Pakistan Failed State

Shiv Sastry


Licence is hereby granted to make as many copies of this book as needed, and for the book to be distributed to anyone free of charge on condition that no modifications are made and no profit is made from the sharing of this work.


Dedicated to the memory of my cousin, late Wg Cdr. Kukke Suresh, VrC


The reason for writing this book is explained in the first chapter. Once I had collected the reference material it took me only three months to write the book. It then took me two years to refine and release the book as a freely downloadable e-book. I must take this opportunity to thank members of the forum at for their invaluable and selfless help in digging up material that served as references for this book. Furthermore I wish to thank the dozen or so people who helped me proof read the book and came up with useful suggestions. Prominent among these are ramana, acharya, kgoan and sudhir. Shiv January 20, 2007


CHAPTERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Why Pakistan? The people of Pakistan Education Industries and Economy of Pakistan Pakistani psyche general observations Women and Minorities of Pakistan Partition and the two-nation theory Islam and Pakistan Attitudes toward India and Indians The Pakistani Army Kashmir. Wars and genocide Provinces and Assorted Fragments Pakistan.Failed state Page Page Page Page Page Page Page 6 14 20 35 43 65 71 Page 80 Page 93 Page 99 Page 117 Page Page Page Page 131 135 147 160 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 References Page 174 Page 177 Page 180 Page 183 Page 186 5 . Jihad and Terrorism The Government and criminal activity Pakistan . plebiscite.

newspaper reports and magazines. Many tend to look at the similarities and remark. no effort been made to collect this information and put it all together between the covers of a single book. In fact Pakistanis have spent all those decades since independence trying to show how Pakistan is not like India. While these features have been noted time and again by innumerable people in a large number of books. Such a review collects up all the available information about a given disease from all the medical papers available on the subject and consolidates the information in one document. "Pakistanis are just like us". In the field of medical research. That may appear true but it is important to understand that Pakistanis do not feel like Indians and do not like to say "Indians are just like us". a Review of the literature is often used to collect and collate information about a disease from various sources. More that anything else. And in the intervening years Pakistan. 6 .Chapter 1 WHY PAKISTAN? Why write about Pakistan? Pakistan is a huge. this book can be considered a Review of the literature on Pakistan. Most Indians do not understand Pakistan or Pakistanis. populous and diverse nation that has the curious distinction of having been suddenly born in 1947. Pakistani institutions and Pakistanis have developed certain unique and recognizable defining features. That document then serves as a comprehensive reference point for information about the subject. and it has been an aggressive and implacable neighbor of India.

the managing editor of the Hindustan Times has written about this (1): At a sub-conscious level. There are a few things that Indian readers should keep in mind while reading this book. First. so all Muslims must be Pakistanis in their hearts. while the sources from which the quotes have been taken are listed in the reference section at the end of the book. Indians often become embarrassed or angry in discussions about Pakistan and Pakistanis. lest they should hurt the sentiments of Muslims in India. Vir Sanghvi. This is an obvious logical fallacy and it is also deeply insulting 7 to all Indian Muslims - . Indians who talk about Pakistan or Islam are often considered to be opponents of secularism and tolerance. and are sometimes called saffron sympathisers. some Indians make the simplistic assumption that because (nearly) all Pakistanis are Muslims. The book carries many direct quotes from various authors and these quotes are in italics. referring to Pakistan does not mean that we are obliquely referring to Indian Muslims. It is a summary of the experiences and descriptions of many people who have reported or written about Pakistan. Indian Muslims are quite different from Pakistanis. For this reason Pakistan and Islamic extremism emanating from Pakistan have almost been taboo subjects in India. Today. and it is an insult to Indian Muslims to refer to them as being associated with Pakistan. An automatic and needless mental connection is made between the subject of Pakistan and the Muslims of India.This book is a collection and review of what has been written about Pakistan in various sources over many years. This is both unfortunate and unfair to Indian Muslims. not to be discussed by secular non-Muslim Indians.

As the Indian economy forges ahead there is an increasing constituency of Indians who feel that Pakistan is a small problem that can be ignored. a separate nation. Here again. This vestigial thought process remains in many Indian minds like a dark cloud. There are many assumptions and misconceptions that need to be reviewed. But 8 .including Zaheer Khan and Irfan Pathan who are setting out for Pakistan. not Indians. to say nothing of the thousands of Muslims who have died fighting Pakistan. we must remember that when we speak of Pakistan and Islam we are not referring to Indian Muslims and the vastly different way in which Islam has evolved in India since independence. determined to keep the Indian flag flying on the cricket field. a hangover from partition. Indians are Indians. One of the purposes of this book is to show precisely what has been done with Islam in Pakistan. Muslims in India are not Pakistanis. Pakistan is Pakistan. not Pakistanis. It requires a deliberate act of mental re-orientation for non-Muslims in India to learn to talk about Pakistanis without equating them with Indian Muslims. and call for an avoidance of what seems to be an Indian obsession with Pakistan. they are Indians. and Pakistanis are Pakistanis. Confusion and misunderstanding in Indian attitudes more than five decades after independence are certainly a factor in the Indian Pakistan policy. Pakistanis are no longer Indians. The situation and attitudes of Muslims in India are no longer comparable to those in Pakistan. and that is unfortunate. and these will become clear in subsequent chapters. Another point to inability to develop a coherent note is that no discussion or description of Pakistan can even begin to be meaningful without considering the role that Islam plays on the mind of the Pakistani.

and has put a great strain on the ancient Indian tradition of tolerance and pluralism. Another group of Indians took the opposite viewpoint that Indian Muslims. with people who were brothers and compatriots until very recently created a complex conflict. with the infiltration terrorists from Pakistan into India as part grade war to bleed India (chapter 12). In the first 55 years after independence. the Indian armed forces have had to fight wars on eight occasions (2). The appearance of the new nation Pakistan as a neighbor. With Pakistani leaders attempting to speak for the Muslims in India. The events of independence and partition had a deep effect on the Indian psyche. many non-Muslim Indians got polarized mainly into two groups.Pakistan cannot be ignored by India for many reasons. the importance of Pakistan lies in its extreme hostility to India. Apart from the deep mental scar that partition left on the Indian psyche. neither of whom were able to look upon Indian Muslims as they should have been looked at. a love-hate relationship that affected Indian society. unless treated in an especially favorable and kind manner. the to expand to keep pace with the massive build up and continuing 9 . would somehow feel upset enough to want to side with Pakistan. and the fifth engagement with Pakistan still continues at the time of writing. In five of those wars armed forces from Pakistan have been the adversary that Indian civilians and Indian soldiers have had to face. as Indians like everyone else. From Indian armed forces and paramilitary have had of armed of a low1965. Pakistan has thus had a great impact on Hindu-Muslim relations in India. Four of these conflicts are discussed in chapter 11. One group of Indians began to view their Muslim compatriots with hostility as recessed Pakistanis who were always seen cheering for Pakistan in cricket matches.

But this build up must not come in the way of urgently needed development and modernization. Indians cannot afford to forget the lessons that can be learned from events like the India-China conflict of 1962. while a policy that puts too much emphasis on hurriedly delivering a total military defeat on Pakistan could divert too large a proportion of meager resources towards a war machine. A policy of ignoring Pakistan's military intent and might would be a formula for a disaster of unimaginable proportions. discrimination against minorities and maldistribution of wealth. and India would do well to learn from that. No matter how well intentioned and peaceable a nation state may be. or has not done since independence. Indians have a lot to learn. a population explosion and social inequity. Overconfidence. and attempting to play great power games in the absence of a matching military-industrial-economic capability are some of the mistakes that Pakistan has made. By studying what Pakistan has done. ignoring corruption. That is one of the mistakes that Pakistani leaders committed. It is still possible for Indians to make the mistakes Pakistanis have made. and if necessary take the battle into the aggressor's territory. the presence of a belligerent neighbor is a signal that military strength must be adequate to meet any aggressive intent. mistakes that India could still make. blindness to the impact of religious discrimination. or the naive policy of appeasement of Adolf Hitler followed by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. underestimation of problems and hurdles. Unilateral pacifism displayed by one nation state when another nation shows every sign of being ready for war is a policy that begs for defeat and disaster. 10 .assaults from Pakistan. Pakistan has made a whole tapestry of errors that Indians can choose to repeat or avoid.

India is four times larger than Pakistan in land area and currently has a population that is over seven times the size of Pakistan's population. Direct comparisons of numbers regarding Pakistan and India are misleading because of the difference in size. comparison will show that the India box has 30 eggs. All references to Pakistani problems are referred to by Pakistani spokespersons as South Asian problems. would seem that the India box is in a far worse with many more broken eggs. every attempt has been made in this work to avoid direct comparisons between India and Pakistan. South Asian hunger.Finally. 11 and hide the chronic . but Pakistani leaders have persistently tried to hide problems within Pakistan such as poverty and illiteracy by saying that India has more problems than Pakistan. To illustrate why a direct comparison between India and Pakistan can be misleading we need to use an analogy: Imagine India to be a box with 100 eggs in it. and 5 of those eggs are broken. but 30 of those eggs are broken. There is a very important reason for that. the two entities cannot really be compared. and it requires elaboration. South Asian poverty. is that the India box has 70 intact eggs while the Pakistan box has only 5 intact eggs. All that this does is to hide the magnitude of the problems in Pakistan. Imagine Pakistan to be a smaller box with 10 eggs in it. except where it is unavoidable. This means that all numbers and figures relating to India are automatically bigger than those of Pakistan. A direct broken and it shape. and South Asian illiteracy. Although both India and Pakistan started off as having been part of one nation in the pre-Independence era. But what is hidden from this comparison. and the Pakistan box has only 5 broken eggs.

and the number of people requiring education in Pakistan are far smaller than the number in India. But India is not merely matching Pakistan. In this book we will examine the state that Pakistan has got itself into and deal with how it got into its current crisis. For every child that Pakistan educates. But that is not the case. India has to educate seven children in order to "match Pakistan". Pakistan's task should have been easier. And while these figures get worse. India and Pakistan do share many of the same problems. the Indian army is less than one and a half times as big as the Pakistani army. Pakistan of course was amply aided by other nations. but a comparison of the real figures between India and Pakistan shows that Pakistan is not doing well. the Indian army should have been at least three or four times the size of the Pakistan army. A direct comparison of numbers will not reveal this and such direct comparisons are useful only to hide Pakistan's increasing problems. and is falling behind. That is because. but Pakistan is failing even to achieve a smaller task. but these details will be discussed later. even though the number of people who are poor in Pakistan. With India having a population that is seven times as big as that of Pakistan. In 2007 12 .mismanagement of Pakistan. a quick comparison of the Pakistani armed forces and the Indian armed forces is illustrative of what the two countries have been doing since Independence. it has moved ahead in literacy and is racing ahead in other parameters. since independence India has spent relatively more on development and less on defence while Pakistan has spent almost everything on arms and very little on development.

