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Pakistan Failed State

Shiv Sastry


Licence is hereby granted to make as many copies of this book as needed, and for the book to be distributed to anyone free of charge on condition that no modifications are made and no profit is made from the sharing of this work.


Dedicated to the memory of my cousin, late Wg Cdr. Kukke Suresh, VrC


The reason for writing this book is explained in the first chapter. Once I had collected the reference material it took me only three months to write the book. It then took me two years to refine and release the book as a freely downloadable e-book. I must take this opportunity to thank members of the forum at www.bharat-rakshak.com for their invaluable and selfless help in digging up material that served as references for this book. Furthermore I wish to thank the dozen or so people who helped me proof read the book and came up with useful suggestions. Prominent among these are ramana, acharya, kgoan and sudhir. Shiv January 20, 2007


plebiscite.CHAPTERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Why Pakistan? The people of Pakistan Education Industries and Economy of Pakistan Pakistani psyche general observations Women and Minorities of Pakistan Partition and the two-nation theory Islam and Pakistan Attitudes toward India and Indians The Pakistani Army Kashmir.Failed state Page Page Page Page Page Page Page 6 14 20 35 43 65 71 Page 80 Page 93 Page 99 Page 117 Page Page Page Page 131 135 147 160 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 References Page 174 Page 177 Page 180 Page 183 Page 186 5 . Jihad and Terrorism The Government and criminal activity Pakistan . Wars and genocide Provinces and Assorted Fragments Pakistan.

Many tend to look at the similarities and remark. In fact Pakistanis have spent all those decades since independence trying to show how Pakistan is not like India. That may appear true but it is important to understand that Pakistanis do not feel like Indians and do not like to say "Indians are just like us". 6 . a Review of the literature is often used to collect and collate information about a disease from various sources. no effort been made to collect this information and put it all together between the covers of a single book. Pakistani institutions and Pakistanis have developed certain unique and recognizable defining features. And in the intervening years Pakistan. this book can be considered a Review of the literature on Pakistan.Chapter 1 WHY PAKISTAN? Why write about Pakistan? Pakistan is a huge. In the field of medical research. newspaper reports and magazines. More that anything else. "Pakistanis are just like us". Most Indians do not understand Pakistan or Pakistanis. That document then serves as a comprehensive reference point for information about the subject. populous and diverse nation that has the curious distinction of having been suddenly born in 1947. and it has been an aggressive and implacable neighbor of India. While these features have been noted time and again by innumerable people in a large number of books. Such a review collects up all the available information about a given disease from all the medical papers available on the subject and consolidates the information in one document.

and it is an insult to Indian Muslims to refer to them as being associated with Pakistan. not to be discussed by secular non-Muslim Indians. Today. This is an obvious logical fallacy and it is also deeply insulting 7 to all Indian Muslims - . It is a summary of the experiences and descriptions of many people who have reported or written about Pakistan. First. An automatic and needless mental connection is made between the subject of Pakistan and the Muslims of India. This is both unfortunate and unfair to Indian Muslims. the managing editor of the Hindustan Times has written about this (1): At a sub-conscious level. Vir Sanghvi. referring to Pakistan does not mean that we are obliquely referring to Indian Muslims. some Indians make the simplistic assumption that because (nearly) all Pakistanis are Muslims. For this reason Pakistan and Islamic extremism emanating from Pakistan have almost been taboo subjects in India. and are sometimes called saffron sympathisers. so all Muslims must be Pakistanis in their hearts. The book carries many direct quotes from various authors and these quotes are in italics. There are a few things that Indian readers should keep in mind while reading this book. Indians often become embarrassed or angry in discussions about Pakistan and Pakistanis. lest they should hurt the sentiments of Muslims in India. while the sources from which the quotes have been taken are listed in the reference section at the end of the book. Indian Muslims are quite different from Pakistanis.This book is a collection and review of what has been written about Pakistan in various sources over many years. Indians who talk about Pakistan or Islam are often considered to be opponents of secularism and tolerance.

The situation and attitudes of Muslims in India are no longer comparable to those in Pakistan.including Zaheer Khan and Irfan Pathan who are setting out for Pakistan. Pakistan is Pakistan. and that is unfortunate. and Pakistanis are Pakistanis. determined to keep the Indian flag flying on the cricket field. There are many assumptions and misconceptions that need to be reviewed. Indians are Indians. Pakistanis are no longer Indians. But 8 . Muslims in India are not Pakistanis. a hangover from partition. not Pakistanis. This vestigial thought process remains in many Indian minds like a dark cloud. not Indians. and call for an avoidance of what seems to be an Indian obsession with Pakistan. and these will become clear in subsequent chapters. One of the purposes of this book is to show precisely what has been done with Islam in Pakistan. It requires a deliberate act of mental re-orientation for non-Muslims in India to learn to talk about Pakistanis without equating them with Indian Muslims. we must remember that when we speak of Pakistan and Islam we are not referring to Indian Muslims and the vastly different way in which Islam has evolved in India since independence. a separate nation. Another point to inability to develop a coherent note is that no discussion or description of Pakistan can even begin to be meaningful without considering the role that Islam plays on the mind of the Pakistani. to say nothing of the thousands of Muslims who have died fighting Pakistan. Here again. Confusion and misunderstanding in Indian attitudes more than five decades after independence are certainly a factor in the Indian Pakistan policy. they are Indians. As the Indian economy forges ahead there is an increasing constituency of Indians who feel that Pakistan is a small problem that can be ignored.

many non-Muslim Indians got polarized mainly into two groups. would somehow feel upset enough to want to side with Pakistan. In five of those wars armed forces from Pakistan have been the adversary that Indian civilians and Indian soldiers have had to face. the to expand to keep pace with the massive build up and continuing 9 . the importance of Pakistan lies in its extreme hostility to India. unless treated in an especially favorable and kind manner. Pakistan has thus had a great impact on Hindu-Muslim relations in India. and the fifth engagement with Pakistan still continues at the time of writing. a love-hate relationship that affected Indian society. In the first 55 years after independence. The events of independence and partition had a deep effect on the Indian psyche. and has put a great strain on the ancient Indian tradition of tolerance and pluralism. With Pakistani leaders attempting to speak for the Muslims in India. with people who were brothers and compatriots until very recently created a complex conflict. From Indian armed forces and paramilitary have had of armed of a low1965. One group of Indians began to view their Muslim compatriots with hostility as recessed Pakistanis who were always seen cheering for Pakistan in cricket matches. with the infiltration terrorists from Pakistan into India as part grade war to bleed India (chapter 12). The appearance of the new nation Pakistan as a neighbor. neither of whom were able to look upon Indian Muslims as they should have been looked at. Four of these conflicts are discussed in chapter 11. as Indians like everyone else.Pakistan cannot be ignored by India for many reasons. Another group of Indians took the opposite viewpoint that Indian Muslims. the Indian armed forces have had to fight wars on eight occasions (2). Apart from the deep mental scar that partition left on the Indian psyche.

while a policy that puts too much emphasis on hurriedly delivering a total military defeat on Pakistan could divert too large a proportion of meager resources towards a war machine. 10 . But this build up must not come in the way of urgently needed development and modernization. By studying what Pakistan has done. or the naive policy of appeasement of Adolf Hitler followed by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. underestimation of problems and hurdles. or has not done since independence. No matter how well intentioned and peaceable a nation state may be. blindness to the impact of religious discrimination. Unilateral pacifism displayed by one nation state when another nation shows every sign of being ready for war is a policy that begs for defeat and disaster. discrimination against minorities and maldistribution of wealth. Pakistan has made a whole tapestry of errors that Indians can choose to repeat or avoid. a population explosion and social inequity. Indians cannot afford to forget the lessons that can be learned from events like the India-China conflict of 1962. It is still possible for Indians to make the mistakes Pakistanis have made. ignoring corruption. A policy of ignoring Pakistan's military intent and might would be a formula for a disaster of unimaginable proportions. Indians have a lot to learn. mistakes that India could still make.assaults from Pakistan. and India would do well to learn from that. and attempting to play great power games in the absence of a matching military-industrial-economic capability are some of the mistakes that Pakistan has made. and if necessary take the battle into the aggressor's territory. Overconfidence. the presence of a belligerent neighbor is a signal that military strength must be adequate to meet any aggressive intent. That is one of the mistakes that Pakistani leaders committed.

would seem that the India box is in a far worse with many more broken eggs. To illustrate why a direct comparison between India and Pakistan can be misleading we need to use an analogy: Imagine India to be a box with 100 eggs in it. But what is hidden from this comparison. Direct comparisons of numbers regarding Pakistan and India are misleading because of the difference in size. All references to Pakistani problems are referred to by Pakistani spokespersons as South Asian problems. A direct broken and it shape. South Asian poverty. every attempt has been made in this work to avoid direct comparisons between India and Pakistan. and it requires elaboration. is that the India box has 70 intact eggs while the Pakistan box has only 5 intact eggs.Finally. but Pakistani leaders have persistently tried to hide problems within Pakistan such as poverty and illiteracy by saying that India has more problems than Pakistan. All that this does is to hide the magnitude of the problems in Pakistan. except where it is unavoidable. Imagine Pakistan to be a smaller box with 10 eggs in it. and the Pakistan box has only 5 broken eggs. and 5 of those eggs are broken. and South Asian illiteracy. 11 and hide the chronic . comparison will show that the India box has 30 eggs. South Asian hunger. but 30 of those eggs are broken. the two entities cannot really be compared. Although both India and Pakistan started off as having been part of one nation in the pre-Independence era. This means that all numbers and figures relating to India are automatically bigger than those of Pakistan. There is a very important reason for that. India is four times larger than Pakistan in land area and currently has a population that is over seven times the size of Pakistan's population.

In this book we will examine the state that Pakistan has got itself into and deal with how it got into its current crisis. India has to educate seven children in order to "match Pakistan". it has moved ahead in literacy and is racing ahead in other parameters. since independence India has spent relatively more on development and less on defence while Pakistan has spent almost everything on arms and very little on development. But that is not the case. India and Pakistan do share many of the same problems. In 2007 12 . but a comparison of the real figures between India and Pakistan shows that Pakistan is not doing well. With India having a population that is seven times as big as that of Pakistan. But India is not merely matching Pakistan. Pakistan's task should have been easier. but these details will be discussed later.mismanagement of Pakistan. and is falling behind. A direct comparison of numbers will not reveal this and such direct comparisons are useful only to hide Pakistan's increasing problems. the Indian army is less than one and a half times as big as the Pakistani army. Pakistan of course was amply aided by other nations. even though the number of people who are poor in Pakistan. For every child that Pakistan educates. but Pakistan is failing even to achieve a smaller task. And while these figures get worse. a quick comparison of the Pakistani armed forces and the Indian armed forces is illustrative of what the two countries have been doing since Independence. and the number of people requiring education in Pakistan are far smaller than the number in India. the Indian army should have been at least three or four times the size of the Pakistan army. That is because.

13 . Anyone who has wished for anything bad to happen to Pakistan is likely to find great joy in the condition that Pakistan has reached.Pakistan is not in an enviable state.

making it the fourth most populated country in the world The report goes on to say: The population growth has caused an eight-time increase in the unemployment. Pakistan's population is currently thought to be increasing at the rate of between 2.. food. arable land and clean water The vast majority of Pakistanis are villagers. living in rural areas. The "average Pakistani" is poor and uneducated. 70% of the population of Pakistan is uneducated.. living space.8% per year. by the year 2050. Pakistan's internal turmoil prevented a routine census from taking place in 1991. health services. The population explosion has led to the shortage of educational facilities. Some estimates say that Pakistan's population will double to over 300 million.Chapter 2 THE PEOPLE OF PAKISTAN Pakistan is currently estimated to have between 160 and 170 million people.1% and 2. and education among women is very low since few women are allowed to acquire 14 .With almost one third of the population living in abject poverty. but even at the lower estimate 8000 children are being born every day in Pakistan...5 million are illiterates. 53. According to some estimates. housing units. or one Pakistani is born every 10 seconds. Nobody knows exactly. 54 million people do not have access to safe drinking water . but it was finally conducted in 1998. The Pakistani paper the Jang reported in September 2003 (3): Pakistan's population will swell to 349 million by year 2050.

Pakistan is ruled by four interest or their coalition: military. mixing with strangers. form the cream of Pakistan(4). bureaucracy. well spoken Pakistani men and women that one may see on television. Making up the of these four interest groups. As the description suggests. the lords and the industrial barons. wealthy elite group that have been described by the expression "Rich. The "smartly dressed. But that is another curious hidden fact about Pakistan. Pakistani Elite".an education in a society that believes the women should not be seen in public places. nearly 2. These facts may seem surprising considering the smartly dressed. A report in the Jang (5) on Dec 5th 2003 says: Top 20 per cent of the population has 50 per cent of 15 . Most of the wealth. Anglophone. VP Dutt wrote: Another fundamental flaw is the very narrow social base of the groups feudal nucleus ruling elite.000 in all. are a dozen corps commanders. the cream of Pakistani society. they speak English and they form the elite. who. They actually form a very small minority. land and industries of Pakistan are said to be concentrated among about 43 top families of Pakistan. In an editorial in the Indian Express that appeared on January 28th 2002. numbering perhaps 25. it is believed.000 landlords owning more than half the cultivable land. along with top army officers.000 officers and less than 50 industrial families. It is they who own Pakistan and rule in the name of the people. well spoken Pakistani men and women that one may see on television" form a small. they are rich. a cadre of nearly 1.

with some feudal lords owning over 20. while the bottom 20 per cent has only 6 percent. Oxford and Cambridge. Most are sharecroppers. In some areas. such as Harvard. and often study abroad in the best institutions of the US and UK.national income. feudal landowning families as well as from the armed forces. The middle class in Pakistan have been estimated as being about 10 to 12 million in total (6. The elite of Pakistan come from rich.7) forming about 8% of the population. Their children go to the best schools in Pakistan.000 acres of land in a Pakistan that is full of impoverished people. They drive the Pajeros and the Mercedes-Benz cars of Pakistan. A fifth of Pakistan's government schools are "ghosts. the New York Times carried a report about Pakistan: In the cities. the turn of a street corner can seem to be time travel between centuries. making private laws and operating private jails. The contrast with India now is stunning with estimates of the middle class in India forming about 25 16 . eking out a subsistence. many of the poor are deprived of even an elementary education." with buildings but no students or teachers A third curious anomaly of Pakistan is the almost complete absence of a "middle class". Wide boulevards clogged with expensive cars become narrow lanes where shrouded women carry jugs of water on their heads. and they own much of the land. The literacy rate is below 40 percent. On October 2nd 2001. While the wealthy send their children to college in America or Britain. About 75 percent of all Pakistanis reside in rural areas. The Rich Anglophone Pakistani Elite have a great influence on the image of Pakistan abroad. feudal families still hold sway.

A large middle class creates a society in which people have the economic clout to break the economic stranglehold of a rich elite and ensure that their rights are looked after. Less than one out of ten belongs to the middle class and a very small number are extremely rich. The old feudal structure of society which Pakistan still retains. which the nation cannot keep denying anymore.to 30% of the population. Being a Muslim is important to the Pakistani citizen because it brings a semblance of order to his otherwise miserable and unenviable existence. consists of a small. A large middle class is an indicator of the development of a society from the traditional feudal pattern into a more modern society. The whole of Pakistan has only about 400. The average Pakistani is an illiterate and poor Muslim. A report by Pakistani researcher Masooda Bano carried in the News International Pakistan on 31st August 2001 said: Pakistan's middle class is shrinking while India's middle class is growing. A large middle class is an essential component of a ‘modern’ state and its absence marks a feudal state. More and more people in Pakistan are slipping in to poverty. This is a dangerous trend as the middle class is the backbone for any progressive society.9) We can thus define the "average Pakistani". Fitting in perfectly well with these facts are other items of information about the life of Pakistanis. for a population of 145 million. Pakistan has only 3 million TV sets. On top of that the rising of the fundamentalist groups in Pakistan is a fact. very rich elite governing a large mass of poor people. (8.000 cars. 17 . Nine out of ten Pakistanis are poor and uneducated.

tyrannical and corrupt leaders of Pakistan. answerable to an angry or demanding 18 . This stoic acceptance has allowed the rapacious elite and the resource-swallowing army of Pakistan to carry on with their atrociously rich lifestyles and blatant corruption for decades.Religion also helps to define the psyche of the Pakistani. Paradoxically. religion also helps in the survival of the rich. and. as a result of this belief. without having to be population. Islam teaches its followers to accept their lives as being preordained by God. which is dealt with in chapter 5. the poor and deprived Pakistani does not question or complain about his miserable life.

19 .

For example. Most people who take education for granted tend to forget the highly organized and civilized system that needs to be set up for an underdeveloped nation to build up a group of educated citizens who can serve as the pioneers of development. imagine a small town or village that needs a school. The people of the village or town need to understand the value of sending their children to be educated in school as opposed to keeping them at home for help in the fields or other work. with electricity for light bulbs. But it 20 appears that a series of . The precise manner in which lack of education and a runaway increase in population affects a country needs to be understood by leaders in power. The low literacy rate in Pakistan is an indicator of the facts that these fundamental investments have been ignored or sidelined for decades. Teachers are needed and for this the teacher himself must be educated .Chapter 3 EDUCATION Through the 1950s and 1960s. and the world's most powerful media apparatus that came with the US. English speaking Pakistani elite and the postworld war superpower. and the unquestioned technological leader among "Islamic nations" A closer look at the facts suggests that this was only an impression created by the fortuitous alliance between the suave. Pakistan was believed to be a leading light among developing nations. Development and technology require education. the United States of America. A building is required.a separate education system must exist to have a supply of teachers.

"The numbers that came up is 8. That's the kind of numbers we needed two years earlier. Pakistan has today 21 a very young population . But once these scientific changes affected human society.Pakistani leaders have never really understood how the twin facts of population explosion and lack of education feed upon each other leading to the population-illiteracy cycle getting worse at a faster and faster rate as time passes. maybe more. They can become 10. A report on reforming education in Pakistan on NBC said (10): Two years ago.000 in 2004. As a result. populations in many countries remained relatively stable. and simple treatments were devised to save lives in cases of deadly killer diarrheas. populations began to rise rapidly." said Zubaida Jalal. In the 20th century. the Pakistani government tried to estimate how many schools it would take to handle the 8 million kids of primary age not in class now. Pakistan's minister for education. rapid advances in the development and application of vaccination of people against killer diseases like smallpox and diphtheria led to a significant reduction in the number of children dying from these diseases.500 primary schools. Until these developments occurred. The UNFPA has recognized this and says in a report on Pakistan: The major contributing factor to population growth has been the sustained gap between low mortality and high fertility levels for the last three decades or so. because the number of people dying was approximately equal to the number of babies being born. making it increasingly difficult to catch up. Effective means were developed to reduce complications and deaths during pregnancy and childbirth.

developing country that is barely able to feed and provide employment for 1 million people. 22 . All these extra people have to have food and opportunities for employment. and they need to be educated regarding the importance of birth control and family planning. more poverty. Populations grow by what is called "geometric progression". with 43 per cent below the age of 15 and 63 per cent below the age of 25. That means more people who are unhappy and have reason to be angry. This is exactly what is happening in Pakistan (11. it will have to look after 32 million people just fifty years later. it will double to 4 million in a further ten years. since that is essential for slowing down the population explosion. That means that if a population of 1 million people doubles to 2 million in ten years. In fifty years. healthcare and education. more diseases from malnutrition and more unemployment.structure. Generations of Pakistanis have been born into poverty and deprivation without the knowledge or the means to slow down population growth or earn a living though a modern job from a modernizing economy. a rapid rise in population typically leads to more hunger.12). Unless a great deal of money and effort is put into planning for population growth such as food production. The population has increased by 50 million people in the last 15 years and the number of poor has doubled. Unfortunately Pakistan's leaders have never put in the required amount of money and effort into education of the Pakistani masses. If the original 1 million people lived in a poor. a population of 1 million can increase to 32 million. and then become 8 million in ten more years and so on.

A report in the San Francisco Chronicle (13) in Oct 2002 on the state of education in Pakistan states: According to government statistics for this year, the literacy rate is 49 percent overall, 61.3 for men and 36.8 for women .. putting Pakistan among the 20 least literate countries, according to World Bank's World Development Index. A government study commissioned last year demonstrated a clear cause-and- effect relationship between the lack of basic education and increasing poverty. A study of education in Pakistan reveals many reasons to be concerned, and few reasons to be happy. The state of education in Pakistan was described by Raymond Bonner in the New York Times on 31st March 2002: Pakistan's literacy rate ranks below that of countries like Haiti, Rwanda and Sudan, according to the most recent United Nations Development Program report... Pakistan's most recent budget sets aside $107 million for education, compared with $2 billion for the military.

Madrassa education in Pakistan: Over large areas of Pakistan, the lack of schools was made up to some extent by madrassas or Islamic schools. Madrassas exist in all nations with a Muslim population, but what is taught in a madrassa can vary significantly depending on the country and government. The madrassas of Pakistan have played a prominent role in making Pakistan the unstable, recessed theocratic state that it is today. Columnist ABS Jafri wrote in the Dawn (14): 23

...in Sindh province we have more than a quarter of a million students in the religious Madaris. In Karachi alone there are well over 226,000 children in these religious seminaries.. In the whole of the province there are only 1,500 middle schools. Compare this with 869 Madaris in Karachi alone.

Nadeem Iqbal, writing for the Asia Times reported (15): Currently there are some one million to 1.7 million

students enrolled in madrassas in Pakistan, most of them between the ages of five to 18 and from poor families. According to Dr. Tariq Rahman, Professor of Linguistics and South Asian Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan had only 137 madrassas in 1947. Dr. Rahman writes of Pakistani madrassas (16): In 1950 there were 210 of them while in 1971 they increased to 563. Nowadays there are at least 7000 of them. After the 1971 war of liberation of Bangladesh, the process of making Pakistanis more Islamic, the so called Islamization of Pakistan was given impetus. It was initiated by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, and the Pakistani General Zia ul Haq who removed Bhutto in a coup and later hanged him, accelerated the process. The exact number of madrassas cannot be known because of the lack of registration or census. Analyst Alexei Alexiev writes(17): While no official nation-wide study of these madrassas exists, estimates of their overall number range between 24

10,000 and 20,000; unregistered seminaries may add another 10,000 to the total. As for the number of students, here the estimate ranges from a conservative half-million to over 2 million. (By comparison, some 1.9 million Pakistani schools in 2002.) children reportedly attended primary

In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, and this gave the US an opportunity to utilize its Cold War alliance with Pakistan to battle the Soviet invasion. The US pumped in large amounts of money and arms into Pakistan, much of it channeled via Saudi Arabia. The Saudi connection enabled the setting up of a vast number of madrassas in Pakistan. Because of the great poverty and lack of schools in Pakistan, madrassas were a natural attraction for the average Pakistani, as being schools that adhered to Islamic values while feeding and housing students, and taking over the burden of looking after one or more sons from a large, poor and ill-fed Pakistani family. Pamela Constable, a columnist for the Washington Post wrote on 20th September 2001 (18), just days after the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York: In recent years, however, a number of religious parties and groups have been rapidly gaining influence throughout Pakistani society. Based in thousands of mosques and Islamic academies called madrassas, they spread their message in part by offering services, especially low-cost education, that millions of poor Pakistani families cannot obtain any other way. The name madrassa merely connotes a school. Aijazz Ahmed wrote about madrassas in the Asia Times (19) in January 2003:


Madrassas were introduced about 300 years ago on the Indian subcontinent by then Muslim monarchs and rulers to produce a bureaucracy capable of running the day-to-day affairs of state, especially in terms of financial and legal issues, according to the wishes and pleasure of the king. Ahmed continues: Professor Dr Manzoor, a renowned scholar, writer and researcher, comments that nowadays many madrassas have taken an unfortunate direction. "The new role of the madrassas and [the influence] of religious elements has added nothing but hatred against non-Muslims and different sects of Islam. Although some major schools produced better results and play their role for religious harmony, many inject the poison of extremism, sectarianism and ignorance and have become a source of increasing ignorance and religious intolerance in Pakistani society." At he best of times, the normal curriculum in madrassas did not offer a well rounded education that included maths, science and information technology. The subjects were frozen 300 years ago, and included logic, Arabic literature and grammar, and Koranic teachings. But during the Cold War, the number of madrassas

burgeoned rapidly and tens of thousands were set up offering only a narrow interpretation of Islam in which young people were indoctrinated into the concept of a violent jihad against unbelievers, and taught to believe that death on the battlefield fighting against the enemies of Islam such as the Soviet Union would ensure eternal paradise for the Islamic fighters. The preparation of young men for jihad and death in the 26

battlefield was surely very useful and convenient to provide an endless supply of soldiers to fight in Afghanistan, and such fighters under the name Taliban took over when the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan. But even after this, the madrassas that had supplied all these fanatical men did not close down, and indeed could not be closed down. The curriculum teaching jihad did not change either. Having nowhere else to go, thousands of madrassa trained students in Pakistan collected up, ready for jihad in any part of the world, including Kashmir, Bosnia, Chechnya, the Philippines, Indonesia, Palestine, Iraq and Turkey. Pamela Constable wrote in the Washington Post: During the 1980s, some radical Sunni groups in Pakistan sent young men to fight in Afghanistan against Soviet occupation, and many members of the Taliban graduated from their madrassas. More recently, a...number of Islamic students have been sent to fight against Indian troops in Kashmir.. In addition, Pakistan columnist Khaled Ahmed wrote in the Friday Times in November 21-27, 2003: What better example than the one found in Pakistan whose private armies interfered in Central Asia and China with public acclaim? Let's take a look at the Harkat al-Jahad al-Islami, Pakistan's biggest jihadi militia headquartered in Kandahar before it was scattered by the Americans. The Harkat was one of the militias boasting international linkages. It called itself 'the second line of defence of all Muslim states' and was active in Arakan in Burma, and Bangladesh, with well organised seminaries in Karachi, Chechnya, Sinkiang, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Its fund-raising was largely from Pakistan, but an additional source was 27 its activity of selling

weapons to other militias

Schools in Pakistan: Education in Pakistani schools outside of madrassas is not available to most Pakistanis. But even in the few schools that exist, the curriculum is deeply flawed. The following quotes are taken from an in depth study of what Pakistani school children are being taught in a compilation entitled The Subtle Subversion - The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan by A.H. Nayyar and Ahmed Salim (20): Madrassas are not the only institutions breeding hate, intolerance, a distorted world view, etc. The educational material in the government run schools do much more than madrassas. The textbooks tell lies, create hate, incite for jehad and shahadat, and much more. ...children are now taught that the history of Pakistan starts from the day the first Muslim set foot in India. History and Pakistan studies textbooks rarely mention the ancient and non-controversial cultures of the Indus valley (Moenjodaro, Harrappa and Kot Diji), and completely bypass the entire Buddhist and Hindu periods of history. They suddenly jump to the advent of Mohammed bin Qasim in India and treat it as the beginning of history... this structuring is to make children regard the Muslim part of the history as the .. most significant part.' From about 1972 onwards, history taught in Pakistan was detached from history as we know it. Quoting further from the Nayyar and Salim report: 28

Four themes emerge most strongly.. 1. ... Pakistan is for Muslims alone; 2. ...Islamiat is to be forcibly taught




students, whatever their faith, including a compulsory reading of Qur'an; 3. that Ideology of Pakistan is to be internalized as faith, and hate be created against Hindus and India; 4. and students are to be urged to take the path of Jehad and Shahadat (martrydom). Associated with the insistence on the Ideology of

Pakistan has been an essential component of hate against India and the Hindus...the existence of Pakistan is defined only in relation to Hindus, and hence the Hindus have to be painted as black as possible. Curriculum documents ask the following as the specific learning objectives: The child should be able to understand the Hindu and Muslim differences...India's evil designs against Pakistan ..Hindu has always been an enemy of Islam. The class II Urdu book has a lesson on "Our Country", the first sentences of which read: Our country is Pakistan. ...Pakistan is an Islamic country. Here Muslims live. Muslims believe in the unity of Allah. They do good deeds. The Class 6 book says: Who am I? I am a Muslim. I am a Pakistani...you are a Muslim and your religion is Islam. A book lists "Acchi baten" (good deeds). Among them: "Good people are those who read the Qur'an and teach the Qur'an to others" implying that those of another faith cannot be good people. 29

.. operations..Hindus did not respect women. and an attempt to define one's national identity in relation to the 'other'. principles ethics. children. the old and the young with extreme cruelty and heartlessness. modern weapons. on the other 30 .Other things taught in state school texts: After the partition of the subcontinent the Hindus and Sikhs started a properly planned campaign of exploiting the Muslims. reflecting both the perceived sense of insecurity from an 'enemy' country.The subject of hate in Pakistani educational material is Hindu and India. Only one person can enter the temple at a time. nay hundreds of thousands of women. the means short of war and modern Warfare were thoroughly discussed. conduct. where they worship idols. nature. . In our mosques. Another book tells the students: Hindus worship in temples which are very narrow and dark places.In the 'Fundamentals of War' themes like objects and causes. The first serves the military and the second the political Islamists. And Pakistani children are taught about war as follows: Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto introduced a full two-year course on 'Fundamentals of War' and 'Defence of Pakistan' for class XI and XII respectively. as a result of which the Hindu and Sikh enemies of mankind killed and dishonoured thousands. In another article on Pakistani education AH Nayyar wrote (21): The class 4 text book states: The religion of the Hindus did not teach them good things -...

. scheming. the terrible events that led to the breaking away of East Pakistan and the creation of Bangladesh are never mentioned. The Hindus always desired to crush the Muslims as a nation.. a Pakistani scientist writes (23): At the completion of Class-V... Pervez Hoodbhoy. Several attempts were made by the Hindus to erase the Muslim culture and civilization . are hardly ever discussed or even spoken off on passing within the Pakistan of today. The genocide committed in the territory that now constitutes Bangladesh . Members of the generation who grew up after 1971 often have no idea at all of what issues underpinned the civil war or why it took place. Muslims tried in every way to maintain good relations with the British and Hindus. while if the Muslim kings and invaders plundered Hindu temples then presumably they did so with very noble intentions.. the child should be able to 31 .. The experience of colonialism is described in a textbook as a British-Hindu conspiracy: The British joined forces with the Hindus to bring harm to the Muslims. For another..hand. the Hindus as a monolith were always cunning. If the Hindus had any national aspirations then these were clearly a sign of their prejudices. and conspiring to deprive the Muslims of their due rights. but they did not allow it to be so. Regarding history as taught to Pakistani children Kamila Hyat wrote in the Jang in August 2003 (22): . all Muslims can say their prayers together.

