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Dedicated to the memory of my cousin, late Wg Cdr. Kukke Suresh, VrC
The reason for writing this book is explained in the first chapter. Once I had collected the reference material it took me only three months to write the book. It then took me two years to refine and release the book as a freely downloadable e-book. I must take this opportunity to thank members of the forum at www.bharat-rakshak.com for their invaluable and selfless help in digging up material that served as references for this book. Furthermore I wish to thank the dozen or so people who helped me proof read the book and came up with useful suggestions. Prominent among these are ramana, acharya, kgoan and sudhir. Shiv January 20, 2007
Jihad and Terrorism The Government and criminal activity Pakistan . plebiscite. Wars and genocide Provinces and Assorted Fragments Pakistan.CHAPTERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Why Pakistan? The people of Pakistan Education Industries and Economy of Pakistan Pakistani psyche general observations Women and Minorities of Pakistan Partition and the two-nation theory Islam and Pakistan Attitudes toward India and Indians The Pakistani Army Kashmir.Failed state Page Page Page Page Page Page Page 6 14 20 35 43 65 71 Page 80 Page 93 Page 99 Page 117 Page Page Page Page 131 135 147 160 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 References Page 174 Page 177 Page 180 Page 183 Page 186 5 .
That may appear true but it is important to understand that Pakistanis do not feel like Indians and do not like to say "Indians are just like us". Many tend to look at the similarities and remark. "Pakistanis are just like us". 6 . Such a review collects up all the available information about a given disease from all the medical papers available on the subject and consolidates the information in one document. That document then serves as a comprehensive reference point for information about the subject.Chapter 1 WHY PAKISTAN? Why write about Pakistan? Pakistan is a huge. this book can be considered a Review of the literature on Pakistan. newspaper reports and magazines. no effort been made to collect this information and put it all together between the covers of a single book. Pakistani institutions and Pakistanis have developed certain unique and recognizable defining features. More that anything else. While these features have been noted time and again by innumerable people in a large number of books. And in the intervening years Pakistan. populous and diverse nation that has the curious distinction of having been suddenly born in 1947. a Review of the literature is often used to collect and collate information about a disease from various sources. In fact Pakistanis have spent all those decades since independence trying to show how Pakistan is not like India. In the field of medical research. and it has been an aggressive and implacable neighbor of India. Most Indians do not understand Pakistan or Pakistanis.
Vir Sanghvi. and are sometimes called saffron sympathisers. and it is an insult to Indian Muslims to refer to them as being associated with Pakistan. not to be discussed by secular non-Muslim Indians. This is both unfortunate and unfair to Indian Muslims. First. The book carries many direct quotes from various authors and these quotes are in italics. Indians often become embarrassed or angry in discussions about Pakistan and Pakistanis. It is a summary of the experiences and descriptions of many people who have reported or written about Pakistan. referring to Pakistan does not mean that we are obliquely referring to Indian Muslims. There are a few things that Indian readers should keep in mind while reading this book. Indians who talk about Pakistan or Islam are often considered to be opponents of secularism and tolerance. An automatic and needless mental connection is made between the subject of Pakistan and the Muslims of India. This is an obvious logical fallacy and it is also deeply insulting 7 to all Indian Muslims - . Indian Muslims are quite different from Pakistanis. Today. the managing editor of the Hindustan Times has written about this (1): At a sub-conscious level. some Indians make the simplistic assumption that because (nearly) all Pakistanis are Muslims. lest they should hurt the sentiments of Muslims in India. while the sources from which the quotes have been taken are listed in the reference section at the end of the book.This book is a collection and review of what has been written about Pakistan in various sources over many years. so all Muslims must be Pakistanis in their hearts. For this reason Pakistan and Islamic extremism emanating from Pakistan have almost been taboo subjects in India.
One of the purposes of this book is to show precisely what has been done with Islam in Pakistan. There are many assumptions and misconceptions that need to be reviewed. The situation and attitudes of Muslims in India are no longer comparable to those in Pakistan. and these will become clear in subsequent chapters. a hangover from partition. not Pakistanis. to say nothing of the thousands of Muslims who have died fighting Pakistan. As the Indian economy forges ahead there is an increasing constituency of Indians who feel that Pakistan is a small problem that can be ignored. and Pakistanis are Pakistanis. Indians are Indians. not Indians. This vestigial thought process remains in many Indian minds like a dark cloud. It requires a deliberate act of mental re-orientation for non-Muslims in India to learn to talk about Pakistanis without equating them with Indian Muslims. determined to keep the Indian flag flying on the cricket field. Pakistanis are no longer Indians. a separate nation. and that is unfortunate. Muslims in India are not Pakistanis. But 8 . Pakistan is Pakistan. Here again. Confusion and misunderstanding in Indian attitudes more than five decades after independence are certainly a factor in the Indian Pakistan policy. Another point to inability to develop a coherent note is that no discussion or description of Pakistan can even begin to be meaningful without considering the role that Islam plays on the mind of the Pakistani. and call for an avoidance of what seems to be an Indian obsession with Pakistan. they are Indians.including Zaheer Khan and Irfan Pathan who are setting out for Pakistan. we must remember that when we speak of Pakistan and Islam we are not referring to Indian Muslims and the vastly different way in which Islam has evolved in India since independence.
In the first 55 years after independence. the importance of Pakistan lies in its extreme hostility to India. Pakistan has thus had a great impact on Hindu-Muslim relations in India. The appearance of the new nation Pakistan as a neighbor. Another group of Indians took the opposite viewpoint that Indian Muslims. With Pakistani leaders attempting to speak for the Muslims in India. a love-hate relationship that affected Indian society. with the infiltration terrorists from Pakistan into India as part grade war to bleed India (chapter 12). In five of those wars armed forces from Pakistan have been the adversary that Indian civilians and Indian soldiers have had to face. neither of whom were able to look upon Indian Muslims as they should have been looked at. The events of independence and partition had a deep effect on the Indian psyche. and has put a great strain on the ancient Indian tradition of tolerance and pluralism. From Indian armed forces and paramilitary have had of armed of a low1965. Four of these conflicts are discussed in chapter 11.Pakistan cannot be ignored by India for many reasons. with people who were brothers and compatriots until very recently created a complex conflict. many non-Muslim Indians got polarized mainly into two groups. the Indian armed forces have had to fight wars on eight occasions (2). would somehow feel upset enough to want to side with Pakistan. as Indians like everyone else. the to expand to keep pace with the massive build up and continuing 9 . unless treated in an especially favorable and kind manner. and the fifth engagement with Pakistan still continues at the time of writing. One group of Indians began to view their Muslim compatriots with hostility as recessed Pakistanis who were always seen cheering for Pakistan in cricket matches. Apart from the deep mental scar that partition left on the Indian psyche.
But this build up must not come in the way of urgently needed development and modernization. 10 . It is still possible for Indians to make the mistakes Pakistanis have made. the presence of a belligerent neighbor is a signal that military strength must be adequate to meet any aggressive intent. and India would do well to learn from that. and attempting to play great power games in the absence of a matching military-industrial-economic capability are some of the mistakes that Pakistan has made. Indians have a lot to learn. A policy of ignoring Pakistan's military intent and might would be a formula for a disaster of unimaginable proportions. No matter how well intentioned and peaceable a nation state may be. a population explosion and social inequity. By studying what Pakistan has done. ignoring corruption. underestimation of problems and hurdles. mistakes that India could still make. Unilateral pacifism displayed by one nation state when another nation shows every sign of being ready for war is a policy that begs for defeat and disaster. blindness to the impact of religious discrimination. That is one of the mistakes that Pakistani leaders committed. Overconfidence. or the naive policy of appeasement of Adolf Hitler followed by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. discrimination against minorities and maldistribution of wealth. Pakistan has made a whole tapestry of errors that Indians can choose to repeat or avoid. or has not done since independence.assaults from Pakistan. while a policy that puts too much emphasis on hurriedly delivering a total military defeat on Pakistan could divert too large a proportion of meager resources towards a war machine. and if necessary take the battle into the aggressor's territory. Indians cannot afford to forget the lessons that can be learned from events like the India-China conflict of 1962.
is that the India box has 70 intact eggs while the Pakistan box has only 5 intact eggs. There is a very important reason for that. All references to Pakistani problems are referred to by Pakistani spokespersons as South Asian problems. All that this does is to hide the magnitude of the problems in Pakistan. and it requires elaboration. the two entities cannot really be compared. comparison will show that the India box has 30 eggs. but Pakistani leaders have persistently tried to hide problems within Pakistan such as poverty and illiteracy by saying that India has more problems than Pakistan. 11 and hide the chronic . Imagine Pakistan to be a smaller box with 10 eggs in it. A direct broken and it shape. India is four times larger than Pakistan in land area and currently has a population that is over seven times the size of Pakistan's population. except where it is unavoidable.Finally. Direct comparisons of numbers regarding Pakistan and India are misleading because of the difference in size. Although both India and Pakistan started off as having been part of one nation in the pre-Independence era. and 5 of those eggs are broken. South Asian poverty. To illustrate why a direct comparison between India and Pakistan can be misleading we need to use an analogy: Imagine India to be a box with 100 eggs in it. every attempt has been made in this work to avoid direct comparisons between India and Pakistan. but 30 of those eggs are broken. and South Asian illiteracy. and the Pakistan box has only 5 broken eggs. But what is hidden from this comparison. This means that all numbers and figures relating to India are automatically bigger than those of Pakistan. South Asian hunger. would seem that the India box is in a far worse with many more broken eggs.
and is falling behind. the Indian army should have been at least three or four times the size of the Pakistan army. Pakistan's task should have been easier. Pakistan of course was amply aided by other nations. even though the number of people who are poor in Pakistan. India has to educate seven children in order to "match Pakistan". In this book we will examine the state that Pakistan has got itself into and deal with how it got into its current crisis. the Indian army is less than one and a half times as big as the Pakistani army. A direct comparison of numbers will not reveal this and such direct comparisons are useful only to hide Pakistan's increasing problems. And while these figures get worse. But that is not the case. But India is not merely matching Pakistan.mismanagement of Pakistan. For every child that Pakistan educates. but a comparison of the real figures between India and Pakistan shows that Pakistan is not doing well. since independence India has spent relatively more on development and less on defence while Pakistan has spent almost everything on arms and very little on development. India and Pakistan do share many of the same problems. With India having a population that is seven times as big as that of Pakistan. and the number of people requiring education in Pakistan are far smaller than the number in India. it has moved ahead in literacy and is racing ahead in other parameters. but Pakistan is failing even to achieve a smaller task. but these details will be discussed later. a quick comparison of the Pakistani armed forces and the Indian armed forces is illustrative of what the two countries have been doing since Independence. In 2007 12 . That is because.
Pakistan is not in an enviable state. Anyone who has wished for anything bad to happen to Pakistan is likely to find great joy in the condition that Pakistan has reached. 13 .
70% of the population of Pakistan is uneducated.1% and 2. food. The Pakistani paper the Jang reported in September 2003 (3): Pakistan's population will swell to 349 million by year 2050.. housing units. Nobody knows exactly.. Pakistan's internal turmoil prevented a routine census from taking place in 1991. According to some estimates.With almost one third of the population living in abject poverty. The population explosion has led to the shortage of educational facilities. The "average Pakistani" is poor and uneducated. living space. health services. 53. but even at the lower estimate 8000 children are being born every day in Pakistan. Pakistan's population is currently thought to be increasing at the rate of between 2. by the year 2050. making it the fourth most populated country in the world The report goes on to say: The population growth has caused an eight-time increase in the unemployment. but it was finally conducted in 1998... living in rural areas.8% per year. Some estimates say that Pakistan's population will double to over 300 million.5 million are illiterates. 54 million people do not have access to safe drinking water . arable land and clean water The vast majority of Pakistanis are villagers. and education among women is very low since few women are allowed to acquire 14 .Chapter 2 THE PEOPLE OF PAKISTAN Pakistan is currently estimated to have between 160 and 170 million people. or one Pakistani is born every 10 seconds.
These facts may seem surprising considering the smartly dressed. Most of the wealth. A report in the Jang (5) on Dec 5th 2003 says: Top 20 per cent of the population has 50 per cent of 15 .000 in all. It is they who own Pakistan and rule in the name of the people. a cadre of nearly 1. As the description suggests. along with top army officers. Anglophone.an education in a society that believes the women should not be seen in public places. nearly 2. land and industries of Pakistan are said to be concentrated among about 43 top families of Pakistan. bureaucracy.000 landlords owning more than half the cultivable land. it is believed. the lords and the industrial barons. In an editorial in the Indian Express that appeared on January 28th 2002. Making up the of these four interest groups. wealthy elite group that have been described by the expression "Rich. are a dozen corps commanders. the cream of Pakistani society. they are rich. mixing with strangers. form the cream of Pakistan(4). Pakistan is ruled by four interest or their coalition: military. who. well spoken Pakistani men and women that one may see on television" form a small. they speak English and they form the elite. well spoken Pakistani men and women that one may see on television. VP Dutt wrote: Another fundamental flaw is the very narrow social base of the groups feudal nucleus ruling elite. They actually form a very small minority. numbering perhaps 25. The "smartly dressed.000 officers and less than 50 industrial families. But that is another curious hidden fact about Pakistan. Pakistani Elite".
such as Harvard." with buildings but no students or teachers A third curious anomaly of Pakistan is the almost complete absence of a "middle class".national income. while the bottom 20 per cent has only 6 percent. the New York Times carried a report about Pakistan: In the cities. In some areas. About 75 percent of all Pakistanis reside in rural areas. and often study abroad in the best institutions of the US and UK. making private laws and operating private jails. with some feudal lords owning over 20. They drive the Pajeros and the Mercedes-Benz cars of Pakistan.000 acres of land in a Pakistan that is full of impoverished people. feudal landowning families as well as from the armed forces. The elite of Pakistan come from rich. many of the poor are deprived of even an elementary education. The middle class in Pakistan have been estimated as being about 10 to 12 million in total (6. Oxford and Cambridge. Most are sharecroppers.7) forming about 8% of the population. The literacy rate is below 40 percent. Wide boulevards clogged with expensive cars become narrow lanes where shrouded women carry jugs of water on their heads. the turn of a street corner can seem to be time travel between centuries. On October 2nd 2001. feudal families still hold sway. A fifth of Pakistan's government schools are "ghosts. While the wealthy send their children to college in America or Britain. eking out a subsistence. The Rich Anglophone Pakistani Elite have a great influence on the image of Pakistan abroad. The contrast with India now is stunning with estimates of the middle class in India forming about 25 16 . and they own much of the land. Their children go to the best schools in Pakistan.
to 30% of the population. Fitting in perfectly well with these facts are other items of information about the life of Pakistanis. consists of a small. A large middle class creates a society in which people have the economic clout to break the economic stranglehold of a rich elite and ensure that their rights are looked after. On top of that the rising of the fundamentalist groups in Pakistan is a fact. (8. 17 . The whole of Pakistan has only about 400. Pakistan has only 3 million TV sets. for a population of 145 million. This is a dangerous trend as the middle class is the backbone for any progressive society. A large middle class is an indicator of the development of a society from the traditional feudal pattern into a more modern society. Less than one out of ten belongs to the middle class and a very small number are extremely rich. Being a Muslim is important to the Pakistani citizen because it brings a semblance of order to his otherwise miserable and unenviable existence. very rich elite governing a large mass of poor people. A large middle class is an essential component of a ‘modern’ state and its absence marks a feudal state. The average Pakistani is an illiterate and poor Muslim. which the nation cannot keep denying anymore. A report by Pakistani researcher Masooda Bano carried in the News International Pakistan on 31st August 2001 said: Pakistan's middle class is shrinking while India's middle class is growing. More and more people in Pakistan are slipping in to poverty.9) We can thus define the "average Pakistani".000 cars. Nine out of ten Pakistanis are poor and uneducated. The old feudal structure of society which Pakistan still retains.
This stoic acceptance has allowed the rapacious elite and the resource-swallowing army of Pakistan to carry on with their atrociously rich lifestyles and blatant corruption for decades. the poor and deprived Pakistani does not question or complain about his miserable life. which is dealt with in chapter 5.Religion also helps to define the psyche of the Pakistani. as a result of this belief. tyrannical and corrupt leaders of Pakistan. religion also helps in the survival of the rich. Paradoxically. Islam teaches its followers to accept their lives as being preordained by God. answerable to an angry or demanding 18 . and. without having to be population.
the United States of America. The people of the village or town need to understand the value of sending their children to be educated in school as opposed to keeping them at home for help in the fields or other work. with electricity for light bulbs. But it 20 appears that a series of . The precise manner in which lack of education and a runaway increase in population affects a country needs to be understood by leaders in power. Teachers are needed and for this the teacher himself must be educated . A building is required. Development and technology require education. imagine a small town or village that needs a school.a separate education system must exist to have a supply of teachers. Most people who take education for granted tend to forget the highly organized and civilized system that needs to be set up for an underdeveloped nation to build up a group of educated citizens who can serve as the pioneers of development. English speaking Pakistani elite and the postworld war superpower. Pakistan was believed to be a leading light among developing nations.Chapter 3 EDUCATION Through the 1950s and 1960s. and the unquestioned technological leader among "Islamic nations" A closer look at the facts suggests that this was only an impression created by the fortuitous alliance between the suave. The low literacy rate in Pakistan is an indicator of the facts that these fundamental investments have been ignored or sidelined for decades. and the world's most powerful media apparatus that came with the US. For example.
populations in many countries remained relatively stable. "The numbers that came up is 8. maybe more." said Zubaida Jalal. As a result. the Pakistani government tried to estimate how many schools it would take to handle the 8 million kids of primary age not in class now.Pakistani leaders have never really understood how the twin facts of population explosion and lack of education feed upon each other leading to the population-illiteracy cycle getting worse at a faster and faster rate as time passes. rapid advances in the development and application of vaccination of people against killer diseases like smallpox and diphtheria led to a significant reduction in the number of children dying from these diseases.500 primary schools. because the number of people dying was approximately equal to the number of babies being born. They can become 10. Pakistan's minister for education. Effective means were developed to reduce complications and deaths during pregnancy and childbirth. The UNFPA has recognized this and says in a report on Pakistan: The major contributing factor to population growth has been the sustained gap between low mortality and high fertility levels for the last three decades or so. But once these scientific changes affected human society. That's the kind of numbers we needed two years earlier.000 in 2004. A report on reforming education in Pakistan on NBC said (10): Two years ago. Until these developments occurred. and simple treatments were devised to save lives in cases of deadly killer diarrheas. populations began to rise rapidly. In the 20th century. Pakistan has today 21 a very young population . making it increasingly difficult to catch up.
and they need to be educated regarding the importance of birth control and family planning. more poverty.structure. healthcare and education. This is exactly what is happening in Pakistan (11. In fifty years. more diseases from malnutrition and more unemployment. with 43 per cent below the age of 15 and 63 per cent below the age of 25. a population of 1 million can increase to 32 million. 22 . Generations of Pakistanis have been born into poverty and deprivation without the knowledge or the means to slow down population growth or earn a living though a modern job from a modernizing economy. and then become 8 million in ten more years and so on. Unfortunately Pakistan's leaders have never put in the required amount of money and effort into education of the Pakistani masses. That means that if a population of 1 million people doubles to 2 million in ten years. it will double to 4 million in a further ten years. That means more people who are unhappy and have reason to be angry. it will have to look after 32 million people just fifty years later. If the original 1 million people lived in a poor.12). a rapid rise in population typically leads to more hunger. developing country that is barely able to feed and provide employment for 1 million people. Populations grow by what is called "geometric progression". since that is essential for slowing down the population explosion. Unless a great deal of money and effort is put into planning for population growth such as food production. All these extra people have to have food and opportunities for employment. The population has increased by 50 million people in the last 15 years and the number of poor has doubled.
A report in the San Francisco Chronicle (13) in Oct 2002 on the state of education in Pakistan states: According to government statistics for this year, the literacy rate is 49 percent overall, 61.3 for men and 36.8 for women .. putting Pakistan among the 20 least literate countries, according to World Bank's World Development Index. A government study commissioned last year demonstrated a clear cause-and- effect relationship between the lack of basic education and increasing poverty. A study of education in Pakistan reveals many reasons to be concerned, and few reasons to be happy. The state of education in Pakistan was described by Raymond Bonner in the New York Times on 31st March 2002: Pakistan's literacy rate ranks below that of countries like Haiti, Rwanda and Sudan, according to the most recent United Nations Development Program report... Pakistan's most recent budget sets aside $107 million for education, compared with $2 billion for the military.
Madrassa education in Pakistan: Over large areas of Pakistan, the lack of schools was made up to some extent by madrassas or Islamic schools. Madrassas exist in all nations with a Muslim population, but what is taught in a madrassa can vary significantly depending on the country and government. The madrassas of Pakistan have played a prominent role in making Pakistan the unstable, recessed theocratic state that it is today. Columnist ABS Jafri wrote in the Dawn (14): 23
...in Sindh province we have more than a quarter of a million students in the religious Madaris. In Karachi alone there are well over 226,000 children in these religious seminaries.. In the whole of the province there are only 1,500 middle schools. Compare this with 869 Madaris in Karachi alone.
Nadeem Iqbal, writing for the Asia Times reported (15): Currently there are some one million to 1.7 million
students enrolled in madrassas in Pakistan, most of them between the ages of five to 18 and from poor families. According to Dr. Tariq Rahman, Professor of Linguistics and South Asian Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan had only 137 madrassas in 1947. Dr. Rahman writes of Pakistani madrassas (16): In 1950 there were 210 of them while in 1971 they increased to 563. Nowadays there are at least 7000 of them. After the 1971 war of liberation of Bangladesh, the process of making Pakistanis more Islamic, the so called Islamization of Pakistan was given impetus. It was initiated by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, and the Pakistani General Zia ul Haq who removed Bhutto in a coup and later hanged him, accelerated the process. The exact number of madrassas cannot be known because of the lack of registration or census. Analyst Alexei Alexiev writes(17): While no official nation-wide study of these madrassas exists, estimates of their overall number range between 24
10,000 and 20,000; unregistered seminaries may add another 10,000 to the total. As for the number of students, here the estimate ranges from a conservative half-million to over 2 million. (By comparison, some 1.9 million Pakistani schools in 2002.) children reportedly attended primary
In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, and this gave the US an opportunity to utilize its Cold War alliance with Pakistan to battle the Soviet invasion. The US pumped in large amounts of money and arms into Pakistan, much of it channeled via Saudi Arabia. The Saudi connection enabled the setting up of a vast number of madrassas in Pakistan. Because of the great poverty and lack of schools in Pakistan, madrassas were a natural attraction for the average Pakistani, as being schools that adhered to Islamic values while feeding and housing students, and taking over the burden of looking after one or more sons from a large, poor and ill-fed Pakistani family. Pamela Constable, a columnist for the Washington Post wrote on 20th September 2001 (18), just days after the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York: In recent years, however, a number of religious parties and groups have been rapidly gaining influence throughout Pakistani society. Based in thousands of mosques and Islamic academies called madrassas, they spread their message in part by offering services, especially low-cost education, that millions of poor Pakistani families cannot obtain any other way. The name madrassa merely connotes a school. Aijazz Ahmed wrote about madrassas in the Asia Times (19) in January 2003:
Madrassas were introduced about 300 years ago on the Indian subcontinent by then Muslim monarchs and rulers to produce a bureaucracy capable of running the day-to-day affairs of state, especially in terms of financial and legal issues, according to the wishes and pleasure of the king. Ahmed continues: Professor Dr Manzoor, a renowned scholar, writer and researcher, comments that nowadays many madrassas have taken an unfortunate direction. "The new role of the madrassas and [the influence] of religious elements has added nothing but hatred against non-Muslims and different sects of Islam. Although some major schools produced better results and play their role for religious harmony, many inject the poison of extremism, sectarianism and ignorance and have become a source of increasing ignorance and religious intolerance in Pakistani society." At he best of times, the normal curriculum in madrassas did not offer a well rounded education that included maths, science and information technology. The subjects were frozen 300 years ago, and included logic, Arabic literature and grammar, and Koranic teachings. But during the Cold War, the number of madrassas
burgeoned rapidly and tens of thousands were set up offering only a narrow interpretation of Islam in which young people were indoctrinated into the concept of a violent jihad against unbelievers, and taught to believe that death on the battlefield fighting against the enemies of Islam such as the Soviet Union would ensure eternal paradise for the Islamic fighters. The preparation of young men for jihad and death in the 26
battlefield was surely very useful and convenient to provide an endless supply of soldiers to fight in Afghanistan, and such fighters under the name Taliban took over when the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan. But even after this, the madrassas that had supplied all these fanatical men did not close down, and indeed could not be closed down. The curriculum teaching jihad did not change either. Having nowhere else to go, thousands of madrassa trained students in Pakistan collected up, ready for jihad in any part of the world, including Kashmir, Bosnia, Chechnya, the Philippines, Indonesia, Palestine, Iraq and Turkey. Pamela Constable wrote in the Washington Post: During the 1980s, some radical Sunni groups in Pakistan sent young men to fight in Afghanistan against Soviet occupation, and many members of the Taliban graduated from their madrassas. More recently, a...number of Islamic students have been sent to fight against Indian troops in Kashmir.. In addition, Pakistan columnist Khaled Ahmed wrote in the Friday Times in November 21-27, 2003: What better example than the one found in Pakistan whose private armies interfered in Central Asia and China with public acclaim? Let's take a look at the Harkat al-Jahad al-Islami, Pakistan's biggest jihadi militia headquartered in Kandahar before it was scattered by the Americans. The Harkat was one of the militias boasting international linkages. It called itself 'the second line of defence of all Muslim states' and was active in Arakan in Burma, and Bangladesh, with well organised seminaries in Karachi, Chechnya, Sinkiang, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Its fund-raising was largely from Pakistan, but an additional source was 27 its activity of selling
weapons to other militias
Schools in Pakistan: Education in Pakistani schools outside of madrassas is not available to most Pakistanis. But even in the few schools that exist, the curriculum is deeply flawed. The following quotes are taken from an in depth study of what Pakistani school children are being taught in a compilation entitled The Subtle Subversion - The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan by A.H. Nayyar and Ahmed Salim (20): Madrassas are not the only institutions breeding hate, intolerance, a distorted world view, etc. The educational material in the government run schools do much more than madrassas. The textbooks tell lies, create hate, incite for jehad and shahadat, and much more. ...children are now taught that the history of Pakistan starts from the day the first Muslim set foot in India. History and Pakistan studies textbooks rarely mention the ancient and non-controversial cultures of the Indus valley (Moenjodaro, Harrappa and Kot Diji), and completely bypass the entire Buddhist and Hindu periods of history. They suddenly jump to the advent of Mohammed bin Qasim in India and treat it as the beginning of history... this structuring is to make children regard the Muslim part of the history as the .. most significant part.' From about 1972 onwards, history taught in Pakistan was detached from history as we know it. Quoting further from the Nayyar and Salim report: 28
Four themes emerge most strongly.. 1. ... Pakistan is for Muslims alone; 2. ...Islamiat is to be forcibly taught
students, whatever their faith, including a compulsory reading of Qur'an; 3. that Ideology of Pakistan is to be internalized as faith, and hate be created against Hindus and India; 4. and students are to be urged to take the path of Jehad and Shahadat (martrydom). Associated with the insistence on the Ideology of
Pakistan has been an essential component of hate against India and the Hindus...the existence of Pakistan is defined only in relation to Hindus, and hence the Hindus have to be painted as black as possible. Curriculum documents ask the following as the specific learning objectives: The child should be able to understand the Hindu and Muslim differences...India's evil designs against Pakistan ..Hindu has always been an enemy of Islam. The class II Urdu book has a lesson on "Our Country", the first sentences of which read: Our country is Pakistan. ...Pakistan is an Islamic country. Here Muslims live. Muslims believe in the unity of Allah. They do good deeds. The Class 6 book says: Who am I? I am a Muslim. I am a Pakistani...you are a Muslim and your religion is Islam. A book lists "Acchi baten" (good deeds). Among them: "Good people are those who read the Qur'an and teach the Qur'an to others" implying that those of another faith cannot be good people. 29
modern weapons.. And Pakistani children are taught about war as follows: Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto introduced a full two-year course on 'Fundamentals of War' and 'Defence of Pakistan' for class XI and XII respectively.The subject of hate in Pakistani educational material is Hindu and India. The first serves the military and the second the political Islamists. operations. reflecting both the perceived sense of insecurity from an 'enemy' country... the old and the young with extreme cruelty and heartlessness.Other things taught in state school texts: After the partition of the subcontinent the Hindus and Sikhs started a properly planned campaign of exploiting the Muslims. In another article on Pakistani education AH Nayyar wrote (21): The class 4 text book states: The religion of the Hindus did not teach them good things -.. nay hundreds of thousands of women. and an attempt to define one's national identity in relation to the 'other'.Hindus did not respect women.. on the other 30 . Another book tells the students: Hindus worship in temples which are very narrow and dark places. the means short of war and modern Warfare were thoroughly discussed. as a result of which the Hindu and Sikh enemies of mankind killed and dishonoured thousands. children. In our mosques. Only one person can enter the temple at a time. .In the 'Fundamentals of War' themes like objects and causes. principles ethics. nature. conduct. where they worship idols.
but they did not allow it to be so.. while if the Muslim kings and invaders plundered Hindu temples then presumably they did so with very noble intentions. For another. the Hindus as a monolith were always cunning. The genocide committed in the territory that now constitutes Bangladesh . the child should be able to 31 . all Muslims can say their prayers together. The experience of colonialism is described in a textbook as a British-Hindu conspiracy: The British joined forces with the Hindus to bring harm to the Muslims.. Muslims tried in every way to maintain good relations with the British and Hindus. and conspiring to deprive the Muslims of their due rights. Regarding history as taught to Pakistani children Kamila Hyat wrote in the Jang in August 2003 (22): . Pervez Hoodbhoy.. the terrible events that led to the breaking away of East Pakistan and the creation of Bangladesh are never mentioned. The Hindus always desired to crush the Muslims as a nation.hand. Members of the generation who grew up after 1971 often have no idea at all of what issues underpinned the civil war or why it took place.. scheming. Several attempts were made by the Hindus to erase the Muslim culture and civilization .. a Pakistani scientist writes (23): At the completion of Class-V.. If the Hindus had any national aspirations then these were clearly a sign of their prejudices. are hardly ever discussed or even spoken off on passing within the Pakistan of today..