Pakistan is not in an enviable state. Anyone who has wished for anything bad to happen to Pakistan is likely to find great joy in the condition that Pakistan has reached. 13 .

. Nobody knows exactly. Pakistan's internal turmoil prevented a routine census from taking place in 1991. The Pakistani paper the Jang reported in September 2003 (3): Pakistan's population will swell to 349 million by year 2050. housing units. arable land and clean water The vast majority of Pakistanis are villagers. Pakistan's population is currently thought to be increasing at the rate of between 2.8% per year. and education among women is very low since few women are allowed to acquire 14 . making it the fourth most populated country in the world The report goes on to say: The population growth has caused an eight-time increase in the unemployment. Some estimates say that Pakistan's population will double to over 300 million. health services.With almost one third of the population living in abject poverty.1% and 2. The population explosion has led to the shortage of educational facilities. living space. 54 million people do not have access to safe drinking water . The "average Pakistani" is poor and uneducated.. but it was finally conducted in 1998.. but even at the lower estimate 8000 children are being born every day in Pakistan.5 million are illiterates. or one Pakistani is born every 10 seconds. 53. living in rural areas.Chapter 2 THE PEOPLE OF PAKISTAN Pakistan is currently estimated to have between 160 and 170 million people. According to some estimates.. food. 70% of the population of Pakistan is uneducated. by the year 2050.

They actually form a very small education in a society that believes the women should not be seen in public places. bureaucracy. the lords and the industrial barons. along with top army officers. VP Dutt wrote: Another fundamental flaw is the very narrow social base of the groups feudal nucleus ruling elite. In an editorial in the Indian Express that appeared on January 28th 2002. As the description suggests. Anglophone. numbering perhaps 25. nearly 2. mixing with strangers. Pakistan is ruled by four interest or their coalition: military. These facts may seem surprising considering the smartly dressed. Pakistani Elite". well spoken Pakistani men and women that one may see on television. it is believed. wealthy elite group that have been described by the expression "Rich.000 in all. Making up the of these four interest groups. they speak English and they form the elite. well spoken Pakistani men and women that one may see on television" form a small.000 landlords owning more than half the cultivable land. land and industries of Pakistan are said to be concentrated among about 43 top families of Pakistan. a cadre of nearly 1. who. The "smartly dressed. the cream of Pakistani society.000 officers and less than 50 industrial families. form the cream of Pakistan(4). It is they who own Pakistan and rule in the name of the people. A report in the Jang (5) on Dec 5th 2003 says: Top 20 per cent of the population has 50 per cent of 15 . are a dozen corps commanders. Most of the wealth. they are rich. But that is another curious hidden fact about Pakistan.

the New York Times carried a report about Pakistan: In the cities. feudal families still hold sway. eking out a subsistence. with some feudal lords owning over 20. While the wealthy send their children to college in America or Britain.7) forming about 8% of the population. and often study abroad in the best institutions of the US and UK. and they own much of the land. They drive the Pajeros and the Mercedes-Benz cars of Pakistan. Wide boulevards clogged with expensive cars become narrow lanes where shrouded women carry jugs of water on their heads. such as Harvard. The elite of Pakistan come from rich. while the bottom 20 per cent has only 6 percent. About 75 percent of all Pakistanis reside in rural areas. The Rich Anglophone Pakistani Elite have a great influence on the image of Pakistan abroad. many of the poor are deprived of even an elementary education. Most are sharecroppers. The literacy rate is below 40 percent. making private laws and operating private jails. On October 2nd 2001. A fifth of Pakistan's government schools are "ghosts.national income. The middle class in Pakistan have been estimated as being about 10 to 12 million in total (6. Their children go to the best schools in Pakistan." with buildings but no students or teachers A third curious anomaly of Pakistan is the almost complete absence of a "middle class". feudal landowning families as well as from the armed forces. The contrast with India now is stunning with estimates of the middle class in India forming about 25 16 . In some areas. Oxford and Cambridge. the turn of a street corner can seem to be time travel between centuries.000 acres of land in a Pakistan that is full of impoverished people.

Fitting in perfectly well with these facts are other items of information about the life of Pakistanis.9) We can thus define the "average Pakistani". for a population of 145 30% of the population. The whole of Pakistan has only about 400. Pakistan has only 3 million TV sets. Nine out of ten Pakistanis are poor and uneducated. (8. very rich elite governing a large mass of poor people. Less than one out of ten belongs to the middle class and a very small number are extremely rich. A large middle class is an essential component of a ‘modern’ state and its absence marks a feudal state. A large middle class creates a society in which people have the economic clout to break the economic stranglehold of a rich elite and ensure that their rights are looked after. 17 . Being a Muslim is important to the Pakistani citizen because it brings a semblance of order to his otherwise miserable and unenviable existence. This is a dangerous trend as the middle class is the backbone for any progressive society. More and more people in Pakistan are slipping in to poverty. consists of a small. A large middle class is an indicator of the development of a society from the traditional feudal pattern into a more modern society. The average Pakistani is an illiterate and poor Muslim. The old feudal structure of society which Pakistan still retains. On top of that the rising of the fundamentalist groups in Pakistan is a fact. A report by Pakistani researcher Masooda Bano carried in the News International Pakistan on 31st August 2001 said: Pakistan's middle class is shrinking while India's middle class is growing.000 cars. which the nation cannot keep denying anymore.

tyrannical and corrupt leaders of Pakistan. religion also helps in the survival of the rich.Religion also helps to define the psyche of the Pakistani. This stoic acceptance has allowed the rapacious elite and the resource-swallowing army of Pakistan to carry on with their atrociously rich lifestyles and blatant corruption for decades. Islam teaches its followers to accept their lives as being preordained by God. answerable to an angry or demanding 18 . which is dealt with in chapter 5. Paradoxically. and. the poor and deprived Pakistani does not question or complain about his miserable life. as a result of this belief. without having to be population.

19 .

imagine a small town or village that needs a school. English speaking Pakistani elite and the postworld war superpower. For example. The people of the village or town need to understand the value of sending their children to be educated in school as opposed to keeping them at home for help in the fields or other work. The precise manner in which lack of education and a runaway increase in population affects a country needs to be understood by leaders in power. and the unquestioned technological leader among "Islamic nations" A closer look at the facts suggests that this was only an impression created by the fortuitous alliance between the suave. The low literacy rate in Pakistan is an indicator of the facts that these fundamental investments have been ignored or sidelined for decades. A building is required. and the world's most powerful media apparatus that came with the US. Teachers are needed and for this the teacher himself must be educated .Chapter 3 EDUCATION Through the 1950s and 1960s.a separate education system must exist to have a supply of teachers. Development and technology require education. But it 20 appears that a series of . Pakistan was believed to be a leading light among developing nations. Most people who take education for granted tend to forget the highly organized and civilized system that needs to be set up for an underdeveloped nation to build up a group of educated citizens who can serve as the pioneers of development. with electricity for light bulbs. the United States of America.

But once these scientific changes affected human society. As a result. rapid advances in the development and application of vaccination of people against killer diseases like smallpox and diphtheria led to a significant reduction in the number of children dying from these diseases. populations began to rise rapidly. The UNFPA has recognized this and says in a report on Pakistan: The major contributing factor to population growth has been the sustained gap between low mortality and high fertility levels for the last three decades or so. the Pakistani government tried to estimate how many schools it would take to handle the 8 million kids of primary age not in class now.000 in 2004. Pakistan's minister for education. They can become 10. A report on reforming education in Pakistan on NBC said (10): Two years ago. populations in many countries remained relatively stable. Until these developments occurred. because the number of people dying was approximately equal to the number of babies being born. Effective means were developed to reduce complications and deaths during pregnancy and childbirth. Pakistan has today 21 a very young population .500 primary schools. making it increasingly difficult to catch up.Pakistani leaders have never really understood how the twin facts of population explosion and lack of education feed upon each other leading to the population-illiteracy cycle getting worse at a faster and faster rate as time passes. That's the kind of numbers we needed two years earlier. maybe more. "The numbers that came up is 8. In the 20th century. and simple treatments were devised to save lives in cases of deadly killer diarrheas." said Zubaida Jalal.

a rapid rise in population typically leads to more hunger. That means more people who are unhappy and have reason to be angry. developing country that is barely able to feed and provide employment for 1 million people. it will double to 4 million in a further ten years. it will have to look after 32 million people just fifty years later.12). more diseases from malnutrition and more unemployment. and they need to be educated regarding the importance of birth control and family planning. That means that if a population of 1 million people doubles to 2 million in ten years. and then become 8 million in ten more years and so on. healthcare and education. In fifty years. Generations of Pakistanis have been born into poverty and deprivation without the knowledge or the means to slow down population growth or earn a living though a modern job from a modernizing economy. Populations grow by what is called "geometric progression". This is exactly what is happening in Pakistan (11. If the original 1 million people lived in a poor. a population of 1 million can increase to 32 million. All these extra people have to have food and opportunities for employment. since that is essential for slowing down the population explosion. more poverty.structure. Unless a great deal of money and effort is put into planning for population growth such as food production. 22 . The population has increased by 50 million people in the last 15 years and the number of poor has doubled. Unfortunately Pakistan's leaders have never put in the required amount of money and effort into education of the Pakistani masses. with 43 per cent below the age of 15 and 63 per cent below the age of 25.

A report in the San Francisco Chronicle (13) in Oct 2002 on the state of education in Pakistan states: According to government statistics for this year, the literacy rate is 49 percent overall, 61.3 for men and 36.8 for women .. putting Pakistan among the 20 least literate countries, according to World Bank's World Development Index. A government study commissioned last year demonstrated a clear cause-and- effect relationship between the lack of basic education and increasing poverty. A study of education in Pakistan reveals many reasons to be concerned, and few reasons to be happy. The state of education in Pakistan was described by Raymond Bonner in the New York Times on 31st March 2002: Pakistan's literacy rate ranks below that of countries like Haiti, Rwanda and Sudan, according to the most recent United Nations Development Program report... Pakistan's most recent budget sets aside $107 million for education, compared with $2 billion for the military.

Madrassa education in Pakistan: Over large areas of Pakistan, the lack of schools was made up to some extent by madrassas or Islamic schools. Madrassas exist in all nations with a Muslim population, but what is taught in a madrassa can vary significantly depending on the country and government. The madrassas of Pakistan have played a prominent role in making Pakistan the unstable, recessed theocratic state that it is today. Columnist ABS Jafri wrote in the Dawn (14): 23 Sindh province we have more than a quarter of a million students in the religious Madaris. In Karachi alone there are well over 226,000 children in these religious seminaries.. In the whole of the province there are only 1,500 middle schools. Compare this with 869 Madaris in Karachi alone.

