlwand Pfahlgrndung

See 260 Pilarfundament Tverrbrer i toppen

Stena Temelji podpornika Zgornji precni nosilec

Tabique Cimentacin de la pila Travesao superior Silla del cable Fuste de pilono Travesao inferior Pilotes flotantes Pilotes apoyados en punta Cartela Losa curva Muros interiores Revestimiento Impregnacin Hormign pretensado Angular del ala Vigas roblonadas o soldadas Viga de hormign en t Viga de hormign en doble t

Entretoise suprieure Oberer Querbalken; -trger Selle Jambes du pylne Kabelsattel Turmsttzen

Sadel/lager brekabel Sedlo Trnbein Noga pilona

Entretoise support du Fahrbahnquerbalken, -trger tablier Pieu flottant Reibungspfahl Pieu encastr Gousset Dalle incurve Parois intrieures Revtement Imprgnation Bton prcontraint Cornire Poutres rivetes ou soudes Poutre en T en bton Poutre en T talon, en bton Bodenpressungspfahl Gewlbevoute Gekrmmte Platte Innenwnde Beschichtung Imprgnierung Vorgespannter Beton, Spannbeton

Tverrbrer ved dekke Precni nosilec vozicne ploce Svevende pel Trenjski pilot Spissbrende pel Voute Buet plate Innvendige vegger Belegg Impregnering Spennbetong Stojeci pilot Vuta Ploca v vertikalni zaokroitvi Notranje stene Premaz Impregnacija Prednapeti beton Kotnik ob spodnji pasnici Koviceni ali varjeni nosilci Enojni betonski T-nosilec Betonski T-nosilec

Fig 2.4.4.2d Single concrete T-beam Fig 2.4.4.2e Double concrete T-beam

Flanschwinkel Flensvinkel Genietete oder geschweite Balken Naglet eller sveiste bjelker Einfacher Plattenbalken aus Beton Enkel T-bjelke i betong Doppel-T-Trger aus Beton Dobbel T-bjelke i betong

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Fig 2.4.4.2e Bulb concrete T-beam

Poutre en I en bton

---

283 284 285

Fig 2.4.4.2g Single or Multi-cell Box beams Fig 2.4.4.2h Spread Box beam Fig 2.4.4.2h Channel Box beam

286

Fig 2.4.4.2h Lacing Box beam

287

Fig 2.4.4.2h Angle Box beam

288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295

Fig. 2.4.4.2i Channel beam Fig. 2.4.4.2j Rectangular beams Fig. 2.4.4.2j Glued laminated beam Fig. 2.4.4.2j Sawn solid beam Fig 2.4.4.2k Circular beams Fig 2.4.4.2k Log beam Fig 2.4.4.2k Shear connectors Chp. 2.4.4.3 Plate girders

Poutre-caisson uniou multi-cellulaire Poutres multicaissons Poutre-caisson constitue de profils en U Poutre-caisson hourdis infrieur constitu de plaques Poutre-caisson constitue de cornieres Poutre en Poutre section rectangulaire Poutre en lamell coll Poutre en bois scie Poutre en bois de section circulaire Rondin Connecteurs de cisaillement Poutres reconstitues en tles dacier soudes Cornires Raidisseur Poutres en V

Einzellige oder mehrzellige Hohlkastentrger Mehrteilige Hohlkastentrger U-frmige rger

Dobbel T-bjelke i bet. m/skrnende underflens Kassebru med en eller flere kasser Hul firkantbjelke Rektangulr gitterbjelke Avstivere

Betonski T-nosilec Viga de hormign en (irokopasnicni T nosilec) doble t Eno ali veccelicni katlasti nosilec Celicni katlasti nosilci Ponvasti nosilec (pnosilec) Mreasti katlasti nosilec Vigas cajn mono o multicelular Tablero de vigas cajn Viga artesa

Gittertrger

Viga cajn empresillada

Aus Winkeln zusammengesetzter Kastentrger U-frmiger Trger Trger mit Rechteckquerschnitt Verleimter Brettschichttrger Gesgter Vollholztrger Trger mit kreisfrmigem Querschnitt Rundholztrger Schubverbinder Vollwandtrger

Vinkel

Mreasti katlasti nosilec

Viga cajn con angulares

Omvendt U-bjelkel Rektangulre bjelker Limtrebjelke Massiv trebjelke Sirkulr bjelker Rundmmerbjelker Skjrkopling See 157

