Pakistan Failed State
Licence is hereby granted to make as many copies of this book as needed, and for the book to be distributed to anyone free of charge on condition that no modifications are made and no profit is made from the sharing of this work.
Dedicated to the memory of my cousin, late Wg Cdr. Kukke Suresh, VrC
The reason for writing this book is explained in the first chapter. Once I had collected the reference material it took me only three months to write the book. It then took me two years to refine and release the book as a freely downloadable e-book. I must take this opportunity to thank members of the forum at www.bharat-rakshak.com for their invaluable and selfless help in digging up material that served as references for this book. Furthermore I wish to thank the dozen or so people who helped me proof read the book and came up with useful suggestions. Prominent among these are ramana, acharya, kgoan and sudhir. Shiv January 20, 2007
Jihad and Terrorism The Government and criminal activity Pakistan . Wars and genocide Provinces and Assorted Fragments Pakistan.CHAPTERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Why Pakistan? The people of Pakistan Education Industries and Economy of Pakistan Pakistani psyche general observations Women and Minorities of Pakistan Partition and the two-nation theory Islam and Pakistan Attitudes toward India and Indians The Pakistani Army Kashmir.Failed state Page Page Page Page Page Page Page 6 14 20 35 43 65 71
Page 80 Page 93 Page 99 Page 117 Page Page Page Page 131 135 147 160
Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 References
Page 174 Page 177 Page 180 Page 183 Page 186
While these features have been noted time and again by innumerable people in a large number of books. and it has been an aggressive and implacable neighbor of India. newspaper reports and magazines. In the field of medical research. Pakistani institutions and Pakistanis have developed certain unique and recognizable defining features. In fact Pakistanis have spent all those decades since independence trying to show how Pakistan is not like India. this book can be considered a Review of the literature on Pakistan. Most Indians do not understand Pakistan or Pakistanis. More that anything else. no effort been made to collect this information and put it all together between the covers of a single book. populous and diverse nation that has the curious distinction of having been suddenly born in 1947. Many tend to look at the similarities and remark. And in the intervening years Pakistan. a Review of the literature is often used to collect and collate information about a disease from various sources. Such a review collects up all the available information about a given disease from all the medical papers available on the subject and consolidates the information in one document. That document then serves as a comprehensive reference point for information about the subject. That may appear true but it is important to understand that Pakistanis do not feel like Indians and do not like to say "Indians are just like us".
. "Pakistanis are just like us".Chapter 1 WHY PAKISTAN? Why write about Pakistan? Pakistan is a huge.
There are a few things that Indian readers should keep in mind while reading this book. For this reason Pakistan and Islamic extremism emanating from Pakistan have almost been taboo subjects in India. while the sources from which the quotes have been taken are listed in the reference section at the end of the book. Vir Sanghvi.This book is a collection and review of what has been written about Pakistan in various sources over many years. The book carries many direct quotes from various authors and these quotes are in italics. An automatic and needless mental connection is made between the subject of Pakistan and the Muslims of India. lest they should hurt the sentiments of Muslims in India. the managing editor of the Hindustan Times has written about this (1): At a sub-conscious level. and are sometimes called saffron sympathisers. some Indians make the simplistic assumption that because (nearly) all Pakistanis are Muslims. First. Indians who talk about Pakistan or Islam are often considered to be opponents of secularism and tolerance. It is a summary of the experiences and descriptions of many people who have reported or written about Pakistan. Today. so all Muslims must be Pakistanis in their hearts. and it is an insult to Indian Muslims to refer to them as being associated with Pakistan. This is both unfortunate and unfair to Indian Muslims. This is an obvious logical fallacy and it is also deeply insulting 7 to all Indian Muslims -
. Indian Muslims are quite different from Pakistanis. not to be discussed by secular non-Muslim Indians. referring to Pakistan does not mean that we are obliquely referring to Indian Muslims. Indians often become embarrassed or angry in discussions about Pakistan and Pakistanis.
As the Indian economy forges ahead there is an increasing constituency of Indians who feel that Pakistan is a small problem that can be ignored. Pakistan is Pakistan. Indians are Indians. a separate nation. not Pakistanis. The situation and attitudes of Muslims in India are no longer comparable to those in Pakistan. to say nothing of the thousands of Muslims who have died fighting Pakistan. There are many assumptions and misconceptions that need to be reviewed. Muslims in India are not Pakistanis. they are Indians. Pakistanis are no longer Indians.including Zaheer Khan and Irfan Pathan who are setting out for Pakistan. and Pakistanis are Pakistanis. This vestigial thought process remains in many Indian minds like a dark cloud. we must remember that when we speak of Pakistan and Islam we are not referring to Indian Muslims and the vastly different way in which Islam has evolved in India since independence. But 8
. and call for an avoidance of what seems to be an Indian obsession with Pakistan. a hangover from partition. It requires a deliberate act of mental re-orientation for non-Muslims in India to learn to talk about Pakistanis without equating them with Indian Muslims. determined to keep the Indian flag flying on the cricket field. Another point to inability to develop a coherent
description of Pakistan can even begin to be meaningful without considering the role that Islam plays on the mind of the Pakistani. One of the purposes of this book is to show precisely what has been done with Islam in Pakistan. Here again. and these will become clear in subsequent chapters. not Indians. and that is unfortunate. Confusion and misunderstanding in Indian attitudes more than five decades after independence are certainly a factor in the Indian Pakistan policy.
The appearance of the new nation Pakistan as a neighbor. the importance of Pakistan lies in its extreme hostility to India. and has put a great strain on the ancient Indian tradition of tolerance and pluralism. with people who were brothers and compatriots until very recently created a complex conflict. and the fifth engagement with Pakistan still continues at the time of writing. Pakistan has thus had a great impact on Hindu-Muslim relations in India. the Indian armed forces have had to fight wars on eight occasions (2). One group of Indians began to view their Muslim compatriots with hostility as recessed Pakistanis who were always seen cheering for Pakistan in cricket matches. Apart from the deep mental scar that partition left on the Indian psyche. With Pakistani leaders attempting to speak for the Muslims in India. unless treated in an especially favorable and kind manner. neither of whom were able to look upon Indian Muslims as they should have been looked at. Four of these conflicts are discussed in chapter 11. In the first 55 years after independence. a love-hate relationship that affected Indian society.Pakistan cannot be ignored by India for many reasons. From Indian armed forces and paramilitary have had of armed of a low1965. many non-Muslim Indians got polarized mainly into two groups. The events of independence and partition had a deep effect on the Indian psyche. Another group of Indians took the opposite viewpoint that Indian Muslims. with the infiltration terrorists from Pakistan into India as part grade war to bleed India (chapter 12). as Indians like everyone else. In five of those wars armed forces from Pakistan have been the adversary that Indian civilians and Indian soldiers have had to face. would somehow feel upset enough to want to side with Pakistan. the to expand
to keep pace with the massive build up and continuing 9
and if necessary take the battle into the aggressor's territory. mistakes that India could still make. Indians have a lot to learn. A policy of ignoring Pakistan's military intent and might would be a formula for a disaster of unimaginable proportions. blindness to the impact of religious discrimination. Pakistan has made a whole tapestry of errors that Indians can choose to repeat or avoid. That is one of the mistakes that Pakistani leaders committed. Indians cannot afford to forget the lessons that can be learned from events like the India-China conflict of 1962. underestimation of problems and hurdles. the presence of a belligerent neighbor is a signal that military strength must be adequate to meet any aggressive intent. ignoring corruption.assaults from Pakistan. No matter how well intentioned and peaceable a nation state may be. discrimination against minorities and maldistribution of wealth. and India would do well to learn from that. It is still possible for Indians to make the mistakes Pakistanis have made. Unilateral pacifism displayed by one nation state when another nation shows every sign of being ready for war is a policy that begs for defeat and disaster. a population explosion and social inequity. while a policy that puts too much emphasis on hurriedly delivering a total military defeat on Pakistan could divert too large a proportion of meager resources towards a war machine. and attempting to play great power games in the absence of a matching military-industrial-economic capability are some of the mistakes that Pakistan has made. or the naive policy of appeasement of Adolf Hitler followed by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. But this build up must not come in the way of urgently needed development and modernization. By studying what Pakistan has done. Overconfidence. or has not done since independence. 10
All that this does is to hide the magnitude of the problems in Pakistan. is that the India box has 70 intact eggs while the Pakistan box has only 5 intact eggs. South Asian poverty. and it requires elaboration. Imagine Pakistan to be a smaller box with 10 eggs in it.Finally. except where it is unavoidable. All references to Pakistani problems are referred to by Pakistani spokespersons as South Asian problems. but Pakistani leaders have persistently tried to hide problems within Pakistan such as poverty and illiteracy by saying that India has more problems than Pakistan. but 30 of those eggs are broken. Direct comparisons of numbers regarding Pakistan and
India are misleading because of the difference in size. would seem that the India box is in a far worse with many more broken eggs. and the Pakistan box has only 5 broken eggs. But what is hidden
from this comparison. There is a very important reason for that. India is four times larger than Pakistan in land area and currently has a population that is over seven times the size of Pakistan's population. comparison will show that the India box has 30 eggs. Although both India and Pakistan started off as having been part of one nation in the pre-Independence era. 11 and hide the chronic
. every attempt has been made in this work to avoid direct comparisons between India and Pakistan. and 5 of those eggs are broken. South Asian hunger. To illustrate why a direct comparison between India and Pakistan can be misleading we need to use an analogy: Imagine India to be a box with 100 eggs in it. the two entities cannot really be compared. A direct broken and it shape. This means that all numbers and figures relating to India are automatically bigger than those of Pakistan. and South Asian illiteracy.
That is because. India has to educate seven children in order to "match Pakistan". but Pakistan is failing even to achieve a smaller task. the Indian army should have been at least three or four times the size of the Pakistan army. a quick comparison of the Pakistani armed forces and the Indian armed forces is illustrative of what the two countries have been doing since Independence. it has moved ahead in literacy and is racing ahead in other parameters. and is falling behind. Pakistan's task should have been easier. With India having a population that is seven times as big as that of Pakistan. But India is not merely matching Pakistan. but these details will be discussed later. even though the number of people who are poor in Pakistan. India and Pakistan do share many of the same problems. But that is not the case. but a comparison of the real figures between India and Pakistan shows that Pakistan is not doing well. For every child that Pakistan educates. A direct comparison of numbers will not reveal this and such direct comparisons are useful only to hide Pakistan's increasing problems.mismanagement of Pakistan. And while these figures get worse. the Indian army is less than one and a half times as big as the Pakistani army. In 2007 12
. In this book we will examine the state that Pakistan has got itself into and deal with how it got into its current crisis. and the number of people requiring education in Pakistan are far smaller than the number in India. Pakistan of course was amply aided by other nations. since independence India has spent relatively more on development and less on defence while Pakistan has spent almost everything on arms and very little on development.
Anyone who has wished for anything bad to happen to Pakistan is likely to find great joy in the condition that Pakistan has reached.
.Pakistan is not in an enviable state.
The population explosion has led to the shortage of educational facilities.5 million are illiterates. housing units. Some estimates say that Pakistan's population will double to over 300 million.Chapter 2 THE PEOPLE OF PAKISTAN Pakistan is currently estimated to have between 160 and 170 million people. making it the fourth most populated country in the world The report goes on to say: The population growth has caused an eight-time increase in the unemployment. 70% of the population of Pakistan is uneducated. but it was finally conducted in 1998. arable land and clean water The vast majority of Pakistanis are villagers. but even at the lower estimate 8000 children are being born every day in Pakistan. 53.. 54 million people do not have access to safe drinking water . health services. The "average Pakistani" is poor and uneducated...8% per year.1% and 2. living in rural areas. Pakistan's population is currently thought to be increasing at the rate of between 2. and education among women is very low since few women are allowed to acquire 14
. or one Pakistani is born every 10 seconds. Nobody knows exactly. food. living space. Pakistan's internal turmoil prevented a routine census from taking place in 1991..With almost one third of the population living in abject poverty. The Pakistani paper the Jang reported in September 2003 (3): Pakistan's population will swell to 349 million by year 2050. According to some estimates. by the year 2050.
VP Dutt wrote: Another fundamental flaw is the very narrow social base of the groups feudal nucleus ruling elite. bureaucracy. Most of the wealth. A report in the Jang (5) on Dec 5th 2003 says: Top 20 per cent of the population has 50 per cent of 15
. wealthy elite group that have been described by the expression "Rich. These facts may seem surprising considering the smartly dressed. land and industries of Pakistan are said to be concentrated among about 43 top families of Pakistan. numbering perhaps 25. Pakistan is ruled by four interest or their coalition: military. who. a cadre of nearly 1. But that is another curious hidden fact about Pakistan. form the cream of Pakistan(4). They actually form a very small minority.000 in all. Anglophone.000 officers and less than 50 industrial families.
are a dozen corps commanders. Pakistani Elite".000 landlords owning more than half the cultivable land. nearly 2. well spoken Pakistani men and women that one may see on television. mixing with strangers. along with top army officers. the cream of Pakistani society. Making up the of these four interest groups. they speak English and they form the elite. As the description suggests.an education in a society that believes the women should not be seen in public places. The "smartly dressed. It is they who own Pakistan and rule in the name of the people. well spoken Pakistani men and women that one may see on television" form a small. it is believed. the lords and the industrial barons. they are rich. In an editorial in the Indian Express that appeared on January 28th 2002.
7) forming about 8% of the population. and they own much of the land. eking out a subsistence. making private laws and operating private jails. while the bottom 20 per cent has only 6 percent. the New York Times carried a report about Pakistan: In the cities. The middle class in Pakistan have been estimated as being about 10 to 12 million in total (6. feudal families still hold sway. with some feudal lords owning over 20. Their children go to the best schools in Pakistan. such as Harvard. About 75 percent of all Pakistanis reside in rural areas. Oxford and Cambridge.national income. the turn of a street corner can seem to be time travel between centuries." with buildings but no students or teachers A third curious anomaly of Pakistan is the almost
complete absence of a "middle class".000 acres of land in a Pakistan that is full of impoverished people. The Rich Anglophone Pakistani Elite have a great
influence on the image of Pakistan abroad. While the wealthy send their children to college in America or Britain. many of the poor are deprived of even an elementary education. They drive the Pajeros and the Mercedes-Benz cars of Pakistan. In some areas. The contrast with India now is stunning with estimates of the middle class in India forming about 25 16
. The literacy rate is below 40 percent. feudal landowning families as well as from the armed forces. The elite of Pakistan come from rich. Most are sharecroppers. Wide boulevards clogged with expensive cars become narrow lanes where shrouded women carry jugs of water on their heads. On October 2nd 2001. A fifth of Pakistan's government schools are "ghosts. and often study abroad in the best institutions of the US and UK.
which the nation cannot keep denying anymore. On top of that the rising of the fundamentalist groups in Pakistan is a fact. consists of a small. A large middle class creates a society in which people have the economic clout to break the economic stranglehold of a rich elite and ensure that their rights are looked after. very rich elite governing a large mass of poor people. A report by Pakistani researcher Masooda Bano carried in the News International Pakistan on 31st August 2001 said: Pakistan's middle class is shrinking while India's middle class is growing. This is a dangerous trend as the middle class is the backbone for any progressive society. Nine out of ten Pakistanis are poor and uneducated.to 30% of the population. (8. The old feudal structure of society which Pakistan still retains. Fitting in perfectly well with these facts are other items of information about the life of Pakistanis. Less than one out of ten belongs to the middle class and a very small number are extremely rich. Being a Muslim is important to the Pakistani citizen because it brings a semblance of order to his otherwise miserable and unenviable existence. More and more people in Pakistan are slipping in to poverty. Pakistan has only 3 million TV sets. A large middle class is an essential component of a ‘modern’ state and its absence marks a feudal state. The average Pakistani is an illiterate and poor Muslim. 17
.9) We can thus define the "average Pakistani". for a population of 145 million. The whole of Pakistan has only about 400. A large middle class is an indicator of the development of a society from the traditional feudal pattern into a more modern society.000 cars.
Religion also helps to define the psyche of the Pakistani. answerable to an angry or demanding
. without having to be population. Islam teaches its followers to accept their lives as being preordained by God. religion also helps in the survival of the rich. and. the poor and deprived Pakistani does not question or complain about his miserable life. This stoic acceptance has allowed the rapacious elite and the resource-swallowing army of Pakistan to carry on with their atrociously rich lifestyles and blatant corruption for decades. tyrannical and corrupt leaders of Pakistan. which is dealt with in chapter 5. Paradoxically. as a result of this belief.
imagine a small town or village that needs a school. The low literacy rate in Pakistan is an indicator of the facts that these fundamental investments have been ignored or sidelined for decades. A building is required. The precise manner in which lack of education and a runaway increase in population affects a country needs to be understood by leaders in power.Chapter 3 EDUCATION Through the 1950s and 1960s. the United States of America. with electricity for light bulbs. But it 20 appears that a series of
. Teachers are needed and for this the teacher himself must be educated . English speaking Pakistani elite and the postworld war superpower. Most people who take education for granted tend to forget the highly organized and civilized system that needs to be set up for an underdeveloped nation to build up a group of educated citizens who can serve as the pioneers of development. Development and technology require education. and the world's most powerful media apparatus that came with the US. The people of the village or town need to understand the value of sending their children to be educated in school as opposed to keeping them at home for help in the fields or other work. Pakistan was believed to be a leading light among developing nations.a separate education system must exist to have a supply of teachers. For example. and the unquestioned technological leader among "Islamic nations" A closer look at the facts suggests that this was only an impression created by the fortuitous alliance between the suave.
maybe more. As a result. rapid advances in the development and application of vaccination of people against killer diseases like smallpox and diphtheria led to a significant reduction in the number of children dying from these diseases. In the 20th century.500 primary schools. A report on reforming education in Pakistan on NBC said (10): Two years ago. populations in many countries remained relatively stable.000 in 2004. Effective means were developed to reduce complications and deaths during pregnancy and childbirth. Until these developments occurred. "The numbers that came up is 8. making it increasingly difficult to catch up. populations began to rise rapidly. the Pakistani government tried to estimate how many schools it would take to handle the 8 million kids of primary age not in class now. Pakistan has today 21 a very young population
. But once these scientific changes affected human society.Pakistani leaders have never really understood how the twin facts of population explosion and lack of education feed upon each other leading to the population-illiteracy cycle getting worse at a faster and faster rate as time passes. That's the kind of numbers we needed two years earlier. They can become 10. The UNFPA has recognized this and says in a report on Pakistan: The major contributing factor to population growth has been the sustained gap between low mortality and high fertility levels for the last three decades or so. because the number of people dying was approximately equal to the number of babies being born." said Zubaida Jalal. Pakistan's minister for education. and simple treatments were devised to save lives in cases of deadly killer diarrheas.
Unfortunately Pakistan's leaders have never put in the required amount of money and effort into education of the Pakistani masses. with 43 per cent below the age of 15 and 63 per cent below the age of 25. healthcare and education. This is exactly what is happening in Pakistan (11. That means that if a population of 1 million people doubles to 2 million in ten years. more diseases from malnutrition and more unemployment. a rapid rise in population typically leads to more hunger. 22
. If the original 1 million people lived in a poor. Generations of Pakistanis have been born into poverty and deprivation without the knowledge or the means to slow down population growth or earn a living though a modern job from a modernizing economy. In fifty years. a population of 1 million can increase to 32 million. since that is essential for slowing down the population explosion.structure. All these extra people have to have food and opportunities for employment. and they need to be educated regarding the importance of birth control and family planning. it will have to look after 32 million people just fifty years later. and then become 8 million in ten more years and so on. Unless a great deal of money and effort is put into planning for population growth such as food production. more poverty. developing country that is barely able to feed and provide employment for 1 million people. The population has increased by 50 million people in the last 15 years and the number of poor has doubled. That means more people who are unhappy and have reason to be angry. it will double to 4 million in a further ten years.12). Populations grow by what is called "geometric
A report in the San Francisco Chronicle (13) in Oct 2002 on the state of education in Pakistan states: According to government statistics for this year, the literacy rate is 49 percent overall, 61.3 for men and 36.8 for women .. putting Pakistan among the 20 least literate countries, according to World Bank's World Development Index. A government study commissioned last year demonstrated a clear cause-and- effect relationship between the lack of basic education and increasing poverty. A study of education in Pakistan reveals many reasons to be concerned, and few reasons to be happy. The state of education in Pakistan was described by Raymond Bonner in the New York Times on 31st March 2002: Pakistan's literacy rate ranks below that of countries like Haiti, Rwanda and Sudan, according to the most recent United Nations Development Program report... Pakistan's most recent budget sets aside $107 million for education, compared with $2 billion for the military.
Madrassa education in Pakistan: Over large areas of Pakistan, the lack of schools was made up to some extent by madrassas or Islamic schools. Madrassas exist in all nations with a Muslim population, but what is taught in a madrassa can vary significantly depending on the country and government. The madrassas of Pakistan have played a prominent role in making Pakistan the unstable, recessed theocratic state that it is today. Columnist ABS Jafri wrote in the Dawn (14): 23
...in Sindh province we have more than a quarter of a million students in the religious Madaris. In Karachi alone there are well over 226,000 children in these religious seminaries.. In the whole of the province there are only 1,500 middle schools. Compare this with 869 Madaris in Karachi alone.
Nadeem Iqbal, writing for the Asia Times reported (15): Currently there are some one million to 1.7 million
students enrolled in madrassas in Pakistan, most of them between the ages of five to 18 and from poor families. According to Dr. Tariq Rahman, Professor of Linguistics and South Asian Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan had only 137 madrassas in 1947. Dr. Rahman writes of Pakistani madrassas (16): In 1950 there were 210 of them while in 1971 they increased to 563. Nowadays there are at least 7000 of them. After the 1971 war of liberation of Bangladesh, the process of making Pakistanis more Islamic, the so called Islamization of Pakistan was given impetus. It was initiated by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, and the Pakistani General Zia ul Haq who removed Bhutto in a coup and later hanged him, accelerated the process. The exact number of madrassas cannot be known because of the lack of registration or census. Analyst Alexei Alexiev writes(17): While no official nation-wide study of these madrassas exists, estimates of their overall number range between 24
10,000 and 20,000; unregistered seminaries may add another 10,000 to the total. As for the number of students, here the estimate ranges from a conservative half-million to over 2 million. (By comparison, some 1.9 million Pakistani schools in 2002.) children reportedly attended primary
In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, and this gave the US an opportunity to utilize its Cold War alliance with Pakistan to battle the Soviet invasion. The US pumped in large amounts of money and arms into Pakistan, much of it channeled via Saudi Arabia. The Saudi connection enabled the setting up of a vast number of madrassas in Pakistan. Because of the great poverty and lack of schools in Pakistan, madrassas were a natural attraction for the average Pakistani, as being schools that adhered to Islamic values while feeding and housing students, and taking over the burden of looking after one or more sons from a large, poor and ill-fed Pakistani family. Pamela Constable, a columnist for the Washington Post wrote on 20th September 2001 (18), just days after the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York: In recent years, however, a number of religious parties and groups have been rapidly gaining influence throughout Pakistani society. Based in thousands of mosques and Islamic academies called madrassas, they spread their message in part by offering services, especially low-cost education, that millions of poor Pakistani families cannot obtain any other way. The name madrassa merely connotes a school. Aijazz Ahmed wrote about madrassas in the Asia Times (19) in January 2003:
Madrassas were introduced about 300 years ago on the Indian subcontinent by then Muslim monarchs and rulers to produce a bureaucracy capable of running the day-to-day affairs of state, especially in terms of financial and legal issues, according to the wishes and pleasure of the king. Ahmed continues: Professor Dr Manzoor, a renowned scholar, writer and researcher, comments that nowadays many madrassas have taken an unfortunate direction. "The new role of the madrassas and [the influence] of religious elements has added nothing but hatred against non-Muslims and different sects of Islam. Although some major schools produced better results and play their role for religious harmony, many inject the poison of extremism, sectarianism and ignorance and have become a source of increasing ignorance and religious intolerance in Pakistani society." At he best of times, the normal curriculum in madrassas did not offer a well rounded education that included maths, science and information technology. The subjects were frozen 300 years ago, and included logic, Arabic literature and grammar, and Koranic teachings. But during the Cold War, the number of madrassas
burgeoned rapidly and tens of thousands were set up offering only a narrow interpretation of Islam in which young people were indoctrinated into the concept of a violent jihad against unbelievers, and taught to believe that death on the battlefield fighting against the enemies of Islam such as the Soviet Union would ensure eternal paradise for the Islamic fighters. The preparation of young men for jihad and death in the 26
battlefield was surely very useful and convenient to provide an endless supply of soldiers to fight in Afghanistan, and such fighters under the name Taliban took over when the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan. But even after this, the madrassas that had supplied all these fanatical men did not close down, and indeed could not be closed down. The curriculum teaching jihad did not change either. Having nowhere else to go, thousands of madrassa trained students in Pakistan collected up, ready for jihad in any part of the world, including Kashmir, Bosnia, Chechnya, the Philippines, Indonesia, Palestine, Iraq and Turkey. Pamela Constable wrote in the Washington Post: During the 1980s, some radical Sunni groups in Pakistan sent young men to fight in Afghanistan against Soviet occupation, and many members of the Taliban graduated from their madrassas. More recently, a...number of Islamic students have been sent to fight against Indian troops in Kashmir.. In addition, Pakistan columnist Khaled Ahmed wrote in the Friday Times in November 21-27, 2003: What better example than the one found in Pakistan whose private armies interfered in Central Asia and China with public acclaim? Let's take a look at the Harkat al-Jahad al-Islami, Pakistan's biggest jihadi militia headquartered in Kandahar before it was scattered by the Americans. The Harkat was one of the militias boasting international linkages. It called itself 'the second line of defence of all Muslim states' and was active in Arakan in Burma, and Bangladesh, with well organised seminaries in Karachi, Chechnya, Sinkiang, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Its fund-raising was largely from Pakistan, but an additional source was 27 its activity of selling
weapons to other militias
Schools in Pakistan: Education in Pakistani schools outside of madrassas is not available to most Pakistanis. But even in the few schools that exist, the curriculum is deeply flawed. The following quotes are taken from an in depth study of what Pakistani school children are being taught in a compilation entitled The Subtle Subversion - The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan by A.H. Nayyar and Ahmed Salim (20): Madrassas are not the only institutions breeding hate, intolerance, a distorted world view, etc. The educational material in the government run schools do much more than madrassas. The textbooks tell lies, create hate, incite for jehad and shahadat, and much more. ...children are now taught that the history of Pakistan starts from the day the first Muslim set foot in India. History and Pakistan studies textbooks rarely mention the ancient and non-controversial cultures of the Indus valley (Moenjodaro, Harrappa and Kot Diji), and completely bypass the entire Buddhist and Hindu periods of history. They suddenly jump to the advent of Mohammed bin Qasim in India and treat it as the beginning of history... this structuring is to make children regard the Muslim part of the history as the .. most significant part.' From about 1972 onwards, history taught in Pakistan was detached from history as we know it. Quoting further from the Nayyar and Salim report: 28
Four themes emerge most strongly.. 1. ... Pakistan is for Muslims alone; 2. ...Islamiat is to be forcibly taught
students, whatever their faith, including a compulsory reading of Qur'an; 3. that Ideology of Pakistan is to be internalized as faith, and hate be created against Hindus and India; 4. and students are to be urged to take the path of Jehad and Shahadat (martrydom). Associated with the insistence on the Ideology of
Pakistan has been an essential component of hate against India and the Hindus...the existence of Pakistan is defined only in relation to Hindus, and hence the Hindus have to be painted as black as possible. Curriculum documents ask the following as the specific learning objectives: The child should be able to understand the Hindu and Muslim differences...India's evil designs against Pakistan ..Hindu has always been an enemy of Islam. The class II Urdu book has a lesson on "Our Country", the first sentences of which read: Our country is Pakistan. ...Pakistan is an Islamic country. Here Muslims live. Muslims believe in the unity of Allah. They do good deeds. The Class 6 book says: Who am I? I am a Muslim. I am a Pakistani...you are a Muslim and your religion is Islam. A book lists "Acchi baten" (good deeds). Among them: "Good people are those who read the Qur'an and teach the Qur'an to others" implying that those of another faith cannot be good people. 29
. Another book tells the students: Hindus worship in temples which are very narrow and dark places. The first serves the military and the second the political Islamists.. nay hundreds of thousands of women.In the 'Fundamentals of War' themes like objects and causes.. In our mosques. Only one person can enter the temple at a time. . and an attempt to define one's national identity in relation to the 'other'.Hindus did not respect women. on the other 30
. as a result of which the Hindu and Sikh enemies of mankind killed and dishonoured thousands. the means short of war and modern Warfare were thoroughly discussed.The subject of hate in Pakistani educational material is Hindu and India. modern weapons.. conduct. nature.. In another article on Pakistani education AH Nayyar wrote (21): The class 4 text book states: The religion of the Hindus did not teach them good things -. children.Other things taught in state school texts: After the partition of the subcontinent the Hindus and Sikhs started a properly planned campaign of exploiting the Muslims. principles ethics. operations. And Pakistani children are taught about war as follows: Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto introduced a full two-year course on 'Fundamentals of War' and 'Defence of Pakistan' for class XI and XII respectively. reflecting both the perceived sense of insecurity from an 'enemy' country. the old and the young with extreme cruelty and heartlessness. where they worship idols.
a Pakistani scientist writes (23): At the completion of Class-V... the terrible events that led to the breaking away of East Pakistan and the creation of Bangladesh are never mentioned. The experience of colonialism is described in a textbook as a British-Hindu conspiracy: The British joined forces with the Hindus to bring harm to the Muslims. scheming. Regarding history as taught to Pakistani children Kamila Hyat wrote in the Jang in August 2003 (22): . and conspiring to deprive the Muslims of their due rights. the Hindus as a monolith were always cunning.hand. the child should be able to 31
. Members of the generation who grew up after 1971 often have no idea at all of what issues underpinned the civil war or why it took place.. For another. all Muslims can say their prayers together. Muslims tried in every way to maintain good relations with the British and Hindus. Several attempts were made by the Hindus to erase the Muslim culture and civilization .. while if the Muslim kings and invaders plundered Hindu temples then presumably they did so with very noble intentions. but they did not allow it to be so. The Hindus always desired to crush the Muslims as a nation. are hardly ever discussed or even spoken off on passing within the Pakistan of today.. The genocide committed in the territory that now constitutes Bangladesh ... Pervez Hoodbhoy. If the Hindus had any national aspirations then these were clearly a sign of their prejudices.
and ideologically charged education bureaucracy today squarely blocks Pakistan's entry into the 21st century. The real worry in having such a faulty educational system that actively encourages hatred is that millions of Pakistani children are growing up to be adults thinking that India and Indians exist to subjugate Muslims and should be hated for that. There seems to be no way in which a child in Pakistan can grow up without fearing or hating India in particular and non-Muslims in general. Even children who study in Pakistani state schools imbibe a curriculum of discrimination and hate. It is surprising that faults in an education system that may have such great an impact on Indian-Pakistani relations in future are not being addressed at all at the highest governmental level in India. The problem is so serious that the Pakistani government must be engaged and encouraged to change the curriculum in Pakistani schools. incompetent. It is clear from this that it is not only the madrassas that offer a curriculum of hatred to Pakistani children." "India's evil designs against Pakistan. "Make speeches on Jehad and Shahadat" "Understand Hindu-Muslim differences
need for Pakistan.. self-obsessed. an acknowledgment of the existence of a biased curriculum 32
. in the first sign that a glimmering of realization of the consequences of a curriculum of hate.. This mindset cannot be wiped out overnight. corrupt.." Hoodbhoy goes on to say in the same article: A moronic. Meanwhile.