" Hoodbhoy goes on to say in the same article: A moronic... incompetent. corrupt. It is clear from this that it is not only the madrassas that offer a curriculum of hatred to Pakistani children. "Make speeches on Jehad and Shahadat" "Understand Hindu-Muslim differences and the resultant need for Pakistan. an acknowledgment of the existence of a biased curriculum 32 . The problem is so serious that the Pakistani government must be engaged and encouraged to change the curriculum in Pakistani schools. and ideologically charged education bureaucracy today squarely blocks Pakistan's entry into the 21st century.. There seems to be no way in which a child in Pakistan can grow up without fearing or hating India in particular and non-Muslims in general. in the first sign that a glimmering of realization of the consequences of a curriculum of hate. It is surprising that faults in an education system that may have such great an impact on Indian-Pakistani relations in future are not being addressed at all at the highest governmental level in India. The real worry in having such a faulty educational system that actively encourages hatred is that millions of Pakistani children are growing up to be adults thinking that India and Indians exist to subjugate Muslims and should be hated for that. self-obsessed." "India's evil designs against Pakistan. Meanwhile. This mindset cannot be wiped out overnight. Even children who study in Pakistani state schools imbibe a curriculum of discrimination and hate.

the influential director of the Pakistan Institute of Strategic Studies. The authors' warped logic is that knowing the differences breeds hatred! So one should really do away with 33 inculcating the rationale . Dr. Government has set up a committee to look into the matter and send its recommendations within a month But such change cannot come easily in Pakistan. In a sternly worded reaction to the idea of reform of the hate curriculum. Besides there is strong opposition to change. Shireen Mazari accused the authors of the report on Pakistan's biased school books as being biased and having been written for the handsome payment the authors received (25): Dr. commenting on the Nayyar report said: the authors take exception to the fact that the present curriculum documents suggest that children should be able to understand the Hindu-Muslim differences and the need for the creation of Pakistan. More than half of Pakistan's population of nearly 170 million are thirty years old or younger and have been exposed to a hate-India curriculum from childhood. Mazari. As a result these people are likely to form a strong body of anti-India.and a call for change was made by Pakistani Federal Minister for Education Ms Zobaida Jalal in a statement published in the Pakistan Tribune online in March 2004 (24): a committee has been constituted to work out recommendations for deletion of material from curricula which is aimed at fomenting hatred against India adding that the committee will submit its recommendations within a month. Several social organizations have raised objection that hatred is fanned against India through the curricula of educational institutions in Pakistan. anti-Hindu opinion for decades to come.

Mazari dismissed criticism of madrassas as having an anti-Islam motive . efforts at change are in serious danger of being quashed even before they commence. With influential Pakistanis opposing change in the curriculum.a time honored diversion used by the Pakistani elite to criticism (see chapter 8). Dr. Mazari's words: deflect "Also. Islam seems to have also become fair game. Dr. there is no doubt that some of the texts do denigrate the Hindus but this should not be a pretext for not creating an awareness of the differences that led to the creation of Pakistan.behind the struggle for Pakistan! Of course. In the same article. with the madrassahs now a central target of the West. 34 .

More than fifty years after independence. clothes. Pakistan failed to do even the basics of economic development which most of the developing countries have done. It is worth looking at some of these items and Pakistani claims in 35 . Pakistan has survived for over 50 years giving the impression that it is somehow a powerhouse in its depth and breadth of manufacturing and industrial capacity. that Pakistani industry is producing some state of the art high technology goods. Not a single wrist-watch. a sophisticated Pakistani public relations machine has managed to build up the idea.Chapter 4 INDUSTRIES AND ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN In a report about the Pakistani economy. Goods manufactured in Pakistan are mostly no more complex than bicycles. sports goods such as footballs and cricket balls. Pakistan remains primarily an agricultural economy. textiles and agricultural products like sugar. This level of industrial technology in Pakistan is in keeping with the overall picture of Pakistan as a nation in which almost 70% of the people are illiterate. That is far from the truth. economist Sreedhar states (26): Pakistan's economy during the past fifty years can be described as a classic example of a case where artificial prosperity was maintained by heavy doses of foreign aid and overseas remittances of Pakistanis. At another level.Easy and cheap availability of goods and services through foreign aid discouraged the development of a large scale indigenous industry. scooter or motorcycle has appeared on the international market with a Made in Pakistan label on it.. Still. at least in the minds of Indians..

. specifically missiles and Pakistan's nuclear program. In a detailed report on Pakistani missiles from NTI Nuclear Threat Initiative. Ghauri and Shaheen missiles are Chinese M-9 or M-11 missiles. These brave names may perhaps be essential for national pride. as well as the liquid propellants to fuel its missiles 36 . The most likely reason for maintaining this charade of indigenous development of missiles is to obscure the fact that dangerous. and other critical missile components.given names like Hatf. but to point out the compulsion that Pakistani authorities have to maintain a facade of indigenous production for items that are widely known to be imported.some detail. or North Korean No-Dong missiles (27).Pakistan will remain dependent on North Korea for importing complete liquid engines. Pakistani spokespersons never tire of speaking of Pakistan's indigenous missiles . guidance systems. a private body aimed at studying the risk of nuclear conflict it was reported that (28): Pakistan is still dependent on China for specialty materials.. but even a cursory search of authoritative sources shows that Pakistan's Hatf. The idea is not to downplay the considerable risk that Pakistan's missiles pose to India and other nations. Ghauri and Shaheen. nuclear capable missiles are being supplied by countries like China and North Korea to Pakistan ignoring international treaties that forbid such exports. In keeping with the Pakistani psyche of according the highest importance to the armed forces Pakistani claims of high technology indigenous manufacture have revolved around armament. or at least their major component parts.

Abdul Qadeer Khan. They are a serious risk either way. Centrifuges are devices that are used to rotate something 37 at high speed to . A news report about this in a New Zealand news portal reads (29): The father of Pakistan's atom bomb. but it is important to place on record the fact that the designs were stolen and not the result of some prolonged research effort in Pakistan." A report from the Netherlands. After his return to Pakistan he was convicted in absentia of nuclear espionage by an Amsterdam court. from which Abdul Qadeer Khan got his designs for Uranium enrichment says Khan received a MSc degree in metallurgy from Delft in 1967 and later stole nuclear secrets from his Dutch employer.Even more peculiar is Pakistan's nuclear program. worked at the Urenco uranium enrichment facility in the Dutch city of Almelo in the 1970s.In 1976. helping Pakistan develop its first nuclear bomb. The designs that Abdul Qadeer Khan obtained from the URENCO labs were for centrifuges. The strong Pakistani insistence that the program is entirely indigenous is contradicted by the facts. Back home in Pakistan. This is true... Experts have argued that it does not matter if Pakistan's atomic bombs are stolen or made in Pakistan.. Khan suddenly left Europe before his espionage was detected.He has acknowledged he did take advantage of his experience of many years of working on similar projects in Europe and his contacts with various manufacturing firms. then Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto gave Khan the job of organizing Pakistan's nuclear program Pakistan can hardly be expected to publicly proclaim that the Father of Pakistan's nuclear program stole the technology.

by centrifuges Khan from the But making a nuclear bomb goes far beyond merely enriching Uranium. Subrahmanyam goes on to indicate similar skepticism of Pakistani ability in Indian scientific circles by saying (30): Their scepticism was based on their judgement that Pakistan did not have the critical mass of scientific and engineering talent necessary for the project. Several techniques exist for this and Pakistan chose the route of Uranium enrichment using the technology stolen by Qadeer URENCO labs. This is where Pakistan's role as a Cold War ally of the US and its role in helping China and the US get closer came in handy. Indian analyst K. the heavier U238 and lighter U235. Uranium occurs naturally primarily in two forms. One week after the Indian nuclear tests of May 1998. For this reason Uranium needs to be enriched to get material that contains 90% or more of U235. It is widely reported that China gave to Pakistan the complete design of a nuclear bomb that it had tested in 1964 (31). U235 is needed for nuclear bombs but occurs in very small quantities mixed with U238. Obtaining centrifuges was necessary for Pakistan to start enriching Uranium. The latter. For example.Subrahmanyam quotes Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam as being skeptical about Pakistani ability to actually produce a working nuclear bomb. and 38 . China provided Pakistan with the necessary technology to make its nuclear bomb. which can then be used for making a nuclear bomb. a rotating centrifugal dryer in a washing machine is a centrifuge that separates water from clothes and makes wet clothes much more dry. Making a workable and reliable nuclear bomb requires further technology.separate out heavier from lighter components.

It seems clear that Pakistan's entire nuclear weapons manufacturing program was based on a clandestine black-market of contacts with companies all over the world who produced components that could not be fashioned in Pakistan. If the Plutonium story is true. as well as from Libya and other sources. in exchange for missiles from North Korea and great personal wealth for himself. there is no way Plutonium could have appeared. on the 28th of May 1998. the father of Pakistan's nuclear program. During this period mysterious news reports surfaced that Plutonium was detected in the atmosphere over Chagai in Pakistan (32). After this there was a flurry of activity when Pakistani officials visited China. Abdul Qadeer Khan stands discredited and accused of selling equipment and the plans for Uranium enrichment centrifuges to Libya. It appears that this was done with the knowledge and tacit approval of the military government of Pakistan. Iran and North Korea. it lends credence to the theory that Pakistan may actually have tested a ready made Chinese nuclear device. At the time of writing this. Some experts believe that the device tested was a ready made device provided to Pakistan by China after the failure of an earlier test. It is said that the device failed to detonate. Since Pakistani bomb designs were Uranium based ones. bomber 39 . News reports indicate that Pakistan's nuclear program was based on a network of clandestine imports from a network of proliferators personally built up by Abdul Qadeer Khan. The next week. Pakistan conducted a nuclear test in Chagai. Pakistan does not currently produce any fighter. and its army chiefs of staff (chapter 13).a one week before the official Pakistani nuclear test an announcement was made at a G8 meeting that Pakistan had tested a nuclear device. funded by unlimited financial support from the Pakistani government.

and not in Pakistan. according to the most recent United Nations Development Program report. On March 31 2002. but the number of unemployed people in Pakistan is rising at more than twice 40 that rate 6% (34). convinced by the exaggerated claims of their own countrymen have allowed their nation to lapse into a state of underdevelopment in which Pakistan is now being compared with the other countries at the bottom of the development ladder. in a list of 174 countries (33). Barely a third of Pakistan's population is literate. Pakistani leaders. two seater trainer aircraft from Sweden. The aircraft. the State Department said in its most recent human rights report. Pakistan's literacy rate ranks below that of countries like Haiti. called the Saab Supporter in Sweden is assembled in Pakistan under the name Mushshak. Current reports indicate that the trainers will be manufactured in China. but Pakistan has continuously maintained. possibly for domestic consumption that it is a leader in many technologies. Another trainer aircraft that Pakistan became involved in is a Chinese designed K-8 jet trainer. Pakistan's industrial sophistication today is arguably not much higher than that of Britain in the early 20th century. Pakistan's labor force is growing at the rate of 2. Furthermore A UNDP report in 2003 ranked Pakistan a low 138 .or civilian aircraft and does not have a noteworthy aerospace research or design team. a report in the The New York Times stated.4% per year. This pretence probably does Pakistan more harm than anyone else. Even using a very low standard. such as Haiti and Rwanda. The th st . Rwanda and Sudan. But in 1981 Pakistan imported the entire assembly line for the manufacture of a 1969 vintage Swedish designed. single engine.

one percent of the landowners own 26 percent of the land. showing a decline in their welfare level On February 5 2003. Aid and loan money has been constantly misused for personal gain by the Pakistani army. the San Francisco Chronicle reported: Pakistan's powerful military has ruled the country for more than half of the nation's 56-year history.. 39. regarding industries and poverty have been listed above. A large number of reports speak of all the economic th problems that Pakistan has (35. mansions and luxury cars. according to a recent report by Pakistan's auditor general. There is an extremely wealthy class of Pakistani at the top of the economic pyramid and this class includes Army Officers as well as feudal landowners some owning as much as 45.Pakistan Human Condition report of 2003 says that between 1998-99 and 2000-01.2 billion in the last 10 years to purchase such amenities as land. while the population of the poor during the period under review increased by 10 per cent. But many other factors contribute to the decrepit state of the Pakistani economy. fully integrating itself into every facet of the economy and draining state coffers with generous benefit plans for its officers..with 41 . 37. 40) Some of these problems. 38.46 per cent).. One report (36) says only one million Pakistanis pay tax in a country of over 150 million people.corrupt military officers have siphoned off more than $1. The Karachi Stock Exchange has trading in only about 30 stocks . 36. In the Punjab province. population increased by 6 million people (4. army run businesses and private enterprise due to rampant corruption at the highest places.000 acres of land. The report warns that population is shifting from upper poverty bands to lower ones.

which includes everything from underground banking to narcotics to the smuggling of consumer goods. Governing these people is a small elite of wealthy." The number of such damning reports is enormous.over 700 other stocks listed for tax advantages. Estimates of the size of the country's black-market economy. and they help build up a picture of Pakistan as a country of predominantly poor people. while the rulers of Pakistan build up their personal fortunes and protect their lucre with an army whose upper ranks are like a Mughal court. The Exchange is run by a handful of crooked brokers and scams are rampant. while the lower ranks are the bodyguards to protect the powerful from both external enemies and opponents within Pakistan. 42 . The same report goes on to say. "It is essentially a parallel economy. range up to 100% of the so-called formal sector. says Muhammad Mansoor Ali. corrupt and self-serving army officers and feudal lords who literally rule over their subjects like medieval kings. one of Pakistan's leading economists. whose number is increasing by the year as the population rises. That ratio "is probably the most severe" of any country in the world. being told that India is forever planning to attack Pakistan and kill all Muslims. The population is kept busy with jihad.

The important role of saving face and avoiding shame is well recognised. because the behavior is very much like that of anyone else. and in negotiation and reaching agreements. including Indian leaders and strategists have been content with describing Pakistanis as being “Just like us” . communication between cultures becomes difficult if negotiators from different cultures cannot understand each others' behavior. For example. Another well known example of the consequences of an inability to understand cultural nuances comes from a transcript 43 of a telephone . who live together in nations tend to develop certain unique patterns of behavior based on the stresses. like all other people. A deep understanding of Japanese culture was required before international agreements could be reached with Japan on the issue of whaling and protection of endangered species of whales.e. anger.Chapter 5 PAKISTANI PSYCHE . Pakistanis. But groups of thousands or millions of people anywhere in the world. while most Indians. pain and other emotions which are indistinguishable from anyone else on an individual level. such as Japanese culture have been well studied (41). it is worth recognizing minor differences because this knowledge has some value in understanding behavior. Some cultures. Pakistan has been too low on the priority of sociologists and psychologists. just like Indians. display the usual range of human behavioral patterns: joy. Even so. experiences and history of their particular society. sorrow. and must be taken into account in negotiation.i. Sometimes these unique patterns of behavior are very difficult to recognise.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Very few studies exist on the subject of the mind of the Pakistani or the Pakistani psyche.

In his testimony to the United States' Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in January 2004 (43) Stephen Cohen. But such patterns do exist. There are few studies of unique behavioral patterns among Pakistanis. N. At stake is its pride. Second. First. the army understands it cannot wrest Kashmir from India. "artificially nurtured memories of Muslim superiority and a subconscious desire to rectify the unfair arrangements of partition". speaking on India-Pakistan relations quoted a Pakistani army officer saying how important the question Pakistani actions relating to India.conversation in Arabic between Egyptian President Gamel Abdel Nasser and King Hussein of Jordan when Egyptian forces were being defeated by Israeli forces in 1967. Dixit. These are listed in a review of his book (44): Dixit identifies a series of Pakistani traits that refuse to live amicably with India. The cultural need to avoid shame forced Nasser to state that his forces were fighting well against their enemy. That left Hussein. a certain envy Pakistanis would not acknowledge openly about the 44 failure of their civil . but King Hussein was unable to understand the nuances by which Nasser hinted that his forces were being defeated. J. and their importance must not be underestimated. and it literally calls the shots But the subject of a specific and defined Pakistani mind has not gone unnoticed among Indian observers. former Indian foreign secretary has spoken of the psychological hurdles that come in the way of Indian and Pakistani relations. but it cannot turn its back on a 55 year struggle. and Jordan unprepared for their defeat in the war subsequently (42). In the words of one Pakistani of pride was in officer.

in 1947 and a few years after that it would have been perfectly valid and accurate to describe Pakistanis as being just like Indians. "the unarticulated ambition and hope that if India broke up. Seventh. in effect a Pakistani psyche or a Pakistani mindset. could be exploited from forces across the border owing to their "socio-political schizophrenia" since partition. assumption by Pakistan of the role of protector and overseer of the welfare of Indian Muslims. Fifth.society to solidify democratic and tolerant traditions in comparison to an India where khakis and bayonets follow popularly elected representatives. that is separate from the old Indian identity. It is useful to be aware of this in dealing with Pakistan 45 . But after over 50 years of being a separate nation with different threat perceptions. Of course. as was publicly declared by Foreign Minister Gauhar Ayub Khan at a press conference in Delhi. Sixth. Eighth. Third. widespread belief in the Pakistani establishment and media circles that India is getting exhausted in Kashmir and would not be able to hold on to it for long (a presumption of Musharraf in Kargil). and with 75 % of present day Pakistanis having been born after 1947. it can easily be observed that there are certain behavioral characteristics that can be called Purely Pakistani There is. Fourth. problems and priorities. avenging the military defeat of 1971. which is a formal objective declared in the official oath-taking ceremony of every Pakistani officer-cadet when he graduates. confidence that Pakistan's nuclear weapons program is an instrumentality to further geopolitical objectives in Kashmir. irrational faith in the "profound capacity for commitment to jihad amongst the momin". and most significantly. who in the words of Maulana Azad. Pakistan will emerge as the strongest and most powerful political entity in South Asia".

There are certainly some parallels in Pakistani behavior to Arab behavior described by Raphael Patai in his seminal book on The Arab Mind (42). reject their earlier Indian Certain types of behavior stand out among Pakistanis and are best demonstrated by studying examples of statements and actions by prominent Pakistani leaders and spokespersons. and a pattern can be seen in the way Pakistanis react to people and events. No visitor to Pakistan goes away without being touched by this. It would be wrong to assume that every Pakistani displays all the characteristics described here. The Weekly Standard had this to say in its Nov 5 th 2001 edition: 46 . but careful observations of Pakistani statements and actions show that a sufficiently large proportion of Pakistanis. Hospitality and generosity: The characteristic of being extremely hospitable and generous to guests has stood Pakistanis and Pakistan in good stead. Certain statements and actions are repeated time and again. leading to a degree of Arabization of behavior among devoutly Islamic people such as some Pakistanis who have actively sought to culture (see chapter 9). No single characteristic is unique to Pakistanis alone. display one or more of the following characteristics to make them recognizable as general guidelines to Pakistani psyche. and this characteristic has been used to good effect by Pakistan over the years. An article in the American magazine.as a nation and in predicting Pakistani responses to events. These similarities are striking. especially their leadership. and the most likely explanation is the internalization of Arab culture in Islam.

maintaining a reputation for the PAF that extended far beyond its real performance. As one congressional staffer. "I like 'em." A series of Western writers and prominent people have been hosted and feted in Pakistan. Eric Margolis and John Fricker.. American diplomats and spooks often have a good deal of fun with their Westernized Pakistani counterparts. politics.S. Yeager's words of praise of the Pakistan Air Force continued to be quoted. Pakistani VIPs are often wittier. Compared with their haughty Indian and chaotic Afghan neighbors. . warmer. Chuck Yeager. who was a guest of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) and who later went on to write paeans about the PAF For many years after the PAF was comprehensively defeated in successive wars with India. who frequently visits south-central Asia.. the Indians are jerks. Pakistani hospitality has charmed a large number of prominent writers to write positively about Pakistan.the attractive character of elite Pakistani officials. and have later served as honorary ambassadors for Pakistan in the Western media. Prominent among people who have written warm words for Pakistan are writers like Brian Cloughley. succinctly put it. One prominent example is the famous American pilot. 47 and Anwar Mahmood. and often just plain wrong. and more knowledgeable about the insider gossip of U. the Washington Post reported: It was mid afternoon Tuesday. and some have gone as far as to make needlessly hostile and malicious references to India in their writings despite strong evidence that their words are misinformed at best. As recently as June 2002.

and the converse avoidance of shame. cheating. complete with maps. At a rural. and humiliation.and tea sandwiches served on trays by white-gloved soldiers. was on the phone discussing with an underling how to keep more than 100 foreign journalists happy for the rest of the week. You won't get such hospitality from the Indian army. has ordered foreign embassies to expedite visas for journalists.The Pakistani government. dignity.. 48 .... maintenance of honour often relates to women and doubts about fidelity or adultery. he figured. it's worth the $3. The powerful codes of shame and honour. the Information Ministry has rented air-conditioned buses to carry journalists to the Line of Control.disgrace. It is often more important to maintain honour and avoid shame than anything else.enforce identity and conformity of behaviour.. There they are treated to hour-long military briefings. and even murder. respect. Death... pride... tribal level in Pakistan..000 it will cost his ministry to rent the plane from Pakistan International Airlines.Pakistan's information secretary. Honour and Dignity: The need to maintain honour and dignity is a fundamental pillar in the mind of the Pakistani. in the form of an honour killing is often the sentence carried out on a woman who is thought to have shamed the family.if it keeps the reporters satisfied. Everything is permitted in order to safeguard the family or tribal honour. eager to make its voice heard. lying. David Pryce Jones has written (45) that the key to understanding some Islamic societies is to recognise the need for acquisition of honour.Five times in the past month. displays of Indian mortar shells -.

.. On 14th March 2003.But honour and dignity play an equally important role among the richer and apparently liberated Pakistani elite rulers of Pakistan. military leader of Pakistan said about Pakistan's nuclear weapons aspirations (47) "We only want the deterrence capability to preserve our honour and dignity. Of course he wants to do this. As the conflict evolved war broke out over a wide front and by the time a cease fire 49 . The need to maintain honour and avoid the perceived national shame of appearing weak in front of India has led to the sacrificing of all developmental effort towards arms purchases to pursue military parity with India.. Stephen Cohen's quote of a Pakistan army officer's words in this regard has already been alluded to at the beginning of this chapter.. A brief study of the way Pakistan's wars with India have been reported in Pakistan are illustrative of this. while insisting that victory was always achieved. keeping intact the honour and dignity of the nation and the armed forces.." The need to maintain honour and avoid shame by Pakistani military commanders goes to the extent of suppressing any news of a defeat or setback suffered by the military. The importance of honour is evident from the words used by US deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage after a meeting with the President of Pakistan. General Musharraf on the 6th of June 2002:(46) .I would note that the conversations we had with President Musharraf made it very clear to me that he wants to do everything that he can to avoid war.. General Musharraf. The 1965 war with India started with the infiltration of Pakistani special forces into Kashmir for sabotage and to incite acts of violence.

Sheikh Mujibur Rehman would have become Prime Minister of Pakistan. the triumph of an East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) based political party in an election would have meant that a Bengali. was born. But the 1965 war has always been portrayed from the Pakistani side as a war in which attacking Indian forces were defeated. Indian forces were well within striking range of the Pakistani city of Lahore. that any available fact may be either picked up or selectively forgotten in order to save face and maintain the pretence of victory. Bangladesh. This was disliked by the West Pakistani Punjabi dominated army of Pakistan. The need to maintain honour and dignity is so important to the Pakistani. In a humanitarian move. Significantly. who commenced a genocide in East Pakistan. despite its aside the armies of the battle of Panipat outside the walls of Delhi. More than ninety thousand Pakistani soldiers were taken prisoner of war. and Pakistani General Ayub Khan's plans to take Srinagar were foiled. Not an Indian brigade had to be moved West. with Indian troops in the towns on the outskirts of Lahore. 50 . unparalleled since the German Blitzkrieg that overran Poland was described by historian Brigadier Shelford Bidwell (48) as follows: The operations of 1971 finally that the 'sword-arm' of old numerical inferiority. Indian forces entered East Pakistan and defeated the Pakistani military and a new nation.was declared both India and Pakistan had captured small areas of each other's territory. In 1971. Millions of refugees poured into India to escape this. The Indian victory. sweep effete Hindus and win another dispelled any vain dreams India could. General Jagjit Singh Aurora's daring concentric attack on East Pakistan went forward uninterrupted and on 16 December he received the surrender of the Pakistani commander in Dacca.

The ignominious defeat of the Pakistan armed forces in 1971 and the formation of Bangladesh almost went unreported in Pakistan. the whole Northern Infantry was blown up and 2. said in an interview to the Weekly Independent from his place of exile in Saudi Arabia. . By the time the withdrawal started the Indian forces had wiped out almost the entire Northern Light Infantry of the Pakistan army. The death toll exceeds even that of the 51 . when used in a psy-ops role. fighting had ceased in East Pakistan and that Indian troops had entered Dacca.when the battle began. An editorial in the Pakistani newspaper The Jang recalled the 1971 reports in Pakistan (49): So great was the ignorance and absence of principles in West Pakistan that the government of the day had the temerity to issue a disgraceful statement casually mentioning that "by agreement between local commanders. The Pakistani need to maintain honour and dignity at the expense of truth is a fault that has done Pakistan no good. Mistakes made by the Pakistan army in the war were never investigated or made public.." Pakistani children are not taught about the 1971 war.700 soldiers were martyred and hundreds were injured. The Kargil conflict of 1999 ended with the rapid withdrawal of Pakistani forces facing rout. It may even be a characteristic that can be used to predict Pakistani behavior or provoke desired responses from Pakistanis. who was Prime Minister of Pakistan during this conflict. neither were the failures admitted or analysed. Some of the defeated Generals in that war even received gallantry awards and honours in later years. Nawaz Sharif.

In doing this.1965 and 1971 full-scale wars. A quote from the study says: There disunity means is considerable pressure for patrilineal kin to maintain good relations with one another. and yet do not explain how the Pakistan army withdrew from the conflict zone if they were not involved. face has been saved and honour retained by the Pakistani army. But the only history that is acknowledged by Pakistan is that the Kargil conflict was a great victory for mujahideen who held the Indian army at bay. (the biradari) are under pressure to maintain a picture of unity. but it is difficult to imagine how the Pakistani army can learn critical lessons from a disastrous war if the sole aim of its officer class is the save face and maintain honour and dignity An explanation exists for the tendency of the Pakistani elite and officer class to protect each other's honour even after embarrassing or disastrous events. The deeply Islamic fervor of the average Pakistani comes in handy here as all errors and defeats can be explained 52 . because dishonour. Biradari members who quarrel will try to resolve their differences before major social occasions so that the patrilineage can present a united front to the village. the family obligations of Pakistani society to avoid shame creates the need for whitewashing military disasters and other mistakes. A study of Pakistani society and kinship patterns (50) notes that the household is the primary unit for kinship and the male descendants. Pakistanis do not admit the involvement of their armed forces. It has been observed that Pakistan itself is ruled by a small group of between 22 and 43 families (4). With the entire ruling apparatus of Pakistan under control of a small group of family units.

Even before the 1998 tests Pakistan was widely acknowledged to possess nuclear weapons. it would have put India in a very tight situation. the test greatly diluted the international attention that India was getting after its tests. Rhetoric and Hyperbole: The Pakistani need for the maintenance of honour and avoidance of shame ideally involves and outright military 53 . If Pakistan had not tested. with international censure and sanctions. when India conducted a series of nuclear weapon tests. while Pakistan could have basked in the sympathy it would surely have got for having an aggressive nuclear neighbor in India.away as God's will . The national sense of shame in being unable to publicly match India was so intense that Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif acknowledged that he would not survive unless he sanctioned nuclear tests by Pakistan.an explanation that most devout Pakistanis will accept without question. It is possible that the Pakistani need to maintain honour and dignity and somehow appear equal or superior to India was understood and exploited by Indian leaders in 1998. Pakistan did test a nuclear device of its own two weeks after India's tests and although there is some controversy about the real origin of the device tested by Pakistan. a spotlight that has only become brighter after the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks in the US. breaking a 24 year self-imposed moratorium. But the need to save Pakistani honour was too great after the Indian tests. and put the spotlight on Pakistan. Pakistan need not have tested immediately after India's tests.

the war needs to be continued verbally to avoid shame.victory. Indians are always depicted as being conniving and scheming. shame and rhetoric (45): Honour makes life worth living whereas shame is a living death. Such hyperbole seems to be necessary psychological support for the Pakistani mind. never as courageous and honourable. The degree of misinformation is astonishing. its wars and about India. and any defeats are temporary setbacks. but easy to understand in the light of the deep Pakistani need to maintain honour and avoid shame. Shame and honour involve publicity. Indian leaders are often referred to as scheming high caste Brahmins or Banias who are plotting to either dominate or eliminate people of all other religions and social groups. When such victory is not possible or unlikely. and shame means public humiliation. with Pakistanis being courageous. 54 . Arms built under licence are always shown as indigenous. Only a total victory or a mediator leading to a solution on Pakistani terms can maintain honour enough to allow such hyperbole to die down. success involves bragging. Stemming directly from this rhetoric and hyperbole is the decades old campaign of misinformation that Pakistan has maintained about itself. For example. David Pryce Jones has described the connection between honour. righteous and heading for victory. Every accusation is made to show that an adversary is cowardly. although it often sounds hollow and unconvincing. wars are never lost. weak and untruthful. Ballistic missiles imported from China and North Korea are repainted and given Pakistani names to be flaunted as missiles designed and manufactured in Pakistan. its armed forces. The Indian armed forces are always referred to by Pakistan as being weak and dishonourable and always accused of raping and murdering civilians.

. written by a former Pakistani army officer.. Brigadier Anjum 55 records his version of . 55) have documented the surrender of 90. 54. The Indian intervention to stop the genocide by Pakistani troops is described in the following way: it was an act of military piracy at the highest level to destroy the professional propriety of soldiers who were on lawful duty.The interference of Indian army in East Pakistan was a well thought out conspiracy hatched by India and vociferously backed by the Soviet Union Many sources (53. In a farcical and fanciful description Brigadier Anjum does not say a word about the 1971 elections in Pakistan that were won by the East Pakistani Awami league party.. Anjum's explanation of why reports of genocide by Pakistani troops are false is as follows: Senator Edward Kennedy.. having a pro-India prejudice . 52). This was enough to disparage Pakistan Army Brigadier Anjum makes this record of India's role: India with a mission in hand to destroy Pakistan was first to demolish its basis.addressed a press conference in New Delhi to say that he was convinced that Pakistan army had committed genocide in East Pakistan.An example of this tendency can be seen in a two part article on the events of 1971 that appeared in the online edition of the Pakistani paper the Jang as recently as 2004.000 Pakistani troops in East Pakistan at the end of the 1971 war. and denies the well documented genocide of ethnic East Pakistani Bengalis by West Pakistani troops (chapter 11). Brigadier Anjum (51.