There seems to be no way in which a child in Pakistan can grow up without fearing or hating India in particular and non-Muslims in general.. corrupt. and ideologically charged education bureaucracy today squarely blocks Pakistan's entry into the 21st century. Meanwhile. "Make speeches on Jehad and Shahadat" "Understand Hindu-Muslim differences and the resultant need for Pakistan. self-obsessed. in the first sign that a glimmering of realization of the consequences of a curriculum of hate. It is clear from this that it is not only the madrassas that offer a curriculum of hatred to Pakistani children." "India's evil designs against Pakistan.. It is surprising that faults in an education system that may have such great an impact on Indian-Pakistani relations in future are not being addressed at all at the highest governmental level in India. Even children who study in Pakistani state schools imbibe a curriculum of discrimination and hate. an acknowledgment of the existence of a biased curriculum 32 .. The problem is so serious that the Pakistani government must be engaged and encouraged to change the curriculum in Pakistani schools." Hoodbhoy goes on to say in the same article: A moronic. The real worry in having such a faulty educational system that actively encourages hatred is that millions of Pakistani children are growing up to be adults thinking that India and Indians exist to subjugate Muslims and should be hated for that. incompetent. This mindset cannot be wiped out overnight.
commenting on the Nayyar report said: the authors take exception to the fact that the present curriculum documents suggest that children should be able to understand the Hindu-Muslim differences and the need for the creation of Pakistan. Mazari.and a call for change was made by Pakistani Federal Minister for Education Ms Zobaida Jalal in a statement published in the Pakistan Tribune online in March 2004 (24): a committee has been constituted to work out recommendations for deletion of material from curricula which is aimed at fomenting hatred against India adding that the committee will submit its recommendations within a month. The authors' warped logic is that knowing the differences breeds hatred! So one should really do away with 33 inculcating the rationale . More than half of Pakistan's population of nearly 170 million are thirty years old or younger and have been exposed to a hate-India curriculum from childhood. As a result these people are likely to form a strong body of anti-India. anti-Hindu opinion for decades to come. Besides there is strong opposition to change. Shireen Mazari accused the authors of the report on Pakistan's biased school books as being biased and having been written for the handsome payment the authors received (25): Dr. In a sternly worded reaction to the idea of reform of the hate curriculum. Dr. Government has set up a committee to look into the matter and send its recommendations within a month But such change cannot come easily in Pakistan. the influential director of the Pakistan Institute of Strategic Studies. Several social organizations have raised objection that hatred is fanned against India through the curricula of educational institutions in Pakistan.
Dr. 34 .a time honored diversion used by the Pakistani elite to criticism (see chapter 8). Mazari dismissed criticism of madrassas as having an anti-Islam motive . Dr.behind the struggle for Pakistan! Of course. With influential Pakistanis opposing change in the curriculum. In the same article. Islam seems to have also become fair game. with the madrassahs now a central target of the West. efforts at change are in serious danger of being quashed even before they commence. there is no doubt that some of the texts do denigrate the Hindus but this should not be a pretext for not creating an awareness of the differences that led to the creation of Pakistan. Mazari's words: deflect "Also.
At another level. Not a single wrist-watch. More than fifty years after independence. that Pakistani industry is producing some state of the art high technology goods. economist Sreedhar states (26): Pakistan's economy during the past fifty years can be described as a classic example of a case where artificial prosperity was maintained by heavy doses of foreign aid and overseas remittances of Pakistanis. Goods manufactured in Pakistan are mostly no more complex than bicycles. Pakistan has survived for over 50 years giving the impression that it is somehow a powerhouse in its depth and breadth of manufacturing and industrial capacity. a sophisticated Pakistani public relations machine has managed to build up the idea. clothes. Pakistan remains primarily an agricultural economy. sports goods such as footballs and cricket balls. at least in the minds of Indians. That is far from the truth.. This level of industrial technology in Pakistan is in keeping with the overall picture of Pakistan as a nation in which almost 70% of the people are illiterate. Still.Easy and cheap availability of goods and services through foreign aid discouraged the development of a large scale indigenous industry. textiles and agricultural products like sugar.. It is worth looking at some of these items and Pakistani claims in 35 .Chapter 4 INDUSTRIES AND ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN In a report about the Pakistani economy. scooter or motorcycle has appeared on the international market with a Made in Pakistan label on it. Pakistan failed to do even the basics of economic development which most of the developing countries have done.
as well as the liquid propellants to fuel its missiles 36 . or at least their major component parts. In keeping with the Pakistani psyche of according the highest importance to the armed forces Pakistani claims of high technology indigenous manufacture have revolved around armament.Pakistan will remain dependent on North Korea for importing complete liquid engines.. Ghauri and Shaheen missiles are Chinese M-9 or M-11 missiles.. The idea is not to downplay the considerable risk that Pakistan's missiles pose to India and other nations. specifically missiles and Pakistan's nuclear program. or North Korean No-Dong missiles (27). but to point out the compulsion that Pakistani authorities have to maintain a facade of indigenous production for items that are widely known to be imported.some detail. Ghauri and Shaheen. but even a cursory search of authoritative sources shows that Pakistan's Hatf. In a detailed report on Pakistani missiles from NTI Nuclear Threat Initiative. and other critical missile components. The most likely reason for maintaining this charade of indigenous development of missiles is to obscure the fact that dangerous. a private body aimed at studying the risk of nuclear conflict it was reported that (28): Pakistan is still dependent on China for specialty materials. guidance systems. Pakistani spokespersons never tire of speaking of Pakistan's indigenous missiles . nuclear capable missiles are being supplied by countries like China and North Korea to Pakistan ignoring international treaties that forbid such exports.given names like Hatf. These brave names may perhaps be essential for national pride.
The strong Pakistani insistence that the program is entirely indigenous is contradicted by the facts. but it is important to place on record the fact that the designs were stolen and not the result of some prolonged research effort in Pakistan.He has acknowledged he did take advantage of his experience of many years of working on similar projects in Europe and his contacts with various manufacturing firms.. Khan suddenly left Europe before his espionage was detected.. Experts have argued that it does not matter if Pakistan's atomic bombs are stolen or made in Pakistan. Abdul Qadeer Khan. Back home in Pakistan. A news report about this in a New Zealand news portal reads (29): The father of Pakistan's atom bomb. helping Pakistan develop its first nuclear bomb. This is true. then Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto gave Khan the job of organizing Pakistan's nuclear program Pakistan can hardly be expected to publicly proclaim that the Father of Pakistan's nuclear program stole the technology. worked at the Urenco uranium enrichment facility in the Dutch city of Almelo in the 1970s.In 1976.. The designs that Abdul Qadeer Khan obtained from the URENCO labs were for centrifuges. from which Abdul Qadeer Khan got his designs for Uranium enrichment says Khan received a MSc degree in metallurgy from Delft in 1967 and later stole nuclear secrets from his Dutch employer.Even more peculiar is Pakistan's nuclear program. Centrifuges are devices that are used to rotate something 37 at high speed to . After his return to Pakistan he was convicted in absentia of nuclear espionage by an Amsterdam court. They are a serious risk either way." A report from the Netherlands.
Obtaining centrifuges was necessary for Pakistan to start enriching Uranium.separate out heavier from lighter components. the heavier U238 and lighter U235. Uranium occurs naturally primarily in two forms. One week after the Indian nuclear tests of May 1998. China provided Pakistan with the necessary technology to make its nuclear bomb. The latter. Several techniques exist for this and Pakistan chose the route of Uranium enrichment using the technology stolen by Qadeer URENCO labs. and 38 .Subrahmanyam quotes Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam as being skeptical about Pakistani ability to actually produce a working nuclear bomb. For this reason Uranium needs to be enriched to get material that contains 90% or more of U235. Making a workable and reliable nuclear bomb requires further technology. by centrifuges Khan from the But making a nuclear bomb goes far beyond merely enriching Uranium. Subrahmanyam goes on to indicate similar skepticism of Pakistani ability in Indian scientific circles by saying (30): Their scepticism was based on their judgement that Pakistan did not have the critical mass of scientific and engineering talent necessary for the project. This is where Pakistan's role as a Cold War ally of the US and its role in helping China and the US get closer came in handy. U235 is needed for nuclear bombs but occurs in very small quantities mixed with U238. It is widely reported that China gave to Pakistan the complete design of a nuclear bomb that it had tested in 1964 (31). Indian analyst K. a rotating centrifugal dryer in a washing machine is a centrifuge that separates water from clothes and makes wet clothes much more dry. which can then be used for making a nuclear bomb. For example.
and its army chiefs of staff (chapter 13). If the Plutonium story is true. it lends credence to the theory that Pakistan may actually have tested a ready made Chinese nuclear device. Abdul Qadeer Khan stands discredited and accused of selling equipment and the plans for Uranium enrichment centrifuges to Libya. as well as from Libya and other sources. on the 28th of May 1998. in exchange for missiles from North Korea and great personal wealth for himself. The next week. It seems clear that Pakistan's entire nuclear weapons manufacturing program was based on a clandestine black-market of contacts with companies all over the world who produced components that could not be fashioned in Pakistan. the father of Pakistan's nuclear program. Since Pakistani bomb designs were Uranium based ones. there is no way Plutonium could have appeared. Iran and North Korea. It appears that this was done with the knowledge and tacit approval of the military government of Pakistan.a one week before the official Pakistani nuclear test an announcement was made at a G8 meeting that Pakistan had tested a nuclear device. It is said that the device failed to detonate. News reports indicate that Pakistan's nuclear program was based on a network of clandestine imports from a network of proliferators personally built up by Abdul Qadeer Khan. bomber 39 . Pakistan does not currently produce any fighter. Pakistan conducted a nuclear test in Chagai. After this there was a flurry of activity when Pakistani officials visited China. During this period mysterious news reports surfaced that Plutonium was detected in the atmosphere over Chagai in Pakistan (32). funded by unlimited financial support from the Pakistani government. Some experts believe that the device tested was a ready made device provided to Pakistan by China after the failure of an earlier test. At the time of writing this.
Current reports indicate that the trainers will be manufactured in China. Barely a third of Pakistan's population is literate. but Pakistan has continuously maintained. Even using a very low standard. such as Haiti and Rwanda. This pretence probably does Pakistan more harm than anyone else. The th st . Another trainer aircraft that Pakistan became involved in is a Chinese designed K-8 jet trainer. according to the most recent United Nations Development Program report. single engine. called the Saab Supporter in Sweden is assembled in Pakistan under the name Mushshak. possibly for domestic consumption that it is a leader in many technologies. On March 31 2002. in a list of 174 countries (33).or civilian aircraft and does not have a noteworthy aerospace research or design team. but the number of unemployed people in Pakistan is rising at more than twice 40 that rate 6% (34). two seater trainer aircraft from Sweden.4% per year. Pakistan's industrial sophistication today is arguably not much higher than that of Britain in the early 20th century. convinced by the exaggerated claims of their own countrymen have allowed their nation to lapse into a state of underdevelopment in which Pakistan is now being compared with the other countries at the bottom of the development ladder. The aircraft. and not in Pakistan. But in 1981 Pakistan imported the entire assembly line for the manufacture of a 1969 vintage Swedish designed. Furthermore A UNDP report in 2003 ranked Pakistan a low 138 . the State Department said in its most recent human rights report. a report in the The New York Times stated. Pakistani leaders. Pakistan's literacy rate ranks below that of countries like Haiti. Rwanda and Sudan. Pakistan's labor force is growing at the rate of 2.
one percent of the landowners own 26 percent of the land. fully integrating itself into every facet of the economy and draining state coffers with generous benefit plans for its officers. 37. according to a recent report by Pakistan's auditor general. One report (36) says only one million Pakistanis pay tax in a country of over 150 million people. regarding industries and poverty have been listed above. 36. Aid and loan money has been constantly misused for personal gain by the Pakistani army. mansions and luxury cars. The report warns that population is shifting from upper poverty bands to lower ones. showing a decline in their welfare level On February 5 2003. 40) Some of these problems. There is an extremely wealthy class of Pakistani at the top of the economic pyramid and this class includes Army Officers as well as feudal landowners some owning as much as 45.with 41 . population increased by 6 million people (4. In the Punjab province.. army run businesses and private enterprise due to rampant corruption at the highest places..Pakistan Human Condition report of 2003 says that between 1998-99 and 2000-01.corrupt military officers have siphoned off more than $1.2 billion in the last 10 years to purchase such amenities as land. A large number of reports speak of all the economic th problems that Pakistan has (35. But many other factors contribute to the decrepit state of the Pakistani economy. while the population of the poor during the period under review increased by 10 per cent.000 acres of land.46 per cent). the San Francisco Chronicle reported: Pakistan's powerful military has ruled the country for more than half of the nation's 56-year history.. 39. 38. The Karachi Stock Exchange has trading in only about 30 stocks .
which includes everything from underground banking to narcotics to the smuggling of consumer goods. 42 . The Exchange is run by a handful of crooked brokers and scams are rampant. Governing these people is a small elite of wealthy. and they help build up a picture of Pakistan as a country of predominantly poor people. while the lower ranks are the bodyguards to protect the powerful from both external enemies and opponents within Pakistan. corrupt and self-serving army officers and feudal lords who literally rule over their subjects like medieval kings.over 700 other stocks listed for tax advantages. says Muhammad Mansoor Ali. whose number is increasing by the year as the population rises. Estimates of the size of the country's black-market economy. one of Pakistan's leading economists. The same report goes on to say. "It is essentially a parallel economy. That ratio "is probably the most severe" of any country in the world. The population is kept busy with jihad. range up to 100% of the so-called formal sector." The number of such damning reports is enormous. while the rulers of Pakistan build up their personal fortunes and protect their lucre with an army whose upper ranks are like a Mughal court. being told that India is forever planning to attack Pakistan and kill all Muslims.
i. But groups of thousands or millions of people anywhere in the world. Pakistanis.Chapter 5 PAKISTANI PSYCHE . and in negotiation and reaching agreements. sorrow. Pakistan has been too low on the priority of sociologists and psychologists. For example. including Indian leaders and strategists have been content with describing Pakistanis as being “Just like us” . display the usual range of human behavioral patterns: joy. Another well known example of the consequences of an inability to understand cultural nuances comes from a transcript 43 of a telephone . The important role of saving face and avoiding shame is well recognised. A deep understanding of Japanese culture was required before international agreements could be reached with Japan on the issue of whaling and protection of endangered species of whales. pain and other emotions which are indistinguishable from anyone else on an individual level. like all other people. and must be taken into account in negotiation. communication between cultures becomes difficult if negotiators from different cultures cannot understand each others' behavior. because the behavior is very much like that of anyone else. Some cultures. just like Indians. it is worth recognizing minor differences because this knowledge has some value in understanding behavior. while most Indians. who live together in nations tend to develop certain unique patterns of behavior based on the stresses.e. experiences and history of their particular society. Sometimes these unique patterns of behavior are very difficult to recognise.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Very few studies exist on the subject of the mind of the Pakistani or the Pakistani psyche. anger. Even so. such as Japanese culture have been well studied (41).
But such patterns do exist. and it literally calls the shots But the subject of a specific and defined Pakistani mind has not gone unnoticed among Indian observers. and their importance must not be underestimated. "artificially nurtured memories of Muslim superiority and a subconscious desire to rectify the unfair arrangements of partition". At stake is its pride. but it cannot turn its back on a 55 year struggle. In his testimony to the United States' Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in January 2004 (43) Stephen Cohen. First. N. These are listed in a review of his book (44): Dixit identifies a series of Pakistani traits that refuse to live amicably with India. but King Hussein was unable to understand the nuances by which Nasser hinted that his forces were being defeated. That left Hussein. In the words of one Pakistani of pride was in officer. and Jordan unprepared for their defeat in the war subsequently (42). speaking on India-Pakistan relations quoted a Pakistani army officer saying how important the question Pakistani actions relating to India. The cultural need to avoid shame forced Nasser to state that his forces were fighting well against their enemy.conversation in Arabic between Egyptian President Gamel Abdel Nasser and King Hussein of Jordan when Egyptian forces were being defeated by Israeli forces in 1967. the army understands it cannot wrest Kashmir from India. Second. former Indian foreign secretary has spoken of the psychological hurdles that come in the way of Indian and Pakistani relations. Dixit. There are few studies of unique behavioral patterns among Pakistanis. J. a certain envy Pakistanis would not acknowledge openly about the 44 failure of their civil .
widespread belief in the Pakistani establishment and media circles that India is getting exhausted in Kashmir and would not be able to hold on to it for long (a presumption of Musharraf in Kargil). assumption by Pakistan of the role of protector and overseer of the welfare of Indian Muslims. and with 75 % of present day Pakistanis having been born after 1947. problems and priorities. that is separate from the old Indian identity. as was publicly declared by Foreign Minister Gauhar Ayub Khan at a press conference in Delhi. and most significantly. Of course. Seventh. Fifth. it can easily be observed that there are certain behavioral characteristics that can be called Purely Pakistani There is.society to solidify democratic and tolerant traditions in comparison to an India where khakis and bayonets follow popularly elected representatives. Pakistan will emerge as the strongest and most powerful political entity in South Asia". It is useful to be aware of this in dealing with Pakistan 45 . But after over 50 years of being a separate nation with different threat perceptions. "the unarticulated ambition and hope that if India broke up. could be exploited from forces across the border owing to their "socio-political schizophrenia" since partition. in 1947 and a few years after that it would have been perfectly valid and accurate to describe Pakistanis as being just like Indians. who in the words of Maulana Azad. irrational faith in the "profound capacity for commitment to jihad amongst the momin". avenging the military defeat of 1971. in effect a Pakistani psyche or a Pakistani mindset. Fourth. Eighth. confidence that Pakistan's nuclear weapons program is an instrumentality to further geopolitical objectives in Kashmir. which is a formal objective declared in the official oath-taking ceremony of every Pakistani officer-cadet when he graduates. Sixth. Third.
but careful observations of Pakistani statements and actions show that a sufficiently large proportion of Pakistanis. and this characteristic has been used to good effect by Pakistan over the years. leading to a degree of Arabization of behavior among devoutly Islamic people such as some Pakistanis who have actively sought to culture (see chapter 9). These similarities are striking. Hospitality and generosity: The characteristic of being extremely hospitable and generous to guests has stood Pakistanis and Pakistan in good stead. There are certainly some parallels in Pakistani behavior to Arab behavior described by Raphael Patai in his seminal book on The Arab Mind (42).as a nation and in predicting Pakistani responses to events. Certain statements and actions are repeated time and again. No single characteristic is unique to Pakistanis alone. display one or more of the following characteristics to make them recognizable as general guidelines to Pakistani psyche. reject their earlier Indian Certain types of behavior stand out among Pakistanis and are best demonstrated by studying examples of statements and actions by prominent Pakistani leaders and spokespersons. and the most likely explanation is the internalization of Arab culture in Islam. and a pattern can be seen in the way Pakistanis react to people and events. It would be wrong to assume that every Pakistani displays all the characteristics described here. An article in the American magazine. The Weekly Standard had this to say in its Nov 5 th 2001 edition: 46 . especially their leadership. No visitor to Pakistan goes away without being touched by this.
" A series of Western writers and prominent people have been hosted and feted in Pakistan. . One prominent example is the famous American pilot. Compared with their haughty Indian and chaotic Afghan neighbors. and often just plain wrong. As recently as June 2002. politics. Pakistani hospitality has charmed a large number of prominent writers to write positively about Pakistan. maintaining a reputation for the PAF that extended far beyond its real performance. Chuck Yeager. and more knowledgeable about the insider gossip of U. and have later served as honorary ambassadors for Pakistan in the Western media. As one congressional staffer. and some have gone as far as to make needlessly hostile and malicious references to India in their writings despite strong evidence that their words are misinformed at best..S. Yeager's words of praise of the Pakistan Air Force continued to be quoted. American diplomats and spooks often have a good deal of fun with their Westernized Pakistani counterparts. the Washington Post reported: It was mid afternoon Tuesday. warmer. the Indians are jerks. Eric Margolis and John Fricker. Pakistani VIPs are often wittier. Prominent among people who have written warm words for Pakistan are writers like Brian Cloughley. succinctly put it. who frequently visits south-central Asia. 47 and Anwar Mahmood.. who was a guest of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) and who later went on to write paeans about the PAF For many years after the PAF was comprehensively defeated in successive wars with India.the attractive character of elite Pakistani officials. "I like 'em.
he figured. dignity. in the form of an honour killing is often the sentence carried out on a woman who is thought to have shamed the family. There they are treated to hour-long military briefings. maintenance of honour often relates to women and doubts about fidelity or adultery.. It is often more important to maintain honour and avoid shame than anything else. Death. respect. Everything is permitted in order to safeguard the family or tribal honour.. displays of Indian mortar shells -.. pride..000 it will cost his ministry to rent the plane from Pakistan International Airlines. it's worth the $3.disgrace.Pakistan's information secretary.... David Pryce Jones has written (45) that the key to understanding some Islamic societies is to recognise the need for acquisition of honour.The Pakistani government. has ordered foreign embassies to expedite visas for journalists... eager to make its voice heard. tribal level in Pakistan. the Information Ministry has rented air-conditioned buses to carry journalists to the Line of Control.enforce identity and conformity of behaviour.if it keeps the reporters satisfied. complete with maps.and tea sandwiches served on trays by white-gloved soldiers. Honour and Dignity: The need to maintain honour and dignity is a fundamental pillar in the mind of the Pakistani. The powerful codes of shame and honour. cheating. 48 . and humiliation. You won't get such hospitality from the Indian army. lying. and the converse avoidance of shame. was on the phone discussing with an underling how to keep more than 100 foreign journalists happy for the rest of the week. and even murder. At a rural..Five times in the past month.
But honour and dignity play an equally important role among the richer and apparently liberated Pakistani elite rulers of Pakistan... Of course he wants to do this... Stephen Cohen's quote of a Pakistan army officer's words in this regard has already been alluded to at the beginning of this chapter." The need to maintain honour and avoid shame by Pakistani military commanders goes to the extent of suppressing any news of a defeat or setback suffered by the military. As the conflict evolved war broke out over a wide front and by the time a cease fire 49 . keeping intact the honour and dignity of the nation and the armed forces. A brief study of the way Pakistan's wars with India have been reported in Pakistan are illustrative of this. On 14th March 2003. The importance of honour is evident from the words used by US deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage after a meeting with the President of Pakistan. The need to maintain honour and avoid the perceived national shame of appearing weak in front of India has led to the sacrificing of all developmental effort towards arms purchases to pursue military parity with India. The 1965 war with India started with the infiltration of Pakistani special forces into Kashmir for sabotage and to incite acts of violence. while insisting that victory was always achieved. military leader of Pakistan said about Pakistan's nuclear weapons aspirations (47) "We only want the deterrence capability to preserve our honour and dignity.I would note that the conversations we had with President Musharraf made it very clear to me that he wants to do everything that he can to avoid war... General Musharraf. General Musharraf on the 6th of June 2002:(46) .
The Indian victory. the triumph of an East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) based political party in an election would have meant that a Bengali. and Pakistani General Ayub Khan's plans to take Srinagar were foiled. Not an Indian brigade had to be moved West. was born. Indian forces entered East Pakistan and defeated the Pakistani military and a new nation. In a humanitarian move. Indian forces were well within striking range of the Pakistani city of Lahore. The need to maintain honour and dignity is so important to the Pakistani. who commenced a genocide in East Pakistan. More than ninety thousand Pakistani soldiers were taken prisoner of war. Sheikh Mujibur Rehman would have become Prime Minister of Pakistan. This was disliked by the West Pakistani Punjabi dominated army of Pakistan. But the 1965 war has always been portrayed from the Pakistani side as a war in which attacking Indian forces were defeated.was declared both India and Pakistan had captured small areas of each other's territory. unparalleled since the German Blitzkrieg that overran Poland was described by historian Brigadier Shelford Bidwell (48) as follows: The operations of 1971 finally that the 'sword-arm' of old numerical inferiority. Significantly. with Indian troops in the towns on the outskirts of Lahore. Bangladesh. sweep effete Hindus and win another dispelled any vain dreams India could. Millions of refugees poured into India to escape this. In 1971. General Jagjit Singh Aurora's daring concentric attack on East Pakistan went forward uninterrupted and on 16 December he received the surrender of the Pakistani commander in Dacca. 50 . despite its aside the armies of the battle of Panipat outside the walls of Delhi. that any available fact may be either picked up or selectively forgotten in order to save face and maintain the pretence of victory.
. fighting had ceased in East Pakistan and that Indian troops had entered Dacca.The ignominious defeat of the Pakistan armed forces in 1971 and the formation of Bangladesh almost went unreported in Pakistan. By the time the withdrawal started the Indian forces had wiped out almost the entire Northern Light Infantry of the Pakistan army. It may even be a characteristic that can be used to predict Pakistani behavior or provoke desired responses from Pakistanis.when the battle began. Mistakes made by the Pakistan army in the war were never investigated or made public. the whole Northern Infantry was blown up and 2. An editorial in the Pakistani newspaper The Jang recalled the 1971 reports in Pakistan (49): So great was the ignorance and absence of principles in West Pakistan that the government of the day had the temerity to issue a disgraceful statement casually mentioning that "by agreement between local commanders. Nawaz Sharif. said in an interview to the Weekly Independent from his place of exile in Saudi Arabia.. The Kargil conflict of 1999 ended with the rapid withdrawal of Pakistani forces facing rout. The Pakistani need to maintain honour and dignity at the expense of truth is a fault that has done Pakistan no good. The death toll exceeds even that of the 51 . when used in a psy-ops role.700 soldiers were martyred and hundreds were injured. neither were the failures admitted or analysed. Some of the defeated Generals in that war even received gallantry awards and honours in later years." Pakistani children are not taught about the 1971 war. who was Prime Minister of Pakistan during this conflict.
1965 and 1971 full-scale wars. but it is difficult to imagine how the Pakistani army can learn critical lessons from a disastrous war if the sole aim of its officer class is the save face and maintain honour and dignity An explanation exists for the tendency of the Pakistani elite and officer class to protect each other's honour even after embarrassing or disastrous events. face has been saved and honour retained by the Pakistani army. But the only history that is acknowledged by Pakistan is that the Kargil conflict was a great victory for mujahideen who held the Indian army at bay. Biradari members who quarrel will try to resolve their differences before major social occasions so that the patrilineage can present a united front to the village. and yet do not explain how the Pakistan army withdrew from the conflict zone if they were not involved. the family obligations of Pakistani society to avoid shame creates the need for whitewashing military disasters and other mistakes. Pakistanis do not admit the involvement of their armed forces. (the biradari) are under pressure to maintain a picture of unity. The deeply Islamic fervor of the average Pakistani comes in handy here as all errors and defeats can be explained 52 . With the entire ruling apparatus of Pakistan under control of a small group of family units. It has been observed that Pakistan itself is ruled by a small group of between 22 and 43 families (4). A quote from the study says: There disunity means is considerable pressure for patrilineal kin to maintain good relations with one another. because dishonour. A study of Pakistani society and kinship patterns (50) notes that the household is the primary unit for kinship and the male descendants. In doing this.
It is possible that the Pakistani need to maintain honour and dignity and somehow appear equal or superior to India was understood and exploited by Indian leaders in 1998. If Pakistan had not tested. with international censure and sanctions. Pakistan did test a nuclear device of its own two weeks after India's tests and although there is some controversy about the real origin of the device tested by Pakistan. and put the spotlight on Pakistan. Rhetoric and Hyperbole: The Pakistani need for the maintenance of honour and avoidance of shame ideally involves and outright military 53 . breaking a 24 year self-imposed moratorium. it would have put India in a very tight situation.an explanation that most devout Pakistanis will accept without question. while Pakistan could have basked in the sympathy it would surely have got for having an aggressive nuclear neighbor in India. a spotlight that has only become brighter after the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks in the US.away as God's will . when India conducted a series of nuclear weapon tests. the test greatly diluted the international attention that India was getting after its tests. Pakistan need not have tested immediately after India's tests. The national sense of shame in being unable to publicly match India was so intense that Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif acknowledged that he would not survive unless he sanctioned nuclear tests by Pakistan. Even before the 1998 tests Pakistan was widely acknowledged to possess nuclear weapons. But the need to save Pakistani honour was too great after the Indian tests.
Every accusation is made to show that an adversary is cowardly. 54 . never as courageous and honourable. Only a total victory or a mediator leading to a solution on Pakistani terms can maintain honour enough to allow such hyperbole to die down. success involves bragging. shame and rhetoric (45): Honour makes life worth living whereas shame is a living death. Stemming directly from this rhetoric and hyperbole is the decades old campaign of misinformation that Pakistan has maintained about itself. The degree of misinformation is astonishing. the war needs to be continued verbally to avoid shame. Ballistic missiles imported from China and North Korea are repainted and given Pakistani names to be flaunted as missiles designed and manufactured in Pakistan. For example. although it often sounds hollow and unconvincing.victory. Shame and honour involve publicity. its wars and about India. Indian leaders are often referred to as scheming high caste Brahmins or Banias who are plotting to either dominate or eliminate people of all other religions and social groups. righteous and heading for victory. wars are never lost. Arms built under licence are always shown as indigenous. but easy to understand in the light of the deep Pakistani need to maintain honour and avoid shame. Such hyperbole seems to be necessary psychological support for the Pakistani mind. weak and untruthful. Indians are always depicted as being conniving and scheming. David Pryce Jones has described the connection between honour. When such victory is not possible or unlikely. its armed forces. The Indian armed forces are always referred to by Pakistan as being weak and dishonourable and always accused of raping and murdering civilians. and any defeats are temporary setbacks. with Pakistanis being courageous. and shame means public humiliation.
Brigadier Anjum (51.The interference of Indian army in East Pakistan was a well thought out conspiracy hatched by India and vociferously backed by the Soviet Union Many sources (53. Anjum's explanation of why reports of genocide by Pakistani troops are false is as follows: Senator Edward Kennedy. Brigadier Anjum 55 records his version of . 52). In a farcical and fanciful description Brigadier Anjum does not say a word about the 1971 elections in Pakistan that were won by the East Pakistani Awami league party. This was enough to disparage Pakistan Army Brigadier Anjum makes this record of India's role: India with a mission in hand to destroy Pakistan was first to demolish its basis.. 55) have documented the surrender of 90... The Indian intervention to stop the genocide by Pakistani troops is described in the following way: it was an act of military piracy at the highest level to destroy the professional propriety of soldiers who were on lawful duty. 54.An example of this tendency can be seen in a two part article on the events of 1971 that appeared in the online edition of the Pakistani paper the Jang as recently as 2004.addressed a press conference in New Delhi to say that he was convinced that Pakistan army had committed genocide in East Pakistan.000 Pakistani troops in East Pakistan at the end of the 1971 war. written by a former Pakistani army officer. having a pro-India prejudice .. and denies the well documented genocide of ethnic East Pakistani Bengalis by West Pakistani troops (chapter 11).
This calls for the introduction of a mediator or middleman. but it is honourable to agree to peace when mediated by a respected third party. the Pakistani assessment of Indian weakness has led to a situation in which Pakistan is faced with military defeat. Accepting that India and Indians may be in any way better than Pakistan is deeply dishonourable and shameful to the Pakistani.history as: The number of combatant soldiers out of the 90. and offering peace is a sign of cowardice and an unwillingness to fight. which avoids the need for defeat and dishonour. Courage and a willingness to fight are honourable. But to the Pakistani leadership.000 socalled prisoners of war was just over forty thousands. On every occasion. were civilians and their families. It is cowardly to call for peace directly. The feeling threatens the very existence of Pakistan and is a feeling that must avoided at all cost. the need to maintain honour and avoid shame requires that Pakistan must not sue for peace by directly negotiating with India. The need to appear superior to and better than India is fundamental for the Pakistani. an offer of peace by any party is considered as a sign of weakness. Any concessions that Pakistan is forced to make can be conveniently blamed on 56 . That is what justifies the formation and existence of Pakistan. Disputes and mediation: Pakistani leaders have initiated war against India mainly when they have assessed India as being weak. When faced with a situation in which Pakistan is the weaker party. The rest of PoWs mostly children.