Government has set up a committee to look into the matter and send its recommendations within a month But such change cannot come easily in Pakistan.and a call for change was made by Pakistani Federal Minister for Education Ms Zobaida Jalal in a statement published in the Pakistan Tribune online in March 2004 (24): a committee has been constituted to work out recommendations for deletion of material from curricula which is aimed at fomenting hatred against India adding that the committee will submit its recommendations within a month. anti-Hindu opinion for decades to come. Several social organizations have raised objection that hatred is fanned against India through the curricula of educational institutions in Pakistan. Mazari. More than half of Pakistan's population of nearly 170 million are thirty years old or younger and have been exposed to a hate-India curriculum from childhood. The authors' warped logic is that knowing the differences breeds hatred! So one should really do away with 33 inculcating the rationale
. Shireen Mazari accused the authors of the report on Pakistan's biased school books as being biased and having been written for the handsome payment the authors received (25): Dr. As a result these people are likely to form a strong body of anti-India. In a sternly worded reaction to the idea of reform of the hate curriculum. Besides there is strong opposition to change. commenting on the Nayyar report said: the authors take exception to the fact that the present curriculum documents suggest that children should be able to understand the Hindu-Muslim differences and the need for the creation of Pakistan. the influential director of the Pakistan Institute of Strategic Studies. Dr.
Islam seems to have also become fair game. Mazari's words: deflect
"Also. efforts at change are in serious danger of being quashed even before they commence.
. with the madrassahs now a central target of the West. In the same article. Dr. Mazari dismissed criticism of madrassas as having an anti-Islam motive .behind the struggle for Pakistan! Of course.a time honored diversion used by the Pakistani elite to criticism (see chapter 8). Dr. there is no doubt that some of the texts do denigrate the Hindus but this should not be a pretext for not creating an awareness of the differences that led to the creation of Pakistan. With influential Pakistanis opposing change in the curriculum.
sports goods such as footballs and cricket balls. at least in the minds of Indians. This level of industrial technology in Pakistan is in keeping with the overall picture of Pakistan as a nation in which almost 70% of the people are illiterate.Chapter 4 INDUSTRIES AND ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN In a report about the Pakistani economy.Easy and cheap availability of goods and services through foreign aid discouraged the development of a large scale indigenous industry... economist
Sreedhar states (26): Pakistan's economy during the past fifty years can be described as a classic example of a case where artificial prosperity was maintained by heavy doses of foreign aid and overseas remittances of Pakistanis. That is far from the truth. that Pakistani industry is producing some state of the art high technology goods. textiles and agricultural products like sugar. Pakistan failed to do even the basics of economic development which most of the developing countries have done. Still. Pakistan remains primarily an agricultural economy. clothes. scooter or motorcycle has appeared on the international market with a Made in Pakistan label on it. Pakistan has survived for over 50 years giving the impression that it is somehow a powerhouse in its depth and breadth of manufacturing and industrial capacity. It is worth looking at some of these items and Pakistani claims in 35
. a sophisticated Pakistani public relations machine has managed to build up the idea. More than fifty years after independence. Goods manufactured in Pakistan are mostly no more complex than bicycles. Not a single wrist-watch. At another level.
or at least their major component parts. In keeping with the Pakistani psyche of according the highest importance to the armed forces Pakistani claims of high technology indigenous manufacture have revolved around armament.. nuclear capable missiles are being supplied by countries like China and North Korea to Pakistan ignoring international treaties that forbid such exports. Ghauri and Shaheen missiles are Chinese M-9 or M-11 missiles. but to point out the compulsion that Pakistani authorities have to maintain a facade of indigenous production for items that are widely known to be imported.given names like Hatf. specifically missiles and Pakistan's nuclear program. and other critical missile components. These brave names may perhaps be essential for national pride. The idea is not to downplay the considerable risk that Pakistan's missiles pose to India and other nations. In a detailed report on Pakistani missiles from NTI Nuclear Threat Initiative. guidance systems. Pakistani spokespersons never tire of speaking of Pakistan's indigenous missiles . or North Korean No-Dong missiles (27).some detail. Ghauri and Shaheen. a private body aimed at studying the risk of nuclear conflict it was reported that (28): Pakistan is still dependent on China for specialty materials. as well as the liquid propellants to fuel its missiles
. but even a cursory search of authoritative sources shows that Pakistan's Hatf.Pakistan will remain dependent on North Korea for importing complete liquid engines. The most likely reason for maintaining this charade of indigenous development of missiles is to obscure the fact that dangerous..
but it is important to place on record the fact that the designs were stolen and not the result of some prolonged research effort in Pakistan. A news report about this in a New Zealand news portal reads (29): The father of Pakistan's atom bomb.Even more peculiar is Pakistan's nuclear program. Abdul Qadeer Khan.He has acknowledged he did take advantage of his experience of many years of working on similar projects in Europe and his contacts with various manufacturing firms... Khan suddenly left Europe before his espionage was detected.." A report from the Netherlands. After his return to Pakistan he was convicted in absentia of nuclear espionage by an Amsterdam court. then Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto gave Khan the job of organizing Pakistan's nuclear program Pakistan can hardly be expected to publicly proclaim that the Father of Pakistan's nuclear program stole the technology. worked at the Urenco uranium enrichment facility in the Dutch city of Almelo in the 1970s. helping Pakistan develop its first nuclear bomb. Back home in Pakistan. The designs that Abdul Qadeer Khan obtained from the URENCO labs were for centrifuges. The strong Pakistani insistence that the program is entirely indigenous is contradicted by the facts. They are a serious risk either way.In 1976. from which Abdul Qadeer Khan got his designs for Uranium enrichment says Khan received a MSc degree in metallurgy from Delft in 1967 and later stole nuclear secrets from his Dutch employer. Centrifuges are devices that are used to rotate something 37 at high speed to
. This is true. Experts have argued that it does not matter if Pakistan's atomic bombs are stolen or made in Pakistan.
Several techniques exist for this and Pakistan chose the route of Uranium enrichment using the technology stolen by Qadeer URENCO labs. by centrifuges Khan from the
But making a nuclear bomb goes far beyond merely enriching Uranium. For this reason Uranium needs to be enriched to get material that contains 90% or more of U235. Uranium occurs naturally primarily in two forms. U235 is needed for nuclear bombs but occurs in very small quantities mixed with U238. The latter. and 38
. Subrahmanyam goes on to indicate similar skepticism of Pakistani ability in Indian scientific circles by saying (30): Their scepticism was based on their judgement that Pakistan did not have the critical mass of scientific and engineering talent necessary for the project. For example. This is where Pakistan's role as a Cold War ally of the US and its role in helping China and the US get closer came in handy. It is widely reported that China gave to Pakistan the complete design of a nuclear bomb that it had tested in 1964 (31). Indian analyst K.separate out heavier from lighter components. One week after the Indian nuclear tests of May 1998. Making a workable and reliable nuclear bomb requires further technology. a rotating centrifugal dryer in a washing machine is a centrifuge that separates water from clothes and makes wet clothes much more dry. which can then be used for making a nuclear bomb. the heavier U238 and lighter U235. China provided Pakistan with the necessary technology to make its nuclear bomb. Obtaining centrifuges was necessary for Pakistan to start enriching Uranium.Subrahmanyam quotes Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam as being skeptical about Pakistani ability to actually produce a working nuclear bomb.
Some experts believe that the device tested was a ready made device provided to Pakistan by China after the failure of an earlier test. on the 28th of May 1998. funded by unlimited financial support from the Pakistani government. If the Plutonium story is true. At the time of writing this. it lends credence to the theory that Pakistan may actually have tested a ready made Chinese nuclear device. bomber 39
. The next week. and its army chiefs of staff (chapter 13). It appears that this was done with the knowledge and tacit approval of the military government of Pakistan. During this period mysterious news reports surfaced that Plutonium was detected in the atmosphere over Chagai in Pakistan (32). the father of Pakistan's nuclear program. After this there was a flurry of activity when Pakistani officials visited China.a one week before the official Pakistani nuclear test an announcement was made at a G8 meeting that Pakistan had tested a nuclear device. It seems clear that Pakistan's entire nuclear weapons manufacturing program was based on a clandestine black-market of contacts with companies all over the world who produced components that could not be fashioned in Pakistan. Abdul Qadeer Khan stands discredited and accused of selling equipment and the plans for Uranium enrichment centrifuges to Libya. Iran and North Korea. Pakistan does not currently produce any fighter. Pakistan conducted a nuclear test in Chagai. as well as from Libya and other sources. in exchange for missiles from North Korea and great personal wealth for himself. there is no way Plutonium could have appeared. Since Pakistani bomb designs were Uranium based ones. News reports indicate that Pakistan's nuclear program was based on a network of clandestine imports from a network of proliferators personally built up by Abdul Qadeer Khan. It is said that the device failed to detonate.
Pakistan's literacy rate ranks below that of countries like Haiti. Current reports indicate that the trainers will be manufactured in China. such as Haiti and Rwanda. Furthermore A UNDP report in 2003 ranked Pakistan a low 138 . Pakistan's labor force is growing at the rate of 2. according to the most recent United Nations Development Program report. Another trainer aircraft that Pakistan became involved in is a Chinese designed K-8 jet trainer. possibly for domestic consumption that it is a leader in many technologies. called the Saab Supporter in Sweden is assembled in Pakistan under the name Mushshak. The
. single engine. On March 31 2002. This pretence probably does Pakistan more harm than anyone else. and not in Pakistan. in a list of 174 countries (33). But in 1981 Pakistan imported the entire assembly line for the manufacture of a 1969 vintage Swedish designed. The aircraft. a report in the The New York Times stated. but the number of unemployed people in Pakistan is rising at more than twice 40 that rate 6% (34). but Pakistan has continuously maintained. Even using a very low standard. Rwanda and Sudan. Pakistan's industrial sophistication today is arguably not much higher than that of Britain in the early 20th century. the State Department said in its most recent human rights report. Pakistani leaders.4% per year.or civilian aircraft and does not have a noteworthy aerospace research or design team. convinced by the exaggerated claims of their own countrymen have allowed their nation to lapse into a state of underdevelopment in which Pakistan is now being compared with the other countries at the bottom of the development ladder. two seater trainer aircraft from Sweden. Barely a third of Pakistan's population is literate.
while the population of the poor during the period under review increased by 10 per cent. 37. But many other factors contribute to the decrepit state of the Pakistani economy.corrupt military officers have siphoned off more than $1. 38. Aid and loan money has been constantly misused for personal gain by the Pakistani army. In the Punjab province. army run businesses and private enterprise due to rampant corruption at the highest places..2 billion in the last 10 years to purchase such amenities as land. showing a decline in their welfare level On February 5 2003. There is an extremely wealthy class of Pakistani at the top of the economic pyramid and this class includes Army Officers as well as feudal landowners some owning as much as 45. fully integrating itself into every facet of the economy and draining state coffers with generous benefit plans for its officers.46 per cent).000 acres of land.with 41
. The report warns that population is shifting from upper poverty bands to lower ones. The Karachi Stock Exchange has trading in only about 30 stocks . 40) Some of these problems. according to a recent report by Pakistan's auditor general.. mansions and luxury cars. 36. population increased by 6 million people (4. one percent of the landowners own 26 percent of the land. 39. regarding industries and poverty have been listed above. One report (36) says only one million Pakistanis pay tax in a country of over 150 million people. the San Francisco Chronicle reported: Pakistan's powerful military has ruled the country for more than half of the nation's 56-year history.Pakistan Human Condition report of 2003 says that between 1998-99 and 2000-01. A large number of reports speak of all the economic
problems that Pakistan has (35..
The same report goes on to say. Governing these people is a small elite of wealthy. being told that India is forever planning to attack Pakistan and kill all Muslims. and they help build up a picture of Pakistan as a country of predominantly poor people. says Muhammad Mansoor Ali. corrupt and self-serving army officers and feudal lords who literally rule over their subjects like medieval kings. one of Pakistan's leading economists.
. The population is kept busy with jihad. Estimates of the size of the country's black-market economy. The Exchange is run by a handful of crooked brokers and scams are rampant. which includes everything from underground banking to narcotics to the smuggling of consumer goods. whose number is increasing by the year as the population rises. "It is essentially a parallel economy. while the lower ranks are the bodyguards to protect the powerful from both external enemies and opponents within Pakistan.over 700 other stocks listed for tax advantages. That ratio "is probably the most severe" of any country in the world." The number of such damning reports is enormous. while the rulers of Pakistan build up their personal fortunes and protect their lucre with an army whose upper ranks are like a Mughal court. range up to 100% of the so-called formal sector.
anger. Pakistan has been too low on the priority of sociologists and psychologists. experiences and history of their particular society. including Indian leaders and strategists have been content with describing Pakistanis as being “Just like us” . Another well known example of the consequences of an inability to understand cultural nuances comes from a transcript 43 of a telephone
. and must be taken into account in negotiation.e.i.Chapter 5 PAKISTANI PSYCHE . like all other people. because the behavior is very much like that of anyone else. Even so. communication between cultures becomes difficult if negotiators from different cultures cannot understand each others' behavior. But groups of thousands or millions of people anywhere in the world. Sometimes these unique patterns of behavior are very difficult to recognise. Pakistanis. The important role of saving face and avoiding shame is well recognised. who live together in nations tend to develop certain unique patterns of behavior based on the stresses. A deep understanding of Japanese culture was required before international agreements could be reached with Japan on the issue of whaling and protection of endangered species of whales. while most Indians. pain and other emotions which are indistinguishable from anyone else on an individual level.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Very few studies exist on the subject of the mind of the Pakistani or the Pakistani psyche. Some cultures. For example. and in negotiation and reaching agreements. such as Japanese culture have been well studied (41). just like Indians. sorrow. it is worth recognizing minor differences because this knowledge has some value in understanding behavior. display the usual range of human behavioral patterns: joy.
a certain envy Pakistanis would not acknowledge openly about the 44 failure of their civil
. Dixit. Second. but it cannot turn its back on a 55 year struggle. former Indian foreign secretary has spoken of the psychological hurdles that come in the way of Indian and Pakistani relations. and Jordan unprepared for their defeat in the war subsequently (42). speaking on India-Pakistan relations quoted a Pakistani army officer saying how important the question Pakistani actions relating to India. "artificially nurtured memories of Muslim superiority and a subconscious desire to rectify the unfair arrangements of partition". In the words of one Pakistani of pride was in
officer. In his testimony to the United States' Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in January 2004 (43) Stephen Cohen. and it literally calls the shots But the subject of a specific and defined Pakistani mind has not gone unnoticed among Indian observers.
understands it cannot wrest Kashmir from India. N. but King Hussein was unable to understand the nuances by which Nasser hinted that his forces were being defeated. The cultural need to avoid shame forced Nasser to state that his forces were fighting well against their enemy. But such patterns do exist. These are listed in a review of his book (44): Dixit identifies a series of Pakistani traits that refuse to live amicably with India. J. At stake is its pride.conversation in Arabic between Egyptian President Gamel Abdel Nasser and King Hussein of Jordan when Egyptian forces were being defeated by Israeli forces in 1967. There are few studies of unique behavioral patterns among Pakistanis. First. and their importance must not be underestimated. That left Hussein.
Fifth. in 1947 and a few years after that it would have been perfectly valid and accurate to describe Pakistanis as being just like Indians. Of course. that is separate from the old Indian identity. could be exploited from forces across the border owing to their "socio-political schizophrenia" since partition. Seventh.society to solidify democratic and tolerant traditions in comparison to an India where khakis and bayonets follow popularly elected representatives. Third. widespread belief in the Pakistani establishment and media circles that India is getting exhausted in Kashmir and would not be able to hold on to it for long (a presumption of Musharraf in Kargil). irrational faith in the "profound capacity for commitment to jihad amongst the momin". and most significantly. it can easily be observed that there are certain behavioral characteristics that can be called Purely Pakistani There is. Pakistan will emerge as the strongest and most powerful political entity in South Asia". But after over 50 years of being a separate nation with different threat perceptions. assumption by Pakistan of the role of protector and overseer of the welfare of Indian Muslims. as was publicly declared by Foreign Minister Gauhar Ayub Khan at a press conference in Delhi. problems and priorities. which is a formal objective declared in the official oath-taking ceremony of every Pakistani officer-cadet when he graduates. Eighth. avenging the military defeat of 1971. Fourth. who in the words of Maulana Azad. It is useful to be aware of this in dealing with Pakistan 45
. "the unarticulated ambition and hope that if India broke up. Sixth. in effect a Pakistani psyche or a Pakistani mindset. and with 75 % of present day Pakistanis having been born after 1947. confidence that Pakistan's nuclear weapons program is an instrumentality to further geopolitical objectives in Kashmir.
and this characteristic has been used to good effect by Pakistan over the years. and the most likely explanation is the internalization of Arab culture in Islam. An article in the American magazine. There are certainly some parallels in Pakistani behavior to Arab behavior described by Raphael Patai in his seminal book on The Arab Mind (42). and a pattern can be seen in the way Pakistanis react to people and events. display one or more of the following characteristics to make them recognizable as general guidelines to Pakistani psyche. No visitor to Pakistan goes away without being touched by this. especially their leadership. These similarities are striking. leading to a degree of Arabization of behavior among devoutly Islamic people such as some Pakistanis who have actively sought to culture (see chapter 9). reject their earlier Indian
Certain types of behavior stand out among Pakistanis and are best demonstrated by studying examples of statements and actions by prominent Pakistani leaders and spokespersons. It would be wrong to assume that every Pakistani displays all the characteristics described here.
Hospitality and generosity: The characteristic of being extremely hospitable and generous to guests has stood Pakistanis and Pakistan in good stead. The Weekly Standard had this to say in its Nov 5
. but careful observations of Pakistani statements and actions show that a sufficiently large proportion of Pakistanis. No single characteristic is unique to Pakistanis alone. Certain statements and actions are repeated time and again.as a nation and in predicting Pakistani responses to events.
Prominent among people who have written warm words for Pakistan are writers like Brian Cloughley. Compared with their haughty Indian and chaotic Afghan neighbors. Yeager's words of praise of the Pakistan Air Force continued to be quoted. 47 and Anwar Mahmood. As one congressional staffer. the Washington Post reported: It was mid afternoon Tuesday. Pakistani hospitality has charmed a large number of prominent writers to write positively about Pakistan. politics..S. One prominent example is the famous American pilot. Chuck Yeager.the attractive character of elite Pakistani officials. and more knowledgeable about the insider gossip of U. warmer. who frequently visits south-central Asia.
. maintaining a reputation for the PAF that extended far beyond its real performance. who was a guest of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) and who later went on to write paeans about the PAF For many years after the PAF was comprehensively defeated in successive wars with India." A series of Western writers and prominent people have been hosted and feted in Pakistan. and have later served as honorary ambassadors for Pakistan in the Western media. Pakistani VIPs are often wittier. As recently as June 2002.. Eric Margolis and John Fricker. "I like 'em. and often just plain wrong. the Indians are jerks. succinctly put it. and some have gone as far as to make needlessly hostile and malicious references to India in their writings despite strong evidence that their words are misinformed at best. American diplomats and spooks often have a good deal of fun with their Westernized Pakistani counterparts.
David Pryce Jones has written (45) that the key to understanding some Islamic societies is to recognise the need for acquisition of honour. At a rural..and tea sandwiches served on trays by white-gloved soldiers. There they are treated to hour-long military briefings. displays of Indian mortar shells -. in the form of an honour killing is often the sentence carried out on a woman who is thought to have shamed the family. pride.Five times in the past month. and humiliation. The powerful codes of shame and honour.
Honour and Dignity: The need to maintain honour and dignity is a fundamental pillar in the mind of the Pakistani. Death. It is often more important to maintain honour and avoid shame than anything else.. maintenance of honour often relates to women and doubts about fidelity or adultery. Everything is permitted in order to safeguard the family or tribal honour.. it's worth the $3.000 it will cost his ministry to rent the plane from Pakistan International Airlines. has ordered foreign embassies to expedite visas for journalists..disgrace. the Information Ministry has rented air-conditioned buses to carry journalists to the Line of Control. he figured. 48
.. and even murder..Pakistan's information secretary. respect. cheating. tribal level in Pakistan. complete with maps. eager to make its voice heard.... lying..enforce identity and conformity of behaviour.The Pakistani government. was on the phone discussing with an underling how to keep more than 100 foreign journalists happy for the rest of the week.if it keeps the reporters satisfied. and the converse avoidance of shame. You won't get such hospitality from the Indian army. dignity.
while insisting that victory was always achieved.But honour and dignity play an equally important role among the richer and apparently liberated Pakistani elite rulers of Pakistan." The need to maintain honour and avoid shame by Pakistani military commanders goes to the extent of suppressing any news of a defeat or setback suffered by the military. The importance of honour is evident from the words used by US deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage after a meeting with the President of Pakistan... General Musharraf on the 6th of June 2002:(46) ... On 14th March 2003. The 1965 war with India started with the infiltration of Pakistani special forces into Kashmir for sabotage and to incite acts of violence.. military leader of Pakistan said about Pakistan's nuclear weapons aspirations (47) "We only want the deterrence capability to preserve our honour and dignity.. General Musharraf.I would note that the conversations we had with President Musharraf made it very clear to me that he wants to do everything that he can to avoid war. Of course he wants to do this. The need to maintain honour and avoid the perceived national shame of appearing weak in front of India has led to the sacrificing of all developmental effort towards arms purchases to pursue military parity with India. As the conflict evolved war broke out over a wide front and by the time a cease fire 49
. keeping intact the honour and dignity of the nation and the armed forces. A brief study of the way Pakistan's wars with India have been reported in Pakistan are illustrative of this. Stephen Cohen's quote of a Pakistan army officer's words in this regard has already been alluded to at the beginning of this chapter.
that any available fact may be either picked up or selectively forgotten in order to save face and maintain the pretence of victory. General Jagjit Singh Aurora's daring concentric attack on East Pakistan went forward uninterrupted and on 16 December he received the surrender of the Pakistani commander in Dacca. In 1971. More than ninety thousand Pakistani soldiers were taken prisoner of war. despite its aside the armies of the battle of Panipat outside
the walls of Delhi. Bangladesh. 50
. Indian forces were well within striking range of the Pakistani city of Lahore. the triumph of an East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) based political party in an election would have meant that a Bengali. Indian forces entered East Pakistan and defeated the Pakistani military and a new nation. Significantly. sweep effete Hindus and win another dispelled any vain dreams India could. The Indian victory. was born. who commenced a genocide in East Pakistan. The need to maintain honour and dignity is so important to the Pakistani. Sheikh Mujibur Rehman would have become Prime Minister of Pakistan. Not an Indian brigade had to be moved West. This was disliked by the West Pakistani Punjabi dominated army of Pakistan. with Indian troops in the towns on the outskirts of Lahore. and Pakistani General Ayub Khan's plans to take Srinagar were foiled. In a humanitarian move.was declared both India and Pakistan had captured small areas of each other's territory. But the 1965 war has always been portrayed from the Pakistani side as a war in which attacking Indian forces were defeated. unparalleled since the German Blitzkrieg that overran Poland was described by historian Brigadier Shelford Bidwell (48) as follows: The operations of 1971 finally that the 'sword-arm' of old numerical inferiority. Millions of refugees poured into India to escape this.
An editorial in the Pakistani newspaper The Jang recalled the 1971 reports in Pakistan (49): So great was the ignorance and absence of principles in West Pakistan that the government of the day had the temerity to issue a disgraceful statement casually mentioning that "by agreement between local commanders. the whole Northern Infantry was blown up and 2. fighting had ceased in East Pakistan and that Indian troops had entered Dacca. Some of the defeated Generals in that war even received gallantry awards and honours in later years.The ignominious defeat of the Pakistan armed forces in 1971 and the formation of Bangladesh almost went unreported in Pakistan. neither were the failures admitted or analysed. Mistakes made by the Pakistan army in the war were never investigated or made public.. The Pakistani need to maintain honour and dignity at the expense of truth is a fault that has done Pakistan no good.when the battle began.700 soldiers were martyred and hundreds were injured. . By the time the withdrawal started the Indian forces had wiped out almost the entire Northern Light Infantry of the Pakistan army." Pakistani children are not taught about the 1971 war. The Kargil conflict of 1999 ended with the rapid withdrawal of Pakistani forces facing rout. Nawaz Sharif. The death toll exceeds even that of the 51
. who was Prime Minister of Pakistan during this conflict. said in an interview to the Weekly Independent from his place of exile in Saudi Arabia. when used in a psy-ops role. It may even be a characteristic that can be used to predict Pakistani behavior or provoke desired responses from Pakistanis.