Disputes and mediation: Pakistani leaders have initiated war against India mainly when they have assessed India as being weak. and offering peace is a sign of cowardice and an unwillingness to fight. Any concessions that Pakistan is forced to make can be conveniently blamed on 56 . the Pakistani assessment of Indian weakness has led to a situation in which Pakistan is faced with military defeat. Courage and a willingness to fight are honourable. The rest of PoWs mostly children.000 socalled prisoners of war was just over forty thousands.history as: The number of combatant soldiers out of the 90. The need to appear superior to and better than India is fundamental for the Pakistani. were civilians and their families. That is what justifies the formation and existence of Pakistan. But to the Pakistani leadership. an offer of peace by any party is considered as a sign of weakness. the need to maintain honour and avoid shame requires that Pakistan must not sue for peace by directly negotiating with India. The feeling threatens the very existence of Pakistan and is a feeling that must avoided at all cost. When faced with a situation in which Pakistan is the weaker party. It is cowardly to call for peace directly. Accepting that India and Indians may be in any way better than Pakistan is deeply dishonourable and shameful to the Pakistani. This calls for the introduction of a mediator or middleman. On every occasion. which avoids the need for defeat and dishonour. but it is honourable to agree to peace when mediated by a respected third party.

But an India that appears to be showing weakness by talking about peace mystifies Pakistan by refusing third party mediation. but a respected third party's request from President Clinton of the US that made a triumphant Pakistan pull back from defeating India. weak or dishonoured as long as the Pakistani people see their leaders as having pulled off some kind of victory. and are not seen as having lost their honour to the weaker party India. The important need here is for Pakistani leaders to appear to be strong and retain their honour in front of their own people. the Pakistani Prime Minister Clinton remnants that it Nawaz Sharif demanded an audience with President of the US and then ordered withdrawal of the of the Pakistani forces to give the appearance was not a clear defeat. but on the other hand India refuses third party mediation which a weak nation should 57 . it is likely been misinterpreted by initiatives are seen as is considered to be a sign of that peace offers from India have Pakistani leaders. because on the one hand India appears weak to them by asking for peace. In the Kargil conflict. This explains the tendency that Pakistani leaders have to call for third party mediation in settling a dispute between India and Pakistan by appealing to the US. It does not matter if anyone else considers that Pakistan was defeated. when Pakistani forces were facing rout. For India. Indian peace a sign of weakness. third party mediation is unacceptable in what is essentially a bilateral dispute with Pakistan. which must be met with threats and demands for concessions.the mediating party. the UN. the International community or any other third party rather than facing shame by negotiating for settlement directly with India. Because talk of peace weakness. This confuses and angers the Pakistani leadership.

soldiers of the British Indian army rose up in a rebellion in what is now known as the first war of Indian Independence. One more factor that must be taken into account in negotiation with Pakistan is that Pakistan may fail to honour prior agreements as it has done with the UN resolutions and the subsequent Simla agreement of 1972 with India. It is possible that Pakistani leaders consider all agreements and treaties as temporary instruments to buy time.accept with gratitude to save its own face. President General Musharraf explained to his people in a speech in Urdu that his aligning with the US would be a temporary alliance with the devil. In 1857. In support of this plan General Musharraf used the analogy of the charter of Madina and the treaty of Hudaibiya signed by the Prophet Mohammad in his September 19 th 2001 speech (56). with the courage and valor that such a military tradition suggests somehow enshrined in the Pakistani's genes. or against America after the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. being General Ayub Khan who led Pakistan into the 1965 war with India had boasted that One Pakistani soldier is equal to six Indian soldiers The genesis of this attitude is interesting. That rebellion was eventually quelled by the British with troops mainly from the Punjab particularly Muslim troops from what is now the Pakistani 58 .with military tradition in their blood. The Martial Mind: One of the enduring myths to have come out of Pakistan is that Pakistanis are somehow a martial race . When faced with the stark choice of being with America.

These troops were subsequently in the thick of all the campaigns that Imperial Britain was fighting. as proved in 1965 war and felt that somehow. After this event.the Pakistani GHQ placed entire reliance on the Superior Valour and Martial Qualities of the Pakistani (Punjabi and Pathan Muslim soldier) vis a vis the Hindu Indian soldier. by recruiting mainly Muslim Punjabi troops and Pashtun troops from the North Western parts of preindependence India. in the next war to miracles would occur and the Pakistan Army would do well Hard as it may be for a rational thinking person to believe. which the Punjabis had exhibited during the 1857-58 Bengal Army rebellion.Punjab. Amin goes on to write: The Pakistani nation had been fed on propaganda about martial superiority of their army. assisted by Pashtun troops. Various British writers like Philip Mason frankly admitted that the real reason for selective recruitment was political reliability in crisis situations. The British gradually began to refer to these groups as martial races. Maj... Retired Pakistani army Major Agha Humayun Amin wrote about the Pakistani army feeling of martial superiority (57): The "Martial Races Theory" in reality was an Imperial gimmick to boost the ego of the cannon fodder. Pakistan the nation was formed with the belief that its army was. somehow superior by virtue of its being composed of martial races. which are now part of Pakistan. from the beginning. the British greatly changed the composition of the Indian army forces. Pakistani military adventurism has been guided by a firm belief in the innate racial superiority of the Pakistani soldier and supported by a belief that Pakistan and Pakistanis are somehow performing Allah's will and 59 .

Hamid Hussain wrote of Pakistani military officers' selfimage in Pakistan's defence journal (58): these military officers also have dangerously self- exaggerated opinion of their capacities both in terms of defence of the country's frontiers and their ability as an organized body to fix all problems of the society. to the detriment of Pakistan. Positive Self-image: One remarkable feature noticeable among Pakistanis. Their self-esteem is unshakable to the extent that no factor is allowed to get in the way of identifying themselves as superior and excellent. herself a Sindhi. recalls having been taught as a child that West Pakistanis are tall. The East Pakistanis were held in contempt by West Pakistanis. Confidence in one's abilities. Major Amin writes(57): 60 . dark-complexioned and eat rice. pride and constant struggle to excel professionally are essential elements of a good officer's corps. The problem starts when these positive traits are stretched to unrealistic limits. especially Punjabi Pakistanis is an extremely good and positive self-image of themselves and their people. Benazir Bhutto. which now enter the zone of grandiose ideas and selfrighteousness. Former Prime Minister of Pakistan. fair-complexioned and eat wheat. A good self-image can be a useful personality attribute if it is not carried to extreme lengths in which all others are considered inferior. Unfortunately that has occurred among Pakistan's elite.that God would therefore be on their side no matter how preposterous or ill advised the action. while East Pakistanis (Bengalis) are short.

If Bengali Muslim East Pakistanis were considered racially inferior by West Pakistanis.. Maj. Amin writes.the generals were convinced that the Bengali was too meek to ever challenge the martial Punjabi or Pathan Muslim. This feeling was a carry over from the pre-Independence days when the British relied on the martial race for their army recruits. who considered themselves superior to the short. ugly” Hindustani Indians. Mujibur Rehman and his party should have formed the government of Pakistan in Islamabad.The Bengalis were despised as non martial by all West Pakistanis. Sheikh Mujibur Rehman. This contempt with which West Pakistanis viewed their own countrymen contributed to the secession of East Pakistan and the formation of few elections held in thumping majority to based political party Bangladesh in 1971. an East Pakistan headed by a Bengali. If the results of these elections had been carried through to their logical conclusion. it is not surprising to note that Pakistanis have considered themselves racially superior to the “dark. the 1971 elections gave a the Awami League. the taller native. But the Punjabi generals of the Pakistani army. dark and non-martial Bengalis could not face the idea of being ruled by an inferior Bengali as Prime Minister. In one of the Pakistan. To Kiplings contemporaries. The results of the election were annulled and martial law was clamped in East Pakistan. and the liberation of Bangladesh. the better man he was likely to be and fairer a A visible symbol of the contempt with which Indians are taught to be regarded in Pakistan can be seen from some 61 . A subsequent genocide of over three million East Pakistanis led to the Indian military intervention in East Pakistan.

The word kafir means unbeliever. or does not have any bearing on behavior. fair and sacrificing. but in the Pakistani context it is a derogatory term for a nonMuslim. or already given more than necessary and that the onus is on the other party to pay Pakistan sacrifices made.Pakistani textbooks for small children to learn the Urdu alphabet. From the profound application of Islamic beliefs among Pakistanis. Arab scholar Raphael Patai. 62 . back for services rendered and Islamic overlay in Pakistani behavior: The obvious question is “Why would anyone's religion make his behavior different or peculiar?” It is better to answer the question than ignore it and assume that religion has. Even today. Associated with the word is a picture of a kafir . in the 21st century it is possible to visit Pakistani chat-rooms and discussion fora on the Internet to find references to Indians as short.which is often the picture of a Hindu of a Sikh. At every step. Stemming from the self-image of the Pakistani is his sense of entitlement. Pakistan is always portrayed as being just. ugly. dark. Pakistan is said to have already done. Spokespersons for Pakistan never tire of pointing out that Pakistan is not getting its due. the US or the world owe Pakistan a lot more that it is getting. in his seminal work on Arab psyche (42) lists a few characteristics of Arab personality that arise from Islamic beliefs. Children's alphabet books carry the word kafir as an example of a word that starts with the Urdu equivalent of the letter k. weak or cowardly. and that India.

poor uneducated Pakistani believes that his life is pre-ordained by Allah to be the way it is. the belief that all events are predestined or decided beforehand by God and cannot be avoided or changed in any way.it seems that the same characteristics can be seen among Pakistanis. the average Pakistani is unlikely to revolt against his lot in life. and that he will be rewarded for his piety in an afterlife with an assured place in a well-stocked heaven. either to hasten or otherwise influence events. These beliefs are referred to in the words kismat and naseeb that occur in Urdu. He will do what his feudal master. One powerful Islamic belief is that of predestiny. For this reason. with evidence of the same in their behavior. Development requires effort and the belief in predestiny rules that conditions of feudal well for change and and events that the Pakistani experiences in life are ordained by 63 . The docility of the average Pakistani in day-to-day life is probably beneficial to the stability Pakistani society. local lord. Not even in everyday life can a man do anything. or even to try to fight to make it better. or religious leader tells him to do. The average citizen's life may be lived in poverty in someone's service because that is what God has willed for him and attempting to change that would be against the will of God. but stem from Arabic and Persian respectively. but does not augur development. which have been written down for him in God's Book to the smallest detail. Patai quotes this Islamic belief as the requirement that Man has no choice but to go through the course of events. The average. so long as it does not go against his Islamic conscience.

there can be virtually no hope of achieving a sea-change in the internal situation of Pakistan. as is quite likely. and must not be changed or Such beliefs also make the average Pakistani male citizen a prime candidate for motivation into leading a life as an Islamic warrior. and the external consequences of that. Unless there is a fundamental and deep rooted effort within Pakistan to change the relationship of the Pakistani with his religion. 64 . and any subsequent violence he takes part in would ensure for him a respected place in his society as an Islamic warrior. to die in action. Such a life is tempting because it meets all his human and psychological requirements. He is well looked after during the indoctrination and training period. or ensure a place in heaven if he were.Allah to be as they are tampered with in any way. a relationship deliberately cultivated by the Pakistani elite for their own ends.

Most Islamic communities are averse to the idea of giving women social status equal to that of men. Another report (50) on Pakistani society says this about women: A woman's life is difficult during the early years of 65 . The state of Pakistani women has a powerful bearing on the condition of Pakistan. two out of three women in Pakistan are uneducated. Ahmedis. That a strong feudal elite still rules the roost in the vast countryside is a major impediment to enlightenment and democracy. in an article entitled To be a woman in Pakistan is to ask for a life of subservience (60) wrote: Pakistani women continue to be victims of an unjust society rooted in history and tradition. Hindus and Christians. Those women who rebel by asserting their rightful place in society are punished and considered immoral. The importance of this fact lies in that many studies show that poverty. higher in societies Pakistani women's rights activist Ameera Javeria. Lack of awareness about their rights and their need for education has added to their predicament. For example.Chapter 6 WOMEN AND MINORITIES OF PAKISTAN With 108 men for every 100 women in Pakistan (59). to be counted along with other minorities of Pakistan such as Shia Muslims. while a powerful clergy rejects all notions of equality and freedom for women. malnutrition and child labor are where the women are uneducated. and murder. the women of Pakistan could probably be called a minority. rape. many have been the victims of domestic violence.

. Sister.. Sons will bring wives for her to supervise and provide for her in her old age.A wife gains status and power as she bears sons. A gender bias toward boys is clear from this description. A young bride has very little status in her husband's household. Therefore. One of the purposes of the Hudood ordinance is apparently to discourage extramarital sex..a law that is in effect in Pakistan. honour killings in which a father or a brother kill a woman for having dishonoured the family are common in Pakistan. The woman of the family is considered fundamental to maintaining the honour of the family group. Daughters are a liability. An explanation of how this law is applied can be seen in the following quote (62): 66 . or Daughter in front of other adult and small members of the family. With girls being a liability to be given away after marriage. A woman must be chaste and subservient to the man. education of girls has a low priority in Pakistan.marriage. A report on family violence in Pakistani society (61) says: (sic)The Male dominant society of Pakistan with strong sense of complete " Mastery " feel's pride to Dictate his terms of Physical and Mental Torture to his Wife. Among some groups it is believed that education of girls leads to immorality. she is subservient to her mother-inlaw and must negotiate relations with her sisters-inlaw. and failure to do this can lead to dishonour a crime punishable by death. mothers favor their sons. to be given away in an expensive marriage with their virginity intact. Particularly egregious is the Hudood ordinance .

Since the passage of the Hudood Ordinance in 1979 under the military government of Zia al Haq, "zina" or extramarital intercourse, has been considered a crime against the state in Pakistan...this law often prescribes cruel and devastating punishments, such as whipping or stoning the individual(s) in question, and explicitly discriminates against women...the Hudood Ordinance has legally blurred the distinction between rape and extramarital sex, resulting in the imprisonment and/or physical punishment of numerous women who have come forward with charges of rape without witnesses. Consequently, many rape victims are deemed criminals in a Pakistani court of law. Pakistan is stuck in a vicious circle in which the elite corner all the resources, leaving little for education of the poor. And among this class the women are the worst off, uneducated and discriminated; and this leads to further poverty and degradation in society. No force in Pakistan seems change this. to have the wisdom, will or power to

Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan is said to have had a vision for Pakistan in which people of all religions in Pakistan would co-exist. In his 11th August 1947 speech to the constituent assembly of Pakistan, Jinnah said (63): You may belong to any religion or caste or creed - that has nothing to do with the business of the state ... in the course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the state."


A few months vision:







We have many non-Muslims-Hindus, Christians and Parsis ... but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan." But Jinnah's vision for Pakistan died with Jinnah. Pakistan's record in the treatment of its religious minorities is shameful and unapologetic. In his landmark paper (64), possibly the first scientific statistical analysis of the question of ethnic cleansing in Pakistan, researcher Sridhar notes: ..almost 89% of the minorities in West Pakistan were ethnically cleansed, i.e. killed, converted or driven out of the country. Almost 54% of the minority population ended up as refugees in India, while a very high 35% of the minority population is simply unaccounted for. These are people who were likely killed or converted into Islam. Population researcher P.H. Reddy has noted that at the time of formation of Pakistan, there were over 20 million non-Muslims in the areas that formed Pakistan mostly Hindus. After the migration of partition, approximately 7 million non-Muslims remained in what is now making up approximately ten per cent of the West Pakistan. In the years since Pakistan's population has more than doubled West Pakistan population of independence, to nearly 150

million, but only three per cent, or 4.5 million people are non Muslims in modern day Pakistan. About half of that number are Hindus and the other half are Christian. In simple terms, in 56 years 68 since independence the

population of Muslims in Pakistan went up from about 60 million to 145 million, while the population of nonMuslims fell from 7 million to 4.5 million. Hindus formed the largest minority in Pakistan at independence and their number has reduced to around 1.5 million.

In November 2002, the Times of India (65) quoted Noor Naz Agha, a prominent Pakistani lawyer and rights activist as saying: Minorities are not safe in Pakistan. Recently, several attacks have been made on churches, hospitals, even on human rights organisations. And several people have been killed," The treatment of religious minorities in Pakistan leaves a lot to be desired. The problem stems from an attitude that Pakistan is for Sunni Muslims alone, and people of other religions, and even Shia Muslims are to be looked upon with contempt. The discrimination extends to derogatory references to non-Islamic people in school textbooks, as noted in chapter 3. M.H. Aksari, writing in the Pakistani paper Dawn (66) said, The former Indian foreign secretary, J.N. Dixit,

recalling his days as ambassador in Islamabad says that once when he called on a Pakistani friend, the latter's six-year old daughter on discovering that Dixit was a Hindu skipped around the table chanting 'Hindu Kutta', 'Hindu Kutta.' Hindu Kutta means Hindu Dog. But it is not Hindus alone who are discriminated against in Pakistan. Over the years the Pakistan army leadership 69 has encouraged a

particularly intolerant thrive in Pakistan. subjected to terrorist the Ahmediya sect have

Islamic mindset to prevail and Shia Muslims in Pakistan are attacts and discrimination, and been declared as non-Muslims in

Pakistan for their beliefs. Pakistan is busy changing Islam to suit the needs of a small elite. The role of the Pakistani army leaders in this is clear from a report that was carried in the November 2003 (67). Ziaul Haq actively encouraged this paper Dawn in



fervour...Ziaul Haq's advice led to widespread religious riots ... Many people, mostly Shias, were killed and their houses burnt. The local administration did little to control the situation. A foreign diplomat, who happened to be travelling by road from Skardu to Islamabad a couple of days after all this started, told me that he saw houses en-route burning and that the route provided a spectacle of war and destruction. There is a movement in Pakistan to have Shias declared non-Muslim. Following a massacre of Shia Muslims in a Pakistani mosque on the Islamic holy day of Moharram in 2004, senior analyst B. Raman hostility in Pakistan (68): wrote about anti-Shia

The last years of the Zia regime saw the Shias of Gilgit come out with a demand for a separate Shia State consisting of Gilgit and the Shia majority areas of Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). They wanted the Shia state to be called the Karakoram Province and remain part of regime crushed the 1988, the Pakistan force from the NWFP a confederation of Pakistan. The Zia Shia movement ruthlessly. In August Army inducted a large Sunni tribal and the Federally-Administered Tribal

Areas (FATA), led by Osama bin Laden, into Gilgit and it 70

The only things that have been preserved intact and untouched in Pakistan are the power and wealth of the elite of the army.massacred hundreds of Shias and crushed their revolt. have consistently fought and opposed anyone and everyone. mostly military. a few businessmen and the feudal lords and their allies. Successive governments in Pakistan. 71 . foreign nations as well as their own people. who are responsible for a rising tide of Islamic fundamentalism. the preachers of a narrow brand of Sunni Islam. but civilian as well. The hatred of the Shias for Osama bin Laden and his Al Qaeda dates from this period.

so a Muslim "Land of the Pure"--the literal meaning of Pakistan--was essential to protect and nurture the faithful. was worse. Living under the all-mighty British was unpleasant for many. This group of individuals formed a migrant nation. some of the Muslim elite in India. it was realised by these real or perceived descendants of Mughals that in a democratic India. live under non-Muslim rule.Chapter 7 PARTITION AND THE TWO-NATION THEORY When Indians and Pakistanis meet. considered themselves the descendants of the Mughals who had ruled vast tracts of India. Indians are fond of saying “Pakistanis are just like us” but one will find that Pakistanis do not tend to say “Indians are just like us”. Pakistan isn't really a nation-state. 1947. It is a geographic expression of an ageold Islamic ideal: Muslims should not. Gandhi's Indian democracy was going to be Hindu. Being different from Indians is a fundamental requirement that defines the Pakistani. For the English-educated Muslim elite. whom the Muslim Mogul dynasty had dominated for centuries before the arrival of the English. The demand for a separate nation was a natural extension of this Mughal mindset.. one is struck by their similarity. if at all possible.. primarily Muslim provinces of British India. who were later to go to Pakistan. Living under the far more numerous Hindus. from the northern. it was intolerable. When the British were set to leave India. they would not automatically regain control of the lands they had lost to the British. The Weekly Standard reported in October 2001 (69): Created on August 15. Before India was partitioned in 1947. 72 .

two traits: first. especially in Northern India. angered them and an adversarial attitude vis-a-vis Hindus developed. When that occurred. That explained their demonstrative adherence to Islam. especially the equality with Hindus. They feared being falling down into the vast assimilative sea of Hindudom surrounding them wherein they will be at the bottom of social heap. Their religious exhibitionism and a superiority complex led to emphases on differences with Hindus and regarding themselves as rulers' kith and kin deserving privileges and safeguards -.MB Naqvi wrote in the Jang of Pakistan (70): Historically the majority of Muslims. Muslims thus demanded weightage . which is what distinguished them from Hindus. and certainly in pre-independence India attempted to go back to their Islamic roots. The end of the Caliphate was a symbolic blow to Muslims who has grown up to look at the Islamic empire 73 . calculated to preserve imagined privileges. and encouraged education in Islamic schools. The second was to depend on a ruling or hegemonic power to get them their due.the leitmotif of preindependence Indian Muslim politics.reservations and separate electorate. May be they would be punished for former uppishness and for real or imagined wrongs. madrassas. These came from. Another root of partition lay with the defeat of the Turkish Caliphate by the British in 1918. not to accept democracy's implications. originally low- caste Hindus. Muslims all over the world.actually equality of treatment with Hindus . But Pakistan was not formed merely by people with this Mughal mindset. affected a superiority complex. One of the consequences was that they discouraged their children from attending secular schools. and strengthened. Others' refusal to accept Muslims demands.

and a dar ul harb or house of war. and Muslims would always be under threat in the dar ul harb. who were at war For Muslims who could not have their way with separate representation in pre-independence India. Muslim existence was deemed a kind of permanent emergency (dar-ul-harb) and migration was considered an option in the defiance of British raj. The demand for a separate state for Muslims only was a logical extension of this thought process. consisting of unbelievers people who were not followers of Islam.a house or a group of followers of Islam. and the first Caliph had been appointed by the Prophet Mohammad. Southern Europe to the North and Central Asia. a completely unacceptable situation. India and South East Asia to the East. staying in India would be tantamount to living under subjugation in the dar ul harb. when Islamic empire. although he by no means controlled even a fraction of that empire. The word Caliph means deputy in Arabic.as extending from Arabia in the center to North Africa in the West. The Friday Times had this to say (71): In India. Allama Iqbal. and the end of the Caliphate was the end of a long line of Caliphs that extended from antiquity. of Islam. The concept probably dates back to the early years there was a central but rapidly expanding around which were lands with non-Muslims with the followers of the new religion. The Caliph was the symbolic head of this empire. A concept in Islam speaks of a dar ul Islam. the poet who composed the popular Indian patriotic song Saare Jahaan se achcha. a house of Islam . Hindustan hamara later paradoxically endorsed the need for a separate nation for Muslims (72): 74 . Inherent in the concept of dar ul harb was that Islam.

was (74): Without any concrete 'dispute' between Hindus and Muslims. the Muslims and Non-Muslims. right from the 75 . the movement.. in less than a decade gave birth to Pakistan The man who is most credited as an intellectual force behind the two-nation theory and a front against united Indian nationalism is Maulana Abul Ala Maududi. A third factor that contributed to the formation of Pakistan was the political power aspiration of Mohammad Ali Jinnah who saw in the formation of the new nation of Pakistan a ready made constituency of Muslims. The result. Another key player in the call for Pakistan was Maulana Maududi. Under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Pakistanis have.. This theory is popularly known as two-nation theory. The TwoNation Theory was a manifestation of the doctrine of darul-islam versus dar-ul-harb. the ideological founder of Pakistan (73): (The) Pakistan Movement was based on the theory that Muslims are entirely separate people from Hindus in every respect. in addition to power and glory for himself and the new nation. With Islam. and Islamic reasons being the basis for the formation of Pakistan. as eloquently documented by Rajiv Malhotra. and that is the nation of non-Muslims! In other words.Allama Iqbal asserted that there is only one nation opposed to the Muslim Umma. the world is divided into two camps. the logic that prevailed was that Muslims require segregation of political and social life in order to be in compliance with the demands of sharia.

been taught to regard themselves as Muslims first and foremost. over the wishes of other groups. It was Islamic. And Pakistan would claim to represent the Muslims who had stayed behind in India. It was not Indian. Pakistan. such as a 76 . including some such as the Jamaat-i-Islami who did not favor the formation of Pakistan. Pakistan had come into existence. A nation in decline. In civilizational terms. and as opposed to being citizens of the nation.beginning. Pakistan would be progressive. Pakistan was supposed to be a homeland for Muslims of India and its formation was pushed through by the groups who wanted it. The fact of being Pakistani brought with it a liberal dose of pride. Although the purpose of this book is to present a study of Pakistan after partition. This is a condition in which a live human body spontaneously discards and casts off a dead or diseased part. strong and Islamic. It was the first Islamic state to be created in the modern era ab initio. honour and dignity. For the new Pakistanis India was a land of kafirs. unbelievers. Pakistan would represent Islam itself it would be a leading light of Islam in the world. With Jinnah as leader the heady success of nation formation in 1947 was enough. satisfaction. Not much thought was put into whether a state based on religion alone would be able to survive. Pakistan would not be like India. discrimination. it would not be out of place to mention briefly the civilizational effect that partition had on India. When studied over centuries. civilizations can often be seen to behave like live beings. It was a land of superstition. the splitting up of British India into modern India and Pakistan can be compared to an act of auto-amputation. It was a victory of Islam over the British and the Hindus. hunger and poverty.

The vast majority India. and that India would fragment and break. more than two-thirds of the population of India having been after 1947.toe or a fingertip so that the body itself can survive and not be affected by the disease that damaged the toe or finger. the people of the Indian subcontinent agreed to place all the people who wanted to live and work in a united India in one place. Strange as it may sound. and those who wanted to stay. Pakistan had filled itself with people whose intent was less to live and work in harmony. after the painful events of partition. and more to live away from some group or the other. The initial fragmentation and breaking that occurred at partition. and and all the people who did not wish to live and work in India were placed in Pakistan. in which those who wanted to opt out of India were allowed to opt out. with the formation of Bangladesh. of Indians rooted for India and worked for Pakistanis did not see things that way. In one convulsive act. continued in Pakistan. stayed. It is easier for these younger Indians to see that for India. but after five decades the memories of the pain are beginning to fade.a civilizational auto-amputation. partition was not so much an act of separation of all Hindus from all Muslims. The actual act of partition was accompanied by horrifying suffering and death. For India partition was akin to that . this tumultuous self-mutilating act was a profoundly democratic one. and Pakistani leaders assumed that the Muslims remaining in India would automatically rise up and revolt. They saw themselves as Muslims. 77 . but it merely segregated a sub-group of Indians who did not want to co-exist with other Indians. They were wrong.

But they were educated and held all the important bureaucratic posts. and any setback to Pakistan. dark. The 15 million mohajirs who migrated to Pakistan from India were not welcomed. the Muslim elite of India who had migrated to Pakistan were in an ideal position to concoct any stories they wished about the bestial Hindus they had left behind. India and Indians were continuously and bitterly accused of being anti-Pakistan and anti-Muslim. The fact that East Pakistani Bengalis were Muslim did not help to stop the West Pakistani disdain for the short.It was only after the formation of Pakistan that all the assumptions made about Islam as a unifying concept began to break down. Punjabis made up 90% of the Pakistani army. even when caused by internal politics and mismanagement was blamed on India. The mohajirs. rice-eating Bengali becoming Prime Minister of Pakistan. the Bengalis. and the army had no intention of seeing its Punjabi dominance being subordinate to the inferior Bengali. Apart from the mohajirs was the other half of Pakistan. fair. dark.a phobia against the scheming Hindu who was out to subjugate or kill all Muslims. It was drummed into ordinary Pakistanis that they must be good Muslims. wheat eating Pakistani Punjabi. and while Pakistanis struggled to meet the 78 . with its people. That would have been totally unacceptable to the Pakistani Punjabi. Any threat. fish and rice-eating Bengali. This complex web of factors kept Pakistanis from uniting with each other but the Islam argument was used for unity. There were contradictions at every turn. East Pakistan. as opposed to the tall. The possibility of democracy in Pakistan brought with it the threat of a short. The mohajirs found that their survival in Pakistan would be made easier by creating and maintaining an India scare .

Naipaul describes travels through Pakistan. It would now provide for that nation. the ruling elite lived as they pleased. 79 . In his book. it was to be guided constantly by rules. To be a devout Muslim was always to have distinctive things to do. Every act or event in Pakistan has to be seen through the prism of whether it is Islamic or not. and records interviews with a diverse group of Pakistanis. It was only necessary for everyone to be a good Muslim.standards set for them. Among the Believers(75). it was to live in a fever of the faith and always to be aware of the distinctiveness of the faith. and everything else would look after itself.S. Nobel Prize winning author V. A repeated observation that comes out is that the ordinary Pakistani citizen is under pressure to be a good Muslim. One of the problems that crops up from this is the definition of “Who is a good Muslim?”. The Pakistani citizen is judged by whether he is a good Muslim or not. Naipaul says. After all Islam had given them a nation. And Pakistanis believed that this was all that was needed.

H. (76). the founder of Pakistan had the flag of his political party. Jinnah. A very popular slogan in Pakistan was. and not all Muslims of the Indian subcontinent.meaning there is no God but God and attaches those words to Pakistan to make the meaning What does Pakistan mean there is no God but God .implying that Pakistan and Islam are one and the same. La ilaha illallah". Pakistani leaders. Demographer P. out of a total of 435 districts in undivided India. Even independence. for decades behaved as Pakistan was Islam and Islam was Pakistan. Pakistan was unable to grab and hold Islam as though Islam and Pakistan were one and the same. it could perhaps be said that Islam was too big for Pakistan to keep as its private domain. But this charade could only last a few years before the fallacies began to show. "Pakistan ka matlab kya. This is a shameful piece of fiction that needs to be set right. The slogan combines a few words taken from the the Islamic call to prayer La ilaha illallah . To be though before called sure. Reddy noted in the Times of India on 8th April 2003 (77): According to the 1941 census.Chapter 8 ISLAM AND PAKISTAN In the end. It is endlessly and erroneously repeated that Pakistan was formed for the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. Pakistan was formed for some. Based on 80 . the Muslim League as the Flag of Islam and had said you cannot separate the Muslim League from Islam. there were 76 in which more than 50 per cent of the people were Muslims.