But an India that appears to be showing weakness by talking about peace mystifies Pakistan by refusing third party mediation.the mediating party. the International community or any other third party rather than facing shame by negotiating for settlement directly with India. which must be met with threats and demands for concessions. because on the one hand India appears weak to them by asking for peace. but on the other hand India refuses third party mediation which a weak nation should 57 . Indian peace a sign of weakness. and are not seen as having lost their honour to the weaker party India. For India. the UN. when Pakistani forces were facing rout. Because talk of peace weakness. This confuses and angers the Pakistani leadership. the Pakistani Prime Minister Clinton remnants that it Nawaz Sharif demanded an audience with President of the US and then ordered withdrawal of the of the Pakistani forces to give the appearance was not a clear defeat. it is likely been misinterpreted by initiatives are seen as is considered to be a sign of that peace offers from India have Pakistani leaders. It does not matter if anyone else considers that Pakistan was defeated. This explains the tendency that Pakistani leaders have to call for third party mediation in settling a dispute between India and Pakistan by appealing to the US. The important need here is for Pakistani leaders to appear to be strong and retain their honour in front of their own people. weak or dishonoured as long as the Pakistani people see their leaders as having pulled off some kind of victory. In the Kargil conflict. but a respected third party's request from President Clinton of the US that made a triumphant Pakistan pull back from defeating India. third party mediation is unacceptable in what is essentially a bilateral dispute with Pakistan.
The Martial Mind: One of the enduring myths to have come out of Pakistan is that Pakistanis are somehow a martial race . with the courage and valor that such a military tradition suggests somehow enshrined in the Pakistani's genes. In 1857.accept with gratitude to save its own face. or against America after the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. That rebellion was eventually quelled by the British with troops mainly from the Punjab particularly Muslim troops from what is now the Pakistani 58 . It is possible that Pakistani leaders consider all agreements and treaties as temporary instruments to buy time.with military tradition in their blood. being General Ayub Khan who led Pakistan into the 1965 war with India had boasted that One Pakistani soldier is equal to six Indian soldiers The genesis of this attitude is interesting. soldiers of the British Indian army rose up in a rebellion in what is now known as the first war of Indian Independence. In support of this plan General Musharraf used the analogy of the charter of Madina and the treaty of Hudaibiya signed by the Prophet Mohammad in his September 19 th 2001 speech (56). President General Musharraf explained to his people in a speech in Urdu that his aligning with the US would be a temporary alliance with the devil. One more factor that must be taken into account in negotiation with Pakistan is that Pakistan may fail to honour prior agreements as it has done with the UN resolutions and the subsequent Simla agreement of 1972 with India. When faced with the stark choice of being with America.
as proved in 1965 war and felt that somehow. somehow superior by virtue of its being composed of martial races. The British gradually began to refer to these groups as martial races. Pakistani military adventurism has been guided by a firm belief in the innate racial superiority of the Pakistani soldier and supported by a belief that Pakistan and Pakistanis are somehow performing Allah's will and 59 .the Pakistani GHQ placed entire reliance on the Superior Valour and Martial Qualities of the Pakistani (Punjabi and Pathan Muslim soldier) vis a vis the Hindu Indian soldier. Amin goes on to write: The Pakistani nation had been fed on propaganda about martial superiority of their army. by recruiting mainly Muslim Punjabi troops and Pashtun troops from the North Western parts of preindependence India. These troops were subsequently in the thick of all the campaigns that Imperial Britain was fighting. Retired Pakistani army Major Agha Humayun Amin wrote about the Pakistani army feeling of martial superiority (57): The "Martial Races Theory" in reality was an Imperial gimmick to boost the ego of the cannon fodder. Maj. Pakistan the nation was formed with the belief that its army was. After this event. which are now part of Pakistan.. assisted by Pashtun troops. from the beginning. in the next war to miracles would occur and the Pakistan Army would do well Hard as it may be for a rational thinking person to believe. Various British writers like Philip Mason frankly admitted that the real reason for selective recruitment was political reliability in crisis situations.Punjab.. the British greatly changed the composition of the Indian army forces. which the Punjabis had exhibited during the 1857-58 Bengal Army rebellion.
which now enter the zone of grandiose ideas and selfrighteousness. fair-complexioned and eat wheat. Their self-esteem is unshakable to the extent that no factor is allowed to get in the way of identifying themselves as superior and excellent. recalls having been taught as a child that West Pakistanis are tall. A good self-image can be a useful personality attribute if it is not carried to extreme lengths in which all others are considered inferior. herself a Sindhi. Hamid Hussain wrote of Pakistani military officers' selfimage in Pakistan's defence journal (58): these military officers also have dangerously self- exaggerated opinion of their capacities both in terms of defence of the country's frontiers and their ability as an organized body to fix all problems of the society. while East Pakistanis (Bengalis) are short.that God would therefore be on their side no matter how preposterous or ill advised the action. Major Amin writes(57): 60 . Positive Self-image: One remarkable feature noticeable among Pakistanis. The East Pakistanis were held in contempt by West Pakistanis. Benazir Bhutto. especially Punjabi Pakistanis is an extremely good and positive self-image of themselves and their people. Unfortunately that has occurred among Pakistan's elite. dark-complexioned and eat rice. pride and constant struggle to excel professionally are essential elements of a good officer's corps. The problem starts when these positive traits are stretched to unrealistic limits. Confidence in one's abilities. to the detriment of Pakistan. Former Prime Minister of Pakistan.
If Bengali Muslim East Pakistanis were considered racially inferior by West Pakistanis. The results of the election were annulled and martial law was clamped in East Pakistan. Amin writes. This contempt with which West Pakistanis viewed their own countrymen contributed to the secession of East Pakistan and the formation of few elections held in thumping majority to based political party Bangladesh in 1971. dark and non-martial Bengalis could not face the idea of being ruled by an inferior Bengali as Prime Minister. In one of the Pakistan. A subsequent genocide of over three million East Pakistanis led to the Indian military intervention in East Pakistan.The Bengalis were despised as non martial by all West Pakistanis. But the Punjabi generals of the Pakistani army.. the 1971 elections gave a the Awami League. the taller native. and the liberation of Bangladesh. This feeling was a carry over from the pre-Independence days when the British relied on the martial race for their army recruits.the generals were convinced that the Bengali was too meek to ever challenge the martial Punjabi or Pathan Muslim. Maj. If the results of these elections had been carried through to their logical conclusion. an East Pakistan headed by a Bengali. who considered themselves superior to the short. To Kiplings contemporaries. Sheikh Mujibur Rehman. ugly” Hindustani Indians. it is not surprising to note that Pakistanis have considered themselves racially superior to the “dark. the better man he was likely to be and fairer a A visible symbol of the contempt with which Indians are taught to be regarded in Pakistan can be seen from some 61 . Mujibur Rehman and his party should have formed the government of Pakistan in Islamabad.
Pakistani textbooks for small children to learn the Urdu alphabet. and that India. the US or the world owe Pakistan a lot more that it is getting. or already given more than necessary and that the onus is on the other party to pay Pakistan sacrifices made. Even today. but in the Pakistani context it is a derogatory term for a nonMuslim. in the 21st century it is possible to visit Pakistani chat-rooms and discussion fora on the Internet to find references to Indians as short. At every step. Pakistan is always portrayed as being just. Pakistan is said to have already done. Arab scholar Raphael Patai. or does not have any bearing on behavior. dark. ugly. in his seminal work on Arab psyche (42) lists a few characteristics of Arab personality that arise from Islamic beliefs. Children's alphabet books carry the word kafir as an example of a word that starts with the Urdu equivalent of the letter k.which is often the picture of a Hindu of a Sikh. The word kafir means unbeliever. Stemming from the self-image of the Pakistani is his sense of entitlement. fair and sacrificing. Associated with the word is a picture of a kafir . Spokespersons for Pakistan never tire of pointing out that Pakistan is not getting its due. back for services rendered and Islamic overlay in Pakistani behavior: The obvious question is “Why would anyone's religion make his behavior different or peculiar?” It is better to answer the question than ignore it and assume that religion has. 62 . weak or cowardly. From the profound application of Islamic beliefs among Pakistanis.
the belief that all events are predestined or decided beforehand by God and cannot be avoided or changed in any way. The average citizen's life may be lived in poverty in someone's service because that is what God has willed for him and attempting to change that would be against the will of God. Development requires effort and the belief in predestiny rules that conditions of feudal well for change and and events that the Pakistani experiences in life are ordained by 63 . but stem from Arabic and Persian respectively. Patai quotes this Islamic belief as the requirement that Man has no choice but to go through the course of events. with evidence of the same in their behavior. local lord. either to hasten or otherwise influence events. Not even in everyday life can a man do anything. and that he will be rewarded for his piety in an afterlife with an assured place in a well-stocked heaven. For this reason. but does not augur development. These beliefs are referred to in the words kismat and naseeb that occur in Urdu. which have been written down for him in God's Book to the smallest detail. One powerful Islamic belief is that of predestiny. the average Pakistani is unlikely to revolt against his lot in life. poor uneducated Pakistani believes that his life is pre-ordained by Allah to be the way it is. or religious leader tells him to do. so long as it does not go against his Islamic conscience. The average.it seems that the same characteristics can be seen among Pakistanis. or even to try to fight to make it better. The docility of the average Pakistani in day-to-day life is probably beneficial to the stability Pakistani society. He will do what his feudal master.
Allah to be as they are tampered with in any way. there can be virtually no hope of achieving a sea-change in the internal situation of Pakistan. as is quite likely. to die in action. Unless there is a fundamental and deep rooted effort within Pakistan to change the relationship of the Pakistani with his religion. and any subsequent violence he takes part in would ensure for him a respected place in his society as an Islamic warrior. Such a life is tempting because it meets all his human and psychological requirements. 64 . and must not be changed or Such beliefs also make the average Pakistani male citizen a prime candidate for motivation into leading a life as an Islamic warrior. or ensure a place in heaven if he were. He is well looked after during the indoctrination and training period. and the external consequences of that. a relationship deliberately cultivated by the Pakistani elite for their own ends.
For example. The importance of this fact lies in that many studies show that poverty. while a powerful clergy rejects all notions of equality and freedom for women. higher in societies Pakistani women's rights activist Ameera Javeria. The state of Pakistani women has a powerful bearing on the condition of Pakistan. Hindus and Christians. rape. Lack of awareness about their rights and their need for education has added to their predicament. That a strong feudal elite still rules the roost in the vast countryside is a major impediment to enlightenment and democracy.Chapter 6 WOMEN AND MINORITIES OF PAKISTAN With 108 men for every 100 women in Pakistan (59). Ahmedis. Those women who rebel by asserting their rightful place in society are punished and considered immoral. malnutrition and child labor are where the women are uneducated. and murder. the women of Pakistan could probably be called a minority. to be counted along with other minorities of Pakistan such as Shia Muslims. Another report (50) on Pakistani society says this about women: A woman's life is difficult during the early years of 65 . two out of three women in Pakistan are uneducated. Most Islamic communities are averse to the idea of giving women social status equal to that of men. in an article entitled To be a woman in Pakistan is to ask for a life of subservience (60) wrote: Pakistani women continue to be victims of an unjust society rooted in history and tradition. many have been the victims of domestic violence.
or Daughter in front of other adult and small members of the family. Sons will bring wives for her to supervise and provide for her in her old age. to be given away in an expensive marriage with their virginity intact. education of girls has a low priority in Pakistan. Particularly egregious is the Hudood ordinance .. A report on family violence in Pakistani society (61) says: (sic)The Male dominant society of Pakistan with strong sense of complete " Mastery " feel's pride to Dictate his terms of Physical and Mental Torture to his Wife. The woman of the family is considered fundamental to maintaining the honour of the family group..A wife gains status and power as she bears sons. and failure to do this can lead to dishonour a crime punishable by death. A gender bias toward boys is clear from this description. A woman must be chaste and subservient to the man. An explanation of how this law is applied can be seen in the following quote (62): 66 . Therefore. honour killings in which a father or a brother kill a woman for having dishonoured the family are common in Pakistan.marriage. mothers favor their sons. Daughters are a liability. Among some groups it is believed that education of girls leads to immorality. she is subservient to her mother-inlaw and must negotiate relations with her sisters-inlaw.a law that is in effect in Pakistan. One of the purposes of the Hudood ordinance is apparently to discourage extramarital sex.. Sister. With girls being a liability to be given away after marriage. A young bride has very little status in her husband's household.
Since the passage of the Hudood Ordinance in 1979 under the military government of Zia al Haq, "zina" or extramarital intercourse, has been considered a crime against the state in Pakistan...this law often prescribes cruel and devastating punishments, such as whipping or stoning the individual(s) in question, and explicitly discriminates against women...the Hudood Ordinance has legally blurred the distinction between rape and extramarital sex, resulting in the imprisonment and/or physical punishment of numerous women who have come forward with charges of rape without witnesses. Consequently, many rape victims are deemed criminals in a Pakistani court of law. Pakistan is stuck in a vicious circle in which the elite corner all the resources, leaving little for education of the poor. And among this class the women are the worst off, uneducated and discriminated; and this leads to further poverty and degradation in society. No force in Pakistan seems change this. to have the wisdom, will or power to
Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan is said to have had a vision for Pakistan in which people of all religions in Pakistan would co-exist. In his 11th August 1947 speech to the constituent assembly of Pakistan, Jinnah said (63): You may belong to any religion or caste or creed - that has nothing to do with the business of the state ... in the course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the state."
A few months vision:
We have many non-Muslims-Hindus, Christians and Parsis ... but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan." But Jinnah's vision for Pakistan died with Jinnah. Pakistan's record in the treatment of its religious minorities is shameful and unapologetic. In his landmark paper (64), possibly the first scientific statistical analysis of the question of ethnic cleansing in Pakistan, researcher Sridhar notes: ..almost 89% of the minorities in West Pakistan were ethnically cleansed, i.e. killed, converted or driven out of the country. Almost 54% of the minority population ended up as refugees in India, while a very high 35% of the minority population is simply unaccounted for. These are people who were likely killed or converted into Islam. Population researcher P.H. Reddy has noted that at the time of formation of Pakistan, there were over 20 million non-Muslims in the areas that formed Pakistan mostly Hindus. After the migration of partition, approximately 7 million non-Muslims remained in what is now making up approximately ten per cent of the West Pakistan. In the years since Pakistan's population has more than doubled West Pakistan population of independence, to nearly 150
million, but only three per cent, or 4.5 million people are non Muslims in modern day Pakistan. About half of that number are Hindus and the other half are Christian. In simple terms, in 56 years 68 since independence the
population of Muslims in Pakistan went up from about 60 million to 145 million, while the population of nonMuslims fell from 7 million to 4.5 million. Hindus formed the largest minority in Pakistan at independence and their number has reduced to around 1.5 million.
In November 2002, the Times of India (65) quoted Noor Naz Agha, a prominent Pakistani lawyer and rights activist as saying: Minorities are not safe in Pakistan. Recently, several attacks have been made on churches, hospitals, even on human rights organisations. And several people have been killed," The treatment of religious minorities in Pakistan leaves a lot to be desired. The problem stems from an attitude that Pakistan is for Sunni Muslims alone, and people of other religions, and even Shia Muslims are to be looked upon with contempt. The discrimination extends to derogatory references to non-Islamic people in school textbooks, as noted in chapter 3. M.H. Aksari, writing in the Pakistani paper Dawn (66) said, The former Indian foreign secretary, J.N. Dixit,
recalling his days as ambassador in Islamabad says that once when he called on a Pakistani friend, the latter's six-year old daughter on discovering that Dixit was a Hindu skipped around the table chanting 'Hindu Kutta', 'Hindu Kutta.' Hindu Kutta means Hindu Dog. But it is not Hindus alone who are discriminated against in Pakistan. Over the years the Pakistan army leadership 69 has encouraged a
particularly intolerant thrive in Pakistan. subjected to terrorist the Ahmediya sect have
Islamic mindset to prevail and Shia Muslims in Pakistan are attacts and discrimination, and been declared as non-Muslims in
Pakistan for their beliefs. Pakistan is busy changing Islam to suit the needs of a small elite. The role of the Pakistani army leaders in this is clear from a report that was carried in the November 2003 (67). Ziaul Haq actively encouraged this paper Dawn in
fervour...Ziaul Haq's advice led to widespread religious riots ... Many people, mostly Shias, were killed and their houses burnt. The local administration did little to control the situation. A foreign diplomat, who happened to be travelling by road from Skardu to Islamabad a couple of days after all this started, told me that he saw houses en-route burning and that the route provided a spectacle of war and destruction. There is a movement in Pakistan to have Shias declared non-Muslim. Following a massacre of Shia Muslims in a Pakistani mosque on the Islamic holy day of Moharram in 2004, senior analyst B. Raman hostility in Pakistan (68): wrote about anti-Shia
The last years of the Zia regime saw the Shias of Gilgit come out with a demand for a separate Shia State consisting of Gilgit and the Shia majority areas of Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). They wanted the Shia state to be called the Karakoram Province and remain part of regime crushed the 1988, the Pakistan force from the NWFP a confederation of Pakistan. The Zia Shia movement ruthlessly. In August Army inducted a large Sunni tribal and the Federally-Administered Tribal
Areas (FATA), led by Osama bin Laden, into Gilgit and it 70
have consistently fought and opposed anyone and everyone. foreign nations as well as their own people. The only things that have been preserved intact and untouched in Pakistan are the power and wealth of the elite of the army. a few businessmen and the feudal lords and their allies. but civilian as well. mostly military. the preachers of a narrow brand of Sunni Islam.massacred hundreds of Shias and crushed their revolt. The hatred of the Shias for Osama bin Laden and his Al Qaeda dates from this period. Successive governments in Pakistan. who are responsible for a rising tide of Islamic fundamentalism. 71 .
Indians are fond of saying “Pakistanis are just like us” but one will find that Pakistanis do not tend to say “Indians are just like us”. The Weekly Standard reported in October 2001 (69): Created on August 15. so a Muslim "Land of the Pure"--the literal meaning of Pakistan--was essential to protect and nurture the faithful. Before India was partitioned in 1947. was worse. it was realised by these real or perceived descendants of Mughals that in a democratic India. It is a geographic expression of an ageold Islamic ideal: Muslims should not.Chapter 7 PARTITION AND THE TWO-NATION THEORY When Indians and Pakistanis meet. Living under the far more numerous Hindus. live under non-Muslim rule. it was intolerable. The demand for a separate nation was a natural extension of this Mughal mindset.. whom the Muslim Mogul dynasty had dominated for centuries before the arrival of the English. some of the Muslim elite in India. When the British were set to leave India.. Gandhi's Indian democracy was going to be Hindu. For the English-educated Muslim elite. if at all possible. primarily Muslim provinces of British India. Pakistan isn't really a nation-state. who were later to go to Pakistan. This group of individuals formed a migrant nation. Living under the all-mighty British was unpleasant for many. 1947. one is struck by their similarity. from the northern. Being different from Indians is a fundamental requirement that defines the Pakistani. 72 . considered themselves the descendants of the Mughals who had ruled vast tracts of India. they would not automatically regain control of the lands they had lost to the British.
calculated to preserve imagined privileges. which is what distinguished them from Hindus. May be they would be punished for former uppishness and for real or imagined wrongs. But Pakistan was not formed merely by people with this Mughal mindset.reservations and separate electorate. two traits: first. The second was to depend on a ruling or hegemonic power to get them their due. The end of the Caliphate was a symbolic blow to Muslims who has grown up to look at the Islamic empire 73 . Others' refusal to accept Muslims demands. and certainly in pre-independence India attempted to go back to their Islamic roots. originally low- caste Hindus. Another root of partition lay with the defeat of the Turkish Caliphate by the British in 1918. Their religious exhibitionism and a superiority complex led to emphases on differences with Hindus and regarding themselves as rulers' kith and kin deserving privileges and safeguards -. When that occurred. angered them and an adversarial attitude vis-a-vis Hindus developed. and encouraged education in Islamic schools. and strengthened. especially in Northern India. Muslims thus demanded weightage . not to accept democracy's implications. They feared being falling down into the vast assimilative sea of Hindudom surrounding them wherein they will be at the bottom of social heap.the leitmotif of preindependence Indian Muslim politics. These came from. especially the equality with Hindus. That explained their demonstrative adherence to Islam. affected a superiority complex. Muslims all over the world.actually equality of treatment with Hindus . madrassas. One of the consequences was that they discouraged their children from attending secular schools.MB Naqvi wrote in the Jang of Pakistan (70): Historically the majority of Muslims.
The word Caliph means deputy in Arabic. when Islamic empire. Muslim existence was deemed a kind of permanent emergency (dar-ul-harb) and migration was considered an option in the defiance of British raj. although he by no means controlled even a fraction of that empire. the poet who composed the popular Indian patriotic song Saare Jahaan se achcha. Hindustan hamara later paradoxically endorsed the need for a separate nation for Muslims (72): 74 . The Caliph was the symbolic head of this empire. and the first Caliph had been appointed by the Prophet Mohammad. Southern Europe to the North and Central Asia. staying in India would be tantamount to living under subjugation in the dar ul harb. The concept probably dates back to the early years there was a central but rapidly expanding around which were lands with non-Muslims with the followers of the new religion. Inherent in the concept of dar ul harb was that Islam.as extending from Arabia in the center to North Africa in the West. a completely unacceptable situation. of Islam. The demand for a separate state for Muslims only was a logical extension of this thought process. India and South East Asia to the East. and the end of the Caliphate was the end of a long line of Caliphs that extended from antiquity. who were at war For Muslims who could not have their way with separate representation in pre-independence India. Allama Iqbal. A concept in Islam speaks of a dar ul Islam. and Muslims would always be under threat in the dar ul harb. consisting of unbelievers people who were not followers of Islam. The Friday Times had this to say (71): In India. a house of Islam .a house or a group of followers of Islam. and a dar ul harb or house of war.
This theory is popularly known as two-nation theory. A third factor that contributed to the formation of Pakistan was the political power aspiration of Mohammad Ali Jinnah who saw in the formation of the new nation of Pakistan a ready made constituency of Muslims. in less than a decade gave birth to Pakistan The man who is most credited as an intellectual force behind the two-nation theory and a front against united Indian nationalism is Maulana Abul Ala Maududi. Another key player in the call for Pakistan was Maulana Maududi. Under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Pakistanis have. as eloquently documented by Rajiv Malhotra. With Islam. and that is the nation of non-Muslims! In other words.Allama Iqbal asserted that there is only one nation opposed to the Muslim Umma. right from the 75 . in addition to power and glory for himself and the new nation. the logic that prevailed was that Muslims require segregation of political and social life in order to be in compliance with the demands of sharia. and Islamic reasons being the basis for the formation of Pakistan. was (74): Without any concrete 'dispute' between Hindus and Muslims. the Muslims and Non-Muslims.. The result. the ideological founder of Pakistan (73): (The) Pakistan Movement was based on the theory that Muslims are entirely separate people from Hindus in every respect. the world is divided into two camps. the movement.. The TwoNation Theory was a manifestation of the doctrine of darul-islam versus dar-ul-harb.
Not much thought was put into whether a state based on religion alone would be able to survive. Pakistan would not be like India. A nation in decline. including some such as the Jamaat-i-Islami who did not favor the formation of Pakistan. Pakistan would be progressive. honour and dignity. unbelievers. In civilizational terms. It was a victory of Islam over the British and the Hindus. the splitting up of British India into modern India and Pakistan can be compared to an act of auto-amputation. For the new Pakistanis India was a land of kafirs. Pakistan. Pakistan was supposed to be a homeland for Muslims of India and its formation was pushed through by the groups who wanted it. satisfaction. When studied over centuries. Although the purpose of this book is to present a study of Pakistan after partition. over the wishes of other groups. It was not Indian. And Pakistan would claim to represent the Muslims who had stayed behind in India. and as opposed to being citizens of the nation. With Jinnah as leader the heady success of nation formation in 1947 was enough. it would not be out of place to mention briefly the civilizational effect that partition had on India. been taught to regard themselves as Muslims first and foremost. This is a condition in which a live human body spontaneously discards and casts off a dead or diseased part. Pakistan would represent Islam itself it would be a leading light of Islam in the world. discrimination. It was Islamic. The fact of being Pakistani brought with it a liberal dose of pride. Pakistan had come into existence. It was a land of superstition.beginning. hunger and poverty. strong and Islamic. such as a 76 . It was the first Islamic state to be created in the modern era ab initio. civilizations can often be seen to behave like live beings.
and more to live away from some group or the other. The actual act of partition was accompanied by horrifying suffering and death. The vast majority India.a civilizational auto-amputation. For India partition was akin to that . after the painful events of partition. stayed. and those who wanted to stay. partition was not so much an act of separation of all Hindus from all Muslims. with the formation of Bangladesh. continued in Pakistan. 77 . In one convulsive act. this tumultuous self-mutilating act was a profoundly democratic one. They saw themselves as Muslims. but it merely segregated a sub-group of Indians who did not want to co-exist with other Indians. but after five decades the memories of the pain are beginning to fade. of Indians rooted for India and worked for Pakistanis did not see things that way. and and all the people who did not wish to live and work in India were placed in Pakistan.toe or a fingertip so that the body itself can survive and not be affected by the disease that damaged the toe or finger. It is easier for these younger Indians to see that for India. Pakistan had filled itself with people whose intent was less to live and work in harmony. the people of the Indian subcontinent agreed to place all the people who wanted to live and work in a united India in one place. The initial fragmentation and breaking that occurred at partition. and Pakistani leaders assumed that the Muslims remaining in India would automatically rise up and revolt. and that India would fragment and break. more than two-thirds of the population of India having been after 1947. Strange as it may sound. in which those who wanted to opt out of India were allowed to opt out. They were wrong.
India and Indians were continuously and bitterly accused of being anti-Pakistan and anti-Muslim. The fact that East Pakistani Bengalis were Muslim did not help to stop the West Pakistani disdain for the short. even when caused by internal politics and mismanagement was blamed on India.a phobia against the scheming Hindu who was out to subjugate or kill all Muslims. and while Pakistanis struggled to meet the 78 . with its people. fair. wheat eating Pakistani Punjabi. The mohajirs. and any setback to Pakistan. dark. That would have been totally unacceptable to the Pakistani Punjabi. This complex web of factors kept Pakistanis from uniting with each other but the Islam argument was used for unity. as opposed to the tall. The 15 million mohajirs who migrated to Pakistan from India were not welcomed. the Bengalis. There were contradictions at every turn. But they were educated and held all the important bureaucratic posts. Any threat. The possibility of democracy in Pakistan brought with it the threat of a short. dark. The mohajirs found that their survival in Pakistan would be made easier by creating and maintaining an India scare .It was only after the formation of Pakistan that all the assumptions made about Islam as a unifying concept began to break down. East Pakistan. It was drummed into ordinary Pakistanis that they must be good Muslims. rice-eating Bengali becoming Prime Minister of Pakistan. the Muslim elite of India who had migrated to Pakistan were in an ideal position to concoct any stories they wished about the bestial Hindus they had left behind. fish and rice-eating Bengali. Punjabis made up 90% of the Pakistani army. and the army had no intention of seeing its Punjabi dominance being subordinate to the inferior Bengali. Apart from the mohajirs was the other half of Pakistan.
The Pakistani citizen is judged by whether he is a good Muslim or not. it was to be guided constantly by rules. Naipaul describes travels through Pakistan. Among the Believers(75). the ruling elite lived as they pleased. And Pakistanis believed that this was all that was needed. and records interviews with a diverse group of Pakistanis. It would now provide for that nation. 79 . Nobel Prize winning author V. In his book. It was only necessary for everyone to be a good Muslim. To be a devout Muslim was always to have distinctive things to do. Every act or event in Pakistan has to be seen through the prism of whether it is Islamic or not.S. A repeated observation that comes out is that the ordinary Pakistani citizen is under pressure to be a good Muslim. One of the problems that crops up from this is the definition of “Who is a good Muslim?”. and everything else would look after itself. After all Islam had given them a nation.standards set for them. it was to live in a fever of the faith and always to be aware of the distinctiveness of the faith. Naipaul says.
out of a total of 435 districts in undivided India. for decades behaved as Pakistan was Islam and Islam was Pakistan. La ilaha illallah". This is a shameful piece of fiction that needs to be set right. Pakistan was formed for some. and not all Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. Demographer P.meaning there is no God but God and attaches those words to Pakistan to make the meaning What does Pakistan mean there is no God but God . Pakistan was unable to grab and hold Islam as though Islam and Pakistan were one and the same. (76). But this charade could only last a few years before the fallacies began to show. the Muslim League as the Flag of Islam and had said you cannot separate the Muslim League from Islam.implying that Pakistan and Islam are one and the same. A very popular slogan in Pakistan was. Based on 80 . it could perhaps be said that Islam was too big for Pakistan to keep as its private domain. Reddy noted in the Times of India on 8th April 2003 (77): According to the 1941 census. the founder of Pakistan had the flag of his political party. The slogan combines a few words taken from the the Islamic call to prayer La ilaha illallah .H.Chapter 8 ISLAM AND PAKISTAN In the end. Pakistani leaders. To be though before called sure. It is endlessly and erroneously repeated that Pakistan was formed for the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. "Pakistan ka matlab kya. Even independence. there were 76 in which more than 50 per cent of the people were Muslims. Jinnah.
Over the centuries Islam reached a balance with the cultures of the people who adopted Islam. literature". preIslamic Egyptian civilization of Pharaohs who built the Pyramids. Western Pakistan comprised the north-west part of the sub-continent and Eastern Pakistan comprised eastern part of Bengal and one district in Assam. social customs.this demographic fact.54 crore. Egyptians live in peace with their past. cultural. The 76 Muslim-majority districts were grouped together in two clusters. Muslims numbered 3. making up 9. "to develop to the fullest our spiritual. The formation of Pakistan sought to deny this vibrant entity." "We wish our people". different heroes and different episodes. An entire literature and culture of Islam developed in Persia... (with) different epics. which was born in Arabia. that they "derive their inspiration from different sources of history".In 1951.. the Sir Cyril Radcliffe's Boundary Commission allotted these 76 districts to Pakistan..9 per cent of the total population of India. and do not seek to deny the ancient. using the Persian language. Arab culture had existed in Arabia for centuries before Islam was born. Similarly Islam developed and flowered in India with its own unique literature. "to two different civilizations". and Arab culture adopted and internalized Islam. One cluster was in north-west India and the other in north-east India. arts and architecture produced by an intermingling of two rich cultures. social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals 81 and according to the . Jinnah exploited a cleavage in Indian society to proclaim: Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies. he declared. economic. Islam spread peacefully into Indonesia and was absorbed and rationalized by the local culture.