With the entire ruling apparatus of Pakistan under control of a small group of family units. The deeply Islamic fervor of the average Pakistani comes in handy here as all errors and defeats can be explained 52
. (the biradari) are under pressure to maintain a picture of unity. because dishonour. Pakistanis do not admit the involvement of their armed forces.1965 and 1971 full-scale wars. A study of Pakistani society and kinship patterns (50) notes that the household is the primary unit for kinship and the male descendants. But the only history that is acknowledged by Pakistan is that the Kargil conflict was a great victory for mujahideen who held the Indian army at bay. but it is difficult to imagine how the Pakistani army can learn critical lessons from a disastrous war if the sole aim of its officer class is the save face and maintain honour and dignity An explanation exists for the tendency of the Pakistani elite and officer class to protect each other's honour even after embarrassing or disastrous events. It has been observed that Pakistan itself is ruled by a small group of between 22 and 43 families (4). A quote from the study says: There disunity means
is considerable pressure for patrilineal kin to
maintain good relations with one another. and yet do not explain how the Pakistan army withdrew from the conflict zone if they were not involved. Biradari members who quarrel will try to resolve their differences before major social occasions so that the patrilineage can present a united front to the village. the family obligations of Pakistani society to avoid shame creates the need for whitewashing military disasters and other mistakes. In doing this. face has been saved and honour retained by the Pakistani army.
Even before the 1998 tests Pakistan was widely acknowledged to possess nuclear weapons. It is possible that the Pakistani need to maintain honour and dignity and somehow appear equal or superior to India was understood and exploited by Indian leaders in 1998. breaking a 24 year self-imposed moratorium. If Pakistan had not tested. when India conducted a series of nuclear weapon tests. the test greatly diluted the international attention that India was getting after its tests. Pakistan did test a nuclear device of its own two weeks after India's tests and although there is some controversy about the real origin of the device tested by Pakistan. a spotlight that has only become brighter after the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks in the US.an explanation that most devout Pakistanis will accept without question. and put the spotlight on Pakistan. it would have put India in a very tight situation. while Pakistan could have basked in the sympathy it would surely have got for having an aggressive nuclear neighbor in India. The national sense of shame in being unable to publicly match India was so intense that Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif acknowledged that he would not survive unless he sanctioned nuclear tests by Pakistan. Pakistan need not have tested immediately after India's tests.away as God's will .
Rhetoric and Hyperbole: The Pakistani need for the maintenance of honour and
avoidance of shame ideally involves and outright military 53
. with international censure and sanctions. But the need to save Pakistani honour was too great after the Indian tests.
Indian leaders are often referred to as scheming high caste Brahmins or Banias who are plotting to either dominate or eliminate people of all other religions and social groups. The degree of misinformation is astonishing. David Pryce Jones has described the connection between honour. wars are never lost. For example. shame and rhetoric (45): Honour makes life worth living whereas shame is a living death. Arms built under licence are always shown as indigenous. righteous and heading for victory.victory. Every accusation is made to show that an adversary is cowardly. When such victory is not possible or unlikely. but easy to understand in the light of the deep Pakistani need to maintain honour and avoid shame. 54
. Indians are always depicted as being conniving and scheming. although it often sounds hollow and unconvincing. and any defeats are temporary setbacks. Ballistic missiles imported from China and North Korea are repainted and given Pakistani names to be flaunted as missiles designed and manufactured in Pakistan. never as courageous and honourable. its wars and about India. success involves bragging. with Pakistanis being courageous. and shame means public humiliation. Stemming directly from this rhetoric and hyperbole is the decades old campaign of misinformation that Pakistan has maintained about itself. Shame and honour involve publicity. Such hyperbole seems to be necessary psychological support for the Pakistani mind. Only a total victory or a mediator leading to a solution on Pakistani terms can maintain honour enough to allow such hyperbole to die down. its armed forces. The Indian armed forces are always referred to by Pakistan as being weak and dishonourable and always accused of raping and murdering civilians. weak and untruthful. the war needs to be continued verbally to avoid shame.
55) have documented the surrender of 90. In a farcical and fanciful description Brigadier Anjum does not say a word about the 1971 elections in Pakistan that were won by the East Pakistani Awami league party. The Indian intervention to stop the genocide by Pakistani troops is described in the following way: it was an act of military piracy at the highest level to destroy the professional propriety of soldiers who were on lawful duty.addressed a press conference in New Delhi to say that he was convinced that Pakistan army had committed genocide in East Pakistan... Brigadier Anjum (51. This was enough to disparage Pakistan Army Brigadier Anjum makes this record of India's role: India with a mission in hand to destroy Pakistan was first to demolish its basis..000 Pakistani troops in East Pakistan at the end of the 1971 war. Brigadier Anjum 55 records his version of
.. written by a former Pakistani army officer. 52). and denies the well documented genocide of ethnic East Pakistani Bengalis by West Pakistani troops (chapter 11). having a pro-India prejudice . 54.The interference of Indian army in East Pakistan was a well thought out conspiracy hatched by India and vociferously backed by the Soviet Union Many sources (53. Anjum's explanation of why reports of genocide by Pakistani troops are false is as follows: Senator Edward Kennedy.An example of this tendency can be seen in a two part article on the events of 1971 that appeared in the online edition of the Pakistani paper the Jang as recently as 2004.
The rest of PoWs mostly children.
Disputes and mediation: Pakistani leaders have initiated war against India mainly when they have assessed India as being weak. the need to maintain honour and avoid shame requires that Pakistan must not sue for peace by directly negotiating with India. When faced with a situation in which Pakistan is the weaker party. Any concessions that Pakistan is forced to make can be conveniently blamed on 56
. the Pakistani assessment of Indian weakness has led to a situation in which Pakistan is faced with military defeat. and offering peace is a sign of cowardice and an unwillingness to fight.000 socalled prisoners of war was just over forty thousands. But to the Pakistani leadership. were civilians and their families. which avoids the need for defeat and dishonour. That is what justifies the formation and existence of Pakistan.
The need to appear superior to and better than India is fundamental for the Pakistani. Courage and a willingness to fight are honourable. On every occasion. but it is honourable to agree to peace when mediated by a respected third party. It is cowardly to call for peace directly. Accepting that India and Indians may be in any way better than Pakistan is deeply dishonourable and shameful to the Pakistani. an offer of peace by any party is considered as a sign of weakness.history as: The number of combatant soldiers out of the 90. This calls for the introduction of a mediator or middleman. The feeling threatens the very existence of Pakistan and is a feeling that must avoided at all cost.
because on the one hand India appears weak to them by asking for peace. The important need here is for Pakistani leaders to appear to be strong and retain their honour in front of their own people. it is likely been misinterpreted by initiatives are seen as is considered to be a sign of that peace offers from India have Pakistani leaders. but on the other hand India refuses third party mediation which a weak nation should 57
. This confuses and angers the Pakistani leadership. which must be
met with threats and demands for concessions. But an India that appears to be showing weakness by talking about peace mystifies Pakistan by refusing third party mediation. Because talk of peace weakness. weak or dishonoured as long as the Pakistani people see their leaders as having pulled off some kind of victory. the International community or any other third party rather than facing shame by negotiating for settlement directly with India. but a respected third
party's request from President Clinton of the US that made a triumphant Pakistan pull back from defeating India. third party mediation is unacceptable in what is essentially a bilateral dispute with Pakistan. Indian peace a sign of weakness. the UN. the Pakistani Prime Minister Clinton remnants that it Nawaz Sharif demanded an audience with President of the US and then ordered withdrawal of the of the Pakistani forces to give the appearance was not a clear defeat. and are not seen as having lost their honour to the weaker party India. This explains the tendency that Pakistani leaders have to call for third party mediation in settling a dispute between India and Pakistan by appealing to the US. It does not matter if anyone else considers that Pakistan was defeated. In the Kargil conflict. For India.the mediating party. when Pakistani forces were facing rout.
That rebellion was eventually quelled by the British with troops mainly from the Punjab particularly Muslim troops from what is now the Pakistani 58
General Ayub Khan who led Pakistan into the 1965 war with India had boasted that One Pakistani soldier is equal to six Indian soldiers The genesis of this attitude is interesting.with military tradition in their blood. One more factor that must be taken into account in negotiation with Pakistan is that Pakistan may fail to honour prior agreements as it has done with the UN resolutions and the subsequent Simla agreement of 1972 with India. When faced with the stark choice of being with America. soldiers of the British Indian army rose up in a rebellion in what is now known as the first war of Indian Independence. It is possible that Pakistani leaders consider all agreements and treaties as temporary instruments to buy time. In 1857. or against America after the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. with the courage and valor that such a military tradition suggests somehow enshrined in the Pakistani's genes. In support of this plan General Musharraf used the analogy of the charter of Madina and the treaty of Hudaibiya signed by the Prophet Mohammad in his September 19
speech (56). President General Musharraf explained to his people in a speech in Urdu that his aligning with the US would be a temporary alliance with the devil.accept with gratitude to save its own face.
The Martial Mind: One of the enduring myths to have come out of Pakistan is that Pakistanis are somehow a martial race .
Maj.. in the next war to miracles would occur and the Pakistan Army would do well Hard as it may be for a rational thinking person to believe.Punjab. Various British writers like Philip Mason frankly admitted that the real reason for selective recruitment was political reliability in crisis situations. These troops were subsequently in the thick of all the campaigns that Imperial Britain was fighting. After this event. somehow superior by virtue of its being composed of martial races. from the beginning. The British gradually began to refer to these groups as martial races. which the Punjabis had exhibited during the 1857-58 Bengal Army rebellion. the British greatly changed the composition of the Indian army forces. assisted by Pashtun troops. Amin goes on to write: The Pakistani nation had been fed on propaganda about martial superiority of their army. which are now part of Pakistan. Pakistan the nation was formed with the belief that its army was..the Pakistani GHQ placed entire reliance on the Superior Valour and Martial Qualities of the Pakistani (Punjabi and Pathan Muslim soldier) vis a vis the Hindu Indian soldier. Pakistani military adventurism has been guided by a firm belief in the innate racial superiority of the Pakistani soldier and supported by a belief that Pakistan and Pakistanis are somehow performing Allah's will and 59
. by recruiting mainly Muslim Punjabi troops and Pashtun troops from the North Western parts of preindependence India. as proved in 1965 war and felt that somehow. Retired Pakistani army Major Agha Humayun Amin wrote about the Pakistani army feeling of martial superiority (57): The "Martial Races Theory" in reality was an Imperial gimmick to boost the ego of the cannon fodder.
Their self-esteem is unshakable to the extent that no factor is allowed to get in the way of identifying themselves as superior and excellent. Positive Self-image: One remarkable feature noticeable among Pakistanis. especially Punjabi Pakistanis is an extremely good and positive self-image of themselves and their people. Major Amin writes(57): 60
. Benazir Bhutto. A good self-image can be a useful personality attribute if it is not carried to extreme lengths in which all others are considered inferior. Hamid Hussain wrote of Pakistani military officers' selfimage in Pakistan's defence journal (58): these military officers also have dangerously self-
exaggerated opinion of their capacities both in terms of defence of the country's frontiers and their ability as an organized body to fix all problems of the society. Former Prime Minister of Pakistan. The East Pakistanis were held in contempt by West Pakistanis. recalls having been taught as a child that West Pakistanis are tall. fair-complexioned and eat wheat. dark-complexioned and eat rice.that God would therefore be on their side no matter how preposterous or ill advised the action. to the detriment of Pakistan. which now enter the zone of grandiose ideas and selfrighteousness. Unfortunately that has occurred among Pakistan's elite. pride and constant struggle to excel professionally are essential elements of a good officer's corps. while East Pakistanis (Bengalis) are short. Confidence in one's abilities. The problem starts when these positive traits are stretched to unrealistic limits. herself a Sindhi.
and the liberation of Bangladesh. the better man he was likely to be and fairer a
A visible symbol of the contempt with which Indians are taught to be regarded in Pakistan can be seen from some 61
. This feeling was a carry over from the pre-Independence days when the British relied on the martial race for their army recruits. Amin writes. Maj.The Bengalis were despised as non martial by all West Pakistanis. But the Punjabi generals of the Pakistani army. the taller native. If the results of these elections had been carried through to their logical conclusion.the generals were convinced that the Bengali was too meek to ever challenge the martial Punjabi or Pathan Muslim. The results of the election were annulled and martial law was clamped in East Pakistan. Sheikh Mujibur
Rehman. it is not surprising to note that Pakistanis have considered themselves racially superior to the “dark. Mujibur Rehman and his party should have formed the government of Pakistan in Islamabad. In one of the Pakistan.. ugly” Hindustani Indians. who considered themselves superior to the short. If Bengali Muslim East Pakistanis were considered racially inferior by West Pakistanis. the 1971 elections gave a the Awami League. A subsequent genocide of over three million East Pakistanis led to the Indian military intervention in East Pakistan. an East Pakistan headed by a Bengali. This contempt with which West Pakistanis viewed their own countrymen contributed to the secession of East Pakistan and the formation of few elections held in thumping majority to based political party Bangladesh in 1971. To Kiplings contemporaries. dark and non-martial Bengalis could not face the idea of being ruled by an inferior Bengali as Prime Minister.
or does not have any bearing on behavior. Pakistan is always portrayed as being just. Associated with the word is a picture of a kafir . Pakistan is said to have already done. and that India. dark. From the profound application of Islamic beliefs among Pakistanis. fair and sacrificing. weak or cowardly. The word kafir means unbeliever. Stemming from the self-image of the Pakistani is his sense of entitlement. back for services rendered and
Islamic overlay in Pakistani behavior: The obvious question is “Why would anyone's religion make his behavior different or peculiar?” It is better to answer the question than ignore it and assume that religion has. ugly. At every step.which is often the picture of a Hindu of a Sikh. Even today. in the 21st century it is possible to visit Pakistani chat-rooms and discussion fora on the Internet to find references to Indians as short.Pakistani textbooks for small children to learn the Urdu alphabet. but in the Pakistani context it is a derogatory term for a nonMuslim. Spokespersons for Pakistan never tire of pointing out that Pakistan is not getting its due. the US or the world owe Pakistan a lot more that it is getting. Children's alphabet books carry the word kafir as an example of a word that starts with the Urdu equivalent of the letter k. Arab scholar Raphael Patai. in his seminal work on Arab psyche (42) lists a few characteristics of Arab personality that arise from Islamic beliefs. or already given more than necessary and that the onus is on the other party to pay Pakistan sacrifices made. 62
with evidence of the same in their behavior. Patai quotes this Islamic belief as the requirement that Man has no choice but to go through the course of events. One powerful Islamic belief is that of predestiny. but stem from Arabic and Persian respectively. and that he will be rewarded for his piety in an afterlife with an assured place in a well-stocked heaven. or even to try to fight to make it better. Development requires effort and the belief in predestiny rules that conditions of feudal well for change and and events
that the Pakistani experiences in life are ordained by 63
. the average Pakistani is unlikely to revolt against his lot in life. which have been written down for him in God's Book to the smallest detail. Not even in everyday life can a man do anything. These beliefs are referred to in the words kismat and naseeb that occur in Urdu. The average. The average citizen's life may be lived in poverty in someone's service because that is what God has willed for him and attempting to change that would be against the will of God.it seems that the same characteristics can be seen among Pakistanis. poor uneducated Pakistani believes that his life is pre-ordained by Allah to be the way it is. so long as it does not go against his Islamic conscience. The docility of the average Pakistani in day-to-day life is probably beneficial to the stability Pakistani society. the belief that all events are predestined or decided beforehand by God and cannot be avoided or changed in any way. He will do what his feudal master. either to hasten or otherwise influence events. local lord. For this reason. or religious leader tells him to do. but does not augur development.
a relationship deliberately cultivated by the Pakistani elite for their own ends. or ensure a place in heaven if he were.
.Allah to be as they are tampered with in any way. there can be virtually no hope of achieving a sea-change in the internal situation of Pakistan. and the external consequences of that. and any subsequent violence he takes part in would ensure for him a respected place in his society as an Islamic warrior. He is well looked after during the indoctrination and training period. Unless there is a fundamental and deep rooted effort within Pakistan to change the relationship of the Pakistani with his religion.
Such beliefs also make the average Pakistani male citizen a prime candidate for motivation into leading a life as an Islamic warrior. Such a life is tempting because it meets all his human and psychological requirements. as is quite likely. to die in action.
to be counted along with other minorities of Pakistan such as Shia Muslims. and murder. rape. in an article entitled To be a woman in Pakistan is to ask for a life of subservience (60) wrote: Pakistani women continue to be victims of an unjust
society rooted in history and tradition. the women of Pakistan could probably be called a minority. higher in societies
Pakistani women's rights activist Ameera Javeria. The importance of this fact lies in that many studies show that poverty. Hindus and Christians. many have been the victims of domestic violence. Those women who rebel by asserting their rightful place in society are punished and considered immoral. Lack of awareness about their rights and their need for education has added to their predicament. malnutrition and child labor are where the women are uneducated. while a powerful clergy rejects all notions of equality and freedom for women. Ahmedis.Chapter 6 WOMEN AND MINORITIES OF PAKISTAN With 108 men for every 100 women in Pakistan (59). Another report (50) on Pakistani society says this about women: A woman's life is difficult during the early years of 65
. Most Islamic communities are averse to the idea of giving women social status equal to that of men. For example. That a strong feudal elite still rules the roost in the vast countryside is a major impediment to enlightenment and democracy. two out of three women in Pakistan are uneducated. The state of Pakistani women has a powerful bearing on the condition of Pakistan.
A report on family violence in Pakistani society (61) says: (sic)The Male dominant society of Pakistan with strong sense of complete " Mastery " feel's pride to Dictate his terms of Physical and Mental Torture to his Wife. A young bride has very little status in her husband's household.marriage. or Daughter in front of other adult and small members of the family. Sister.A wife gains status and power as she bears sons. mothers favor their sons. With girls being a liability to be given away after marriage.a law that is in effect in Pakistan.. An explanation of how this law is applied can be seen in the following quote (62): 66
... One of the purposes of the Hudood ordinance is apparently to discourage extramarital sex. The woman of the family is considered fundamental to
maintaining the honour of the family group. she is subservient to her mother-inlaw and must negotiate relations with her sisters-inlaw. Daughters are a liability. Among some groups it is believed that education of girls leads to immorality. A gender bias toward boys is clear from this description. A woman must be chaste and subservient to the man. and failure to do this can lead to dishonour a crime punishable by death. Particularly egregious is the Hudood ordinance . education of girls has a low priority in Pakistan. Therefore. Sons will bring wives for her to supervise and provide for her in her old age. to be given away in an expensive marriage with their virginity intact. honour killings in which a father or a brother kill a woman for having dishonoured the family are common in Pakistan.
Since the passage of the Hudood Ordinance in 1979 under the military government of Zia al Haq, "zina" or extramarital intercourse, has been considered a crime against the state in Pakistan...this law often prescribes cruel and devastating punishments, such as whipping or stoning the individual(s) in question, and explicitly discriminates against women...the Hudood Ordinance has legally blurred the distinction between rape and extramarital sex, resulting in the imprisonment and/or physical punishment of numerous women who have come forward with charges of rape without witnesses. Consequently, many rape victims are deemed criminals in a Pakistani court of law. Pakistan is stuck in a vicious circle in which the elite corner all the resources, leaving little for education of the poor. And among this class the women are the worst off, uneducated and discriminated; and this leads to further poverty and degradation in society. No force in Pakistan seems change this. to have the wisdom, will or power to
Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan is said to have had a vision for Pakistan in which people of all religions in Pakistan would co-exist. In his 11th August 1947 speech to the constituent assembly of Pakistan, Jinnah said (63): You may belong to any religion or caste or creed - that has nothing to do with the business of the state ... in the course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the state."
A few months vision:
We have many non-Muslims-Hindus, Christians and Parsis ... but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan." But Jinnah's vision for Pakistan died with Jinnah. Pakistan's record in the treatment of its religious minorities is shameful and unapologetic. In his landmark paper (64), possibly the first scientific statistical analysis of the question of ethnic cleansing in Pakistan, researcher Sridhar notes: ..almost 89% of the minorities in West Pakistan were ethnically cleansed, i.e. killed, converted or driven out of the country. Almost 54% of the minority population ended up as refugees in India, while a very high 35% of the minority population is simply unaccounted for. These are people who were likely killed or converted into Islam. Population researcher P.H. Reddy has noted that at the time of formation of Pakistan, there were over 20 million non-Muslims in the areas that formed Pakistan mostly Hindus. After the migration of partition, approximately 7 million non-Muslims remained in what is now making up approximately ten per cent of the West Pakistan. In the years since Pakistan's population has more than doubled West Pakistan population of independence, to nearly 150
million, but only three per cent, or 4.5 million people are non Muslims in modern day Pakistan. About half of that number are Hindus and the other half are Christian. In simple terms, in 56 years 68 since independence the
population of Muslims in Pakistan went up from about 60 million to 145 million, while the population of nonMuslims fell from 7 million to 4.5 million. Hindus formed the largest minority in Pakistan at independence and their number has reduced to around 1.5 million.
In November 2002, the Times of India (65) quoted Noor Naz Agha, a prominent Pakistani lawyer and rights activist as saying: Minorities are not safe in Pakistan. Recently, several attacks have been made on churches, hospitals, even on human rights organisations. And several people have been killed," The treatment of religious minorities in Pakistan leaves a lot to be desired. The problem stems from an attitude that Pakistan is for Sunni Muslims alone, and people of other religions, and even Shia Muslims are to be looked upon with contempt. The discrimination extends to derogatory references to non-Islamic people in school textbooks, as noted in chapter 3. M.H. Aksari, writing in the Pakistani paper Dawn (66) said, The former Indian foreign secretary, J.N. Dixit,
recalling his days as ambassador in Islamabad says that once when he called on a Pakistani friend, the latter's six-year old daughter on discovering that Dixit was a Hindu skipped around the table chanting 'Hindu Kutta', 'Hindu Kutta.' Hindu Kutta means Hindu Dog. But it is not Hindus alone who are discriminated against in Pakistan. Over the years the Pakistan army leadership 69 has encouraged a
particularly intolerant thrive in Pakistan. subjected to terrorist the Ahmediya sect have
Islamic mindset to prevail and Shia Muslims in Pakistan are attacts and discrimination, and been declared as non-Muslims in
Pakistan for their beliefs. Pakistan is busy changing Islam to suit the needs of a small elite. The role of the Pakistani army leaders in this is clear from a report that was carried in the November 2003 (67). Ziaul Haq actively encouraged this paper Dawn in
fervour...Ziaul Haq's advice led to widespread religious riots ... Many people, mostly Shias, were killed and their houses burnt. The local administration did little to control the situation. A foreign diplomat, who happened to be travelling by road from Skardu to Islamabad a couple of days after all this started, told me that he saw houses en-route burning and that the route provided a spectacle of war and destruction. There is a movement in Pakistan to have Shias declared non-Muslim. Following a massacre of Shia Muslims in a Pakistani mosque on the Islamic holy day of Moharram in 2004, senior analyst B. Raman hostility in Pakistan (68): wrote about anti-Shia
The last years of the Zia regime saw the Shias of Gilgit come out with a demand for a separate Shia State consisting of Gilgit and the Shia majority areas of Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). They wanted the Shia state to be called the Karakoram Province and remain part of regime crushed the 1988, the Pakistan force from the NWFP a confederation of Pakistan. The Zia Shia movement ruthlessly. In August Army inducted a large Sunni tribal and the Federally-Administered Tribal
Areas (FATA), led by Osama bin Laden, into Gilgit and it 70
have consistently fought and opposed anyone and everyone.
. The hatred of the Shias for Osama bin Laden and his Al Qaeda dates from this period. mostly military. but civilian as well.massacred hundreds of Shias and crushed their revolt. a few businessmen and the feudal lords and their allies. the preachers of a narrow brand of Sunni Islam. who are responsible for a rising tide of Islamic fundamentalism. Successive governments in Pakistan. The only things that have been preserved intact and untouched in Pakistan are the power and wealth of the elite of the army. foreign nations as well as their own people.
who were later to go to Pakistan. The demand for a separate nation was a natural extension of this Mughal mindset. Before India was partitioned in 1947. some of the Muslim elite in India. if at all possible. they would not automatically regain control of the lands they had lost to the British.. considered themselves the descendants of the Mughals who had ruled vast tracts of India.. live under non-Muslim rule. one is struck by their similarity. 1947. it was realised by these real or perceived descendants of Mughals that in a democratic India. The Weekly Standard reported in October 2001 (69): Created on August 15. whom the Muslim Mogul dynasty had dominated for centuries before the arrival of the English. was worse. Living under the far more numerous Hindus. it was intolerable. For the English-educated Muslim elite.Chapter 7 PARTITION AND THE TWO-NATION THEORY When Indians and Pakistanis meet. from the northern. This group of individuals formed a migrant nation. Living under the all-mighty British was unpleasant for many. primarily Muslim provinces of British India. 72
. Indians are fond of saying “Pakistanis are just like us” but one will find that Pakistanis do not tend to say “Indians are just like us”. Gandhi's Indian democracy was going to be Hindu. Being different from Indians is a fundamental requirement that defines the Pakistani. so a Muslim "Land of the Pure"--the literal meaning of Pakistan--was essential to protect and nurture the faithful. It is a geographic expression of an ageold Islamic ideal: Muslims should not. Pakistan isn't really a nation-state. When the British were set to leave India.