(with) different epics. Arab culture had existed in Arabia for centuries before Islam was born. "to two different civilizations". the Sir Cyril Radcliffe's Boundary Commission allotted these 76 districts to Pakistan.. The 76 Muslim-majority districts were grouped together in two clusters. An entire literature and culture of Islam developed in Persia.54 crore. Similarly Islam developed and flowered in India with its own unique literature. and Arab culture adopted and internalized Islam. The formation of Pakistan sought to deny this vibrant entity.. arts and architecture produced by an intermingling of two rich cultures.. Islam spread peacefully into Indonesia and was absorbed and rationalized by the local culture. that they "derive their inspiration from different sources of history". preIslamic Egyptian civilization of Pharaohs who built the Pyramids..In 1951. Western Pakistan comprised the north-west part of the sub-continent and Eastern Pakistan comprised eastern part of Bengal and one district in Assam. he declared. Jinnah exploited a cleavage in Indian society to proclaim: Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies. different heroes and different episodes." "We wish our people". and do not seek to deny the ancient.9 per cent of the total population of India. Over the centuries Islam reached a balance with the cultures of the people who adopted Islam.this demographic fact. Egyptians live in peace with their past. cultural. Muslims numbered 3. social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals 81 and according to the . which was born in Arabia. One cluster was in north-west India and the other in north-east India. social customs. economic. using the Persian language. "to develop to the fullest our spiritual. literature". making up 9.

but they are all Pakistanis. free from India or any Indian roots. Indian culture had to be actively cleaned out of the minds of millions of Pakistani citizens .. Was Pakistan Jinnah say: . but it was definitely not going to be Indian any more.. They will enjoy same rights and privileges as any other citizens.a culture of centuries was to be washed clean.You will find that in 82 . leaving Pakistan purely Islamic. you free to go to your mosques or to any other places worship in this State of Pakistan.. are free. and nobody had any idea of what would replace the void. and the You are of Parsis . But the leaders of the new Pakistan who took over after Jinnah died in 1948. Christians.genius of our people. Pakistan was not Arabic. Islamic. But there were inconsistencies and contradictions right from the beginning and the confusion has remained to this day.. Pakistan was deliberately set on the path of being an orphan. The only thing people knew was that Pakistanis would have to be Islamic. and good Muslims.we have a nation for Muslims only? But why did many non-Muslims - Hindus. The formation of Pakistan was considered a great victory. certainly felt that Pakistan should be stripped of all its connections with India. The India connection had to be stripped clean. you are free to go to your temples. culture-less nation. it was not Indonesian." Perhaps Jinnah did not mean to strip Pakistan of the rich culture that Islam had developed in its centuries of interaction in India (78). it was not Egyptian or Persian.. In an experimental and unparalleled act of ignorance. for Muslims alone.

were purely Islamic. and represented Islam. the lever that is used in Pakistan to justify served as a tool to be or to deflect blame misdeeds. That is indeed what some Pakistani Islamists believe: Muslims all over the world must realize that nationalism is kufr. in their confusion as to what Pakistan was and what it should do. today.e.. (79) (kufr refers to unbelievers i. ended up trying to make Pakistan take all the routes that it could possibly take simultaneously. as the majority of Muslims chose to remain in India.) Pakistani leaders. Islam has used when convenient. and that the modern nation-states are a creation of that period in history when Muslims were defeated and dominated by kufr. an example for Islamic nations to follow as the leader of the ummah. Pakistan had failed at birth. And like a man whose arms and legs are being pulled apart by horses moving in different directions.course of time Hindus would cease to Muslims would cease to be Muslims. nobody could question 83 . For Pakistan. (76) Was Pakistan a nation for all Muslims be Hindus and of the Indian subcontinent? If so. groups of directions. a modern day Caliphate? But if that was the case Pakistan should not have had any boundaries. As long as Islam anything. parts of Pakistan. People who are not Islamic. or to accuse an adversary of Pakistani leaders hid behind the excuse for their actions. Was Pakistan the leader of all Islamic nations. and social and ethnic Pakistan have all headed in different resulting in the chaos that Pakistan is Pakistani leaders claimed that they. to get aid. and Pakistan. Islam was and still remains the ultimate excuse.

India would be defeated.them. sacrifice and allow their army to get stronger. and therefore the The India problem had to be solved. corruption could not be criticized by anyone. and therefore anything that Pakistan did. and that took priority over everything else in Pakistan. They had to starve. And in this manner. Allah (God). from waging wars. India did not dare question Pakistani claims no matter how preposterous or obscene they were. Pakistan was Islamic. for postponing elections and for postponing development of Pakistan indefinitely. Money and the economy were not a problem. Opposing Pakistan was anti-Islamic. Pakistanis had failed the faith. aid and funds poured into Pakistan in the early years as part of US aid to Pakistan as a cold war ally. Islam could not fail. After all. enemy of Islam. Pakistan could do no wrong. who had given Pakistan to the faithful. it was because Islam was naturally anticommunist. the people of Pakistan could be kept busy. India was the source the enemy of Pakistan. genocide. was providing funds and arms via the US. there was no pressure to change policy. Any criticism of Pakistan was criticism of Islam. But as repeated Pakistani assaults against India failed. As long as the money kept coming in. because Pakistan was Islamic. If Pakistan obtained military and economic aid from the US. be it development. attention to India. and 84 . democracy or common sense. avoiding elections. The threat from India became the common denominator for all Pakistani actions. and to meddle with and Indian Muslims. And conveniently. and elections postponed. its leaders set about using Islam to divert Indian territory of all problems. so that Islam could be upheld against India. They were not Islamic enough they had to strive to be better Muslims. India could be fought and opposed. instead of consolidating and unifying the new state of Pakistan. the number one threat to Pakistan.

holding all the important government posts.. the prop. Mohammad Waseem wrote: Muslim migrants from East Punjab and further East in India shaped the psyche of the new nation along feelings of insecurity at the hands of India. The Pakistani elite. used in Pakistan to make every opinion or move.the migrant elite. 1952 the historic Bengali language movement erupted spontaneously all over East Bengal. Muslims in Kashmir. thought they could isolate the Bengali nationalists by raising religious slogans of Islamic ideology and Islamic identity to counter Bengali anger.. because opposing India meant devotion to Islamic ideals. instead of going some way to meet Bengali demands. Elections were a threat that had to be postponed or canceled and an imaginary threat to Islam was invoked. saw their positions threatened by the prospect of elections which would unseat them in favor of locals. A report in Pakistan's Friday Times (81) carried this scathing message on the role of the migrant elite in using Islam: On Feb 21... no sacrifice could be too great in opposing India. and later all the Muslims in India would be rescued from Hindu tyranny by Pakistan..therefore to Islam. The Islam card was used by everybody in Pakistan to suit their own purpose.. In his essay on the role of the power structure in Pakistan (80).dreaded the prospects of their exit from power in the event of elections. Foolishly our ruling elite. 85 . commitment to Islamic ideology and the need to unite against all odds.it remained a major potential challenge. No method was ruled out. migrants from India. Islam gradually became the tool.

Finally. as distinct from the international military doctrines.. anything less than an Islamic state in Pakistan was a threat. A. whom Zia Malhotra wrote (74): Islamic texts are had deposed in a coup. Rajiv being introduced into Pakistani military training.The army of Pakistan was initially subservient to the government. There are even serious attempts under way to define an Islamic military doctrine. the army started seeing Islam in more and more of its actions. Another compelling reason to be very cautious about overuse of religion is to avoid seeping of sectarian tendencies into the armed forces. Only in an Islamic state could mullahs be influential and prominent. 'There was a hidden hand deflecting the rounds'. Hussain wrote (82): 86 . After 1971 Zia-ul-Haq started a campaign of Islamization of the Pakistani army. Columnist Hamid Husain has this to say about Islamization of the Pakistan army (58): Brigadier Gulzar Ahmad explaining the role of celestial powers to lessen his troop casualties in 1965 war stated.General Mahmud Ahmad during Pakistani ambassador's conference reprimanded the ambassadors for not relying on the intercession of Providence while analyzing Pakistan's Afghan policy. and they supported every measure to make Islam the basis of the existence of all Pakistanis. for the mullahs (Islamic scholars) of Pakistan. And as Islam was stirred into the mindset of the Pakistani army. M. and strengthened the process of Islamization of Pakistan started by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Pluralism or Western-style democracy was incompatible with the mullah's world view. so as to fight in accordance with the Koran. Middle ranking officers must take courses and examinations on Islam.

went to Pakistan as they saw no role in India for themselves. the army and the mullahs seemingly being in agreement with each other on the question of the Islamic status of Pakistan. but making it reality was easier said than done.have a vested interest in establishing an Islamic state where they are locus of power and have tremendous scope for employment. Every group in Pakistan needed Islam only for their narrow self interest. In the absence of such guidelines.. Mo-alim.But trying to replicate the Medinese polity remains an ideal.Imam. and gone without a hitch. Mozin. The men 87 who controlled the sword. Everything should have fallen in place. there really should have been no problem... No Muslim polity has measured up to the combination of piety and social justice achieved by the Medinese community. The desire for an ideal Islamic state has been described as follows (83): The quest for it reflects the desire to model Muslim politics on the original Islamic community in Medina. he left behind a tradition. Islamic people often ended up being controlled by the nearest strongman. Maulavi. who had opposed Jinnah. With everyone in Pakistan.. It explains why even those Ulamas and Maulavis (like Moulana Maudoodi). etc. But that did not happen. which remains to this day the blueprint for a genuinely Islamic society. but there were no written guidelines on how a state should be run. the bureaucracy and government. When the Prophet Mohammad died in AD 632. . The idea of an Islamic state seemed noble enough. The Ideal Islamic state existed at the time of the Prophet Mohammad. the people.

In theory the sultan's authority in religious matters was limited by the holy law of the Qu'raan and no sultan could clearly divorce religion from politics. and he did not leave behind a specific political system or designate a successor. the poets and the ulema of the age.. And Pakistan is no exception.. (a non-profit multinational organization resolving conflict) the introduction following quote (85): committed to carries the The Muslim state in India was a theocracy. but there were no formal criteria for determining the community's leadership or judging its legitimacy.the military ruler taking absolute control over Islamic people had already existed in Mughal India.. a Professor of religious studies. Tamara (84): Sonn. 88 and was implemented and .. wrote (The Prophet) Muhammad's prophetic mantle was not inherited by his successors. In a report on the relationship of the mullahs and the military in Pakistan by the International Crisis Group. the Prophet's successors were expected to be personally pious and to behave according to the guidance left by the Prophet. Succession of leadership among Islamic people has been a bone of contention ever since that time. and this was understood and acquiesced in. But in practice the Muslim sultan of India was a perfect autocrat and his word was law.controlled the ulema (scholars) and the people.In general...by the soldiers. The precedent of the strongman . The real source of the sultan's authority was military strength.

It was done. seceded and formed Bangladesh (chapter 11). to uphold Islam and represent Islam. or reached some accommodation with the army. it had to be invented. zakat. no feminine immodesty. The effort to make Pakistan purely described by V. revolted. East Pakistanis their minds poisoned by India according to some West Pakistani commentators. After all Pakistan was formed for Islam. Anything that Pakistan did was done in the name of Islam. Islamic fervor. and put and end to the people's misery. But soon in 89 . could only supply the simple negatives that answered emotional needs: no alcohol. Other forces in Pakistan who wanted power and influence. And it was all done in the name of Islam. Pakistani leaders claimed. Faith.perpetuated in Pakistan. Gradually the non-Muslim minorities of Pakistan were squeezed out (chapter 6) They had no role in Islamic Pakistan. Criticism of Pakistan was criticism of Islam. and in that invention faith was of little help. at the moment.S Naipaul in his believers”(75) Islamic has been book “Among the This Islamic state couldn't simply be decreed. would solve all of Pakistan's problems. Pakistani leaders were always right. The Pakistan army was invited to take power. such as the politicians. More and more Islamic laws had to be passed and implemented. always Islamic and they compelled their people to be more and more Islamic. bureaucrats and the ulema used the army. liked it. This blow to Pakistan was explained on the basis of Pakistan not being Islamic enough. and the Hudood ordinance were brought in. The sharia. no interest in the banks. It was to be assumed by all who were watching that Pakistan itself was the embodiment of Islam. and held on to power. it was implied.

and the army became richer. the rulers and influential people of Pakistan did not have to be all that Islamic. Pakistanis were urged to do jihad . was ready to die for a cause.S. self correcting jihad of the Koran.Pakistan these negatives were to be added to: no political parties.. ready to embrace 90 . and their modern. needed men to do their fighting. So existing institutions were deemed to be unIslamic and undermined or undone. The elite stayed rich. However. liberal lifestyle conveyed the impression of a progressive society to Western aid givers. while the poor of Pakistan got madrassas (Islamic schools) to ensure that they became more Islamic. Jihad against the enemies of Islam. The burgeoning of madrassas and ensured that they would have jobs and influence. the serfs and underlings. and the mullahs.not the internal. brought up with fervor of any in a madrassa. ensured that foreign aid poured in and the economy of the wealthy in Pakistan boomed. the faith was asserted because only the faith seemed to be whole. They preached jihad. More and more Pakistanis were needed to fight Pakistan's wars. Men were needed to fight the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. The mullahs of Pakistan were doubly happy. Pakistan's alliance with the U. Pure Islam was for the hoi-polloi. but the external violence of the Generals and their games of military domination. Men were needed to fight India. They took charge of the madrassas with gusto and preached with fervor. Each Islamic jihadi. secure and happy in their newly funded madrassas. ensured the delivery number of men to fight for Pakistan. for Islam. getting richer. In order to be good Muslims. and in the vacuum only the army could rule. The rich got money. no law courts. The army brass. no parliament. the army. the army got weapons. no dissent.

while their wards and students were encouraged to seek the pleasures of an afterlife. The state had been founded as a homeland for Muslims. and more powerful. As the institutions of Pakistan failed in this unique and unorthodox concept of a nation. This glorious scene became Pakistan's version of Islam.and accept the guaranteed benefits of dying in jihad in an afterlife to be enjoyed in a well-stocked heaven.. And in that quest of the Islamic absolute the society of believers. the faith Islam. aiding the Generals' wars. In a remarkably prescient passage Naipaul observes (75). If the state failed it wasn't because the dream was flawed.Extraordinary claims began to be made for Pakistan: it was founded as the land of the pure. obtainable only by violence and death.. where every action was instinct with worship men lost sight of the political origins of their state. or the faith flawed. Failure only led back to the faith. The Islam of Pakistan's mullahs. their families accepting that the death of their son would bring glory and honour. Rich generals doing office jobs while men from the poor classes with little to live for were trained.the people who trained them and sent them to die the army and the mullahs. The state withered. but faith didn't. it could only be because men had failed the faith. got fatter. grew stronger. indoctrinated and prepared for death. in league with lazy Generals. preaching an Islam that would keep the mullahs comfortable in this life. it was to be the first truly Islamic state since the days of the Prophet and his close companions 91 . And as these men prepared for and died fighting for the cause that they had been told was Islamic .

In his characteristically astute manner V.’ upholding the faith and protecting Pakistan. ‘the army of Islam.The average Pakistani citizen was coerced or co-opted by putting Islam first. And the Pakistani state died. Every Pakistani had to strive to be a good Muslim.S. Co-opting the Pakistani citizen under the Islam banner eminently served the interests of the rich and corrupt elite of Pakistan in maintaining their grip and preserving their business and territorial interests. Pakistan. and replaced it with nothing 92 . To be Pakistani was to be a good Muslim. the mullahs and the ulema were necessarily allowed to exercise spiritual control over the Pakistani masses to ensure that Pakistan remained adequately and properly Islamic in all arenas. which presented itself as the savior. it was stressed. was created by Muslims for Muslims. India had been held in check only by God and the Pakistani army. Pakistan had undone the rule of law it had inherited from the British. Muslim clerics. It was drummed in that this was necessary because India was always there to swallow up Pakistan. Naipaul concludes (75): Step by step. out of its Islamic striving.

But Mani Shankar Aiyer has recognised a gradual change of attitudes to India 93 . This experiment is unique in the world. In his book. (75) Naipaul quotes the words of a man story of this quarter of this everything that describing Pakistan. No other nation has attempted to so totally reject its existing culture while retaining only the faith or religion. They hated the foreigners and they hated the Hindus. the Muslims of India woke up. They had a double hate. Pakistanis define their identity as being non-Indian.Chapter 9 ATTITUDES TOWARDS INDIA AND INDIANS Career diplomat-turned-politician Mani Shankar Aiyer served as India's first Consul General in Karachi. Among the Believers. Then in the second quarter. So the country of Pakistan was built on hate and nothing else. and he has published his collected writings on Pakistan in a book entitled Pakistan Papers (86). and encouraged the replacement of that culture by an invented Islamic culture. Pakistan itself means “Land of the Pure” and Pakistani identity has been sought to be defined on the basis that Pakistan is a land of pure Muslims. I will tell you the country in two sentences. Pakistani authorities have done everything in their power to discourage any Pakistani from displaying cultural traits that are seen as Indian in character. In the first century the Hindus of India decided that was wrong had to do with foreigners and foreign influence. The predominant Pakistani attitude toward India is hatred. and survival of Pakistan required the rejection of all that was Indian. and go on further to define themselves as pure Muslims. In their effort to ensure that Pakistanis are not Indian. The birth. Aiyer says that the best definition for Pakistani is “One who is not Indian”.

Aiyer continues: From 1947 to 1971 the general belief (in Pakistan) was: 'hans hans ke liya tha Pakistan. India struggled but improved. Aiyer writes (86): . the flag of Islam would be imparted on the ramparts of the Red Fort. Up until 1971 it was hate and contempt. And hatred of India grew. it was put about and accepted implicitly that in a matter of days.. Dislike and distrust of India became an industry in Pakistan. or ten or whatever number of Kafirs was widely believed.among Pakistanis.all but the most blind Pakistani today looks back on what happened to his country in 1971 at the hands of India as a great defeat. Columnist Hamid Hussain describes the Pakistani army officer corps' attitude toward Indians prior to the 1965 war (58): The general despise (sic) of Hindus and doubting their capacity of able (sic) to give a good fight was almost universal Over the years. till 1971 he looked back on what happened . as a great victory. Pakistani attitudes have changed to hate and fear. but after 1971. while Pakistan split up and tottered.. perhaps hours. Like life itself. which evolved from simple 94 . lad lad ke lengey Hindustan' We got Pakistan with a triumphant smile We fill fight and take Hindustan (India) Myths about a single Muslim soldier being the equal of four.

based on assumed religious superiority. Pakistanis evolved a plethora of reasons to hate India. to be fought. India was the enemy. The act of partition at independence left Pakistanis with a small moth-eaten nation. hatred of India was nurtured to evolve. huge Banyan trees. defeated and brought to its knees. elephants. For others. a national obsession in Pakistan. In an article written for Pinnacle magazine (87). is the cause of their 95 . tigers. This was a source of resentment to many elite Pakistanis who had left everything in India to be in Pakistan. The cup of Pakistani hatred brims over and India. Brig. The fact that in 1965 and also in Kargil it was the Moslems of India who alerted the country is too insulting to believe. Hatred for India and Indians has been made into a national purpose. Hatred and mistrust for the creation of Pakistan. India who caused the trauma of of India was the reason defeating India for this reason was a hateful nation of people partition. makes it difficult for the Pakistanis to accept the reality of India's intrinsic superiority in size and economy. fragrant flowers. insects and men. For these people nothing would be better than exacting revenge for their lost lives. It was worth alone. Raychaudhuri sums up Pakistani attitudes to India: This shattering of the psychological indoctrination. and opposition to India was the reason for Pakistan's birth. in the Pakistani mindset. grow and metamorphose into a multitude of reasons and justifications. with active hatred being taught in Pakistani schools as described in Chapter 3. Pakistan existed because Muslims would be suppressed in India.one-celled organisms into a multitude of life forms.

And as India grew stronger. 96 .. Pakistan could not develop because of India. they had to give up Indianness. and Islamic fervor had to be increased to oppose India. • Conducting terrorist activities in various parts of Pakistan to exploit ethnic and religious differences. just like India was accused of killing or raping 30. India had to be hated to keep Pakistanis in line. hatred of India was needed as the justification for the wealth of the Pakistan army. some of which are: • Indian usurpation of Jammu and Kashmir. the continued occupation of that state against the will of its people. to make them good Muslims. Pakistanis had to be good Muslims to survive.000 or 70. Furthermore. because India was there to subjugate or kill all Muslims. who are always at work to create disgruntlement in Pakistan's smaller provinces.nation('s) deprivations. • Developing Pakistan-specific nuclear and conventional arsenal. As recently as December 2003. thus forcing this country to enter into a suicidal arms race with the consequent irreparable damage to its economy. hatred and fear of India had to grow stronger.000 or whatever number of people in Kashmir. and the merciless killing of thousands of innocent Kashmiris by the Indian occupation forces. Pakistanis were poor because of Indian aggression. a retired Colonel of the Pakistan Army wrote the following accusations against India (88): There is a long list of other hostile Indian actions against Pakistan. and for the health of army businesses surviving on state handouts. • Constant efforts to destabilize Pakistan through its agents. to make them more Islamic.

others try to urge Pakistan to virtually move out of the Indian subcontinent into Central Asia or even the Middle East.from the perigee of wanting to occupy and subjugate parts of India..instead of the Rupee. which has exclusive Indian connotations..must be emphasized in our schoolbooks. If this requires drafting new books on Pakistan studies. Expecting an enemy with such a criminal record to change its heart overnight and become friendly toward us is nothing but inanity. to the apogee of wiping out memories of India. • Cultural: Islamabad's cultural cooperation with West Asian and Central Asian countries must be revitalized... by adopting either the Riyal or the Dinar... • Educational: The other major facets of Pakistan's identity . Ahmad Quraish wrote in the Pakistani paper the Nation (89): .• Keep bullying Pakistan by concentrating Indian armed forces on its borders and on the Line of Control in Kashmir on trumped up grounds. Turkic and Central Asian .. and these must be compulsory reading for Pakistani students It is both ludicrous and sad to see Pakistani loathing for India covering the full spectrum .ministries must.the following steps are necessary: • Political: Pakistan's... having previously imposed three wars on Pakistan.deemphasize Pakistan's inclusion in South Asia and play up Pakistan's role in Central and West Asia. • Changing the name of Pakistan's national monetary unit . so be it.the Arab. Persian. And while some Pakistanis have reacted to India with this degree of hatred and suspicion. even denying 97 .

Pakistan's links with India and claiming imagined links with Central and West Asia. And all this while Indian children are taught to recognise Pakistanis as just like us. 98 .

religion. Time and time again. with soldiers. crime. How the Pakistani army changed from a regular army into this Hydra-headed monster has an interesting history. greed. generals. There is almost no activity in Pakistan that the army is not involved in doing. power. antagonised or disagreed with. and there is no group in Pakistan or among Pakistan's neighbors that the Pakistani army has not fought. tanks and valor. deception. industry. and from many sources. the Pakistani army leads a charmed existence. lucre and self preservation. which included a large number of Punjabi Muslims from the area that was to later become Pakistan. guns. terrorism. the Pakistani army started off as a regular army. business.Chapter 10 THE PAKISTANI ARMY: POWER AND GLORY IN THE FAMILY The word Army for the Pakistan army is a pitifully inadequate description for an organization that does vastly more. being admired by most of Pakistan. Calling the Pakistan army by that name is akin to describing a 30-course meal as a light snack. and has diversified into more ventures than most armies in the world could dream of doing. But its tentacles have spread into politics. these troops began to be known as hailing from a martial race 99 . Because of their loyalty and docility under British leadership. it is an army with a nation Of course. But yet. although that has begun to change recently. fighting by proxy. the British increasingly recruited people from the Northwest of undivided India. It has been noted in an earlier chapter (Chapter 5) that due to historic reasons dating from the 1857 war of Indian independence. one can find people who have made the quote: Pakistan is not a nation with an army.

(57). especially a deep hatred for India. The military also actually owned a lot of land because of the policy of settling retired soldiers by gifting land. Thus the Pakistani army was dominated by Punjabis. several other unique observations can be made about the Pakistani province of Punjab (West Punjab) at the time of independence and partition(80). • Punjab was the most populous province of Pakistan. • 70% of the voters in Pakistani Punjab had some connection with the military • Punjab itself was partitioned so a lot of army personnel had relatives or friends in Punjab who were affected by the events of partition. vast tracts of land in West Punjab had been awarded to them. the military in Pakistan was not merely the military. Apart from the predominance of Muslim Punjabis in the Pakistani army. but had political clout as well as political opinions. so the personnel in these army units served both as protectors of the civilians as well as sufferers as their villages partition. • As part of the settlement of retired army personnel. or families were affected during • Punjabi units were also utilised in Pakistan's unsuccessful attack to wrest Kashmir from India in 1947. who began to see themselves as being of a superior martial race. • Pakistani Punjab was militarized because of the large number of Punjabis in the military. The Punjabi dominated army 100 also considered itself a . For these reasons. • Pakistani army units from Punjab were tasked with the protection of civilians in the post-partition violence.

having been tasked to protect Pakistanis during partition began to consider itself as the protector and savior of Islam. They were not about to fritter away that victory by allowing power to pass into the hands of the more numerous uneducated locals in democratic elections. It was a victory for them. And democracy also brought with it the danger that the more numerous Bengalis. The areas that constituted West Pakistan were largely rural. there were not many educated local people to make up the bureaucrats. engineers and technocrats that were required in the government of the new Pakistan. and apart from the Punjabi dominated Army. These posts were filled by the educated elite migrants from British India. The army. Besides 101 . might actually end up ruling all of Pakistan. These people suddenly had a nation to lead. All these tendencies were present or had set in shortly after independence in 1947. who stood to lose their lands and influence. a new nation. Pakistan . and for Islam.one of the biggest countries on earth. in the same way as they would later refuse to hand over power. legal experts.martial race with superior fighting and leadership qualities compared to the East Bengalis (East Pakistanis) who were considered effeminate. After all. the reason these migrants had left India was precisely because they privileges. considered an inferior race. It was also inconvenient for the feudal lords in Pakistan. and the rule of Pakistan to a Bengali party from faraway East Pakistan. But there was an additional factor that led to the induction of the Pakistani army into the role of absolute rulers of Pakistan. largely mohajirs and Punjabis. Democracy was feared democracy attenuating their inconvenient for the ruling elite of Pakistan. and the Hindu Indians.

Dispensing even with the pretence of democracy. No President had power to dismiss used it liberally. Elections were constantly the civilian authority used the Army to until the first bloodless military coup although that was the first year that the postponed and stay in power of 1958. and to Islam itself.. Ayub ousted Mirza and imposed martial law in October 1958 The military coup by Gen Ayub Khan was a watershed of sorts as it marked the first step by the Pakistani military to gain and retain control of Pakistan. And what better way to do that than to declare a threat to Pakistan.ruled in league with Army Chief. In the period from 1958 to 1971 the Pakistan Army gradually consolidated its hold on power in Pakistan. A report from the International Crisis Group (53) has this to say: In the first decade of Independence.these facts. general Mohammad Ayub Khan. (Governor- General Iskander) Mirza..the the Prime Minister and democracy but civil bureaucrats military as junior partner. the army nevertheless had shared power with the elite in Pakistan for nearly a decade before that. who had to give up space and resources to the migrants from India. from their huge neighbor India. the migrant elite faced some resistance from the locals in West Pakistan. and stopped being a junior partner to the civil bureaucracy in government. The ruling elite of Pakistan therefore had a deep vested interest in not handing power to the people of Pakistan. It seems virtually certain that no single individual in the Pakistani 102 army could have been a .. Pakistan was nominally a parliamentary ruled the state with the elections were held . And Pakistani army officially came into power.

rather than power handed down from a single supremo.. that protects its own from harm and disrepute. It is a cooperative system. The Pakistani army is like a close-knit fraternity. a biradari. finances or honour are not harmed.strongman without the connivance and cooperation of the Punjabi and feudal lord dominated military brass of the Pakistani army. Pakistani (90): security analyst Ayesha Siddiqa-Agha writes It is important to note that Pakistan's armed forces especially the army operates like a fraternity. however. Sidelining discreetly Ayub exercised total control of Pakistan before. The Army replaced Ayub Khan when it was sensed that popular opposition to Ayub Khan would harm the Army’s interests. while ensuring that its interests. and General Yahya Khan. the (army) high command transferred power to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. undesirable individuals or rewarding others is. during and after 1965 when he launched and lost a war with India. thus.The military's defeat in the 1971 war with India had. been 103 . a family or brotherhood. severe punishments to individuals or extraordinary treatment of a similar nature are viewed as undermining the morale of the institution. be they power. who oversaw the splitting away of East Pakistan and the formation of Bangladesh after the worst defeat that the Pakistani armed forces have ever faced replaced him. The International Crisis Group's paper on democracy in Pakistan (53) refers to the Pakistani Army's role in this period as follows: Fearing that its defeat would translate into popular demands for accountability. a preferred choice. In this environment.

000 prisoners of war in India. and have prevented all attempts to check the finances or power of the military in any way.limited to East Pakistan.. In fact a damning report on the actions and defeat of the Pakistani army in the 1971 war. its infrastructure in the West was untouched. the Hamoodur Rehman report was never made public until a copy was obtained and published by the Times of India. One of the fanciest clubs in Karachi is the Defense Housing Authority County and Golf Club. businesses and non-military interests of the Pakistan army that are so keenly protected and preserved. including the one currently headed by General Musharraf have grabbed power to save Pakistan and bring in a sound democratic system. But the Pakistani army has always grabbed power from elected governments or prevented democracy from actually being established.. Military leaders quickly recouped losses and closed ranks against perceived civilian threats to their personal and institutional interests It is clear that even as early as 1971 the Pakistan Army had enough of a vested interest in retaining power in Pakistan to pretend to hand over power to a civilian government in order to maintain the reputation and interests of the Pakistan army from public scrutiny and accountability. The army ensures that its officer class live in great style and luxury. Despite 93. All military governments in Pakistan. a sparkling new facility 104 . A report in the Washington Post in 2002 (91) described army life in the following words: The officer class in Pakistan has always had a strong sense of entitlement stemming from its dominant role in defending the country and in running it. It is informative to look at the perquisites.