Ponvasti nosilec (pnosilec) Pravokotni nosilci Lamelni lepljeni nosilci Nosilec iz aganega lesa Okrogli nosilci Hlod Mozniki Jekleni nosilci iz plocevine Jekleni kotniki Ojacitev Sovpreni nosilec

Viga artesa Vigas seccin rectangular Vigas laminada encolada Viga maciza Vigas seccin circular (de madera) Viga tronco Conectadores de rasante Viga metlica laminada

296 297 298

Chp. Steel angle brackets 2.4.4.3 Fig 2.4.4.3a Stiffener Chp. V-girders 2.4.4.3

Winkelkonsolen aus Stahl Aussteifung V-frmiger Trger

Stlvinkelbraketter Avstiver V-bjelker

Angulares de acero Rigidizador Vigas en v

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Chp. 2.4.4.4 Chp. 2.4.4.4 Chp. 2.4.4.4 Chp. 2.4.4.4 Chp. 2.4.4.4 Fig 2.4.4.4b Chp. 2.4.4.4 Chp. 2.4.4.4 Chp. 2.4.4.4 Chp. 2.4.4.5 Chp. 2.4.4.5 Chp. 2.4.4.5 Chp. 2.4.4.5 Chp. 2.4.4.5 Chp. 2.4.4.5 Chp. 2.4.4.5 Chp. 2.4.4.7

Bridge deck In-situ and pre-cast bridge deck Thin-plate deck Plank deck Lattice deck Timber running strips Grout Water repellent membrane Vacuum pressure timber Arch structure with intermediate deck Arch structure with underlying deck Arch structure with deck on top Open or closed spandrel arches Spandrel column Spandrel column cap Suspenders Top boom

Tablier

Brckenfahrbahnplatte

Brudekke Plasstpt og prefabrikkert brudekke Tynnplatedekke Plankedekke Gitterristdekke Slitelag av tre Mrtel Hydrofoberende membran Trykkimpregnert trevirke Buekonstruksjon med mellomliggende dekke Buekonstruksjon med underliggende dekke Buekonstruksjon med overliggende dekke Hvelvbru med pen eller hel overmur Buesyle Buesylehode Hengestag Overgurt

Vozicna ploca Na mestu betonirana in prefabricirana vozicna ploca Tanke vozicne ploce Lesena vozicna ploca Mreasta vozicna ploca Podnice Omet Vododbojna membrana (vodoodbojni premaz) Vakumiziran les Locna konstrukcija s spucenim vozicem Locna konstrukcija z zatego Locna konstrukcija z vozicem nad lokom Odprti ali zaprti bocni polnilni zid Celni podporni steber Glava celnega podpornega stebra Obese, vealke Zgornja pasnica

Tablero de punete Tablero construido in situ o prefabricado Tablero de chapas metlicas Tablero de planchas de madera Tablero de celosa Tarima Lechada de cemento Lmina de impermeabilizacin Vaco Estructura arco con tablero intermedio Arco con tablero inferior Arco con tablero superior Arco con tmpanos aligerados o macizos Columnas Dintel entre columnas Pndolas Cordn superior

tablier coul en place Vor Ort gefertigte und ou prfabriqu vorgefertigte Fahrbahnplatte Platelage mtallique Platelage en bois Platelage mtallique lger Planches de roulement en bois Coulis Dnne Fahrbahnplatte Fahrbahnplatte mit Bohlen Fahrbahnrost Holzstreifen Verguss

301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308

membrane Wasser abweisende Membran hydrophobe Bois inject sous vide Druckimprgniertes Holz Arc tablier intermdiaire Arc tablier infrieur Arc tablier suprieur arc avec/sans tympans colonne Pice de pont Suspentes Bogenbrcke mit mittiger Fahrbahnplatte Bogenbrcke mit abgehngter Fahrbahn Bogenbrcke mit aufgestnderter Fahrbahnplatte Bogen mit offenen oder geschlossenen Zwickeln Stnder Aussteifungsverband Hnger

309 310 311 312 313 314 315

Membrure suprieure Obergurt

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Chp. 2.4.4.7 Chp. 2.4.4.7 Chp. 2.4.4.7 Chp. 2.4.4.7 Chp. 2.4.4.7 Chp. 2.4.4.7 Chp. 2.4.4.7 Chp. 2.4.5 Chp. 2.4.5 Chp. 2.4.5 Chp. 2.4.5 Chp. 2.4.6.2 Chp. 2.4.7.1 Chp. 2.4.7.1 Chp. 2.4.7.1 Chp. 2.4.7.1 Chp. 2.4.7.1