The second was to depend on a ruling or hegemonic power to get them their due. That explained their demonstrative adherence to Islam. and certainly in pre-independence India attempted to go back to their Islamic roots. affected a superiority complex. Others' refusal to accept Muslims demands.the leitmotif of preindependence Indian Muslim politics. two traits: first.actually equality of treatment with Hindus . The end of the Caliphate was a symbolic blow to Muslims who has grown up to look at the Islamic empire 73
. and encouraged education in Islamic schools. especially the equality with Hindus. Muslims all over the world.reservations and separate electorate. Muslims thus demanded weightage . These came from. calculated to preserve imagined privileges. which is what distinguished them from Hindus. angered them and an adversarial attitude vis-a-vis Hindus developed. One of the consequences was that they discouraged their children from attending secular schools. especially in Northern India. May be they would be punished for former uppishness and for real or imagined wrongs. But Pakistan was not formed merely by people with this Mughal mindset.MB Naqvi wrote in the Jang of Pakistan (70): Historically the majority of Muslims. originally low-
caste Hindus. and strengthened. madrassas. not to accept democracy's implications. When that occurred. Their religious exhibitionism and a superiority complex led to emphases on differences with Hindus and regarding themselves as rulers' kith and kin deserving privileges and safeguards -. They feared being falling down into the vast assimilative sea of Hindudom surrounding them wherein they will be at the bottom of social heap. Another root of partition lay with the defeat of the Turkish Caliphate by the British in 1918.
a house or a group of followers of Islam. Southern Europe to the North and Central Asia.as extending from Arabia in the center to North Africa in the West. The Caliph was the symbolic head of this empire. and Muslims would always be under threat in the dar ul harb. Hindustan hamara later paradoxically endorsed the need for a separate nation for Muslims (72): 74
. Muslim existence was deemed a kind of permanent emergency (dar-ul-harb) and migration was considered an option in the defiance of British raj. The concept probably dates back to the early years there was a central but rapidly expanding around which were lands with non-Muslims with the followers of the new religion. The demand for a separate state for Muslims only was a logical extension of this thought process. and the end of the Caliphate was the end of a long line of Caliphs that extended from antiquity. staying in India would be tantamount to living under subjugation in the dar ul harb. and a dar ul harb or house of war. the poet who composed the popular Indian patriotic song Saare Jahaan se achcha. A concept in Islam speaks of a dar ul Islam. India and South East Asia to the East. Allama Iqbal. and the first Caliph had been appointed by the Prophet Mohammad. of Islam. who were at war For Muslims who
could not have their way with separate representation in pre-independence India. The word Caliph means deputy in Arabic. Inherent in the concept of dar ul harb was that Islam. a completely unacceptable situation. consisting of unbelievers people who were not followers of Islam. a house of Islam . when Islamic empire. The Friday Times had this to say (71): In India. although he by no means controlled even a fraction of that empire.
the ideological founder of Pakistan (73): (The) Pakistan Movement was based on the theory that Muslims are entirely separate people from Hindus in every respect. and that is the nation of non-Muslims! In other words. as eloquently documented by Rajiv Malhotra. and Islamic reasons being the basis for the formation of Pakistan.Allama Iqbal asserted that there is only one nation opposed to the Muslim Umma. in addition to power and glory for himself and the new nation. in less than a decade gave birth to Pakistan The man who is most credited as an intellectual force behind the two-nation theory and a front against united Indian nationalism is Maulana Abul Ala Maududi. With Islam. Under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. This theory is popularly known as two-nation theory. Another key player in the call for Pakistan was Maulana Maududi. A third factor that contributed to the formation of Pakistan was the political power aspiration of Mohammad Ali Jinnah who saw in the formation of the new nation of Pakistan a ready made constituency of Muslims. The TwoNation Theory was a manifestation of the doctrine of darul-islam versus dar-ul-harb. the Muslims and Non-Muslims. right from the 75
. the logic that prevailed was that Muslims require segregation of political and social life in order to be in compliance with the demands of sharia. the movement.. was (74): Without any concrete 'dispute' between Hindus and Muslims. Pakistanis have. The result. the world is divided into two camps..
and as opposed to being citizens of the nation. In civilizational terms. And Pakistan would claim to represent the Muslims who had stayed behind in India. the splitting up of British India into modern India and Pakistan can be compared to an act of auto-amputation.beginning. For the new Pakistanis India was a land of kafirs. satisfaction. Pakistan. Pakistan would not be like India. hunger and poverty. Pakistan was supposed to be a homeland for Muslims of India and its formation was pushed through by the groups who wanted it. unbelievers. With Jinnah as leader the heady success of nation formation in 1947 was enough. honour and dignity. including some such as the Jamaat-i-Islami who did not favor the formation of Pakistan. A nation in decline. It was a land of superstition. Pakistan would be progressive. When studied over centuries. This is a condition in which a live human body spontaneously discards and casts off a dead or diseased part. it would not be out of place to mention briefly the civilizational effect that partition had on India. over the wishes of other groups. Not much thought was put into whether a state based on religion alone would be able to survive. Pakistan would represent Islam itself it would be a leading light of Islam in the world. discrimination. Although the purpose of this book is to present a study of Pakistan after partition. It was a victory of Islam over the British and the Hindus. strong and Islamic. Pakistan had come into existence. It was the first Islamic state to be created in the modern era ab initio. such as a 76
. It was not Indian. been taught to regard themselves as Muslims first and foremost. civilizations can often be seen to behave like live beings. The fact of being Pakistani brought with it a liberal dose of pride. It was Islamic.
The initial fragmentation and breaking that occurred at partition. continued in Pakistan. but it merely segregated a sub-group of Indians who did not want to co-exist with other Indians. and those who wanted to stay. It is easier for these younger Indians to see that for India. more than two-thirds of the population of India having been after 1947. but after five decades the memories of the pain are beginning to fade.toe or a fingertip so that the body itself can survive and not be affected by the disease that damaged the toe or finger. this tumultuous self-mutilating act was a profoundly democratic one.
themselves as Muslims. stayed. 77
. The vast majority India. and more to live away from some group or the other. after the painful events of partition. in which those who wanted to opt out of India were allowed to opt out. The actual act of partition was accompanied by horrifying suffering and death. the people of the Indian subcontinent agreed to place all the people who wanted to live and work in a united India in one place. of Indians rooted for India and worked for
way. In one convulsive act. Pakistan had filled itself with people whose intent was less to live and work in harmony. They were wrong. and that India would fragment and break. and Pakistani leaders assumed that the Muslims remaining in India would automatically rise up and revolt. Strange as it may sound. and and all the people who did not wish to live and work in India were placed in Pakistan. partition was not so much an act of separation of all Hindus from all Muslims. with the formation of Bangladesh. For India partition was akin to that .a civilizational auto-amputation.
Apart from the mohajirs was the other half of Pakistan. It was drummed into ordinary Pakistanis that they must be good Muslims. There were contradictions at every turn.a phobia against the scheming Hindu who was out to subjugate or kill all Muslims. Any threat. That would have been totally unacceptable to the Pakistani Punjabi. even when caused by internal politics and mismanagement was blamed on India. rice-eating Bengali becoming Prime Minister of Pakistan. The 15 million mohajirs who migrated to Pakistan from India were not welcomed. and while Pakistanis struggled to meet the 78
. But they were educated and held all the important bureaucratic posts. dark. and any setback to Pakistan. The fact that East Pakistani Bengalis were Muslim did not help to stop the West Pakistani disdain for the short. Punjabis made up 90% of the Pakistani army. and the army had no intention of seeing its Punjabi dominance being subordinate to the inferior Bengali. East Pakistan. wheat eating Pakistani Punjabi. fish and rice-eating Bengali. The mohajirs. with its people.It was only after the formation of Pakistan that all the assumptions made about Islam as a unifying concept began to break down. dark. the Bengalis. fair. as opposed to the tall. India and Indians were continuously and bitterly accused of being anti-Pakistan and anti-Muslim. the Muslim elite of India who had migrated to Pakistan were in an ideal position to concoct any stories they wished about the bestial Hindus they had left behind. The possibility of democracy in Pakistan brought with it the threat of a short. The mohajirs found that their survival in Pakistan would be made easier by creating and maintaining an India scare . This complex web of factors kept Pakistanis from uniting with each other but the Islam argument was used for unity.
Among the Believers(75). Nobel Prize winning author V. the ruling elite lived as they pleased. And Pakistanis believed that this was all that was
needed. Naipaul describes travels through Pakistan. After all Islam had given them a nation. Naipaul says.
. One of the problems that crops up from this is the definition of “Who is a good Muslim?”. it was to be guided constantly by rules. To be a devout Muslim was always to have distinctive things to do. It was only necessary for everyone to be a good Muslim.S.standards set for them. and records interviews with a diverse group of Pakistanis. A repeated observation that comes out is that the ordinary Pakistani citizen is under pressure to be a good Muslim. Every act or event in Pakistan has to be seen through the prism of whether it is Islamic or not. The Pakistani citizen is judged by whether he is a good Muslim or not. It would now provide for that nation. and everything else would look after itself. In his book. it was to live in a fever of the faith and always to be aware of the distinctiveness of the faith.
La ilaha illallah". the founder of Pakistan had the flag of his political party. Based on 80
. Pakistan was formed for some. and not all Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. A very popular slogan in Pakistan was. Demographer P. Pakistani leaders. Reddy noted in the Times of India on 8th April 2003 (77): According to the 1941 census.implying that Pakistan and Islam are one and the same. But this charade could only last a few years before the fallacies began to show. (76). there were 76 in which more than 50 per cent of the people were Muslims. The slogan combines a few words taken from the the Islamic call to prayer La ilaha illallah . for decades behaved as Pakistan was Islam and Islam was Pakistan. "Pakistan ka matlab kya.H. This is a shameful piece of fiction that needs to be set right. To be though before called sure.Chapter 8 ISLAM AND PAKISTAN In the end. it could perhaps be said that Islam was too big for Pakistan to keep as its private domain.meaning there is no God but God and attaches those words to Pakistan to make the meaning What does Pakistan mean there is no God but God . out of a total of 435 districts in undivided India. It is endlessly and erroneously repeated that Pakistan was formed for the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. Even independence. Jinnah. Pakistan was unable to grab and hold Islam as though Islam and Pakistan were one and the same. the Muslim League
as the Flag of Islam and had said you cannot separate the Muslim League from Islam.
Islam spread peacefully into Indonesia and was absorbed and rationalized by the local culture. (with) different epics. social customs. Western Pakistan comprised the north-west part of the sub-continent and Eastern Pakistan comprised eastern part of Bengal and one district in Assam.54 crore.In 1951. that they "derive their inspiration from different sources of history". The formation of Pakistan sought to deny this vibrant entity. cultural. the Sir Cyril Radcliffe's Boundary Commission allotted these 76 districts to Pakistan.. "to two different civilizations". Similarly Islam developed and flowered in India with its own unique literature. arts and architecture produced by an intermingling of two rich cultures. social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals 81 and according to the
.this demographic fact. Arab culture had existed in Arabia for centuries before Islam was born.. and do not seek to deny the ancient. Egyptians live in peace with their past. Jinnah exploited a cleavage in Indian society to proclaim: Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies. using the Persian language.. "to develop to the fullest our spiritual. he declared. economic. Muslims numbered 3. preIslamic Egyptian civilization of Pharaohs who built the Pyramids. and Arab culture adopted and internalized Islam." "We wish our people". An entire literature and culture of Islam developed in Persia.9 per cent of the total population of India. making up 9. different heroes and different episodes. One cluster was in north-west India and the other in north-east India.. literature". which was born in Arabia. The 76 Muslim-majority districts were grouped together in two clusters. Over the centuries Islam reached a balance with the cultures of the people who adopted Islam.
But the leaders of the new Pakistan who took over after Jinnah died in 1948.
Christians. The only thing people knew was that Pakistanis would have to be Islamic.You will find that in 82
. and good Muslims. you free to go to your mosques or to any other places
worship in this State of Pakistan. Pakistan was not Arabic. and nobody had any idea of what would replace the void. Was Pakistan Jinnah say: .we have a nation for Muslims only? But why did
Hindus.genius of our people. Pakistan was deliberately set on the path of being an orphan. culture-less nation.but they are all Pakistanis.. it was not Indonesian. The formation of Pakistan was considered a great victory. it was not Egyptian or Persian. you are free to go to your temples.. The India connection had to be stripped clean.. They will enjoy same rights and privileges as any other citizens. certainly felt that Pakistan should be stripped of all its connections with India. Indian culture had to be actively cleaned out of the minds of millions of Pakistani citizens ." Perhaps Jinnah did not mean to strip Pakistan of the rich culture that Islam had developed in its centuries of interaction in India (78).. leaving Pakistan purely Islamic. but it was definitely not going to be Indian any more. are free. In an experimental and unparalleled act of ignorance.
and the You are of
Parsis . free from India or any Indian roots. But there were inconsistencies and contradictions right from the beginning and the confusion has remained to this day. for Muslims alone. Islamic.a culture of centuries was to be washed clean..
a modern day Caliphate? But if that was the case Pakistan should not have had any boundaries. in their confusion as to what Pakistan was and what it should do. ended up trying to make Pakistan take all the routes that it could possibly take simultaneously. That is indeed what some Pakistani Islamists believe: Muslims all over the world must realize that nationalism is kufr. and social and ethnic Pakistan have all headed in different resulting in the chaos that Pakistan is
Pakistani leaders claimed that they. the lever that is used in Pakistan to justify served as a tool to be or to deflect blame misdeeds.) Pakistani leaders. And like a man whose arms and legs are being pulled apart by horses moving in different directions. parts of Pakistan. to get aid. today. Was Pakistan the leader of all Islamic nations. (79) (kufr refers to unbelievers i. groups of directions.. and Pakistan. For Pakistan. were purely Islamic. and represented Islam. an
example for Islamic nations to follow as the leader of the ummah. (76) Was Pakistan a nation for all Muslims
subcontinent? If so.e. As long as Islam anything. Islam has used when convenient. as the majority of Muslims chose to remain in India. or to accuse an adversary of Pakistani leaders hid behind the
excuse for their actions. Islam was and still remains the ultimate excuse.course of time Hindus would cease to Muslims would cease to be Muslims. Pakistan had failed at birth. and that the modern nation-states are a creation of that period in history when Muslims were defeated and dominated by kufr. People who are not Islamic. nobody could question 83
Opposing Pakistan was anti-Islamic. and elections postponed. As long as the money kept coming in. be it development. attention to India. And conveniently. After all. sacrifice and allow their army to get stronger. India was the source the enemy of Pakistan. was providing funds and arms via the US. and
that took priority over everything else in Pakistan. India could be fought and opposed. its leaders set about using Islam to divert Indian territory of all problems. And in this manner. avoiding elections. because Pakistan was Islamic. who had given Pakistan to the faithful. instead of consolidating and unifying the new state of Pakistan. genocide. the people of Pakistan could be kept busy. India would be defeated. the number one threat to Pakistan. it was because Islam was naturally anticommunist. from waging wars. They had to starve. Money and the economy were not a problem. and therefore the The India problem had to be solved. Islam could not fail. Allah (God). Pakistanis had failed the faith. But as repeated Pakistani assaults against India failed. Any criticism of Pakistan was criticism of Islam. so that Islam could be upheld against India. They were not Islamic enough they had to strive to be better Muslims. India did not dare question Pakistani claims no matter how preposterous or obscene they were. Pakistan could do no wrong. there was no pressure to change policy. and 84
. and to meddle with and Indian Muslims. corruption could not be criticized by anyone. and therefore anything that Pakistan did.them. aid and funds poured into Pakistan in the early years as part of US aid to Pakistan as a cold war ally. democracy or common sense. Pakistan was Islamic. enemy of Islam. The threat from India became the common denominator for all Pakistani actions. for postponing elections and for postponing development of Pakistan indefinitely. If Pakistan obtained military and economic aid from the US.
used in Pakistan to make every opinion or move. migrants from India. 1952 the historic Bengali language movement erupted spontaneously all over East Bengal.the migrant elite. Foolishly our ruling elite.. The Pakistani elite. A report in Pakistan's Friday Times (81) carried this scathing message on the role of the migrant elite in using Islam: On Feb 21. holding all the important government posts.it remained a major potential challenge..
. and later all the Muslims in India would be rescued from Hindu tyranny by Pakistan.. no sacrifice could be too great in opposing India. because opposing India meant devotion to Islamic ideals. The Islam card was used by everybody in Pakistan to suit their own purpose. Islam gradually became the tool. instead of going some way to meet Bengali demands. Elections were a threat that had to be postponed or canceled and an imaginary threat to Islam was invoked. saw their positions threatened by the prospect of elections which would unseat them in favor of locals..dreaded the prospects of their exit from power in the event of elections.. thought they could isolate the Bengali nationalists by raising religious slogans of Islamic ideology and Islamic identity to counter Bengali anger. commitment to Islamic ideology and the need to unite against all odds. In his essay on the role of the power structure in Pakistan (80).. Muslims in Kashmir. Mohammad Waseem wrote: Muslim migrants from East Punjab and further East in India shaped the psyche of the new nation along feelings of insecurity at the hands of India.therefore to Islam. No method was ruled out. the prop.
anything less than an Islamic state in Pakistan was a threat. A. And as Islam was stirred into the mindset of the Pakistani army. Rajiv
military training. There are even serious attempts under way to define an Islamic military doctrine. for the mullahs (Islamic scholars) of Pakistan. Only in an Islamic state could mullahs be influential and prominent. Another compelling reason to be very cautious about overuse of religion is to avoid seeping of sectarian tendencies into the armed forces. 'There was a hidden hand deflecting the rounds'. Finally. and strengthened the process of Islamization of Pakistan started by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. M.. After 1971 Zia-ul-Haq started a campaign of Islamization of the Pakistani army. the army started seeing Islam in more and more of its actions.General Mahmud Ahmad during Pakistani ambassador's conference reprimanded the ambassadors for not relying on the intercession of Providence while analyzing Pakistan's Afghan policy.The army of Pakistan was initially subservient to the government. Hussain wrote (82): 86
. Middle ranking officers must take courses and examinations on Islam. Columnist Hamid Husain has this to say about Islamization of the Pakistan army (58): Brigadier Gulzar Ahmad explaining the role of celestial powers to lessen his troop casualties in 1965 war stated. whom Zia Malhotra wrote (74): Islamic texts are had deposed in a coup. Pluralism or Western-style democracy was incompatible with the mullah's world view. and they supported every measure to make Islam the basis of the existence of all Pakistanis. so as to fight in accordance with the Koran. as distinct from the international military doctrines.
. the people. the bureaucracy and government. No Muslim polity has measured up to the combination of piety and social justice achieved by the Medinese community. The idea of an Islamic state seemed noble enough. But that did not happen. The desire for an ideal Islamic state has been described as follows (83): The quest for it reflects the desire to model Muslim politics on the original Islamic community in Medina.. Every group in Pakistan needed Islam only for their narrow self interest. Maulavi. and gone without a hitch.
.Imam.. Islamic people often ended up being controlled by the nearest strongman. but making it reality was easier said than done. It explains why even those Ulamas and Maulavis (like Moulana Maudoodi). there really should have been no problem. The men 87 who controlled the sword.But trying to replicate the Medinese polity remains an ideal. Mo-alim. With everyone in Pakistan. etc. In the absence of such guidelines. the army and the mullahs seemingly being in agreement with each other on the question of the Islamic status of Pakistan. he left behind a tradition. which remains to this day the blueprint for a genuinely Islamic society. The Ideal Islamic state existed at the time of the Prophet Mohammad. but there were no written guidelines on how a state should be run. Mozin. When the Prophet Mohammad died in AD 632.have a vested interest in establishing an Islamic state where they are locus of power and have tremendous scope for employment.. Everything should have fallen in place. who had opposed Jinnah. went to Pakistan as they saw no role in India for themselves.
Succession of leadership among Islamic people has been a bone of contention ever since that time.. wrote
(The Prophet) Muhammad's prophetic mantle was not inherited by his successors.by the soldiers. a Professor of religious studies.In general.. and he did not leave behind a specific political system or designate a successor.controlled the ulema (scholars) and the people. and this was understood and acquiesced in.In theory the sultan's authority in religious matters was limited by the holy law of the Qu'raan and no sultan could clearly divorce religion from politics. The precedent of the strongman .. The real source of the sultan's authority was military strength. Tamara (84): Sonn.. the poets and the ulema of the age. 88 and was implemented and
. In a report on the relationship of the mullahs and the military in Pakistan by the International Crisis Group. (a non-profit multinational organization resolving conflict) the introduction following quote (85): committed to carries the
The Muslim state in India was a theocracy. but there were no formal criteria for determining the community's leadership or judging its legitimacy..the military ruler taking absolute control over Islamic people had already existed in Mughal India. the Prophet's successors were expected to be personally pious and to behave according to the guidance left by the Prophet. And Pakistan is no exception. But in practice the Muslim sultan of India was a perfect autocrat and his word was law..
This blow to Pakistan was explained on the basis of Pakistan not being Islamic enough. And it was all done in the name of Islam. and held on to power. such as the politicians. no interest in the banks. it was implied. to uphold Islam and represent Islam. It was to be assumed by all who were watching that Pakistan itself was the embodiment of Islam. always Islamic and they compelled their people to be more and more Islamic. Pakistani leaders claimed. The effort to make Pakistan purely described by V. The Pakistan army was invited to take power. Faith.perpetuated in Pakistan. and in that invention faith was of little help. More and more Islamic laws had to be passed and implemented. East Pakistanis their minds poisoned by India according to some West Pakistani commentators. and the Hudood ordinance were brought in. Anything that Pakistan did was done in the name of Islam. no feminine immodesty. bureaucrats and the ulema used the army. It was done. at the moment. seceded and formed Bangladesh (chapter 11). zakat. could only supply the simple negatives that answered emotional needs: no alcohol. The sharia. and put and end to the people's misery. Islamic fervor. would solve all of Pakistan's problems. it had to be invented. Other forces in Pakistan who wanted power and influence. revolted. Criticism of Pakistan was criticism of Islam. After all Pakistan was formed for Islam. Gradually the non-Muslim minorities of Pakistan were squeezed out (chapter 6) They had no role in Islamic Pakistan. or reached some accommodation with the army. But soon in 89
. Pakistani leaders were always right. liked it.S Naipaul in his believers”(75) Islamic has been book “Among the
This Islamic state couldn't simply be decreed.
S. the faith was asserted because only the faith seemed to be whole. self correcting jihad of the Koran. the army got weapons. the army. The army brass. but the external violence of the Generals and their games of military domination. The mullahs of Pakistan were doubly happy. In order to be good Muslims. and in the vacuum only the army could rule. no parliament. while the poor of Pakistan got madrassas (Islamic schools) to ensure that they became more Islamic. So existing institutions were deemed to be unIslamic and undermined or undone. getting richer. ready to embrace 90
. secure and happy in their newly funded madrassas. and the army became richer. Each Islamic jihadi. Men were needed to fight India. no law courts. brought up with fervor of any
madrassa. the serfs and underlings. Pure Islam was for the hoi-polloi. needed men to do their fighting. Jihad against the enemies of Islam. Pakistan's alliance with the U. More and more Pakistanis were needed to fight Pakistan's wars. The rich got money. for Islam. Pakistanis were urged to do jihad . However. The elite stayed rich. was ready to die for a cause. They took charge of the madrassas with gusto and preached with fervor. and their modern. ensured the delivery number of men to fight for Pakistan. The burgeoning of madrassas and ensured that they would have jobs and influence. the rulers and influential people of Pakistan did not have to be all that Islamic.. Men were needed to fight the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. liberal lifestyle conveyed the impression of a progressive society to Western aid givers.not the internal. They preached jihad. no dissent.Pakistan these negatives were to be added to: no political parties. and the mullahs. ensured that foreign aid poured in and the economy of the wealthy in Pakistan boomed.
the people who trained them and sent them to die the army and the mullahs. the faith Islam. but faith didn't..and accept the guaranteed benefits of dying in jihad in an afterlife to be enjoyed in a well-stocked heaven. grew stronger. and more powerful. or the faith flawed. indoctrinated and prepared for death. The state had been founded as a homeland for Muslims. And in that quest of the Islamic absolute the society of believers. their families accepting that the death of their son would bring glory and honour. where every action was instinct with worship men lost sight of the political origins of their state.. while their wards and students were encouraged to seek the pleasures of an afterlife. And as these men prepared for and died fighting for the cause that they had been told was Islamic . obtainable only by violence and death. Failure only led back to the faith. in league with lazy Generals. got fatter. As the institutions of Pakistan failed in this unique and unorthodox concept of a nation. it could only be because men had failed the faith. it was to be the first truly Islamic state since the days of the Prophet and his close companions 91
. The Islam of Pakistan's mullahs. If the state failed it wasn't because the dream was flawed. aiding the Generals' wars. preaching an Islam that would keep the mullahs comfortable in this life. This glorious scene became Pakistan's version of Islam. Rich generals doing office jobs while men from the poor classes with little to live for were trained. The state withered.Extraordinary claims began to be made for Pakistan: it was founded as the land of the pure. In a remarkably prescient passage Naipaul observes (75).
It was drummed in that this was necessary because India was always there to swallow up Pakistan. India had been held in check only by God and the Pakistani army. Pakistan had undone the rule of law it had inherited from the British. the mullahs and the ulema were necessarily allowed to exercise spiritual control over the Pakistani masses to ensure that Pakistan remained adequately and properly Islamic in all arenas. out of its Islamic striving. Every Pakistani had to strive to be a good Muslim. which presented itself as the savior. In his characteristically astute manner V. Co-opting the Pakistani citizen under the Islam banner eminently served the interests of the rich and corrupt elite of Pakistan in maintaining their grip and preserving their business and territorial interests.The average Pakistani citizen was coerced or co-opted by putting Islam first. ‘the army of Islam. it was stressed. Naipaul concludes (75): Step by step. And the Pakistani state died.’ upholding the faith and protecting Pakistan. and replaced it with nothing
. Pakistan.S. was created by Muslims for Muslims. To be Pakistani was to be a good Muslim. Muslim clerics.
Pakistani authorities have done everything in their power to discourage any Pakistani from displaying cultural traits that are seen as Indian in character. and he has published his collected writings on Pakistan in a book entitled Pakistan Papers (86). This experiment is unique in the world. The birth. They hated the foreigners and they hated the Hindus. But Mani Shankar Aiyer has recognised a gradual change of attitudes to India 93
. (75) Naipaul quotes the words of a man story of this quarter of this everything that describing Pakistan. The predominant Pakistani attitude toward India is hatred. So the country of Pakistan was built on hate and nothing else. the Muslims of India woke up. Then in the second quarter. Among the Believers. Pakistanis define their identity as being non-Indian. Pakistan itself means “Land of the Pure” and Pakistani identity has been sought to be defined on the basis that Pakistan is a land of pure Muslims. Aiyer says that the best definition for Pakistani is “One who is not Indian”. In his book. No other nation has attempted to so totally reject its existing culture while retaining only the faith or religion. and go on further to define themselves as pure Muslims. In their effort to ensure that Pakistanis are not Indian. and survival of Pakistan required the rejection of all that was Indian. I will tell you the country in two sentences.Chapter 9 ATTITUDES TOWARDS INDIA AND INDIANS Career diplomat-turned-politician Mani Shankar Aiyer
served as India's first Consul General in Karachi. They had a double hate. In the first century the Hindus of India decided that was wrong had to do with foreigners and
foreign influence. and encouraged the replacement of that culture by an invented Islamic culture.
Up until 1971 it was hate and contempt. perhaps hours. as a great victory.among Pakistanis. Columnist Hamid Hussain describes the Pakistani army officer corps' attitude toward Indians prior to the 1965 war (58): The general despise (sic) of Hindus and doubting their capacity of able (sic) to give a good fight was almost universal Over the years.all but the most blind Pakistani today looks back on what happened to his country in 1971 at the hands of India as a great defeat. but after 1971. Like life itself. Pakistani attitudes have changed to hate and fear. it was put about and accepted implicitly that in a matter of days.. Dislike and distrust of India became an industry in Pakistan.. the flag of Islam would be imparted on the ramparts of the Red Fort. till 1971 he looked back on what happened . Aiyer continues: From 1947 to 1971 the general belief (in Pakistan) was: 'hans hans ke liya tha Pakistan. Aiyer writes (86): . And hatred of India grew. while Pakistan split up and tottered. which evolved from simple 94
. lad lad ke lengey Hindustan' We got Pakistan with a triumphant smile We fill fight and take Hindustan (India) Myths about a single Muslim soldier being the equal of four. India struggled but improved. or ten or whatever number of Kafirs was widely believed.
defeated and brought to its knees. The cup of Pakistani hatred brims over and India. insects and men.one-celled organisms into a multitude of life forms. For these people nothing would be better than exacting revenge for their lost lives. to be fought. huge Banyan trees. is the cause of their 95
. with active hatred being taught in Pakistani schools as described in Chapter 3. Hatred for India and Indians has been made into a national purpose. hatred of India was nurtured to evolve. fragrant flowers. based on assumed religious superiority. India who caused the trauma of of India was the reason defeating India for this reason was a hateful nation of people partition. elephants. Raychaudhuri sums up Pakistani attitudes to India: This shattering of the psychological indoctrination. The fact that in 1965 and also in Kargil it was the Moslems of India who alerted the country is too insulting to believe. Brig. Pakistanis evolved a plethora of reasons to hate India.
Pakistan existed because Muslims would be suppressed in India. Hatred and mistrust for the creation of Pakistan. For others. in the Pakistani mindset. It was worth alone. India was the enemy. grow and metamorphose into a multitude of reasons and justifications. In an article written for Pinnacle magazine (87). a national obsession in Pakistan. This was a source of resentment to many elite Pakistanis who had left everything in India to be in Pakistan. The act of partition at independence left Pakistanis with a small moth-eaten nation. tigers. makes it difficult for the Pakistanis to accept the reality of India's intrinsic superiority in size and economy. and opposition to India was the reason for Pakistan's birth.