Nadeem Iqbal, writing for the Asia Times reported (15): Currently there are some one million to 1.7 million

students enrolled in madrassas in Pakistan, most of them between the ages of five to 18 and from poor families. According to Dr. Tariq Rahman, Professor of Linguistics and South Asian Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan had only 137 madrassas in 1947. Dr. Rahman writes of Pakistani madrassas (16): In 1950 there were 210 of them while in 1971 they increased to 563. Nowadays there are at least 7000 of them. After the 1971 war of liberation of Bangladesh, the process of making Pakistanis more Islamic, the so called Islamization of Pakistan was given impetus. It was initiated by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, and the Pakistani General Zia ul Haq who removed Bhutto in a coup and later hanged him, accelerated the process. The exact number of madrassas cannot be known because of the lack of registration or census. Analyst Alexei Alexiev writes(17): While no official nation-wide study of these madrassas exists, estimates of their overall number range between 24

10,000 and 20,000; unregistered seminaries may add another 10,000 to the total. As for the number of students, here the estimate ranges from a conservative half-million to over 2 million. (By comparison, some 1.9 million Pakistani schools in 2002.) children reportedly attended primary

In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, and this gave the US an opportunity to utilize its Cold War alliance with Pakistan to battle the Soviet invasion. The US pumped in large amounts of money and arms into Pakistan, much of it channeled via Saudi Arabia. The Saudi connection enabled the setting up of a vast number of madrassas in Pakistan. Because of the great poverty and lack of schools in Pakistan, madrassas were a natural attraction for the average Pakistani, as being schools that adhered to Islamic values while feeding and housing students, and taking over the burden of looking after one or more sons from a large, poor and ill-fed Pakistani family. Pamela Constable, a columnist for the Washington Post wrote on 20th September 2001 (18), just days after the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York: In recent years, however, a number of religious parties and groups have been rapidly gaining influence throughout Pakistani society. Based in thousands of mosques and Islamic academies called madrassas, they spread their message in part by offering services, especially low-cost education, that millions of poor Pakistani families cannot obtain any other way. The name madrassa merely connotes a school. Aijazz Ahmed wrote about madrassas in the Asia Times (19) in January 2003:


Madrassas were introduced about 300 years ago on the Indian subcontinent by then Muslim monarchs and rulers to produce a bureaucracy capable of running the day-to-day affairs of state, especially in terms of financial and legal issues, according to the wishes and pleasure of the king. Ahmed continues: Professor Dr Manzoor, a renowned scholar, writer and researcher, comments that nowadays many madrassas have taken an unfortunate direction. "The new role of the madrassas and [the influence] of religious elements has added nothing but hatred against non-Muslims and different sects of Islam. Although some major schools produced better results and play their role for religious harmony, many inject the poison of extremism, sectarianism and ignorance and have become a source of increasing ignorance and religious intolerance in Pakistani society." At he best of times, the normal curriculum in madrassas did not offer a well rounded education that included maths, science and information technology. The subjects were frozen 300 years ago, and included logic, Arabic literature and grammar, and Koranic teachings. But during the Cold War, the number of madrassas

burgeoned rapidly and tens of thousands were set up offering only a narrow interpretation of Islam in which young people were indoctrinated into the concept of a violent jihad against unbelievers, and taught to believe that death on the battlefield fighting against the enemies of Islam such as the Soviet Union would ensure eternal paradise for the Islamic fighters. The preparation of young men for jihad and death in the 26

battlefield was surely very useful and convenient to provide an endless supply of soldiers to fight in Afghanistan, and such fighters under the name Taliban took over when the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan. But even after this, the madrassas that had supplied all these fanatical men did not close down, and indeed could not be closed down. The curriculum teaching jihad did not change either. Having nowhere else to go, thousands of madrassa trained students in Pakistan collected up, ready for jihad in any part of the world, including Kashmir, Bosnia, Chechnya, the Philippines, Indonesia, Palestine, Iraq and Turkey. Pamela Constable wrote in the Washington Post: During the 1980s, some radical Sunni groups in Pakistan sent young men to fight in Afghanistan against Soviet occupation, and many members of the Taliban graduated from their madrassas. More recently, a...number of Islamic students have been sent to fight against Indian troops in Kashmir.. In addition, Pakistan columnist Khaled Ahmed wrote in the Friday Times in November 21-27, 2003: What better example than the one found in Pakistan whose private armies interfered in Central Asia and China with public acclaim? Let's take a look at the Harkat al-Jahad al-Islami, Pakistan's biggest jihadi militia headquartered in Kandahar before it was scattered by the Americans. The Harkat was one of the militias boasting international linkages. It called itself 'the second line of defence of all Muslim states' and was active in Arakan in Burma, and Bangladesh, with well organised seminaries in Karachi, Chechnya, Sinkiang, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Its fund-raising was largely from Pakistan, but an additional source was 27 its activity of selling

weapons to other militias

Schools in Pakistan: Education in Pakistani schools outside of madrassas is not available to most Pakistanis. But even in the few schools that exist, the curriculum is deeply flawed. The following quotes are taken from an in depth study of what Pakistani school children are being taught in a compilation entitled The Subtle Subversion - The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan by A.H. Nayyar and Ahmed Salim (20): Madrassas are not the only institutions breeding hate, intolerance, a distorted world view, etc. The educational material in the government run schools do much more than madrassas. The textbooks tell lies, create hate, incite for jehad and shahadat, and much more. ...children are now taught that the history of Pakistan starts from the day the first Muslim set foot in India. History and Pakistan studies textbooks rarely mention the ancient and non-controversial cultures of the Indus valley (Moenjodaro, Harrappa and Kot Diji), and completely bypass the entire Buddhist and Hindu periods of history. They suddenly jump to the advent of Mohammed bin Qasim in India and treat it as the beginning of history... this structuring is to make children regard the Muslim part of the history as the .. most significant part.' From about 1972 onwards, history taught in Pakistan was detached from history as we know it. Quoting further from the Nayyar and Salim report: 28

Four themes emerge most strongly.. 1. ... Pakistan is for Muslims alone; 2. ...Islamiat is to be forcibly taught




students, whatever their faith, including a compulsory reading of Qur'an; 3. that Ideology of Pakistan is to be internalized as faith, and hate be created against Hindus and India; 4. and students are to be urged to take the path of Jehad and Shahadat (martrydom). Associated with the insistence on the Ideology of

Pakistan has been an essential component of hate against India and the Hindus...the existence of Pakistan is defined only in relation to Hindus, and hence the Hindus have to be painted as black as possible. Curriculum documents ask the following as the specific learning objectives: The child should be able to understand the Hindu and Muslim differences...India's evil designs against Pakistan ..Hindu has always been an enemy of Islam. The class II Urdu book has a lesson on "Our Country", the first sentences of which read: Our country is Pakistan. ...Pakistan is an Islamic country. Here Muslims live. Muslims believe in the unity of Allah. They do good deeds. The Class 6 book says: Who am I? I am a Muslim. I am a are a Muslim and your religion is Islam. A book lists "Acchi baten" (good deeds). Among them: "Good people are those who read the Qur'an and teach the Qur'an to others" implying that those of another faith cannot be good people. 29

In the 'Fundamentals of War' themes like objects and causes. operations. In our mosques. Only one person can enter the temple at a time. children. the means short of war and modern Warfare were thoroughly discussed..Hindus did not respect women.. Another book tells the students: Hindus worship in temples which are very narrow and dark places. In another article on Pakistani education AH Nayyar wrote (21): The class 4 text book states: The religion of the Hindus did not teach them good things -. conduct.The subject of hate in Pakistani educational material is Hindu and India. And Pakistani children are taught about war as follows: Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto introduced a full two-year course on 'Fundamentals of War' and 'Defence of Pakistan' for class XI and XII respectively. the old and the young with extreme cruelty and heartlessness. nature. and an attempt to define one's national identity in relation to the 'other'.Other things taught in state school texts: After the partition of the subcontinent the Hindus and Sikhs started a properly planned campaign of exploiting the Muslims. The first serves the military and the second the political Islamists.. modern weapons. reflecting both the perceived sense of insecurity from an 'enemy' country. where they worship idols. as a result of which the Hindu and Sikh enemies of mankind killed and dishonoured thousands.. principles ethics. on the other 30 .. . nay hundreds of thousands of women.

The experience of colonialism is described in a textbook as a British-Hindu conspiracy: The British joined forces with the Hindus to bring harm to the Muslims... Regarding history as taught to Pakistani children Kamila Hyat wrote in the Jang in August 2003 (22): ..hand. while if the Muslim kings and invaders plundered Hindu temples then presumably they did so with very noble intentions.. the child should be able to 31 . The Hindus always desired to crush the Muslims as a nation. and conspiring to deprive the Muslims of their due rights. Pervez Hoodbhoy.. Muslims tried in every way to maintain good relations with the British and Hindus. but they did not allow it to be so. If the Hindus had any national aspirations then these were clearly a sign of their prejudices.. all Muslims can say their prayers together. scheming. are hardly ever discussed or even spoken off on passing within the Pakistan of today. Several attempts were made by the Hindus to erase the Muslim culture and civilization . the terrible events that led to the breaking away of East Pakistan and the creation of Bangladesh are never mentioned. Members of the generation who grew up after 1971 often have no idea at all of what issues underpinned the civil war or why it took place.. The genocide committed in the territory that now constitutes Bangladesh . a Pakistani scientist writes (23): At the completion of Class-V. the Hindus as a monolith were always cunning. For another.

Meanwhile. corrupt. self-obsessed..." "India's evil designs against Pakistan. It is clear from this that it is not only the madrassas that offer a curriculum of hatred to Pakistani children. and ideologically charged education bureaucracy today squarely blocks Pakistan's entry into the 21st century. Even children who study in Pakistani state schools imbibe a curriculum of discrimination and hate. in the first sign that a glimmering of realization of the consequences of a curriculum of hate. an acknowledgment of the existence of a biased curriculum 32 . "Make speeches on Jehad and Shahadat" "Understand Hindu-Muslim differences and the resultant need for Pakistan." Hoodbhoy goes on to say in the same article: A moronic. The real worry in having such a faulty educational system that actively encourages hatred is that millions of Pakistani children are growing up to be adults thinking that India and Indians exist to subjugate Muslims and should be hated for that. The problem is so serious that the Pakistani government must be engaged and encouraged to change the curriculum in Pakistani schools.. incompetent. It is surprising that faults in an education system that may have such great an impact on Indian-Pakistani relations in future are not being addressed at all at the highest governmental level in India. This mindset cannot be wiped out overnight. There seems to be no way in which a child in Pakistan can grow up without fearing or hating India in particular and non-Muslims in general.