Bottom boom End struts

Membrure infrieure

Untergurt

Undergurt Ende-diagonal Diagonal- eller vertikalavstiver Vindavstivning (vre) Langbrer

Spodnja pasnica Krajni poevni steber Diagonale ali vertikale Zgornje zavetrovanje Vzdolni nosilci

Cordn inferior Diagonal extrema Diagonal o montante Arriostramiento transversal superior Largueros

Montants dextrmit Endstreben Streben oder Stiele Oberer Windverband Lngstrger

Diagonal or vertical struts Diagonales ou montants Top wind bracing Contreventement Longitudinal girder or stringer Sway or bottom brace Galvanised Cable bridges Main cable Suspender cables (Hangers) Longitudinal stiffening girder Rim bearing Poutres longitudinales ou longerons Contreventement infrieur Galvanis ponts a cables Cble principal Suspentes Poutres de rigidit longitudinales Appareil dappui chemin de roulement circulaire Appareil dappui glissant plaques mtalliques Appareil dappui rouleaux Appareil dappui bielle Appareil d'appui articulation Appareil dappui pot

321 322 323 324 325 326 327

Querverband oder untere Aussteifung galvanisiert Seilbrcken Haupttragseil Hnger Ausgesteifter Lngstrger Endauflager

Tverravstivere (nedre) Galvanisert See 188 Hovedkabel Hengestenger/-stag Langsgende avstivningsbrer Kranslager

Spodnje zavetrovanje Galvanizirano Mostovi na nosilnih kablih Nosilni kabel Obese, vealke Vzdolni togi nosilci Vrtljivo leice

Arriostramiento transversal inferior Galvanizado Puente de cables Cable principal (portante) Pndolas Vigas rigidizadoras longitudinales Aparato de apoyo circunferencial Aparato de apoyo deslizante Aparato de apoyo de rodillos Aparato de apoyo de pndolo Aparato de apoyo articulado Aparato de apoyo de neopreno confinado(tipo pot)

328

Sliding plate bearing

Gleitlager

Glidelager

Drsno leice

329 330 331 332

Roller bearing Pin and link bearing Hinged bearing Pot bearing

Rollenlager Bolzengelenk Linienkipplager Topflager

Rullelager Pendellager Rotasjonslager Potlager

Valjcno leice Jekleno clenkasto pomicno leice Clenkasto leice Loncno leice

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Chp. 2.4.7.1 Chp. 2.4.7.1 Chp. 2.4.7.1 Chp. 2.4.7.2 Chp. 2.4.7.2 Chp. 2.4.7.2 Chp. 2.4.7.2 Chp. 2.4.7.2 Chp. 2.4.7.2 Chp. 2.4.7.2 Chp. 2.4.7.2 Chp. 2.4.7.3 Chp. 2.4.7.3 Chp. 2.4.7.3 Chp. 2.4.7.3 Chp. 2.4.7.3 Chp. 2.4.7.3

Elastomeric bearing Restraining bearing Rocker bearing Open joint

Appareil dappui en caoutchouc Appareil dappui anti-soulvement Appareil dappui balancier Joint non tanche

Elastomerlager Festes Lager Kalottenlager Offene Fuge, Fahrbahnbergang, wasserdurchlssige Fahrbahnbergangskonstruktion Geschlossene Fuge, Fahrbahnbergang --Fingerkonstruktion Asphaltbergang

Neoprenlager Motholdslager Rullelager pen fuge

Elastomerno leice Pridrevalno leice Tockovno drsno leice Odprta dilatacija

Aparato de apoyo de elastmero Aparato de apoyo anclado Aparato de apoyo de oscilacin Junta abierta

337 338 339 340 341

Closed joint Formed joint Finger plate Pour joint seal Compression seal joint

Joint tanche Joint hiatus Joint peigne Joint revtement amlior Joint lment de dilatation en caoutchouc Joint plaque de glissement Joint pont en bande Chausse Chausse

Lukket fuge See 336 Stlplatefuge fingerkonstruksjon Asfaltfuge

Vodotesna dilatacija Profiliran Glavnikasta ploca (glavnikasta dilatacija) Asfaltna dilatacija