As recently as December 2003. to make them good Muslims. who are always at work to create disgruntlement in Pakistan's smaller provinces. Furthermore. • Developing Pakistan-specific nuclear and conventional arsenal. • Constant efforts to destabilize Pakistan through its agents. Pakistan could not develop because of India.nation('s) deprivations. hatred and fear of India had to grow stronger. a retired Colonel of the Pakistan Army wrote the following accusations against India (88): There is a long list of other hostile Indian actions against Pakistan. And as India grew stronger. the continued occupation of that state against the will of its people. • Conducting terrorist activities in various parts of Pakistan to exploit ethnic and religious differences. some of which are: • Indian usurpation of Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistanis were poor because of Indian aggression. thus forcing this country to enter into a suicidal arms race with the consequent irreparable damage to its economy. India had to be hated to keep Pakistanis in line. and Islamic fervor had to be increased to oppose India. and for the health of army businesses surviving on state handouts. because India was there to subjugate or kill all Muslims. hatred of India was needed as the justification for the wealth of the Pakistan army. Pakistanis had to be good Muslims to survive.000 or 70. and the merciless killing of thousands of innocent Kashmiris by the Indian occupation forces. to make them more Islamic.000 or whatever number of people in Kashmir.. just like India was accused of killing or raping 30. 96
. they had to give up Indianness.
. • Educational: The other major facets of Pakistan's identity .• Keep bullying Pakistan by concentrating Indian armed forces on its borders and on the Line of Control in Kashmir on trumped up grounds... so be it.must be emphasized in our schoolbooks. Expecting an enemy with such a criminal record to change its heart overnight and become friendly toward us is nothing but inanity. others try to urge Pakistan to virtually move out of the Indian subcontinent into Central Asia or even the Middle East. which has exclusive Indian connotations. Persian..the Arab.. even denying
. having previously imposed three wars on Pakistan.instead of the Rupee. • Changing the name of Pakistan's national monetary unit .deemphasize Pakistan's inclusion in South Asia and play up Pakistan's role in Central and West Asia. And while some Pakistanis have reacted to India with this degree of hatred and suspicion. by adopting either the Riyal or the Dinar. • Cultural: Islamabad's cultural cooperation with West Asian and Central Asian countries must be revitalized.ministries must.from the perigee of wanting to occupy and subjugate parts of India.. to the apogee of wiping out memories of India.. If this requires drafting new books on Pakistan studies. and these must be compulsory reading for Pakistani students It is both ludicrous and sad to see Pakistani loathing for India covering the full spectrum . Turkic and Central Asian .. Ahmad Quraish wrote in the Pakistani paper the Nation (89): .the following steps are necessary: • Political: Pakistan's..
. And all this while Indian children are taught to recognise Pakistanis as just like us.Pakistan's links with India and claiming imagined links with Central and West Asia.
It has been noted in an earlier chapter (Chapter 5) that due to historic reasons dating from the 1857 war of Indian independence. antagonised or disagreed with. generals. guns. religion. which included a large number of Punjabi Muslims from the area that was to later become Pakistan. But yet. terrorism. tanks and valor. and has diversified into more ventures than most armies in the world could dream of doing. with soldiers. one can find people who have made the quote: Pakistan is not a nation with an army. and from many sources. crime. deception. industry. business. these troops began to be known as hailing from a martial race 99
. Because of their loyalty and docility under British leadership. power. the Pakistani army started off as a regular army. and there is no group in Pakistan or among Pakistan's neighbors that the Pakistani army has not fought. although that has begun to change recently. the Pakistani army leads a charmed existence. being admired by most of Pakistan. Time and time again.Chapter 10 THE PAKISTANI ARMY: POWER AND GLORY IN THE FAMILY The word Army for the Pakistan army is a pitifully
inadequate description for an organization that does vastly more. greed. How the Pakistani army changed from a regular army into this Hydra-headed monster has an interesting history. it is an army with a nation Of course. But its tentacles have spread into politics. lucre and self preservation. the British increasingly recruited people from the Northwest of undivided India. There is almost no activity in Pakistan that the army is not involved in doing. fighting by proxy. Calling the Pakistan army by that name is akin to describing a 30-course meal as a light snack.
who began to see themselves as being of a superior martial race. so the personnel in these army units served both as protectors of the civilians as well as sufferers as their villages partition. For these reasons. • Pakistani Punjab was militarized because of the large number of Punjabis in the military. The military also actually owned a lot of land because of the policy of settling retired soldiers by gifting land. but had political clout as well as political opinions. • Pakistani army units from Punjab were tasked with the protection of civilians in the post-partition violence. • 70% of the voters in Pakistani Punjab had some connection with the military • Punjab itself was partitioned so a lot of army personnel had relatives or friends in Punjab who were affected by the events of partition. especially a deep hatred for India. • As part of the settlement of retired army personnel. The Punjabi dominated army 100 also considered itself a
. vast tracts of land in West Punjab had been awarded to them. the military in Pakistan was not
merely the military. Thus the Pakistani army was dominated by Punjabis. several other unique observations can be made about the Pakistani province of Punjab (West Punjab) at the time of independence and partition(80). or families were affected during
• Punjabi units were also utilised in Pakistan's unsuccessful attack to wrest Kashmir from India in 1947.(57). • Punjab was the most populous province of
Pakistan. Apart from the predominance of Muslim Punjabis in the Pakistani army.
But there was an additional factor that led to the induction of the Pakistani army into the role of absolute rulers of Pakistan. They were not about to fritter away that victory by allowing power to pass into the hands of the more numerous uneducated locals in democratic elections. All these tendencies were present or had set in shortly after independence in 1947. These posts were filled by the educated elite migrants from British India. It was also inconvenient for the feudal lords in Pakistan. in the same way as they would later refuse to hand over power. and apart from the Punjabi dominated Army. having been tasked to protect Pakistanis during partition began to consider itself as the protector and savior of Islam. and the rule of Pakistan to a Bengali party from faraway East Pakistan. Besides 101
. considered an inferior race. engineers and technocrats that were required in the government of the new Pakistan. the reason these migrants had left India was precisely because they privileges.one of the biggest countries on earth. there were not many educated local people to make up the bureaucrats. Pakistan . These people suddenly had a nation to lead. and the Hindu Indians. a new nation. The areas that constituted West Pakistan were largely rural. Democracy was feared democracy attenuating their
Pakistan. And democracy also brought with it the danger that the more numerous Bengalis. largely mohajirs and Punjabis. It was a victory for them. and for Islam. might actually end up ruling all of Pakistan. The army.martial race with superior fighting and leadership qualities compared to the East Bengalis (East Pakistanis) who were considered effeminate. legal experts. After all. who stood to lose their lands and influence.
And what better way to do that than to declare a threat to Pakistan. (Governor-
General Iskander) Mirza. Pakistan was
nominally a parliamentary ruled the state with the elections were held . Elections were constantly the civilian authority used the Army to until the first bloodless military coup although that was the first year that the postponed and stay in power of 1958.. In the period from 1958 to 1971 the Pakistan Army gradually consolidated its hold on power in Pakistan.the the Prime Minister and
democracy but civil bureaucrats military as junior partner. and stopped being a junior partner to the civil bureaucracy in government. Dispensing even with the pretence of democracy. general Mohammad Ayub Khan.these facts. who had to give up space and resources to the migrants from India. Ayub ousted Mirza and imposed martial law in October 1958 The military coup by Gen Ayub Khan was a watershed of sorts as it marked the first step by the Pakistani military to gain and retain control of Pakistan. It seems virtually certain that no single individual in the Pakistani 102 army could have been a
. the army nevertheless had shared power with the elite in Pakistan for nearly a decade before that. And Pakistani army
officially came into power. and to Islam itself. the migrant elite faced some resistance from the locals in West Pakistan. from their huge neighbor India. A report from the International Crisis Group (53) has this to say: In the first decade of Independence. The ruling elite of Pakistan therefore had a deep vested interest in not handing power to the people of Pakistan.. No President had power to dismiss used it liberally.ruled in league with Army Chief..
a preferred choice. while ensuring that its interests. In this environment. that protects its own from harm and disrepute. The International Crisis Group's paper on democracy in Pakistan (53) refers to the Pakistani Army's role in this period as follows: Fearing that its defeat would translate into popular demands for accountability.. undesirable individuals or rewarding others is. the (army) high command transferred power to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Pakistani (90): security analyst Ayesha Siddiqa-Agha writes
It is important to note that Pakistan's armed forces especially the army operates like a fraternity. a biradari. be they power. Sidelining discreetly
Ayub exercised total control of Pakistan before. been 103
. a family or brotherhood. severe punishments to individuals or extraordinary treatment of a similar nature are viewed as undermining the morale of the institution. who oversaw the splitting away of East Pakistan and the formation of Bangladesh after the worst defeat that the Pakistani armed forces have ever faced replaced him. and General Yahya Khan. finances or honour are not harmed. thus. The Pakistani army is like a close-knit fraternity. rather than power handed down from a single supremo. during and after 1965 when he launched and lost a war with India. however.strongman without the connivance and cooperation of the Punjabi and feudal lord dominated military brass of the Pakistani army. The Army replaced Ayub Khan when it was sensed that popular opposition to Ayub Khan would harm the Army’s interests. It is a cooperative system.The military's defeat in the 1971 war with India had.
Despite 93. including the one currently headed by General Musharraf have grabbed power to save Pakistan and bring in a sound democratic system. the Hamoodur Rehman report was never made public until a copy was obtained and published by the Times of India. businesses and non-military interests of the Pakistan army that are so keenly protected and preserved. and have prevented all attempts to check the finances or power of the military in any way. One of the fanciest clubs in Karachi is the Defense Housing Authority County and Golf Club. Military leaders quickly recouped losses and closed ranks against perceived civilian threats to their personal and institutional interests It is clear that even as early as 1971 the Pakistan Army had enough of a vested interest in retaining power in Pakistan to pretend to hand over power to a civilian government in order to maintain the reputation and interests of the Pakistan army from public scrutiny and accountability. its infrastructure in the West was untouched. The army ensures that its officer class live in great style and luxury. a sparkling new facility 104
.. It is informative to look at the perquisites. But the Pakistani army has always grabbed power from elected governments or prevented democracy from actually being established.000 prisoners of war in India.limited to East Pakistan.. All military governments in Pakistan. In fact a damning report on the actions and defeat of the Pakistani army in the 1971 war. A report in the Washington Post in 2002 (91) described army life in the following words: The officer class in Pakistan has always had a strong sense of entitlement stemming from its dominant role in defending the country and in running it.
Nearby are clothing boutiques. the handsome school is an educational showpiece whose computer. Mediterranean-style villas grouped around a playground and an elaborately landscaped Japanese-style garden.166 for civilians. a two-story driving range and a gracious stone clubhouse overlooking an inlet of the Arabian Sea.in the upscale Karachi suburb of Clifton. according to the club's fee schedule The same paper goes on to say: the military also rewards its senior officers by allowing them to purchase agricultural and urban land from the army's vast inventory of real estate at prices far below market value.with lush fairways.. for example.One of Pakistan's most coveted addresses. restaurants and a yoga studio Describing the decrepit and run-down state of most schools in Pakistan. The Independent of London described the contrast between a Pakistani army establishment and the rest of Pakistan (92):
. the Washington Post goes on to compare that with a Pakistani army run school: Geared toward preparation for the competitive O Level exams required by British universities. is the blandly named Army Housing Scheme II. compared with $9... Active-duty military personnel can join the club for an initiation fee of $16. physics and biology labs would not seem out of place in an American suburb There are an enormous number of news media reports of the money and businesses that the Pakistani army controls. A gated community protected by paramilitary troops.. the development consists of spacious. jewelry stores.
The Pakistan Weekly reported (94): . Their children have a quota at most public universities. In recent decades. All countries have armies.Outside in the street. Inside. Where does the money for all this come from? A report in the Daily Times of Pakistan in August 2002 says. but in Pakistan the army has a country. Retired officers head 106
. No other career. with equivalent academic qualifications and so little productivity produces comparable personal affluence as that of the officer cadre of the Pak military. senior military officers have been transformed into powerful landlords through grants of choice agricultural lands and real estate.in relation to country's per capita income Pakistani senior military officers are one of the best paid in the world. rose bushes surround welltended lawns and officers' messes decorated with polished brass fittings... Why should anyone living here want a return to corrupt democracy? A report in the online edition of the Pakistani newspaper Dawn said (93): The perks don't end here: military personnel are entitled to a 50 per cent discount on air and rail fares as well as cinema tickets. behind the ancient. No rubbish litters this perfect world of discipline. newly painted cannons and battalion flags. Defense expenditures consume between onethird and one-half of the national budget. Afghan refugees and Pakistan's urban poor root through garbage tips and crowd on to soot-pumping buses to work in sweatshops and brick factories. and serving and retired officers are routinely inducted into civilian jobs...
For this report and other reports on the activities of the Pakistani army. Shaheen Sehbai. and those seen as cooperative people who toe the line.4% of GDP. 2001: Pakistan reported on Sunday
As a % of GDP. Pakistan. For decades almost 35 to 40 per cent of Pakistan's and no-
revenues have been going into questions-asked defence budget. It also controls a huge business empire. The excuse for the high defence expenditure has been the external threat from India. public corporations. as Pakistan's poor multiply and the economy falters. but the army ensures great personal wealth for its serving and retired personnel especially those of the higher ranks. from among the poorest of countries . Ayesha-Siddiqa Agha describes 107 why the businesses were
. Part of the army's wealth is from the extremely high defence budget that Pakistan has maintained for decades. spends the highest on defence. former editor of the English language daily the News was threatened by the army and forced to flee Pakistan and live in exile (96). The News International. if not most.. This garrison economy is increasingly unsustainable. at the expense of all other expenditure and all other groups in Pakistan. In her study of the Pakistan military's economic activities. Shaheen Sehbai wrote in the Weekly Independent in 2002 (95). at 4.many. The high defence budget is not the only source of income for the luxury loving Pakistani army. security analyst Dr. September 09.
the military's business empire in Pakistan was created to guarantee welfare of retired and serving personnel. and the vast enterprise has grown to gargantuan proportions. and the senior employees make fat salary packets. insurance and security with many bearing the name Aksari. The four key armed-forces run business organizations in Pakistan are The Fauji Foundation. with a small quota for the Air Force and Navy. The Pakistani army's business enterprises were started for the welfare of retired personnel. The Fauji Foundation's businesses include sugar mills. cereal and corn. competition is scared off by military threats. travel agencies. to 9. plastics. hosiery. The Fauji foundation's assets have grown from Pakistani Rs. Initially only the army had its businesses. power and education and healthcare. but they survive on government subsidies and grants. Siddiqa-Agha. 152 million in 1970. wool. shoes. rice and sugar mills. They are not necessarily profitable. The Army Welfare Trust has 26 projects including farms. Aksari aviation was set up merely to accommodate retired army helicopter pilots who could not get a job in the 108
. stud farms. cement factories. and employs 6 to 7 thousand military personnel. the Shaheen Foundation and the Bahria Foundation. mostly in middle and upper management positions. banking. pharmaceuticals. the Army Welfare Trust. It was a pattern inherited from the pre-independence days. fish farms. cement. commercial complexes. Natural gas..started in the first place (90). safe from accountability and questions.800 million according to Dr. fertilizer. Later these two branches started off their own businesses. . aviation.
The only wrapping that Fauji Cereal ever uses comes from Fauji Poly Propylene Products. dredging.private sector. a travel agency. FM
That left Pakistan's smallest force. the 17. The Bahria Foundation deals in commercial complexes. Like a core business that has diversified. meat and grain-producing project. salvage and even a university. Not to be outdone. deep sea fishing. The only sugar that I ever liked was either from the four Fauji Sugar Mills or Army Welfare Sugar Mills. Not too long ago. Dr. Banking. insurance. During my days at the village. There is no nation in the world whose armed forces are involved in as many non-military business ventures as the Pakistan armed forces. the Pakistan air force established the Shaheen foundation which is now involved in air transportation. knitwear and commercial complexes. radio. the navy. Farrukh Saleem. the Bahria Foundation in 1981. trading. the Pakistani armed forces have diversified into fields well outside the mandate of an armed force. But they are normal and routine for the Pakistani armed forces. paints. airport services. commercial complexes and radio stations are ventures that do not obviously appear to be an essential part of the armed forces of any nation and would not be justifiable in any other nation on earth.000-acre dairy. my wife wanted to build a house. milk use to come from the nearby Okara Military Farms. a freelance Pakistani columnist wrote in the Pakistani daily Jang (97): Fauji Cereal has been part of my daily breakfast for as long as I can remember. cargo. ship breaking. pay TV. to start its own venture. 109 I didn't want to be
. construction. insurance.
FONGAS. corruption and self-interest. The paint for my house must come from no one but Bahria Paints. and the defence ministry manned by retired military officers. A feature peculiar to a number of cases is. the ventures were started not based on any feasibility study but on the whims of the top management to accommodate certain highranking officers. Fauji Fertilizer Company. (98) With the military in government. and are preserved by intimidation 110 that scares away
.anywhere but in one of the six Askari Housing Schemes. Fauji Oil Terminal Company Project and Mari Gas Company. In her study of the Army's businesses. employing thousands of serving and retired army personnel. The web page of the NLC describes its army connection euphemistically as a unique logistic based Public Sector Organisation which has [a] blend of corporate culture and Army's discipline. The only cement I will use is Fauji Cement. The army also operates what is called the National Logistic Cell (NLC) which is a trucking and transportation giant in Pakistan. Fauji also owns and operates Fauji Corn Complex. Siddiqa-Agha makes a scathing indictment(90): Ayesha
The top management of the armed forces jealously guard their interests. the military run businesses of Pakistan are above all accountability. Over the years the interests have narrowed down from the greater benefit of the institution to the personal welfare of the generals. The businesses run by the Pakistani armed forces are marked by inefficiency. I wish I was right next to Fauji Kabirwala Power Company because I hate the power that Wapda comes out with. Fauji Jordan Company. Dr.
In another report in August 2002. Such lists exist all over Punjab and Sindh where a new breed of landlords has already been created through similar allotments. the South Asia Tribune reported (99): . heart of Punjab.. which could cure many political and social imbalances in the Pakistani society. Corruption in running these businesses has been noted by Siddiqa-Agha and others (96): "When you dig into them..a list of over 100 armed forces men who allotted to themselves at least 400 or more acres of prime land in Bahawalpur. you find out they are inefficient. wealth and power. The list is only of one District. Nearly half the billionaires were from the army or close relatives of senior army personnel. With this degree of money. the risk to this life is not so 111
. "to defend it from the enemy. "There is also evidence of corruption linked to monopolization of government contracts. Which wealthy army general living in the lap of luxury would want to give up his good life for the hardship and travails of war? Besides.This conversion of generals into landlords also explains why no serious effort has been made by the military to introduce land reforms in the country. An online report in the Crescent International revealed a list of Pakistani billionaires and millionaires with accounts in Swiss banks." at the throw away rate of Rs 380 per acre (US Dollars Six & 50 cents)." Siddiqa-Agha said. the Pakistan army's main problem shifts away from the defence of Pakistan to the defence of their own wealth and power..competitors or people who try to question their activities. and there is evidence of corruption.
Poverty and destitution in Pakistan are because India is trying to attack Pakistan and kill Muslims. The people must be more Islamic. as in Afghanistan since 1979 and in India since 1989. Increasingly under pressure within Pakistan for their greed the Pakistani army has used Islam and the external threat from India to retain their power and wealth.much from an attack by India. the center of anti-Indian sentiment. Pakistani journalist Najam Sethi noted in an article in the Friday Times of Pakistan (101): Since the late 1970s. but by anger and opposition to the corrupt and wealthy army from the desperately poor people of Pakistan. and recruitment to the army benefits the poor who are inclined to Islamic fundamentalism. In fact. This Islamization of Pakistan and the Pakistani army accelerated after the 1971 defeat of the Pakistani army by India in the war of liberation of Bangladesh. The Islamicists have offered two critical inputs to the military: they have provided armed manpower for the military's security agendas in the neighborhood. because the sacrifice of jihad is required to fight India. the Pakistan army has maintained a mutually profitable relationship with Islamic elements in the country. a staggering 85% of whom live on less than US $2 per day (100). rallied radical Islamic forces to the cause. Pakistan is a poor country. A report in the Washington Times recognised this (102): The Pakistani army. the hundreds of Islamic seminaries have become breeding 112
. And they have been ever ready to join hands with the military to undermine popularly elected and mainstream civilian governments inimical to the military's corporate view of Pakistan's interests in one way or another.
. The commanders have lap top computers in which they store their data. During the Kargil conflict 113 of 1999. However. subcontracted its fighting to the jihadis. But there is an Army of Islam. Thus.Raman was quoted in the online portal Rediff (104): Pakistan has two armies. Pakistan
.. over the course of the last few decades. the army has become a harbinger for Islamic ideological orientations. so in the 1990s it was decided that they would act as a front-line force in any IndiaPakistan war.000.. in the course of the 1989 uprising in Kashmir. First-hand observations by this correspondent in Azad Kashmir camps confirm that the jihadi outfits are in fact paramilitary troops. Another report in the Asia Times in 2003 (103) reveals the depth to which the Pakistan army's fighting forces have become intertwined with Islamic jihadis. they gradually subcontracted the actual fighting to Islamist irregular forces. The Pakistan army has. The jihadi outfits. Each unit has a commander who reports to an army officer. with a total strength of about 200. Former Indian Intelligence analyst B. from which they generate summaries of their operations for their military officers. these jihadis played so vital a role that they outdid the army.grounds for terrorism and centers for the recruitment of junior officers to the Pakistan army.000. a regular army of around 500.. As the Pakistani army generals consolidated their financial and business empires. Each jihadi commander is given funds and the brief to devise a strategy for his unit's combat operations.purpose was to develop a paramilitary force that would assist the Pakistan army in the event of war. so-called by Pakistan itself.
Finally. controls the largest network of elite public schools. The latter fact was confirmed in an interview with deposed Former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in an interview at his place of exile in Saudi Arabia (105). Rouge led by the genocidal Pol Pot. except the Khmer evidence following (1971). rural Sind (1983
onwards) and the urban centres of Sind against the MQM 114
. owns the largest construction company and the largest transportation company the National Logistics Cell— that has the dubious distinction of not only transporting weapons for the ISI and the CIA. Documented of the numbers of Pakistani citizens killed the carnage by the Pakistan army in Bangladesh Baluchistan (1972-1974). Pakistani troops withdrew in the face of defeat. saying that Kashmiri mujahideen were doing the fighting. but not before the Pakistani Northern Light Infantry was virtually wiped out. Parthasarathy. In another article. Parthasarathy outlines the role of the Pakistani army in genocides and the killing of its own people(107): The Pakistan army has killed more of its own citizens in the past three decades than any other armed force. former Indian High Commissioner to
Pakistan wrote (106): The Pakistan army is today the largest investor in the Karachi Stock Exchange.refused to admit that any of their forces were involved in the fighting. information regarding the Pakistani army would be incomplete without mention of the criminal activities and genocide that they have been involved in: G. But as Pakistani soldiers bodies began appearing in Pakistan the truth leaked out. but also heroin from Peshawar for export from Karachi.
The Pakistani army has set itself on the course of a serious split. the Pakistani army being the only viable institution out.(in the 1990s).two or three of the 10 corps commanders are seen as Islamicists. In short the Pakistani army has people who are serving two masters. In late 2003. India. it is 115
. and built up a huge business empire for its senior officers and sycophants while the actual fighting was given over to jehadis fired up with Islamic zeal. On the other hand are the Islamists. B. But the army did none of these things.. who are indoctrinated on the exclusivity and superiority of their brand of religion. On the one hand are the rich and corrupt generals. says only one of the 30 officers of lieutenant-general rank and above is definitely a jehadi. promising to bring back democracy and to fight and defeat the number one enemy. Indian Intelligence analyst B. and these lower ranks will be senior officers with the passage of time. Based on this the army repeatedly took power in Pakistan with the promise of setting things right. This Islamic zeal has gradually entered the ranks of the Pakistani army. It started unwinnable wars. with their businesses and lands. In conclusion. RAW's former Pakistan expert. One of these masters will lose and it is unlikely that the followers of God as supreme army commander will give up without a fight. the army commanders on the one hand and Allah on the other. Raman.Raman was quoted in a report (108): . it may be said that the Pakistani army retained a great degree of respect among the people of Pakistan from the time of independence. confirms this fact. the With that
seems to be represented almost all over Pakistan. A large number of men in the lower ranks of the Pakistani army now have fundamentalist Islamic leanings.
difficult to imagine what could be in store for Pakistan other than serious instability when differences begin to show up between the Islamists and the corrupt mafia of the Pakistani army.
But a brief description of the background and outcome of the wars that have been fought give an insight into how Pakistani leaders have viewed the world around them and their relationship with India. Kashmir was not one of them. Within this 117
. The exact circumstances under which this war started is generally lost in a maze of rhetoric. Demographer PH Reddy pointed out in an article in the newspaper The Deccan Herald on January 25th 2002 that the basis of division of British India into India and Pakistan was Sir Cyril Radciffe's Boundary Commission which had been tasked with demarcating the districts in India that had a Muslim majority of more than 75% which were to be allotted to Pakistan. It is interesting to note that. and needs to be described.Chapter 11 KASHMIR. myth and misinformation. PLEBISCITE. in two clusters that were to form West and East Pakistan. shortly after independence and the formation of Pakistan. Pakistan and Bangladesh. Much has been written on this subject and many references are available. The 1947-48 war: The first conflict started in 1947. WARS AND GENOCIDE It is beyond the scope of this book to enter into a detailed military discussion of the wars that Pakistan has fought with India. including some excellent online references complete with photographs. and video clips on the Internet (109. The commission found 76 out of 435 districts with such a majority. documents 111). Pre-independence India (British India) consisted of
present day India. 110.
the Pakistani army sent in irregular non-army forces as well as army personnel in civilian attire at the forefront of the invasion of Kashmir. This King had not made up his mind about signing the Instrument of Accession at the time of Indian independence on 15th August 1947. and he therefore requested both India and Pakistan to sign a treaty called a standstill agreement to maintain supplies and postal services to his landlocked state while he made up his mind. Faced with this invasion from Pakistan. He was hoping to retain his kingdom. The Instrument of Accession was a legal document saying that a state ruled by a Prince or King had acceded . the 600 Princely States were given the option of joining either India or Pakistan by signing a document called the Instrument of Accession.
. When it was decided that British India was to be split up into India and Pakistan and given independence. India wanted to formalize this agreement with a representative of the King.or agreed to join India or Pakistan. and hastily commenced an invasion of Kashmir to take over the Kingdom before the Maharaja made up his mind (112). Pakistani leaders suspected that this was a ploy by India to make the Maharaja of Kashmir accede to India. The dominion of Kashmir was one such Princely State that was ruled by a King (Maharaja Hari Singh) who had to make the decision of joining India or Pakistan.area were also about 600 states that were not directly ruled by Britain. In a tradition that was to be repeated in 1965 and 1999. the Maharaja of Kashmir signed the instrument of accession to India and requested assistance from the Indian Armed forces in protecting his people who were being subjected to rape and pillage by the invading Pakistani forces. but were Princely States with kings or rulers of their own.
armed with up-to-date weapons. Though we have got a standstill agreement with the Pakistan Government. The United Nations resolution on Kashmir (Appendix 2) called for a withdrawal of military forces within five months from the date of the resolution.. the Indian armed forces started their process of evicting the invading Pakistani marauders in a war that continued till an official UN sponsored cease fire was declared in 1949. which supplies electric current to the whole of Srinagar and which has been burnt. Afridis.it has become difficult to stop the wanton destruction of life and property and the looting of the Mahura power house. After the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India. cannot possibly be done without the knowledge of the Provincial Government of the North-West Frontier Province and the Government of Pakistan. 14th March 1950. the Government permitted a steady and increasing strangulation of supplies like food. and desperadoes with modern weapons have been allowed to infiltrate into the State. after which a plebiscite. soldiers in plain clothes. The wild forces thus let loose on the State are marching on with the aim of capturing Srinagar... at a time when Pakistani forces still occupied about onethird of Kashmir in the North West. but an excerpt follows: The Dominion of India desired further discussion with representatives of my Government. salt and petrol to my State. The number of women who have been kidnapped and raped makes my heart bleed. (meaning a vote. The entire text of the letter is reproduced in Appendix 1... or a
..The letter of accession to India written by the Maharaja of Kashmir (113) is as chilling as it is telling.