Shireen Mazari accused the authors of the report on Pakistan's biased school books as being biased and having been written for the handsome payment the authors received (25): Dr. In a sternly worded reaction to the idea of reform of the hate curriculum. The authors' warped logic is that knowing the differences breeds hatred! So one should really do away with 33 inculcating the rationale . Government has set up a committee to look into the matter and send its recommendations within a month But such change cannot come easily in Pakistan. anti-Hindu opinion for decades to come. As a result these people are likely to form a strong body of anti-India. the influential director of the Pakistan Institute of Strategic Studies. commenting on the Nayyar report said: the authors take exception to the fact that the present curriculum documents suggest that children should be able to understand the Hindu-Muslim differences and the need for the creation of Pakistan. Besides there is strong opposition to change. Dr. More than half of Pakistan's population of nearly 170 million are thirty years old or younger and have been exposed to a hate-India curriculum from childhood.and a call for change was made by Pakistani Federal Minister for Education Ms Zobaida Jalal in a statement published in the Pakistan Tribune online in March 2004 (24): a committee has been constituted to work out recommendations for deletion of material from curricula which is aimed at fomenting hatred against India adding that the committee will submit its recommendations within a month. Mazari. Several social organizations have raised objection that hatred is fanned against India through the curricula of educational institutions in Pakistan.

Mazari dismissed criticism of madrassas as having an anti-Islam motive . Islam seems to have also become fair game. there is no doubt that some of the texts do denigrate the Hindus but this should not be a pretext for not creating an awareness of the differences that led to the creation of Pakistan. 34 . Mazari's words: deflect "Also.a time honored diversion used by the Pakistani elite to criticism (see chapter 8). In the same article. efforts at change are in serious danger of being quashed even before they commence.behind the struggle for Pakistan! Of course. Dr. Dr. with the madrassahs now a central target of the West. With influential Pakistanis opposing change in the curriculum.

More than fifty years after independence. That is far from the truth.Chapter 4 INDUSTRIES AND ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN In a report about the Pakistani economy.. Not a single wrist-watch. economist Sreedhar states (26): Pakistan's economy during the past fifty years can be described as a classic example of a case where artificial prosperity was maintained by heavy doses of foreign aid and overseas remittances of Pakistanis. Pakistan has survived for over 50 years giving the impression that it is somehow a powerhouse in its depth and breadth of manufacturing and industrial capacity. This level of industrial technology in Pakistan is in keeping with the overall picture of Pakistan as a nation in which almost 70% of the people are illiterate. clothes. textiles and agricultural products like sugar. It is worth looking at some of these items and Pakistani claims in 35 . a sophisticated Pakistani public relations machine has managed to build up the idea. at least in the minds of Indians. At another level. scooter or motorcycle has appeared on the international market with a Made in Pakistan label on it. that Pakistani industry is producing some state of the art high technology goods.Easy and cheap availability of goods and services through foreign aid discouraged the development of a large scale indigenous industry. Still. Goods manufactured in Pakistan are mostly no more complex than bicycles.. sports goods such as footballs and cricket balls. Pakistan remains primarily an agricultural economy. Pakistan failed to do even the basics of economic development which most of the developing countries have done.

These brave names may perhaps be essential for national pride. Ghauri and Shaheen.. but to point out the compulsion that Pakistani authorities have to maintain a facade of indigenous production for items that are widely known to be imported.some detail. The idea is not to downplay the considerable risk that Pakistan's missiles pose to India and other nations. but even a cursory search of authoritative sources shows that Pakistan's Hatf. nuclear capable missiles are being supplied by countries like China and North Korea to Pakistan ignoring international treaties that forbid such exports. specifically missiles and Pakistan's nuclear program. The most likely reason for maintaining this charade of indigenous development of missiles is to obscure the fact that dangerous. In keeping with the Pakistani psyche of according the highest importance to the armed forces Pakistani claims of high technology indigenous manufacture have revolved around armament.. guidance systems. as well as the liquid propellants to fuel its missiles 36 . and other critical missile components. or North Korean No-Dong missiles (27). Pakistani spokespersons never tire of speaking of Pakistan's indigenous missiles . or at least their major component parts.given names like Hatf. a private body aimed at studying the risk of nuclear conflict it was reported that (28): Pakistan is still dependent on China for specialty materials.Pakistan will remain dependent on North Korea for importing complete liquid engines. Ghauri and Shaheen missiles are Chinese M-9 or M-11 missiles. In a detailed report on Pakistani missiles from NTI Nuclear Threat Initiative.

Centrifuges are devices that are used to rotate something 37 at high speed to . After his return to Pakistan he was convicted in absentia of nuclear espionage by an Amsterdam court..Even more peculiar is Pakistan's nuclear program. then Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto gave Khan the job of organizing Pakistan's nuclear program Pakistan can hardly be expected to publicly proclaim that the Father of Pakistan's nuclear program stole the technology. Khan suddenly left Europe before his espionage was detected.. from which Abdul Qadeer Khan got his designs for Uranium enrichment says Khan received a MSc degree in metallurgy from Delft in 1967 and later stole nuclear secrets from his Dutch employer. They are a serious risk either way. This is true.In 1976. helping Pakistan develop its first nuclear bomb.. The strong Pakistani insistence that the program is entirely indigenous is contradicted by the facts. Back home in Pakistan. worked at the Urenco uranium enrichment facility in the Dutch city of Almelo in the 1970s. Experts have argued that it does not matter if Pakistan's atomic bombs are stolen or made in Pakistan." A report from the Netherlands. but it is important to place on record the fact that the designs were stolen and not the result of some prolonged research effort in Pakistan.He has acknowledged he did take advantage of his experience of many years of working on similar projects in Europe and his contacts with various manufacturing firms. The designs that Abdul Qadeer Khan obtained from the URENCO labs were for centrifuges. Abdul Qadeer Khan. A news report about this in a New Zealand news portal reads (29): The father of Pakistan's atom bomb.

Several techniques exist for this and Pakistan chose the route of Uranium enrichment using the technology stolen by Qadeer URENCO labs. This is where Pakistan's role as a Cold War ally of the US and its role in helping China and the US get closer came in handy. the heavier U238 and lighter U235. Subrahmanyam goes on to indicate similar skepticism of Pakistani ability in Indian scientific circles by saying (30): Their scepticism was based on their judgement that Pakistan did not have the critical mass of scientific and engineering talent necessary for the project. Uranium occurs naturally primarily in two forms. One week after the Indian nuclear tests of May 1998. which can then be used for making a nuclear bomb.Subrahmanyam quotes Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam as being skeptical about Pakistani ability to actually produce a working nuclear bomb. a rotating centrifugal dryer in a washing machine is a centrifuge that separates water from clothes and makes wet clothes much more dry. U235 is needed for nuclear bombs but occurs in very small quantities mixed with U238. and 38 . by centrifuges Khan from the But making a nuclear bomb goes far beyond merely enriching Uranium. China provided Pakistan with the necessary technology to make its nuclear bomb. It is widely reported that China gave to Pakistan the complete design of a nuclear bomb that it had tested in 1964 (31). For this reason Uranium needs to be enriched to get material that contains 90% or more of U235. For example. Indian analyst K. Obtaining centrifuges was necessary for Pakistan to start enriching Uranium. Making a workable and reliable nuclear bomb requires further technology. The latter.separate out heavier from lighter components.

there is no way Plutonium could have appeared. After this there was a flurry of activity when Pakistani officials visited China. The next week. Iran and North Korea. It seems clear that Pakistan's entire nuclear weapons manufacturing program was based on a clandestine black-market of contacts with companies all over the world who produced components that could not be fashioned in Pakistan. Some experts believe that the device tested was a ready made device provided to Pakistan by China after the failure of an earlier test. At the time of writing this. the father of Pakistan's nuclear program. funded by unlimited financial support from the Pakistani government. Pakistan does not currently produce any fighter. on the 28th of May 1998. Since Pakistani bomb designs were Uranium based ones. and its army chiefs of staff (chapter 13). Pakistan conducted a nuclear test in Chagai. Abdul Qadeer Khan stands discredited and accused of selling equipment and the plans for Uranium enrichment centrifuges to Libya. it lends credence to the theory that Pakistan may actually have tested a ready made Chinese nuclear device. During this period mysterious news reports surfaced that Plutonium was detected in the atmosphere over Chagai in Pakistan (32). News reports indicate that Pakistan's nuclear program was based on a network of clandestine imports from a network of proliferators personally built up by Abdul Qadeer Khan. bomber 39 . in exchange for missiles from North Korea and great personal wealth for himself. as well as from Libya and other sources. It appears that this was done with the knowledge and tacit approval of the military government of Pakistan. If the Plutonium story is true. It is said that the device failed to detonate.a one week before the official Pakistani nuclear test an announcement was made at a G8 meeting that Pakistan had tested a nuclear device.

Pakistan's labor force is growing at the rate of 2. But in 1981 Pakistan imported the entire assembly line for the manufacture of a 1969 vintage Swedish designed. Current reports indicate that the trainers will be manufactured in China. but the number of unemployed people in Pakistan is rising at more than twice 40 that rate 6% (34). This pretence probably does Pakistan more harm than anyone else. convinced by the exaggerated claims of their own countrymen have allowed their nation to lapse into a state of underdevelopment in which Pakistan is now being compared with the other countries at the bottom of the development ladder. and not in Pakistan. Pakistan's literacy rate ranks below that of countries like Haiti.4% per year. possibly for domestic consumption that it is a leader in many technologies. the State Department said in its most recent human rights report. The aircraft. Another trainer aircraft that Pakistan became involved in is a Chinese designed K-8 jet trainer. Even using a very low standard. Rwanda and Sudan. Barely a third of Pakistan's population is literate. Pakistan's industrial sophistication today is arguably not much higher than that of Britain in the early 20th century. in a list of 174 countries (33). called the Saab Supporter in Sweden is assembled in Pakistan under the name Mushshak.or civilian aircraft and does not have a noteworthy aerospace research or design team. according to the most recent United Nations Development Program report. The th st . On March 31 2002. Furthermore A UNDP report in 2003 ranked Pakistan a low 138 . two seater trainer aircraft from Sweden. a report in the The New York Times stated. single engine. but Pakistan has continuously maintained. such as Haiti and Rwanda. Pakistani leaders.

46 per cent).. population increased by 6 million people (4. fully integrating itself into every facet of the economy and draining state coffers with generous benefit plans for its officers.000 acres of land.with 41 . A large number of reports speak of all the economic th problems that Pakistan has (35. while the population of the poor during the period under review increased by 10 per cent. regarding industries and poverty have been listed above. one percent of the landowners own 26 percent of the land. But many other factors contribute to the decrepit state of the Pakistani economy.corrupt military officers have siphoned off more than $1. 38. One report (36) says only one million Pakistanis pay tax in a country of over 150 million people.. 37. 36.Pakistan Human Condition report of 2003 says that between 1998-99 and 2000-01. 40) Some of these problems. the San Francisco Chronicle reported: Pakistan's powerful military has ruled the country for more than half of the nation's 56-year history. mansions and luxury cars.. army run businesses and private enterprise due to rampant corruption at the highest places. There is an extremely wealthy class of Pakistani at the top of the economic pyramid and this class includes Army Officers as well as feudal landowners some owning as much as 45. showing a decline in their welfare level On February 5 2003. The Karachi Stock Exchange has trading in only about 30 stocks .2 billion in the last 10 years to purchase such amenities as land. The report warns that population is shifting from upper poverty bands to lower ones. according to a recent report by Pakistan's auditor general. 39. Aid and loan money has been constantly misused for personal gain by the Pakistani army. In the Punjab province.