Junta cerrrada Junta abierta de guardacantos Junta de peines metlicos Junta sellada

Fahrbahnbergang mit Dichtprofil Gummifuge, ACME e.l. Schleppblechdachkonstruktion Elastomeres Dichtprofil Brckenbelag Fahrbahn Stlplatefuge riffelstl Gummifuge, armert Slitelag brudekke Brubelegning, vegdekke Opprettingslag Avrettingslag Fuktisolering Slitelag

Kompresijski tesnilni trak Junta de sellante comprimido Drsna jeklena dilatacija Elastomerna blazinasta dilatacija Vozicna povrina Tlak, Povrinska obloga cestica Zacitna plast Nosilni sloj Vodotesni sloj Obrabna plast Junta de placas deslizantes Junta de perfil de elastmero Firme Pavimento Base Capa de reparto Capa impermeabilizante Capa de rodadura

342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349

Sliding plate joint Elastomeric seal joint Bridge deck surfacing Pavement Spread course Dispersing layer Waterproofing layer Wearing course

Couche de protection Tragschicht de la chape couche de rpartition Lastverteilungsschicht Chape dtanchit Abdichtung, Dichtungsschicht

Couche de roulement Verschleischicht

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Chp. 2.4.7.3 Chp. 2.4.7.3 Chp. 2.4.7.3 Chp. 2.4.7.3 Chp. 2.4.7.3 Chp. 2.4.7.3 Fig. 2.4.7.3 Chp. 2.4.7.4 Chp. 2.4.7.4 Chp. 2.4.7.4 Chp. 2.4.7.4 Chp. 2.4.7.4 Chp. 2.4.7.5 Chp. 2.4.7.5 Chp. 2.4.7.5 Chp. 2.4.7.5 Chp. 2.4.7.5 Chp. 2.4.7.5 Chp. 2.4.7.5

Watertight barrier Waterproofing mats Bituminous surfacing Concrete surfacing Timber surfacing Gravel surfacing Joint sealer Drainage from deck

Barrire tanche Feuilles dtanchit Chausse bitumineuse Chausse en bton Chausse en bois Chausse en gravillons Joint dtanchit Drainage du tablier

Wasserdichte Absperrung Abdichtungsmatten Bituminser Belag Betonbelag Holzbelag Kiesbelag Fugenmasse Entwsserung der Fahrbahnplatte Entwsserung des Widerlagers Fugenentwsserung Straendammentwsserung Fallrohr

Fuktisoleringssperre

Vodotesna membrana

Barrera impermeable Capas impermeables Firme bituminoso Firme de hormign Firme de madera Firme de capas granulares Sellante de junta Drenaje del tablero Drenaje de los estribos Drenaje de las juntas Drenaje del terrapln Tubera de desage Pretil Postes de barandilla Barandilla Postes del pretil Viga de borde Barrera flexible Barrera rgida

Prefabrikert membran Hidroizolacijski trakovi Asfaltlag Betong slitelag Treslitelag Grusdekke Fugemasse Dekkedrenering Asfaltno vozice Betonsko vozice Leseno vozice Gramozno vozice Tesnilni kit Odvodnjavanje z vozica

Drainage from abutments Drainage des cules Drainage from joints Drainage from embankment Drain pipe Parapet Rail post Railing Parapet post Edge beam Guard rail barrier Drainage des joints Drainage des remblais Drain, gargouille

Drenering av landkar Odvodnjavanje izza krajnih opornikov Fugedrenering Odvodnjavanje izpod dilatacij Drenering fra fylling Odvodnjavanje z nasipov Dreneringsrr See 59 Rekkverksstolpe Rekkverk Rekkverksstolpe Kantdrager Fringsskinne Barriere Odtok Ograja Stebricek Varovanje Ograjni stebricek Robni venec Varovalna ograja Odbojna ograja

Parapet, dispositifs Brstung de scurit supports de glissires Gelnderpfosten glissires Support de dispositif de scurit Poutre de rive Glissire de scurit Barrire de scurit Gelnder Brstungspfosten Randtrger Gelnder Absperrung

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369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379

Chp. 2.4.7.5 Chp. 2.4.7.5 Chp. 2.4.7.5 Chp. 2.4.7.5 Chp. 2.4.7.5 Chp. 2.4.7.6 Chp. 2.4.7.6 Chp. 2.4.7.6 Chp. 2.4.7.6 Chp. 2.4.7.7 Chp. 2.4.7.7 Chp. 2.4.7.7