Nearby are clothing boutiques. is the blandly named Army Housing Scheme II..with lush fairways. A gated community protected by paramilitary troops. Mediterranean-style villas grouped around a playground and an elaborately landscaped Japanese-style garden.in the upscale Karachi suburb of Clifton. the Washington Post goes on to compare that with a Pakistani army run school: Geared toward preparation for the competitive O Level exams required by British universities..One of Pakistan's most coveted addresses. jewelry stores. physics and biology labs would not seem out of place in an American suburb There are an enormous number of news media reports of the money and businesses that the Pakistani army controls.166 for civilians.. according to the club's fee schedule The same paper goes on to say: the military also rewards its senior officers by allowing them to purchase agricultural and urban land from the army's vast inventory of real estate at prices far below market value.. a two-story driving range and a gracious stone clubhouse overlooking an inlet of the Arabian Sea. The Independent of London described the contrast between a Pakistani army establishment and the rest of Pakistan (92): 105 . compared with $9. the development consists of spacious. Active-duty military personnel can join the club for an initiation fee of $16. for example. restaurants and a yoga studio Describing the decrepit and run-down state of most schools in Pakistan. the handsome school is an educational showpiece whose computer.

and serving and retired officers are routinely inducted into civilian jobs. In recent decades. Retired officers head 106 . newly painted cannons and battalion flags... Afghan refugees and Pakistan's urban poor root through garbage tips and crowd on to soot-pumping buses to work in sweatshops and brick factories. The Pakistan Weekly reported (94): . All countries have armies. but in Pakistan the army has a country.Outside in the street.. behind the ancient. Inside. with equivalent academic qualifications and so little productivity produces comparable personal affluence as that of the officer cadre of the Pak military.in relation to country's per capita income Pakistani senior military officers are one of the best paid in the world. Defense expenditures consume between onethird and one-half of the national budget. No rubbish litters this perfect world of discipline. Their children have a quota at most public universities. rose bushes surround welltended lawns and officers' messes decorated with polished brass fittings. Where does the money for all this come from? A report in the Daily Times of Pakistan in August 2002 says. Why should anyone living here want a return to corrupt democracy? A report in the online edition of the Pakistani newspaper Dawn said (93): The perks don't end here: military personnel are entitled to a 50 per cent discount on air and rail fares as well as cinema tickets. senior military officers have been transformed into powerful landlords through grants of choice agricultural lands and real estate.. No other career.

spends the highest on defence. public corporations. Part of the army's wealth is from the extremely high defence budget that Pakistan has maintained for decades. Ayesha-Siddiqa Agha describes 107 why the businesses were . Pakistan. It also controls a huge business empire.. security analyst Dr. as Pakistan's poor multiply and the economy falters. Shaheen Sehbai wrote in the Weekly Independent in 2002 (95). This garrison economy is increasingly unsustainable. For decades almost 35 to 40 per cent of Pakistan's and no- revenues have been going into questions-asked defence budget. at 4. The high defence budget is not the only source of income for the luxury loving Pakistani army. at the expense of all other expenditure and all other groups in Pakistan. The News International.4% of GDP. The excuse for the high defence expenditure has been the external threat from India. September 09. un-audited For this report and other reports on the activities of the Pakistani army. In her study of the Pakistan military's economic activities. 2001: Pakistan reported on Sunday As a % of GDP. and those seen as cooperative people who toe the line. from among the poorest of countries . Shaheen Sehbai.many. former editor of the English language daily the News was threatened by the army and forced to flee Pakistan and live in exile (96). but the army ensures great personal wealth for its serving and retired personnel especially those of the higher ranks. if not most.

competition is scared off by military threats. 152 million in 1970. aviation. Siddiqa-Agha. . commercial complexes. cereal and corn. shoes. banking. The Fauji Foundation's businesses include sugar mills. cement factories. The Army Welfare Trust has 26 projects including farms. and employs 6 to 7 thousand military personnel. insurance and security with many bearing the name Aksari. They are not necessarily profitable. but they survive on government subsidies and grants. power and education and healthcare. safe from accountability and questions. The Fauji foundation's assets have grown from Pakistani Rs. the Army Welfare Trust. mostly in middle and upper management positions.the military's business empire in Pakistan was created to guarantee welfare of retired and serving personnel. travel agencies. to 9. Later these two branches started off their own businesses.. plastics. fish farms. fertilizer. stud farms. the Shaheen Foundation and the Bahria Foundation.800 million according to Dr. and the senior employees make fat salary packets.started in the first place (90). rice and sugar mills. wool. It was a pattern inherited from the pre-independence days. cement. Natural gas. Initially only the army had its businesses. with a small quota for the Air Force and Navy. and the vast enterprise has grown to gargantuan proportions. Aksari aviation was set up merely to accommodate retired army helicopter pilots who could not get a job in the 108 . The four key armed-forces run business organizations in Pakistan are The Fauji Foundation. The Pakistani army's business enterprises were started for the welfare of retired personnel. hosiery. pharmaceuticals.

cargo. deep sea fishing. insurance. salvage and even a university. FM That left Pakistan's smallest force. a freelance Pakistani columnist wrote in the Pakistani daily Jang (97): Fauji Cereal has been part of my daily breakfast for as long as I can remember. airport services. Not to be outdone. During my days at the village. the 17. a travel agency. construction.000-acre dairy. commercial complexes and radio stations are ventures that do not obviously appear to be an essential part of the armed forces of any nation and would not be justifiable in any other nation on earth. milk use to come from the nearby Okara Military Farms. meat and grain-producing project. pay TV. Farrukh Saleem. the Bahria Foundation in 1981. paints. the navy. insurance. Banking. trading. Not too long ago. radio. knitwear and commercial complexes. the Pakistani armed forces have diversified into fields well outside the mandate of an armed force. There is no nation in the world whose armed forces are involved in as many non-military business ventures as the Pakistan armed forces. Like a core business that has diversified.private sector. 109 I didn't want to be . my wife wanted to build a house. the Pakistan air force established the Shaheen foundation which is now involved in air transportation. The only sugar that I ever liked was either from the four Fauji Sugar Mills or Army Welfare Sugar Mills. dredging. ship breaking. The Bahria Foundation deals in commercial complexes. to start its own venture. The only wrapping that Fauji Cereal ever uses comes from Fauji Poly Propylene Products. Dr. But they are normal and routine for the Pakistani armed forces.

the ventures were started not based on any feasibility study but on the whims of the top management to accommodate certain highranking officers. employing thousands of serving and retired army personnel. I wish I was right next to Fauji Kabirwala Power Company because I hate the power that Wapda comes out with. The only cement I will use is Fauji Cement. The businesses run by the Pakistani armed forces are marked by inefficiency. the military run businesses of Pakistan are above all accountability. Fauji also owns and operates Fauji Corn Complex. Fauji Jordan Company. and the defence ministry manned by retired military officers. (98) With the military in government. and are preserved by intimidation 110 that scares away . Fauji Oil Terminal Company Project and Mari Gas Company. corruption and self-interest. FONGAS. In her study of the Army's businesses.anywhere but in one of the six Askari Housing Schemes. Siddiqa-Agha makes a scathing indictment(90): Ayesha The top management of the armed forces jealously guard their interests. The paint for my house must come from no one but Bahria Paints. Fauji Fertilizer Company. The web page of the NLC describes its army connection euphemistically as a unique logistic based Public Sector Organisation which has [a] blend of corporate culture and Army's discipline. Dr. The army also operates what is called the National Logistic Cell (NLC) which is a trucking and transportation giant in Pakistan. A feature peculiar to a number of cases is. Over the years the interests have narrowed down from the greater benefit of the institution to the personal welfare of the generals.

This conversion of generals into landlords also explains why no serious effort has been made by the military to introduce land reforms in the country.. "There is also evidence of corruption linked to monopolization of government contracts." Siddiqa-Agha said.a list of over 100 armed forces men who allotted to themselves at least 400 or more acres of prime land in Bahawalpur. and there is evidence of corruption. The list is only of one District. With this degree of money. which could cure many political and social imbalances in the Pakistani society. the South Asia Tribune reported (99): .. An online report in the Crescent International revealed a list of Pakistani billionaires and millionaires with accounts in Swiss banks.. Corruption in running these businesses has been noted by Siddiqa-Agha and others (96): "When you dig into them. wealth and power. you find out they are inefficient. the Pakistan army's main problem shifts away from the defence of Pakistan to the defence of their own wealth and power. the risk to this life is not so 111 . heart of Punjab.competitors or people who try to question their activities. "to defend it from the enemy. In another report in August 2002. Nearly half the billionaires were from the army or close relatives of senior army personnel. Such lists exist all over Punjab and Sindh where a new breed of landlords has already been created through similar allotments." at the throw away rate of Rs 380 per acre (US Dollars Six & 50 cents). Which wealthy army general living in the lap of luxury would want to give up his good life for the hardship and travails of war? Besides.

the center of anti-Indian sentiment. the hundreds of Islamic seminaries have become breeding 112 . Increasingly under pressure within Pakistan for their greed the Pakistani army has used Islam and the external threat from India to retain their power and wealth. rallied radical Islamic forces to the cause. the Pakistan army has maintained a mutually profitable relationship with Islamic elements in the country. The Islamicists have offered two critical inputs to the military: they have provided armed manpower for the military's security agendas in the neighborhood. because the sacrifice of jihad is required to fight India. Pakistani journalist Najam Sethi noted in an article in the Friday Times of Pakistan (101): Since the late 1970s. And they have been ever ready to join hands with the military to undermine popularly elected and mainstream civilian governments inimical to the military's corporate view of Pakistan's interests in one way or another. but by anger and opposition to the corrupt and wealthy army from the desperately poor people of Pakistan. This Islamization of Pakistan and the Pakistani army accelerated after the 1971 defeat of the Pakistani army by India in the war of liberation of Bangladesh. and recruitment to the army benefits the poor who are inclined to Islamic fundamentalism. A report in the Washington Times recognised this (102): The Pakistani army. as in Afghanistan since 1979 and in India since 1989.much from an attack by India. Pakistan is a poor country. a staggering 85% of whom live on less than US $2 per day (100). Poverty and destitution in Pakistan are because India is trying to attack Pakistan and kill Muslims. The people must be more Islamic. In fact.

over the course of the last few decades. these jihadis played so vital a role that they outdid the army. But there is an Army of Islam.000. The jihadi outfits. in the course of the 1989 uprising in Kashmir. Pakistan . During the Kargil conflict 113 of 1999. Thus. so in the 1990s it was decided that they would act as a front-line force in any IndiaPakistan war.grounds for terrorism and centers for the recruitment of junior officers to the Pakistan army. Each unit has a commander who reports to an army officer. The Pakistan army has. The commanders have lap top computers in which they store their data. As the Pakistani army generals consolidated their financial and business empires.purpose was to develop a paramilitary force that would assist the Pakistan army in the event of war. subcontracted its fighting to the jihadis.Raman was quoted in the online portal Rediff (104): Pakistan has two armies. the army has become a harbinger for Islamic ideological orientations.. with a total strength of about 200. Another report in the Asia Times in 2003 (103) reveals the depth to which the Pakistan army's fighting forces have become intertwined with Islamic jihadis.. Each jihadi commander is given funds and the brief to devise a strategy for his unit's combat operations. a regular army of around 500.. they gradually subcontracted the actual fighting to Islamist irregular forces..000. so-called by Pakistan itself. However. Former Indian Intelligence analyst B. First-hand observations by this correspondent in Azad Kashmir camps confirm that the jihadi outfits are in fact paramilitary troops. from which they generate summaries of their operations for their military officers.

controls the largest network of elite public schools. but not before the Pakistani Northern Light Infantry was virtually wiped out. information regarding the Pakistani army would be incomplete without mention of the criminal activities and genocide that they have been involved in: G. saying that Kashmiri mujahideen were doing the fighting. Documented of the numbers of Pakistani citizens killed the carnage by the Pakistan army in Bangladesh Baluchistan (1972-1974). The latter fact was confirmed in an interview with deposed Former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in an interview at his place of exile in Saudi Arabia (105). Pakistani troops withdrew in the face of defeat. Parthasarathy. Finally. In another article. owns the largest construction company and the largest transportation company the National Logistics Cell— that has the dubious distinction of not only transporting weapons for the ISI and the CIA. Parthasarathy outlines the role of the Pakistani army in genocides and the killing of its own people(107): The Pakistan army has killed more of its own citizens in the past three decades than any other armed force. former Indian High Commissioner to Pakistan wrote (106): The Pakistan army is today the largest investor in the Karachi Stock Exchange. but also heroin from Peshawar for export from Karachi.refused to admit that any of their forces were involved in the fighting. except the Khmer evidence following (1971). rural Sind (1983 onwards) and the urban centres of Sind against the MQM 114 . But as Pakistani soldiers bodies began appearing in Pakistan the truth leaked out. Rouge led by the genocidal Pol Pot.

But the army did none of these things.two or three of the 10 corps commanders are seen as Islamicists. it is 115 . the Pakistani army being the only viable institution out. and built up a huge business empire for its senior officers and sycophants while the actual fighting was given over to jehadis fired up with Islamic zeal. and these lower ranks will be senior officers with the passage of time.. who are indoctrinated on the exclusivity and superiority of their brand of religion. confirms this fact. with their businesses and lands. it may be said that the Pakistani army retained a great degree of respect among the people of Pakistan from the time of independence. RAW's former Pakistan expert. the army commanders on the one hand and Allah on the other. This Islamic zeal has gradually entered the ranks of the Pakistani army. Indian Intelligence analyst B.(in the 1990s). the With that seems to be represented almost all over Pakistan. On the other hand are the Islamists. India. On the one hand are the rich and corrupt generals. Raman. In short the Pakistani army has people who are serving two masters. In late 2003. One of these masters will lose and it is unlikely that the followers of God as supreme army commander will give up without a fight. says only one of the 30 officers of lieutenant-general rank and above is definitely a jehadi. B. It started unwinnable wars.Raman was quoted in a report (108): . Based on this the army repeatedly took power in Pakistan with the promise of setting things right. promising to bring back democracy and to fight and defeat the number one enemy. The Pakistani army has set itself on the course of a serious split. In conclusion. A large number of men in the lower ranks of the Pakistani army now have fundamentalist Islamic leanings.

116 .difficult to imagine what could be in store for Pakistan other than serious instability when differences begin to show up between the Islamists and the corrupt mafia of the Pakistani army.

WARS AND GENOCIDE It is beyond the scope of this book to enter into a detailed military discussion of the wars that Pakistan has fought with India. But a brief description of the background and outcome of the wars that have been fought give an insight into how Pakistani leaders have viewed the world around them and their relationship with India. Pre-independence India (British India) consisted of present day India. shortly after independence and the formation of Pakistan. It is interesting to note that. 110. The 1947-48 war: The first conflict started in 1947. documents 111). PLEBISCITE. Pakistan and Bangladesh. The commission found 76 out of 435 districts with such a majority. Much has been written on this subject and many references are available. The exact circumstances under which this war started is generally lost in a maze of rhetoric. and needs to be described. Kashmir was not one of them. Demographer PH Reddy pointed out in an article in the newspaper The Deccan Herald on January 25th 2002 that the basis of division of British India into India and Pakistan was Sir Cyril Radciffe's Boundary Commission which had been tasked with demarcating the districts in India that had a Muslim majority of more than 75% which were to be allotted to Pakistan. including some excellent online references complete with photographs. in two clusters that were to form West and East Pakistan. Within this 117 . and video clips on the Internet (109.Chapter 11 KASHMIR. myth and misinformation.

He was hoping to retain his kingdom. The dominion of Kashmir was one such Princely State that was ruled by a King (Maharaja Hari Singh) who had to make the decision of joining India or Pakistan. and hastily commenced an invasion of Kashmir to take over the Kingdom before the Maharaja made up his mind (112). Pakistani leaders suspected that this was a ploy by India to make the Maharaja of Kashmir accede to India. the Pakistani army sent in irregular non-army forces as well as army personnel in civilian attire at the forefront of the invasion of Kashmir. Faced with this invasion from Pakistan. 118 . In a tradition that was to be repeated in 1965 and 1999. and he therefore requested both India and Pakistan to sign a treaty called a standstill agreement to maintain supplies and postal services to his landlocked state while he made up his mind. When it was decided that British India was to be split up into India and Pakistan and given independence.area were also about 600 states that were not directly ruled by Britain. The Instrument of Accession was a legal document saying that a state ruled by a Prince or King had acceded . India wanted to formalize this agreement with a representative of the King. but were Princely States with kings or rulers of their own. This King had not made up his mind about signing the Instrument of Accession at the time of Indian independence on 15th August 1947. the 600 Princely States were given the option of joining either India or Pakistan by signing a document called the Instrument of Accession.or agreed to join India or Pakistan. the Maharaja of Kashmir signed the instrument of accession to India and requested assistance from the Indian Armed forces in protecting his people who were being subjected to rape and pillage by the invading Pakistani forces.

or a 119 . soldiers in plain clothes. Though we have got a standstill agreement with the Pakistan Government. and desperadoes with modern weapons have been allowed to infiltrate into the State. The wild forces thus let loose on the State are marching on with the aim of capturing Srinagar... the Indian armed forces started their process of evicting the invading Pakistani marauders in a war that continued till an official UN sponsored cease fire was declared in 1949. salt and petrol to my State. 14th March 1950. cannot possibly be done without the knowledge of the Provincial Government of the North-West Frontier Province and the Government of Pakistan. The number of women who have been kidnapped and raped makes my heart bleed. The entire text of the letter is reproduced in Appendix 1.. Afridis. after which a plebiscite.. but an excerpt follows: The Dominion of India desired further discussion with representatives of my Government. After the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India. at a time when Pakistani forces still occupied about onethird of Kashmir in the North West. the Government permitted a steady and increasing strangulation of supplies like food.The letter of accession to India written by the Maharaja of Kashmir (113) is as chilling as it is telling. The United Nations resolution on Kashmir (Appendix 2) called for a withdrawal of military forces within five months from the date of the resolution.. armed with up-to-date weapons.it has become difficult to stop the wanton destruction of life and property and the looting of the Mahura power house.. which supplies electric current to the whole of Srinagar and which has been burnt. (meaning a vote.

In the meantime. Pakistan allied itself with the United States of America in the cold war against the Soviet Union. when Soviet nuclear missiles were placed in Cuba right under the nose of the US. Pakistan's alliance with the US allowed a great deal of aid money to flow into Pakistan. The US in the 1960s had just emerged from the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. armed with Sidewinder air to air missiles. subversion or diplomacy. The Pakistan-India war of 1965: The early 1960s were great years for Pakistan. These included state-of-the-art supersonic F-104 Starfighter aircraft.referendum) could be held to poll the people of the state of Kashmir on the issue. History has shown that Pakistani forces have not withdrawn from the portions of Kashmir that they occupied even 600 months. The US was also fighting communist forces in Vietnam. as well as the most sophisticated arms that were available. and communism was considered the most serious threat by the US. Any ally was welcomed as long as he declared that he was opposed to communism. or 50 years after the UN resolution was passed. held afloat 120 . and was lauded as a progressive leader among developing nations. Pakistan could do no wrong. deception. The economy was booming. and the failure to bend the terms of the now defunct UN resolution to suit Pakistan has been the basis for all further attempts by Pakistan to take Kashmir by force. a portion of Kashmir that Pakistani forces occupied was gifted away to China it appears that no plebiscite of the people of Kashmir was required for giving away a part of the state to China. Under military rule. Pakistan's failure to get Kashmir on their terms.

the infiltration of Pakistani forces was not welcomed with the pro-Pakistan rebellion of Indians in Kashmir that the Pakistanis had expected. India on the other hand was smarting from a military defeat in the hands of the Chinese in the 1962 war. Pakistan's military leader felt that the 1960s offered him a chance to invade and take over Kashmir from India. starting from their military supremo Ayub Khan.by aid dollars. though leaflets were distributed. the military dictator of Pakistan (58): General Ayub Khan in his letter to C-in-C General Muhammad Musa stated. Pakistani leaders were wrong on both counts. mainly from Pakistan. Columnist Hamid Hussain quotes from a letter written by Ayub Khan. Pakistanis. who would ask for international assistance. In the event. The planned broadcast did not take place. and that the Muslims of India were waiting to rise up in revolt and join Pakistan. Through August 1965 Pakistani forces in civilian clothes were infiltrated into Kashmir as part of Operation Gibralter (sic). as a general rule Hindu morale would not stand more than a couple of hard blows delivered at the right time and place. The plan was to conduct acts of sabotage and create mayhem after which a radio broadcast was to be made saying that Kashmir had been taken over by revolutionary liberation forces. 121 . against India. Indian forces in 1962 fought valiantly but valor is no substitute for planning and equipment in a war that the Indian Army had not been given the funds or strategy to prepare for. genuinely believed that one Pakistani soldier equals six Indian soldiers (68). after having naively trusted China to do good. In the heady 1960s.

on September 1st 1965 Pakistan launched Operation Grand Slam. Pakistan appears to be repeating the same mistakes again and again. The attackers were planning to take the town of Akhnoor. with Indian troops occupying the Pakistani town of Barki in the Lahore sector. India opened a second front by attacking Pakistan across the border in Punjab. At the time of writing of this. beating back Indian defences. The lessons and punishment suffered by Pakistan should really have been an eye-opener for any responsible and patriotic forces in Pakistan. and advancing toward the Pakistani city of Lahore. In order to relieve the intense Pakistani pressure in Kashmir. By the time a cease fire was declared on 23rd September 1965. Ayub Khan's plan of annexing Kashmir had been foiled. the instability that Pakistan displays more than three decades after the 1971 war is indicative of the deeply dysfunctional internal forces that have kept Pakistan in turmoil since then. India ended the war holding about 1. but no such awakening has occurred. en route to the taking of Srinagar. Pakistan occupied about 490 square kilometers of Indian territory in the Akhnoor region.100 square kilometers of Pakistani territory in the Poonch and Lahore regions. Gen.At this stage. West Pakistanis always considered their East Pakistani 122 . The cease fire was formalized with the Tashkent declaration of January 10th 1966 (Appendix 3) The 1971 war of liberation of Bangladesh: The 1971 war was one of the most shameful episodes in the history of Pakistan. the capital of Jammu and Kashmir. a massive armor attack on India.

An East Pakistani party. Raging infernos everywhere. Elections were somehow postponed or avoided until 1971. the incumbent military dictator of Pakistan allowed an election to be held. the Awami league.. for a period of 36 hours from the night of the 25th till the 26th night.I don't have the words to express the bestiality and barbarity that was perpetrated on the Dhaka University area. That was unacceptable to the ruling elite of West Pakistan as well as the Pakistani army. especially Iqbal Hall. who were all Muslims and fellow Pakistanis was shocking and brutal. Jagannath Hall.. One description. This was the beginning of the Pakistani army's darkest and most shameful phase to date. headed by Sheikh Mujibur Rehman won a landslide victory and should have formed the government of all of Pakistan. 123 . The killing of Bengalis. But East Pakistan had a population greater than that of West Pakistan.. which meant that true democracy in Pakistan could pave the way for an East Pakistani Bengali to become leader of Pakistan. The Pakistani army could not countenance this.Just after midnight Iqbal Hall came under a barrage of heavy mortar and machine-gun attack from near the pond in front and the police barracks behind it. gambling that no party would get an overall majority. when General Yahya Khan.. followed by a genocide of East Pakistani Bengalis. He was wrong.. East and West. I saw with my own eyes.Bengali compatriots as somehow inferior and weak. Rafiqul Islam of Dhaka Just after midnight on the night of 25th March. and adjoining residential areas. by University reads(114): Prof. What transpired around Iqbal Hall. the Pakistani Army began their attack on the Student Halls and Staff Quarters of the University. and martial law was clamped in East Pakistan.

J. and then silence.the slum was burning. allowing their bodies to float down-river (115) They were in batches of six or eight. the cars parked around the residences were burning. they were easy targets. Then a new bunch of prisoners was brought out. and in the light of a powerful electric arc lamp. There were screams in the hot night air. and the process was repeated. The genocide by the Pakistani army in East Pakistan was the worst seen after the holocaust of Jews by the Nazis in the second World War. In the morning the village boatmen hauled the bodies into midstream and the ropes binding the bodies were cut so that each body drifted separately 124 . One online source (115) has a collection of references to this and the descriptions are horrific: R. Sweeps were conducted of young men who were never seen again. and the Pakistan army tended to line up men along river-banks at night and shoot them. Bodies of youths would be found in fields. The prisoners fell on their sides and their bodies lapped against the shore. Bangladesh is a nation criss-crossed by rivers. the smell of gun-powder and the stench of the burning corpses all transformed the area into a fiery hell. the smoke and fire. The executioners stood on the pier. The heaped bodies of the dead from the slum were also set on fire near the Nilkhet rail gate petrol pump. or near army camps. floating down rivers. shooting down at the compact bunches of prisoners wading in the water. black against the silvery water. The sound of shells bursting and guns firing. Rummel likewise writes that "the [sought] out those especially likely Pakistan army to join the resistance -.young boys.

1973]. Shelford Bidwell summarized the military action as follows(48): A close study of this campaign will edify military students for a long time to come. The killings in East Pakistan led to a massive influx of refugees into India. The Indian plan was a masterly combination of airborne. Military historian Brig. while Bengali resistance fighters sought Indian help. Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Armed forces into East Pakistan on the humanitarian mission of stopping the killing.downstream. the new nation of Bangladesh was born out of the ravaged remains of East Pakistan. 55. Unable to stand by and watch the horrific events in East Pakistan. putting a great strain on resources. is an eminently defensible country cut up by rivers five miles wide and obstructed by marshes. A two-front war broke out when the Pakistani Air Force commenced hostilities in the West with air raids on Indian targets on December 3rd 1971. More than 10 million people were accommodated in refugee camps in India. p. now Bangladesh (literally Land of Bengal).000 prisoners of war. (Payne. comprehensively defeating the Pakistani army. guerrilla and conventional forces.000 of its men in a mere 16 days. Massacre [Macmillan. The army of the martial races of Pakistan had capitulated and surrendered a nation of 144. In a whirlwind war the Indian armed forces overran East Pakistan. the Indian Prime Minister Mrs.) Descriptions of rape and killing of Hindus abound and over over 3 million people were killed over a 267 day period seconds an average of one murder committed every 8 by Pakistani army personnel for nearly 9 months. taking 93. based on complete mobility and the bypassing of all centres of 125 . Bengal. At the end of this action.000 square kilometers along with 93.

the Pakistan army had sent soldiers disguised as civilians into Indian territory. The advance was not held up for bridging operations. troops and guns were ferried over the rivers by helicopter. While the entry of these Pakistani forces had gone undetected. This ultimately has a great bearing on credibility and international standing. boat. An astonishing momentum was maintained from start to finish .it was a Blitzkrieg without tanks. when Indian forces began the 126 process of evicting the . albeit a war limited in area. the war started after their discovery. and tried to deny any involvement with the conflict.resistance. One of the major disadvantages of a state trying to deny involvement in a war is that neither escalation nor pullout are possible without admitting involvement or conceding that the earlier denial of involvement was a lie in the first place. and 'supply and transport' was by air. For the third time since independence. These soldiers were then in an advantageous position to defend their positions and to direct accurate artillery fire to cut off a major Indian highway and Indian army supply route. Pakistani fortified soldiers in civilian garb occupied themselves within Indian territory in and the heights of the mountains in the Kargil region of Kashmir. The 1999 Kargil conflict: It was a while before anyone realized that a war had erupted between India and Pakistan in 1999. Pakistan seems to have gleaned more shame than honour from this action. canoe or country cart as suitable.

The war ended when the last few surviving Pakistani soldiers were pulled out in a humiliating retreat that Pakistan conducted under the fig-leaf of American mediation . why did they deny involvement? If they did not want to be identified as being involved. The Kargil conflict is very difficult to explain from the Pakistani viewpoint. Pakistan denied any involvement in the war until coffins of their soldiers started turning up at their hometowns in Pakistan. 127 . and an equally frightening lack of communication and cooperation between the leaders themselves. why was it done so half-heartedly? If they wanted to be involved in the conflict. mountain bunkers and supply depots occupied by Pakistani forces were systematically destroyed.the retreat being announced after a visit by Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to meet US President Clinton. any answers that fit the known facts suggest a frightening disconnect between perception and reality among the seniormost leaders of Pakistan. Why did Pakistan do it? And having done it. Small organizations. accompanied by Indian media coverage of captured Pakistani army identity papers and weapons. Using the overwhelming firepower at the disposal of the Indian army and air force.Pakistanis from their positions within India. let alone nations cannot function if leaders display a disconnect between their actions and reality. why did they admit to involvement later? What was it that Pakistani leaders hoped would be achieved by this action? While there are more questions than answers. Pakistan's Northern Light Infantry had been all but wiped out in a war that Pakistan denied till the last moment (105). By the time the last abandoned Pakistani soldiers' corpses had been buried by the Indian army.

and pretending not to be involved? Why the was its did the Pakistani military not plan a counter-offensive to blunt or stop India from relentlessly clearing the heights as it did? The logic defies explanation. It appears that Pakistani generals believed that India would be afraid to repeat that in 1999 because they feared nuclear retaliation from Pakistan. And within Kashmir it was 128 .What could have been Pakistan's motive and ultimate objective in sending army troops dressed in mufti to fortify themselves and occupy positions above 15. India had taken Pakistani pressure off Kashmir by opening a second front in Punjab. why Pakistan so concerned about keeping the identity of men secret. the more commonly quoted one. Furthermore. it was believed that the morale of the Indian armed forces was at breaking point and that Indian soldiers would be ready to run away from battle at the slightest threat. But did they not expect Indian retaliation when they were discovered? Were they so worried about the possibility of discovery that they refused to allow their men to wear uniforms? But that was futile. and some of the explanations are ludicrous enough to be unbelievable. after which a Pakistani attack would have isolated and encircled Indian positions in Siachen glacier region. Another theory. If that was the case. is that the men on the mountains were there to help cut off the Srinagar-Leh highway. It has been said that after Pakistan's nuclear tests in 1998. since they could not prevent their men from carrying identification papers in their personal effects. In the 1965 war. Pakistani military leaders believed India to be very afraid of Pakistan.000 feet high on mountains just within the Indian border? One explanation is that they sought to salami slice into Indian territory by surreptitiously occupying unguarded Indian territory.

the 129 . senior Pakistani General Javid Nasir wrote in the prestigious Pakistani Defence Journal (116): I say with all the authority and professionalism that 'The Indian army is incapable of undertaking any conventional operations at present what to talk of enlarging conventional conflict' It is inconceivable that a professional Pakistani soldier and senior officer should deliberately and publicly choose to underestimate an adversary without paying the slightest heed to the possibility that the assessment may be wrong. with a self-image amounting to delusions of grandeur rather than objective and rational military judgment. such assessments are more indicative of the psychological state of the Pakistani army officer.expected that the Indian army would capitulate and run away. less reassuring assessments. Ved Prakash Malik. or that there may be alternate. This statement by a senior Pakistani army general eerily echoes the assessment made by Pakistani dictator Ayub Khan 34 years earlier when he stated that Indian morale would break after a couple of hard blows. as events have shown. After the Kargil conflict. In February 1999. at about the time when Pakistani army men were secretly taking up their positions in the mountains near Kargil. As indicated in the description of the Pakistani mind in chapter 5. Gen. Such an attitude can be termed as nothing short of suicidal. It is interesting to note that the large and powerful army of Pakistan has cultivated a leadership that somehow believes that the Indian military will be a pushover in battle.

2. less rosy scenarios. But it does not appear that the Pakistani army had planned for anything but easy and cheap victory in Kargil.Military operation under the garb of Mujahideen would focus attention on Kashmir and Pakistan would be able to claim this as a victory. That is a disquieting thought. If Pakistani Generals persist in thinking of war and easy victories against India. weak and indecisive.Indian frustration will lead to escalation.Indian Chief of Army Staff who oversaw the defeat of Pakistani forces in the Kargil conflict wrote about Gen Javid Nasir's article and misperception within the Pakistani army's high command that led them to attempt the Kargil misadventure (117): This was not only a gross underestimation of a possible adversary but also a poor assessment and misperception. 130 .India is militarily weak and unprepared. putting the onus of escalation on India. 4. 3. Assumptions regarding enemy weakness and fear can only be termed as high hopes unless they are balanced out by other.The coalition government in India.International community would intervene or stop the war at an early stage. will either over-react or under-react. 5. 6.Nuclear umbrella allows offensive action without risk. Some other assumptions and misperceptions which led to the Pakistani offensive operation in Kargil were: 1. the chance of Pakistan viewing India with any sanity or objectivity can also be dismissed as high hopes.