" The number of such damning reports is enormous. and they help build up a picture of Pakistan as a country of predominantly poor people. whose number is increasing by the year as the population rises. one of Pakistan's leading economists. "It is essentially a parallel economy. says Muhammad Mansoor Ali. being told that India is forever planning to attack Pakistan and kill all Muslims. The Exchange is run by a handful of crooked brokers and scams are rampant. Estimates of the size of the country's black-market economy. while the rulers of Pakistan build up their personal fortunes and protect their lucre with an army whose upper ranks are like a Mughal court. The same report goes on to say. Governing these people is a small elite of wealthy. That ratio "is probably the most severe" of any country in the world.over 700 other stocks listed for tax advantages. while the lower ranks are the bodyguards to protect the powerful from both external enemies and opponents within Pakistan. which includes everything from underground banking to narcotics to the smuggling of consumer goods. 42 . range up to 100% of the so-called formal sector. corrupt and self-serving army officers and feudal lords who literally rule over their subjects like medieval kings. The population is kept busy with jihad.

Chapter 5 PAKISTANI PSYCHE .e. and must be taken into account in negotiation. experiences and history of their particular society. sorrow. Pakistanis. who live together in nations tend to develop certain unique patterns of behavior based on the stresses. For example. Another well known example of the consequences of an inability to understand cultural nuances comes from a transcript 43 of a telephone . Even so. just like Indians. Pakistan has been too low on the priority of sociologists and psychologists. Sometimes these unique patterns of behavior are very difficult to recognise. including Indian leaders and strategists have been content with describing Pakistanis as being “Just like us” . it is worth recognizing minor differences because this knowledge has some value in understanding behavior. communication between cultures becomes difficult if negotiators from different cultures cannot understand each others' behavior.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Very few studies exist on the subject of the mind of the Pakistani or the Pakistani psyche. Some cultures. The important role of saving face and avoiding shame is well recognised. pain and other emotions which are indistinguishable from anyone else on an individual level. because the behavior is very much like that of anyone else. such as Japanese culture have been well studied (41). and in negotiation and reaching agreements. anger. But groups of thousands or millions of people anywhere in the world. display the usual range of human behavioral patterns: joy.i. like all other people. A deep understanding of Japanese culture was required before international agreements could be reached with Japan on the issue of whaling and protection of endangered species of whales. while most Indians.

speaking on India-Pakistan relations quoted a Pakistani army officer saying how important the question Pakistani actions relating to India. the army understands it cannot wrest Kashmir from India. There are few studies of unique behavioral patterns among Pakistanis. a certain envy Pakistanis would not acknowledge openly about the 44 failure of their civil . J. "artificially nurtured memories of Muslim superiority and a subconscious desire to rectify the unfair arrangements of partition". At stake is its pride. former Indian foreign secretary has spoken of the psychological hurdles that come in the way of Indian and Pakistani relations. That left Hussein. and Jordan unprepared for their defeat in the war subsequently (42). The cultural need to avoid shame forced Nasser to state that his forces were fighting well against their enemy. N. but King Hussein was unable to understand the nuances by which Nasser hinted that his forces were being defeated. In the words of one Pakistani of pride was in officer. and it literally calls the shots But the subject of a specific and defined Pakistani mind has not gone unnoticed among Indian observers. but it cannot turn its back on a 55 year struggle. These are listed in a review of his book (44): Dixit identifies a series of Pakistani traits that refuse to live amicably with India. In his testimony to the United States' Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in January 2004 (43) Stephen Cohen. First.conversation in Arabic between Egyptian President Gamel Abdel Nasser and King Hussein of Jordan when Egyptian forces were being defeated by Israeli forces in 1967. But such patterns do exist. and their importance must not be underestimated. Second. Dixit.

Seventh. in 1947 and a few years after that it would have been perfectly valid and accurate to describe Pakistanis as being just like Indians. widespread belief in the Pakistani establishment and media circles that India is getting exhausted in Kashmir and would not be able to hold on to it for long (a presumption of Musharraf in Kargil). that is separate from the old Indian identity. It is useful to be aware of this in dealing with Pakistan 45 . Fifth. Third. "the unarticulated ambition and hope that if India broke up. Eighth. Sixth. who in the words of Maulana Azad. Pakistan will emerge as the strongest and most powerful political entity in South Asia". and with 75 % of present day Pakistanis having been born after 1947. avenging the military defeat of 1971. irrational faith in the "profound capacity for commitment to jihad amongst the momin". Of course. as was publicly declared by Foreign Minister Gauhar Ayub Khan at a press conference in Delhi. in effect a Pakistani psyche or a Pakistani mindset. which is a formal objective declared in the official oath-taking ceremony of every Pakistani officer-cadet when he graduates. Fourth. and most significantly. assumption by Pakistan of the role of protector and overseer of the welfare of Indian Muslims. confidence that Pakistan's nuclear weapons program is an instrumentality to further geopolitical objectives in Kashmir.society to solidify democratic and tolerant traditions in comparison to an India where khakis and bayonets follow popularly elected representatives. But after over 50 years of being a separate nation with different threat perceptions. problems and priorities. could be exploited from forces across the border owing to their "socio-political schizophrenia" since partition. it can easily be observed that there are certain behavioral characteristics that can be called Purely Pakistani There is.

display one or more of the following characteristics to make them recognizable as general guidelines to Pakistani psyche. An article in the American magazine. Certain statements and actions are repeated time and again. and a pattern can be seen in the way Pakistanis react to people and events. It would be wrong to assume that every Pakistani displays all the characteristics described here. These similarities are striking. No visitor to Pakistan goes away without being touched by this. but careful observations of Pakistani statements and actions show that a sufficiently large proportion of Pakistanis. There are certainly some parallels in Pakistani behavior to Arab behavior described by Raphael Patai in his seminal book on The Arab Mind (42). especially their leadership. No single characteristic is unique to Pakistanis alone. reject their earlier Indian Certain types of behavior stand out among Pakistanis and are best demonstrated by studying examples of statements and actions by prominent Pakistani leaders and a nation and in predicting Pakistani responses to events. Hospitality and generosity: The characteristic of being extremely hospitable and generous to guests has stood Pakistanis and Pakistan in good stead. and the most likely explanation is the internalization of Arab culture in Islam. and this characteristic has been used to good effect by Pakistan over the years. The Weekly Standard had this to say in its Nov 5 th 2001 edition: 46 . leading to a degree of Arabization of behavior among devoutly Islamic people such as some Pakistanis who have actively sought to culture (see chapter 9).

and often just plain wrong. who frequently visits south-central Asia. the Indians are jerks. 47 and Anwar Mahmood. who was a guest of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) and who later went on to write paeans about the PAF For many years after the PAF was comprehensively defeated in successive wars with India. succinctly put it. . As one congressional staffer. and have later served as honorary ambassadors for Pakistan in the Western media. and more knowledgeable about the insider gossip of U. Pakistani hospitality has charmed a large number of prominent writers to write positively about Pakistan. One prominent example is the famous American pilot.the attractive character of elite Pakistani officials. "I like 'em. the Washington Post reported: It was mid afternoon Tuesday." A series of Western writers and prominent people have been hosted and feted in Pakistan. Chuck Yeager. Pakistani VIPs are often wittier. politics. warmer. Eric Margolis and John Fricker. maintaining a reputation for the PAF that extended far beyond its real performance. Prominent among people who have written warm words for Pakistan are writers like Brian Cloughley..S. As recently as June 2002. and some have gone as far as to make needlessly hostile and malicious references to India in their writings despite strong evidence that their words are misinformed at best. Yeager's words of praise of the Pakistan Air Force continued to be quoted.. Compared with their haughty Indian and chaotic Afghan neighbors. American diplomats and spooks often have a good deal of fun with their Westernized Pakistani counterparts.

. cheating. complete with maps...if it keeps the reporters satisfied.. and the converse avoidance of shame. respect... 48 .disgrace. You won't get such hospitality from the Indian army.000 it will cost his ministry to rent the plane from Pakistan International Airlines. Everything is permitted in order to safeguard the family or tribal honour. was on the phone discussing with an underling how to keep more than 100 foreign journalists happy for the rest of the week.and tea sandwiches served on trays by white-gloved soldiers... and humiliation. At a rural. There they are treated to hour-long military briefings.Pakistan's information secretary. It is often more important to maintain honour and avoid shame than anything else. eager to make its voice heard. lying. it's worth the $3. dignity. he figured. and even murder.enforce identity and conformity of behaviour. maintenance of honour often relates to women and doubts about fidelity or adultery. pride. in the form of an honour killing is often the sentence carried out on a woman who is thought to have shamed the family. Death.The Pakistani government.Five times in the past month. displays of Indian mortar shells -. has ordered foreign embassies to expedite visas for journalists. tribal level in Pakistan. The powerful codes of shame and honour.. Honour and Dignity: The need to maintain honour and dignity is a fundamental pillar in the mind of the Pakistani. the Information Ministry has rented air-conditioned buses to carry journalists to the Line of Control. David Pryce Jones has written (45) that the key to understanding some Islamic societies is to recognise the need for acquisition of honour..

. The need to maintain honour and avoid the perceived national shame of appearing weak in front of India has led to the sacrificing of all developmental effort towards arms purchases to pursue military parity with India. General Musharraf.. keeping intact the honour and dignity of the nation and the armed forces. The 1965 war with India started with the infiltration of Pakistani special forces into Kashmir for sabotage and to incite acts of violence. A brief study of the way Pakistan's wars with India have been reported in Pakistan are illustrative of this.. while insisting that victory was always achieved. The importance of honour is evident from the words used by US deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage after a meeting with the President of Pakistan. General Musharraf on the 6th of June 2002:(46) .I would note that the conversations we had with President Musharraf made it very clear to me that he wants to do everything that he can to avoid war.. Stephen Cohen's quote of a Pakistan army officer's words in this regard has already been alluded to at the beginning of this chapter. As the conflict evolved war broke out over a wide front and by the time a cease fire 49 .." The need to maintain honour and avoid shame by Pakistani military commanders goes to the extent of suppressing any news of a defeat or setback suffered by the military. On 14th March 2003. Of course he wants to do this..But honour and dignity play an equally important role among the richer and apparently liberated Pakistani elite rulers of Pakistan. military leader of Pakistan said about Pakistan's nuclear weapons aspirations (47) "We only want the deterrence capability to preserve our honour and dignity.