The India connection had to be stripped clean. Pakistan was deliberately set on the path of being an orphan. They will enjoy same rights and privileges as any other citizens. In an experimental and unparalleled act of ignorance. Christians. Pakistan was not Arabic... But there were inconsistencies and contradictions right from the beginning and the confusion has remained to this day. for Muslims alone. The formation of Pakistan was considered a great victory. and good Muslims. it was not Indonesian.. it was not Egyptian or Persian. but it was definitely not going to be Indian any more.. and the You are of Parsis . Islamic. are free. you are free to go to your temples.but they are all Pakistanis.we have a nation for Muslims only? But why did many non-Muslims - Hindus. The only thing people knew was that Pakistanis would have to be Islamic.genius of our people. free from India or any Indian roots. culture-less nation. But the leaders of the new Pakistan who took over after Jinnah died in 1948. certainly felt that Pakistan should be stripped of all its connections with India.. you free to go to your mosques or to any other places worship in this State of Pakistan.a culture of centuries was to be washed clean." Perhaps Jinnah did not mean to strip Pakistan of the rich culture that Islam had developed in its centuries of interaction in India (78). and nobody had any idea of what would replace the void.You will find that in 82 . leaving Pakistan purely Islamic. Was Pakistan Jinnah say: . Indian culture had to be actively cleaned out of the minds of millions of Pakistani citizens .
in their confusion as to what Pakistan was and what it should do. nobody could question 83 . the lever that is used in Pakistan to justify served as a tool to be or to deflect blame misdeeds. As long as Islam anything. People who are not Islamic. And like a man whose arms and legs are being pulled apart by horses moving in different directions. and that the modern nation-states are a creation of that period in history when Muslims were defeated and dominated by kufr. ended up trying to make Pakistan take all the routes that it could possibly take simultaneously. and social and ethnic Pakistan have all headed in different resulting in the chaos that Pakistan is Pakistani leaders claimed that they. groups of directions. and represented Islam. today. (79) (kufr refers to unbelievers i.. an example for Islamic nations to follow as the leader of the ummah. were purely Islamic. Islam has used when convenient. to get aid. Pakistan had failed at birth. For Pakistan. Islam was and still remains the ultimate excuse. (76) Was Pakistan a nation for all Muslims be Hindus and of the Indian subcontinent? If so.) Pakistani leaders.course of time Hindus would cease to Muslims would cease to be Muslims. or to accuse an adversary of Pakistani leaders hid behind the excuse for their actions. Was Pakistan the leader of all Islamic nations. a modern day Caliphate? But if that was the case Pakistan should not have had any boundaries. as the majority of Muslims chose to remain in India. That is indeed what some Pakistani Islamists believe: Muslims all over the world must realize that nationalism is kufr. parts of Pakistan. and Pakistan.e.
was providing funds and arms via the US. the people of Pakistan could be kept busy. and that took priority over everything else in Pakistan. corruption could not be criticized by anyone. After all. And in this manner. the number one threat to Pakistan. from waging wars. They had to starve. aid and funds poured into Pakistan in the early years as part of US aid to Pakistan as a cold war ally. its leaders set about using Islam to divert Indian territory of all problems. instead of consolidating and unifying the new state of Pakistan. who had given Pakistan to the faithful. Pakistan was Islamic. India did not dare question Pakistani claims no matter how preposterous or obscene they were. and therefore anything that Pakistan did. because Pakistan was Islamic. If Pakistan obtained military and economic aid from the US. The threat from India became the common denominator for all Pakistani actions. attention to India. Any criticism of Pakistan was criticism of Islam. democracy or common sense. it was because Islam was naturally anticommunist. India would be defeated. Pakistanis had failed the faith. Pakistan could do no wrong. As long as the money kept coming in. India could be fought and opposed. But as repeated Pakistani assaults against India failed. India was the source the enemy of Pakistan.them. Allah (God). so that Islam could be upheld against India. sacrifice and allow their army to get stronger. avoiding elections. there was no pressure to change policy. and to meddle with and Indian Muslims. They were not Islamic enough they had to strive to be better Muslims. genocide. enemy of Islam. be it development. and therefore the The India problem had to be solved. And conveniently. Money and the economy were not a problem. Opposing Pakistan was anti-Islamic. for postponing elections and for postponing development of Pakistan indefinitely. Islam could not fail. and 84 . and elections postponed.
migrants from India. 85 ... holding all the important government posts. Mohammad Waseem wrote: Muslim migrants from East Punjab and further East in India shaped the psyche of the new nation along feelings of insecurity at the hands of India.the migrant elite. No method was ruled out. 1952 the historic Bengali language movement erupted spontaneously all over East Bengal. no sacrifice could be too great in opposing India. In his essay on the role of the power structure in Pakistan (80). commitment to Islamic ideology and the need to unite against all odds. Islam gradually became the tool.. The Islam card was used by everybody in Pakistan to suit their own purpose... Muslims in Kashmir. Foolishly our ruling elite. The Pakistani elite. and later all the Muslims in India would be rescued from Hindu tyranny by Pakistan. because opposing India meant devotion to Islamic ideals. A report in Pakistan's Friday Times (81) carried this scathing message on the role of the migrant elite in using Islam: On Feb 21.therefore to Islam.. Elections were a threat that had to be postponed or canceled and an imaginary threat to Islam was invoked.dreaded the prospects of their exit from power in the event of elections.it remained a major potential challenge. thought they could isolate the Bengali nationalists by raising religious slogans of Islamic ideology and Islamic identity to counter Bengali anger. saw their positions threatened by the prospect of elections which would unseat them in favor of locals. instead of going some way to meet Bengali demands. the prop. used in Pakistan to make every opinion or move.
A. so as to fight in accordance with the Koran. Columnist Hamid Husain has this to say about Islamization of the Pakistan army (58): Brigadier Gulzar Ahmad explaining the role of celestial powers to lessen his troop casualties in 1965 war stated. Finally. and they supported every measure to make Islam the basis of the existence of all Pakistanis.General Mahmud Ahmad during Pakistani ambassador's conference reprimanded the ambassadors for not relying on the intercession of Providence while analyzing Pakistan's Afghan policy. Rajiv being introduced into Pakistani military training. Another compelling reason to be very cautious about overuse of religion is to avoid seeping of sectarian tendencies into the armed forces. anything less than an Islamic state in Pakistan was a threat. for the mullahs (Islamic scholars) of Pakistan. Middle ranking officers must take courses and examinations on Islam. the army started seeing Islam in more and more of its actions.. There are even serious attempts under way to define an Islamic military doctrine. Hussain wrote (82): 86 . After 1971 Zia-ul-Haq started a campaign of Islamization of the Pakistani army. 'There was a hidden hand deflecting the rounds'. as distinct from the international military doctrines.The army of Pakistan was initially subservient to the government. and strengthened the process of Islamization of Pakistan started by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. whom Zia Malhotra wrote (74): Islamic texts are had deposed in a coup. Pluralism or Western-style democracy was incompatible with the mullah's world view. Only in an Islamic state could mullahs be influential and prominent. M. And as Islam was stirred into the mindset of the Pakistani army.
. but making it reality was easier said than done. Maulavi. When the Prophet Mohammad died in AD 632.Imam. he left behind a tradition. Everything should have fallen in place. .. Every group in Pakistan needed Islam only for their narrow self interest. It explains why even those Ulamas and Maulavis (like Moulana Maudoodi). which remains to this day the blueprint for a genuinely Islamic society. The desire for an ideal Islamic state has been described as follows (83): The quest for it reflects the desire to model Muslim politics on the original Islamic community in Medina. Mozin. With everyone in Pakistan.have a vested interest in establishing an Islamic state where they are locus of power and have tremendous scope for employment.But trying to replicate the Medinese polity remains an ideal. who had opposed Jinnah. went to Pakistan as they saw no role in India for themselves. the army and the mullahs seemingly being in agreement with each other on the question of the Islamic status of Pakistan. In the absence of such guidelines. Mo-alim. but there were no written guidelines on how a state should be run. But that did not happen. the people. and gone without a hitch. there really should have been no problem. the bureaucracy and government... Islamic people often ended up being controlled by the nearest strongman. No Muslim polity has measured up to the combination of piety and social justice achieved by the Medinese community. The men 87 who controlled the sword. The Ideal Islamic state existed at the time of the Prophet Mohammad. etc. The idea of an Islamic state seemed noble enough.
. (a non-profit multinational organization resolving conflict) the introduction following quote (85): committed to carries the The Muslim state in India was a theocracy. Succession of leadership among Islamic people has been a bone of contention ever since that time. And Pakistan is no exception. and he did not leave behind a specific political system or designate a successor.by the soldiers.. wrote (The Prophet) Muhammad's prophetic mantle was not inherited by his successors. In a report on the relationship of the mullahs and the military in Pakistan by the International Crisis Group. but there were no formal criteria for determining the community's leadership or judging its legitimacy.. But in practice the Muslim sultan of India was a perfect autocrat and his word was law. Tamara (84): Sonn... a Professor of religious studies.the military ruler taking absolute control over Islamic people had already existed in Mughal India.. The real source of the sultan's authority was military strength. the poets and the ulema of the age.In theory the sultan's authority in religious matters was limited by the holy law of the Qu'raan and no sultan could clearly divorce religion from politics.controlled the ulema (scholars) and the people. The precedent of the strongman . and this was understood and acquiesced in. the Prophet's successors were expected to be personally pious and to behave according to the guidance left by the Prophet. 88 and was implemented and .In general.
it had to be invented. Gradually the non-Muslim minorities of Pakistan were squeezed out (chapter 6) They had no role in Islamic Pakistan.perpetuated in Pakistan. After all Pakistan was formed for Islam. East Pakistanis their minds poisoned by India according to some West Pakistani commentators. Anything that Pakistan did was done in the name of Islam. at the moment. would solve all of Pakistan's problems. More and more Islamic laws had to be passed and implemented. And it was all done in the name of Islam. to uphold Islam and represent Islam. such as the politicians. Islamic fervor. The sharia. zakat. could only supply the simple negatives that answered emotional needs: no alcohol. Faith. Other forces in Pakistan who wanted power and influence. bureaucrats and the ulema used the army. and put and end to the people's misery. no feminine immodesty. It was done. and the Hudood ordinance were brought in. This blow to Pakistan was explained on the basis of Pakistan not being Islamic enough.S Naipaul in his believers”(75) Islamic has been book “Among the This Islamic state couldn't simply be decreed. it was implied. The effort to make Pakistan purely described by V. liked it. always Islamic and they compelled their people to be more and more Islamic. no interest in the banks. The Pakistan army was invited to take power. Pakistani leaders were always right. revolted. But soon in 89 . and held on to power. or reached some accommodation with the army. It was to be assumed by all who were watching that Pakistan itself was the embodiment of Islam. seceded and formed Bangladesh (chapter 11). Criticism of Pakistan was criticism of Islam. and in that invention faith was of little help. Pakistani leaders claimed.
for Islam. no law courts. Pure Islam was for the hoi-polloi. So existing institutions were deemed to be unIslamic and undermined or undone. They took charge of the madrassas with gusto and preached with fervor.. However. brought up with fervor of any in a madrassa. but the external violence of the Generals and their games of military domination. liberal lifestyle conveyed the impression of a progressive society to Western aid givers. Jihad against the enemies of Islam. was ready to die for a cause. The burgeoning of madrassas and ensured that they would have jobs and influence. the army got weapons. and in the vacuum only the army could rule. Pakistanis were urged to do jihad . the faith was asserted because only the faith seemed to be whole. The rich got money. The elite stayed rich. the army. In order to be good Muslims. Men were needed to fight India.Pakistan these negatives were to be added to: no political parties. no dissent. ensured the delivery number of men to fight for Pakistan. self correcting jihad of the Koran.not the internal. Pakistan's alliance with the U. ready to embrace 90 . The mullahs of Pakistan were doubly happy. Men were needed to fight the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. the serfs and underlings. More and more Pakistanis were needed to fight Pakistan's wars. and the army became richer. secure and happy in their newly funded madrassas. Each Islamic jihadi. The army brass. no parliament.S. ensured that foreign aid poured in and the economy of the wealthy in Pakistan boomed. getting richer. needed men to do their fighting. the rulers and influential people of Pakistan did not have to be all that Islamic. while the poor of Pakistan got madrassas (Islamic schools) to ensure that they became more Islamic. They preached jihad. and the mullahs. and their modern.
it was to be the first truly Islamic state since the days of the Prophet and his close companions 91 . aiding the Generals' wars. where every action was instinct with worship men lost sight of the political origins of their state.Extraordinary claims began to be made for Pakistan: it was founded as the land of the pure. and more powerful.the people who trained them and sent them to die the army and the mullahs. it could only be because men had failed the faith. And in that quest of the Islamic absolute the society of believers. In a remarkably prescient passage Naipaul observes (75). The Islam of Pakistan's mullahs.and accept the guaranteed benefits of dying in jihad in an afterlife to be enjoyed in a well-stocked heaven. their families accepting that the death of their son would bring glory and honour. preaching an Islam that would keep the mullahs comfortable in this life. Rich generals doing office jobs while men from the poor classes with little to live for were trained. the faith Islam. or the faith flawed. If the state failed it wasn't because the dream was flawed.. but faith didn't. And as these men prepared for and died fighting for the cause that they had been told was Islamic . As the institutions of Pakistan failed in this unique and unorthodox concept of a nation. The state had been founded as a homeland for Muslims. while their wards and students were encouraged to seek the pleasures of an afterlife. grew stronger. The state withered. This glorious scene became Pakistan's version of Islam. indoctrinated and prepared for death. in league with lazy Generals. got fatter.. obtainable only by violence and death. Failure only led back to the faith.
Pakistan had undone the rule of law it had inherited from the British. Muslim clerics. out of its Islamic striving. To be Pakistani was to be a good Muslim. was created by Muslims for Muslims. Every Pakistani had to strive to be a good Muslim.S.’ upholding the faith and protecting Pakistan. and replaced it with nothing 92 . the mullahs and the ulema were necessarily allowed to exercise spiritual control over the Pakistani masses to ensure that Pakistan remained adequately and properly Islamic in all arenas. which presented itself as the savior. Co-opting the Pakistani citizen under the Islam banner eminently served the interests of the rich and corrupt elite of Pakistan in maintaining their grip and preserving their business and territorial interests. In his characteristically astute manner V. Naipaul concludes (75): Step by step. Pakistan. And the Pakistani state died. India had been held in check only by God and the Pakistani army.The average Pakistani citizen was coerced or co-opted by putting Islam first. it was stressed. It was drummed in that this was necessary because India was always there to swallow up Pakistan. ‘the army of Islam.
Chapter 9 ATTITUDES TOWARDS INDIA AND INDIANS Career diplomat-turned-politician Mani Shankar Aiyer served as India's first Consul General in Karachi. They hated the foreigners and they hated the Hindus. The predominant Pakistani attitude toward India is hatred. So the country of Pakistan was built on hate and nothing else. They had a double hate. the Muslims of India woke up. The birth. Aiyer says that the best definition for Pakistani is “One who is not Indian”. and he has published his collected writings on Pakistan in a book entitled Pakistan Papers (86). and go on further to define themselves as pure Muslims. Pakistan itself means “Land of the Pure” and Pakistani identity has been sought to be defined on the basis that Pakistan is a land of pure Muslims. But Mani Shankar Aiyer has recognised a gradual change of attitudes to India 93 . In their effort to ensure that Pakistanis are not Indian. (75) Naipaul quotes the words of a man story of this quarter of this everything that describing Pakistan. and encouraged the replacement of that culture by an invented Islamic culture. In the first century the Hindus of India decided that was wrong had to do with foreigners and foreign influence. I will tell you the country in two sentences. This experiment is unique in the world. No other nation has attempted to so totally reject its existing culture while retaining only the faith or religion. In his book. Pakistani authorities have done everything in their power to discourage any Pakistani from displaying cultural traits that are seen as Indian in character. Among the Believers. and survival of Pakistan required the rejection of all that was Indian. Pakistanis define their identity as being non-Indian. Then in the second quarter.
Aiyer continues: From 1947 to 1971 the general belief (in Pakistan) was: 'hans hans ke liya tha Pakistan.. or ten or whatever number of Kafirs was widely believed. as a great victory. till 1971 he looked back on what happened . Dislike and distrust of India became an industry in Pakistan. while Pakistan split up and tottered. which evolved from simple 94 . Like life itself. Up until 1971 it was hate and contempt. Columnist Hamid Hussain describes the Pakistani army officer corps' attitude toward Indians prior to the 1965 war (58): The general despise (sic) of Hindus and doubting their capacity of able (sic) to give a good fight was almost universal Over the years. Pakistani attitudes have changed to hate and fear. perhaps hours. it was put about and accepted implicitly that in a matter of days.among Pakistanis. And hatred of India grew. the flag of Islam would be imparted on the ramparts of the Red Fort. India struggled but improved.all but the most blind Pakistani today looks back on what happened to his country in 1971 at the hands of India as a great defeat.. but after 1971. Aiyer writes (86): . lad lad ke lengey Hindustan' We got Pakistan with a triumphant smile We fill fight and take Hindustan (India) Myths about a single Muslim soldier being the equal of four.
based on assumed religious superiority. In an article written for Pinnacle magazine (87).one-celled organisms into a multitude of life forms. This was a source of resentment to many elite Pakistanis who had left everything in India to be in Pakistan. elephants. tigers. For others. The cup of Pakistani hatred brims over and India. Pakistanis evolved a plethora of reasons to hate India. insects and men. in the Pakistani mindset. India was the enemy. Pakistan existed because Muslims would be suppressed in India. with active hatred being taught in Pakistani schools as described in Chapter 3. The act of partition at independence left Pakistanis with a small moth-eaten nation. to be fought. Raychaudhuri sums up Pakistani attitudes to India: This shattering of the psychological indoctrination. is the cause of their 95 . makes it difficult for the Pakistanis to accept the reality of India's intrinsic superiority in size and economy. India who caused the trauma of of India was the reason defeating India for this reason was a hateful nation of people partition. The fact that in 1965 and also in Kargil it was the Moslems of India who alerted the country is too insulting to believe. Hatred and mistrust for the creation of Pakistan. defeated and brought to its knees. grow and metamorphose into a multitude of reasons and justifications. For these people nothing would be better than exacting revenge for their lost lives. a national obsession in Pakistan. It was worth alone. Brig. huge Banyan trees. and opposition to India was the reason for Pakistan's birth. Hatred for India and Indians has been made into a national purpose. hatred of India was nurtured to evolve. fragrant flowers.
• Developing Pakistan-specific nuclear and conventional arsenal. to make them good Muslims. and the merciless killing of thousands of innocent Kashmiris by the Indian occupation forces. • Constant efforts to destabilize Pakistan through its agents. Pakistan could not develop because of India.000 or 70. Furthermore. hatred and fear of India had to grow stronger. who are always at work to create disgruntlement in Pakistan's smaller provinces. India had to be hated to keep Pakistanis in line. because India was there to subjugate or kill all Muslims. a retired Colonel of the Pakistan Army wrote the following accusations against India (88): There is a long list of other hostile Indian actions against Pakistan.000 or whatever number of people in Kashmir. 96 . some of which are: • Indian usurpation of Jammu and Kashmir. the continued occupation of that state against the will of its people. Pakistanis were poor because of Indian aggression. As recently as December 2003. hatred of India was needed as the justification for the wealth of the Pakistan army. thus forcing this country to enter into a suicidal arms race with the consequent irreparable damage to its economy. to make them more Islamic. and Islamic fervor had to be increased to oppose India. • Conducting terrorist activities in various parts of Pakistan to exploit ethnic and religious differences. Pakistanis had to be good Muslims to survive.nation('s) deprivations. just like India was accused of killing or raping 30. they had to give up Indianness.. And as India grew stronger. and for the health of army businesses surviving on state handouts.
Persian.. so be it. Ahmad Quraish wrote in the Pakistani paper the Nation (89): .from the perigee of wanting to occupy and subjugate parts of India... others try to urge Pakistan to virtually move out of the Indian subcontinent into Central Asia or even the Middle East. If this requires drafting new books on Pakistan studies. Expecting an enemy with such a criminal record to change its heart overnight and become friendly toward us is nothing but inanity.ministries must.instead of the Rupee.• Keep bullying Pakistan by concentrating Indian armed forces on its borders and on the Line of Control in Kashmir on trumped up grounds. by adopting either the Riyal or the Dinar. Turkic and Central Asian . • Changing the name of Pakistan's national monetary unit . which has exclusive Indian connotations.deemphasize Pakistan's inclusion in South Asia and play up Pakistan's role in Central and West Asia.the following steps are necessary: • Political: Pakistan's..the Arab.. even denying 97 . And while some Pakistanis have reacted to India with this degree of hatred and suspicion. to the apogee of wiping out memories of India. having previously imposed three wars on Pakistan.. • Educational: The other major facets of Pakistan's identity . and these must be compulsory reading for Pakistani students It is both ludicrous and sad to see Pakistani loathing for India covering the full spectrum . • Cultural: Islamabad's cultural cooperation with West Asian and Central Asian countries must be revitalized...must be emphasized in our schoolbooks..
98 .Pakistan's links with India and claiming imagined links with Central and West Asia. And all this while Indian children are taught to recognise Pakistanis as just like us.
and there is no group in Pakistan or among Pakistan's neighbors that the Pakistani army has not fought. being admired by most of Pakistan. guns. How the Pakistani army changed from a regular army into this Hydra-headed monster has an interesting history. generals. terrorism. Calling the Pakistan army by that name is akin to describing a 30-course meal as a light snack. the Pakistani army started off as a regular army. and has diversified into more ventures than most armies in the world could dream of doing. the Pakistani army leads a charmed existence. There is almost no activity in Pakistan that the army is not involved in doing. fighting by proxy. Time and time again. tanks and valor. Because of their loyalty and docility under British leadership. lucre and self preservation. business. with soldiers. greed. which included a large number of Punjabi Muslims from the area that was to later become Pakistan. But its tentacles have spread into politics. industry. it is an army with a nation Of course. one can find people who have made the quote: Pakistan is not a nation with an army. It has been noted in an earlier chapter (Chapter 5) that due to historic reasons dating from the 1857 war of Indian independence. But yet. deception. crime. and from many sources.Chapter 10 THE PAKISTANI ARMY: POWER AND GLORY IN THE FAMILY The word Army for the Pakistan army is a pitifully inadequate description for an organization that does vastly more. the British increasingly recruited people from the Northwest of undivided India. although that has begun to change recently. antagonised or disagreed with. religion. these troops began to be known as hailing from a martial race 99 . power.
so the personnel in these army units served both as protectors of the civilians as well as sufferers as their villages partition. Thus the Pakistani army was dominated by Punjabis. • Pakistani army units from Punjab were tasked with the protection of civilians in the post-partition violence. The military also actually owned a lot of land because of the policy of settling retired soldiers by gifting land. • Punjab was the most populous province of Pakistan.(57). especially a deep hatred for India. but had political clout as well as political opinions. several other unique observations can be made about the Pakistani province of Punjab (West Punjab) at the time of independence and partition(80). Apart from the predominance of Muslim Punjabis in the Pakistani army. the military in Pakistan was not merely the military. • As part of the settlement of retired army personnel. • 70% of the voters in Pakistani Punjab had some connection with the military • Punjab itself was partitioned so a lot of army personnel had relatives or friends in Punjab who were affected by the events of partition. who began to see themselves as being of a superior martial race. The Punjabi dominated army 100 also considered itself a . For these reasons. • Pakistani Punjab was militarized because of the large number of Punjabis in the military. or families were affected during • Punjabi units were also utilised in Pakistan's unsuccessful attack to wrest Kashmir from India in 1947. vast tracts of land in West Punjab had been awarded to them.
might actually end up ruling all of Pakistan. The army. and the Hindu Indians. The areas that constituted West Pakistan were largely rural. But there was an additional factor that led to the induction of the Pakistani army into the role of absolute rulers of Pakistan. considered an inferior race. who stood to lose their lands and influence. And democracy also brought with it the danger that the more numerous Bengalis. These people suddenly had a nation to lead. It was also inconvenient for the feudal lords in Pakistan. legal experts. Pakistan . there were not many educated local people to make up the bureaucrats. engineers and technocrats that were required in the government of the new Pakistan. and for Islam. a new nation. and the rule of Pakistan to a Bengali party from faraway East Pakistan. They were not about to fritter away that victory by allowing power to pass into the hands of the more numerous uneducated locals in democratic elections. After all. All these tendencies were present or had set in shortly after independence in 1947. having been tasked to protect Pakistanis during partition began to consider itself as the protector and savior of Islam. the reason these migrants had left India was precisely because they privileges. and apart from the Punjabi dominated Army. Democracy was feared democracy attenuating their inconvenient for the ruling elite of Pakistan. largely mohajirs and Punjabis. in the same way as they would later refuse to hand over power. Besides 101 .one of the biggest countries on earth. It was a victory for them.martial race with superior fighting and leadership qualities compared to the East Bengalis (East Pakistanis) who were considered effeminate. These posts were filled by the educated elite migrants from British India.
the migrant elite faced some resistance from the locals in West Pakistan. the army nevertheless had shared power with the elite in Pakistan for nearly a decade before that. and stopped being a junior partner to the civil bureaucracy in government. (Governor- General Iskander) Mirza. And Pakistani army officially came into power. Elections were constantly the civilian authority used the Army to until the first bloodless military coup although that was the first year that the postponed and stay in power of 1958. Ayub ousted Mirza and imposed martial law in October 1958 The military coup by Gen Ayub Khan was a watershed of sorts as it marked the first step by the Pakistani military to gain and retain control of Pakistan. No President had power to dismiss used it liberally.the the Prime Minister and democracy but civil bureaucrats military as junior partner. A report from the International Crisis Group (53) has this to say: In the first decade of Independence. general Mohammad Ayub Khan. In the period from 1958 to 1971 the Pakistan Army gradually consolidated its hold on power in Pakistan. who had to give up space and resources to the migrants from India.these facts... The ruling elite of Pakistan therefore had a deep vested interest in not handing power to the people of Pakistan. and to Islam itself.ruled in league with Army Chief.. from their huge neighbor India. Pakistan was nominally a parliamentary ruled the state with the elections were held . And what better way to do that than to declare a threat to Pakistan. It seems virtually certain that no single individual in the Pakistani 102 army could have been a . Dispensing even with the pretence of democracy.
rather than power handed down from a single supremo. In this environment. a preferred choice. The Pakistani army is like a close-knit fraternity. finances or honour are not harmed. that protects its own from harm and disrepute.strongman without the connivance and cooperation of the Punjabi and feudal lord dominated military brass of the Pakistani army. been 103 . The International Crisis Group's paper on democracy in Pakistan (53) refers to the Pakistani Army's role in this period as follows: Fearing that its defeat would translate into popular demands for accountability. and General Yahya Khan. a biradari. however. It is a cooperative system. during and after 1965 when he launched and lost a war with India. who oversaw the splitting away of East Pakistan and the formation of Bangladesh after the worst defeat that the Pakistani armed forces have ever faced replaced him. while ensuring that its interests. a family or brotherhood. thus.. undesirable individuals or rewarding others is. The Army replaced Ayub Khan when it was sensed that popular opposition to Ayub Khan would harm the Army’s interests. the (army) high command transferred power to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.The military's defeat in the 1971 war with India had. Pakistani (90): security analyst Ayesha Siddiqa-Agha writes It is important to note that Pakistan's armed forces especially the army operates like a fraternity. be they power. Sidelining discreetly Ayub exercised total control of Pakistan before. severe punishments to individuals or extraordinary treatment of a similar nature are viewed as undermining the morale of the institution.
Military leaders quickly recouped losses and closed ranks against perceived civilian threats to their personal and institutional interests It is clear that even as early as 1971 the Pakistan Army had enough of a vested interest in retaining power in Pakistan to pretend to hand over power to a civilian government in order to maintain the reputation and interests of the Pakistan army from public scrutiny and accountability. The army ensures that its officer class live in great style and luxury. It is informative to look at the perquisites.limited to East Pakistan. the Hamoodur Rehman report was never made public until a copy was obtained and published by the Times of India. But the Pakistani army has always grabbed power from elected governments or prevented democracy from actually being established.. One of the fanciest clubs in Karachi is the Defense Housing Authority County and Golf Club.000 prisoners of war in India.. All military governments in Pakistan. including the one currently headed by General Musharraf have grabbed power to save Pakistan and bring in a sound democratic system. its infrastructure in the West was untouched. Despite 93. a sparkling new facility 104 . In fact a damning report on the actions and defeat of the Pakistani army in the 1971 war. businesses and non-military interests of the Pakistan army that are so keenly protected and preserved. A report in the Washington Post in 2002 (91) described army life in the following words: The officer class in Pakistan has always had a strong sense of entitlement stemming from its dominant role in defending the country and in running it. and have prevented all attempts to check the finances or power of the military in any way.
. jewelry stores. A gated community protected by paramilitary troops.. The Independent of London described the contrast between a Pakistani army establishment and the rest of Pakistan (92): 105 . according to the club's fee schedule The same paper goes on to say: the military also rewards its senior officers by allowing them to purchase agricultural and urban land from the army's vast inventory of real estate at prices far below market value. Active-duty military personnel can join the club for an initiation fee of $16. Nearby are clothing boutiques. is the blandly named Army Housing Scheme II. a two-story driving range and a gracious stone clubhouse overlooking an inlet of the Arabian Sea..with lush fairways. the development consists of spacious. physics and biology labs would not seem out of place in an American suburb There are an enormous number of news media reports of the money and businesses that the Pakistani army controls..166 for civilians. the Washington Post goes on to compare that with a Pakistani army run school: Geared toward preparation for the competitive O Level exams required by British universities. restaurants and a yoga studio Describing the decrepit and run-down state of most schools in Pakistan.One of Pakistan's most coveted addresses. for example. compared with $9. the handsome school is an educational showpiece whose computer.in the upscale Karachi suburb of Clifton. Mediterranean-style villas grouped around a playground and an elaborately landscaped Japanese-style garden.
.. newly painted cannons and battalion flags. No other career. Why should anyone living here want a return to corrupt democracy? A report in the online edition of the Pakistani newspaper Dawn said (93): The perks don't end here: military personnel are entitled to a 50 per cent discount on air and rail fares as well as cinema tickets. but in Pakistan the army has a country. and serving and retired officers are routinely inducted into civilian jobs. Afghan refugees and Pakistan's urban poor root through garbage tips and crowd on to soot-pumping buses to work in sweatshops and brick factories. Defense expenditures consume between onethird and one-half of the national budget. In recent decades. senior military officers have been transformed into powerful landlords through grants of choice agricultural lands and real estate. Inside..Outside in the street. The Pakistan Weekly reported (94): .in relation to country's per capita income Pakistani senior military officers are one of the best paid in the world. Retired officers head 106 . behind the ancient. Where does the money for all this come from? A report in the Daily Times of Pakistan in August 2002 says. rose bushes surround welltended lawns and officers' messes decorated with polished brass fittings. with equivalent academic qualifications and so little productivity produces comparable personal affluence as that of the officer cadre of the Pak military. No rubbish litters this perfect world of discipline. Their children have a quota at most public universities. All countries have armies..