Bar railing Pipe railing Wire fence Expanded metal railing Concrete parapet Pedestrian walkway Separated walkway Raised walkway (Sidewalks) Hung-on walkway Edge beams Edge beam above deck cast in-situ Edge beam above and below deck cast in-situ

Garde-corps Lisses

Holmgelnder Rohrgelnder

Sprosserekkverk Rrrekkverk Wirerekkverk Gitterrekkverk Betongrekkverk Fortau Adskilt gangbane Opphyet gangbane Phengt gangbane Kantdrager

Zacitna ograja Oprijemni profil icna ograja Betonski parapet Hodnik za pece Loceni hodnik Dvignjeni hodnik Pritrjeni hodnik Robni venec

Barandilla de barrotes Barandilla de tubos Alambrada Barandilla de metal deploy Barrera de hormign Acera para peatones Acera separada Acera elevada Acera en voladizo Vigas de borde Viga de borde por encima del tablero construida in situ Viga de borde por encima y por debajo del tablero construida in situ

Garde-corps Drahtzaun constitu de cables Garde-corps en mtal Streckmetallgelnder dploy Parapet en bton Betonbrstung Trottoir Trottoirs spars de la chausse Trottoir trottoir en encorbellement Longrine Longrine coule en place sur le tablier poutre de rive audessus et en dessous du tablier coule en place(contrecorniche) Eclairage Feux de navigation Fugngerweg Abgetrennter Gehweg Gehweg Angehngter Gehweg Randtrger Randtrger ber der Fahrbahnplatte, vor Ort hergestellt (Kappe) Randtrger ber und unter der Fahrbahnplatte, vor Ort hergestellt (Kappe)

380

Overliggende Robni venec kantdrager plasstpt Over-/ underliggende Robni venec kantdrager - plasstpt

381 382 383 384

Chp. 2.4.8.1 Chp. 2.4.8.1 Chp. 2.4.8.1 Chp. 2.4.8.1

Highway lighting Navigation lights Aerial obstruction lights Traffic control lights

Straenbeleuchtung Navigationslichter

Vegbelysning Seilingslys Lys for lufttrafikk Trafikklys

Avtocestna razsvetljava Navigacijska (plovna) razsvetljava Signalne luci za zracni promet Semafor

Iluminacin de autopista Luces de navegacin Luces de balizamiento Luces de control de trfico

Feux de signalisation Flugsicherungsbeleuchtung pour les avions Feux de signalisation Verkehrsbeeinflussungsanlage pour le trafic

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Chp. 2.4.8.2 Chp. 2.4.8.2 Chp. 2.4.8.2 Chp. 2.4.8.2 Chp. 2.4.8.3 Chp. 2.4.8.3 Chp. 2.4.8.3 Chp. 2.4.8.3 Chp. 2.4.8.4 Chp. 2.4.8.4 Chp. 2.4.8.4

Access equipment Steps Ladders Catwalk

Equipements daccs Zugangsmglichkeiten Escaliers Echelles Treppen Leitern

Tilkomstutstyr Trapper Stiger Gangbane p f.eks.overgurten av fagverk, bjelker etc. Vektgrenseskilt Hydegrenseskilt Breddegrenseskilt

Dostopne naprave Stopnice Lestve Dostopna varovana pot

Equipamiento de acceso Escalones Escalera de mano Pasadizo

Passerelle ou chemin Catwalk daccs Signalisation de limite en tonnage Signalisation de gabarit en hauteur Signalisation de gabarit en largeur Signalisation dobstacles Canalisations deau Canalisations dassainissement Cbles lectriques Gewichtsbeschrnkende Beschilderung Hhenbeschrnkende Beschilderung Breitenbeschrnkende Beschilderung Warnschilder Wasserrohre Kanalisationsrohre Leitungen fr Elektrizitt

389 390 391 392 393 394 395

Weight limit sign Vertical clearance sign Lateral clearance sign Obstacle sign Water pipe Sewage pipe Electric cables

Znaki za omejitev nosilnosti Znaki za omejitev viine Znaki za omejitev irine

Seales de limitacin de peso Seales de glibo vertical Seales de ancho mximo Seales de obstculo Tubera de agua Tubera de saneamiento Cables elctricos

Hindermarkeringsskil Znak za oviro t Vannrr Vodovod Kloakkrr Elektriske kabler Kanalizacija Elektricne napeljave

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