Bangladesh. that any available fact may be either picked up or selectively forgotten in order to save face and maintain the pretence of victory.was declared both India and Pakistan had captured small areas of each other's territory. who commenced a genocide in East Pakistan. The Indian victory. But the 1965 war has always been portrayed from the Pakistani side as a war in which attacking Indian forces were defeated. General Jagjit Singh Aurora's daring concentric attack on East Pakistan went forward uninterrupted and on 16 December he received the surrender of the Pakistani commander in Dacca. unparalleled since the German Blitzkrieg that overran Poland was described by historian Brigadier Shelford Bidwell (48) as follows: The operations of 1971 finally that the 'sword-arm' of old numerical inferiority. sweep effete Hindus and win another dispelled any vain dreams India could. was born. In 1971. Sheikh Mujibur Rehman would have become Prime Minister of Pakistan. Not an Indian brigade had to be moved West. and Pakistani General Ayub Khan's plans to take Srinagar were foiled. Millions of refugees poured into India to escape this. The need to maintain honour and dignity is so important to the Pakistani. Indian forces entered East Pakistan and defeated the Pakistani military and a new nation. the triumph of an East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) based political party in an election would have meant that a Bengali. More than ninety thousand Pakistani soldiers were taken prisoner of war. Significantly. Indian forces were well within striking range of the Pakistani city of Lahore. despite its aside the armies of the battle of Panipat outside the walls of Delhi. with Indian troops in the towns on the outskirts of Lahore. In a humanitarian move. This was disliked by the West Pakistani Punjabi dominated army of Pakistan. 50 .

The ignominious defeat of the Pakistan armed forces in 1971 and the formation of Bangladesh almost went unreported in Pakistan. fighting had ceased in East Pakistan and that Indian troops had entered Dacca. An editorial in the Pakistani newspaper The Jang recalled the 1971 reports in Pakistan (49): So great was the ignorance and absence of principles in West Pakistan that the government of the day had the temerity to issue a disgraceful statement casually mentioning that "by agreement between local commanders. said in an interview to the Weekly Independent from his place of exile in Saudi Arabia. Mistakes made by the Pakistan army in the war were never investigated or made public." Pakistani children are not taught about the 1971 war.. who was Prime Minister of Pakistan during this conflict. The Kargil conflict of 1999 ended with the rapid withdrawal of Pakistani forces facing rout. when used in a psy-ops role. Nawaz Sharif. The death toll exceeds even that of the 51 . It may even be a characteristic that can be used to predict Pakistani behavior or provoke desired responses from Pakistanis. By the time the withdrawal started the Indian forces had wiped out almost the entire Northern Light Infantry of the Pakistan army. . The Pakistani need to maintain honour and dignity at the expense of truth is a fault that has done Pakistan no good. the whole Northern Infantry was blown up and 2. Some of the defeated Generals in that war even received gallantry awards and honours in later years. neither were the failures admitted or analysed.when the battle began.700 soldiers were martyred and hundreds were injured.

because dishonour. Biradari members who quarrel will try to resolve their differences before major social occasions so that the patrilineage can present a united front to the village. It has been observed that Pakistan itself is ruled by a small group of between 22 and 43 families (4). the family obligations of Pakistani society to avoid shame creates the need for whitewashing military disasters and other mistakes. (the biradari) are under pressure to maintain a picture of unity. A quote from the study says: There disunity means is considerable pressure for patrilineal kin to maintain good relations with one another. The deeply Islamic fervor of the average Pakistani comes in handy here as all errors and defeats can be explained 52 . A study of Pakistani society and kinship patterns (50) notes that the household is the primary unit for kinship and the male descendants. But the only history that is acknowledged by Pakistan is that the Kargil conflict was a great victory for mujahideen who held the Indian army at bay. With the entire ruling apparatus of Pakistan under control of a small group of family units. Pakistanis do not admit the involvement of their armed forces.1965 and 1971 full-scale wars. face has been saved and honour retained by the Pakistani army. In doing this. but it is difficult to imagine how the Pakistani army can learn critical lessons from a disastrous war if the sole aim of its officer class is the save face and maintain honour and dignity An explanation exists for the tendency of the Pakistani elite and officer class to protect each other's honour even after embarrassing or disastrous events. and yet do not explain how the Pakistan army withdrew from the conflict zone if they were not involved.

a spotlight that has only become brighter after the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks in the US. It is possible that the Pakistani need to maintain honour and dignity and somehow appear equal or superior to India was understood and exploited by Indian leaders in 1998. Pakistan did test a nuclear device of its own two weeks after India's tests and although there is some controversy about the real origin of the device tested by Pakistan. with international censure and sanctions. Rhetoric and Hyperbole: The Pakistani need for the maintenance of honour and avoidance of shame ideally involves and outright military 53 . it would have put India in a very tight situation. while Pakistan could have basked in the sympathy it would surely have got for having an aggressive nuclear neighbor in India.away as God's will . the test greatly diluted the international attention that India was getting after its tests. If Pakistan had not tested. and put the spotlight on Pakistan. breaking a 24 year self-imposed moratorium. But the need to save Pakistani honour was too great after the Indian tests. Even before the 1998 tests Pakistan was widely acknowledged to possess nuclear explanation that most devout Pakistanis will accept without question. Pakistan need not have tested immediately after India's tests. The national sense of shame in being unable to publicly match India was so intense that Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif acknowledged that he would not survive unless he sanctioned nuclear tests by Pakistan. when India conducted a series of nuclear weapon tests.

For example. righteous and heading for victory. the war needs to be continued verbally to avoid shame. Stemming directly from this rhetoric and hyperbole is the decades old campaign of misinformation that Pakistan has maintained about itself. and shame means public humiliation. When such victory is not possible or unlikely. 54 . although it often sounds hollow and unconvincing. its wars and about India. The degree of misinformation is astonishing.victory. The Indian armed forces are always referred to by Pakistan as being weak and dishonourable and always accused of raping and murdering civilians. success involves bragging. and any defeats are temporary setbacks. its armed forces. Indian leaders are often referred to as scheming high caste Brahmins or Banias who are plotting to either dominate or eliminate people of all other religions and social groups. Only a total victory or a mediator leading to a solution on Pakistani terms can maintain honour enough to allow such hyperbole to die down. Ballistic missiles imported from China and North Korea are repainted and given Pakistani names to be flaunted as missiles designed and manufactured in Pakistan. but easy to understand in the light of the deep Pakistani need to maintain honour and avoid shame. Every accusation is made to show that an adversary is cowardly. wars are never lost. Indians are always depicted as being conniving and scheming. David Pryce Jones has described the connection between honour. weak and untruthful. with Pakistanis being courageous. shame and rhetoric (45): Honour makes life worth living whereas shame is a living death. Such hyperbole seems to be necessary psychological support for the Pakistani mind. Arms built under licence are always shown as indigenous. Shame and honour involve publicity. never as courageous and honourable.

55) have documented the surrender of 90.An example of this tendency can be seen in a two part article on the events of 1971 that appeared in the online edition of the Pakistani paper the Jang as recently as 2004... The Indian intervention to stop the genocide by Pakistani troops is described in the following way: it was an act of military piracy at the highest level to destroy the professional propriety of soldiers who were on lawful duty.addressed a press conference in New Delhi to say that he was convinced that Pakistan army had committed genocide in East Pakistan. In a farcical and fanciful description Brigadier Anjum does not say a word about the 1971 elections in Pakistan that were won by the East Pakistani Awami league party.The interference of Indian army in East Pakistan was a well thought out conspiracy hatched by India and vociferously backed by the Soviet Union Many sources (53. 52). Brigadier Anjum (51. Anjum's explanation of why reports of genocide by Pakistani troops are false is as follows: Senator Edward Kennedy.. and denies the well documented genocide of ethnic East Pakistani Bengalis by West Pakistani troops (chapter 11).. written by a former Pakistani army officer. having a pro-India prejudice . Brigadier Anjum 55 records his version of . This was enough to disparage Pakistan Army Brigadier Anjum makes this record of India's role: India with a mission in hand to destroy Pakistan was first to demolish its basis.000 Pakistani troops in East Pakistan at the end of the 1971 war. 54.

were civilians and their families. Any concessions that Pakistan is forced to make can be conveniently blamed on 56 . On every occasion. This calls for the introduction of a mediator or middleman. the Pakistani assessment of Indian weakness has led to a situation in which Pakistan is faced with military defeat. the need to maintain honour and avoid shame requires that Pakistan must not sue for peace by directly negotiating with India. Disputes and mediation: Pakistani leaders have initiated war against India mainly when they have assessed India as being weak. The rest of PoWs mostly children. When faced with a situation in which Pakistan is the weaker party. Courage and a willingness to fight are honourable. Accepting that India and Indians may be in any way better than Pakistan is deeply dishonourable and shameful to the Pakistani. That is what justifies the formation and existence of Pakistan. but it is honourable to agree to peace when mediated by a respected third party.history as: The number of combatant soldiers out of the 90. But to the Pakistani leadership. which avoids the need for defeat and dishonour.000 socalled prisoners of war was just over forty thousands. It is cowardly to call for peace directly. an offer of peace by any party is considered as a sign of weakness. and offering peace is a sign of cowardice and an unwillingness to fight. The need to appear superior to and better than India is fundamental for the Pakistani. The feeling threatens the very existence of Pakistan and is a feeling that must avoided at all cost.

but a respected third party's request from President Clinton of the US that made a triumphant Pakistan pull back from defeating India. It does not matter if anyone else considers that Pakistan was defeated. Indian peace a sign of weakness. This confuses and angers the Pakistani leadership. third party mediation is unacceptable in what is essentially a bilateral dispute with Pakistan. because on the one hand India appears weak to them by asking for peace. it is likely been misinterpreted by initiatives are seen as is considered to be a sign of that peace offers from India have Pakistani leaders. weak or dishonoured as long as the Pakistani people see their leaders as having pulled off some kind of victory. In the Kargil conflict. when Pakistani forces were facing rout. and are not seen as having lost their honour to the weaker party India. the International community or any other third party rather than facing shame by negotiating for settlement directly with India. the UN. the Pakistani Prime Minister Clinton remnants that it Nawaz Sharif demanded an audience with President of the US and then ordered withdrawal of the of the Pakistani forces to give the appearance was not a clear defeat. But an India that appears to be showing weakness by talking about peace mystifies Pakistan by refusing third party mediation. but on the other hand India refuses third party mediation which a weak nation should 57 . For India. Because talk of peace weakness. The important need here is for Pakistani leaders to appear to be strong and retain their honour in front of their own people. which must be met with threats and demands for concessions.the mediating party. This explains the tendency that Pakistani leaders have to call for third party mediation in settling a dispute between India and Pakistan by appealing to the US.