The excuse for the high defence expenditure has been the external threat from India. but the army ensures great personal wealth for its serving and retired personnel especially those of the higher ranks. Ayesha-Siddiqa Agha describes 107 why the businesses were . and those seen as cooperative people who toe the line. Shaheen Sehbai wrote in the Weekly Independent in 2002 (95). if not most. public corporations. security analyst Dr. 2001: Pakistan reported on Sunday As a % of GDP. at 4. Part of the army's wealth is from the extremely high defence budget that Pakistan has maintained for decades. This garrison economy is increasingly unsustainable. un-audited For this report and other reports on the activities of the Pakistani army. Shaheen Sehbai. former editor of the English language daily the News was threatened by the army and forced to flee Pakistan and live in exile (96). For decades almost 35 to 40 per cent of Pakistan's and no- revenues have been going into questions-asked defence budget. from among the poorest of countries . It also controls a huge business empire. The high defence budget is not the only source of income for the luxury loving Pakistani army. In her study of the Pakistan military's economic activities.many. spends the highest on defence.4% of GDP.. Pakistan. September 09. at the expense of all other expenditure and all other groups in Pakistan. The News International. as Pakistan's poor multiply and the economy falters.
started in the first place (90). to 9. The Pakistani army's business enterprises were started for the welfare of retired personnel. cement. the Army Welfare Trust. and the senior employees make fat salary packets. banking. aviation. Siddiqa-Agha. Initially only the army had its businesses. plastics. fertilizer.the military's business empire in Pakistan was created to guarantee welfare of retired and serving personnel. cereal and corn. stud farms. commercial complexes. 152 million in 1970. shoes. The Army Welfare Trust has 26 projects including farms. but they survive on government subsidies and grants.. wool. the Shaheen Foundation and the Bahria Foundation. cement factories. The four key armed-forces run business organizations in Pakistan are The Fauji Foundation. insurance and security with many bearing the name Aksari. The Fauji foundation's assets have grown from Pakistani Rs. and employs 6 to 7 thousand military personnel. The Fauji Foundation's businesses include sugar mills. safe from accountability and questions. mostly in middle and upper management positions. pharmaceuticals. They are not necessarily profitable. competition is scared off by military threats. Natural gas. hosiery. It was a pattern inherited from the pre-independence days. Later these two branches started off their own businesses. fish farms.800 million according to Dr. rice and sugar mills. and the vast enterprise has grown to gargantuan proportions. power and education and healthcare. travel agencies. with a small quota for the Air Force and Navy. . Aksari aviation was set up merely to accommodate retired army helicopter pilots who could not get a job in the 108 .
But they are normal and routine for the Pakistani armed forces. cargo. a travel agency. Not too long ago.000-acre dairy. Not to be outdone. salvage and even a university. Banking. During my days at the village. milk use to come from the nearby Okara Military Farms. insurance. to start its own venture. dredging. There is no nation in the world whose armed forces are involved in as many non-military business ventures as the Pakistan armed forces. the Pakistan air force established the Shaheen foundation which is now involved in air transportation. the Bahria Foundation in 1981. meat and grain-producing project. insurance. The Bahria Foundation deals in commercial complexes. trading. the Pakistani armed forces have diversified into fields well outside the mandate of an armed force. FM That left Pakistan's smallest force. deep sea fishing. airport services. knitwear and commercial complexes. construction. The only sugar that I ever liked was either from the four Fauji Sugar Mills or Army Welfare Sugar Mills. Like a core business that has diversified. my wife wanted to build a house. the 17. ship breaking.private sector. the navy. Dr. The only wrapping that Fauji Cereal ever uses comes from Fauji Poly Propylene Products. commercial complexes and radio stations are ventures that do not obviously appear to be an essential part of the armed forces of any nation and would not be justifiable in any other nation on earth. a freelance Pakistani columnist wrote in the Pakistani daily Jang (97): Fauji Cereal has been part of my daily breakfast for as long as I can remember. radio. paints. Farrukh Saleem. 109 I didn't want to be . pay TV.
In her study of the Army's businesses. Over the years the interests have narrowed down from the greater benefit of the institution to the personal welfare of the generals. The army also operates what is called the National Logistic Cell (NLC) which is a trucking and transportation giant in Pakistan. corruption and self-interest. The only cement I will use is Fauji Cement. the ventures were started not based on any feasibility study but on the whims of the top management to accommodate certain highranking officers. A feature peculiar to a number of cases is. and are preserved by intimidation 110 that scares away . The paint for my house must come from no one but Bahria Paints. Fauji Jordan Company. The web page of the NLC describes its army connection euphemistically as a unique logistic based Public Sector Organisation which has [a] blend of corporate culture and Army's discipline. The businesses run by the Pakistani armed forces are marked by inefficiency. Fauji also owns and operates Fauji Corn Complex. Fauji Fertilizer Company. the military run businesses of Pakistan are above all accountability. Dr. FONGAS. and the defence ministry manned by retired military officers. Fauji Oil Terminal Company Project and Mari Gas Company.anywhere but in one of the six Askari Housing Schemes. (98) With the military in government. Siddiqa-Agha makes a scathing indictment(90): Ayesha The top management of the armed forces jealously guard their interests. employing thousands of serving and retired army personnel. I wish I was right next to Fauji Kabirwala Power Company because I hate the power that Wapda comes out with.
An online report in the Crescent International revealed a list of Pakistani billionaires and millionaires with accounts in Swiss banks. Which wealthy army general living in the lap of luxury would want to give up his good life for the hardship and travails of war? Besides. Such lists exist all over Punjab and Sindh where a new breed of landlords has already been created through similar allotments.This conversion of generals into landlords also explains why no serious effort has been made by the military to introduce land reforms in the country. which could cure many political and social imbalances in the Pakistani society. and there is evidence of corruption. you find out they are inefficient... With this degree of money." Siddiqa-Agha said. Corruption in running these businesses has been noted by Siddiqa-Agha and others (96): "When you dig into them. heart of Punjab. "There is also evidence of corruption linked to monopolization of government contracts.. In another report in August 2002. the Pakistan army's main problem shifts away from the defence of Pakistan to the defence of their own wealth and power.competitors or people who try to question their activities. the South Asia Tribune reported (99): . "to defend it from the enemy. Nearly half the billionaires were from the army or close relatives of senior army personnel. wealth and power.a list of over 100 armed forces men who allotted to themselves at least 400 or more acres of prime land in Bahawalpur. The list is only of one District." at the throw away rate of Rs 380 per acre (US Dollars Six & 50 cents). the risk to this life is not so 111 .
Pakistan is a poor country. because the sacrifice of jihad is required to fight India. but by anger and opposition to the corrupt and wealthy army from the desperately poor people of Pakistan. Pakistani journalist Najam Sethi noted in an article in the Friday Times of Pakistan (101): Since the late 1970s. And they have been ever ready to join hands with the military to undermine popularly elected and mainstream civilian governments inimical to the military's corporate view of Pakistan's interests in one way or another. Increasingly under pressure within Pakistan for their greed the Pakistani army has used Islam and the external threat from India to retain their power and wealth. A report in the Washington Times recognised this (102): The Pakistani army. a staggering 85% of whom live on less than US $2 per day (100). the center of anti-Indian sentiment. The Islamicists have offered two critical inputs to the military: they have provided armed manpower for the military's security agendas in the neighborhood. rallied radical Islamic forces to the cause. the hundreds of Islamic seminaries have become breeding 112 . as in Afghanistan since 1979 and in India since 1989.much from an attack by India. The people must be more Islamic. the Pakistan army has maintained a mutually profitable relationship with Islamic elements in the country. This Islamization of Pakistan and the Pakistani army accelerated after the 1971 defeat of the Pakistani army by India in the war of liberation of Bangladesh. Poverty and destitution in Pakistan are because India is trying to attack Pakistan and kill Muslims. and recruitment to the army benefits the poor who are inclined to Islamic fundamentalism. In fact.
First-hand observations by this correspondent in Azad Kashmir camps confirm that the jihadi outfits are in fact paramilitary troops. a regular army of around 500.. from which they generate summaries of their operations for their military officers. The jihadi outfits. The Pakistan army has. with a total strength of about 200. Another report in the Asia Times in 2003 (103) reveals the depth to which the Pakistan army's fighting forces have become intertwined with Islamic jihadis. Thus. so in the 1990s it was decided that they would act as a front-line force in any IndiaPakistan war.purpose was to develop a paramilitary force that would assist the Pakistan army in the event of war. The commanders have lap top computers in which they store their data.000. Former Indian Intelligence analyst B.Raman was quoted in the online portal Rediff (104): Pakistan has two armies. these jihadis played so vital a role that they outdid the army. they gradually subcontracted the actual fighting to Islamist irregular forces... Each unit has a commander who reports to an army officer.. so-called by Pakistan itself. in the course of the 1989 uprising in Kashmir. But there is an Army of Islam. Each jihadi commander is given funds and the brief to devise a strategy for his unit's combat operations. As the Pakistani army generals consolidated their financial and business empires. over the course of the last few decades. Pakistan . the army has become a harbinger for Islamic ideological orientations. However.000. During the Kargil conflict 113 of 1999.grounds for terrorism and centers for the recruitment of junior officers to the Pakistan army. subcontracted its fighting to the jihadis.
Parthasarathy outlines the role of the Pakistani army in genocides and the killing of its own people(107): The Pakistan army has killed more of its own citizens in the past three decades than any other armed force. In another article. former Indian High Commissioner to Pakistan wrote (106): The Pakistan army is today the largest investor in the Karachi Stock Exchange. Pakistani troops withdrew in the face of defeat. information regarding the Pakistani army would be incomplete without mention of the criminal activities and genocide that they have been involved in: G. The latter fact was confirmed in an interview with deposed Former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in an interview at his place of exile in Saudi Arabia (105). Rouge led by the genocidal Pol Pot. But as Pakistani soldiers bodies began appearing in Pakistan the truth leaked out. rural Sind (1983 onwards) and the urban centres of Sind against the MQM 114 . controls the largest network of elite public schools. owns the largest construction company and the largest transportation company the National Logistics Cell— that has the dubious distinction of not only transporting weapons for the ISI and the CIA. Finally. Documented of the numbers of Pakistani citizens killed the carnage by the Pakistan army in Bangladesh Baluchistan (1972-1974). but not before the Pakistani Northern Light Infantry was virtually wiped out.refused to admit that any of their forces were involved in the fighting. Parthasarathy. but also heroin from Peshawar for export from Karachi. saying that Kashmiri mujahideen were doing the fighting. except the Khmer evidence following (1971).
says only one of the 30 officers of lieutenant-general rank and above is definitely a jehadi. the army commanders on the one hand and Allah on the other. One of these masters will lose and it is unlikely that the followers of God as supreme army commander will give up without a fight. On the one hand are the rich and corrupt generals. and built up a huge business empire for its senior officers and sycophants while the actual fighting was given over to jehadis fired up with Islamic zeal.. promising to bring back democracy and to fight and defeat the number one enemy. The Pakistani army has set itself on the course of a serious split. In late 2003. Based on this the army repeatedly took power in Pakistan with the promise of setting things right. Raman. it is 115 . In short the Pakistani army has people who are serving two masters. RAW's former Pakistan expert. This Islamic zeal has gradually entered the ranks of the Pakistani army. In conclusion. the Pakistani army being the only viable institution out. the With that seems to be represented almost all over Pakistan. But the army did none of these things. who are indoctrinated on the exclusivity and superiority of their brand of religion. India. with their businesses and lands. A large number of men in the lower ranks of the Pakistani army now have fundamentalist Islamic leanings. confirms this fact.Raman was quoted in a report (108): .(in the 1990s). On the other hand are the Islamists. B. it may be said that the Pakistani army retained a great degree of respect among the people of Pakistan from the time of independence.two or three of the 10 corps commanders are seen as Islamicists. and these lower ranks will be senior officers with the passage of time. Indian Intelligence analyst B. It started unwinnable wars.
116 .difficult to imagine what could be in store for Pakistan other than serious instability when differences begin to show up between the Islamists and the corrupt mafia of the Pakistani army.
Much has been written on this subject and many references are available. The exact circumstances under which this war started is generally lost in a maze of rhetoric. But a brief description of the background and outcome of the wars that have been fought give an insight into how Pakistani leaders have viewed the world around them and their relationship with India. The commission found 76 out of 435 districts with such a majority. The 1947-48 war: The first conflict started in 1947. 110. Pakistan and Bangladesh. Demographer PH Reddy pointed out in an article in the newspaper The Deccan Herald on January 25th 2002 that the basis of division of British India into India and Pakistan was Sir Cyril Radciffe's Boundary Commission which had been tasked with demarcating the districts in India that had a Muslim majority of more than 75% which were to be allotted to Pakistan. shortly after independence and the formation of Pakistan. Within this 117 . PLEBISCITE. Kashmir was not one of them. myth and misinformation. documents 111). WARS AND GENOCIDE It is beyond the scope of this book to enter into a detailed military discussion of the wars that Pakistan has fought with India. It is interesting to note that. including some excellent online references complete with photographs. Pre-independence India (British India) consisted of present day India. and video clips on the Internet (109.Chapter 11 KASHMIR. in two clusters that were to form West and East Pakistan. and needs to be described.
The Instrument of Accession was a legal document saying that a state ruled by a Prince or King had acceded . He was hoping to retain his kingdom. Pakistani leaders suspected that this was a ploy by India to make the Maharaja of Kashmir accede to India. India wanted to formalize this agreement with a representative of the King. In a tradition that was to be repeated in 1965 and 1999. the Pakistani army sent in irregular non-army forces as well as army personnel in civilian attire at the forefront of the invasion of Kashmir. the 600 Princely States were given the option of joining either India or Pakistan by signing a document called the Instrument of Accession. and hastily commenced an invasion of Kashmir to take over the Kingdom before the Maharaja made up his mind (112). The dominion of Kashmir was one such Princely State that was ruled by a King (Maharaja Hari Singh) who had to make the decision of joining India or Pakistan.or agreed to join India or Pakistan. but were Princely States with kings or rulers of their own. the Maharaja of Kashmir signed the instrument of accession to India and requested assistance from the Indian Armed forces in protecting his people who were being subjected to rape and pillage by the invading Pakistani forces. 118 . When it was decided that British India was to be split up into India and Pakistan and given independence.area were also about 600 states that were not directly ruled by Britain. Faced with this invasion from Pakistan. This King had not made up his mind about signing the Instrument of Accession at the time of Indian independence on 15th August 1947. and he therefore requested both India and Pakistan to sign a treaty called a standstill agreement to maintain supplies and postal services to his landlocked state while he made up his mind.
armed with up-to-date weapons. and desperadoes with modern weapons have been allowed to infiltrate into the State. Afridis.it has become difficult to stop the wanton destruction of life and property and the looting of the Mahura power house. which supplies electric current to the whole of Srinagar and which has been burnt. After the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India. The entire text of the letter is reproduced in Appendix 1. (meaning a vote. cannot possibly be done without the knowledge of the Provincial Government of the North-West Frontier Province and the Government of Pakistan.. The number of women who have been kidnapped and raped makes my heart bleed. soldiers in plain clothes. at a time when Pakistani forces still occupied about onethird of Kashmir in the North West. but an excerpt follows: The Dominion of India desired further discussion with representatives of my Government.. the Indian armed forces started their process of evicting the invading Pakistani marauders in a war that continued till an official UN sponsored cease fire was declared in 1949. 14th March 1950. Though we have got a standstill agreement with the Pakistan Government. the Government permitted a steady and increasing strangulation of supplies like food.The letter of accession to India written by the Maharaja of Kashmir (113) is as chilling as it is telling. The United Nations resolution on Kashmir (Appendix 2) called for a withdrawal of military forces within five months from the date of the resolution.. salt and petrol to my State. or a 119 . after which a plebiscite.. The wild forces thus let loose on the State are marching on with the aim of capturing Srinagar...
Pakistan could do no wrong. armed with Sidewinder air to air missiles. These included state-of-the-art supersonic F-104 Starfighter aircraft. held afloat 120 . Pakistan's failure to get Kashmir on their terms. as well as the most sophisticated arms that were available. The US was also fighting communist forces in Vietnam. In the meantime.referendum) could be held to poll the people of the state of Kashmir on the issue. The US in the 1960s had just emerged from the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Under military rule. Pakistan allied itself with the United States of America in the cold war against the Soviet Union. subversion or diplomacy. or 50 years after the UN resolution was passed. and was lauded as a progressive leader among developing nations. History has shown that Pakistani forces have not withdrawn from the portions of Kashmir that they occupied even 600 months. deception. The Pakistan-India war of 1965: The early 1960s were great years for Pakistan. Pakistan's alliance with the US allowed a great deal of aid money to flow into Pakistan. when Soviet nuclear missiles were placed in Cuba right under the nose of the US. and the failure to bend the terms of the now defunct UN resolution to suit Pakistan has been the basis for all further attempts by Pakistan to take Kashmir by force. and communism was considered the most serious threat by the US. Any ally was welcomed as long as he declared that he was opposed to communism. a portion of Kashmir that Pakistani forces occupied was gifted away to China it appears that no plebiscite of the people of Kashmir was required for giving away a part of the state to China. The economy was booming.
by aid dollars. 121 . Indian forces in 1962 fought valiantly but valor is no substitute for planning and equipment in a war that the Indian Army had not been given the funds or strategy to prepare for. who would ask for international assistance. the infiltration of Pakistani forces was not welcomed with the pro-Pakistan rebellion of Indians in Kashmir that the Pakistanis had expected. Pakistani leaders were wrong on both counts. genuinely believed that one Pakistani soldier equals six Indian soldiers (68). Through August 1965 Pakistani forces in civilian clothes were infiltrated into Kashmir as part of Operation Gibralter (sic). In the heady 1960s. Pakistanis. The plan was to conduct acts of sabotage and create mayhem after which a radio broadcast was to be made saying that Kashmir had been taken over by revolutionary liberation forces. though leaflets were distributed. starting from their military supremo Ayub Khan. after having naively trusted China to do good. The planned broadcast did not take place. the military dictator of Pakistan (58): General Ayub Khan in his letter to C-in-C General Muhammad Musa stated. and that the Muslims of India were waiting to rise up in revolt and join Pakistan. Columnist Hamid Hussain quotes from a letter written by Ayub Khan. as a general rule Hindu morale would not stand more than a couple of hard blows delivered at the right time and place. Pakistan's military leader felt that the 1960s offered him a chance to invade and take over Kashmir from India. In the event. mainly from Pakistan. India on the other hand was smarting from a military defeat in the hands of the Chinese in the 1962 war. against India.
In order to relieve the intense Pakistani pressure in Kashmir. Pakistan appears to be repeating the same mistakes again and again. West Pakistanis always considered their East Pakistani 122 . en route to the taking of Srinagar. a massive armor attack on India. and advancing toward the Pakistani city of Lahore. the instability that Pakistan displays more than three decades after the 1971 war is indicative of the deeply dysfunctional internal forces that have kept Pakistan in turmoil since then. Ayub Khan's plan of annexing Kashmir had been foiled. India ended the war holding about 1. The lessons and punishment suffered by Pakistan should really have been an eye-opener for any responsible and patriotic forces in Pakistan. India opened a second front by attacking Pakistan across the border in Punjab. The cease fire was formalized with the Tashkent declaration of January 10th 1966 (Appendix 3) The 1971 war of liberation of Bangladesh: The 1971 war was one of the most shameful episodes in the history of Pakistan. The attackers were planning to take the town of Akhnoor. beating back Indian defences. Gen.At this stage. but no such awakening has occurred.100 square kilometers of Pakistani territory in the Poonch and Lahore regions. on September 1st 1965 Pakistan launched Operation Grand Slam. By the time a cease fire was declared on 23rd September 1965. At the time of writing of this. Pakistan occupied about 490 square kilometers of Indian territory in the Akhnoor region. with Indian troops occupying the Pakistani town of Barki in the Lahore sector. the capital of Jammu and Kashmir.
. gambling that no party would get an overall majority. The Pakistani army could not countenance this.. and martial law was clamped in East Pakistan. That was unacceptable to the ruling elite of West Pakistan as well as the Pakistani army. Raging infernos everywhere. 123 . which meant that true democracy in Pakistan could pave the way for an East Pakistani Bengali to become leader of Pakistan. when General Yahya Khan. Jagannath Hall. the incumbent military dictator of Pakistan allowed an election to be held. East and West.. An East Pakistani party. What transpired around Iqbal Hall. This was the beginning of the Pakistani army's darkest and most shameful phase to date. headed by Sheikh Mujibur Rehman won a landslide victory and should have formed the government of all of Pakistan. Rafiqul Islam of Dhaka Just after midnight on the night of 25th March. One description. and adjoining residential areas. The killing of Bengalis. the Awami league. But East Pakistan had a population greater than that of West Pakistan..Just after midnight Iqbal Hall came under a barrage of heavy mortar and machine-gun attack from near the pond in front and the police barracks behind it. the Pakistani Army began their attack on the Student Halls and Staff Quarters of the University. who were all Muslims and fellow Pakistanis was shocking and brutal.Bengali compatriots as somehow inferior and weak.. Elections were somehow postponed or avoided until 1971. by University reads(114): Prof.I don't have the words to express the bestiality and barbarity that was perpetrated on the Dhaka University area. especially Iqbal Hall. I saw with my own eyes. followed by a genocide of East Pakistani Bengalis. for a period of 36 hours from the night of the 25th till the 26th night. He was wrong.
and then silence. The executioners stood on the pier. Rummel likewise writes that "the [sought] out those especially likely Pakistan army to join the resistance -. shooting down at the compact bunches of prisoners wading in the water. Bangladesh is a nation criss-crossed by rivers. Then a new bunch of prisoners was brought out. The heaped bodies of the dead from the slum were also set on fire near the Nilkhet rail gate petrol pump. One online source (115) has a collection of references to this and the descriptions are horrific: R. Bodies of youths would be found in fields. floating down rivers. The genocide by the Pakistani army in East Pakistan was the worst seen after the holocaust of Jews by the Nazis in the second World War.J. There were screams in the hot night air. allowing their bodies to float down-river (115) They were in batches of six or eight. and the process was repeated. In the morning the village boatmen hauled the bodies into midstream and the ropes binding the bodies were cut so that each body drifted separately 124 . Sweeps were conducted of young men who were never seen again. the smell of gun-powder and the stench of the burning corpses all transformed the area into a fiery hell. and in the light of a powerful electric arc lamp. the smoke and fire. the cars parked around the residences were burning. The prisoners fell on their sides and their bodies lapped against the shore. they were easy targets. The sound of shells bursting and guns firing. black against the silvery water. or near army camps.the slum was burning.young boys. and the Pakistan army tended to line up men along river-banks at night and shoot them.
Military historian Brig. The killings in East Pakistan led to a massive influx of refugees into India. taking 93.000 prisoners of war. the new nation of Bangladesh was born out of the ravaged remains of East Pakistan.000 of its men in a mere 16 days. Unable to stand by and watch the horrific events in East Pakistan. based on complete mobility and the bypassing of all centres of 125 .000 square kilometers along with 93. Bengal. The army of the martial races of Pakistan had capitulated and surrendered a nation of 144. More than 10 million people were accommodated in refugee camps in India. Massacre [Macmillan. is an eminently defensible country cut up by rivers five miles wide and obstructed by marshes.downstream. In a whirlwind war the Indian armed forces overran East Pakistan. A two-front war broke out when the Pakistani Air Force commenced hostilities in the West with air raids on Indian targets on December 3rd 1971. guerrilla and conventional forces. (Payne. At the end of this action. while Bengali resistance fighters sought Indian help. 55. Shelford Bidwell summarized the military action as follows(48): A close study of this campaign will edify military students for a long time to come.) Descriptions of rape and killing of Hindus abound and over over 3 million people were killed over a 267 day period seconds an average of one murder committed every 8 by Pakistani army personnel for nearly 9 months. putting a great strain on resources. the Indian Prime Minister Mrs. comprehensively defeating the Pakistani army. Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Armed forces into East Pakistan on the humanitarian mission of stopping the killing. now Bangladesh (literally Land of Bengal). The Indian plan was a masterly combination of airborne. p. 1973].
the Pakistan army had sent soldiers disguised as civilians into Indian territory. albeit a war limited in area. This ultimately has a great bearing on credibility and international standing. For the third time since independence. when Indian forces began the 126 process of evicting the . An astonishing momentum was maintained from start to finish . canoe or country cart as suitable. the war started after their discovery. One of the major disadvantages of a state trying to deny involvement in a war is that neither escalation nor pullout are possible without admitting involvement or conceding that the earlier denial of involvement was a lie in the first place.resistance. boat. and 'supply and transport' was by air. While the entry of these Pakistani forces had gone undetected. Pakistan seems to have gleaned more shame than honour from this action. The 1999 Kargil conflict: It was a while before anyone realized that a war had erupted between India and Pakistan in 1999. The advance was not held up for bridging operations. Pakistani fortified soldiers in civilian garb occupied themselves within Indian territory in and the heights of the mountains in the Kargil region of Kashmir.it was a Blitzkrieg without tanks. troops and guns were ferried over the rivers by helicopter. and tried to deny any involvement with the conflict. These soldiers were then in an advantageous position to defend their positions and to direct accurate artillery fire to cut off a major Indian highway and Indian army supply route.
Why did Pakistan do it? And having done it. any answers that fit the known facts suggest a frightening disconnect between perception and reality among the seniormost leaders of Pakistan. and an equally frightening lack of communication and cooperation between the leaders themselves. The war ended when the last few surviving Pakistani soldiers were pulled out in a humiliating retreat that Pakistan conducted under the fig-leaf of American mediation . 127 . let alone nations cannot function if leaders display a disconnect between their actions and reality. mountain bunkers and supply depots occupied by Pakistani forces were systematically destroyed.the retreat being announced after a visit by Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to meet US President Clinton. accompanied by Indian media coverage of captured Pakistani army identity papers and weapons. why did they deny involvement? If they did not want to be identified as being involved. why was it done so half-heartedly? If they wanted to be involved in the conflict. why did they admit to involvement later? What was it that Pakistani leaders hoped would be achieved by this action? While there are more questions than answers.Pakistanis from their positions within India. Using the overwhelming firepower at the disposal of the Indian army and air force. The Kargil conflict is very difficult to explain from the Pakistani viewpoint. Small organizations. By the time the last abandoned Pakistani soldiers' corpses had been buried by the Indian army. Pakistan's Northern Light Infantry had been all but wiped out in a war that Pakistan denied till the last moment (105). Pakistan denied any involvement in the war until coffins of their soldiers started turning up at their hometowns in Pakistan.
If that was the case. after which a Pakistani attack would have isolated and encircled Indian positions in Siachen glacier region. In the 1965 war.What could have been Pakistan's motive and ultimate objective in sending army troops dressed in mufti to fortify themselves and occupy positions above 15. is that the men on the mountains were there to help cut off the Srinagar-Leh highway. Furthermore. and pretending not to be involved? Why the was its did the Pakistani military not plan a counter-offensive to blunt or stop India from relentlessly clearing the heights as it did? The logic defies explanation. It appears that Pakistani generals believed that India would be afraid to repeat that in 1999 because they feared nuclear retaliation from Pakistan. why Pakistan so concerned about keeping the identity of men secret. Another theory. And within Kashmir it was 128 . it was believed that the morale of the Indian armed forces was at breaking point and that Indian soldiers would be ready to run away from battle at the slightest threat. India had taken Pakistani pressure off Kashmir by opening a second front in Punjab. But did they not expect Indian retaliation when they were discovered? Were they so worried about the possibility of discovery that they refused to allow their men to wear uniforms? But that was futile. since they could not prevent their men from carrying identification papers in their personal effects. It has been said that after Pakistan's nuclear tests in 1998. and some of the explanations are ludicrous enough to be unbelievable. the more commonly quoted one.000 feet high on mountains just within the Indian border? One explanation is that they sought to salami slice into Indian territory by surreptitiously occupying unguarded Indian territory. Pakistani military leaders believed India to be very afraid of Pakistan.
with a self-image amounting to delusions of grandeur rather than objective and rational military judgment. senior Pakistani General Javid Nasir wrote in the prestigious Pakistani Defence Journal (116): I say with all the authority and professionalism that 'The Indian army is incapable of undertaking any conventional operations at present what to talk of enlarging conventional conflict' It is inconceivable that a professional Pakistani soldier and senior officer should deliberately and publicly choose to underestimate an adversary without paying the slightest heed to the possibility that the assessment may be wrong. Gen. Ved Prakash Malik. After the Kargil conflict. This statement by a senior Pakistani army general eerily echoes the assessment made by Pakistani dictator Ayub Khan 34 years earlier when he stated that Indian morale would break after a couple of hard blows.expected that the Indian army would capitulate and run away. Such an attitude can be termed as nothing short of suicidal. at about the time when Pakistani army men were secretly taking up their positions in the mountains near Kargil. as events have shown. It is interesting to note that the large and powerful army of Pakistan has cultivated a leadership that somehow believes that the Indian military will be a pushover in battle. less reassuring assessments. the 129 . As indicated in the description of the Pakistani mind in chapter 5. such assessments are more indicative of the psychological state of the Pakistani army officer. In February 1999. or that there may be alternate.
The coalition government in India. weak and indecisive. But it does not appear that the Pakistani army had planned for anything but easy and cheap victory in Kargil.Indian frustration will lead to escalation.India is militarily weak and unprepared.Nuclear umbrella allows offensive action without risk. Assumptions regarding enemy weakness and fear can only be termed as high hopes unless they are balanced out by other. If Pakistani Generals persist in thinking of war and easy victories against India. the chance of Pakistan viewing India with any sanity or objectivity can also be dismissed as high hopes. 4.International community would intervene or stop the war at an early stage. 5. 3.Military operation under the garb of Mujahideen would focus attention on Kashmir and Pakistan would be able to claim this as a victory.Indian Chief of Army Staff who oversaw the defeat of Pakistani forces in the Kargil conflict wrote about Gen Javid Nasir's article and misperception within the Pakistani army's high command that led them to attempt the Kargil misadventure (117): This was not only a gross underestimation of a possible adversary but also a poor assessment and misperception. Some other assumptions and misperceptions which led to the Pakistani offensive operation in Kargil were: 1. 6. 130 . will either over-react or under-react. putting the onus of escalation on India. 2. less rosy scenarios. That is a disquieting thought.