In the case of Pakistan this idea is misleading – Pakistan’s provinces belong to the Pakistani state in name only.” Pakistan has four provinces. Each province is one part that contributes to the whole. including the right to life. Sindh. The state of Pakistan can be compared to a shattered cookie within an intact wrapper – each fragment is separate. Indeed more than half the land area of Pakistan is outside the control of the Pakistan government.In the "war on terror". which has regularly massacred people within those provinces in an effort to maintain control.. but the peoples in such areas have either declared independence. but held together forcibly by the wrapper. An excerpt from the report says: areas of “. Punjab. other illtreatment and enforced disappearance. or are seeking separation from Pakistan. to the security of the person. to freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention. Much of this area is sparsely populated. Balochistan and the Northwest Frontier Province. The map below 131 . to freedom from torture. The “wrapper” that holds the Pakistan state together is the Pakistan army. In 2006 Amnesty International published a report (159) about human rights violations in the tribal Pakistan. with vast swathes of Pakistan falling outside the bounds of any control. Pakistan has violated a wide array of human rights. and to legal remedies and reparations.Chapter 12 PROVINCES AND ASSORTED FRAGMENTS The word “provinces” calls to the mind the idea of a nation that has been divided into smaller blocks for administrative reasons.

F.W.P. in the absence of any reliable recent census is estimated to be between 160 and 170 million in 2006. but are home to over 80% of Pakistan’s population.) form the “core provinces” of Pakistan. These provinces form less than half the land area of Pakistan. Punjab. Punjab is by far the dominant province. which shows a map of Pakistan super-imposed on a satellite 132 .depicts the provinces of Pakistan. These were the provinces that voted to be part of Pakistan from the outset. Sindh and the Northwest frontier provinces (N. which. The fact that most of the population and economic activity of Pakistan occurs in these three provinces can be seen in the photograph below. and contributing over 60% of the personnel in the Pakistan armed forces. with Punjabis comprising over 50% of Pakistan’s total population.

and more recently for a fair share of the proceeds from the natural Baluchistan. Sindh and N. Almost all of Pakistan is dark. The people of Balochistan have long fought for independence of their land from Pakistani rule. including natural gas and minerals.F. Balochistan became part of Pakistan after it was forcibly annexed by the Pakistani army after Pakistan was created in 1947.. which show lights and population activity.W.P. Balochistan is rich in natural resources.photograph of the Indian subcontinent at night. the Pakistan army and successive governments have shown that they want the natural resources more than 133 . comprising 42% of the land area. BALOCHISTAN: Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan. resources being exploited in In return. but it has a population of only about 7 million – or just over 4% of Pakistan’s population. except for a strip close to the Indian border representing the provinces of Punjab.

signing a peace deal with the Taliban who control an area of the F. This has resulted in the death in 2006 of a prominent and respected Balochi leader and a fierce opponent of Pakistani occupation. The “peace deal” (160) made by the Pakistani Army with people who are supposed to be Pakistani citizens guarantees that the Pakistani army will never return to Waziristan and a return of confiscated weapons.A. It is a strip of land on the Northwest border of Pakistan with Afghanistan populated by tribes.A.A. in an serves as a safe harbor for the Al Qaeda assorted Islamist militia personnel. This has been described as a defacto acceptance of an independent “Islamic Emirate of Waziristan” – ruled by the Taliban. F.T.T. including helicopter gun ships. The Pakistan army actually entered the F.A.A.they want the people of Balochistan. of whom less than 2% live in urban areas. called Waziristan (see map on page 136). for the first time in its history in 2002 on the pretext of helping the US in its war on terror. They do not recognize Pakistan’s border with Afghanistan and the area is home to a thriving arms industry in which clones of almost any type of small arms are made in small workshops (139).T.A. A series of massacres of Balochi tribals have occurred with the use of deadly force. The F. as well as the payment of reparations for damage. – or Federally Administered Tribal Areas is a euphemism for a completely lawless area that does not come under Pakistani control at all.T. In 2006 the same army made an ignominious retreat from the area after suffering hundreds of casualties. area that and other 134 .A. Despite a long struggle the sparse population of Balochistan cannot match the firepower of the Pakstani army. Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti.A.

working tirelessly. About two-thirds of all designated terrorist groups in the world have a Pakistani connection. the statement came as sweet music to the ears Indians who have been fighting terrorism from Pakistan for over a decade (118). Treasury Department. A charming tale for children is told in an animated film called “The Sorcerer's Apprentice” featuring Walt Disney's cartoon character Mickey Mouse. The terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001 in the US. Being too lazy to do the uses his magic powers to make a to draw water to fill the tub.Chapter 13 PAKISTAN. JIHAD AND TERRORISM When it was declared by the US Treasury department that two thirds of all terrorist groups had a link with Pakistan. India had been ploughing a lonely furrow in the diplomatic capitals of the world calling attention to Pakistan's role in terrorism. the sorcerer broom grow hands and legs As Mickey relaxes and a tub. in which aircraft were hijacked and crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington were a wake-up call to the somnolent and blinkered intelligence communities of the West about the deep changes taking place in Pakistan. transfers enough water to cause a flood and does not stop. The sorcerer (magician) is Mickey himself and has the task of drawing water from a well to fill job himself. the magic broom. Since 1989. A panicky Mickey wakes up and chops the magic broom into small pieces but each piece then becomes a new apprentice that carries water and the flooding starts to 135 . according to the U. The statement was a vindication of long-standing Indian concerns.S. falls asleep the Sorcerer's Apprentice.

But this assertion goes against the facts on the ground. an expert on terrorism wrote (119): Pakistani militant groups are killing civilians and engaging in terrorism in Indian-held Kashmir under the guise of holy war. The Pakistani army tried to use jihad to do it's work but jihad. and destabilizes the region. Jessica Stern. especially from Pakistan. In his study of jihadi groups in Pakistan. But this policy is creating a culture of violence that exacerbates internal sectarianism Without change. monster threatens to devour Islamic scholars. have repeatedly tried to point out that jihad is not terrorism. and terrorism associated with jihad now has a life of its own and may be getting out of control of the Pakistani army. It is stated that jihad is an internal struggle and not external violence. In the Pakistani context. The government in Islamabad supports these militants and their religious schools as cheap ways to fight India and educate Pakistan's youth. Arif Jamal. this Pakistani society. was published by the Asia Times online. Pakistan and jihad are like the story of the Sorcerer's Apprentice. Terrorism and senseless violence are being routinely committed in the name of jihad.get out of control. Ehsan Ansari says of jihad (120): various Islamic groups have been interpreting it to mean 'holy war' against everything the perceive as being 'non Islamic' An interview with a leading Pakistani expert on jihad. Jamal has this to say about jihad (121): 136 . terrorism and jihad are one and the same.

. The extent to which the system to promote violent jihad against non-Muslims has spread in Pakistan may be gauged from the following reports: Terrorism expert Jessica Stern writes (119): Only about 4.in Pakistan.Muslim holy war organizations .. with enrollment at more than 650. including many thousands committed to the cause of forcing India out of the sector of Kashmir that it controls. Madrasahs are the supply line for jihad. The New York Times reported on May 27. 137 . And with jihad being defined as holy war to defeat infidels.350 of the estimated 40. A report from the US council of Foreign Relations said: According to The Washington Post. Pakistani officials estimate that 10 to 15 percent of the madrasas in Pakistan promote extremist ideologies.000 students.000 members of jihadi . Jihad became a driving force in Pakistan under General Zia ul Haq in the 1980s. Maulana Maududi. 2002: there are as many as 500.000 madrasas currently operate in Pakistan. some 7.000 to 50. acts of terrorism are considered normal and par for the course by a large number of Pakistanis.. placed a great emphasis on jihad. (120) so Pakistanis are not strangers to the concept of jihad. One of the ideological founding fathers of Pakistan.The main objective of jihad even today is to defeat the infidels and establish Islamic states all over the world..000 madrasahs in Pakistan have registered with the government.

were created. This is supported by a report in the Asia Times (122): The jihadi outfits were in fact a part of the ISI's operations and the brainchild of late dictator General Zia ul-Haq and General Akhtar Abdul Rehman. to fund the US backed war against Soviet troops in Afghanistan.During his rule (1977-89). Saudi funds and Jihad recruits from Pakistan. Iraq. Jihad became an important business in Pakistan. the Soviet Union was put under sufficient military pressure to withdraw from Afghanistan. with funds coming in from diverse sources such as Libya. Iran and other Gulf states.Quoting Jessica Stern (119): Pakistani dictator General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq promoted the madrasahs as a way to garner the religious parties' support for his rule and to recruit troops for the antiSoviet war in Afghanistan.. Along with the money came guns and drugs. Stern reports that Pakistan received US $ 3.000 fanatics . Tariq Ali wrote in The Independent of the UK (123): religious fundamentalism is the legacy of a previous military dictator. paving the way for the Pakistan sponsored Taliban to form a government in Afghanistan. a network of madrassahs (religious boarding schools).. The purpose was to develop a para-military force that would assist the Pakistan army in the event of war..The 2.5 billion from these countries in the 1985 to 1989 period.. Jihad in Pakistan received a lot of funding from the US and Saudi Arabia. mainly heroin. funded by the Saudi regime. With US arms.500 madrassahs produced a 138 crop of 225. General Zia-ul-Haq.

.. should this ever become necessary. carried the following passage in a commentary (124): Sponsoring militancy in Kashmir is regarded as a relatively cheap and effective way of offsetting existing power symmetries (essentially through the philosophy of a 'war of a thousand cuts') while simultaneously . however. if seen by Pakistan as India ever attacked Pakistan...that is.The Taliban creed is an ultra-sectarian strain. Afghanistan also served as a safe place to continue to train jihadis to fight Pakistan's war against India.ready to kill and die for their faith when asked to do so by their religious leaders. 139 . Pakistani forces and leaders could withdraw into Afghanistan and continue to fight.. inspired by the Wahhabi sect that rules Saudi Arabia. The forces of jihad provided a huge supply of trained and experienced soldiers to fight India in a low cost war. control of Afghanistan with its puppet. have captured Kabul on their own . a US based non-profit organization that helps policy and decision making. Dispatched across the border by the Pakistan Army.They were armed and commanded by "volunteers" from the Pakistan Army For the Pakistani army. The Pakistani army could describe the jihadi-terrorists as freedom fighters and deny any link with them. ensuring that Pakistan has sufficient strategic depth to undertake a protracted conventional war on the subcontinent. the Taliban government was a double blessing.The Taliban could not. they were hurled into battle.. while Pakistan claimed to provide only moral and diplomatic support to them. RAND. Meanwhile strategic Afghanistan itself was depth ..

"The success of the jihadi strategy in Afghanistan compelled the generals to try it on India. Just a few kilometers from the Havelian cantonment. the recruitment has to go on." said an expert on the country's jihad movements." And even today as Pakistani jihadis continue to be used as cannon fodder against India. ... A new ethos was created. Pakistan. Wall chalking after wall chalking advertised jehadi outfits and announced recruitment for jehadi fighters. Shahid Nadeem wrote in the Daily Times of Pakistan (125): The moment we left Fortress Abbottabad. "We have fought three wars with India and have not won even one of them. there are slogans such as Jehad is the shortest route to Paradise and Contact us for commando Jehadi training. The Kashmir jihadis are our cannon fodder because they are willing to die for their cause in a way that no paid soldiers would. too.. Jihad became emblazoned on banners at Pakistani army recruitment centers. Jihad is advertised in Pakistan as a career path to follow. a Pakistani scientist and columnist th wrote(126): Islam. this was to be an army not just for Pakistan. Walls between Havelian and Haripur are full of jehadi slogans and adverts Pervez Hoodbhoy.A report in the New York Times (27 May 2002) describes how the jihadis from Afghanistan were applied against India: drawing on the 80. 140 . it was jehadi territory..000 fighters whom Pakistan had trained and armed to fight the Soviet forces in Afghanistan.Pakistan's military and intelligence services struck upon the idea of employing jihadis to wrest control of the Kashmir from India.

These funds are used to cover salaries for fighters (which run from 5. 141 . Appendix 4 reproduces an article carried in the online paper Mid-Day listing details of incentives and salaries offered to terrorists from Pakistan.S.000 to 10. With jihad and terrorism being Pakistan's main industry.000 rupees a month). The article is revealing in the extent to which Pakistan has been organizing and funding terrorists who have long been said to receive only moral and diplomatic support from Pakistan. These houris are more beautiful than all the beauties of the world combined. The Holy Scriptures of virgins of the take the spirit the first drop Islam also say that houris [beautiful Koranic Paradise] come down to Earth to of the mujahid who is about to die before of his blood falls to earth. porters and informers. The rewards of waging jihad include the following. cash incentives for high-risk operations and retainers for guides. (124): annual ISI expenditure to the main militant organisations runs to between US$125 and $250 million a year.but for the greater glory of Islam.I. The martyrs are promised 72 houris in Paradise. There are salary and pension rules in place as well. Jihad has been made attractive and financially rewarding. among more worldly rewards (127): The mujahideen were assured of entering Paradise before the first drop of their blood fell to earth. A RAND report quotes Indian Intelligence estimates of the budget of the Pakistani agency responsible for training and coordinating jihad-terrorist action in India the so called Inter Services Intelligence or I. support to next of kin.

6 million rounds of ammunition and 34. The attackers killed four women and two children. Over the same period Indian security forces have intercepted and killed 17. along with the staggering recovery of over 27. but have the option of withdrawing from their 142 . and over 59. Men have to be met by men in deadly face to or cordon and the luxury of Indians do not face encounters at the end of long vigils search operations. Statistics of deaths of Indians in Kashmir show that over 17.000 kilograms of explosives (129).000 terrorists who were found committing acts of terrorism or infiltrating into India from Pakistan.000 civilians have been killed by Pakistani trained terrorists in Jammu and Kashmir from 1990 to 2003. hiding in jungles in mountainous regions cannot be fought with tanks and attack aircraft. A paper published by the South Asia Analysis Group (SAAG) carries examples of newspaper headlines resulting from terrorist acts sponsored by Pakistan in India(128). A few samples are quoted below: • "Suspected Islamic militants axed to death six members of a shepherd's family overnight.the effect on India has been murderous.000 assault rifles and machine guns. The US in Vietnam had being able to withdraw from Vietnam. The US army discovered in Vietnam that groups of armed men carrying machine guns and explosives. shot dead another person and set off two explosions damaging a bridge " • "Terrorists have slit the throats of two of the four policemen abducted after the attack on a police post in Udhampur on Sunday." • "Militants slit the throats of two women. the officer said.000 hand grenades.

and India met the threat by building a powerful counter-insurgency apparatus. the only country that tried to alert the world about the global terrorist threat emanating from Pakistan's jihad factory 143 was India. and by starting to fence the India-Pakistan boundary where possible.own land. and diplomatic protests grew shriller as Indian security forces chalked up success after success. As the Indian strategy proved effective. Once again. and the average life-span of a jihadi-terrorist entering India from Pakistan was reduced to weeks or months rather than years (130). because the Pakistani government started protesting against the presence of large numbers of Indian counterinsurgency personnel within India. One Indian army major is quoted in an interview as saying (131): Once somebody picks up the gun then his family knows that it is only a matter of days before they hear that he has been killed in an encounter. and gradually. In many areas. with hundreds of thousands of jihadis entering from Pakistan required a robust response. trained and indoctrinated terrorists built up in Pakistan. Within this period we are bound to eliminate him. jihadis started getting eliminated in increasing numbers. We put the average lifespan of a terrorist at two-and-half years. A backlog of violent. This seems to have had a significant effect on the morale of Pakistan's army backed jihadi-terrorist apparatus. these terrorists began to target other nations of the world. Terrorism. terrorists from Pakistan were unable to enter India at all or were able to infiltrate through in the smallest numbers. but Indian .

referring to the L-e-T (Lashkar-eTayeba). and it is by no means certain that anybody in Pakistan can control the forces that have been unleashed. Uzbekistan. (119. Nepal. Pakistan has now become the home base of global terrorism. Russia. Kuwait. Not only would they become too large for the ISI to manage but also their strong links with the underworld would create a sort of double whammy. Yemen. had this to say in its December 2003 edition (132): There is a terrible price to pay for this facilitation because the same forces that drive jehad in Jammu and Kashmir drive it in other lands too. Tajikistan. a powerful and deadly Pakistan based jihad group. A detailed study exists in an online portal of the evidence of Pakistani links to terrorism against the US.. The entire world. Terrorism Central would not be an inappropriate name for Pakistan. Chechnya. Indonesia and the Philippines. Australia. in time. Latvia.132). Mongolia. Since Pakistan have been th found in countries like Burma. The Sorcerer's Apprentice is out of control. intelligence communities of the world then terrorist links leading back to the September 11 That woke up the with a jolt.S. and Pakistan itself is being targeted by the Islamist groups spawned and nurtured by the Pakistani army and its intelligence cell.I.. Afghanistan. including links to the September 11th attacks (133).information fell on deaf ears. UK. This view is echoed by one 144 of India's premier anti- . In an article on Pakistan-sponsored terrorism. Canada. become more dangerous. the magazine India Today. until 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. Bangladesh. the I. Turkey.Indian authorities reckon that groups like the LeT could.

In Decemeber 2003. The fact route of the motorcade he was travelling in was the people who wanted to kill him suggests that someone close to General Musharraf was involved in these attempts. 136). Musharraf blamed the Al Quaeda for attempting to assassinate him. 145 . who warned (134): There is now mounting evidence of a loss of control as these autonomous religious groups challenge. a suicide bombing involving multiple bomb laden trucks was a very real indicator of the sort of forces that exist in Pakistan today. the second one. In an interview quoted in the BBC (137). Other reports too have pointed to Islamist forces within Pakistan as being responsible for wanting to replace General Musharraf. not only their Army and ISI handlers. K. Apart from multiple Islamist groups. in addition to 2 million registered ones (139).P. Although the first of the two assassination attempts was thought to have been stage managed by Musharraf's supporters to win greater sympathy for him (138). a report carried by RAND said (124): it is no longer apparent that the army or ISI exercise complete control over the proxies they have helped to create. President of Pakistan occurred that the known to survived two attempts to assassinate him that within days of each other (135. Pakistan is awash with weapons. but the Government itself. These forces will not be easy to eliminate. There are an estimated 18 million illegal firearms in Pakistan.terrorism experts. some of which are now openly talking about fomenting a fundamentalist revolution in Pakistan itself. General Pervez Musharraf. Gill. In an indication of increasing international understanding of how jihad threatens to eat up Pakistan.S.

being able to spray a high volume of fire at targets. (the army. into the hands of Islamic fundamentalists in Pakistan. 146 . including inexpensive clones of the Kalashnikov AK-47 assault rifle. a reliable weapon of choice for terrorists.Pakistan is home to a Kalashnikov culture with hundreds of firearm manufacturing workshops making weapons. But that monopoly over coercive power may have slipped out of the hands of the Pakistani army. in Pakistan's case) retains the armed power to suppress and control all other groups. In a coherently functioning nation-state. That means that the government. the government retains coercive power.

Chapter 14 THE GOVERNMENT AND CRIMINAL ACTIVITY There is probably no government in the world which does not have one or more people in power who are either themselves criminals or have links to criminals. US Senator Frank Pallone brought to the attention of the US house of representatives report in the Washington Post (140): Mr Pallone said: Mr. heroin is illegal to manufacture or possess because of its dangerous potential to cause addiction. In most countries of the world. Heroin addicts become so physically dependent on the drug. People are said to crave for the drug after experiencing its effects just once. The report from Karachi. Heroin smuggling and Narco terrorism: Heroin is a drug that is a derivative of the medically used pain-killer morphine. However. Although heroin itself has medicinal value as a potent pain-killer. Speaker. and crave the drug so much that they are willing to pay very high prices to obtain it. successive Pakistani governments and the army have been unique in actively supporting and participating in international criminal activity as an integral component of the Pakistani economy and foreign policy. 1994. It is obtained from the Opium Poppy plant. Pakistan. it is extremely addictive when administered to normal people. headlined `Heroin 147 Plan by Top Pakistanis a news . making trade. which describes a disturbing link between narcotics and terrorism. I rise to bring to the attention of my colleagues a report that appeared in the Washington Post of September 12. heroin the star compound of the illegal drug In October 1994.

the head of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) with the blueprint for a plan to export heroin to raise money for the Pakistan army's covert foreign operations a euphemism for Pakistan sponsored terrorism in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The news report said that three months after Nawaz Sharif became Prime Minister of Pakistan he was approached by the Pakistan army chief of staff. Raman writes (141) that money earned through Pakistan's heroin trade was used to fund Pakistan's arms purchases. It has also enabled it to maintain a high 148 . Zia ul Haq's rule and in the early years of Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. a special cell was set up by Pakistan's ISI for the use of heroin for covert action. Asad Durrani. Aslam Beg and Gen. Raman writes: Pakistan's illegal heroin economy has kept its legitimate State economy sustained since 1990 and prevented its collapse. The report cites Pakistan's army chief and head of intelligence agency proposing to then-Prime Minister Sharif `a detailed blueprint for selling heroin to pay for the country's covert military operations in early 1991. under one Brigadier Imtiaz.Alleged' quotes Pakistan's former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif saying that `drug deals were to pay for covert operations' brings to mind other reports not so long ago of Pakistani involvement in using the Bank of Credit and Commerce International [BCCI] to launder drug money that was eventually believed to have been used in financing terrorist groups involved in the New York World Trade Center bombing. Gen. Indian analyst. including missiles from North Korea. B. During the late years of Gen. submarines from France and components for Pakistan's covert nuclear program.

Rawalpindi and other such city centres. Also recovered was 60 Kilograms of Charas . which the otherwise cash strapped economy of Pak could ill afford to pay for. They have been used only twice in August 1945 when the Unites States dropped a bomb on each of the Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki. where the drugs were processed. which is in the thick of action against terrorists from Pakistan has this to say in an article on Narco-Terrorism on its website (142): Both the Pakistan Army and the Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) agency are known to be extensively involved in narcotics trade. Islamabad. 149 A single bomb . the Indian army captured from Pakistani infiltrators about 19 Kilograms of Heroin with a street value of US $ 5 million. Nuclear Proliferation: Nuclear weapons. In a one and a half year period from January 1997 to May 1998. The Indian army's 15th Corps. The nexus between Pak ISI and Pak Army with the drug mafia is a well documented and established fact.a drug derived from Cannabis (Ganja). Even during the Afghan crisis Pak trucks and National Logistic Cell (NLC) vehicles transporting arms to Afghan Mujahideen were used for shipping large consignments of drugs from the drug producing areas to Karachi. packaged and despatched towards their destination. also known as atomic bombs are extremely destructive. Pak trucks are used by the drug mafia for narcotics smuggling. The primary reason for indulging in narcotics trade by these two premier institutions of Pakistan is the need for money to finance covert foreign operations.level of arms purchases from abroad and to finance its proxy war against India through the jehadi organisations.

a weapon of power to scare a potential attacker from for fear of being hit by nuclear weapons. and these centrifuges had radioactive contaminants that unmistakably bore the signature of a Pakistani source. Libya and Iran. Abdul Qadeer Khan. Upon his return to Pakistan. Shipments of centrifuge components to North Korea and Libya were intercepted. the technology for manufacturing nuclear weapons remained a closely guarded secret. Abdul Qadeer Khan became a hero and achieved cult status in Pakistan as the father of Pakistan's Islamic bomb In late 2003 and early 2004. And their destructive potential. it became clear that Pakistani nuclear technology to enrich Uranium had been supplied to North Korea.reduced each city to rubble. available to only a handful of nations in the world. As described in chapter 4. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to set up facilities to enrich Uranium manufacture nuclear bombs. That brought the second World War to an end. Enrichment of Uranium is one of the first steps in making one type of nuclear bomb. killing hundreds of thousands of people. along with actual blueprints of nuclear bomb designs in order to help these nations manufacture atomic bombs. Centrifuges made from the very designs Qadeer Khan had stolen from URENCO were found in Iran. a Pakistani metallurgist stole the blueprints for making Uranium enrichment centrifuges from a Dutch concern called URENCO that he worked for. Khan was encouraged and funded by the Prime Minister of Pakistan at the time. The destructive potential of nuclear weapons made them attractive terrifying waging war because of to nations as a deterrent . Pakistan had obtained funds from Libya in exchange for this technology and North Korea paid for the technology by supplying Pakistan with ballistic missiles capable of 150 . causing Japan to surrender within days.

It would be naive to imagine that successive Pakistani governments and the military were unaware of Khan's activities. Times said (143): U." On February 4 th 2004. Benazir Bhutto. Khan by President and army chief Gen. who served twice as prime minister before going into exile in the face of corruption charges. nuclear experts and a former prime minister of Pakistan expressed doubts Monday about how Khan and a handful of associates could have circumvented the extraordinary controls on the country's nuclear technology without the military's blessings. officials. the New York Times reported (144): experts inside and outside the government say it is difficult to believe that Pakistan's nuclear secrets could have been exported without the knowledge of some in 151 .carrying nuclear weapons (143). Musharraf. An article in the online edition of the L. This confession was followed by a prompt presidential pardon for Dr. In early 2004 the world was witness to an incredible drama on Pakistan television in which Abdul Qadeer Khan made a public confession of having sold nuclear weapons technology to other nations entirely on his own. said she doubted that the transfers could have taken place without the knowledge of senior military officials. "Those who violated the policy are now hiding behind the scientists. with no knowledge of the Pakistani army or government.S.A." she told the Los Angeles Times. "It is difficult to accept that the scientists could have violated government policy on their own.

this whole hijacking story could have 152 . Four days later. the Pakistani government must have known something about how its new missile fleet materialized. Pakistan got missiles from North Korea. Bush's aides believe Pakistan's story that Dr. only to be pardoned by the army is in keeping with the Pakistan army's time honoured tradition of protecting its self interest and attempting to appear farcically squeakyclean in the face of contrary evidence. Airliner hijacking: The most blatant case of an airliner hijacked with Pakistani army and government complicity is the shameful episode of Indian Airlines Flight number IC 814 that hijacked in December 2000 by five Pakistani nationals boarded the flight in Kathmandu in Nepal. investigators believe. and supplied it with a cargo fleet. Clearly.the military and the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence agency. Khan operated alone. which oversaw the Khan Research Laboratories. He has the deepest ties to the military. in return for uranium enrichment technology. If it had been for the murder that the hijackers committed was who not and their success in achieving their aim of securing the release of jailed terrorists in India terrorists who were later to enter Pakistan and mastermind further murders and play a role in the suicide attacks of September 11th 2001 in New York. the New York Times carried a report in which it was said (145): Few of Mr. especially since some shipments were made on Pakistani military aircraft. It is virtually certain that the televised drama of Qadeer Khan absolving the army of all responsibility for proliferation while taking all the blame.

Amritsar and Lahore. In a surreal turn of events. The hijackers also secured the release of three dangerous Pakistani terrorists in prison in India. where it came under control of Pakistan's puppet Taliban government. as reported by a French tourist hostage who survived the ordeal (147). which was to be delivered in cash. The plane was then flown to Kandahar in Afghanistan. The released terrorists and resurfaced in Pakistan. and 153 . and the newlywed husband of a honeymooning couple was murdered by slashing his throat. When that was decided to be impracticable. Mohammad Arshad Cheema (146). The hijacked aircraft was flown to the UAE. and disappeared from Kandahar Omar Shaikh was later the attacks on the World was finally arrested for the murder of the Jewish-American reporter Daniel Pearl. Mohammad Aziz. a Pakistani Corps commander (148). including Maulana Masood Azhar the founder of the Pakistan based terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammad. Gen. and his body thrown out of the aircraft while his wife remained on board for the rest of the duration of the hijack. implicated in helping to fund Trade center in New York. After a 1971 hijack the hijackers were granted asylum in Pakistan. On Aziz's instructions the hijackers demanded a ransom of nearly one million US dollars. Indian intelligence agencies who monitored and recorded the communications of the hijackers on the aircraft in Kandahar found them receiving instructions from Lt. and Omar Shaikh. Pakistan's record with reference to Indian airliners hijacked to Pakistan has been condemnable.come out of a B-grade semi-comic motion picture. the hijackers were provided with new weapons in Kandahar. The five hijackers actually received their weapons in a diplomatic bag checked in by Pakistani First Secretary in Nepal. the money was deposited in the account of a Pakistani diplomat in Delhi.

Dawood Ibrahim. and a brief description of their activities (150): 1. Refuge for Criminals: Pakistan has positioned itself as an ideal place for any criminal from India to seek. India has a list of 20 most wanted criminals who are living in Pakistan. Hafiz Mohammad Saeed. murder and smuggling. After a 1976 hijack. He is also wanted for an attack on the J&K Assembly on Oct 1.the aircraft blown up on the ground. leader of Jaish-i-Mohammad. He operates from Muridke town. also blamed for the attack on parliament in New Delhi. an Indian underworld don. and obtain refuge. Ibrahim is wanted in connection with cases of arms supply. In two instances of hijacking in 1981 and 1984. Pakistan. 2001 in which 38 people were killed. the hijackers were given refuge in Pakistan. counterfeiting. The following is a list of names of the twenty. co-founder of Lashkar-e-Toiba. man behind the attack on India's parliament on December 13. Pakistan. drugs trade. funding alleged criminals. near Lahore in Pakistan. the hijackers received a weapon along with snacks in Lahore (149). man behind the planning and financing of 13 explosions in Mumbai in 1993 in which almost 300 people died. 3. 2001. 2. And in an unbelievable second hijacking event in 1984. He lives in and operates from Karachi. Maulana Masood Azhar. the hijackers were imprisoned for a token one month in Pakistan for entering Pakistan without due documents. 154 . He currently lives in and operates from Bahawalpur.

He lives in and operates from Karachi. accused of involvement in the Mumbai blasts. Syed Salahuddin. 8. He is wanted in cases of terrorism and smuggling. 5. which later changed its name to Harkat-ul-Mujahideen. 10. kidnapping and murder. an associate of Maulana Azhar Masood and was one of the hijackers of Indian Airlines flight IC-814 from Kathmandu to Delhi in 1999. lives in and 9. head of Hizbul Mujahideen. terrorism and smuggling arms and explosives in India. Abdul Razzak. kidnapping. extortion. He is a member of Jaish-i-Mohammad and is wanted for hijacking. India. Wanted for murder. a key associate of Dawood Ibrahim. He is currently living in Pakistan. He is wanted in cases of terrorism and arms smuggling. Pakistan. Zahoor Ibrahim Mistri. He currently operates from Muzaffarabad. He is wanted in connection with the hijacking of IC-814 and 155 . accused of executing the 1993 Mumbai blasts."Tiger" Ibrahim Memon. Chhota Shakeel. 7. He currently lives in and operates from Bahawalpur. He lives in and operates from Karachi. extortion. blackmail of businessmen and film stars in India. He is alleged to have helped his brother Ibrahim Memon carry out the blasts. Pakistan. Pakistan. Ibrahim Athar. 6. kidnapping. Pakistan. accused of executing the 1993 Mumbai blasts. which has claimed responsibility for dozens of attacks on Indian forces in Kashmir. a member of Harkat-ul-Ansar. He is wanted in cases of murder. Ayub Memon.4. He lives in and operates from Karachi. Pakistan.