One more factor that must be taken into account in negotiation with Pakistan is that Pakistan may fail to honour prior agreements as it has done with the UN resolutions and the subsequent Simla agreement of 1972 with India. soldiers of the British Indian army rose up in a rebellion in what is now known as the first war of Indian Independence. or against America after the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. In support of this plan General Musharraf used the analogy of the charter of Madina and the treaty of Hudaibiya signed by the Prophet Mohammad in his September 19 th 2001 speech (56).with military tradition in their blood.accept with gratitude to save its own face. That rebellion was eventually quelled by the British with troops mainly from the Punjab particularly Muslim troops from what is now the Pakistani 58 . with the courage and valor that such a military tradition suggests somehow enshrined in the Pakistani's genes. It is possible that Pakistani leaders consider all agreements and treaties as temporary instruments to buy time. When faced with the stark choice of being with America. In 1857. being General Ayub Khan who led Pakistan into the 1965 war with India had boasted that One Pakistani soldier is equal to six Indian soldiers The genesis of this attitude is interesting. President General Musharraf explained to his people in a speech in Urdu that his aligning with the US would be a temporary alliance with the devil. The Martial Mind: One of the enduring myths to have come out of Pakistan is that Pakistanis are somehow a martial race .

Retired Pakistani army Major Agha Humayun Amin wrote about the Pakistani army feeling of martial superiority (57): The "Martial Races Theory" in reality was an Imperial gimmick to boost the ego of the cannon fodder. Maj. Pakistani military adventurism has been guided by a firm belief in the innate racial superiority of the Pakistani soldier and supported by a belief that Pakistan and Pakistanis are somehow performing Allah's will and 59 .. as proved in 1965 war and felt that somehow. Various British writers like Philip Mason frankly admitted that the real reason for selective recruitment was political reliability in crisis situations. somehow superior by virtue of its being composed of martial races. assisted by Pashtun troops. The British gradually began to refer to these groups as martial races. After this event. which are now part of Pakistan. in the next war to miracles would occur and the Pakistan Army would do well Hard as it may be for a rational thinking person to believe.Punjab. from the beginning. which the Punjabis had exhibited during the 1857-58 Bengal Army rebellion.. Pakistan the nation was formed with the belief that its army was. Amin goes on to write: The Pakistani nation had been fed on propaganda about martial superiority of their army.the Pakistani GHQ placed entire reliance on the Superior Valour and Martial Qualities of the Pakistani (Punjabi and Pathan Muslim soldier) vis a vis the Hindu Indian soldier. the British greatly changed the composition of the Indian army forces. These troops were subsequently in the thick of all the campaigns that Imperial Britain was fighting. by recruiting mainly Muslim Punjabi troops and Pashtun troops from the North Western parts of preindependence India.

Confidence in one's abilities.that God would therefore be on their side no matter how preposterous or ill advised the action. Positive Self-image: One remarkable feature noticeable among Pakistanis. herself a Sindhi. Benazir Bhutto. The East Pakistanis were held in contempt by West Pakistanis. Unfortunately that has occurred among Pakistan's elite. fair-complexioned and eat wheat. dark-complexioned and eat rice. Major Amin writes(57): 60 . while East Pakistanis (Bengalis) are short. The problem starts when these positive traits are stretched to unrealistic limits. Former Prime Minister of Pakistan. recalls having been taught as a child that West Pakistanis are tall. Hamid Hussain wrote of Pakistani military officers' selfimage in Pakistan's defence journal (58): these military officers also have dangerously self- exaggerated opinion of their capacities both in terms of defence of the country's frontiers and their ability as an organized body to fix all problems of the society. which now enter the zone of grandiose ideas and selfrighteousness. pride and constant struggle to excel professionally are essential elements of a good officer's corps. especially Punjabi Pakistanis is an extremely good and positive self-image of themselves and their people. Their self-esteem is unshakable to the extent that no factor is allowed to get in the way of identifying themselves as superior and excellent. to the detriment of Pakistan. A good self-image can be a useful personality attribute if it is not carried to extreme lengths in which all others are considered inferior.

the generals were convinced that the Bengali was too meek to ever challenge the martial Punjabi or Pathan Muslim. the taller native. ugly” Hindustani Indians. But the Punjabi generals of the Pakistani army. who considered themselves superior to the short. This contempt with which West Pakistanis viewed their own countrymen contributed to the secession of East Pakistan and the formation of few elections held in thumping majority to based political party Bangladesh in 1971. To Kiplings contemporaries. The results of the election were annulled and martial law was clamped in East Pakistan. Mujibur Rehman and his party should have formed the government of Pakistan in Islamabad. A subsequent genocide of over three million East Pakistanis led to the Indian military intervention in East Pakistan. This feeling was a carry over from the pre-Independence days when the British relied on the martial race for their army recruits. If the results of these elections had been carried through to their logical conclusion.. If Bengali Muslim East Pakistanis were considered racially inferior by West Pakistanis. Maj. an East Pakistan headed by a Bengali. and the liberation of Bangladesh. Amin writes.The Bengalis were despised as non martial by all West Pakistanis. the 1971 elections gave a the Awami League. Sheikh Mujibur Rehman. the better man he was likely to be and fairer a A visible symbol of the contempt with which Indians are taught to be regarded in Pakistan can be seen from some 61 . it is not surprising to note that Pakistanis have considered themselves racially superior to the “dark. In one of the Pakistan. dark and non-martial Bengalis could not face the idea of being ruled by an inferior Bengali as Prime Minister.

Pakistan is always portrayed as being just. Associated with the word is a picture of a kafir . At every step. Even today. the US or the world owe Pakistan a lot more that it is getting. ugly. in the 21st century it is possible to visit Pakistani chat-rooms and discussion fora on the Internet to find references to Indians as short. but in the Pakistani context it is a derogatory term for a nonMuslim. 62 .which is often the picture of a Hindu of a Sikh. in his seminal work on Arab psyche (42) lists a few characteristics of Arab personality that arise from Islamic beliefs. Spokespersons for Pakistan never tire of pointing out that Pakistan is not getting its due. fair and sacrificing. weak or cowardly.Pakistani textbooks for small children to learn the Urdu alphabet. and that India. Children's alphabet books carry the word kafir as an example of a word that starts with the Urdu equivalent of the letter k. or already given more than necessary and that the onus is on the other party to pay Pakistan sacrifices made. Pakistan is said to have already done. Stemming from the self-image of the Pakistani is his sense of entitlement. back for services rendered and Islamic overlay in Pakistani behavior: The obvious question is “Why would anyone's religion make his behavior different or peculiar?” It is better to answer the question than ignore it and assume that religion has. The word kafir means unbeliever. or does not have any bearing on behavior. From the profound application of Islamic beliefs among Pakistanis. dark. Arab scholar Raphael Patai.

or religious leader tells him to do. The average. the average Pakistani is unlikely to revolt against his lot in life. The docility of the average Pakistani in day-to-day life is probably beneficial to the stability Pakistani seems that the same characteristics can be seen among Pakistanis. One powerful Islamic belief is that of predestiny. The average citizen's life may be lived in poverty in someone's service because that is what God has willed for him and attempting to change that would be against the will of God. These beliefs are referred to in the words kismat and naseeb that occur in Urdu. either to hasten or otherwise influence events. so long as it does not go against his Islamic conscience. Patai quotes this Islamic belief as the requirement that Man has no choice but to go through the course of events. or even to try to fight to make it better. and that he will be rewarded for his piety in an afterlife with an assured place in a well-stocked heaven. but does not augur development. but stem from Arabic and Persian respectively. For this reason. He will do what his feudal master. which have been written down for him in God's Book to the smallest detail. local lord. poor uneducated Pakistani believes that his life is pre-ordained by Allah to be the way it is. with evidence of the same in their behavior. Not even in everyday life can a man do anything. the belief that all events are predestined or decided beforehand by God and cannot be avoided or changed in any way. Development requires effort and the belief in predestiny rules that conditions of feudal well for change and and events that the Pakistani experiences in life are ordained by 63 .

64 . a relationship deliberately cultivated by the Pakistani elite for their own ends. He is well looked after during the indoctrination and training period. Unless there is a fundamental and deep rooted effort within Pakistan to change the relationship of the Pakistani with his religion. as is quite likely. and the external consequences of that. and any subsequent violence he takes part in would ensure for him a respected place in his society as an Islamic warrior.Allah to be as they are tampered with in any way. and must not be changed or Such beliefs also make the average Pakistani male citizen a prime candidate for motivation into leading a life as an Islamic warrior. to die in action. or ensure a place in heaven if he were. there can be virtually no hope of achieving a sea-change in the internal situation of Pakistan. Such a life is tempting because it meets all his human and psychological requirements.

Hindus and Christians. two out of three women in Pakistan are uneducated. The importance of this fact lies in that many studies show that poverty. That a strong feudal elite still rules the roost in the vast countryside is a major impediment to enlightenment and democracy. rape. Lack of awareness about their rights and their need for education has added to their predicament. the women of Pakistan could probably be called a minority. many have been the victims of domestic violence. and murder. to be counted along with other minorities of Pakistan such as Shia Muslims. while a powerful clergy rejects all notions of equality and freedom for women. in an article entitled To be a woman in Pakistan is to ask for a life of subservience (60) wrote: Pakistani women continue to be victims of an unjust society rooted in history and tradition. For example. malnutrition and child labor are where the women are uneducated. Another report (50) on Pakistani society says this about women: A woman's life is difficult during the early years of 65 . Those women who rebel by asserting their rightful place in society are punished and considered immoral. higher in societies Pakistani women's rights activist Ameera Javeria. Ahmedis.Chapter 6 WOMEN AND MINORITIES OF PAKISTAN With 108 men for every 100 women in Pakistan (59). Most Islamic communities are averse to the idea of giving women social status equal to that of men. The state of Pakistani women has a powerful bearing on the condition of Pakistan.

marriage.a law that is in effect in Pakistan.. Sister. The woman of the family is considered fundamental to maintaining the honour of the family group.. mothers favor their sons. A young bride has very little status in her husband's household. or Daughter in front of other adult and small members of the family. One of the purposes of the Hudood ordinance is apparently to discourage extramarital sex. A woman must be chaste and subservient to the man. she is subservient to her mother-inlaw and must negotiate relations with her sisters-inlaw. Among some groups it is believed that education of girls leads to immorality.A wife gains status and power as she bears sons. A report on family violence in Pakistani society (61) says: (sic)The Male dominant society of Pakistan with strong sense of complete " Mastery " feel's pride to Dictate his terms of Physical and Mental Torture to his Wife. Sons will bring wives for her to supervise and provide for her in her old age. Particularly egregious is the Hudood ordinance . honour killings in which a father or a brother kill a woman for having dishonoured the family are common in Pakistan. Daughters are a liability.. education of girls has a low priority in Pakistan. and failure to do this can lead to dishonour a crime punishable by death. A gender bias toward boys is clear from this description. Therefore. to be given away in an expensive marriage with their virginity intact. With girls being a liability to be given away after marriage. An explanation of how this law is applied can be seen in the following quote (62): 66 .