These included state-of-the-art supersonic F-104 Starfighter aircraft. and was lauded as a progressive leader among developing nations. Any ally was welcomed as long as he declared that he was opposed to communism. when Soviet nuclear missiles were placed in Cuba right under the nose of the US. and communism was considered the most serious threat by the US. In the meantime. The Pakistan-India war of 1965: The early 1960s were great years for Pakistan. Pakistan's failure to get Kashmir on their terms. The US in the 1960s had just emerged from the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Pakistan could do no wrong. Pakistan's alliance with the US allowed a great deal of aid money to flow into Pakistan. held afloat
. History has shown that Pakistani forces have not withdrawn from the portions of Kashmir that they occupied even 600 months. as well as the most sophisticated arms that were available.referendum) could be held to poll the people of the state of Kashmir on the issue. a portion of Kashmir that Pakistani forces occupied was gifted away to China it appears that no plebiscite of the people of Kashmir was required for giving away a part of the state to China. Pakistan allied itself with the United States of America in the cold war against the Soviet Union. and the failure to bend the terms of the now defunct UN resolution to suit Pakistan has been the basis for all further attempts by Pakistan to take Kashmir by force. or 50 years after the UN resolution was passed. deception. The economy was booming. subversion or diplomacy. The US was also fighting communist forces in Vietnam. Under military rule. armed with Sidewinder air to air missiles.
the military dictator of Pakistan (58): General Ayub Khan in his letter to C-in-C General Muhammad Musa stated. In the event. 121
. and that the Muslims of India were waiting to rise up in revolt and join Pakistan. as a general rule Hindu morale would not stand more than a couple of hard blows delivered at the right time and place. The plan was to conduct acts of sabotage and create mayhem after which a radio broadcast was to be made saying that Kashmir had been taken over by revolutionary liberation forces. against India. The planned broadcast did not take place. who would ask for international assistance. mainly from Pakistan. the infiltration of Pakistani forces was not welcomed with the pro-Pakistan rebellion of Indians in Kashmir that the Pakistanis had expected.by aid dollars. Indian forces in 1962 fought valiantly but valor is no substitute for planning and equipment in a war that the Indian Army had not been given the funds or strategy to prepare for. Pakistanis. Through August 1965 Pakistani forces in civilian clothes were infiltrated into Kashmir as part of Operation Gibralter (sic). genuinely believed that one Pakistani soldier equals six Indian soldiers (68). though leaflets were distributed. Pakistani leaders were wrong on both counts. In the heady 1960s. Pakistan's military leader felt that the 1960s offered him a chance to invade and take over Kashmir from India. Columnist Hamid Hussain quotes from a letter written by Ayub Khan. starting from their military supremo Ayub Khan. after having naively trusted China to do good. India on the other hand was smarting from a military defeat in the hands of the Chinese in the 1962 war.
100 square kilometers of Pakistani territory in the Poonch and Lahore regions. en route to the taking of Srinagar. At the time of writing of this. Pakistan occupied about 490 square kilometers of Indian territory in the Akhnoor region. The lessons and punishment suffered by Pakistan should really have been an eye-opener for any responsible and patriotic forces in Pakistan. and advancing toward the Pakistani city of Lahore. India opened a second front by attacking Pakistan across the border in Punjab. In order to relieve the intense Pakistani pressure in Kashmir. Gen. the instability that Pakistan displays more than three decades after the 1971 war is indicative of the deeply dysfunctional internal forces that have kept Pakistan in turmoil since then. the capital of Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan appears to be repeating the same mistakes again and again. with Indian troops occupying the Pakistani town of Barki in the Lahore sector. but no such awakening has occurred.At this stage. The cease fire was formalized with the Tashkent declaration of January 10th 1966 (Appendix 3) The 1971 war of liberation of Bangladesh: The 1971 war was one of the most shameful episodes in the history of Pakistan. beating back Indian defences. West Pakistanis always considered their East Pakistani 122
. on September 1st 1965 Pakistan launched Operation Grand Slam. a massive armor attack on India. By the time a cease fire was declared on 23rd September 1965. Ayub Khan's plan of annexing Kashmir had been foiled. The attackers were planning to take the town of Akhnoor. India ended the war holding about 1.
for a period of 36 hours from the night of the 25th till the 26th night. But East Pakistan had a population greater than that of West Pakistan. and adjoining residential areas. and martial law was clamped in East Pakistan. The killing of Bengalis. One description. Rafiqul Islam of Dhaka
Just after midnight on the night of 25th March. I saw with my own eyes.. An East Pakistani party.. Raging infernos everywhere.Bengali compatriots as somehow inferior and weak. who were all Muslims and fellow Pakistanis was shocking and brutal. the incumbent military dictator of Pakistan allowed an election to be held. when General Yahya Khan. The Pakistani army could not countenance this. 123
. This was the beginning of the Pakistani army's darkest and most shameful phase to date. gambling that no party would get an overall majority. Elections were somehow postponed or avoided until 1971. by University reads(114): Prof. That was unacceptable to the ruling elite of West Pakistan as well as the Pakistani army. He was wrong..I don't have the words to express the bestiality and barbarity that was perpetrated on the Dhaka University area. the Awami league.. the Pakistani Army began their attack on the Student Halls and Staff Quarters of the University. headed by Sheikh Mujibur Rehman won a landslide victory and should have formed the government of all of Pakistan. followed by a genocide of East Pakistani Bengalis. which meant that true democracy in Pakistan could pave the way for an East Pakistani Bengali to become leader of Pakistan. especially Iqbal Hall.. What transpired around Iqbal Hall. Jagannath Hall. East and West.Just after midnight Iqbal Hall came under a barrage of heavy mortar and machine-gun attack from near the pond in front and the police barracks behind it.
The genocide by the Pakistani army in East Pakistan was the worst seen after the holocaust of Jews by the Nazis in the second World War. In the morning the village boatmen hauled the bodies into midstream and the ropes binding the bodies were cut so that each body drifted separately 124
.the slum was burning. and then silence. Then a new bunch of prisoners was brought out. and the process was repeated. The executioners stood on the pier. allowing their bodies to float down-river (115) They were in batches of six or eight. There were screams in the hot night air. or near army camps. and the Pakistan army tended to line up men along river-banks at night and shoot them. The sound of shells bursting and guns firing. and in the light of a powerful electric arc lamp. the smell of gun-powder and the stench of the burning corpses all transformed the area into a fiery hell. Bangladesh is a nation criss-crossed by rivers. floating down rivers. Bodies of youths would be found in fields. black against the silvery water.J. One online source (115) has a collection of references to this and the descriptions are horrific: R. The heaped bodies of the dead from the slum were also set on fire near the Nilkhet rail gate petrol pump. they were easy targets.young boys. Sweeps were conducted of young men who were never seen again. the smoke and fire. The prisoners fell on their sides and their bodies lapped against the shore. Rummel likewise writes that "the [sought] out those especially likely Pakistan army to join the
resistance -. shooting down at the compact bunches of prisoners wading in the water. the cars parked around the residences were burning.
) Descriptions of rape and killing of Hindus abound and over over 3 million people were killed over a 267 day period seconds an average of one murder committed every 8 by Pakistani army personnel for nearly 9 months. The army of the martial races of Pakistan had capitulated and surrendered a nation of 144. The Indian plan was a masterly combination of airborne.
The killings in East Pakistan led to a massive influx of refugees into India.000 square kilometers along with 93. putting a great strain on resources. is an eminently defensible country cut up by rivers five miles wide and obstructed by marshes. based on complete mobility and the bypassing of all centres of 125
. p. Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Armed forces into East Pakistan on the humanitarian mission of stopping the killing. In a whirlwind war the Indian armed forces overran East Pakistan. the new nation of Bangladesh was born out of the ravaged remains of East Pakistan. A two-front war broke out when the Pakistani Air Force commenced hostilities in the West with air raids on Indian targets on December 3rd 1971. comprehensively defeating the Pakistani army. 1973]. taking 93.000 of its men in a mere 16 days. Massacre [Macmillan. guerrilla and conventional forces. Military historian Brig. while Bengali resistance fighters sought Indian help.downstream.000 prisoners of war. Unable to stand by and watch the horrific events in East Pakistan. More than 10 million people were accommodated in refugee camps in India. now Bangladesh (literally Land of Bengal). the Indian Prime Minister Mrs. 55. (Payne. Shelford Bidwell summarized the military action as follows(48): A close study of this campaign will edify military students for a long time to come. Bengal. At the end of this action.
when Indian forces began the 126 process of evicting the
. canoe or country cart as suitable. For the third time since independence. An astonishing momentum was maintained from start to finish . boat. One of the major disadvantages of a state trying to deny involvement in a war is that neither escalation nor pullout are possible without admitting involvement or conceding that the earlier denial of involvement was a lie in the first place. While the entry of these Pakistani forces had gone undetected. the Pakistan army had sent soldiers disguised as civilians into Indian territory. and tried to deny any involvement with the conflict. These soldiers were then in an advantageous position to defend their positions and to direct accurate artillery fire to cut off a major Indian highway and Indian army supply route. Pakistani fortified soldiers in civilian garb occupied themselves within Indian territory in and the
heights of the mountains in the Kargil region of Kashmir.it was a Blitzkrieg without tanks. This ultimately has a great bearing on credibility and international standing. the war started after their discovery.resistance. troops and guns were ferried over the rivers by helicopter. albeit a war limited in area.
The 1999 Kargil conflict: It was a while before anyone realized that a war had erupted between India and Pakistan in 1999. The advance was not held up for bridging operations. and 'supply and transport' was by air. Pakistan seems to have gleaned more shame than honour from this action.
Pakistanis from their positions within India. Pakistan's Northern Light Infantry had been all but wiped out in a war that Pakistan denied till the last moment (105). let alone nations cannot function if leaders display a disconnect between their actions and reality. Pakistan denied any involvement in the war until coffins of their soldiers started turning up at their hometowns in Pakistan.
. The war ended when the last few surviving Pakistani soldiers were pulled out in a humiliating retreat that Pakistan conducted under the fig-leaf of American mediation . Small organizations. why was it done so half-heartedly? If they wanted to be involved in the conflict.the retreat being announced after a visit by Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to meet US President Clinton. any answers that fit the known facts suggest a frightening disconnect between perception and reality among the seniormost leaders of Pakistan. accompanied by Indian media coverage of captured Pakistani army identity papers and weapons. The Kargil conflict is very difficult to explain from the Pakistani viewpoint. Why did Pakistan do it? And having done it. why did they deny involvement? If they did not want to be identified as being involved. Using the overwhelming firepower at the disposal of the Indian army and air force. mountain bunkers and supply depots occupied by Pakistani forces were systematically destroyed. why did they admit to involvement later? What was it that Pakistani leaders hoped would be achieved by this action? While there are more questions than answers. By the time the last abandoned Pakistani soldiers' corpses had been buried by the Indian army. and an equally frightening lack of communication and cooperation between the leaders themselves.
But did they not expect Indian retaliation when they were discovered? Were they so worried about the possibility of discovery that they refused to allow their men to wear uniforms? But that was futile. India had taken Pakistani pressure off Kashmir by opening a second front in Punjab. since they could not prevent their men from carrying identification papers in their personal effects. after which a Pakistani attack would have isolated and encircled Indian positions in Siachen glacier region.What could have been Pakistan's motive and ultimate objective in sending army troops dressed in mufti to fortify themselves and occupy positions above 15. and some of the explanations are ludicrous enough to be unbelievable. why Pakistan so concerned about keeping the identity of men secret. If that was the case. In the 1965 war. It has been said that after Pakistan's nuclear tests in 1998. it was believed that the morale of the Indian armed forces was at breaking point and that Indian soldiers would be ready to run away from battle at the slightest threat. And within Kashmir it was
. It appears that Pakistani generals believed that India would be afraid to repeat that in 1999 because they feared nuclear retaliation from Pakistan.000 feet high on mountains just within the Indian border? One explanation is that they sought to salami slice into Indian territory by surreptitiously occupying unguarded Indian territory. Pakistani military leaders believed India to be very afraid of Pakistan. the more commonly quoted one. is that the men on the mountains were there to help cut off the Srinagar-Leh highway. and pretending not to be involved? Why the was its did
the Pakistani military not plan a counter-offensive to blunt or stop India from relentlessly clearing the heights as it did? The logic defies explanation. Another theory. Furthermore.
In February 1999. Gen. or that there may be alternate.expected that the Indian army would capitulate and run away. This statement by a senior Pakistani army general eerily echoes the assessment made by Pakistani dictator Ayub Khan 34 years earlier when he stated that Indian morale would break after a couple of hard blows. less reassuring assessments. After the Kargil conflict. As indicated in the description of the Pakistani mind in chapter 5. as events have shown. such assessments are more indicative of the psychological state of the Pakistani army officer. It is interesting to note that the large and powerful army of Pakistan has cultivated a leadership that somehow believes that the Indian military will be a pushover in battle. Ved Prakash Malik. with a self-image amounting to delusions of grandeur rather than objective and rational military judgment. the 129
. Such an attitude can be termed as nothing short of suicidal. at about the time when Pakistani army men were secretly taking up their positions in the mountains near Kargil. senior Pakistani General Javid Nasir wrote in the prestigious Pakistani Defence Journal (116): I say with all the authority and professionalism that 'The Indian army is incapable of undertaking any conventional operations at present what to talk of enlarging conventional conflict' It is inconceivable that a professional Pakistani soldier and senior officer should deliberately and publicly choose to underestimate an adversary without paying the slightest heed to the possibility that the assessment may be wrong.
Nuclear umbrella allows offensive action without risk.India is militarily weak and unprepared. will either over-react or under-react. 6. If Pakistani Generals persist in thinking of war and easy victories against India. 3. less rosy scenarios.International community would intervene or stop the war at an early stage. 2.The coalition government in India.Indian Chief of Army Staff who oversaw the defeat of Pakistani forces in the Kargil conflict wrote about Gen Javid Nasir's article and misperception within the Pakistani army's high command that led them to attempt the Kargil misadventure (117): This was not only a gross underestimation of a possible adversary but also a poor assessment and misperception. 5. weak and indecisive. That is a disquieting thought. Some other assumptions and misperceptions which led to the Pakistani offensive operation in Kargil were: 1.Indian frustration will lead to escalation. 4. putting the onus of escalation on India. Assumptions regarding enemy weakness and fear can only be termed as high hopes unless they are balanced out by other. But it does not appear that the Pakistani army had planned for anything but easy and cheap victory in Kargil.Military operation under the garb of Mujahideen would focus attention on Kashmir and Pakistan would be able to claim this as a victory. the chance of Pakistan viewing India with any sanity or objectivity can also be dismissed as high hopes.
Balochistan and the Northwest Frontier Province. but the peoples in such areas have either declared independence. Pakistan has violated a wide array of human rights. The state of Pakistan can be compared to a shattered cookie within an intact wrapper – each fragment is separate. to freedom from torture.In the "war on terror".. and to legal
remedies and reparations.” Pakistan has four provinces. to the security of the person. An excerpt from the report says: areas of
“. The “wrapper” that holds the Pakistan state together is the Pakistan army. including the right to life. or are seeking separation from Pakistan. other illtreatment and enforced disappearance. with vast swathes of Pakistan falling outside the bounds of any control. Sindh. Each province is one part that contributes to the whole. but held together forcibly by the wrapper. In 2006 Amnesty International published a report (159) about human rights violations in the tribal Pakistan. Much of this area is sparsely populated. In the case of Pakistan this idea is misleading – Pakistan’s provinces belong to the Pakistani state in name only.Chapter 12 PROVINCES AND ASSORTED FRAGMENTS The word “provinces” calls to the mind the idea of a nation that has been divided into smaller blocks for administrative reasons. to freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention. Punjab. Indeed more than half the land area of Pakistan is outside the control of the Pakistan government. which has regularly massacred people within those provinces in an effort to maintain control. The map below
The fact that most of the population and economic activity of Pakistan occurs in these three provinces can be seen in the photograph below. and contributing over 60% of the personnel in the Pakistan armed forces. which. which shows a map of Pakistan super-imposed on a satellite 132
. Punjab is by far the dominant province.
Punjab.depicts the provinces of Pakistan. in the absence of any reliable recent census is estimated to be between 160 and 170 million in 2006. with Punjabis comprising over 50% of Pakistan’s total population.) form the “core provinces” of Pakistan. These provinces form less than half the land area of Pakistan. Sindh and the Northwest frontier provinces (N.P.W. These were the provinces that voted to be part of Pakistan from the outset. but are home to over 80% of Pakistan’s population.F.
comprising 42% of the land area. except for a strip close to the Indian border representing the provinces of Punjab.W.F. the Pakistan army and successive governments have shown that they want the natural resources more than 133
BALOCHISTAN: Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan. The people of Balochistan have long fought for independence of their land from Pakistani rule. Sindh and N. and more recently for a fair share of the proceeds from the natural Baluchistan. Balochistan is rich in natural resources. but it has a population of only about 7 million – or just over 4% of Pakistan’s population. including natural gas and minerals.photograph of the Indian subcontinent at night. which show lights and population activity.. Balochistan became part of Pakistan after it was forcibly annexed by the Pakistani army after Pakistan was created in 1947.P. resources being exploited in
In return. Almost all of Pakistan is dark.
signing a peace deal with the Taliban who control an area of the F.A.T. in an serves as a safe harbor for the Al Qaeda assorted Islamist militia personnel. as well as the payment of reparations for damage.A. F.A. In 2006 the same army made an ignominious retreat from the area after suffering hundreds of casualties. The F. for the first time in its history in 2002 on the pretext of helping the US in its war on terror. It is a strip of land on the Northwest border of Pakistan with Afghanistan populated by tribes.A.T.T. This has resulted in the death in 2006 of a prominent and respected Balochi leader and a fierce opponent of Pakistani occupation. of whom less than 2% live in urban areas. including helicopter gun ships.A. Despite a long struggle the sparse population of Balochistan cannot match the firepower of the Pakstani army. This has been described as a defacto acceptance of an independent “Islamic Emirate of Waziristan” – ruled by the Taliban. A series of massacres of Balochi tribals have occurred with the use of deadly force.A.A.A. area that and other
. The “peace deal” (160) made by the Pakistani Army with people who are supposed to be Pakistani citizens guarantees that the Pakistani army will never return to Waziristan and a return of confiscated weapons. called Waziristan (see map on page 136).they want the people of Balochistan. The Pakistan army actually entered the F. – or Federally Administered Tribal Areas is a euphemism for a completely lawless area that does not come under Pakistani control at all. Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti. They do not recognize Pakistan’s border with Afghanistan and the area is home to a thriving arms industry in which clones of almost any type of small arms are made in small workshops (139).T.
The terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001 in the US. The statement was a vindication of long-standing Indian concerns. JIHAD AND TERRORISM When it was declared by the US Treasury department that two thirds of all terrorist groups had a link with Pakistan. Treasury Department. India had been ploughing a lonely furrow in the diplomatic capitals of the world calling attention to Pakistan's role in terrorism. Since 1989. The sorcerer (magician) is Mickey himself and has the task of drawing water from a well to fill job himself. Being too lazy to do the uses his magic powers to make a to draw water to fill the tub. A panicky Mickey wakes up and chops the magic broom into small pieces but each piece then becomes a new apprentice that carries water and the flooding starts to 135
. according to the U.Chapter 13 PAKISTAN. in which aircraft were hijacked and crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington were a wake-up call to the somnolent and blinkered intelligence communities of the West about the deep changes taking place in Pakistan. the magic broom. the sorcerer broom grow hands and legs As Mickey relaxes and a tub. falls asleep the Sorcerer's
Apprentice.S. working tirelessly. About two-thirds of all designated terrorist groups in the world have a Pakistani connection. transfers enough water to cause a flood and does not stop. A charming tale for children is told in an animated film called “The Sorcerer's Apprentice” featuring Walt Disney's cartoon character Mickey Mouse. the statement came as sweet music to the ears Indians who have been fighting terrorism from Pakistan for over a decade (118).
especially from Pakistan. and terrorism associated with jihad now has a life of its own and may be getting out of control of the Pakistani army. In his study of jihadi groups in Pakistan. It is stated that jihad is an internal struggle and not external violence. In the Pakistani context. Ehsan Ansari says of jihad (120): various Islamic groups have been interpreting it to mean 'holy war' against everything the perceive as being 'non Islamic' An interview with a leading Pakistani expert on jihad. Arif Jamal. Jessica Stern. was published by the Asia Times online. Jamal has this to say about jihad (121): 136
. and destabilizes the region. The government in Islamabad supports these militants and their religious schools as cheap ways to fight India and educate Pakistan's youth. monster threatens to devour
Islamic scholars. But this policy is creating a culture of violence that exacerbates internal sectarianism Without change. this Pakistani society. Terrorism and senseless violence are being routinely committed in the name of jihad. The Pakistani army tried to use jihad to do it's work but jihad.get out of control. an expert on terrorism wrote (119): Pakistani militant groups are killing civilians and engaging in terrorism in Indian-held Kashmir under the guise of holy war. But this assertion goes against the facts on the ground. terrorism and jihad are one and the same. have repeatedly tried to point out that jihad is not terrorism. Pakistan and jihad are like the story of the Sorcerer's Apprentice.
some 7. 2002: there are as many as 500. A report from the US council of Foreign Relations said: According to The Washington Post.350 of the estimated 40. including many thousands committed to the cause of forcing India out of the sector of Kashmir that it controls.in Pakistan..000 to 50. The extent to which the system to promote violent jihad against non-Muslims has spread in Pakistan may be gauged from the following reports: Terrorism expert Jessica Stern writes (119): Only about 4. And with jihad being defined as holy war to defeat infidels. The New York Times reported on May 27.Muslim holy war organizations .000 madrasas currently operate in Pakistan..000 students. Maulana Maududi. Madrasahs are the supply line for jihad.. 137
. One of the ideological founding fathers of Pakistan. Pakistani officials estimate that 10 to 15 percent of the madrasas in Pakistan promote extremist ideologies. placed a great emphasis on jihad.The main objective of jihad even today is to defeat the infidels and establish Islamic states all over the world. acts of terrorism are considered normal and par for the course by a large number of Pakistanis.000 madrasahs in Pakistan have registered with the government. Jihad became a driving force in Pakistan under General Zia ul Haq in the 1980s..000 members of jihadi . with enrollment at more than 650. (120) so Pakistanis are not strangers to the concept of jihad.
with funds coming in from diverse sources such as Libya. paving the way for the Pakistan sponsored Taliban to form a government in Afghanistan. mainly heroin. Saudi funds and Jihad recruits from Pakistan.The 2. to fund the US backed war against Soviet troops in Afghanistan.500 madrassahs produced a 138 crop of 225.. Tariq Ali wrote in The Independent of the UK (123): religious fundamentalism is the legacy of a previous military dictator.. were created.. This is supported by a report in the Asia Times (122): The jihadi outfits were in fact a part of the ISI's operations and the brainchild of late dictator General Zia ul-Haq and General Akhtar Abdul Rehman. funded by the Saudi regime. The purpose was to develop a para-military force that would assist the Pakistan army in the event of war. General Zia-ul-Haq. Stern reports that Pakistan received US $ 3. With US arms.Quoting Jessica Stern (119): Pakistani dictator General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq promoted
the madrasahs as a way to garner the religious parties' support for his rule and to recruit troops for the antiSoviet war in Afghanistan. Iran and other Gulf states.000 fanatics
.During his rule (1977-89).5 billion from these countries in the 1985 to 1989 period.. the Soviet Union was put under sufficient military pressure to withdraw from Afghanistan. Jihad became an important business in Pakistan. Jihad in Pakistan received a lot of funding from the US and Saudi Arabia. a network of madrassahs (religious boarding schools). Along with the money came guns and drugs. Iraq.
They were armed and commanded by "volunteers" from the Pakistan Army For the Pakistani army.
.that is.. RAND. control of Afghanistan with its puppet.The Taliban creed is an ultra-sectarian strain. a US based non-profit organization that helps policy and decision making. Meanwhile strategic Afghanistan itself was depth . they were hurled into battle. inspired by the Wahhabi sect that rules Saudi Arabia.. if seen by Pakistan as India ever attacked
Pakistan. Afghanistan also served as a safe place to continue to train jihadis to fight Pakistan's war against India.. the Taliban government was a double blessing. ensuring that Pakistan has sufficient strategic depth to undertake a protracted conventional war on the subcontinent.The Taliban could not.. should this ever become necessary. The Pakistani army could describe the jihadi-terrorists as freedom fighters and deny any link with them. while Pakistan claimed to provide only moral and diplomatic support to them. Pakistani forces and leaders could withdraw into Afghanistan and continue to fight.ready to kill and die for their faith when asked to do so by their religious leaders. however. carried the following passage in a commentary (124): Sponsoring militancy in Kashmir is regarded as a relatively cheap and effective way of offsetting existing power symmetries (essentially through the philosophy of a 'war of a thousand cuts') while simultaneously .. have captured Kabul on their own .. The forces of jihad provided a huge supply of trained and experienced soldiers to fight India in a low cost war.. Dispatched across the border by the Pakistan Army.
Walls between Havelian and Haripur are full of jehadi slogans and adverts Pervez Hoodbhoy. this was to be an army not just for Pakistan. Shahid Nadeem wrote in the Daily Times of Pakistan (125): The moment we left Fortress Abbottabad.Pakistan's military and intelligence services struck upon the idea of employing jihadis to wrest control of the Kashmir from India. Wall chalking after wall chalking advertised jehadi outfits and announced recruitment for jehadi fighters." And even today as Pakistani jihadis continue to be used as cannon fodder against India... Pakistan. Jihad is advertised in Pakistan as a career path to follow. Just a few kilometers from the Havelian cantonment. "We have fought three wars with India and have not won even one of them.000 fighters whom Pakistan had trained and armed to fight the Soviet forces in Afghanistan. there are slogans such as Jehad is the shortest route to Paradise and Contact us for commando Jehadi training. "The success of the jihadi strategy in Afghanistan compelled the generals to try it on India. a Pakistani scientist and columnist
wrote(126): Islam. it was jehadi territory. the recruitment has to go on.A report in the New York Times (27 May 2002) describes how the jihadis from Afghanistan were applied against India: drawing on the 80. Jihad became emblazoned on banners at Pakistani army recruitment centers." said an expert on the country's jihad movements.. A new ethos was created. .. 140
. The Kashmir jihadis are our cannon fodder because they are willing to die for their cause in a way that no paid soldiers would. too.