He is wanted in cases of murder. 11. He lives in and operates from Karachi. Ranjit Singh Neeta. chief of Khalistan Zindabad Force. He lives in and operates from Lahore. Abdul Karim. Wadhawan Singh Babbar. Pakistan. an associate of Dawood Ibrahim. 15. 16. Advani. Ishaq Atta Hussain. Azhar Yusuf. operates from Karachi.in cases of kidnapping and murder. Pakistan. Sagir Sabir Ali Shaikh. He lives in and 13. He is wanted in over a dozen cases of sedition. Shahid Akhtar Sayed. Pakistan. Pakistan. He lives in and operates from Karachi. murder and in connection with the assassination of East Punjab's then chief minister Beant Singh. Pakistan. wanted in the IC-814 hijacking case and in cases of kidnapping and murder.K. a Kashmiri terrorist blamed for more than 30 bomb blasts in Delhi and parts of northern India in 1996-97. is wanted He lives in and for the IC-814 hijacking and for kidnapping and murder. He lives in and operates from 156 . Pakistan. 12. chief of Sikh group Babbar Khalsa International. is wanted in connection with a conspiracy to kill Indian Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister L. an associate of Dawood Ibrahim. Pakistan. operates from Karachi. is also wanted in connection with the conspiracy to kill Advani. 17. 14. He lives in and operates from Karachi. He lives in and operates from Lahore. bomb blasts and smuggling of arms in India. which was involved in an insurgency in East Punjab during the 1980s.

Pakistani journal The Herald said. He was arrested by Pakistan after he hijacked the plane to Lahore and tried. Lakhbir Singh Rode. which the inspector general of Sindh police said was "ostensibly owned by Ahmed Jamal but actually belonged to Dawood Ibrahim". Pakistan. leader of the Khalistan Commando Force. is accused of hijacking an Indian Airlines plane from Srinagar to Delhi in 1981. Pakistan. according to a report. Pakistan admitted the presence of the third man on the list.Lahore. Dawood Ibrahim in Pakistan in September 2003 after news of a bomb blast in Karachi. conspiracy and arms smuggling. He lives in and operates from Lahore. conspiracy to attack government leaders in Delhi and inciting religious hatred in East Punjab. 18. Dawood Ibrahim was subsequently designated a global terrorist by the US for his links with Al Quaeda and the Lashkar-e-Tayeba.Gajinder Singh. is wanted in cases of arms smuggling. 20 . Pakistan. leader of the International Sikh Youth Federation. He lives in and operates from Lahore. the Islamist extremist group that was founded by Maulana Masood Azhar. treason. the first man on India's 157 . He is accused of trying to revive the Sikh insurgency in East Punjab and is wanted in more than a dozen cases of murder. Pakistan. 19. leader of Sikh group Dal Khalsa. the Kawish Crown Plaza. He lives in and operates from Lahore. Paramjit Singh Panjwar. Rediff reported (151): Pakistan has admitted gangster Dawood Ibrahim's presence in the country. The admission came after a bomb blast at a Karachi business centre.

25) in exchange for every Pakistani-made Rs 100 note . The Pakistani ambassador tried to stop the arrest claiming diplomatic immunity for the staffer but it turned out that he did not have diplomatic immunity. The Indian Express reported (152): Officials said the quality of fake notes was "such that it could only be printed in security presses". in an apparent hint that Pakistan was indulging in massive printing of fake notes to abet its terrorist activities against India. one of the prisoners released by India after the 1999 hijacking of an Indian Airlines aircraft to Kandahar in Afghanistan. One report (153) quoted the street value of the Pakistan made counterfeit currency in India: The prevailing price for counterfeit currency in Punjab is Rs 40-60 (83 US cents-$1. The right contacts can ensure that Pakistani counterfeit 158 . that country was a natural choice for anti-India activities from Pakistan. Printing and circulation of counterfeit currency: In January 2000. which apparently intended to destabilize the Indian economy by flooding India with fake currency. a staffer from the visa section of the Pakistan embassy in Nepal was arrested in Kathmandu (Nepal) after passing counterfeit Indian currency to Nepalese police in a sting operation.Most wanted list.the range depending on the buyers' bargaining skills and the volume required. With Indian currency being valid in Nepal.

Butki is a front man of notorious mafia don Dawood Ibrahim and controls the gang for pumping fake currency into India through the porous Indo-Nepal border. The high quality of the counterfeit notes and official sponsorship of this and other criminal activities by Pakistani governmental agencies is a frightening indicator of the chaotic state that Pakistan is in with no expense being spared to prepare for war or jihad against India and very little being spent on development and education within Pakistan..currency is available even cheaper. Joint Commissioner of Police. Crime Branch. 159 . U K Katna said. "The counterfeit currency notes were sent for damaging the Indian economy. Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan has been providing logistical support to the underworld dons for flooding the Indian market with counterfeit currency with the sole aim of creating panic in the Indian market. Another report of the arrest counterfeit currency said (154): of a man carrying The racket was being remote controlled by Aftab Butki from Dubai in United Arab Emirates (UAE).

That is. which was part of Pakistan until it seceded with the creation of Bangladesh. and it stands for all the territorial constituents of our original Fatherland. beliefs and the ethnical stocks of our people. A passage attributed to him says (155): "Pakistan" is both a Persian and an Urdu word. It seems more likely that the acronym theory of the name is a confabulation. the Pakistan described by the acronym includes Iran and Central Asia (Tukharistan) as part of Pakistan and makes no mention of East Bengal. Kashmir. It symbolizes the religions. Tukharistan. A second curious anomaly is that the name of this nation that is claimed to be derived from Urdu and Persian is composed of letters in the English alphabet with the English letters forming the acronym. It is not clear if Rehmat Ali was one of these students. Iran. Sindh (including Karachi and Kathiawar). Afghanistan. Punjab. It is composed of letters taken from the names of all our homelands . a plausible but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what 160 .Chapter 15 PAKISTAN FAILED STATE The credit for coining the name Pakistan probably goes to one Choudhry Rehmat Ali who is said to have thought of the name in 1933 as an acronym containing letters from the names of all the areas which this man thought were representative of the ancestry of his people. It means the land of the Paks-the spiritually pure and clean."Indian" and "Asian". and Baluchistan. In the first place. Afghania (North West Frontier Province). Another theory is that the acronym was composed by a group of students in Cambridge in England. Such an acronym is non-existent when the name is written in Urdu. The theory that Pakistan is an acronym does not stand up to scrutiny.

That stress on purity . Further purity was required by fighting wars and making sacrifices. They are the Rich Anglophone Pakistani Elite. rather than concentrate on nation building.is remembered as to how Pakistan got its name. and Indians were impure and were rejected.with stan meaning country (156). sometimes facetiously referred to by the acronym of that name.or purity with a narrow definition has certainly played a role in Pakistan's undoing. the very rich and the very poor and these classes comprise 90% of Pakistan's population. Social imbalance. there are only two main classes of society in Pakistan. corruption. the stress on pure Islam and a nation purely for Muslims. Ultimately. Conditions of life for a Pakistani depend on what class of society one belongs to and whether one lives in a rural or urban area. one must simultaneously define what is impure. Ahmediyas and later even Shia Muslims in Pakistan were not pure enough for Pakistan. As noted in chapter 2. The dictionary of Urdu.A. Sikhs. and Pakistanis have spent the years since 1947 years struggling to weed out anything that they consider impure. To define purity. Classical Hindi and English defines Paki as Purity . is perhaps an apt description of what 161 . Purity is a subjective concept. that has Urdu as its official language suggests that the real origin of the name Pakistan derives from the Urdu word Paki. The acronym R.P. There is a very small.E. Minorities and religious groups in Pakistan were impure Hindus. and can only be grasped in relation to something else that is impure. India. Christians. poverty and greed were all minor blips in the route to Pakistan's mythical purity. very rich class of Pakistani.

But 90 percent of Pakistanis are rarely seen or heard outside Pakistan. They are the servants.this class have been doing to Pakistan.. They are the feudal lords. Paris. who may own thousands of acres of land. the handsome men clad in lounge suits or traditional sherwanis. Geneva. the mascara and lipstick adorned women in designer dresses. Rome. and came away hugely impressed by the acres of immaculate lawns. These charmed people are the Pakistanis that we see and hear. the 162 . the waiters.. These are the beautiful people.. They might be rich industrialists and businessmen. The elite are educated. or they might be serving or retired army officers. the sweepers. the casual laborers and sharecroppers. Their photographs appear in glossy magazines and on the Internet. The lifestyles of these people can be compared to that of the rich and famous anywhere. actors and society people. They live in fabulous mansions. the tasteful furnishings and the overall level of luxury. No burkha (veil) for these women.The food and refreshments were of the highest quality. often in the best schools and universities of the world. and are familiar with all the major cities that a man of this world should know about New York. They travel. and the army staff who served the small gathering had apparently been trained at a fivestar hotel. Irfan Husain wrote in the Dawn: An old friend was recently invited to a serving general's official residence for a small dinner party.. maintained and supported by armies of servants. London. They are seen in parties and receptions attended by friends and diplomats. the discreet lighting.

And that has been an integral part of Pakistan's problem. Even those who earn more than that often sink below poverty level at certain times of the year. and girls are not sent to schools either. That is a welcome source of relief for a very poor family with many children to care for. human life and 163 effort to somehow equal. and many try to find work in the Middle East to earn a living as menial laborers. as is lack of education. The men wear crumpled and seemingly unwashed salwar suits. being Islamic and who appear forever busy to defend Pakistan. if seen at all. More than half these people do not earn enough money for a decent life.goatherds and the cleaners with their wives and their children. They can be seen on Pakistani streets and in the villages. Others try to migrate to Europe and beyond. Most earn less than the equivalent of US $1 per day. are covered in burqas as expected of women in Islamic Pakistan. Life is harsh. or in times of illness or drought. Pakistani leaders have sacrificed enormous and fruitless amounts of money. The hard life. But girls are not allowed. time. Any education that can be gained. Pakistani leaders. The women do not work outside the home and may have four or more children to bring up. can be gained only from madrassas that often provide food and shelter for its students. in the few places where schools exist. Others are angry and frustrated at their lot and these people are told by their elite masters that poverty and hardship are because of Indian aggression or some other extraneous factor. The women. For more than five decades since independence. Malnutrition is rampant. hunger. are above blame. poverty and destitution are accepted by some people as the will of Allah that cannot be questioned or mitigated. .

with women and children at the bottom of the pile received little. to be directed at India. The bloated ranks of army retirees had to be accommodated. The anger is compounded by what is taught in schools and madrassas following curricula that actively teach hatred and discrimination to impressionable children. or is internalised as people not being "Islamic" enough.Islam. India. but even then the wasteful expenditure did not stop. Anger is carefully re-directed away from the ruling elite. In the midst of this. The madrassa is the place where students' physical hunger is assuaged. The build up of Pakistani armed forces into a formidable war machine was initially to defeat India and take Kashmir. and businesses were custom made for employing them. Pakistan was halved when Bangladesh seceded. while the stoic Pakistani public. Money was diverted to training Islamist operatives for covert operations against India. and development of the poor was bypassed as usual. and later to defend against an India that had no intention of attacking Pakistan. Money from any source was poured developing nuclear weapons to deter India.match or defeat India. And even that is used against Pakistan's arch enemy. Money and effort that should have gone into building schools. the poor of Pakistan are left with the only succour they can get . Even criminal activity aimed against India. gun running or currency counterfeiting swallowed funds that should have gone into schools and healthcare in Pakistan. but their emotional hunger for explanations 164 . roads and hospitals in Pakistan was spent on building a war machine that could never overwhelm an India that was just too big. Israel. Popular devotion to Islam is channelled to provide an endless supply of men for jihad. the US or other Western nations. and a system of salaries and pensions had to be set up for them.

A woman who breaks rules by exposing herself or by being seen with a non-approved male companion. But women hold the key to family honour. A woman's place is in the home . The people are docile.about the miserable existence of their families is often met by a call for violent jihad against forces that are blamed for hunger and misery. The ratio of men to women in Pakistan is grossly skewed with many more men than women. or a woman who marries against the wishes of her family is considered to be committing a crime by bringing dishonour on the family . They do not easily rise up in revolt against tyranny or injustice.an act that is punishable by death. brings honour and Girls grow up uneducated. the level of education for women is invariably less than that of men.she is not supposed to be seen outside. Pakistani society has both extremes. as the British had found them. and sending one son to die for jihad financial reward to the family. Every son sent to a madrassa is one mouth less to feed for a poor family. On the one hand the society has a small minority of wealthy and emancipated people among whom women can get educated and work. either alone. they are generally uneducated. Between these extremes are a vast mass of Pakistanis who are more less generally poor. marry and produce children. live at home until they come of age. but individuals in such a society grow up in 165 . Boys are preferred in all ways in this male-dominated society. The girl child gets less food and is more likely to die of malnutrition and disease. The other extreme is the harsh life of a woman living under the two or and burden of strict discriminatory rules. or in the company of a man who is not her husband or father.

business magnates controlling key businesses such as transport. schools. Islam. aid money or export profits is split up and shared by a small percentage of wealthy people at the top. and access to family planning so that births can be spaced out. is under threat from India. people and will to provide these things never reach the population. This ruling elite is composed of senior army officers. secular and well-intentioned democrats who are keeping Islamic fundamentalism at bay. The only funding that reaches this level comes from unaccounted and unaccountable sources funding the madrassas that preach an agenda of hatred and jihad. health care. But the money. be it government funds. All the money in Pakistan. roads. fuel oil and cement.conditions that make their minds receptive indoctrination into a life of terrorism and jihad. Pakistan is controlled by an oligarchy of a thousand individuals or so (157) in a few dozen families. The 140 million mostly poor people of Pakistan are kept in check with the excuse that their faith. the army businesses do well. For aid givers like the US and rich Western nations. the ruling elite of Pakistan behave like moderate. The to people need clean drinking water. The Army gets money. Pakistanis have been told that the army and the ruling elite have protected Pakistan and Islam from these external threats. For the survival of corrupt business interests in Pakistan the elite must remain in power and not be bothered by rebellion or the uncertainties of democracy. and other nations. and very little reaches the Pakistani on the ground. giving a mother time to recover and nurse an earlier child before bearing another child. the businessmen and feudal lords get money. as well as feudal landowners. Time and again Pakistani leaders change masks depending 166 .

In the meantime the ruling clique in Pakistan ensures its own survival. To their deprived population. 167 . Western aid givers are the ruling elite are forces at bay and that are essential for told what they want to hear. he was publicly pardoned by Pakistani President General Musharraf.on whom they are addressing. The threat that is held up is that if the ruling clique goes. They are gently sidelined. This mechanism was clearly illustrated after the father of Pakistan's nuclear bomb Abdul Qadeer Khan made a public confession that he was responsible for the proliferation of nuclear technology (chapter 13). while people are constantly fed with the anti-Muslim India threat. while appearing moderate to aid givers. Each member of this elite community knows that too much action in curbing or controlling the vast business empires of their rivals will upset one's own business interests. Within a day. Pakistan will sink into an uncontrollable morass of 160 million hankering for an Islamic state. and speak in Urdu. they appear in traditional Pakistani salwar suits. Opponents are rarely killed. The ruling clique of Pakistan stands to gain from this form of loose cooperation in which all the business interests survive at the expense of the constitution and law. They appear in Western suits or crisp army uniforms. and allowed to keep all the wealth that he had earned from nuclear proliferation activities. punished severely or publicly humiliated. the US administration and some US think tanks seem to believe this providing the ideal setting for Pakistani rulers to play a double game of pretending to be devoutly Islamic for their people. Whether this is likely or not. speaking in English to aid givers and donors. along with sops to keep them happy. that fighting to hold fundamentalist more aid and lifting of sanctions the prevention of a Islamic fundamentalist takeover of Pakistan.

health care and development of the poor. But in the course of the same speech. The average poor Pakistani is taught that his misery is because of Indian aggression. saying words of support to please the US. No power on earth can coax this small group of rich and powerful Pakistanis that wealth in a nation has to be shared and spread around for development of society and the nation as a whole. The rich get richer and the poor get poorer. because of the US' war on terror. knowing that this would be understood by viewers in the US. elite and feudal leadership of Pakistan will be under no pressure to change. told them that his alliance with the US was akin to a temporary alliance with the devil to deter an immediate threat.When Pakistani President and Army Chief Pervez Musharraf was given an ultimatum by the US government in September 2001 that he could be With the US or against the US in its war on terror. and their level of education is falling. he addressed Pakistanis in Urdu and. This ploy is a fail safe formula that has allowed the survival of the Pakistani oligarchy so far. or more recently. External anti-Islamic forces are always to blame. he made his decision to support the US in a speech (56) that used the time tested Pakistani mask-changing routine to address different groups of people. He spoke in English initially. These people will form a huge mass of uneducated and unemployed 168 . The powerful and wealthy groups of Pakistan stand to lose their money and lifestyles if funds are diverted to education. As long as the poor can be left to vent their anger against some external foe by joining jihad or accepting their misery as Allah's will the rich army. even as the human condition of the people in Pakistan has gradually deteriorated. and the population of the poor is rising rapidly. using Islamic examples.

people in a few years' time. The ruling elite of Pakistan are engaged in a strange experiment in which they seem out of touch with reality. They exist on a different plane from the poor and they do not seem to understand that the burgeoning population of the poor, and the anger that is now being channeled against India or the West can turn inwards. The poor are over 100 million strong now but will be twice that number in a single generation, and they will be jobless, hungry and angry. Nations like India, China, Russia and Western countries, who have all had to face the violent consequences of trained jihadi fighters from Pakistan are vigorously resisting and neutralizing them. The forces of jihad are unlikely to receive sanctuary or be allowed to survive in these nations in the current geo-political scenario. Faced with such pressure outside Pakistan, thousands of indoctrinated, armed and dangerous young men could well turn inwards at Pakistani rulers, blaming them for their inability to help in the victory of jihad over unbelievers. If Pakistani leaders can show constant military victories, it is likely that their population will at least temporarily continue to be happy at the successes. But when low-tech irregular Islamic militias spawned by the Pakistani army and governments are unable to achieve victories despite tremendous losses, they are increasingly likely to ask the leaders of Pakistan, the army and the elite why they are being defeated. From the beginning Pakistanis, rich or poor have had no sense of nationhood, no sense of whom and what they are other than being a group of Muslims who have escaped from India. Every effort at development and good governance has been destroyed by a vested interest, always living in the vain hope that some Western nation, or rich Islamic 169

nation will bail the country out. Democracy was first derailed by the migrant bureaucracy who had moved to Pakistan from India. Later it was the army that stood to lose from democracy. Political parties have been disempowered, and the judiciary lives under the shadow of the army. The only forces that are gaining strength are those of fundamentalist Islam, the forces that seek to fight India or the US, or even Shias within Pakistan. The two most powerful groups in Pakistan today are the army and Islamic groups, Pakistan is getting to the stage when the Islamic groups have infiltrated into the ranks of the army and appear set to take control of Pakistan. The Islamic groups themselves are divided, and their unity may only last as long as it takes for them to gain control of Pakistan. None of these powerful groups seems to be interested in development or progress. No group seems set to allow modern education, peace with India, women's rights or birth control in Pakistan, all essential for progress. The political parties and democratic forces did not do this. The army did not do it and the Islamic groups do not show any intent of fostering a progressive Pakistan. Predictably, they too are careening down the path of more and purer Islam as the answer to Pakistan's problems. And worse for Pakistan, Islamist groups, with trans-national loyalties, cannot be guaranteed to be interested in the territorial integrity and borders of Pakistan as they exist. And so the disease eating Pakistan from the inside continues. Jessica Stern wrote (119): Pakistan is a weak state, and government policies are making it weaker still. 170 Its disastrous economy,

exacerbated by a series of corrupt leaders, is at the root of many of its problems. Yet despite its poverty, Pakistan is spending hundreds of millions of dollars on weapons instead of schools and public health. Ironically, the government's "cost-saving" measures are even more troubling. In trying to save money in the short run by using irregulars in Kashmir and relying on madrasahs to educate its youth, Pakistan is pursuing a path that is likely to be disastrous in the long run, culture of violence to take root. allowing a

Pakistan is in an unstable state and there appears to be no leader who can show Pakistan a way out. Too many Pakistanis have been taught that they exist only for Islam and for jihad and these people are now caught between the twin pincers of the global war on terror being conducted by many nations on the one hand, and by the rich and corrupt Pakistani rulers on the other. The long term outlook for Pakistan does not appear encouraging. In a paper on Pakistan, Stephen Cohen wrote (158): When security, human services, justice, and necessities are not provided, states fail.


Pakistan can be compared to a broken biscuit whose pieces are held together by some wrapping paper. The area labelled as Pakistan on maps is called Pakistan, but that area is not wholly under the control of any single government or leadership, as one would expect of a normally functioning nation-state. The first fragment of the biscuit that broke off was Bangladesh, in 1971. There is no guarantee that the other fragments dysfunctional state will hold together. of this

Pakistan is already a nation that is only partially under control of its government which is basically the army. 171

Only 5% of Baluchistan, Pakistan's largest province, is under Pakistani control. Tribal law rules the sparsely populated land. The Pakistani government has little or no control over the Federally Administered Tribal Areas the so called FATA. Areas of Pakistan's first city, Karachi, are outside government control. Gaining control of Pakistan is easier said than done. As indicated in Chapter 12, weapons. The FATA areas arms factories and shops million illegal firearms, Pakistan is awash with illegal are home to hundreds of small that sell them (151). With 18 Pakistanis outside the military

and government have enough weapons to equip several armies, and anyone trying to bring heavily armed private militias under control will have to contend with a lot of firepower. But as the history of nations shows, if the Pakistan government is unable to control its own territory, someone else is likely to step in to fill the vacuum sooner or later. Therein lies the real significance of having large areas in a country that are out of governmental control. The fact that a government can only govern areas that it controls means that areas beyond government rule are ripe for control by some other force or alternate government. These schisms are begging to be exploited. The United States already has a powerful military presence in Pakistan, and perhaps that is an eerie harbinger of yet another civilization set to rule this lawless land. Pakistan is perhaps fortunate that the nation state of India is not yet as adept and conscious of international hegemonic games and how India can interfere to bring law and order to the fraying edges of Pakistan. But that may be changing as the lawlessness of Pakistan continues to spill into an increasingly powerful India as terrorism, 172

of its role and 173 .forcing India to become conscious responsibility in the region.

APPENDIX 1 http://www. Geographically my State is contiguous wit h both of them. salt and petrol to my State. I to accordingly enter into approached Dominions and Pakistan standstill agreement with my State. lhe Govemment permitted a steady and increasing strangulation of supplies like food. Afridis.the State of Jammu and Kashmir has not acceded to either the Dominion of India or Pakistan. I could not arrange this in view of the developments indicated below. soldiers in plain clothes. The Pakistan Government accepted this arrangement. In their external relations the Dominion of India and Pakistan cannot ignore this fact. ln fact the Pakistan Goernment under the standstill agreement is operating the post and telegraph system inside the State. my State has a common boundary with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and with China. Besides. As Your Excellency is aware. and desperadoes wnh modern weapons have been allowed to infiltrate into the State.html Letter from Maharaja Hari Singh to Lord Mountbatten on the eve of Pak invasion on J&K in 1947 My dear Lord Mountbatten. The result has been that the limited number of troops at the disposal of the State had to 174 . I wanted to take time to decide to which Dominion I should accede or whether it is not in the best interests of both the Dominions and of my State to stand independent. at first in the Poonch area.kashmir-information. then from Sia1kot and finally in a mass in the area adjoining-Hazara district on the Ramkote side.com/LegalDocs/Maharaja_letter. Though we have got a standstill agreement with the Pakistan Government. of course with friendly the and cordial of relations India with both. The Dominion of India desired further discussion with representatives of my Government. I have to inform Your Excellency that a grave emergency has arisen in my State and request the immediate assistance of your Government.

The Pakistan radio even put out the story that a provisional government has been set up in Kashmir. In fact. With the conditions obtaining at present in my State and the great emergency of the situation as it exists. as a first step to overrunning the whole State. The wild forces thus let loose on the State are marching on with the aim of capturing Srinagar. the summer capital of my government. coming regularly in motortrucks. V. and I attach the instrument of accession for acceptance by your Government. If my State is to be saved. I may also inform your Excellency's Government that it is my intention at once to set up an interim government and to ask Sheikh Abdullah to carry the responsibilities in this emergency with my Prime Minister. On this basis no civilised government can exist or be maintained. both radio and the Press of Pakistan have reported these occurences. The other alternative is to leave my state and people to free booters. The people of my State. Mr.be dispersed and thus had to face the enemy at several points simultaneously. using the Manwehra-Mazaffarabad road and fully armed with up-to-date weapons.P. I have no option but to ask for help from the Indian Dominion. I have accordingly decided to do so. if further explanation is 175 . so that it has become difficult to stop the wanton destruction of life ad property and the looting of the Mahura power house. generally have taken no part at all. This alternative I will never allow to happen so long as I am the ruler of the State and I have life to defend my country. The number of women who have been kidnpped and raped makes my heart bleed. which supplies electric current to the whole of Srinagar and which has been burnt. needed. Menon is fully aware of the gravity of the situation and will explain it to you. cannot of possibly be done of without the knowledge made of by the my Provincial Govemment of the North-West Frontier Province and the Government Pakistan. both Muslims and non-Muslims. Inspite repeated appeals Government no attempt has been made to check these raiders or to stop them from coming into my State.The mass infiltration of tribesman drawn from distant areas of the North-West Frontier Province. immediate assistance must be available at Srinagar. Naturally they cannot send the help asked for by me without my State acceding to the Dominion of India.

In haste and with kindest regards. Hari Singh October 26. 1947 176 . Yours sincerely.

edu/acad/intrel/kashun80. 1949. Considering should be that based the upon resolution the of the outstanding measure of difficulties agreement of substantial fundamental principles already reached. Norway.mtholyoke. 1948 and January 5. 1950. Having received and noted the reports of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan establishing its resolutions 39 (1948) of 20 January and 47 (1948) of 21 April 1948. 1949.htm Resolution 80 (1950) Concerning the India-Pakistan question. McNaughton on the outcome of his discussions with the representatives of India and Pakistan which were initiated in pursuance of the decision taken by the Security Council on December 17. 1949. G. and that steps should be taken forthwith for the demilitarisation of the State and for the expeditious determination of its future in accordance with the freely expressed will of the inhabitants. (2) The establishment of a cease-fire line on July 27. 1949 for a cease-fire. dated the 14th March. Nimitz shall be Plebiscite Administrator. United Kingdom and United States and adopted by the Security Council on March 14.APPENDIX 2 http://www. Commending the Governments of India and Pakistan for their statesman like action in reaching the agreements embodied in the United Nations Commission's resolutions of August 13. 177 . S/1469). THE SECURITY COUNCIL. and commending the parties in particular for their action in partially implementing these Resolutions by (1) The cessation of hostilities effected January 1. L. Kashmir and for for the the demilitarisation determination of of the its State final of Jammu and in disposition accordance with the will of the people through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite. 1950). Having also received and noted the report of General A. (Document No. submitted by the Representatives of Cuba. and (3) The agreement that Fleet Admiral Chester W.

McNaughton for their arduous and fruitful labours. (a) to assist in the preparation and to supervise the implementation of the programme of demilitarisation referred to above and' to interpret the agreements reached by the parties for demilitarisation. to prepare and execute within a period of five months from the date of this resolution a programme of demilitarisation on the basis of the principles of paragraph 2 of General McNaughton proposal or of such modifications of those principles as may be mutually agreed. L. to arrange at the appropriate stage of demilitarisation for the assumption by the Plebiscite Administrator of the functions assigned to the latter under agreements made between the parties. to exercise all of the powers and responsibilities devolving upon the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan by reason of existing resolutions of the Security Council and by reason of the agreement of the parties embodied in the Resolutions of the United Nations Commission of August 13. Decides to appoint a United Nations Representative for the following purposes who shall have authority to perform his functions in such place or places as he may deem appropriate. Requests the two Governments to take all necessary precautions to ensure that (heir agreements regarding the cease-fire shall continue to be faithfully observed. 2. 1948 and January 5. (b) to place himself at the disposal of the Governments of India and Pakistan and to place before those Governments or the Security Council any suggestions which. and "calls upon them to take all possible measures to ensure the creation and maintenance of 'in atmosphere favourable to the promotion of further negotiations. Extends its best thanks to the members of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan and to General A. to report to the Security Council as he may consider necessary. are likely to contribute to the expeditious and enduring solution of the dispute which has arisen between the two Governments in regard to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. G. 5. 4. Calls upon the Governments of India and Pakistan to make immediate arrangements. in his opinion. Agrees that the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan 178 . submitting his conclusions and any recommendations which he may desire to make. without prejudice to their rights or claims and with due regard to the requirements of law and order. 1949.1. 3.

shall be (terminated.K. Ecuador.S. Egypt. France. Cuba. Norway.A. U. Against: None Abstaining: India and Yugoslavia Absent : USSR 179 . and decides that this shall take place one month after both parties have informed the United Nations Representative of their acceptance of the transfer to him the powers and responsibilities of the United Nations Commission referred to in paragraph 2 (c) above. and U. The Security Council voted on this Resolution on 14-3-50 with the following result: In favour: China.

capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Soviet Union. hereby declare their firm resolve to restore normal and peaceful relations and between their countries between and to promote They understanding friendly relations their peoples. Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and President Ayub Khan signed it on behalf of their respective countries in the presence of the Soviet Premier Alexi Kosygin who mediated between them. II 180 .html Tashkent Declaration January 10. I The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agree that both sides will exert all efforts to create good neighborly relations between India and Pakistan in accordance with the United Nations Charter.org/South_Asia/Pakistan/Tashkent_Declaration_January_ 10_1966. It was against this background that Jammu and Kashmir was discussed. 1966 The 1965 armed to an conflict end by between India and Pakistan at was formally the brought signing this declaration Tashkent. the interests of the people so India and Pakistan were not served by the continuance of tension between the two countries. They considered that the interests of peace in their region and particularly in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent and.APPENDIX 3 http://www. indeed. They reaffirm their obligation under the Charter not to have recourse to force and to settle their disputes through peaceful means. consider the attainment of these objectives of vital importance for the welfare of the 600 million people of India and Pakistan.indianembassy. having met at Tashkent and having discussed the existing relations between India and Pakistan. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan. and each of the sides set forth its respective position.

IV The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that both sides will discourage any propaganda directed against the other country. communications. 181 .The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that all armed personnel of the two countries shall be withdrawn not later than 24 February. VI The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed to consider measures towards the restoration of economic and trade relations. and will encourage propaganda which promotes the development of friendly relations between the two countries. 1965. to the positions they held prior to 5 August. and both sides all observe the cease-fire terms on the cease-fire line. Both Government shall observe the Vienna Convention of 1961 on Diplomatic Intercourse. V The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the High Commissioner of India to Pakistan and the High Commissioner of Pakistan to India will return to their posts and that the normal functioning of diplomatic missions of both countries will be restored. III The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that relations between India and Pakistan shall be based on the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of each other. and to take measures to implement the existing agreements between India and Pakistan. as well as cultural exchanges between India and Pakistan. 1966.