In the "war on terror". which has regularly massacred people within those provinces in an effort to maintain control. The map below 131 . or are seeking separation from Pakistan. An excerpt from the report says: areas of “. but held together forcibly by the wrapper. In 2006 Amnesty International published a report (159) about human rights violations in the tribal Pakistan. Each province is one part that contributes to the whole. other illtreatment and enforced disappearance. Pakistan has violated a wide array of human rights.” Pakistan has four provinces. and to legal remedies and reparations. including the right to life. The state of Pakistan can be compared to a shattered cookie within an intact wrapper – each fragment is separate. Balochistan and the Northwest Frontier Province. to freedom from torture. Punjab. Indeed more than half the land area of Pakistan is outside the control of the Pakistan government. to the security of the person. Sindh. to freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention. The “wrapper” that holds the Pakistan state together is the Pakistan army. with vast swathes of Pakistan falling outside the bounds of any control. but the peoples in such areas have either declared independence. In the case of Pakistan this idea is misleading – Pakistan’s provinces belong to the Pakistani state in name only. Much of this area is sparsely populated.Chapter 12 PROVINCES AND ASSORTED FRAGMENTS The word “provinces” calls to the mind the idea of a nation that has been divided into smaller blocks for administrative reasons..
with Punjabis comprising over 50% of Pakistan’s total population. in the absence of any reliable recent census is estimated to be between 160 and 170 million in 2006.) form the “core provinces” of Pakistan.P. These were the provinces that voted to be part of Pakistan from the outset. These provinces form less than half the land area of Pakistan.W. Punjab is by far the dominant province. Punjab.F.depicts the provinces of Pakistan. Sindh and the Northwest frontier provinces (N. The fact that most of the population and economic activity of Pakistan occurs in these three provinces can be seen in the photograph below. which. which shows a map of Pakistan super-imposed on a satellite 132 . and contributing over 60% of the personnel in the Pakistan armed forces. but are home to over 80% of Pakistan’s population.
F. the Pakistan army and successive governments have shown that they want the natural resources more than 133 . including natural gas and minerals. The people of Balochistan have long fought for independence of their land from Pakistani rule.. Balochistan is rich in natural resources. resources being exploited in In return. Almost all of Pakistan is dark. except for a strip close to the Indian border representing the provinces of Punjab. which show lights and population activity. and more recently for a fair share of the proceeds from the natural Baluchistan. BALOCHISTAN: Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan. Balochistan became part of Pakistan after it was forcibly annexed by the Pakistani army after Pakistan was created in 1947. but it has a population of only about 7 million – or just over 4% of Pakistan’s population. Sindh and N.P.W. comprising 42% of the land area.photograph of the Indian subcontinent at night.
T. The “peace deal” (160) made by the Pakistani Army with people who are supposed to be Pakistani citizens guarantees that the Pakistani army will never return to Waziristan and a return of confiscated weapons. Despite a long struggle the sparse population of Balochistan cannot match the firepower of the Pakstani army. They do not recognize Pakistan’s border with Afghanistan and the area is home to a thriving arms industry in which clones of almost any type of small arms are made in small workshops (139).T. in an serves as a safe harbor for the Al Qaeda assorted Islamist militia personnel.A. F.A.T. In 2006 the same army made an ignominious retreat from the area after suffering hundreds of casualties. It is a strip of land on the Northwest border of Pakistan with Afghanistan populated by tribes. of whom less than 2% live in urban areas.A. for the first time in its history in 2002 on the pretext of helping the US in its war on terror.A.A.A. Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti. as well as the payment of reparations for damage.A. The Pakistan army actually entered the F. – or Federally Administered Tribal Areas is a euphemism for a completely lawless area that does not come under Pakistani control at all.T.they want the people of Balochistan. A series of massacres of Balochi tribals have occurred with the use of deadly force. This has resulted in the death in 2006 of a prominent and respected Balochi leader and a fierce opponent of Pakistani occupation. This has been described as a defacto acceptance of an independent “Islamic Emirate of Waziristan” – ruled by the Taliban. signing a peace deal with the Taliban who control an area of the F. area that and other 134 . called Waziristan (see map on page 136). The F. including helicopter gun ships.A.
Treasury Department. The sorcerer (magician) is Mickey himself and has the task of drawing water from a well to fill job himself. the magic broom. A charming tale for children is told in an animated film called “The Sorcerer's Apprentice” featuring Walt Disney's cartoon character Mickey Mouse. the sorcerer broom grow hands and legs As Mickey relaxes and a tub. working tirelessly. according to the U. falls asleep the Sorcerer's Apprentice. JIHAD AND TERRORISM When it was declared by the US Treasury department that two thirds of all terrorist groups had a link with Pakistan. A panicky Mickey wakes up and chops the magic broom into small pieces but each piece then becomes a new apprentice that carries water and the flooding starts to 135 .S. the statement came as sweet music to the ears Indians who have been fighting terrorism from Pakistan for over a decade (118). Since 1989. India had been ploughing a lonely furrow in the diplomatic capitals of the world calling attention to Pakistan's role in terrorism. About two-thirds of all designated terrorist groups in the world have a Pakistani connection. Being too lazy to do the uses his magic powers to make a to draw water to fill the tub. transfers enough water to cause a flood and does not stop.Chapter 13 PAKISTAN. in which aircraft were hijacked and crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington were a wake-up call to the somnolent and blinkered intelligence communities of the West about the deep changes taking place in Pakistan. The statement was a vindication of long-standing Indian concerns. The terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001 in the US.
an expert on terrorism wrote (119): Pakistani militant groups are killing civilians and engaging in terrorism in Indian-held Kashmir under the guise of holy war. Jessica Stern. especially from Pakistan. and terrorism associated with jihad now has a life of its own and may be getting out of control of the Pakistani army.get out of control. monster threatens to devour Islamic scholars. It is stated that jihad is an internal struggle and not external violence. In the Pakistani context. The Pakistani army tried to use jihad to do it's work but jihad. Pakistan and jihad are like the story of the Sorcerer's Apprentice. and destabilizes the region. The government in Islamabad supports these militants and their religious schools as cheap ways to fight India and educate Pakistan's youth. was published by the Asia Times online. But this policy is creating a culture of violence that exacerbates internal sectarianism Without change. Arif Jamal. But this assertion goes against the facts on the ground. Terrorism and senseless violence are being routinely committed in the name of jihad. Ehsan Ansari says of jihad (120): various Islamic groups have been interpreting it to mean 'holy war' against everything the perceive as being 'non Islamic' An interview with a leading Pakistani expert on jihad. In his study of jihadi groups in Pakistan. Jamal has this to say about jihad (121): 136 . terrorism and jihad are one and the same. have repeatedly tried to point out that jihad is not terrorism. this Pakistani society.
.. Pakistani officials estimate that 10 to 15 percent of the madrasas in Pakistan promote extremist ideologies. placed a great emphasis on jihad.The main objective of jihad even today is to defeat the infidels and establish Islamic states all over the world.350 of the estimated 40.000 students. The extent to which the system to promote violent jihad against non-Muslims has spread in Pakistan may be gauged from the following reports: Terrorism expert Jessica Stern writes (119): Only about 4. some 7. The New York Times reported on May 27.000 madrasahs in Pakistan have registered with the government.000 madrasas currently operate in Pakistan.000 to 50. Maulana Maududi. with enrollment at more than 650. (120) so Pakistanis are not strangers to the concept of jihad. including many thousands committed to the cause of forcing India out of the sector of Kashmir that it controls.000 members of jihadi .Muslim holy war organizations .. acts of terrorism are considered normal and par for the course by a large number of Pakistanis. 2002: there are as many as 500. And with jihad being defined as holy war to defeat infidels. A report from the US council of Foreign Relations said: According to The Washington Post. Madrasahs are the supply line for jihad.in Pakistan. 137 . One of the ideological founding fathers of Pakistan.. Jihad became a driving force in Pakistan under General Zia ul Haq in the 1980s.
.Quoting Jessica Stern (119): Pakistani dictator General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq promoted the madrasahs as a way to garner the religious parties' support for his rule and to recruit troops for the antiSoviet war in Afghanistan. the Soviet Union was put under sufficient military pressure to withdraw from Afghanistan. funded by the Saudi regime.. paving the way for the Pakistan sponsored Taliban to form a government in Afghanistan.5 billion from these countries in the 1985 to 1989 period. Along with the money came guns and drugs. Tariq Ali wrote in The Independent of the UK (123): religious fundamentalism is the legacy of a previous military dictator. were created.500 madrassahs produced a 138 crop of 225. Stern reports that Pakistan received US $ 3. This is supported by a report in the Asia Times (122): The jihadi outfits were in fact a part of the ISI's operations and the brainchild of late dictator General Zia ul-Haq and General Akhtar Abdul Rehman.000 fanatics . Jihad became an important business in Pakistan. mainly heroin. with funds coming in from diverse sources such as Libya.During his rule (1977-89). to fund the US backed war against Soviet troops in Afghanistan.The 2. General Zia-ul-Haq.. Iraq. Jihad in Pakistan received a lot of funding from the US and Saudi Arabia. The purpose was to develop a para-military force that would assist the Pakistan army in the event of war.. With US arms. Saudi funds and Jihad recruits from Pakistan. a network of madrassahs (religious boarding schools). Iran and other Gulf states.
control of Afghanistan with its puppet. they were hurled into battle. ensuring that Pakistan has sufficient strategic depth to undertake a protracted conventional war on the subcontinent. The Pakistani army could describe the jihadi-terrorists as freedom fighters and deny any link with them. if seen by Pakistan as India ever attacked Pakistan. Meanwhile strategic Afghanistan itself was depth . 139 . inspired by the Wahhabi sect that rules Saudi Arabia.. have captured Kabul on their own . the Taliban government was a double blessing..They were armed and commanded by "volunteers" from the Pakistan Army For the Pakistani army.that is. Afghanistan also served as a safe place to continue to train jihadis to fight Pakistan's war against India.. a US based non-profit organization that helps policy and decision making. RAND.. however. Dispatched across the border by the Pakistan Army.ready to kill and die for their faith when asked to do so by their religious leaders.The Taliban could not. carried the following passage in a commentary (124): Sponsoring militancy in Kashmir is regarded as a relatively cheap and effective way of offsetting existing power symmetries (essentially through the philosophy of a 'war of a thousand cuts') while simultaneously .. should this ever become necessary.. while Pakistan claimed to provide only moral and diplomatic support to them..The Taliban creed is an ultra-sectarian strain. Pakistani forces and leaders could withdraw into Afghanistan and continue to fight. The forces of jihad provided a huge supply of trained and experienced soldiers to fight India in a low cost war.
Pakistan's military and intelligence services struck upon the idea of employing jihadis to wrest control of the Kashmir from India. A new ethos was created. there are slogans such as Jehad is the shortest route to Paradise and Contact us for commando Jehadi training." said an expert on the country's jihad movements. "The success of the jihadi strategy in Afghanistan compelled the generals to try it on India..000 fighters whom Pakistan had trained and armed to fight the Soviet forces in Afghanistan.. the recruitment has to go on. a Pakistani scientist and columnist th wrote(126): Islam. Jihad is advertised in Pakistan as a career path to follow. too. Just a few kilometers from the Havelian cantonment. Wall chalking after wall chalking advertised jehadi outfits and announced recruitment for jehadi fighters." And even today as Pakistani jihadis continue to be used as cannon fodder against India. 140 .. Jihad became emblazoned on banners at Pakistani army recruitment centers.A report in the New York Times (27 May 2002) describes how the jihadis from Afghanistan were applied against India: drawing on the 80. this was to be an army not just for Pakistan. "We have fought three wars with India and have not won even one of them. The Kashmir jihadis are our cannon fodder because they are willing to die for their cause in a way that no paid soldiers would. it was jehadi territory. Walls between Havelian and Haripur are full of jehadi slogans and adverts Pervez Hoodbhoy. Shahid Nadeem wrote in the Daily Times of Pakistan (125): The moment we left Fortress Abbottabad. Pakistan. ..
141 . The rewards of waging jihad include the following. (124): annual ISI expenditure to the main militant organisations runs to between US$125 and $250 million a year.000 rupees a month). The article is revealing in the extent to which Pakistan has been organizing and funding terrorists who have long been said to receive only moral and diplomatic support from Pakistan.I. porters and informers. The Holy Scriptures of virgins of the take the spirit the first drop Islam also say that houris [beautiful Koranic Paradise] come down to Earth to of the mujahid who is about to die before of his blood falls to earth. These funds are used to cover salaries for fighters (which run from 5. among more worldly rewards (127): The mujahideen were assured of entering Paradise before the first drop of their blood fell to earth. These houris are more beautiful than all the beauties of the world combined. There are salary and pension rules in place as well. support to next of kin. Appendix 4 reproduces an article carried in the online paper Mid-Day listing details of incentives and salaries offered to terrorists from Pakistan.000 to 10. A RAND report quotes Indian Intelligence estimates of the budget of the Pakistani agency responsible for training and coordinating jihad-terrorist action in India the so called Inter Services Intelligence or I. With jihad and terrorism being Pakistan's main industry. Jihad has been made attractive and financially rewarding.but for the greater glory of Islam.S. The martyrs are promised 72 houris in Paradise. cash incentives for high-risk operations and retainers for guides.
A paper published by the South Asia Analysis Group (SAAG) carries examples of newspaper headlines resulting from terrorist acts sponsored by Pakistan in India(128). and over 59.000 civilians have been killed by Pakistani trained terrorists in Jammu and Kashmir from 1990 to 2003. along with the staggering recovery of over 27. A few samples are quoted below: • "Suspected Islamic militants axed to death six members of a shepherd's family overnight. the officer said. The attackers killed four women and two children. The US in Vietnam had being able to withdraw from Vietnam. hiding in jungles in mountainous regions cannot be fought with tanks and attack aircraft.the effect on India has been murderous. The US army discovered in Vietnam that groups of armed men carrying machine guns and explosives.000 hand grenades. Statistics of deaths of Indians in Kashmir show that over 17. Over the same period Indian security forces have intercepted and killed 17.000 assault rifles and machine guns.000 kilograms of explosives (129)." • "Militants slit the throats of two women. 6 million rounds of ammunition and 34. but have the option of withdrawing from their 142 . Men have to be met by men in deadly face to or cordon and the luxury of Indians do not face encounters at the end of long vigils search operations. shot dead another person and set off two explosions damaging a bridge " • "Terrorists have slit the throats of two of the four policemen abducted after the attack on a police post in Udhampur on Sunday.000 terrorists who were found committing acts of terrorism or infiltrating into India from Pakistan.
Once again. but Indian . This seems to have had a significant effect on the morale of Pakistan's army backed jihadi-terrorist apparatus. and diplomatic protests grew shriller as Indian security forces chalked up success after success. with hundreds of thousands of jihadis entering from Pakistan required a robust response. and India met the threat by building a powerful counter-insurgency apparatus.own land. and the average life-span of a jihadi-terrorist entering India from Pakistan was reduced to weeks or months rather than years (130). A backlog of violent. because the Pakistani government started protesting against the presence of large numbers of Indian counterinsurgency personnel within India. the only country that tried to alert the world about the global terrorist threat emanating from Pakistan's jihad factory 143 was India. In many areas. Terrorism. trained and indoctrinated terrorists built up in Pakistan. and by starting to fence the India-Pakistan boundary where possible. and gradually. these terrorists began to target other nations of the world. One Indian army major is quoted in an interview as saying (131): Once somebody picks up the gun then his family knows that it is only a matter of days before they hear that he has been killed in an encounter. We put the average lifespan of a terrorist at two-and-half years. As the Indian strategy proved effective. terrorists from Pakistan were unable to enter India at all or were able to infiltrate through in the smallest numbers. jihadis started getting eliminated in increasing numbers. Within this period we are bound to eliminate him.
UK. Bangladesh. Nepal. Terrorism Central would not be an inappropriate name for Pakistan. including links to the September 11th attacks (133). A detailed study exists in an online portal of the evidence of Pakistani links to terrorism against the US. the I. Yemen. Latvia. Indonesia and the Philippines. Turkey. Not only would they become too large for the ISI to manage but also their strong links with the underworld would create a sort of double whammy.S. The entire world.. a powerful and deadly Pakistan based jihad group. had this to say in its December 2003 edition (132): There is a terrible price to pay for this facilitation because the same forces that drive jehad in Jammu and Kashmir drive it in other lands too. Since Pakistan have been th found in countries like Burma. Chechnya. and it is by no means certain that anybody in Pakistan can control the forces that have been unleashed. Kuwait. referring to the L-e-T (Lashkar-eTayeba).Indian authorities reckon that groups like the LeT could. This view is echoed by one 144 of India's premier anti- . Uzbekistan. and Pakistan itself is being targeted by the Islamist groups spawned and nurtured by the Pakistani army and its intelligence cell. Canada. Afghanistan.132). Mongolia.information fell on deaf ears. (119. Tajikistan. The Sorcerer's Apprentice is out of control. Pakistan has now become the home base of global terrorism. Russia. Australia. become more dangerous. in time.I. In an article on Pakistan-sponsored terrorism. until 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. intelligence communities of the world then terrorist links leading back to the September 11 That woke up the with a jolt.. the magazine India Today.
a report carried by RAND said (124): it is no longer apparent that the army or ISI exercise complete control over the proxies they have helped to create. K.terrorism experts. These forces will not be easy to eliminate. President of Pakistan occurred that the known to survived two attempts to assassinate him that within days of each other (135.P. 145 . In an indication of increasing international understanding of how jihad threatens to eat up Pakistan.S. who warned (134): There is now mounting evidence of a loss of control as these autonomous religious groups challenge. In an interview quoted in the BBC (137). General Pervez Musharraf. Apart from multiple Islamist groups. Although the first of the two assassination attempts was thought to have been stage managed by Musharraf's supporters to win greater sympathy for him (138). Other reports too have pointed to Islamist forces within Pakistan as being responsible for wanting to replace General Musharraf. some of which are now openly talking about fomenting a fundamentalist revolution in Pakistan itself. the second one. but the Government itself. In Decemeber 2003. 136). in addition to 2 million registered ones (139). not only their Army and ISI handlers. Gill. There are an estimated 18 million illegal firearms in Pakistan. Musharraf blamed the Al Quaeda for attempting to assassinate him. a suicide bombing involving multiple bomb laden trucks was a very real indicator of the sort of forces that exist in Pakistan today. The fact route of the motorcade he was travelling in was the people who wanted to kill him suggests that someone close to General Musharraf was involved in these attempts. Pakistan is awash with weapons.
into the hands of Islamic fundamentalists in Pakistan. That means that the government. being able to spray a high volume of fire at targets. (the army. including inexpensive clones of the Kalashnikov AK-47 assault rifle. 146 . in Pakistan's case) retains the armed power to suppress and control all other groups. the government retains coercive power. In a coherently functioning nation-state. a reliable weapon of choice for terrorists.Pakistan is home to a Kalashnikov culture with hundreds of firearm manufacturing workshops making weapons. But that monopoly over coercive power may have slipped out of the hands of the Pakistani army.
I rise to bring to the attention of my colleagues a report that appeared in the Washington Post of September 12. it is extremely addictive when administered to normal people. It is obtained from the Opium Poppy plant. However. Heroin smuggling and Narco terrorism: Heroin is a drug that is a derivative of the medically used pain-killer morphine. making trade. headlined `Heroin 147 Plan by Top Pakistanis a news . 1994. Although heroin itself has medicinal value as a potent pain-killer. US Senator Frank Pallone brought to the attention of the US house of representatives report in the Washington Post (140): Mr Pallone said: Mr.Chapter 14 THE GOVERNMENT AND CRIMINAL ACTIVITY There is probably no government in the world which does not have one or more people in power who are either themselves criminals or have links to criminals. heroin the star compound of the illegal drug In October 1994. and crave the drug so much that they are willing to pay very high prices to obtain it. heroin is illegal to manufacture or possess because of its dangerous potential to cause addiction. The report from Karachi. People are said to crave for the drug after experiencing its effects just once. In most countries of the world. Speaker. Heroin addicts become so physically dependent on the drug. which describes a disturbing link between narcotics and terrorism. Pakistan. successive Pakistani governments and the army have been unique in actively supporting and participating in international criminal activity as an integral component of the Pakistani economy and foreign policy.
under one Brigadier Imtiaz. The report cites Pakistan's army chief and head of intelligence agency proposing to then-Prime Minister Sharif `a detailed blueprint for selling heroin to pay for the country's covert military operations in early 1991. Indian analyst. Asad Durrani. Zia ul Haq's rule and in the early years of Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. Gen. It has also enabled it to maintain a high 148 . Aslam Beg and Gen. The news report said that three months after Nawaz Sharif became Prime Minister of Pakistan he was approached by the Pakistan army chief of staff. During the late years of Gen. a special cell was set up by Pakistan's ISI for the use of heroin for covert action. including missiles from North Korea. submarines from France and components for Pakistan's covert nuclear program. B. the head of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) with the blueprint for a plan to export heroin to raise money for the Pakistan army's covert foreign operations a euphemism for Pakistan sponsored terrorism in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Raman writes: Pakistan's illegal heroin economy has kept its legitimate State economy sustained since 1990 and prevented its collapse. Raman writes (141) that money earned through Pakistan's heroin trade was used to fund Pakistan's arms purchases.Alleged' quotes Pakistan's former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif saying that `drug deals were to pay for covert operations' brings to mind other reports not so long ago of Pakistani involvement in using the Bank of Credit and Commerce International [BCCI] to launder drug money that was eventually believed to have been used in financing terrorist groups involved in the New York World Trade Center bombing.
The nexus between Pak ISI and Pak Army with the drug mafia is a well documented and established fact. the Indian army captured from Pakistani infiltrators about 19 Kilograms of Heroin with a street value of US $ 5 million. packaged and despatched towards their destination. They have been used only twice in August 1945 when the Unites States dropped a bomb on each of the Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The primary reason for indulging in narcotics trade by these two premier institutions of Pakistan is the need for money to finance covert foreign operations.a drug derived from Cannabis (Ganja).level of arms purchases from abroad and to finance its proxy war against India through the jehadi organisations. which the otherwise cash strapped economy of Pak could ill afford to pay for. Even during the Afghan crisis Pak trucks and National Logistic Cell (NLC) vehicles transporting arms to Afghan Mujahideen were used for shipping large consignments of drugs from the drug producing areas to Karachi. which is in the thick of action against terrorists from Pakistan has this to say in an article on Narco-Terrorism on its website (142): Both the Pakistan Army and the Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) agency are known to be extensively involved in narcotics trade. The Indian army's 15th Corps. Rawalpindi and other such city centres. In a one and a half year period from January 1997 to May 1998. where the drugs were processed. Nuclear Proliferation: Nuclear weapons. Islamabad. Pak trucks are used by the drug mafia for narcotics smuggling. also known as atomic bombs are extremely destructive. 149 A single bomb . Also recovered was 60 Kilograms of Charas .
available to only a handful of nations in the world. Centrifuges made from the very designs Qadeer Khan had stolen from URENCO were found in Iran. along with actual blueprints of nuclear bomb designs in order to help these nations manufacture atomic bombs. Upon his return to Pakistan. causing Japan to surrender within days. Shipments of centrifuge components to North Korea and Libya were intercepted.a weapon of power to scare a potential attacker from for fear of being hit by nuclear weapons. Abdul Qadeer Khan. Pakistan had obtained funds from Libya in exchange for this technology and North Korea paid for the technology by supplying Pakistan with ballistic missiles capable of 150 . a Pakistani metallurgist stole the blueprints for making Uranium enrichment centrifuges from a Dutch concern called URENCO that he worked for. it became clear that Pakistani nuclear technology to enrich Uranium had been supplied to North Korea. That brought the second World War to an end. and these centrifuges had radioactive contaminants that unmistakably bore the signature of a Pakistani source. Libya and Iran. the technology for manufacturing nuclear weapons remained a closely guarded secret. Enrichment of Uranium is one of the first steps in making one type of nuclear bomb. Khan was encouraged and funded by the Prime Minister of Pakistan at the time.reduced each city to rubble. As described in chapter 4. The destructive potential of nuclear weapons made them attractive terrifying waging war because of to nations as a deterrent . Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to set up facilities to enrich Uranium manufacture nuclear bombs. Abdul Qadeer Khan became a hero and achieved cult status in Pakistan as the father of Pakistan's Islamic bomb In late 2003 and early 2004. killing hundreds of thousands of people. And their destructive potential.
the New York Times reported (144): experts inside and outside the government say it is difficult to believe that Pakistan's nuclear secrets could have been exported without the knowledge of some in 151 . said she doubted that the transfers could have taken place without the knowledge of senior military officials." On February 4 th 2004. "It is difficult to accept that the scientists could have violated government policy on their own. "Those who violated the policy are now hiding behind the scientists.S. Khan by President and army chief Gen. with no knowledge of the Pakistani army or government. nuclear experts and a former prime minister of Pakistan expressed doubts Monday about how Khan and a handful of associates could have circumvented the extraordinary controls on the country's nuclear technology without the military's blessings. In early 2004 the world was witness to an incredible drama on Pakistan television in which Abdul Qadeer Khan made a public confession of having sold nuclear weapons technology to other nations entirely on his own. This confession was followed by a prompt presidential pardon for Dr. who served twice as prime minister before going into exile in the face of corruption charges. It would be naive to imagine that successive Pakistani governments and the military were unaware of Khan's activities. Times said (143): U. Musharraf." she told the Los Angeles Times. An article in the online edition of the L.carrying nuclear weapons (143). officials.A. Benazir Bhutto.
the military and the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence agency. the New York Times carried a report in which it was said (145): Few of Mr. which oversaw the Khan Research Laboratories. only to be pardoned by the army is in keeping with the Pakistan army's time honoured tradition of protecting its self interest and attempting to appear farcically squeakyclean in the face of contrary evidence. Airliner hijacking: The most blatant case of an airliner hijacked with Pakistani army and government complicity is the shameful episode of Indian Airlines Flight number IC 814 that hijacked in December 2000 by five Pakistani nationals boarded the flight in Kathmandu in Nepal. He has the deepest ties to the military. investigators believe. and supplied it with a cargo fleet. It is virtually certain that the televised drama of Qadeer Khan absolving the army of all responsibility for proliferation while taking all the blame. Clearly. in return for uranium enrichment technology. Khan operated alone. Bush's aides believe Pakistan's story that Dr. Pakistan got missiles from North Korea. this whole hijacking story could have 152 . especially since some shipments were made on Pakistani military aircraft. the Pakistani government must have known something about how its new missile fleet materialized. Four days later. If it had been for the murder that the hijackers committed was who not and their success in achieving their aim of securing the release of jailed terrorists in India terrorists who were later to enter Pakistan and mastermind further murders and play a role in the suicide attacks of September 11th 2001 in New York.
which was to be delivered in cash. Gen. and Omar Shaikh. implicated in helping to fund Trade center in New York. a Pakistani Corps commander (148). and disappeared from Kandahar Omar Shaikh was later the attacks on the World was finally arrested for the murder of the Jewish-American reporter Daniel Pearl. the hijackers were provided with new weapons in Kandahar. where it came under control of Pakistan's puppet Taliban government. Amritsar and Lahore. When that was decided to be impracticable. and his body thrown out of the aircraft while his wife remained on board for the rest of the duration of the hijack. Mohammad Arshad Cheema (146). After a 1971 hijack the hijackers were granted asylum in Pakistan. including Maulana Masood Azhar the founder of the Pakistan based terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammad. The plane was then flown to Kandahar in Afghanistan. The released terrorists and resurfaced in Pakistan. as reported by a French tourist hostage who survived the ordeal (147). On Aziz's instructions the hijackers demanded a ransom of nearly one million US dollars. the money was deposited in the account of a Pakistani diplomat in Delhi. In a surreal turn of events. The five hijackers actually received their weapons in a diplomatic bag checked in by Pakistani First Secretary in Nepal. Indian intelligence agencies who monitored and recorded the communications of the hijackers on the aircraft in Kandahar found them receiving instructions from Lt.come out of a B-grade semi-comic motion picture. The hijacked aircraft was flown to the UAE. Mohammad Aziz. and the newlywed husband of a honeymooning couple was murdered by slashing his throat. Pakistan's record with reference to Indian airliners hijacked to Pakistan has been condemnable. and 153 . The hijackers also secured the release of three dangerous Pakistani terrorists in prison in India.
154 . leader of Jaish-i-Mohammad. Dawood Ibrahim. man behind the attack on India's parliament on December 13.the aircraft blown up on the ground. murder and smuggling. Pakistan. and obtain refuge. the hijackers were given refuge in Pakistan. And in an unbelievable second hijacking event in 1984. funding alleged criminals. the hijackers were imprisoned for a token one month in Pakistan for entering Pakistan without due documents. In two instances of hijacking in 1981 and 1984. 2001 in which 38 people were killed. 2001. Maulana Masood Azhar. Hafiz Mohammad Saeed. He lives in and operates from Karachi. Ibrahim is wanted in connection with cases of arms supply. He is also wanted for an attack on the J&K Assembly on Oct 1. counterfeiting. 2. an Indian underworld don. and a brief description of their activities (150): 1. He operates from Muridke town. Pakistan. near Lahore in Pakistan. The following is a list of names of the twenty. He currently lives in and operates from Bahawalpur. Refuge for Criminals: Pakistan has positioned itself as an ideal place for any criminal from India to seek. After a 1976 hijack. man behind the planning and financing of 13 explosions in Mumbai in 1993 in which almost 300 people died. the hijackers received a weapon along with snacks in Lahore (149). co-founder of Lashkar-e-Toiba. drugs trade. also blamed for the attack on parliament in New Delhi. 3. India has a list of 20 most wanted criminals who are living in Pakistan.
which later changed its name to Harkat-ul-Mujahideen. accused of executing the 1993 Mumbai blasts. He is currently living in Pakistan. blackmail of businessmen and film stars in India. kidnapping. Abdul Razzak. He currently operates from Muzaffarabad. India. Zahoor Ibrahim Mistri. 6. accused of involvement in the Mumbai blasts. Ibrahim Athar. Pakistan. He is wanted in cases of terrorism and smuggling. extortion.4. He is wanted in cases of murder. accused of executing the 1993 Mumbai blasts. He is a member of Jaish-i-Mohammad and is wanted for hijacking. He is wanted in connection with the hijacking of IC-814 and 155 . Chhota Shakeel. 5. Pakistan. 7. a member of Harkat-ul-Ansar. terrorism and smuggling arms and explosives in India. 8. an associate of Maulana Azhar Masood and was one of the hijackers of Indian Airlines flight IC-814 from Kathmandu to Delhi in 1999. Pakistan. kidnapping. Syed Salahuddin. head of Hizbul Mujahideen. He is alleged to have helped his brother Ibrahim Memon carry out the blasts. He is wanted in cases of terrorism and arms smuggling. Wanted for murder. Pakistan. Pakistan. Ayub Memon. which has claimed responsibility for dozens of attacks on Indian forces in Kashmir."Tiger" Ibrahim Memon. He lives in and operates from Karachi. 10. lives in and 9. kidnapping and murder. a key associate of Dawood Ibrahim. He currently lives in and operates from Bahawalpur. He lives in and operates from Karachi. extortion. He lives in and operates from Karachi.
chief of Sikh group Babbar Khalsa International. 15. Pakistan. Wadhawan Singh Babbar. 11. Pakistan. bomb blasts and smuggling of arms in India. Pakistan. Pakistan. Azhar Yusuf. Shahid Akhtar Sayed.K. Advani. He lives in and operates from Karachi. He lives in and operates from Karachi. He lives in and operates from Lahore. is wanted in connection with a conspiracy to kill Indian Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister L. Pakistan. 16. which was involved in an insurgency in East Punjab during the 1980s.in cases of kidnapping and murder. operates from Karachi. murder and in connection with the assassination of East Punjab's then chief minister Beant Singh. 12. Pakistan. He is wanted in cases of murder. Sagir Sabir Ali Shaikh. He is wanted in over a dozen cases of sedition. 17. He lives in and operates from Karachi. 14. Ranjit Singh Neeta. He lives in and operates from Lahore. wanted in the IC-814 hijacking case and in cases of kidnapping and murder. chief of Khalistan Zindabad Force. He lives in and operates from 156 . is also wanted in connection with the conspiracy to kill Advani. He lives in and 13. a Kashmiri terrorist blamed for more than 30 bomb blasts in Delhi and parts of northern India in 1996-97. is wanted He lives in and for the IC-814 hijacking and for kidnapping and murder. an associate of Dawood Ibrahim. Pakistan. Ishaq Atta Hussain. an associate of Dawood Ibrahim. operates from Karachi. Abdul Karim.