Jihad has been made attractive and financially rewarding. With jihad and terrorism being Pakistan's main industry.S. cash incentives for high-risk operations and retainers for guides. The Holy Scriptures of virgins of the take the spirit the first drop Islam also say that houris [beautiful Koranic Paradise] come down to Earth to of the mujahid who is about to die before of his blood falls to earth. The article is revealing in the extent to which Pakistan has been organizing and funding terrorists who have long been said to receive only moral and diplomatic support from Pakistan.I. A RAND report quotes Indian Intelligence estimates of the budget of the Pakistani agency responsible for training and coordinating jihad-terrorist action in India the so called Inter Services Intelligence or I. These funds are used to cover salaries for fighters (which run from 5. (124): annual ISI expenditure to the main militant organisations runs to between US$125 and $250 million a year.000 rupees a month). porters and informers. Appendix 4 reproduces an article carried in the online paper Mid-Day listing details of incentives and salaries offered to terrorists from Pakistan. The martyrs
are promised 72 houris in Paradise. support to next of kin. There are salary and pension rules in place as well. These houris are more beautiful than all the beauties of the world combined. The rewards of waging jihad include the following. 141
.but for the greater glory of Islam.000 to 10. among more worldly rewards (127): The mujahideen were assured of entering Paradise before the first drop of their blood fell to earth.
shot dead another person and set off two explosions damaging a bridge " • "Terrorists have slit the throats of two of the four policemen abducted after the attack on a police post in Udhampur on Sunday. but have the option of withdrawing from their 142
.000 civilians have been killed by Pakistani trained terrorists in Jammu and Kashmir from 1990 to 2003. Over the same period Indian security forces have intercepted and killed 17. The attackers killed four women and two children.000 terrorists who were found committing acts of terrorism or infiltrating into India from Pakistan." • "Militants slit the throats of two women.the effect on India has been murderous. 6 million rounds of ammunition and 34. The US in Vietnam had being able to withdraw from Vietnam.000 hand grenades. hiding in jungles in mountainous regions cannot be fought with tanks and attack aircraft. Men have to be met by men in deadly face to or cordon and the luxury of Indians do not face encounters at the end of long vigils search operations. The US army discovered in Vietnam that groups of armed men carrying machine guns and explosives. the officer said. A few samples are quoted below: • "Suspected Islamic militants axed to death six members of a shepherd's family overnight.000 assault rifles and machine guns.000 kilograms of explosives (129). and over 59. A paper published by the South Asia Analysis Group (SAAG) carries examples of newspaper headlines resulting from terrorist acts sponsored by Pakistan in India(128). Statistics of deaths of Indians in Kashmir show that over 17. along with the staggering recovery of over 27.
and gradually. A backlog of violent. these terrorists began to target other nations of the world. We put the average lifespan of a terrorist at two-and-half years. This seems to have had a significant effect on the morale of Pakistan's army backed jihadi-terrorist apparatus. jihadis started getting eliminated in increasing numbers. In many areas. the only country that tried to alert the world about the global terrorist threat emanating from Pakistan's jihad factory 143 was India. Within this period we are bound to eliminate him. As the Indian strategy proved effective. because the Pakistani government started protesting against the presence of large numbers of Indian counterinsurgency personnel within India. with hundreds of thousands of jihadis entering from Pakistan required a robust response. terrorists from Pakistan were unable to enter India at all or were able to infiltrate through in the smallest numbers. and by starting to fence the India-Pakistan boundary where possible. trained and indoctrinated terrorists built up in Pakistan. and the average life-span of a jihadi-terrorist entering India from Pakistan was reduced to weeks or months rather than years (130).own land. but Indian
. One Indian army major is quoted in an interview as saying (131): Once somebody picks up the gun then his family knows that it is only a matter of days before they hear that he has been killed in an encounter. and diplomatic protests grew shriller as Indian security forces chalked up success after success. Once again. Terrorism. and India met the threat by building a powerful counter-insurgency apparatus.
I. Indonesia and the Philippines. Bangladesh. Chechnya. Pakistan has now become the home base of global terrorism. Australia. Uzbekistan. in time. and Pakistan itself is being targeted by the Islamist groups spawned and nurtured by the Pakistani army and its intelligence cell. The entire world. the I. Terrorism Central would not be an inappropriate name for Pakistan.information fell on deaf ears. In an article on Pakistan-sponsored terrorism. a powerful and deadly Pakistan based jihad group. had this to say in its December 2003 edition (132): There is a terrible price to pay for this facilitation because the same forces that drive jehad in Jammu and Kashmir drive it in other lands too. the magazine India Today. Tajikistan. and it is by no means certain that anybody in Pakistan can control the forces that have been unleashed. UK. Yemen. including links to the September 11th attacks (133). until 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. Afghanistan. This view is echoed by one 144 of India's premier anti-
. Latvia. Since Pakistan have been
found in countries like Burma. A detailed study exists in an online portal of the evidence of Pakistani links to terrorism against the US. Kuwait..Indian authorities reckon that groups like the LeT could. The Sorcerer's Apprentice is out of control. (119. Nepal. Russia.132). Not only would they become too large for the ISI to manage but also their strong links with the underworld would create a sort of double whammy. referring to the L-e-T (Lashkar-eTayeba). Canada. become more dangerous.. Turkey. intelligence communities of the world then terrorist links leading back to
the September 11 That woke up the with a jolt. Mongolia.S.
Gill. not only their Army and ISI handlers. Pakistan is awash with weapons. Other reports too have pointed to Islamist forces within Pakistan as being responsible for wanting to replace General Musharraf. President of Pakistan occurred that the known to survived two attempts to assassinate him that within days of each other (135. General Pervez Musharraf. Although the first of the two assassination attempts was thought to have been stage managed by Musharraf's supporters to win greater sympathy for him (138). Musharraf blamed the Al Quaeda for attempting to assassinate him. These forces will not be easy to eliminate.P. In Decemeber 2003.S. 136). but the Government itself. the second one. who warned (134): There is now mounting evidence of a loss of control as these autonomous religious groups challenge. in addition to 2 million registered ones (139). There are an estimated 18 million illegal firearms in Pakistan. The fact route of the motorcade he was travelling in was the people who wanted to kill him suggests that
someone close to General Musharraf was involved in these attempts.terrorism experts. a report carried by RAND said (124): it is no longer apparent that the army or ISI exercise complete control over the proxies they have helped to create. In an interview quoted in the BBC (137). a suicide bombing involving multiple bomb laden trucks was a very real indicator of the sort of forces that exist in Pakistan today. In an indication of increasing international understanding of how jihad threatens to eat up Pakistan. 145
. Apart from multiple Islamist groups. some of which are now openly talking about fomenting a fundamentalist revolution in Pakistan itself. K.
being able to spray a high volume of fire at targets. including inexpensive clones of the Kalashnikov AK-47 assault rifle.
. (the army. the government retains coercive power. in Pakistan's case) retains the armed power to suppress and control all other groups. That means that the government.Pakistan is home to a Kalashnikov culture with hundreds of firearm manufacturing workshops making weapons. But that monopoly over coercive power may have slipped out of the hands of the Pakistani army. In a coherently functioning nation-state. into the hands of Islamic fundamentalists in Pakistan. a reliable weapon of choice for terrorists.
it is extremely addictive when administered to normal people. The report from Karachi. and crave the drug so much that they are willing to pay very high prices to obtain it. headlined `Heroin 147 Plan by Top Pakistanis a news
. However.Chapter 14 THE GOVERNMENT AND CRIMINAL ACTIVITY There is probably no government in the world which does not have one or more people in power who are either themselves criminals or have links to criminals. People are said to crave for the drug after experiencing its effects just once. which describes a disturbing link between narcotics and terrorism. Although heroin itself has medicinal value as a potent pain-killer. heroin is illegal to manufacture or possess because of its dangerous potential to cause addiction. Heroin addicts become so physically dependent on the drug. making trade. successive Pakistani governments and the army have been unique in actively supporting and participating in international criminal activity as an integral component of the Pakistani economy and foreign policy. US Senator Frank Pallone brought to the attention of the US house of representatives report in the Washington Post (140): Mr Pallone said: Mr. heroin the star compound of the illegal drug
In October 1994. It is obtained from the Opium Poppy plant. I rise to bring to the attention of my colleagues a report that appeared in the Washington Post of September 12. 1994. Speaker. Pakistan. Heroin smuggling and Narco terrorism: Heroin is a drug that is a derivative of the medically used pain-killer morphine. In most countries of the world.
Alleged' quotes Pakistan's former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif saying that `drug deals were to pay for covert operations' brings to mind other reports not so long ago of Pakistani involvement in using the Bank of Credit and Commerce International [BCCI] to launder drug money that was eventually believed to have been used in financing terrorist groups involved in the New York World Trade Center bombing. a special cell was set up by Pakistan's ISI for the use of heroin for covert action. B. It has also enabled it to maintain a high 148
. Asad Durrani. Raman writes (141) that money earned through Pakistan's heroin trade was used to fund Pakistan's arms purchases. submarines from France and components for Pakistan's covert nuclear program. including missiles from North Korea. Zia ul Haq's rule and in the early years of Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. the head of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) with the blueprint for a plan to export heroin to raise money for the Pakistan army's covert foreign operations a euphemism for Pakistan sponsored terrorism in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. under one Brigadier Imtiaz. The report cites Pakistan's army chief and head of intelligence agency proposing to then-Prime Minister Sharif `a detailed blueprint for selling heroin to pay for the country's covert military operations in early 1991. Indian analyst. Gen. During the late years of Gen. Raman writes: Pakistan's illegal heroin economy has kept its legitimate State economy sustained since 1990 and prevented its collapse. The news report said that three months after Nawaz Sharif became Prime Minister of Pakistan he was approached by the Pakistan army chief of staff. Aslam Beg and Gen.
packaged and despatched towards their destination. Even during the Afghan crisis Pak trucks and National Logistic Cell (NLC) vehicles transporting arms to Afghan Mujahideen were used for shipping large consignments of drugs from the drug producing areas to Karachi. 149 A single bomb
. the Indian army captured from Pakistani infiltrators about 19 Kilograms of Heroin with a street value of US $ 5 million. where the drugs were processed. Pak trucks are used by the drug mafia for narcotics smuggling. which is in the thick of action against terrorists from Pakistan has this to say in an article on Narco-Terrorism on its website (142): Both the Pakistan Army and the Inter Services
Intelligence (ISI) agency are known to be extensively involved in narcotics trade. The nexus between Pak ISI and Pak Army with the drug mafia is a well documented and established fact. The primary reason for indulging in narcotics trade by these two premier institutions of Pakistan is the need for money to finance covert foreign operations. In a one and a half year period from January 1997 to May 1998.level of arms purchases from abroad and to finance its proxy war against India through the jehadi organisations. Nuclear Proliferation: Nuclear weapons. which the otherwise cash strapped economy of Pak could ill afford to pay for.a drug derived from Cannabis (Ganja). Rawalpindi and other such city centres. The Indian army's 15th Corps. Also recovered was 60 Kilograms of Charas . Islamabad. also known as atomic bombs are extremely destructive. They have been used only twice in August 1945 when the Unites States dropped a bomb on each of the Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The destructive potential of nuclear weapons made them attractive terrifying waging war because of to nations as a deterrent . and these centrifuges had radioactive contaminants that unmistakably bore the signature of a Pakistani source.a weapon of power to scare a potential attacker from for fear of being hit by nuclear weapons. Libya and Iran. That brought the second World War to an end. Centrifuges made from the very designs Qadeer Khan had stolen from URENCO were found in Iran. available to only a handful of nations in the world. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to set up facilities to enrich Uranium manufacture nuclear bombs. the technology
for manufacturing nuclear weapons remained a closely guarded secret. And their destructive potential. Abdul Qadeer Khan became a hero and achieved cult status in Pakistan as the father of Pakistan's Islamic bomb In late 2003 and early 2004. Pakistan had obtained funds from Libya in exchange for this technology and North Korea paid for the technology by supplying Pakistan with ballistic missiles capable of 150
. Enrichment of Uranium is one of the first steps in making one type of nuclear bomb. Upon his return to Pakistan. along with actual blueprints of nuclear bomb designs in order to help these nations manufacture atomic bombs. Khan was encouraged and funded by the Prime Minister of Pakistan at the time. killing hundreds of thousands of people. Shipments of centrifuge components to North Korea and Libya were intercepted. a Pakistani metallurgist stole the blueprints for making Uranium enrichment centrifuges from a Dutch concern called URENCO that he worked for.reduced each city to rubble. As described in chapter 4. causing Japan to surrender within days. Abdul Qadeer Khan. it became clear that Pakistani nuclear technology to enrich Uranium had been supplied to North Korea.
nuclear experts and a former prime minister of Pakistan expressed doubts Monday about how Khan and a handful of associates could have circumvented the extraordinary controls on the country's nuclear technology without the military's blessings." On February 4
2004. said she doubted that the transfers could have taken place without the knowledge of senior military officials. An article in the online edition of the L.carrying nuclear weapons (143). In early 2004 the world was witness to an incredible drama on Pakistan television in which Abdul Qadeer Khan made a public confession of having sold nuclear weapons technology to other nations entirely on his own. It would be naive to imagine that successive Pakistani governments and the military were unaware of Khan's activities.S. with no knowledge of the Pakistani army or government. This confession was followed by a prompt presidential pardon for Dr. the New York Times reported (144):
experts inside and outside the government say it is difficult to believe that Pakistan's nuclear secrets could have been exported without the knowledge of some in 151
. Musharraf. Khan by President and army chief Gen. Benazir Bhutto. officials. "Those who violated the policy are now hiding behind the scientists. Times said (143): U. "It is difficult to accept that the scientists could have violated government policy on their own.A. who served twice as prime minister before going into exile in the face of corruption charges." she told the Los Angeles Times.
Khan operated alone. Airliner hijacking: The most blatant case of an airliner hijacked with Pakistani army and government complicity is the shameful episode of Indian Airlines Flight number IC 814 that hijacked in December 2000 by five Pakistani nationals boarded the flight in Kathmandu in Nepal. He has the deepest ties to the military. and supplied it with a cargo fleet. this whole hijacking story could have 152
. investigators believe. Four days later. the New York Times carried a report in which it was said (145): Few of Mr.the military and the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence agency. only to be pardoned by the army is in keeping with the Pakistan army's time honoured tradition of protecting its self interest and attempting to appear farcically squeakyclean in the face of contrary evidence. It is virtually certain that the televised drama of Qadeer Khan absolving the army of all responsibility for proliferation while taking all the blame. Clearly. If it had been for the murder that the hijackers committed was who not and
their success in achieving their aim of securing the release of jailed terrorists in India terrorists who were later to enter Pakistan and mastermind further murders and play a role in the suicide attacks of September 11th 2001 in New York. Bush's aides believe Pakistan's story that Dr. especially since some shipments were made on Pakistani military aircraft. Pakistan got missiles from North Korea. in return for uranium enrichment technology. the Pakistani government must have known something about how its new missile fleet materialized. which oversaw the Khan Research Laboratories.
Mohammad Aziz. and his body thrown out of the aircraft while his wife remained on board for the rest of the duration of the hijack. The five hijackers actually received their weapons in a diplomatic bag checked in by Pakistani First Secretary in Nepal. the hijackers were provided with new weapons in Kandahar. In a surreal turn of events.come out of a B-grade semi-comic motion picture. and the newlywed husband of a honeymooning couple was murdered by slashing his throat. implicated in helping to fund Trade center in New York. The plane was then flown to Kandahar in Afghanistan. which was to be delivered in cash. a Pakistani Corps commander (148). When that was decided to be impracticable. the money was deposited in the account of a Pakistani diplomat in Delhi. The hijacked aircraft was flown to the UAE. The released terrorists and resurfaced in Pakistan. Pakistan's record with reference to Indian airliners hijacked to Pakistan has been condemnable. The hijackers also secured the release of three dangerous Pakistani terrorists in prison in India. and disappeared from Kandahar Omar Shaikh was later the attacks on the World was finally arrested for
the murder of the Jewish-American reporter Daniel Pearl. and 153
. After a 1971 hijack the hijackers were granted asylum in Pakistan. Mohammad Arshad Cheema (146). as reported by a French tourist hostage who survived the ordeal (147). including Maulana Masood Azhar the founder of the Pakistan based terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammad. Gen. Indian intelligence agencies who monitored and recorded the communications of the hijackers on the aircraft in Kandahar found them receiving instructions from Lt. On Aziz's instructions the hijackers demanded a ransom of nearly one million US dollars. and Omar Shaikh. Amritsar and Lahore. where it came under control of Pakistan's puppet Taliban government.
Maulana Masood Azhar. The following is a list of names of the twenty. He currently lives in and operates from Bahawalpur. funding alleged criminals. the hijackers were given refuge in Pakistan. He operates from Muridke town. And in an unbelievable second hijacking event in 1984. counterfeiting. India has a list of 20 most wanted criminals who are living in Pakistan. Ibrahim is wanted in connection with cases of arms supply. near Lahore in Pakistan. After a 1976 hijack. Hafiz Mohammad Saeed. He lives in and operates from Karachi. man behind the attack on India's parliament on December 13. Refuge for Criminals: Pakistan has positioned itself as an ideal place for any criminal from India to seek.the aircraft blown up on the ground. and a brief description of their activities (150): 1. an Indian underworld don. drugs trade. In two instances of hijacking in 1981 and 1984. and obtain refuge. He is also wanted for an attack on the J&K Assembly on Oct 1. Pakistan. leader of Jaish-i-Mohammad. co-founder of Lashkar-e-Toiba. Dawood Ibrahim. 2001. murder and smuggling. man behind the planning and financing of 13 explosions in Mumbai in 1993 in which almost 300 people died. also blamed for the attack on parliament in New Delhi. Pakistan. the hijackers were imprisoned for a token one month in Pakistan for entering Pakistan without due documents. 3. 2001 in which 38 people were killed. the hijackers received a weapon along with snacks in Lahore (149). 154
which later changed its name to Harkat-ul-Mujahideen. He is a member of Jaish-i-Mohammad and is wanted for hijacking. He is wanted in cases of murder. an associate of Maulana Azhar Masood and was one of the hijackers of Indian Airlines flight IC-814 from Kathmandu to Delhi in 1999. 5. He lives in and operates from Karachi. extortion. kidnapping and murder. accused of executing the 1993 Mumbai
blasts.4."Tiger" Ibrahim Memon. accused of executing the 1993 Mumbai blasts. Pakistan. Ayub Memon. He currently lives in and operates from Bahawalpur. a member of Harkat-ul-Ansar. Zahoor Ibrahim Mistri. Pakistan. kidnapping. Pakistan. lives in and
9. 6. Abdul Razzak. Syed Salahuddin. He is wanted in cases of terrorism and smuggling. blackmail of businessmen and film stars in India. Pakistan. Ibrahim Athar. Pakistan. He is wanted in cases of terrorism and arms smuggling. accused of involvement in the Mumbai blasts. He is currently living in Pakistan. 7. India. which has claimed responsibility for dozens of attacks on Indian forces in Kashmir. Chhota Shakeel. He is alleged to have helped his brother Ibrahim Memon carry out the blasts. Wanted for murder. 10. He lives in and operates from Karachi. He currently operates from Muzaffarabad. He is wanted in connection with the hijacking of IC-814 and 155
. He lives in and operates from Karachi. terrorism and smuggling arms and explosives in India. a key associate of Dawood Ibrahim. kidnapping. head of Hizbul Mujahideen. 8. extortion.
hijacking and for kidnapping and murder. He lives in and operates from Lahore. Pakistan. Sagir Sabir Ali Shaikh. Ishaq Atta Hussain. He lives in and operates from Karachi. chief of Sikh group Babbar Khalsa International. Pakistan.in cases of kidnapping and murder. which was involved in an insurgency in East Punjab during the 1980s.K. an associate of Dawood Ibrahim. wanted in the IC-814 hijacking case and in cases of kidnapping and murder. an associate of Dawood Ibrahim. Advani. 16. Abdul Karim. He lives in and
13. He lives in and operates from 156
. a Kashmiri terrorist blamed for more than 30 bomb blasts in Delhi and parts of northern India in 1996-97. Pakistan. Azhar Yusuf. He is wanted in cases of murder. Wadhawan Singh Babbar. bomb blasts and smuggling of arms in India. operates from Karachi. Pakistan. He is wanted in over a dozen cases of sedition. 12. 15. 14. 11. chief of Khalistan Zindabad Force. He lives in and operates from Karachi. 17. Pakistan. He lives in and operates from Lahore. Shahid Akhtar Sayed. operates from Karachi. Ranjit Singh Neeta. Pakistan. He lives in and operates from Karachi. murder and in connection with the assassination of East Punjab's then chief minister Beant Singh. is wanted in connection with a conspiracy to kill Indian Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister L. is also wanted in connection with the conspiracy to kill Advani. Pakistan.
treason.Lahore. leader of Sikh group Dal Khalsa. Pakistan. the Islamist extremist group that was founded by Maulana Masood Azhar. conspiracy to attack government leaders in Delhi and inciting religious hatred in East Punjab. Dawood Ibrahim in Pakistan in September 2003 after news of a bomb blast in Karachi. He was arrested by Pakistan after he hijacked the plane to Lahore and tried. Lakhbir Singh Rode. 18. Pakistan admitted the presence of the third man on the list. He is accused of trying to revive the Sikh insurgency in East Punjab and is wanted in more than a dozen cases of murder.Gajinder Singh. Dawood Ibrahim was subsequently designated a global terrorist by the US for his links with Al Quaeda and the Lashkar-e-Tayeba. He lives in and operates from Lahore. which the inspector general of Sindh police said was "ostensibly owned by Ahmed Jamal but actually belonged to Dawood Ibrahim". Paramjit Singh Panjwar. Rediff reported (151): Pakistan has admitted gangster Dawood Ibrahim's presence in the country. Pakistan. conspiracy and arms smuggling. He lives in and operates from Lahore. The admission came after a bomb blast at a Karachi business centre. the first man on India's 157
. leader of the International Sikh Youth Federation. Pakistan. is accused of hijacking an Indian Airlines plane from Srinagar to Delhi in 1981. Pakistan. 19. is wanted in cases of arms smuggling. 20 . the Kawish Crown Plaza. according to a report. Pakistani journal The Herald said. He lives in and operates from Lahore. leader of the Khalistan Commando Force.
The Pakistani ambassador tried to stop the arrest claiming diplomatic immunity for the staffer but it turned out that he did not have diplomatic immunity. With Indian currency being valid in Nepal. one of the prisoners released by India after the 1999 hijacking of an Indian Airlines aircraft to Kandahar in Afghanistan.Most wanted list. which apparently intended to destabilize the Indian economy by flooding India with fake currency. One report (153) quoted the street value of the Pakistan made counterfeit currency in India: The prevailing price for counterfeit currency in Punjab is Rs 40-60 (83 US cents-$1. a staffer from the visa section of the Pakistan embassy in Nepal was arrested in Kathmandu (Nepal) after passing counterfeit Indian currency to Nepalese police in a sting operation. in an apparent hint that Pakistan was indulging in massive printing of fake notes to abet its terrorist activities against India.
Printing and circulation of counterfeit currency: In January 2000. The right contacts can ensure that Pakistani counterfeit
.25) in exchange for every Pakistani-made Rs 100 note . that country was a natural choice for anti-India activities from Pakistan.the range depending on the buyers' bargaining skills and the volume required. The Indian Express reported (152): Officials said the quality of fake notes was "such that it could only be printed in security presses".
currency is available even cheaper. U K Katna said. Crime Branch. The high quality of the counterfeit notes and official sponsorship of this and other criminal activities by Pakistani governmental agencies is a frightening indicator of the chaotic state that Pakistan is in with no expense being spared to prepare for war or jihad against India and very little being spent on development and education within Pakistan.
. "The counterfeit currency notes were sent for damaging the Indian economy.. Butki is a front man of notorious mafia don Dawood Ibrahim and controls the gang for pumping fake currency into India through the porous Indo-Nepal border. Joint Commissioner of Police. Another report of the arrest counterfeit currency said (154): of a man carrying
The racket was being remote controlled by Aftab Butki from Dubai in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan has been providing logistical support to the underworld dons for flooding the Indian market with counterfeit currency with the sole aim of creating panic in the Indian market.
the Pakistan described by the acronym includes Iran and Central Asia (Tukharistan) as part of Pakistan and makes no mention of East Bengal. It is not clear if Rehmat Ali was one of these students. Iran. and Baluchistan. Afghania (North West Frontier Province). The theory that Pakistan is an acronym does not stand up to scrutiny. It seems more likely that the acronym theory of the name is a confabulation. It is composed of letters taken from the names of all our homelands . In the first place. Punjab. A passage attributed to him says (155): "Pakistan" is both a Persian and an Urdu word. Tukharistan. Kashmir. Another theory is that the acronym was composed by a group of students in Cambridge in England. which was part of Pakistan until it seceded with the creation of Bangladesh. It symbolizes the religions. That is."Indian" and "Asian". It means the land of the Paks-the spiritually pure and clean. and it stands for all the territorial constituents of our original Fatherland.Chapter 15 PAKISTAN FAILED STATE The credit for coining the name Pakistan probably goes to one Choudhry Rehmat Ali who is said to have thought of the name in 1933 as an acronym containing letters from the names of all the areas which this man thought were representative of the ancestry of his people. Sindh (including Karachi and Kathiawar). a plausible but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what 160
. beliefs and the ethnical stocks of our people. Afghanistan. Such an acronym is non-existent when the name is written in Urdu. A second curious anomaly is that the name of this nation that is claimed to be derived from Urdu and Persian is composed of letters in the English alphabet with the English letters forming the acronym.
Ultimately. To define purity. They are the Rich Anglophone Pakistani Elite. sometimes facetiously referred to by the acronym of that name. Minorities and religious groups in Pakistan were impure Hindus. Social imbalance. there are only two main classes of society in Pakistan. one must simultaneously define what is impure. The dictionary of Urdu. and Pakistanis have spent the years since 1947 years struggling to weed out anything that they consider impure. Christians. Classical Hindi and English defines Paki as Purity . Further purity was required by fighting wars and making sacrifices.A. is perhaps an apt description of what 161
. the stress on pure Islam and a nation purely for Muslims. That stress on purity . Conditions of life for a Pakistani depend on what class of society one belongs to and whether one lives in a rural or urban area.E.or purity with a narrow definition has certainly played a role in Pakistan's undoing. and can only be grasped in relation to something else that is impure. Sikhs.is remembered as to how Pakistan got its name. that has Urdu as its official language suggests that the real origin of the name Pakistan derives from the Urdu word Paki.P. rather than concentrate on nation building. Ahmediyas and later even Shia Muslims in Pakistan were not pure enough for Pakistan. corruption. poverty and greed were all minor blips in the route to Pakistan's mythical purity.with stan meaning country (156). The acronym R. India. very rich class of Pakistani. and Indians were impure and were rejected. There is a very small. As noted in chapter 2. Purity is a subjective concept. the very rich and the very poor and these classes comprise 90% of Pakistan's population.
who may own thousands of acres of land. The lifestyles of these people can be compared to that of the rich and famous anywhere. They are the feudal lords. Paris. the handsome men clad in lounge suits or traditional sherwanis. the waiters. or they might be serving or retired army officers.. the mascara and lipstick adorned women in designer dresses.this class have been doing to Pakistan. the tasteful furnishings and the overall level of luxury. and are familiar with all the major cities that a man of this world should know about New York. London.The food and refreshments were of the highest quality. They travel.. and came away hugely impressed by the acres of immaculate lawns. They are the servants. But 90 percent of Pakistanis are rarely seen or heard outside Pakistan.. They are seen in parties and receptions attended by friends and diplomats.. Irfan Husain wrote in the Dawn: An old friend was recently invited to a serving general's official residence for a small dinner party. often in the best schools and universities of the world. They might be rich industrialists and businessmen. They live in fabulous mansions. the discreet lighting. The elite are educated. the casual laborers and sharecroppers. the 162
. Rome. Their photographs appear in glossy magazines and on the Internet. and the army staff who served the small gathering had apparently been trained at a fivestar hotel. No burkha (veil) for these women. Geneva. maintained and supported by armies of servants. These are the beautiful people. the sweepers. These charmed people are the Pakistanis that we see and hear. actors and society people.
and girls are not sent to schools either. if seen at all. Even those who earn more than that often sink below poverty level at certain times of the year. time. can be gained only from madrassas that often provide food and shelter for its students.