They also agreed that both sides will create conditions which will prevent the exodus of people. IX The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the two sides will continue meetings both at the highest and at other levels on matters of direct concern to both countries.S. friendly and noble part in bringing about the present meeting which has resulted in mutually satisfactory results.VII The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that they will give instructions to their respective authorities to carry out the repatriation of the prisoners of war. They invite the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR to 182 . Both sides have recognized the need to set up joint Indian-Pakistani bodies which will report to their Governments in order to decide what further steps should be taken. They also express to the Government and friendly people of Uzbekistan their sincere thankfulness for their overwhelming reception and generous hospitality. They further agreed to discuss the return of the property and assets taken over by either side in connection with the conflict.R. to the Chairman Council Ministers for their constructive. VIII The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the two sides will continue the discussion of questions relating to the problems of refugees and eviction/illegal immigrations. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan recorded their feelings of deep appreciation and gratitude to the leaders of the Soviet of Union. the the Soviet of Government of and the personally U.S.

not every terrorist gets Rs 3.000 per month ensures that the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) meets its manpower requirements. A Kashmiri company or battalion gets from Rs 5. APPENDIX 4 http://web.htm Terrorists earn a peon's wage By: M K Tayal November 2. The Kashmiri mujahideen is paid less by the ISI than a Pakistani terrorist. With the number of years one puts in. The rank and file from Pakistan or Afghanistan or any other country gets a starting salary of Rs 5. number of casualties the terrorist has inflicted upon Indian security forces.000.000. the heftier the pay package and the more discreet it becomes. Payments relate directly to performance. one thing is clear that Kashmiri youth get a raw deal compared to the Pakistani or foreign counterpart. 2003 What motivates a young man to take up terrorism.000 that can go up to Rs 7. the annual increment increases. the ISI maintains dossiers and gives annual marks to its cadres very much like the Pakistan Army does for its regular employees. The lure of a mere Rs 3. However. A district commander gets around Rs 20. infiltrate India. The higher they go.mid-day.witness this declaration.000 to Rs 10.com/news/nation/2003/november/67781.000.000. a 183 . Lashkar-e-Taiba's (LeT) Doda district commander Mohd Shahzad.000. In short. motivation level and other HR criterion. Nevertheless. Commanders get much more. enrol himself at a training camp in Pakistan. A commander starts at anything above Rs 25. fire at the Army and possibly never return home? It is a small pay package that equals the wage of a peon or driver.000. Some of the more 'enthusiastic' Kashmiri youth get around Rs 5. area of operation. The pay scale is not rigid as it varies depending on the risks one is willing to take and his commitment to the cause.

said he came to Jammu & Kashmir to be a jehadi and was paid nearly Rs 20. A Kashmiri gets Rs two lakh as one-time payment to join. "Poor economic conditions in the Valley force some to cross over to Pakistan for their training. The amount is too tempting for anyone to say 'no'. The basic training at the 85 training camps is the same and involves handling small arms (AK-47) and explosives. small unit tactics of raid and ambush and radio communication. However. "Money didn't matter. 184 .Pakistani national. But it is sure that the money Shahzad got was for operations in his area and his logistical support. His monthly emoluments were being directly sent to his home in Pakistan. I could get as much as I wanted." explains an official. since naturally none survive to tell their tale. Sources also point to the presence of foreign militants who come to the Valley after sessions of intense motivation and psychological drills. There is a catch. The second term involves training of special operations-explosives. Competition and style for instance drive most youth into the realm of the AK-47. The fidayeens (soldiers on a suicide mission) get highly sophisticated training but their emoluments remain a mystery. he remained silent when asked what was the amount his parents were getting in Pakistan.000 per month but that limit was waived off as a special case. The main attraction in joining the ISI is the initial offer. If you don't have a gun you don't get good girlfriends and nobody respects you." a militant said to an army officer serving in the Valley. LeT's Shahzad said he came to Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) to fight jehadis as he was told harrowing stories of atrocities being committed on the Muslims in the Valley. "It has become a style. One must go over to Pakistan to get the complete four to five month training and then work his way back into India from the 120 launch pads. captured by the Army after a fierce encounter in September 2003. There are other factors too at work." Shahzad had said.

However. there have been reports of parents of the deceased militant not getting a single penny. he can make upto Rs 1. It rewards handsomely. initially the ISI made sure the money was delivered to the militant's parents but as the numbers started dwindling.I felt I had to take revenge but now after fighting the army for more than three years I realise the futility of this 'freedom' movement. "If a militant motivates and enrols another youth. 185 . the ISI makes sure that those who help recruit while on the job are not neglected. Though no one complains publicly." he said in a heart-to-heart talk. Realising this." explained a source.5 lakh. Kashmiri youths are now averse to taking up the gun while recruitment from Pakistan remains high. However. so did it the commitment.

3. the India-China war of 1962.htm 6. M B Naqvi.htm 5.com/news/181_602882. Pakistan. the Indian peacekeeping operations in Northern Sri Lanka in the late 1980s. online edition.Indian Muslims and Pakistan. http://jang. Syed Asif Ali and Muddassir Rizvi KARACHI/ISLAMABAD: The Daily Jang. Pakistan. The Daily Jang.com. the long running lowgrade war of cross border terrorism from Pakistan described in Chapter 12. September 28th 2003.00300001.pk/thenews/dec2003daily/05-12-2003/main/main5. Who Owns Pakistan? Website by Shahid-ur-Rehman http://members. December 5th 2003. Pakistan. http://jang.tripod. By Nadeem Malik. Counterpoint. The eight conflicts that the Indian armed forces have been involved in since 1947 are the four conflicts with Pakistan described in Chapter 11. The Daily Jang. Operation Vijay against the Portuguese occupation of Goa in 1961. Human conditions not improving in Pakistan: report. National stock-taking. and Operation Pawan.hindustantimes. Vir Sanghvi.com.ht m 2.pk/thenews/sep2003-daily/26-092003/main/main7. Sunday 7th March 2004 http://www.htm 4.com/richpaki/whoowns.August 14th 2002.SOURCES AND REFERENCE MATERIAL 1. 186 . online edition. online edition. Pak population will swell to 349m by 2050.

html 10. 187 .pk/thenews/aug2002-daily/14-082002/oped/o5. online edition.alsagerschool. by Ravian. November 6th 2003.000 in a population of 134 million. http://www.com/2003/11/06/op. Pakistan. http://www.pk/default.http://jang.dailytimes.pk/depts/fbs/publications/pocket_b ook2003/chapter02.msn. The Daily Times.htm 9. page 2. Special Report According to London's Financial Times.dawn.cpj.com. By Tom Brokaw Anchor. The Dawn.htm 7.pdf .a document published by the statistics division. Op-ed: Our missing middle.Pakistan has 22 TV sets per 1000 population http://www. the combined circulation of Pakistan's entire Englishlanguage press is no more than 150. NBC News http://www.asp?page=story_1-82003_pg3_3 8. Government of Pakistan. Pakistan. http://www. The Press for Change.org/Briefings/2000/Pakistan_feb00/Pakistan 07feb00Br.htm 12. By Ihtashamul Haque. Reforming Pakistan's madrassas.com/id/4264215/ 11. Donors want poverty trends reversed. online edition.statpak. Kavita Menon. Pakistan. August 1st 2003.gov.co.com. Television sets per 1000 people . http://www.msnbc.uk/subjects/sub_content/geogr aphy/Gpop/HTMLENH/stats/tvs. Musharraf determined to change Muslim schools' 'indoctrination'.

The News .sfgate.In 1950 there were 210 of them while in 1971 they increased to 563.and most are still unregistered . Medievalism and Pakistan's madrassas.com/ac2/wp188 . Pamela Constable.13. 2001 . 29 Aug 02 http://www. Nadeem Iqbal.jsp?section= static&page=alexievpakistan 18.dawn. The Pakistani Time Bomb. Islamabad.com/article. online edition. online edition.com/2003/01/20/fea. The madrassas and the have-nots. the Deobandis 550 and the Ahl-e-Hadith 347. Out of the registered ones . Quaidi-Azam University. http://www. The Dawn. Chronicle Foreign Service. 20th January 2003. Deplorable schools angering Pakistanis Issue at the top of voters' agenda Juliette Terzieff. online edition. B. The San Francisco Chronicle.cgi?f=/chronicle/a/2002/10/10/MN155006. October 10. Professor of Linguistics and South Asian Studies.Jang : Opinion. The Asia Times online edition.html 16."At the time of the partition there were 137 madrassas.centerforsecuritypolicy.htm1 15. A. Thursday. The Washington Post.com/cgibin/article. http://www. September 19th 2001.atimes. Center for Security Policy http://www. What and wherefore of Madaris.the Barelvis have 1400.com/atimes/South_Asia/DH29Df05. Saturday September 08. Pakistan. These are the Sunni madrassas" http://light. Dr Tariq Rahman. 2002.washingtonpost. Nowadays there are at least 7000 of hem.afgha.org/index.php?sid=7657 17. S. http://www.DT 14. Alexei Alexiev. Jafri.

August 10th 2003.org/sustainers/content/200009/14hoodbhoy. as we know them.html 22. Pakistan. The Daily Jang. http://www.php?id=57435 25.dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A592202001Sep19&notFound=true 19.zmag. Kamila Hyat. Shireen M Mazari. Madrassas: A make-believe world. http://www.org/archive/nayyar_report. online edition http://jang. A.H.THE MENACE OF EDUCATION What Are They Teaching In Pakistani Schools Today? by Pervez Hoodbhoy.sdpi. IDSA. 2004 (1520 PST) http://www.jang. http://www. Others.htm#1 23. Sr.edu/globalbeat/southasia/06181998sreedhar1 189 .pk/thenews/mar2004-daily/10-032004/oped/o3. June 18.The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan". Zobaida says anti-India material from curricula to be deleted. Nayyar. 1998. H.htm 21.com/atimes/South_Asia/EA14Df01.atimes. By Aijazz Ahmed http://www.nyu. A not-so-subtle subversion.com/~no_nukes_sa/chapter_8. Fellow.com. http://www. "The Subtle Subversion .htm 24.paktribune.html 20. Conflict and Violence in the Educational Process.com/news/index. Sreedhar.Pakistan's Economic Dilemma.com. Monday March 08.tripod. Nayyar and Ahmed Salim.htm 26.pk/thenews/aug2003-weekly/nos-10-082003/enc. http://members. Khurshid Hasanain and A.

No 003/Issue Aug 16 http://www.html 30.htm : U.2741933a12.org/files/Publications/BallisticMissileCh art. Gaurav Kampani. had not had time to develop a warhead from the minimal quantities of plutonium 190 . China Nuclear Milestones. in the autumn of 1998. K. the air samples acquired over Chagai by US intelligence agencies.nz/stuff/0. Pakistan. Non Proliferation Project: Countries Possessing Ballistic Missiles http://www.http://www.co.2106. http://www. intelligence discovers China gave Pakistan a tested nuclear bomb design.html 27. The Pretence is Over . The Risk Report Volume 6 Number 6 (November-December 2000).stratmag.org/e_research/profiles/Pakistan/Missile/i ndex_3066. The Times of India. contained traces of plutonium.wisconsinproject.ceip. around the period of the tests. Strategic Affairs Analysis.S.. Missile Overview. April 2004 http://www.00.stuff.org/countries/china/nukemiles.Pak Link with Nuclear Black Market. Nuclear Threat Initiative. Editorial. Feb 1st 2004 31. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.htm "According to a report leaked out of the Los Alamos Nuclear Laboratory. Subrahmanyam.asp?p=8 28.nti. 32.html 29.com/issueAug-15/page06.

Feb 03 09. 35. 2003. 2003. thats the question. given the moratorium on nuclear testing" 33. April 8. By Zubeida Mustafa. By KHURRAM FAHEEM. http://www.indianexpress.com/archives/aug03_09_02/opinion_edi torsdesk. Richard Behar. Kidnapped Nation.htm 37. By Special Correspondent.com/full_story.htm 36.com/2002/09/02/ebr7.satribune. Shalini Chawla.htm 38.com/page/c-issue/etc4. http://www. http://www.Jobs or jihad. John Lancaster. Therefore.nic. Truth about Zia's 'status quo' era. 2002.htm) 34. http://www. Fri 19 July 2002. http://meadev.pakistaneconomist. Monday. Shaheen Sehbai.dawn. HOW POOR ARE THE POOR. or the device itself was not a Pakistani warhead but that of another nuclear weapons state which needed to validate a modernized warhead. 6 Aug 2002 http://www. Page A29 191 .in/ind-ter/for-med/fortune29apr2002.com/2002/08/05/op.dawn.htm 39. April 29. FORTUNE. there is evidence that the devices tested were either plutonium supplied by non-Pakistani sources. When will Pakistan get an apology?. The confusion in our minds.generated by the research reactor at PINSTECH.php?content_id=6224. Washington Post Foreign Service Tuesday.

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htm 53.htm 50. Brig (r) A Q Anjum http://www.net/pub/nz194_00900pak.doc 57.html 51: Fall of Dhaka-the true face.bartleby. History Channel http://www.laclave.com/country-guidestudy/pakistan/pakistan45. 55.com/thenews/jul2002-daily/11-07-2002/oped/o4.com.html Pakistan lost soldiers. Prospects for social cohesion.com/2000/nov/pak-army.com. DEFENCE NOTES.1upinfo. Maj (Retd) AGHA HUMAYUN AMIN. India-Pakistan Wars http://www.com/speeches/archive/speech_19.defencejournal. http://www.group. http://www. report from the International Crisis Group.pdf 54. Speech Archive. 1971.net/docs/documentos/pakistan.jang.htm 52. Brig (r) A Q Anjum http://www.000 56. its eastern half.pk/thenews/dec2003-daily/16-122003/oped/o5.htm 193 .ecoi.000 West Pakistani troops surrendered to Indian forces in Bangladesh and the war came to an end. an army of 2001.jang. http://www. html On December 17. Text of speech by General Pervez Musharraf. Pakistan:Transition to Democracy?" 3rd Oct 2002. The Columbia Encyclopedia. 90.historychannel. The Pakistan Army From 1965 to 1971. Fall of Dhaka: the true face-2. http://www. 100.pk/thenews/dec2003-daily/17-122003/oped/o6. Sixth Edition.com/65/in/IndiaPak.

NOVEMBER 10.html 61.com/MONITOR/ISSUE62/sridhar. http://www. Zafar Abbas. Karachi.net/book1/body_chapter_1.indiatimes. Times of India. How poor are the poor.dll/html/uncomp/ar 194 ..confex.htm 62.com/cms.com/wcfv/2003/preliminaryprogram/abstr act_2380. Columnist Hamid Hussain explores the Pakistan military mind-set. http://www. Martial Mind .bharat-rakshak. SUNDAY. Sridhar N. http://www.htm 59.htm 60."TO BE A WOMAN IN PAKISTAN IS TO ASK FOR A LIFE OF SUBSERVIENCE" By Ameera Javeria.com/CapitolHill/Parliament/3251/spri ng99/pakistan.html 63 Islamic Pakistan illusions and reality.58.defencejournal. Pains Welfare Trust International.html 65.org/journal/winter01/javeria.com/page/c-issue/etc4.com/2002/july/martial.Pakistan Officer Corps thought-process about Defence. Ethnic Cleansing in Pakistan during Partition: A Preliminary Statistical Analysis. http://ghazali. International Perspective on Family Violence in Pakistani Society.mjfellows. Pakistan http://wcfv.pakistaneconomist. Khurram Faheem http://www.htm 64. http://www. online edition. Pak army siphoning off US aid in Swiss accounts. 2002 http://timesofindia.geocities. Abdus Sattar Ghazali. Social Work Group.

Askari http://www. Among the Believers. The Weekly Standard.asp?cid=170243 75. http://www. H. 03.tolueislam.http://www.org/news/newsID. Paper no. 03.dawn.com/expressions/column.tripod. Rajiv Malhotra.pk/thenews/jan2003-daily/22-012003/oped/o5. 1981.com/2003/11/15/fea. 941. Jinnah's Vision of Pakistan.com/~no_nukes_sa/chapter_5. By M.sulekha. page 102.com/Bazm/misc/pkk_04. October 29. February 11. 2001.htm 73. By Reuel Gerecht. http://www. M. Picador. Monday.htm#2 67. page 116. Pakistan's Taliban Problem.com/ 72. Jihad and the United States.org/papers10/paper941. Naipaul.http://www. Asghar Khan. Massacres of shias in Iraq & Pakistan background.Raman. 2004 http://www. Sharif al Mujahid http://members.saag.jang.html 74 The Root of India-Pakistan Conflicts. V.13288/news_detail. by B. 28th March 2003 28 March 2003 http://www.http://www. page 112.S.org/vil/Articles/politics/mawdudi2. page 159 76.dawn.asp 70.thefridaytimes.html 195 . http://www.The Friday Times online.aei. page 87.html the 69.com.htm#1 68.witnesspioneer.ticleshow?artid=27859526 66. Monday. 2002.htm 71.com/2003/12/12/op. Some obstacles in normalization.

http://ny.sg/usattack/story/0. Although the majority of people in Pakistan are Muslims by birth and faith. 78. Military in the Power structure of Pakistan.98 039. The shadows of this influence are quite visible on the marriage ceremonies and festivals like "Basant" 79.A. Dr Kalim Siddiqui. By Hamza Alavi. M. Tamara Sonn 196 .php3?article_id=1642&g roup=webcast 83.htm "Pakistani culture can be called as "Mixed Culture". Dec 6-12.77. Understanding Political Islam.1870.com/pakistanicultur_rrme. The reality of an Islamic state. Social forces and ideology in the making of Pakistan.indymedia.essortment. Sunday August 5. Wed Jun 25 '03 http://jakarta. there is a strong influence of Hindu culture on the present Pakistani culture. Mohammad Waseem: 81. The Friday Times. Islamic Revolution: the only possible future for Pakistan. Reddy. 2002.org/front. The Times of India.00. Crescent International. P. 2001 80. 8th April 2003.com. 2002 http://straitstimes.asia1. Prof Karrar Hussain Memorial Lecture Nov 2. Explore Pakistani culture.H. Asad Latif JAN 21.html 84 Political Authority in Classical Islamic Thought.Hussain. 2002 82. Demographer.

K Raychaudhuri VSM (Retd).washingtonpost. ARTRAC [Army Training Command] magazine.com. 93. Pakistanis Question Perks of Power. p 391).com/wpdyn/articles/A23614-2002Nov21. 87. 1994.independent. 1980).asp 85. MILITARY INVOLVEMENT IN THE POLITICAL 'DEVELOPMENT' OF PAKISTAN AND ITS RATIONALE.co. Masud Akhtar Shaikh.http://www. Prestige and Privileges: Military's economic activities in Pakistan Dr Ayesha Siddiqa-Agha 91.Change the Rupee into Riyal or Dinar.pk/daily/Dec-2003/19/EDITOR/op5.pk/thenews/dec2003-daily/19-122003/oped/o4. Know thy enemy!. By John Lancaster Washington Post Foreign Service.nation. http://www. Perks. Ahmed Quraishi http://www.jsp?story=101459 Mani Shankar Aiyer.asp 90.com. Friday.html 92. Vol 1.net/iol-english/qadaya/islamic3/islamic3.uk/story. Whose land is it anyway? Irfan Husain. November 22. (Lahore. Raychaudhuri and Datta. PINNACLE Vol 2 No 2 October 2003. 26 October 2001 http://www. 88. page 10. 197 .islamonline. http://jang. UBSPD. 86. An Advanced History of India. Majumdar. "Power. S. 2002.htm 89. Soldiers in business. Robert Fisk: Farewell to democracy in Pakistan."Pakistan Papers". Brig.

atimes.htm 100.pakistanweekly.pk/ 99.jang.htm 94. Nadeem Iqbal http://www. Era of mullah coddling is over. the World Bank says that 31 percent of Pakistan's population lives off $1 a day. TIMES STAFF WRITER http://www.com/front.htm 97. Farrukh Saleem http://www.htm 98 Official Web Page of the National Logistic Cell of Pakistan.com/archives/oct7_13_02/LATIMES_stor y.nlc. 2002 96.thefridaytimes.7 percent. Najam Sethi. A first hand list of Army land lords. http://www. Issue #48.dawn. while the percentage of people living below $2 a day is a staggering 84.com/archives/Aug17_23_02/P1_landgrab bing.html In its "World Development Indicators-2002". Pakistan struggles with poverty reduction.http://www. Special SAT Report http://www. The Weekly Independent.satribune.com.htm 95.com/weekly/mazdak/mazdak. Dominates Life in Pakistan. Oped by Dr.com.com/Opinion. 101. Rightsizing of the Armed Forces http://www.shtml 198 . May 23-29. The Friday Times.satribune.pk/thenews/may2003-daily/25-052003/oped/o5.com/atimes/South_Asia/DL12Df01. Military Inc. PAUL WATSON. Pakistan http://www.

Interview with Nawaz Sharif.htm 105.htm 103.com/stories/2003010200060800.indianembassy.org/policy/Terrorism/news_us/pak _army_radicals%20_nov_17_99. abroad.atimes. 1999. reproduced on the website of the Indian Embassy http://www.bharatrakshak. Jan 02. Syed Saleem Shahzad http://www. Indian Navy History. By Amos Perlmutter. Vol 1.102. The rogue army of Pakistan. G. Pramit Pal Chaudhuri http://www. Parthasarathy. Parthasarathy http://www.com/news/2002/oct/01arvind.0008. 2003 http://www. Weekly Independent. March 7-13. Financial Daily from THE HINDU group of publications Thursday. November 17. 2002 106.hindustantimes.hinduonnet.com/atimes/South_Asia/EK27Df03. B. http://www. htm 107.htm 108. No 7.Raman.blonnet. new rules.com/bline/stories/2003081400020800. G.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Link3. The Pakistan army and Islamic radicals. quoted in the online portal Rediff: http://www. http://www.html 199 . What if Pervez Musharraf is killed.html 104.bharatrakshak. Pakistan-India: Same game.htm 109. The Washington Times.Indian Army History.com/NAVY/Link3. Pakistan's privileged army Quest for hegemony at home.html 110.rediff.com/news/181_510850.

com/rafiqul_islam. Jessica Stern.foreignaffairs.defencejournal.bharatrakshak.gendercide. http://www.kashmirinformation.com/MONITOR/ISSUE46/malik.html 118.org/case_bangladesh. Terrorists plan to pose as disabled travelers Pakistani nationals behind U.html 115.com/news/article. Ram Krishen K.virtualbangladesh.html 112. http://www.org/20001101faessay940/jessica200 . Calling the Indian Army Chief's Bluff. November/December 2000 http://www. http://www. Lessons from Kargil.S. Case Study: Genocide in Bangladesh. 1971 http://www. warns new Homeland Security memo. Paul Sperry http://worldnetdaily. Letter from Maharaja Hari Singh to Lord Mountbatten on the eve of Pak invasion on J&K in 1947.111. Foreign Affairs. Gen VP Malik PVSM.htm 117. Virtual Bangladesh : History : Eyewitness accounts.asp?ARTICLE_ID=3633 4 119. AVSM (Retd) http://www. Rafiqul Islam. Lt Gen (Retd) JAVED NASIR http://www.bharat-rakshak.html 114. plot. Professsor Rafiqul Islam http://www.kashmirinformation.com/Miscellaneous/Bhatt2.com/febmar99/chief-bluff. KASHMIR AND PARTITION OF INDIA (Part II) by Prof. Pakistan's Jihad Culture.html 116.com/IAF/History/Link-Hist.html 113.com/LegalDocs/Maharaja_letter. Indian Air Force History. Bhatt.

pk/default. 201 . new rules.dailytimes.ca/~mayworks/911/1/pakistan.rand.html 120. M.dailytimes. THE ROVING EYE Jihad: 'The ultimate thermonuclear bomb'. Delusions and Fantasies!! Guest Column: Arindam Banerji. Jihadi Groups.com. Pepe Escobar http://www. Jihad: 'The ultimate thermonuclear bomb'.asp?page=story_7-82002_pg3_7 126. Excerpts from a Sept.html 123. Peter Chalk http://www. Ehsan Ansari. Indo-Pakistan Talks Myths. The spirit of Gandhar.pk/default. Nov 27th 2003 http://www. Nuclear Pakistan and the New Great Game. Syed Saleem Shahzad.com/ind-pak/CJ10Df01.atimes.shtml 124. Pakistan's Role in the Kashmir Insurgency.atimes. Musharraf and the Jihad industry. page 5 121.com/indpak/CJ10Df01. 15 article by Tariq Ali. Pervez hoodbhoy http://www.com/atimes/South_Asia/EK27Df03.html 122. Shahid Nadeem http://www. http://www.asp?page=story_17-82002_pg3_5 127. The Taliban's Pakistan connection.atimes.html 128.tao. published by the Strategic Studies Institute.org/hot/op-eds/090101JIR. Pepe Escobar. in The Independent (UK) http://www.stern/pakistan-s-jihad-culture.html 125. South Asia Analysis Group. Asia Times Online.com.Pakistan-India: Same game.

India Today.S. Musharraf escapes second assassination attempt.asp 132. trying to avoid contact with the security forces http://www. Beyond Control. 710. The Truth About Kashmir.deccanherald.saag. 09. March 2.com/deccanherald/dec26/i1. Pakistani Role in Terrorism Against the U.The Politics of Islam in Pakistan.S. Pioneer. 2001 K.org/papers8/paper710.asp 202 .PROFILE OF A MILITANT: Based on the statistics available the average life span of a militant / mercenary does not exceed 20 months from the time he returns to J&K to participate in the so called Jihad.Dec 14th 2003.armyinkashmir. Narayanan Komerath.org/articles/profile. http://www. Indrani th Bagchi 2003 with Anil Padmanabhan.forceindia. Harvest of Terror. December 8 133. By Ghazala Wahab.com/MONITOR/ISSUE52/narayanan.Paper no.Volume 5(2) September-October 2002 http://www.org/ 130.cnn.A.net/harvest. The 135.musharraf/ 136. BHARAT RAKSHAK MONITOR . Musharraf eludes assassination bid . Gill. 06.html 134.armyinkashmir. http://www. http://www.bharat-rakshak. moving from one hide to another. a website maintained by the Indian Army's 15 th Corps.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/12/14/bl ast.P.html 129. A period in which he is a fugitive. http://cnnstudentnews.html 131. 2003 http://www.

137.atimes. Pakistan has 18 million illegal quoting Reuters Alertnet http://www. Friday. Monday. JR. BBC News online.com/atimes/South_Asia/EL19Df05.org/irp/congress/1994_cr/h941003-terrorpak.html 139.stm 138. 2004. Frank Pallone. in the House of Representatives..php/20030115094510198 firearms-report. Syed Saleem Shahzad http://www.co. 1994 http://www.fas.com/article. Guns are also produced locally.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3424007. About 18 million firearms are held illegally in Pakistan in addition to the two million weapons that are legally registered. which is famous for imitation weapons from all over the world. Hon. Assassination 'windfall' for Musharraf.htm 203 . Many of the weapons have been imported from Afghanistan. awash with arms after more than 23 years of war. Musharraf admission on secrets. notably in the tribal town of Darra Adamkhel. 23 January. October 3. 18:30 GMT http://news.bbc. The main concentrations of illegal arms in Pakistan are in semi-autonomous tribal regions bordering Afghanistan. all of them illegal and about 150 shops selling arms and ammunition 140.pakistanfacts. The Dawn report said Darra Adamkhel still had around 900 arms factories.

senet.1. 142. Sunday.freeservers. Paul Watson and Mubashir Zaidi.html 143. Warhead Blueprints Link Libya Project to Pakistan Figure By WILLIAM J. By Douglas Frantz. Agence France-Presse.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fgpaknukes3feb03. Heroin. January 2. Pakistan Caught in Web of Evidence. http://www.au/~wingman/hijack. Aziz hand seen in Kandahar hijacking.1265066.org/articles/narco. newsnight.com/archivefeatures/nat2. Published: February 4.com/webarticle50. SANGER.htm 148. 2000. Pakistan's role in hijacking. 2004.html 145.story?coll=la-home-headlines 144.com. SANGER.latimes.saag.Raman.html 147. NARCO TERRORISM IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR AND PAKISTAN'S ROLE.org/papers3/paper288. Public Affairs Magazine. http://www.html by B.nic. 2004 http://www. http://users. Confronting the Nuclear Threat America Didn't Want to Be True.indiareacts.htm l?hp 146. http://www.141.nytimes. http://www.in/OPn/2000jan/11ht. By DAVID E.net. BROAD and DAVID E. By Samuel Baid http://meadev. Taliban & Pakistan.nytimes.com/2004/02/04/politics/04NUKE. IC 814 Hijack. Plane hijackers received new weapons in Afghanistan: French hostages. http://www.asp?recno =23&ctg=community 149.htm 204 .com/2004/02/08/weekinreview/08sang.armyinkashmir. Published: February 8. http://pak-terror.

htm 152.November 2003 http://www. admits Pakistan. Dated 24th September 2002 http://www. Ltd.brinkster. The Nation and State of Pakistan. September 21. Platts.org/nations/corrupt/2002/0404ramp ant.indianexpress. Extracted from 'The Pioneer'.htm 154.kashmirherald.com/pakistan4ever/wordpakistan. 157. http://www.com/02summer/cohen.England) January 16. Kashmir Herald on the Web.h tml 153.com/programs/news4. Stepehen Cohen.rediff.com/news/2003/sep/21dawood.com/nov03/top20. Rahul Bedi. New Delhi. 2004.twq. International currency racket busted. ISBN: 81-215-0098-2. How did the word "Pakistan" come into existence? http://www28. "A Dictionary of Urdu.globalpolicy.html 151.com/ie/daily/20000104/ifr04015. No. Page: 218. Publisher: (Indian Edition) Mushiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt.150. 20 Most Wanted Terrorists that India has demanded Pakistan to extradite back to India. Pak embassy official in Nepal held selling fake Indian currency. PRESS TRUST OF INDIA. Friday Europe Edition 1# 158. 2003 15:13 IST. April 4.alphalasertek.Dawood in Karachi. http://www. 2002 from the Asia Times: http://www.pdf 205 . Classical Hindi and English" Author: John T. Volume 3.htm l 156.asp 155. Financial Times (London. Stephen Cohen http://www. 6 .

http://web. Pakistan Surrenders The Taliban control the border with Afghanistan.org/library/index/engasa330352006 160.com/Content/Public/Articles/0 00/000/012/738ijawx. by Daveed Gartenstein-Ross & Bill Roggio . Volume 012.weeklystandard. Executive summary.amnesty.10/02/2006. Pakistan Human Rights ignored in the ‘War on Terror’.159. Issue 03http://www.asp 206 .

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