Gajinder Singh. 18. conspiracy to attack government leaders in Delhi and inciting religious hatred in East Punjab. Paramjit Singh Panjwar. He lives in and operates from Lahore. conspiracy and arms smuggling. Pakistan. the Islamist extremist group that was founded by Maulana Masood Azhar. 19. Pakistan. is wanted in cases of arms smuggling. leader of the International Sikh Youth Federation. He lives in and operates from Lahore. Lakhbir Singh Rode.Lahore. according to a report. Dawood Ibrahim was subsequently designated a global terrorist by the US for his links with Al Quaeda and the Lashkar-e-Tayeba. which the inspector general of Sindh police said was "ostensibly owned by Ahmed Jamal but actually belonged to Dawood Ibrahim". He is accused of trying to revive the Sikh insurgency in East Punjab and is wanted in more than a dozen cases of murder. 20 . is accused of hijacking an Indian Airlines plane from Srinagar to Delhi in 1981. leader of the Khalistan Commando Force. Pakistan. Rediff reported (151): Pakistan has admitted gangster Dawood Ibrahim's presence in the country. the Kawish Crown Plaza. Pakistani journal The Herald said. He was arrested by Pakistan after he hijacked the plane to Lahore and tried. leader of Sikh group Dal Khalsa. treason. the first man on India's 157 . Dawood Ibrahim in Pakistan in September 2003 after news of a bomb blast in Karachi. He lives in and operates from Lahore. Pakistan. Pakistan admitted the presence of the third man on the list. The admission came after a bomb blast at a Karachi business centre.
one of the prisoners released by India after the 1999 hijacking of an Indian Airlines aircraft to Kandahar in Afghanistan. which apparently intended to destabilize the Indian economy by flooding India with fake currency. The right contacts can ensure that Pakistani counterfeit 158 . The Pakistani ambassador tried to stop the arrest claiming diplomatic immunity for the staffer but it turned out that he did not have diplomatic immunity. a staffer from the visa section of the Pakistan embassy in Nepal was arrested in Kathmandu (Nepal) after passing counterfeit Indian currency to Nepalese police in a sting operation. With Indian currency being valid in Nepal. The Indian Express reported (152): Officials said the quality of fake notes was "such that it could only be printed in security presses". in an apparent hint that Pakistan was indulging in massive printing of fake notes to abet its terrorist activities against India.Most wanted list.the range depending on the buyers' bargaining skills and the volume required.25) in exchange for every Pakistani-made Rs 100 note . One report (153) quoted the street value of the Pakistan made counterfeit currency in India: The prevailing price for counterfeit currency in Punjab is Rs 40-60 (83 US cents-$1. Printing and circulation of counterfeit currency: In January 2000. that country was a natural choice for anti-India activities from Pakistan.
Joint Commissioner of Police.. The high quality of the counterfeit notes and official sponsorship of this and other criminal activities by Pakistani governmental agencies is a frightening indicator of the chaotic state that Pakistan is in with no expense being spared to prepare for war or jihad against India and very little being spent on development and education within Pakistan. "The counterfeit currency notes were sent for damaging the Indian economy. U K Katna said. 159 . Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan has been providing logistical support to the underworld dons for flooding the Indian market with counterfeit currency with the sole aim of creating panic in the Indian market. Butki is a front man of notorious mafia don Dawood Ibrahim and controls the gang for pumping fake currency into India through the porous Indo-Nepal border. Another report of the arrest counterfeit currency said (154): of a man carrying The racket was being remote controlled by Aftab Butki from Dubai in United Arab Emirates (UAE).currency is available even cheaper. Crime Branch.
A passage attributed to him says (155): "Pakistan" is both a Persian and an Urdu word. It symbolizes the religions. That is. Afghania (North West Frontier Province). It is composed of letters taken from the names of all our homelands . which was part of Pakistan until it seceded with the creation of Bangladesh. Such an acronym is non-existent when the name is written in Urdu. It is not clear if Rehmat Ali was one of these students. Afghanistan. It seems more likely that the acronym theory of the name is a confabulation. Iran. Sindh (including Karachi and Kathiawar). Another theory is that the acronym was composed by a group of students in Cambridge in England. In the first place. It means the land of the Paks-the spiritually pure and clean.Chapter 15 PAKISTAN FAILED STATE The credit for coining the name Pakistan probably goes to one Choudhry Rehmat Ali who is said to have thought of the name in 1933 as an acronym containing letters from the names of all the areas which this man thought were representative of the ancestry of his people."Indian" and "Asian". beliefs and the ethnical stocks of our people. a plausible but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what 160 . Tukharistan. Kashmir. and it stands for all the territorial constituents of our original Fatherland. A second curious anomaly is that the name of this nation that is claimed to be derived from Urdu and Persian is composed of letters in the English alphabet with the English letters forming the acronym. The theory that Pakistan is an acronym does not stand up to scrutiny. Punjab. and Baluchistan. the Pakistan described by the acronym includes Iran and Central Asia (Tukharistan) as part of Pakistan and makes no mention of East Bengal.
is remembered as to how Pakistan got its name. Classical Hindi and English defines Paki as Purity . They are the Rich Anglophone Pakistani Elite. Ultimately. Christians.or purity with a narrow definition has certainly played a role in Pakistan's undoing. and Indians were impure and were rejected. poverty and greed were all minor blips in the route to Pakistan's mythical purity. and can only be grasped in relation to something else that is impure. sometimes facetiously referred to by the acronym of that name. rather than concentrate on nation building. corruption. Social imbalance. That stress on purity . Minorities and religious groups in Pakistan were impure Hindus. the stress on pure Islam and a nation purely for Muslims. Sikhs. To define purity. The dictionary of Urdu.P. very rich class of Pakistani. the very rich and the very poor and these classes comprise 90% of Pakistan's population. there are only two main classes of society in Pakistan. one must simultaneously define what is impure. is perhaps an apt description of what 161 . that has Urdu as its official language suggests that the real origin of the name Pakistan derives from the Urdu word Paki. There is a very small. Purity is a subjective concept. India. Further purity was required by fighting wars and making sacrifices. As noted in chapter 2.with stan meaning country (156).A. and Pakistanis have spent the years since 1947 years struggling to weed out anything that they consider impure. Ahmediyas and later even Shia Muslims in Pakistan were not pure enough for Pakistan. The acronym R. Conditions of life for a Pakistani depend on what class of society one belongs to and whether one lives in a rural or urban area.E.
But 90 percent of Pakistanis are rarely seen or heard outside Pakistan. They live in fabulous mansions. The elite are educated. They are the servants. and the army staff who served the small gathering had apparently been trained at a fivestar hotel. Rome. Geneva. the discreet lighting. the waiters. the handsome men clad in lounge suits or traditional sherwanis. maintained and supported by armies of servants. Irfan Husain wrote in the Dawn: An old friend was recently invited to a serving general's official residence for a small dinner party. Paris. These charmed people are the Pakistanis that we see and hear. actors and society people.. They travel.. London. and are familiar with all the major cities that a man of this world should know about New York. the 162 . often in the best schools and universities of the world. the mascara and lipstick adorned women in designer dresses. who may own thousands of acres of land. They are the feudal lords. the sweepers.The food and refreshments were of the highest quality. They are seen in parties and receptions attended by friends and diplomats. and came away hugely impressed by the acres of immaculate lawns..this class have been doing to Pakistan. No burkha (veil) for these women. the casual laborers and sharecroppers.. Their photographs appear in glossy magazines and on the Internet. The lifestyles of these people can be compared to that of the rich and famous anywhere. or they might be serving or retired army officers. These are the beautiful people. the tasteful furnishings and the overall level of luxury. They might be rich industrialists and businessmen.
Pakistani leaders. if seen at all. are covered in burqas as expected of women in Islamic Pakistan. human life and 163 effort to somehow equal. poverty and destitution are accepted by some people as the will of Allah that cannot be questioned or mitigated. The men wear crumpled and seemingly unwashed salwar suits. The women. They can be seen on Pakistani streets and in the villages. are above blame. Any education that can be gained. time. More than half these people do not earn enough money for a decent life. . in the few places where schools exist. Most earn less than the equivalent of US $1 per day. The women do not work outside the home and may have four or more children to bring up. Life is harsh. Pakistani leaders have sacrificed enormous and fruitless amounts of money. Malnutrition is rampant. or in times of illness or drought. For more than five decades since independence. Even those who earn more than that often sink below poverty level at certain times of the year.goatherds and the cleaners with their wives and their children. But girls are not allowed. That is a welcome source of relief for a very poor family with many children to care for. as is lack of education. Others try to migrate to Europe and beyond. can be gained only from madrassas that often provide food and shelter for its students. Others are angry and frustrated at their lot and these people are told by their elite masters that poverty and hardship are because of Indian aggression or some other extraneous factor. being Islamic and who appear forever busy to defend Pakistan. and many try to find work in the Middle East to earn a living as menial laborers. The hard life. and girls are not sent to schools either. And that has been an integral part of Pakistan's problem. hunger.
and development of the poor was bypassed as usual. and businesses were custom made for employing them. Money from any source was poured developing nuclear weapons to deter India. Money was diverted to training Islamist operatives for covert operations against India. and later to defend against an India that had no intention of attacking Pakistan. gun running or currency counterfeiting swallowed funds that should have gone into schools and healthcare in Pakistan. Israel. but even then the wasteful expenditure did not stop. while the stoic Pakistani public. India.Islam.match or defeat India. or is internalised as people not being "Islamic" enough. with women and children at the bottom of the pile received little. The madrassa is the place where students' physical hunger is assuaged. In the midst of this. Money and effort that should have gone into building schools. but their emotional hunger for explanations 164 . the poor of Pakistan are left with the only succour they can get . Even criminal activity aimed against India. The build up of Pakistani armed forces into a formidable war machine was initially to defeat India and take Kashmir. And even that is used against Pakistan's arch enemy. to be directed at India. and a system of salaries and pensions had to be set up for them. Anger is carefully re-directed away from the ruling elite. Pakistan was halved when Bangladesh seceded. The anger is compounded by what is taught in schools and madrassas following curricula that actively teach hatred and discrimination to impressionable children. Popular devotion to Islam is channelled to provide an endless supply of men for jihad. roads and hospitals in Pakistan was spent on building a war machine that could never overwhelm an India that was just too big. The bloated ranks of army retirees had to be accommodated. the US or other Western nations.
A woman's place is in the home . they are generally uneducated. The people are docile. On the one hand the society has a small minority of wealthy and emancipated people among whom women can get educated and work. either alone. They do not easily rise up in revolt against tyranny or injustice. Every son sent to a madrassa is one mouth less to feed for a poor family. or a woman who marries against the wishes of her family is considered to be committing a crime by bringing dishonour on the family .she is not supposed to be seen outside. but individuals in such a society grow up in 165 . But women hold the key to family honour. the level of education for women is invariably less than that of men. The other extreme is the harsh life of a woman living under the two or and burden of strict discriminatory rules. and sending one son to die for jihad financial reward to the family. Between these extremes are a vast mass of Pakistanis who are more less generally poor. Boys are preferred in all ways in this male-dominated society. marry and produce children. Pakistani society has both extremes. A woman who breaks rules by exposing herself or by being seen with a non-approved male companion.an act that is punishable by death. The girl child gets less food and is more likely to die of malnutrition and disease. as the British had found them. The ratio of men to women in Pakistan is grossly skewed with many more men than women. live at home until they come of age. brings honour and Girls grow up uneducated.about the miserable existence of their families is often met by a call for violent jihad against forces that are blamed for hunger and misery. or in the company of a man who is not her husband or father.
is under threat from India. the army businesses do well. schools. Islam. Pakistan is controlled by an oligarchy of a thousand individuals or so (157) in a few dozen families. and access to family planning so that births can be spaced out. The only funding that reaches this level comes from unaccounted and unaccountable sources funding the madrassas that preach an agenda of hatred and jihad. This ruling elite is composed of senior army officers. fuel oil and cement.conditions that make their minds receptive indoctrination into a life of terrorism and jihad. people and will to provide these things never reach the population. Pakistanis have been told that the army and the ruling elite have protected Pakistan and Islam from these external threats. roads. But the money. Time and again Pakistani leaders change masks depending 166 . the ruling elite of Pakistan behave like moderate. The to people need clean drinking water. be it government funds. health care. aid money or export profits is split up and shared by a small percentage of wealthy people at the top. giving a mother time to recover and nurse an earlier child before bearing another child. The Army gets money. All the money in Pakistan. The 140 million mostly poor people of Pakistan are kept in check with the excuse that their faith. For aid givers like the US and rich Western nations. as well as feudal landowners. and other nations. and very little reaches the Pakistani on the ground. business magnates controlling key businesses such as transport. For the survival of corrupt business interests in Pakistan the elite must remain in power and not be bothered by rebellion or the uncertainties of democracy. the businessmen and feudal lords get money. secular and well-intentioned democrats who are keeping Islamic fundamentalism at bay.
167 . that fighting to hold fundamentalist more aid and lifting of sanctions the prevention of a Islamic fundamentalist takeover of Pakistan.on whom they are addressing. To their deprived population. Each member of this elite community knows that too much action in curbing or controlling the vast business empires of their rivals will upset one's own business interests. and allowed to keep all the wealth that he had earned from nuclear proliferation activities. The threat that is held up is that if the ruling clique goes. while appearing moderate to aid givers. In the meantime the ruling clique in Pakistan ensures its own survival. the US administration and some US think tanks seem to believe this providing the ideal setting for Pakistani rulers to play a double game of pretending to be devoutly Islamic for their people. while people are constantly fed with the anti-Muslim India threat. The ruling clique of Pakistan stands to gain from this form of loose cooperation in which all the business interests survive at the expense of the constitution and law. and speak in Urdu. Whether this is likely or not. Pakistan will sink into an uncontrollable morass of 160 million hankering for an Islamic state. along with sops to keep them happy. They are gently sidelined. he was publicly pardoned by Pakistani President General Musharraf. Opponents are rarely killed. speaking in English to aid givers and donors. punished severely or publicly humiliated. Western aid givers are the ruling elite are forces at bay and that are essential for told what they want to hear. This mechanism was clearly illustrated after the father of Pakistan's nuclear bomb Abdul Qadeer Khan made a public confession that he was responsible for the proliferation of nuclear technology (chapter 13). They appear in Western suits or crisp army uniforms. Within a day. they appear in traditional Pakistani salwar suits.
and their level of education is falling. The rich get richer and the poor get poorer. and the population of the poor is rising rapidly. because of the US' war on terror. even as the human condition of the people in Pakistan has gradually deteriorated. But in the course of the same speech. using Islamic examples. or more recently. External anti-Islamic forces are always to blame. He spoke in English initially. elite and feudal leadership of Pakistan will be under no pressure to change. The powerful and wealthy groups of Pakistan stand to lose their money and lifestyles if funds are diverted to education. knowing that this would be understood by viewers in the US.When Pakistani President and Army Chief Pervez Musharraf was given an ultimatum by the US government in September 2001 that he could be With the US or against the US in its war on terror. This ploy is a fail safe formula that has allowed the survival of the Pakistani oligarchy so far. No power on earth can coax this small group of rich and powerful Pakistanis that wealth in a nation has to be shared and spread around for development of society and the nation as a whole. health care and development of the poor. These people will form a huge mass of uneducated and unemployed 168 . saying words of support to please the US. The average poor Pakistani is taught that his misery is because of Indian aggression. told them that his alliance with the US was akin to a temporary alliance with the devil to deter an immediate threat. he addressed Pakistanis in Urdu and. he made his decision to support the US in a speech (56) that used the time tested Pakistani mask-changing routine to address different groups of people. As long as the poor can be left to vent their anger against some external foe by joining jihad or accepting their misery as Allah's will the rich army.
people in a few years' time. The ruling elite of Pakistan are engaged in a strange experiment in which they seem out of touch with reality. They exist on a different plane from the poor and they do not seem to understand that the burgeoning population of the poor, and the anger that is now being channeled against India or the West can turn inwards. The poor are over 100 million strong now but will be twice that number in a single generation, and they will be jobless, hungry and angry. Nations like India, China, Russia and Western countries, who have all had to face the violent consequences of trained jihadi fighters from Pakistan are vigorously resisting and neutralizing them. The forces of jihad are unlikely to receive sanctuary or be allowed to survive in these nations in the current geo-political scenario. Faced with such pressure outside Pakistan, thousands of indoctrinated, armed and dangerous young men could well turn inwards at Pakistani rulers, blaming them for their inability to help in the victory of jihad over unbelievers. If Pakistani leaders can show constant military victories, it is likely that their population will at least temporarily continue to be happy at the successes. But when low-tech irregular Islamic militias spawned by the Pakistani army and governments are unable to achieve victories despite tremendous losses, they are increasingly likely to ask the leaders of Pakistan, the army and the elite why they are being defeated. From the beginning Pakistanis, rich or poor have had no sense of nationhood, no sense of whom and what they are other than being a group of Muslims who have escaped from India. Every effort at development and good governance has been destroyed by a vested interest, always living in the vain hope that some Western nation, or rich Islamic 169
nation will bail the country out. Democracy was first derailed by the migrant bureaucracy who had moved to Pakistan from India. Later it was the army that stood to lose from democracy. Political parties have been disempowered, and the judiciary lives under the shadow of the army. The only forces that are gaining strength are those of fundamentalist Islam, the forces that seek to fight India or the US, or even Shias within Pakistan. The two most powerful groups in Pakistan today are the army and Islamic groups, Pakistan is getting to the stage when the Islamic groups have infiltrated into the ranks of the army and appear set to take control of Pakistan. The Islamic groups themselves are divided, and their unity may only last as long as it takes for them to gain control of Pakistan. None of these powerful groups seems to be interested in development or progress. No group seems set to allow modern education, peace with India, women's rights or birth control in Pakistan, all essential for progress. The political parties and democratic forces did not do this. The army did not do it and the Islamic groups do not show any intent of fostering a progressive Pakistan. Predictably, they too are careening down the path of more and purer Islam as the answer to Pakistan's problems. And worse for Pakistan, Islamist groups, with trans-national loyalties, cannot be guaranteed to be interested in the territorial integrity and borders of Pakistan as they exist. And so the disease eating Pakistan from the inside continues. Jessica Stern wrote (119): Pakistan is a weak state, and government policies are making it weaker still. 170 Its disastrous economy,
exacerbated by a series of corrupt leaders, is at the root of many of its problems. Yet despite its poverty, Pakistan is spending hundreds of millions of dollars on weapons instead of schools and public health. Ironically, the government's "cost-saving" measures are even more troubling. In trying to save money in the short run by using irregulars in Kashmir and relying on madrasahs to educate its youth, Pakistan is pursuing a path that is likely to be disastrous in the long run, culture of violence to take root. allowing a
Pakistan is in an unstable state and there appears to be no leader who can show Pakistan a way out. Too many Pakistanis have been taught that they exist only for Islam and for jihad and these people are now caught between the twin pincers of the global war on terror being conducted by many nations on the one hand, and by the rich and corrupt Pakistani rulers on the other. The long term outlook for Pakistan does not appear encouraging. In a paper on Pakistan, Stephen Cohen wrote (158): When security, human services, justice, and necessities are not provided, states fail.
Pakistan can be compared to a broken biscuit whose pieces are held together by some wrapping paper. The area labelled as Pakistan on maps is called Pakistan, but that area is not wholly under the control of any single government or leadership, as one would expect of a normally functioning nation-state. The first fragment of the biscuit that broke off was Bangladesh, in 1971. There is no guarantee that the other fragments dysfunctional state will hold together. of this
Pakistan is already a nation that is only partially under control of its government which is basically the army. 171
Only 5% of Baluchistan, Pakistan's largest province, is under Pakistani control. Tribal law rules the sparsely populated land. The Pakistani government has little or no control over the Federally Administered Tribal Areas the so called FATA. Areas of Pakistan's first city, Karachi, are outside government control. Gaining control of Pakistan is easier said than done. As indicated in Chapter 12, weapons. The FATA areas arms factories and shops million illegal firearms, Pakistan is awash with illegal are home to hundreds of small that sell them (151). With 18 Pakistanis outside the military
and government have enough weapons to equip several armies, and anyone trying to bring heavily armed private militias under control will have to contend with a lot of firepower. But as the history of nations shows, if the Pakistan government is unable to control its own territory, someone else is likely to step in to fill the vacuum sooner or later. Therein lies the real significance of having large areas in a country that are out of governmental control. The fact that a government can only govern areas that it controls means that areas beyond government rule are ripe for control by some other force or alternate government. These schisms are begging to be exploited. The United States already has a powerful military presence in Pakistan, and perhaps that is an eerie harbinger of yet another civilization set to rule this lawless land. Pakistan is perhaps fortunate that the nation state of India is not yet as adept and conscious of international hegemonic games and how India can interfere to bring law and order to the fraying edges of Pakistan. But that may be changing as the lawlessness of Pakistan continues to spill into an increasingly powerful India as terrorism, 172
forcing India to become conscious responsibility in the region. of its role and 173 .
then from Sia1kot and finally in a mass in the area adjoining-Hazara district on the Ramkote side. salt and petrol to my State.com/LegalDocs/Maharaja_letter.APPENDIX 1 http://www. I to accordingly enter into approached Dominions and Pakistan standstill agreement with my State. lhe Govemment permitted a steady and increasing strangulation of supplies like food. As Your Excellency is aware. Though we have got a standstill agreement with the Pakistan Government.html Letter from Maharaja Hari Singh to Lord Mountbatten on the eve of Pak invasion on J&K in 1947 My dear Lord Mountbatten. I have to inform Your Excellency that a grave emergency has arisen in my State and request the immediate assistance of your Government. Geographically my State is contiguous wit h both of them.kashmir-information. at first in the Poonch area. I could not arrange this in view of the developments indicated below. Besides. Afridis. ln fact the Pakistan Goernment under the standstill agreement is operating the post and telegraph system inside the State. soldiers in plain clothes. I wanted to take time to decide to which Dominion I should accede or whether it is not in the best interests of both the Dominions and of my State to stand independent. The Dominion of India desired further discussion with representatives of my Government. and desperadoes wnh modern weapons have been allowed to infiltrate into the State. In their external relations the Dominion of India and Pakistan cannot ignore this fact.the State of Jammu and Kashmir has not acceded to either the Dominion of India or Pakistan. of course with friendly the and cordial of relations India with both. The Pakistan Government accepted this arrangement. The result has been that the limited number of troops at the disposal of the State had to 174 . my State has a common boundary with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and with China.
In fact. so that it has become difficult to stop the wanton destruction of life ad property and the looting of the Mahura power house. V. cannot of possibly be done of without the knowledge made of by the my Provincial Govemment of the North-West Frontier Province and the Government Pakistan. using the Manwehra-Mazaffarabad road and fully armed with up-to-date weapons. if further explanation is 175 . The number of women who have been kidnpped and raped makes my heart bleed.The mass infiltration of tribesman drawn from distant areas of the North-West Frontier Province. both Muslims and non-Muslims.P. as a first step to overrunning the whole State. Menon is fully aware of the gravity of the situation and will explain it to you. I may also inform your Excellency's Government that it is my intention at once to set up an interim government and to ask Sheikh Abdullah to carry the responsibilities in this emergency with my Prime Minister. coming regularly in motortrucks. Inspite repeated appeals Government no attempt has been made to check these raiders or to stop them from coming into my State. I have accordingly decided to do so. needed. both radio and the Press of Pakistan have reported these occurences. This alternative I will never allow to happen so long as I am the ruler of the State and I have life to defend my country. The wild forces thus let loose on the State are marching on with the aim of capturing Srinagar. immediate assistance must be available at Srinagar. The people of my State. Naturally they cannot send the help asked for by me without my State acceding to the Dominion of India. If my State is to be saved. Mr. With the conditions obtaining at present in my State and the great emergency of the situation as it exists. and I attach the instrument of accession for acceptance by your Government. The Pakistan radio even put out the story that a provisional government has been set up in Kashmir.be dispersed and thus had to face the enemy at several points simultaneously. On this basis no civilised government can exist or be maintained. I have no option but to ask for help from the Indian Dominion. the summer capital of my government. The other alternative is to leave my state and people to free booters. which supplies electric current to the whole of Srinagar and which has been burnt. generally have taken no part at all.
Hari Singh October 26.In haste and with kindest regards. 1947 176 . Yours sincerely.
1950. (2) The establishment of a cease-fire line on July 27. Considering should be that based the upon resolution the of the outstanding measure of difficulties agreement of substantial fundamental principles already reached.mtholyoke. 1949. 1949. THE SECURITY COUNCIL.edu/acad/intrel/kashun80. and commending the parties in particular for their action in partially implementing these Resolutions by (1) The cessation of hostilities effected January 1.htm Resolution 80 (1950) Concerning the India-Pakistan question. submitted by the Representatives of Cuba. L. Commending the Governments of India and Pakistan for their statesman like action in reaching the agreements embodied in the United Nations Commission's resolutions of August 13. S/1469). dated the 14th March. McNaughton on the outcome of his discussions with the representatives of India and Pakistan which were initiated in pursuance of the decision taken by the Security Council on December 17. Having also received and noted the report of General A. 1949 for a cease-fire. (Document No. Having received and noted the reports of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan establishing its resolutions 39 (1948) of 20 January and 47 (1948) of 21 April 1948. 1948 and January 5. United Kingdom and United States and adopted by the Security Council on March 14. Nimitz shall be Plebiscite Administrator. Norway. G. Kashmir and for for the the demilitarisation determination of of the its State final of Jammu and in disposition accordance with the will of the people through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite. and that steps should be taken forthwith for the demilitarisation of the State and for the expeditious determination of its future in accordance with the freely expressed will of the inhabitants. 1950). 177 .APPENDIX 2 http://www. and (3) The agreement that Fleet Admiral Chester W. 1949.
McNaughton for their arduous and fruitful labours. (b) to place himself at the disposal of the Governments of India and Pakistan and to place before those Governments or the Security Council any suggestions which. are likely to contribute to the expeditious and enduring solution of the dispute which has arisen between the two Governments in regard to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Extends its best thanks to the members of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan and to General A. to prepare and execute within a period of five months from the date of this resolution a programme of demilitarisation on the basis of the principles of paragraph 2 of General McNaughton proposal or of such modifications of those principles as may be mutually agreed. in his opinion. Requests the two Governments to take all necessary precautions to ensure that (heir agreements regarding the cease-fire shall continue to be faithfully observed. 1948 and January 5. G. without prejudice to their rights or claims and with due regard to the requirements of law and order. 2. Agrees that the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan 178 .1. L. Decides to appoint a United Nations Representative for the following purposes who shall have authority to perform his functions in such place or places as he may deem appropriate. submitting his conclusions and any recommendations which he may desire to make. 3. to arrange at the appropriate stage of demilitarisation for the assumption by the Plebiscite Administrator of the functions assigned to the latter under agreements made between the parties. 1949. 4. to report to the Security Council as he may consider necessary. Calls upon the Governments of India and Pakistan to make immediate arrangements. and "calls upon them to take all possible measures to ensure the creation and maintenance of 'in atmosphere favourable to the promotion of further negotiations. 5. (a) to assist in the preparation and to supervise the implementation of the programme of demilitarisation referred to above and' to interpret the agreements reached by the parties for demilitarisation. to exercise all of the powers and responsibilities devolving upon the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan by reason of existing resolutions of the Security Council and by reason of the agreement of the parties embodied in the Resolutions of the United Nations Commission of August 13.
U.A. Against: None Abstaining: India and Yugoslavia Absent : USSR 179 . The Security Council voted on this Resolution on 14-3-50 with the following result: In favour: China.shall be (terminated. Norway. and decides that this shall take place one month after both parties have informed the United Nations Representative of their acceptance of the transfer to him the powers and responsibilities of the United Nations Commission referred to in paragraph 2 (c) above. Egypt. and U. France.K.S. Cuba. Ecuador.
indianembassy.APPENDIX 3 http://www. 1966 The 1965 armed to an conflict end by between India and Pakistan at was formally the brought signing this declaration Tashkent. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan. capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Soviet Union. I The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agree that both sides will exert all efforts to create good neighborly relations between India and Pakistan in accordance with the United Nations Charter. consider the attainment of these objectives of vital importance for the welfare of the 600 million people of India and Pakistan.html Tashkent Declaration January 10. It was against this background that Jammu and Kashmir was discussed. and each of the sides set forth its respective position. Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and President Ayub Khan signed it on behalf of their respective countries in the presence of the Soviet Premier Alexi Kosygin who mediated between them. They reaffirm their obligation under the Charter not to have recourse to force and to settle their disputes through peaceful means. the interests of the people so India and Pakistan were not served by the continuance of tension between the two countries. II 180 . having met at Tashkent and having discussed the existing relations between India and Pakistan. hereby declare their firm resolve to restore normal and peaceful relations and between their countries between and to promote They understanding friendly relations their peoples.org/South_Asia/Pakistan/Tashkent_Declaration_January_ 10_1966. indeed. They considered that the interests of peace in their region and particularly in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent and.
as well as cultural exchanges between India and Pakistan. and will encourage propaganda which promotes the development of friendly relations between the two countries.The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that all armed personnel of the two countries shall be withdrawn not later than 24 February. 1965. Both Government shall observe the Vienna Convention of 1961 on Diplomatic Intercourse. 1966. III The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that relations between India and Pakistan shall be based on the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of each other. 181 . and both sides all observe the cease-fire terms on the cease-fire line. VI The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed to consider measures towards the restoration of economic and trade relations. and to take measures to implement the existing agreements between India and Pakistan. communications. to the positions they held prior to 5 August. IV The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that both sides will discourage any propaganda directed against the other country. V The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the High Commissioner of India to Pakistan and the High Commissioner of Pakistan to India will return to their posts and that the normal functioning of diplomatic missions of both countries will be restored.