. poverty and destitution are accepted by some people as the will of Allah that cannot be questioned or mitigated. For more than five decades since independence. human life and 163 effort to somehow equal. Any education that can be gained. More than half these people do not earn enough money for a decent life.goatherds and the cleaners with their wives and their children. Pakistani leaders have sacrificed enormous and fruitless amounts of money. They can be seen on Pakistani streets and in the villages. The hard life. in the few places where schools exist. Malnutrition is rampant. hunger. Pakistani leaders. Others are angry and frustrated at their lot and these people are told by their elite masters that poverty and hardship are because of Indian aggression or some other extraneous factor. are covered in burqas as expected of women in Islamic Pakistan. as is lack of education. Life is harsh. are above blame. Others try to migrate to Europe and beyond. The women. being Islamic and who appear forever busy to defend Pakistan. The men wear crumpled and seemingly unwashed salwar suits. or in times of illness or drought. That is a welcome source of relief for a very poor family with many children to care for. Most earn less than the equivalent of US $1 per day. The women do not work outside the home and may have four or more children to bring up. and many try to find work in the Middle East to earn a living as menial laborers. And that has been an integral part of Pakistan's problem. But girls are not allowed.
while the stoic Pakistani public. roads and hospitals in Pakistan was spent on building a war machine that could never overwhelm an India that was just too big.match or defeat India.Islam. Israel. and businesses were custom made for employing them. the US or other Western nations. with women and children at the bottom of the pile received little. The anger is compounded by what is taught in schools and madrassas following curricula that actively teach hatred and discrimination to impressionable children. The build up of Pakistani armed forces into a formidable war machine was initially to defeat India and take Kashmir. Anger is carefully re-directed away from the ruling elite. the poor of Pakistan are left with the only succour they can get . and a system of salaries and pensions had to be set up for them. or is internalised as people not being "Islamic" enough. and later to defend against an India that had no intention of attacking Pakistan. The bloated ranks of army retirees had to be accommodated. In the midst of this. And even that is used against Pakistan's arch enemy. India. to be directed at India. Even criminal activity aimed against India. The madrassa is the place where students' physical hunger is assuaged. Popular devotion to Islam is channelled to provide an endless supply of men for jihad. Money from any source was poured developing nuclear weapons to deter India. and development of the poor was bypassed as usual. but their emotional hunger for explanations 164
. but even then the wasteful expenditure did not stop. Money was diverted to training Islamist operatives for covert operations against India. Money and effort that should have gone into building schools. gun running or currency counterfeiting swallowed funds that should have gone into schools and healthcare in Pakistan. Pakistan was halved when Bangladesh seceded.
Every son sent to a madrassa is one mouth less to feed for a poor family. either alone. and sending one son to die for jihad financial reward to the family. A woman who breaks rules by exposing herself or by being seen with a non-approved male companion. Boys are preferred in all ways in this male-dominated society.she is not supposed to be seen outside. or a woman who marries against the wishes of her family is considered to be committing a crime by bringing dishonour on the family . as the British had found them. Pakistani society has both extremes. live at home until they come of age. The other extreme is the harsh life of a woman living under the two or and burden of strict discriminatory rules. But women hold the key to family honour. They do not easily rise up in revolt against tyranny or injustice. marry and produce children. the level of education for women is invariably less
than that of men.an act that is punishable by death. The ratio of men to women in Pakistan is grossly skewed with many more men than women. Between these extremes are a vast mass of Pakistanis who are more less generally poor.about the miserable existence of their families is often met by a call for violent jihad against forces that are blamed for hunger and misery. brings honour and
Girls grow up uneducated. On the one hand the society has a small minority of wealthy and emancipated people among whom women can get educated and work. The girl child gets less food and is more likely to die of malnutrition and disease. but individuals in such a society grow up in 165
. they are generally uneducated. or in the company of a man who is not her husband or father. The people are docile. A woman's place is in the home .
fuel oil and cement.conditions that make their minds receptive indoctrination into a life of terrorism and jihad. The Army gets money. For the survival of corrupt business interests in Pakistan the elite must remain in power and not be bothered by rebellion or the uncertainties of democracy. giving a mother time to recover and nurse an earlier child before bearing another child. This ruling elite is composed of senior army officers.
health care. For aid givers like the US and rich Western nations. All the money in Pakistan. and other nations. schools. the ruling elite of Pakistan behave like moderate. The
people need clean drinking water. and access to family planning so that births can be spaced out. aid money or export profits is split up and shared by a small percentage of wealthy people at the top. Pakistan is controlled by an oligarchy of a thousand individuals or so (157) in a few dozen families. roads. The 140 million mostly poor people of Pakistan are kept in check with the excuse that their faith. Time and again Pakistani leaders change masks depending 166
. Islam. business magnates controlling key businesses such as transport. But the money. The only funding that reaches this level comes from unaccounted and unaccountable sources funding the madrassas that preach an agenda of hatred and jihad. people and will to provide these things never reach the population. Pakistanis have been told that the army and the ruling elite have protected Pakistan and Islam from these external threats. the army businesses do well. the businessmen and feudal lords get money. as well as feudal landowners. secular and well-intentioned democrats who are keeping Islamic fundamentalism at bay. is under threat from India. and very little reaches the Pakistani on the ground. be it government funds.
The ruling clique of Pakistan stands to gain from this form of loose cooperation in which all the business interests survive at the expense of the constitution and law. they appear in traditional Pakistani salwar suits. that fighting to hold fundamentalist more aid and lifting of sanctions the prevention of a Islamic
fundamentalist takeover of Pakistan. They are gently sidelined. They appear in Western suits or crisp army uniforms. the US administration and some US think tanks seem to believe this providing the ideal setting for Pakistani rulers to play a double game of pretending to be devoutly Islamic for their people. while appearing moderate to aid givers. and allowed to keep all the wealth that he had earned from nuclear proliferation activities. speaking in English to aid givers and donors. punished severely or publicly humiliated. he was publicly pardoned by Pakistani President General Musharraf. Whether this is likely or not. To their deprived population. and speak in Urdu. This mechanism was clearly illustrated after the father of Pakistan's nuclear bomb Abdul Qadeer Khan made a public confession that he was responsible for the proliferation of nuclear technology (chapter 13). Western aid givers are the ruling elite are forces at bay and that are essential for told what they want to hear. Pakistan will sink into an uncontrollable morass of 160 million hankering for an Islamic state. Each member of this elite community knows that too much action in curbing or controlling the vast business empires of their rivals will upset one's own business interests. while people are constantly fed with the anti-Muslim India threat. along with sops to keep them happy.on whom they are addressing. Opponents are rarely killed. Within a day. The threat that is held up is that if the ruling clique goes. In the meantime the ruling clique in Pakistan ensures its own survival. 167
elite and feudal leadership of Pakistan will be under no pressure to change. knowing that this would be understood by viewers in the US. The rich get richer and the poor get poorer. he addressed Pakistanis in Urdu and. or more recently. But in the course of the same speech. even as the human condition of the people in Pakistan has gradually deteriorated. This ploy is a fail safe formula that has allowed the survival of the Pakistani oligarchy so far. The powerful and wealthy groups of Pakistan stand to lose their money and lifestyles if funds are diverted to education. health care and development of the poor. because of the US' war on terror. and their level of education is falling.When Pakistani President and Army Chief Pervez Musharraf was given an ultimatum by the US government in September 2001 that he could be With the US or against the US in its war on terror. No power on earth can coax this small group of rich and powerful Pakistanis that wealth in a nation has to be shared and spread around for development of society and the nation as a whole. using Islamic examples. The average poor Pakistani is taught that his misery is because of Indian aggression. told them that his alliance with the US was akin to a temporary alliance with the devil to deter an immediate threat. and the population of the poor is rising rapidly. he made his decision to support the US in a speech (56) that used the time tested Pakistani mask-changing routine to address different groups of people. These people will form a huge mass of uneducated and unemployed 168
. He spoke in English initially. External anti-Islamic forces are always to blame. saying words of support to please the US. As long as the poor can be left to vent their anger against some external foe by joining jihad or accepting their misery as Allah's will the rich army.
people in a few years' time. The ruling elite of Pakistan are engaged in a strange experiment in which they seem out of touch with reality. They exist on a different plane from the poor and they do not seem to understand that the burgeoning population of the poor, and the anger that is now being channeled against India or the West can turn inwards. The poor are over 100 million strong now but will be twice that number in a single generation, and they will be jobless, hungry and angry. Nations like India, China, Russia and Western countries, who have all had to face the violent consequences of trained jihadi fighters from Pakistan are vigorously resisting and neutralizing them. The forces of jihad are unlikely to receive sanctuary or be allowed to survive in these nations in the current geo-political scenario. Faced with such pressure outside Pakistan, thousands of indoctrinated, armed and dangerous young men could well turn inwards at Pakistani rulers, blaming them for their inability to help in the victory of jihad over unbelievers. If Pakistani leaders can show constant military victories, it is likely that their population will at least temporarily continue to be happy at the successes. But when low-tech irregular Islamic militias spawned by the Pakistani army and governments are unable to achieve victories despite tremendous losses, they are increasingly likely to ask the leaders of Pakistan, the army and the elite why they are being defeated. From the beginning Pakistanis, rich or poor have had no sense of nationhood, no sense of whom and what they are other than being a group of Muslims who have escaped from India. Every effort at development and good governance has been destroyed by a vested interest, always living in the vain hope that some Western nation, or rich Islamic 169
nation will bail the country out. Democracy was first derailed by the migrant bureaucracy who had moved to Pakistan from India. Later it was the army that stood to lose from democracy. Political parties have been disempowered, and the judiciary lives under the shadow of the army. The only forces that are gaining strength are those of fundamentalist Islam, the forces that seek to fight India or the US, or even Shias within Pakistan. The two most powerful groups in Pakistan today are the army and Islamic groups, Pakistan is getting to the stage when the Islamic groups have infiltrated into the ranks of the army and appear set to take control of Pakistan. The Islamic groups themselves are divided, and their unity may only last as long as it takes for them to gain control of Pakistan. None of these powerful groups seems to be interested in development or progress. No group seems set to allow modern education, peace with India, women's rights or birth control in Pakistan, all essential for progress. The political parties and democratic forces did not do this. The army did not do it and the Islamic groups do not show any intent of fostering a progressive Pakistan. Predictably, they too are careening down the path of more and purer Islam as the answer to Pakistan's problems. And worse for Pakistan, Islamist groups, with trans-national loyalties, cannot be guaranteed to be interested in the territorial integrity and borders of Pakistan as they exist. And so the disease eating Pakistan from the inside continues. Jessica Stern wrote (119): Pakistan is a weak state, and government policies are making it weaker still. 170 Its disastrous economy,
exacerbated by a series of corrupt leaders, is at the root of many of its problems. Yet despite its poverty, Pakistan is spending hundreds of millions of dollars on weapons instead of schools and public health. Ironically, the government's "cost-saving" measures are even more troubling. In trying to save money in the short run by using irregulars in Kashmir and relying on madrasahs to educate its youth, Pakistan is pursuing a path that is likely to be disastrous in the long run, culture of violence to take root. allowing a
Pakistan is in an unstable state and there appears to be no leader who can show Pakistan a way out. Too many Pakistanis have been taught that they exist only for Islam and for jihad and these people are now caught between the twin pincers of the global war on terror being conducted by many nations on the one hand, and by the rich and corrupt Pakistani rulers on the other. The long term outlook for Pakistan does not appear encouraging. In a paper on Pakistan, Stephen Cohen wrote (158): When security, human services, justice, and necessities are not provided, states fail.
Pakistan can be compared to a broken biscuit whose pieces are held together by some wrapping paper. The area labelled as Pakistan on maps is called Pakistan, but that area is not wholly under the control of any single government or leadership, as one would expect of a normally functioning nation-state. The first fragment of the biscuit that broke off was Bangladesh, in 1971. There is no guarantee that the other fragments dysfunctional state will hold together. of this
Pakistan is already a nation that is only partially under control of its government which is basically the army. 171
Only 5% of Baluchistan, Pakistan's largest province, is under Pakistani control. Tribal law rules the sparsely populated land. The Pakistani government has little or no control over the Federally Administered Tribal Areas the so called FATA. Areas of Pakistan's first city, Karachi, are outside government control. Gaining control of Pakistan is easier said than done. As indicated in Chapter 12, weapons. The FATA areas arms factories and shops million illegal firearms, Pakistan is awash with illegal are home to hundreds of small that sell them (151). With 18 Pakistanis outside the military
and government have enough weapons to equip several armies, and anyone trying to bring heavily armed private militias under control will have to contend with a lot of firepower. But as the history of nations shows, if the Pakistan government is unable to control its own territory, someone else is likely to step in to fill the vacuum sooner or later. Therein lies the real significance of having large areas in a country that are out of governmental control. The fact that a government can only govern areas that it controls means that areas beyond government rule are ripe for control by some other force or alternate government. These schisms are begging to be exploited. The United States already has a powerful military presence in Pakistan, and perhaps that is an eerie harbinger of yet another civilization set to rule this lawless land. Pakistan is perhaps fortunate that the nation state of India is not yet as adept and conscious of international hegemonic games and how India can interfere to bring law and order to the fraying edges of Pakistan. But that may be changing as the lawlessness of Pakistan continues to spill into an increasingly powerful India as terrorism, 172
forcing India to become conscious responsibility in the region.
I to accordingly enter into approached Dominions and Pakistan
standstill agreement with my State.com/LegalDocs/Maharaja_letter. In their external relations the Dominion of India and Pakistan cannot ignore this fact. at first in the Poonch area.APPENDIX 1 http://www.
weapons have been allowed to infiltrate into the State. The result has been that the limited number of troops at the disposal of the State had to
. As Your Excellency is aware. my State has a common boundary with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and with China. I wanted to take time to decide to which Dominion I should accede or whether it is not in the best interests of both the Dominions and of my State to stand independent. ln fact the Pakistan Goernment under the standstill agreement is operating the post and telegraph system inside the State.the State of Jammu and Kashmir has not acceded to either the Dominion of India or Pakistan. Besides.kashmir-information. salt and petrol to my State. then from Sia1kot and finally in a mass in the area adjoining-Hazara district on the Ramkote side. Though we have got a standstill agreement with the Pakistan Government. Geographically my State is contiguous wit h both of them. of course with friendly the and cordial of relations India with both.
I have to inform Your Excellency that a grave emergency has arisen in my State and request the immediate assistance of your Government. lhe Govemment permitted a steady and increasing strangulation of supplies like food. The Dominion of India desired further discussion with representatives of my Government. The Pakistan Government accepted this arrangement.
clothes.html Letter from Maharaja Hari Singh
to Lord Mountbatten
on the eve of Pak invasion on J&K in 1947
My dear Lord Mountbatten. I could not arrange this in view of the developments indicated below.
On this basis no civilised government can exist or be maintained. I have accordingly decided to do so. needed. Naturally they cannot send the help asked for by me without my State acceding to the Dominion of India. I have no option but to ask for help from the Indian Dominion.
This alternative I will never allow to happen so long as I am the ruler of the State and I have life to defend my country. generally have taken no part at all. both radio and the Press of Pakistan have reported these occurences. The people of my State. Inspite repeated appeals Government no attempt has been made to check these raiders or to stop them from coming into my State. coming regularly in motortrucks. as a first step to overrunning the whole State. which supplies electric current to the whole of Srinagar and which has been burnt. Mr. if further explanation is
With the conditions obtaining at present in my State and the great emergency of the situation as it exists.P. The Pakistan radio even put out the story that a provisional government has been set up in Kashmir.The mass infiltration of tribesman drawn from distant areas of the North-West Frontier Province. The number of women who have been kidnpped and raped makes my heart bleed. The other alternative is to leave my state and people to free booters. The wild forces thus let loose on the State are marching on with the aim of capturing Srinagar. so that it has become difficult to stop the wanton destruction of life ad property and the looting of the Mahura power house.
If my State is to be saved. using the Manwehra-Mazaffarabad road and fully armed with up-to-date weapons. and I attach the instrument of accession for acceptance by your Government. In fact. immediate assistance must be available at Srinagar. cannot of possibly be done of without the knowledge made of by the my Provincial Govemment of the North-West Frontier Province and the Government Pakistan. both Muslims and non-Muslims.be
simultaneously. I may also inform your Excellency's Government that it is my intention at once to set up an interim government and to ask Sheikh Abdullah to carry the responsibilities in this emergency with my Prime Minister. Menon is fully aware of the gravity of the situation and will explain it to you. the summer capital of my government.
In haste and with kindest regards. 1947
Hari Singh October 26.
Considering should be that based the upon resolution the of the outstanding measure of difficulties agreement of
fundamental principles already reached. and that steps should be taken forthwith for the demilitarisation of the State and for the expeditious determination of its future in accordance with the freely expressed will of the inhabitants. L. Having received and noted the reports of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan establishing its resolutions 39 (1948) of 20 January and 47 (1948) of 21 April 1948. Kashmir and for for the the demilitarisation determination of of the its State final of Jammu and in disposition
accordance with the will of the people through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite.mtholyoke. Having also received and noted the report of General A. 1948 and January 5. 1949. 1949 for a cease-fire.
. and commending the parties in particular for their action in partially implementing these Resolutions by (1) The cessation of hostilities effected January 1. S/1469). United Kingdom and United States and adopted by the Security Council on March 14. (2) The establishment of a cease-fire line on July 27. dated the 14th March. Commending the Governments of India and Pakistan for their statesman like action in reaching the agreements embodied in the United Nations Commission's resolutions of August 13. (Document No.htm
Resolution 80 (1950) Concerning the India-Pakistan question. 1950. Norway. McNaughton on the outcome of his discussions with the representatives of India and Pakistan which were initiated in pursuance of the decision taken by the Security Council on December 17.edu/acad/intrel/kashun80. 1949. Nimitz shall be Plebiscite Administrator.
THE SECURITY COUNCIL.APPENDIX 2
http://www. 1949. G. and (3) The agreement that Fleet Admiral Chester W. 1950). submitted by the Representatives of Cuba.
and "calls upon them to take all possible measures to ensure the creation and maintenance of 'in atmosphere favourable to the promotion of further negotiations. in his opinion. 1949. to arrange at the appropriate stage of demilitarisation for the assumption by the Plebiscite Administrator of the functions assigned to the latter under agreements made between the parties.
immediate arrangements. L. to exercise all of the powers and responsibilities devolving upon the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan by reason of existing resolutions of the Security Council and by reason of the agreement of the parties embodied in the Resolutions of the United Nations Commission of August 13. to report to the Security Council as he may consider necessary. Agrees that the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan
. without prejudice to their rights or claims and with due regard to the requirements of law and order.1. submitting his conclusions and any recommendations which he may desire to make. (b) to place himself at the disposal of the Governments of India and Pakistan and to place before those Governments or the Security Council any suggestions which. Extends its best thanks to the members of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan and to General A. are likely to contribute to the expeditious and enduring solution of the dispute which has arisen between the two Governments in regard to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. 2. (a) to assist in the preparation and to supervise the implementation of the programme of demilitarisation referred to above and' to interpret the agreements reached by the parties for demilitarisation. Requests the two Governments to take all necessary precautions to ensure that (heir agreements regarding the cease-fire shall continue to be faithfully observed. Decides to appoint a United Nations Representative for the
following purposes who shall have authority to perform his functions in such place or places as he may deem appropriate. to prepare and execute within a period of five months from the date of this resolution a programme of demilitarisation on the basis of the principles of paragraph 2 of General McNaughton proposal or of such modifications of those principles as may be mutually agreed. McNaughton for their arduous and fruitful labours. 4. 5. G. 3. 1948 and January 5.
Egypt. U. Against: None Abstaining: India and Yugoslavia Absent : USSR
. and U. Norway. Cuba.A.S. and decides that this shall take place one month after both parties have informed the United Nations Representative of their acceptance of the transfer to him the powers and responsibilities of the United Nations Commission referred to in paragraph 2 (c) above. Ecuador. The Security Council voted on this Resolution on 14-3-50 with the following result: In favour: China.shall be (terminated.K. France.
. and each of the sides set forth its respective position. the interests of the people so India and Pakistan were not served by the continuance of tension between the two countries.
consider the attainment of these objectives of vital importance for the welfare of the 600 million people of India and Pakistan. 1966
armed to an
conflict end by
Tashkent.indianembassy. They considered that the interests of peace in their region and particularly in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent and. They reaffirm their obligation under the Charter not to have recourse to force and to settle their disputes through peaceful means. hereby declare their firm resolve to restore normal and peaceful relations and between their countries between and to promote They understanding friendly relations their peoples. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan. indeed.APPENDIX 3
capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Soviet Union. It was against this background that Jammu and Kashmir was discussed.html
Tashkent Declaration January 10.org/South_Asia/Pakistan/Tashkent_Declaration_January_ 10_1966.
The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agree that both sides will exert all efforts to create good neighborly relations between India and Pakistan in accordance with the United Nations Charter. having met at Tashkent and having discussed the existing relations between India and Pakistan. Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and President Ayub Khan signed it on behalf of their respective countries in the presence of the Soviet Premier Alexi Kosygin who mediated between them.
1966. as well as cultural exchanges between India and Pakistan. and both sides all observe the cease-fire terms on the cease-fire line.
The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the High Commissioner of India to Pakistan and the High Commissioner of Pakistan to India will return to their posts and that the normal functioning of diplomatic missions of both countries will be restored.
.The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that all armed personnel of the two countries shall be withdrawn not later than 24 February. and to take measures to implement the existing agreements between India and Pakistan. 1965. and will encourage propaganda which promotes the development of friendly relations between the two countries.
The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that both sides will discourage any propaganda directed against the other country. communications. to the positions they held prior to 5 August.
The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed to consider measures towards the restoration of economic and trade relations. Both Government shall observe the Vienna Convention of 1961 on Diplomatic Intercourse.
The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that relations between India and Pakistan shall be based on the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of each other.
The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the two sides will continue meetings both at the highest and at other levels on matters of direct concern to both countries.S. Both sides have recognized the need to set up joint Indian-Pakistani bodies which will report to their Governments in order to decide what further steps should be taken. friendly and noble part in bringing about the present meeting which has resulted in mutually satisfactory results. They also agreed that both sides will create conditions which will prevent the exodus of people. They also express to the Government and friendly people of Uzbekistan their sincere thankfulness for their overwhelming reception and generous hospitality. They invite the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR to
The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan recorded their feelings of deep appreciation and gratitude to the leaders of the Soviet of Union.R. They further agreed to discuss the return of the property and assets taken over by either side in connection with the conflict. the the Soviet of Government of and the personally U. to the Chairman Council Ministers for their
The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the two sides will continue the discussion of questions relating to the problems of refugees and eviction/illegal immigrations.VII
The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that they will give instructions to their respective authorities to carry out the repatriation of the prisoners of war.
not every terrorist gets Rs 3.000. a
. The Kashmiri mujahideen is paid less by the ISI than a Pakistani terrorist. Lashkar-e-Taiba's (LeT) Doda district commander Mohd Shahzad. The rank and file from Pakistan or Afghanistan or any other country gets a starting salary of Rs 5. area of operation.000. infiltrate India. Payments relate directly to performance. enrol himself at a training camp in Pakistan. number of casualties the terrorist has inflicted upon Indian security forces. A district commander gets around Rs 20.000 per month ensures that the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) meets its manpower requirements.000.000.com/news/nation/2003/november/67781. The lure of a mere Rs 3. In short. the ISI maintains dossiers and gives annual marks to its cadres very much like the Pakistan Army does for its regular employees. the heftier the pay package and the more discreet it becomes.000. Some of the more 'enthusiastic' Kashmiri youth get around Rs 5. the annual increment increases.000 to Rs 10. motivation level and other HR criterion. APPENDIX 4
http://web.mid-day. The higher they go.witness this declaration.000 that can go up to Rs 7. 2003 What motivates a young man to take up terrorism.000. fire at the Army and possibly never return home? It is a small pay package that equals the wage of a peon or driver. The pay scale is not rigid as it varies depending on the risks one is willing to take and his commitment to the cause. A commander starts at anything above Rs 25. one thing is clear that Kashmiri youth get a raw deal compared to the Pakistani or foreign counterpart. A Kashmiri company or battalion gets from Rs 5.htm
Terrorists earn a peon's wage By: M K Tayal November 2. Nevertheless. With the number of years one puts in. Commanders get much more. However.
. "It has become a style. I could get as much as I wanted. However. Competition and style for
instance drive most youth into the realm of the AK-47. he remained silent when asked what was the amount his parents were getting in Pakistan." Shahzad had said.Pakistani national. The basic training at the 85 training camps is the same and involves handling small arms (AK-47) and explosives. A Kashmiri gets Rs two lakh as one-time payment to join. LeT's Shahzad said he came to Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) to fight jehadis as he was told harrowing stories of atrocities being committed on the Muslims in the Valley. small unit tactics of raid and ambush and radio communication. One must go over to Pakistan to get the complete four to five month training and then work his way back into India from the 120 launch pads." explains an official. said he came to Jammu & Kashmir to be a jehadi and was paid nearly Rs 20. since naturally none survive to tell their tale." a militant said to an army officer serving in the Valley. His monthly emoluments were being directly sent to his home in Pakistan. Sources also point to the presence of foreign militants who come to the Valley after sessions of intense motivation and psychological drills.000 per month but that limit was waived off as a special case. captured by the Army after a fierce encounter in September 2003. The second term involves training of special operations-explosives. "Money didn't matter. There is a catch. The fidayeens (soldiers on a suicide mission) get highly
sophisticated training but their emoluments remain a mystery. But it is sure that the money Shahzad got was for operations in his area and his logistical support. The main attraction in joining the ISI is the initial offer. There are other factors too at work. The amount is too tempting for anyone to say 'no'. "Poor economic conditions in the Valley force some to cross over to Pakistan for their training. If you don't have a gun you don't get good girlfriends and nobody respects you.
5 lakh. "If a militant motivates and enrols another youth. initially the ISI made sure the money was delivered to the militant's parents but as the numbers started dwindling. so did it the commitment.
." explained a source. However." he said in a heart-to-heart talk. However. there have been reports of parents of the deceased militant not getting a single penny. Realising this. Though no one complains publicly. It rewards handsomely. Kashmiri youths are now averse to taking up the gun while recruitment from Pakistan remains high.I felt I had to take revenge but now after fighting the army for more than three years I realise the futility of this 'freedom' movement. he can make upto Rs 1. the ISI makes sure that those who help recruit while on the job are not neglected.
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132.html 134.deccanherald.html 131.html 129.A. March 2. http://www. Musharraf escapes second assassination attempt. December 8
133.com/MONITOR/ISSUE52/narayanan. Pakistani Role in Terrorism Against the U. 2001 K.PROFILE OF A MILITANT: Based on the statistics available the average life span of a militant / mercenary does not exceed 20 months from the time he returns to J&K to participate in the so called Jihad. http://www.saag.asp 202
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138. Friday. Pakistan has 18 million illegal quoting Reuters Alertnet http://www.org/irp/congress/1994_cr/h941003-terrorpak. 18:30 GMT http://news. JR. Monday. all of them illegal and about 150 shops selling arms and ammunition 140. 23 January. which is famous for imitation weapons from all over the world.. Syed Saleem Shahzad http://www. in the House of Representatives. Frank Pallone.com/article.htm 203
. Hon. October 3. Guns are also produced locally.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3424007.pakistanfacts. The main concentrations of illegal arms in Pakistan are in semi-autonomous tribal regions bordering Afghanistan. The Dawn report said Darra Adamkhel still had around 900 arms factories.
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142.Raman. Agence France-Presse.html 143. Plane hijackers received new weapons in Afghanistan: French hostages. http://www.1. 2000. By Samuel Baid http://meadev. http://www. http://www.nytimes. http://www.senet.au/~wingman/hijack.com.htm l?hp 146.
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Author: John T. 6 .globalpolicy.com/programs/news4. ISBN: 81-215-0098-2. Extracted from 'The Pioneer'.November 2003 http://www. Publisher: (Indian Edition) Mushiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Platts.rediff. Financial Times (London.com/ie/daily/20000104/ifr04015. September 21.org/nations/corrupt/2002/0404ramp ant. How did the word "Pakistan" come into existence? http://www28.alphalasertek. 20 Most Wanted Terrorists that India has demanded Pakistan to extradite back to India. Ltd. PRESS TRUST OF INDIA. 157.htm 154. Pak embassy official in Nepal held selling fake Indian currency. Stepehen Cohen.England) January 16.150. http://www. International currency racket busted. Page: 218.com/pakistan4ever/wordpakistan. 2002 from the Asia Times:
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