S.VII The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that they will give instructions to their respective authorities to carry out the repatriation of the prisoners of war. friendly and noble part in bringing about the present meeting which has resulted in mutually satisfactory results. the the Soviet of Government of and the personally U. They also agreed that both sides will create conditions which will prevent the exodus of people.S. Both sides have recognized the need to set up joint Indian-Pakistani bodies which will report to their Governments in order to decide what further steps should be taken. They invite the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR to 182 . They further agreed to discuss the return of the property and assets taken over by either side in connection with the conflict. to the Chairman Council Ministers for their constructive.R. VIII The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the two sides will continue the discussion of questions relating to the problems of refugees and eviction/illegal immigrations. They also express to the Government and friendly people of Uzbekistan their sincere thankfulness for their overwhelming reception and generous hospitality. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan recorded their feelings of deep appreciation and gratitude to the leaders of the Soviet of Union. IX The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the two sides will continue meetings both at the highest and at other levels on matters of direct concern to both countries.
000.com/news/nation/2003/november/67781.000 per month ensures that the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) meets its manpower requirements.000. area of operation. A district commander gets around Rs 20.htm Terrorists earn a peon's wage By: M K Tayal November 2. The pay scale is not rigid as it varies depending on the risks one is willing to take and his commitment to the cause.000. enrol himself at a training camp in Pakistan. one thing is clear that Kashmiri youth get a raw deal compared to the Pakistani or foreign counterpart.000.000. Nevertheless. the ISI maintains dossiers and gives annual marks to its cadres very much like the Pakistan Army does for its regular employees.witness this declaration. Payments relate directly to performance. the annual increment increases. infiltrate India. A Kashmiri company or battalion gets from Rs 5. not every terrorist gets Rs 3.000. The rank and file from Pakistan or Afghanistan or any other country gets a starting salary of Rs 5. fire at the Army and possibly never return home? It is a small pay package that equals the wage of a peon or driver. APPENDIX 4 http://web. a 183 . 2003 What motivates a young man to take up terrorism. The Kashmiri mujahideen is paid less by the ISI than a Pakistani terrorist. With the number of years one puts in. The higher they go.000 to Rs 10. motivation level and other HR criterion. However. Commanders get much more. the heftier the pay package and the more discreet it becomes.000 that can go up to Rs 7. Lashkar-e-Taiba's (LeT) Doda district commander Mohd Shahzad. In short.mid-day. The lure of a mere Rs 3. number of casualties the terrorist has inflicted upon Indian security forces. Some of the more 'enthusiastic' Kashmiri youth get around Rs 5. A commander starts at anything above Rs 25.
captured by the Army after a fierce encounter in September 2003. A Kashmiri gets Rs two lakh as one-time payment to join. Competition and style for instance drive most youth into the realm of the AK-47. The main attraction in joining the ISI is the initial offer. The fidayeens (soldiers on a suicide mission) get highly sophisticated training but their emoluments remain a mystery. 184 . The amount is too tempting for anyone to say 'no'.000 per month but that limit was waived off as a special case.Pakistani national." explains an official. I could get as much as I wanted." Shahzad had said. since naturally none survive to tell their tale. said he came to Jammu & Kashmir to be a jehadi and was paid nearly Rs 20. But it is sure that the money Shahzad got was for operations in his area and his logistical support. There is a catch. he remained silent when asked what was the amount his parents were getting in Pakistan. The basic training at the 85 training camps is the same and involves handling small arms (AK-47) and explosives. His monthly emoluments were being directly sent to his home in Pakistan. There are other factors too at work. If you don't have a gun you don't get good girlfriends and nobody respects you. The second term involves training of special operations-explosives. "Money didn't matter. "It has become a style. LeT's Shahzad said he came to Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) to fight jehadis as he was told harrowing stories of atrocities being committed on the Muslims in the Valley. However. One must go over to Pakistan to get the complete four to five month training and then work his way back into India from the 120 launch pads. Sources also point to the presence of foreign militants who come to the Valley after sessions of intense motivation and psychological drills." a militant said to an army officer serving in the Valley. "Poor economic conditions in the Valley force some to cross over to Pakistan for their training. small unit tactics of raid and ambush and radio communication.
It rewards handsomely.5 lakh. initially the ISI made sure the money was delivered to the militant's parents but as the numbers started dwindling.I felt I had to take revenge but now after fighting the army for more than three years I realise the futility of this 'freedom' movement. 185 . Realising this. However." explained a source. so did it the commitment." he said in a heart-to-heart talk. there have been reports of parents of the deceased militant not getting a single penny. he can make upto Rs 1. "If a militant motivates and enrols another youth. the ISI makes sure that those who help recruit while on the job are not neglected. Though no one complains publicly. However. Kashmiri youths are now averse to taking up the gun while recruitment from Pakistan remains high.
September 28th 2003. online edition.Indian Muslims and Pakistan. Sunday 7th March 2004 http://www.com/richpaki/whoowns.hindustantimes. Pakistan. By Nadeem Malik. The Daily Jang.August 14th 2002.SOURCES AND REFERENCE MATERIAL 1. The Daily Jang.com. Pakistan. online edition. 3. National stock-taking. Human conditions not improving in Pakistan: report. and Operation Pawan. http://jang. The eight conflicts that the Indian armed forces have been involved in since 1947 are the four conflicts with Pakistan described in Chapter 11. Syed Asif Ali and Muddassir Rizvi KARACHI/ISLAMABAD: The Daily Jang. Pakistan. the Indian peacekeeping operations in Northern Sri Lanka in the late 1980s.00300001.htm 6.ht m 2. December 5th 2003. Who Owns Pakistan? Website by Shahid-ur-Rehman http://members.com. http://jang. Pak population will swell to 349m by 2050.com/news/181_602882. online edition. Vir Sanghvi. M B Naqvi.htm 5. Counterpoint. the long running lowgrade war of cross border terrorism from Pakistan described in Chapter 12. Operation Vijay against the Portuguese occupation of Goa in 1961. 186 .pk/thenews/sep2003-daily/26-092003/main/main7.pk/thenews/dec2003daily/05-12-2003/main/main5.htm 4.tripod. the India-China war of 1962.
msnbc.http://jang.statpak.Pakistan has 22 TV sets per 1000 population http://www. The Daily Times.dailytimes. http://www.uk/subjects/sub_content/geogr aphy/Gpop/HTMLENH/stats/tvs. Pakistan. page 2. http://www. Pakistan. Reforming Pakistan's madrassas.a document published by the statistics division. NBC News http://www.htm 12. online edition. The Press for Change. Kavita Menon.asp?page=story_1-82003_pg3_3 8.pk/thenews/aug2002-daily/14-082002/oped/o5.alsagerschool.pdf . Special Report According to London's Financial Times. Donors want poverty trends reversed. Television sets per 1000 people .com.pk/depts/fbs/publications/pocket_b ook2003/chapter02. Musharraf determined to change Muslim schools' 'indoctrination'.pk/default. http://www. http://www.gov. online edition.co. the combined circulation of Pakistan's entire Englishlanguage press is no more than 150. November 6th 2003.com/2003/11/06/op. The Dawn.dawn.htm 7. Pakistan. By Tom Brokaw Anchor. August 1st 2003. by Ravian.000 in a population of 134 million.cpj.org/Briefings/2000/Pakistan_feb00/Pakistan 07feb00Br.html 10. 187 . By Ihtashamul Haque.com.msn.htm 9. Government of Pakistan. Op-ed: Our missing middle.com/id/4264215/ 11.
atimes.13. Deplorable schools angering Pakistanis Issue at the top of voters' agenda Juliette Terzieff. The San Francisco Chronicle. Saturday September 08. 29 Aug 02 http://www. 20th January 2003.com/atimes/South_Asia/DH29Df05.sfgate. The Washington Post. Dr Tariq Rahman.Jang : Opinion. October 10. What and wherefore of Madaris.the Barelvis have 1400.php?sid=7657 17. Thursday. Quaidi-Azam University. The Dawn.and most are still unregistered .com/article. These are the Sunni madrassas" http://light.afgha.org/index. http://www. September 19th 2001.cgi?f=/chronicle/a/2002/10/10/MN155006.com/2003/01/20/fea.com/cgibin/article.centerforsecuritypolicy. Pamela Constable.jsp?section= static&page=alexievpakistan 18.dawn. 2001 . The News . S."At the time of the partition there were 137 madrassas. 2002. The Asia Times online edition. online edition. Center for Security Policy http://www. A. the Deobandis 550 and the Ahl-e-Hadith 347. http://www. Professor of Linguistics and South Asian Studies. Medievalism and Pakistan's madrassas.washingtonpost. Nadeem Iqbal.com/ac2/wp188 . Pakistan.htm1 15. http://www. Chronicle Foreign Service. online edition. Islamabad.In 1950 there were 210 of them while in 1971 they increased to 563. The Pakistani Time Bomb. The madrassas and the have-nots. online edition.DT 14. Jafri. Nowadays there are at least 7000 of hem.html 16. Out of the registered ones . B. Alexei Alexiev.
Madrassas: A make-believe world. Kamila Hyat.dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A592202001Sep19¬Found=true 19. Monday March 08. http://www. Khurshid Hasanain and A. Shireen M Mazari.htm 24. August 10th 2003.jang.pk/thenews/mar2004-daily/10-032004/oped/o3. Nayyar.nyu. June 18. Conflict and Violence in the Educational Process.paktribune.tripod. Zobaida says anti-India material from curricula to be deleted. Fellow. The Daily Jang. online edition http://jang. http://www.org/archive/nayyar_report.com/news/index.The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan".com/atimes/South_Asia/EA14Df01. Others. 2004 (1520 PST) http://www.pk/thenews/aug2003-weekly/nos-10-082003/enc.htm#1 23. Sreedhar. Sr.html 20.atimes. 1998. http://www.zmag.com.com/~no_nukes_sa/chapter_8.sdpi. H.htm 26.html 22. as we know them. "The Subtle Subversion .Pakistan's Economic Dilemma. A not-so-subtle subversion.htm 21. http://members.org/sustainers/content/200009/14hoodbhoy.H. Nayyar and Ahmed Salim. IDSA. http://www. Pakistan.php?id=57435 25. By Aijazz Ahmed http://www.com.edu/globalbeat/southasia/06181998sreedhar1 189 .THE MENACE OF EDUCATION What Are They Teaching In Pakistani Schools Today? by Pervez Hoodbhoy. A.
org/files/Publications/BallisticMissileCh art.00.. Editorial.Pak Link with Nuclear Black Market. had not had time to develop a warhead from the minimal quantities of plutonium 190 . Nuclear Threat Initiative.asp?p=8 28. http://www.nz/stuff/0.htm "According to a report leaked out of the Los Alamos Nuclear Laboratory. The Risk Report Volume 6 Number 6 (November-December 2000).org/countries/china/nukemiles. No 003/Issue Aug 16 http://www.html 30. Subrahmanyam.nti.stratmag. contained traces of plutonium.htm : U. Missile Overview. The Pretence is Over .wisconsinproject.stuff.co.http://www. Gaurav Kampani.ceip. China Nuclear Milestones.org/e_research/profiles/Pakistan/Missile/i ndex_3066. Feb 1st 2004 31. Non Proliferation Project: Countries Possessing Ballistic Missiles http://www. Strategic Affairs Analysis. Pakistan.html 29.S. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.2741933a12. April 2004 http://www. the air samples acquired over Chagai by US intelligence agencies. around the period of the tests.html 27. in the autumn of 1998.com/issueAug-15/page06. K. 32.2106. intelligence discovers China gave Pakistan a tested nuclear bomb design. The Times of India.
com/page/c-issue/etc4. 2002.com/2002/08/05/op. When will Pakistan get an apology?.htm 37. 35.nic. April 29. 2003.satribune. Richard Behar.htm 38.htm 39. given the moratorium on nuclear testing" 33. http://www. HOW POOR ARE THE POOR. Shaheen Sehbai. Fri 19 July 2002. Monday.com/archives/aug03_09_02/opinion_edi torsdesk.php?content_id=6224. By Special Correspondent. 6 Aug 2002 http://www. http://www. Shalini Chawla. or the device itself was not a Pakistani warhead but that of another nuclear weapons state which needed to validate a modernized warhead. Feb 03 09. FORTUNE. Kidnapped Nation. http://www. thats the question. By KHURRAM FAHEEM.com/2002/09/02/ebr7. By Zubeida Mustafa. John Lancaster.generated by the research reactor at PINSTECH.dawn. 2003.in/ind-ter/for-med/fortune29apr2002. there is evidence that the devices tested were either plutonium supplied by non-Pakistani sources. Washington Post Foreign Service Tuesday.htm) 34.indianexpress. http://meadev. April 8. http://www.dawn.pakistaneconomist. Truth about Zia's 'status quo' era.Jobs or jihad.com/full_story. Therefore. The confusion in our minds.htm 36. Page A29 191 .
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com/65/in/IndiaPak.ecoi.html Pakistan lost soldiers.bartleby.htm 193 .defencejournal. http://www. 1971. http://www. 55.com/2000/nov/pak-army.historychannel. 100.000 56. History Channel http://www. Brig (r) A Q Anjum http://www. Fall of Dhaka: the true face-2. The Columbia Encyclopedia.000 West Pakistani troops surrendered to Indian forces in Bangladesh and the war came to an end.pdf 54. The Pakistan Army From 1965 to 1971. Speech Archive. Text of speech by General Pervez Musharraf. 90.doc 57. Pakistan:Transition to Democracy?" 3rd Oct 2002.jang. its eastern half.1upinfo.htm 53. an army of 2001. Sixth Edition.pk/thenews/dec2003-daily/16-122003/oped/o5.htm 52. html On December 17.html 51: Fall of Dhaka-the true face. Brig (r) A Q Anjum http://www. Prospects for social cohesion.com/speeches/archive/speech_19. http://www.com. report from the International Crisis Group. India-Pakistan Wars http://www. http://www. DEFENCE NOTES.com/thenews/jul2002-daily/11-07-2002/oped/o4.net/pub/nz194_00900pak.jang.laclave. Maj (Retd) AGHA HUMAYUN AMIN.com/country-guidestudy/pakistan/pakistan45.com.group.htm 50.pk/thenews/dec2003-daily/17-122003/oped/o6.net/docs/documentos/pakistan.
http://www.html 61. International Perspective on Family Violence in Pakistani Society. 2002 http://timesofindia. Times of India. Social Work Group. http://www. SUNDAY.58.com/page/c-issue/etc4. Khurram Faheem http://www.pakistaneconomist. Pakistan http://wcfv.defencejournal.geocities.org/journal/winter01/javeria.com/CapitolHill/Parliament/3251/spri ng99/pakistan. Martial Mind . online edition.mjfellows.com/2002/july/martial.html 63 Islamic Pakistan illusions and reality. Ethnic Cleansing in Pakistan during Partition: A Preliminary Statistical Analysis. Abdus Sattar Ghazali.html 65.net/book1/body_chapter_1. NOVEMBER 10.confex.htm 64.indiatimes.bharat-rakshak. http://ghazali.com/MONITOR/ISSUE62/sridhar. Karachi.com/cms."TO BE A WOMAN IN PAKISTAN IS TO ASK FOR A LIFE OF SUBSERVIENCE" By Ameera Javeria. Zafar Abbas.htm 60. Pak army siphoning off US aid in Swiss accounts..htm 62. Columnist Hamid Hussain explores the Pakistan military mind-set. Pains Welfare Trust International. Sridhar N. http://www.Pakistan Officer Corps thought-process about Defence.com/wcfv/2003/preliminaryprogram/abstr act_2380. http://www.dll/html/uncomp/ar 194 .htm 59. How poor are the poor.
Some obstacles in normalization.asp 70. 03. Sharif al Mujahid http://members.com/Bazm/misc/pkk_04.witnesspioneer. page 102.http://www.tripod.saag.http://www.S.org/papers10/paper941. February 11.thefridaytimes.com/2003/12/12/op. The Weekly Standard. 03. Among the Believers. 2004 http://www. Asghar Khan. M.htm#2 67. 2001.jang. Monday. Jihad and the United States. Jinnah's Vision of Pakistan. V. http://www.13288/news_detail. Pakistan's Taliban Problem. Rajiv Malhotra. page 112.The Friday Times online. page 87. By Reuel Gerecht. Massacres of shias in Iraq & Pakistan background. Paper no.com. October 29. page 116. Picador. by B.com/ 72. 941. page 159 76.org/vil/Articles/politics/mawdudi2. http://www.ticleshow?artid=27859526 66.htm 71.asp?cid=170243 75. http://www.html 74 The Root of India-Pakistan Conflicts.htm 73.pk/thenews/jan2003-daily/22-012003/oped/o5.tolueislam. By M. H.aei.dawn.com/~no_nukes_sa/chapter_5.http://www.org/news/newsID.Raman.com/2003/11/15/fea. Monday.com/expressions/column. Askari http://www. Naipaul. 28th March 2003 28 March 2003 http://www.html the 69.dawn.sulekha.htm#1 68. 1981.html 195 . 2002.
A. there is a strong influence of Hindu culture on the present Pakistani culture. 8th April 2003.Hussain.asia1. Reddy. Mohammad Waseem: 81.com/pakistanicultur_rrme. M.indymedia. The Times of India. Wed Jun 25 '03 http://jakarta. Prof Karrar Hussain Memorial Lecture Nov 2. Although the majority of people in Pakistan are Muslims by birth and faith. Islamic Revolution: the only possible future for Pakistan. 2002 82. Asad Latif JAN 21. Demographer. Sunday August 5. Dr Kalim Siddiqui.org/front. http://ny. The Friday Times. 2002.00.sg/usattack/story/0. 78. By Hamza Alavi.essortment.html 84 Political Authority in Classical Islamic Thought.1870. Social forces and ideology in the making of Pakistan.H. Tamara Sonn 196 . The reality of an Islamic state. Military in the Power structure of Pakistan. Crescent International. Dec 6-12.98 039.php3?article_id=1642&g roup=webcast 83.htm "Pakistani culture can be called as "Mixed Culture". 2002 http://straitstimes.com. 2001 80. Explore Pakistani culture. The shadows of this influence are quite visible on the marriage ceremonies and festivals like "Basant" 79. Understanding Political Islam. P.77.
Majumdar.uk/story. Vol 1. p 391).co.washingtonpost. Prestige and Privileges: Military's economic activities in Pakistan Dr Ayesha Siddiqa-Agha 91. 197 .com.asp 85. Brig. 87.html 92. http://www.K Raychaudhuri VSM (Retd). PINNACLE Vol 2 No 2 October 2003. November 22.islamonline. By John Lancaster Washington Post Foreign Service. (Lahore. "Power.Change the Rupee into Riyal or Dinar.independent. MILITARY INVOLVEMENT IN THE POLITICAL 'DEVELOPMENT' OF PAKISTAN AND ITS RATIONALE. Raychaudhuri and Datta. Ahmed Quraishi http://www. 1994. Soldiers in business.jsp?story=101459 Mani Shankar Aiyer.com.nation. Pakistanis Question Perks of Power.asp 90. Friday. Masud Akhtar Shaikh. 1980).htm 89. 26 October 2001 http://www. ARTRAC [Army Training Command] magazine. Whose land is it anyway? Irfan Husain. 86.pk/daily/Dec-2003/19/EDITOR/op5. An Advanced History of India.com/wpdyn/articles/A23614-2002Nov21. http://jang. S. Perks. 2002. 88.pk/thenews/dec2003-daily/19-122003/oped/o4. Know thy enemy!.http://www. Robert Fisk: Farewell to democracy in Pakistan.net/iol-english/qadaya/islamic3/islamic3. 93. page 10. UBSPD."Pakistan Papers".
satribune.com/archives/Aug17_23_02/P1_landgrab bing. A first hand list of Army land lords. http://www. May 23-29. The Friday Times. Rightsizing of the Armed Forces http://www.nlc.http://www.7 percent. Farrukh Saleem http://www.satribune.htm 97.com/archives/oct7_13_02/LATIMES_stor y.htm 100.com/atimes/South_Asia/DL12Df01.htm 98 Official Web Page of the National Logistic Cell of Pakistan.com.htm 94. Pakistan http://www. Military Inc.pk/ 99. Najam Sethi. while the percentage of people living below $2 a day is a staggering 84. 2002 96. Pakistan struggles with poverty reduction.com. Issue #48. Dominates Life in Pakistan. Nadeem Iqbal http://www.shtml 198 .pakistanweekly.jang.dawn. TIMES STAFF WRITER http://www. The Weekly Independent. Special SAT Report http://www.com/front.html In its "World Development Indicators-2002". Era of mullah coddling is over.htm 95. the World Bank says that 31 percent of Pakistan's population lives off $1 a day.com/weekly/mazdak/mazdak. PAUL WATSON.thefridaytimes. Oped by Dr.pk/thenews/may2003-daily/25-052003/oped/o5. 101.com/Opinion.atimes.
http://www. 2002 106. Parthasarathy http://www.com/bline/stories/2003081400020800. reproduced on the website of the Indian Embassy http://www. Indian Navy History. B. Pakistan's privileged army Quest for hegemony at home. abroad.hinduonnet. The Pakistan army and Islamic radicals.com/stories/2003010200060800.indianembassy.htm 108.102.htm 103.0008. The rogue army of Pakistan.atimes.html 110. G. November 17.hindustantimes. Weekly Independent. new rules.Indian Army History.html 104.bharatrakshak. Parthasarathy. 2003 http://www. G. http://www. Financial Daily from THE HINDU group of publications Thursday.com/news/2002/oct/01arvind. htm 107.rediff.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Link3.html 199 . The Washington Times. By Amos Perlmutter.Raman. 1999. Pakistan-India: Same game. No 7. Interview with Nawaz Sharif. Pramit Pal Chaudhuri http://www.org/policy/Terrorism/news_us/pak _army_radicals%20_nov_17_99.com/atimes/South_Asia/EK27Df03. quoted in the online portal Rediff: http://www. Syed Saleem Shahzad http://www. Vol 1. What if Pervez Musharraf is killed.blonnet.htm 109.htm 105.com/news/181_510850. Jan 02.com/NAVY/Link3.bharatrakshak. March 7-13.
com/news/article. Letter from Maharaja Hari Singh to Lord Mountbatten on the eve of Pak invasion on J&K in 1947.kashmirinformation.html 114.asp?ARTICLE_ID=3633 4 119. Professsor Rafiqul Islam http://www. warns new Homeland Security memo.com/rafiqul_islam. Bhatt.kashmirinformation.html 112.com/Miscellaneous/Bhatt2.com/MONITOR/ISSUE46/malik.bharat-rakshak. Jessica Stern.com/febmar99/chief-bluff.html 113. http://www. Rafiqul Islam. KASHMIR AND PARTITION OF INDIA (Part II) by Prof. Indian Air Force History.org/20001101faessay940/jessica200 . Paul Sperry http://worldnetdaily. Case Study: Genocide in Bangladesh. Virtual Bangladesh : History : Eyewitness accounts. Ram Krishen K.gendercide. AVSM (Retd) http://www.defencejournal.bharatrakshak. plot. Pakistan's Jihad Culture. Terrorists plan to pose as disabled travelers Pakistani nationals behind U.html 115. Foreign Affairs.htm 117. http://www. Lt Gen (Retd) JAVED NASIR http://www. http://www.com/LegalDocs/Maharaja_letter. Lessons from Kargil.org/case_bangladesh.S.virtualbangladesh.111.foreignaffairs. Gen VP Malik PVSM.html 116.com/IAF/History/Link-Hist. Calling the Indian Army Chief's Bluff. 1971 http://www.html 118. November/December 2000 http://www.
dailytimes.Pakistan-India: Same game.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/EK27Df03.shtml 124.ca/~mayworks/911/1/pakistan.atimes.com/ind-pak/CJ10Df01.html 120. 15 article by Tariq Ali. Syed Saleem Shahzad.com/indpak/CJ10Df01.dailytimes.com.html 128. M.html 123. http://www.pk/default.tao. Asia Times Online.html 122. Nuclear Pakistan and the New Great Game. THE ROVING EYE Jihad: 'The ultimate thermonuclear bomb'. 201 . Pervez hoodbhoy http://www.stern/pakistan-s-jihad-culture. page 5 121.org/hot/op-eds/090101JIR.asp?page=story_17-82002_pg3_5 127. Excerpts from a Sept. published by the Strategic Studies Institute.com. Ehsan Ansari.asp?page=story_7-82002_pg3_7 126. Jihadi Groups. Jihad: 'The ultimate thermonuclear bomb'. Musharraf and the Jihad industry. in The Independent (UK) http://www. South Asia Analysis Group. Pakistan's Role in the Kashmir Insurgency. Peter Chalk http://www. Nov 27th 2003 http://www. Pepe Escobar http://www.atimes. Delusions and Fantasies!! Guest Column: Arindam Banerji.rand. The spirit of Gandhar. Shahid Nadeem http://www. The Taliban's Pakistan connection. new rules.html 125. Indo-Pakistan Talks Myths.pk/default. Pepe Escobar.
bharat-rakshak.S. 2003 http://www.org/ 130. By Ghazala Wahab.A.P. Musharraf eludes assassination bid .Dec 14th 2003.S. trying to avoid contact with the security forces http://www. 2001 K.Paper no. Pioneer. India Today.Volume 5(2) September-October 2002 http://www. Gill. March 2.net/harvest.org/articles/profile. Narayanan Komerath. Harvest of Terror.cnn. The Truth About Kashmir. Indrani th Bagchi 2003 with Anil Padmanabhan.deccanherald. http://www.armyinkashmir.asp 132.PROFILE OF A MILITANT: Based on the statistics available the average life span of a militant / mercenary does not exceed 20 months from the time he returns to J&K to participate in the so called Jihad.armyinkashmir.The Politics of Islam in Pakistan. 06.com/MONITOR/ISSUE52/narayanan.html 131. a website maintained by the Indian Army's 15 th Corps.org/papers8/paper710.com/deccanherald/dec26/i1.saag.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/12/14/bl ast. A period in which he is a fugitive. 09. http://www.html 134. http://cnnstudentnews. http://www. 710. The 135.asp 202 . Pakistani Role in Terrorism Against the U. December 8 133. BHARAT RAKSHAK MONITOR . moving from one hide to another. Musharraf escapes second assassination attempt.forceindia. Beyond Control.musharraf/ 136.html 129.
23 January. Monday. Pakistan has 18 million illegal quoting Reuters Alertnet http://www. BBC News online.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3424007. in the House of Representatives. JR.com/atimes/South_Asia/EL19Df05. awash with arms after more than 23 years of war. Guns are also produced locally. Musharraf admission on secrets.137.pakistanfacts. October 3.fas.. 1994 http://www. Hon. Friday. 18:30 GMT http://news. Syed Saleem Shahzad http://www.htm 203 . notably in the tribal town of Darra Adamkhel. About 18 million firearms are held illegally in Pakistan in addition to the two million weapons that are legally registered.stm 138. The Dawn report said Darra Adamkhel still had around 900 arms factories. Many of the weapons have been imported from Afghanistan.org/irp/congress/1994_cr/h941003-terrorpak.com/article.html 139.co.atimes. all of them illegal and about 150 shops selling arms and ammunition 140. Assassination 'windfall' for Musharraf. Frank Pallone.bbc. which is famous for imitation weapons from all over the world. 2004.php/20030115094510198 firearms-report. The main concentrations of illegal arms in Pakistan are in semi-autonomous tribal regions bordering Afghanistan.
Heroin. Paul Watson and Mubashir Zaidi.com. BROAD and DAVID E.html 143. http://www.au/~wingman/hijack.htm 148.saag.nic.com/webarticle50. By Douglas Frantz. newsnight.nytimes. SANGER. Agence France-Presse.htm l?hp 146. Confronting the Nuclear Threat America Didn't Want to Be True.Raman.nytimes. 2004 http://www. http://www.in/OPn/2000jan/11ht.1.story?coll=la-home-headlines 144.html by B. By Samuel Baid http://meadev. Published: February 8. NARCO TERRORISM IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR AND PAKISTAN'S ROLE.com/2004/02/04/politics/04NUKE.org/papers3/paper288.html 145.org/articles/narco.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fgpaknukes3feb03.senet.net. Plane hijackers received new weapons in Afghanistan: French hostages. http://www. http://users. By DAVID E. 2000. Pakistan Caught in Web of Evidence.freeservers.indiareacts.141. http://pak-terror. http://www. Sunday. Aziz hand seen in Kandahar hijacking. http://www. Pakistan's role in hijacking. IC 814 Hijack. 2004. January 2.com/archivefeatures/nat2. Published: February 4. 142.asp?recno =23&ctg=community 149.html 147.1265066. Public Affairs Magazine. SANGER.htm 204 . Warhead Blueprints Link Libya Project to Pakistan Figure By WILLIAM J.com/2004/02/08/weekinreview/08sang.armyinkashmir. Taliban & Pakistan.latimes.
h tml 153. New Delhi.kashmirherald. Extracted from 'The Pioneer'. Financial Times (London. Publisher: (Indian Edition) Mushiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. 157. Ltd.Dawood in Karachi. http://www. Classical Hindi and English" Author: John T. ISBN: 81-215-0098-2.brinkster. 20 Most Wanted Terrorists that India has demanded Pakistan to extradite back to India.twq.asp 155. Rahul Bedi.November 2003 http://www. Kashmir Herald on the Web.htm 154. Dated 24th September 2002 http://www. Page: 218.com/programs/news4. 2003 15:13 IST.rediff. Stepehen Cohen.com/ie/daily/20000104/ifr04015. "A Dictionary of Urdu. September 21. Platts.html 151. 2002 from the Asia Times: http://www.globalpolicy.htm l 156. http://www. 6 .org/nations/corrupt/2002/0404ramp ant.com/pakistan4ever/wordpakistan.150. admits Pakistan.com/02summer/cohen. 2004. Stephen Cohen http://www.alphalasertek. The Nation and State of Pakistan.com/news/2003/sep/21dawood. No.England) January 16.htm 152. How did the word "Pakistan" come into existence? http://www28.pdf 205 . April 4. Volume 3.indianexpress.com/nov03/top20. Pak embassy official in Nepal held selling fake Indian currency. PRESS TRUST OF INDIA. Friday Europe Edition 1# 158. International currency racket busted.
Issue 03http://www. Pakistan Human Rights ignored in the ‘War on Terror’. Executive summary.amnesty. by Daveed Gartenstein-Ross & Bill Roggio . http://web.asp 206 . Pakistan Surrenders The Taliban control the border with Afghanistan.weeklystandard.159.10/02/2006.org/library/index/engasa330352006 160.com/Content/Public/Articles/0 00/000/012/738ijawx. Volume 012.
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