Since the passage of the Hudood Ordinance in 1979 under the military government of Zia al Haq, "zina" or extramarital intercourse, has been considered a crime against the state in Pakistan...this law often prescribes cruel and devastating punishments, such as whipping or stoning the individual(s) in question, and explicitly discriminates against women...the Hudood Ordinance has legally blurred the distinction between rape and extramarital sex, resulting in the imprisonment and/or physical punishment of numerous women who have come forward with charges of rape without witnesses. Consequently, many rape victims are deemed criminals in a Pakistani court of law. Pakistan is stuck in a vicious circle in which the elite corner all the resources, leaving little for education of the poor. And among this class the women are the worst off, uneducated and discriminated; and this leads to further poverty and degradation in society. No force in Pakistan seems change this. to have the wisdom, will or power to

Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan is said to have had a vision for Pakistan in which people of all religions in Pakistan would co-exist. In his 11th August 1947 speech to the constituent assembly of Pakistan, Jinnah said (63): You may belong to any religion or caste or creed - that has nothing to do with the business of the state ... in the course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the state."


A few months vision:







We have many non-Muslims-Hindus, Christians and Parsis ... but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan." But Jinnah's vision for Pakistan died with Jinnah. Pakistan's record in the treatment of its religious minorities is shameful and unapologetic. In his landmark paper (64), possibly the first scientific statistical analysis of the question of ethnic cleansing in Pakistan, researcher Sridhar notes: ..almost 89% of the minorities in West Pakistan were ethnically cleansed, i.e. killed, converted or driven out of the country. Almost 54% of the minority population ended up as refugees in India, while a very high 35% of the minority population is simply unaccounted for. These are people who were likely killed or converted into Islam. Population researcher P.H. Reddy has noted that at the time of formation of Pakistan, there were over 20 million non-Muslims in the areas that formed Pakistan mostly Hindus. After the migration of partition, approximately 7 million non-Muslims remained in what is now making up approximately ten per cent of the West Pakistan. In the years since Pakistan's population has more than doubled West Pakistan population of independence, to nearly 150

million, but only three per cent, or 4.5 million people are non Muslims in modern day Pakistan. About half of that number are Hindus and the other half are Christian. In simple terms, in 56 years 68 since independence the

population of Muslims in Pakistan went up from about 60 million to 145 million, while the population of nonMuslims fell from 7 million to 4.5 million. Hindus formed the largest minority in Pakistan at independence and their number has reduced to around 1.5 million.

In November 2002, the Times of India (65) quoted Noor Naz Agha, a prominent Pakistani lawyer and rights activist as saying: Minorities are not safe in Pakistan. Recently, several attacks have been made on churches, hospitals, even on human rights organisations. And several people have been killed," The treatment of religious minorities in Pakistan leaves a lot to be desired. The problem stems from an attitude that Pakistan is for Sunni Muslims alone, and people of other religions, and even Shia Muslims are to be looked upon with contempt. The discrimination extends to derogatory references to non-Islamic people in school textbooks, as noted in chapter 3. M.H. Aksari, writing in the Pakistani paper Dawn (66) said, The former Indian foreign secretary, J.N. Dixit,

recalling his days as ambassador in Islamabad says that once when he called on a Pakistani friend, the latter's six-year old daughter on discovering that Dixit was a Hindu skipped around the table chanting 'Hindu Kutta', 'Hindu Kutta.' Hindu Kutta means Hindu Dog. But it is not Hindus alone who are discriminated against in Pakistan. Over the years the Pakistan army leadership 69 has encouraged a

particularly intolerant thrive in Pakistan. subjected to terrorist the Ahmediya sect have

Islamic mindset to prevail and Shia Muslims in Pakistan are attacts and discrimination, and been declared as non-Muslims in

Pakistan for their beliefs. Pakistan is busy changing Islam to suit the needs of a small elite. The role of the Pakistani army leaders in this is clear from a report that was carried in the November 2003 (67). Ziaul Haq actively encouraged this paper Dawn in



fervour...Ziaul Haq's advice led to widespread religious riots ... Many people, mostly Shias, were killed and their houses burnt. The local administration did little to control the situation. A foreign diplomat, who happened to be travelling by road from Skardu to Islamabad a couple of days after all this started, told me that he saw houses en-route burning and that the route provided a spectacle of war and destruction. There is a movement in Pakistan to have Shias declared non-Muslim. Following a massacre of Shia Muslims in a Pakistani mosque on the Islamic holy day of Moharram in 2004, senior analyst B. Raman hostility in Pakistan (68): wrote about anti-Shia

The last years of the Zia regime saw the Shias of Gilgit come out with a demand for a separate Shia State consisting of Gilgit and the Shia majority areas of Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). They wanted the Shia state to be called the Karakoram Province and remain part of regime crushed the 1988, the Pakistan force from the NWFP a confederation of Pakistan. The Zia Shia movement ruthlessly. In August Army inducted a large Sunni tribal and the Federally-Administered Tribal

Areas (FATA), led by Osama bin Laden, into Gilgit and it 70

have consistently fought and opposed anyone and everyone. mostly military. who are responsible for a rising tide of Islamic fundamentalism. The hatred of the Shias for Osama bin Laden and his Al Qaeda dates from this period. but civilian as well. a few businessmen and the feudal lords and their allies. Successive governments in Pakistan. 71 .massacred hundreds of Shias and crushed their revolt. The only things that have been preserved intact and untouched in Pakistan are the power and wealth of the elite of the army. foreign nations as well as their own people. the preachers of a narrow brand of Sunni Islam.

Living under the far more numerous Hindus. Living under the all-mighty British was unpleasant for many. Pakistan isn't really a nation-state. Gandhi's Indian democracy was going to be Hindu. When the British were set to leave India. This group of individuals formed a migrant nation. live under non-Muslim rule. The demand for a separate nation was a natural extension of this Mughal mindset. considered themselves the descendants of the Mughals who had ruled vast tracts of India. who were later to go to Pakistan. if at all possible. whom the Muslim Mogul dynasty had dominated for centuries before the arrival of the English. it was intolerable. Being different from Indians is a fundamental requirement that defines the Pakistani.Chapter 7 PARTITION AND THE TWO-NATION THEORY When Indians and Pakistanis meet. they would not automatically regain control of the lands they had lost to the British. 1947.. The Weekly Standard reported in October 2001 (69): Created on August 15.. some of the Muslim elite in India. one is struck by their similarity. was worse. It is a geographic expression of an ageold Islamic ideal: Muslims should not. For the English-educated Muslim elite. Before India was partitioned in 1947. primarily Muslim provinces of British India. it was realised by these real or perceived descendants of Mughals that in a democratic India. Indians are fond of saying “Pakistanis are just like us” but one will find that Pakistanis do not tend to say “Indians are just like us”. so a Muslim "Land of the Pure"--the literal meaning of Pakistan--was essential to protect and nurture the faithful. 72 . from the northern.

But Pakistan was not formed merely by people with this Mughal mindset. and certainly in pre-independence India attempted to go back to their Islamic roots.actually equality of treatment with Hindus . When that occurred. especially in Northern India. especially the equality with Hindus. madrassas. The second was to depend on a ruling or hegemonic power to get them their due. One of the consequences was that they discouraged their children from attending secular schools. and strengthened. The end of the Caliphate was a symbolic blow to Muslims who has grown up to look at the Islamic empire 73 . They feared being falling down into the vast assimilative sea of Hindudom surrounding them wherein they will be at the bottom of social heap. calculated to preserve imagined privileges. affected a superiority complex. which is what distinguished them from Hindus. not to accept democracy's implications. Another root of partition lay with the defeat of the Turkish Caliphate by the British in 1918. May be they would be punished for former uppishness and for real or imagined wrongs. Others' refusal to accept Muslims demands. Their religious exhibitionism and a superiority complex led to emphases on differences with Hindus and regarding themselves as rulers' kith and kin deserving privileges and safeguards -.MB Naqvi wrote in the Jang of Pakistan (70): Historically the majority of Muslims.reservations and separate electorate. These came from. originally low- caste Hindus. Muslims all over the world. Muslims thus demanded weightage . That explained their demonstrative adherence to Islam. two traits: first.the leitmotif of preindependence Indian Muslim politics. and encouraged education in Islamic schools. angered them and an adversarial attitude vis-a-vis Hindus developed.

Inherent in the concept of dar ul harb was that Islam. when Islamic empire. Allama Iqbal. The concept probably dates back to the early years there was a central but rapidly expanding around which were lands with non-Muslims with the followers of the new religion. India and South East Asia to the East. Southern Europe to the North and Central Asia. a completely unacceptable situation. and a dar ul harb or house of war. although he by no means controlled even a fraction of that empire. of Islam. The demand for a separate state for Muslims only was a logical extension of this thought process. Hindustan hamara later paradoxically endorsed the need for a separate nation for Muslims (72): 74 . who were at war For Muslims who could not have their way with separate representation in pre-independence India. The Caliph was the symbolic head of this empire. Muslim existence was deemed a kind of permanent emergency (dar-ul-harb) and migration was considered an option in the defiance of British raj. The word Caliph means deputy in Arabic. A concept in Islam speaks of a dar ul Islam. staying in India would be tantamount to living under subjugation in the dar ul harb. the poet who composed the popular Indian patriotic song Saare Jahaan se achcha.a house or a group of followers of Islam. consisting of unbelievers people who were not followers of extending from Arabia in the center to North Africa in the West. a house of Islam . and Muslims would always be under threat in the dar ul harb. The Friday Times had this to say (71): In India. and the first Caliph had been appointed by the Prophet Mohammad. and the end of the Caliphate was the end of a long line of Caliphs that extended from antiquity.

. the movement. With Islam. This theory is popularly known as two-nation theory. in less than a decade gave birth to Pakistan The man who is most credited as an intellectual force behind the two-nation theory and a front against united Indian nationalism is Maulana Abul Ala Maududi. the ideological founder of Pakistan (73): (The) Pakistan Movement was based on the theory that Muslims are entirely separate people from Hindus in every respect. The TwoNation Theory was a manifestation of the doctrine of darul-islam versus dar-ul-harb. and Islamic reasons being the basis for the formation of Pakistan. Pakistanis have. the world is divided into two camps. was (74): Without any concrete 'dispute' between Hindus and Muslims.Allama Iqbal asserted that there is only one nation opposed to the Muslim Umma. right from the 75 . the logic that prevailed was that Muslims require segregation of political and social life in order to be in compliance with the demands of sharia. the Muslims and Non-Muslims. The result. and that is the nation of non-Muslims! In other words.. Under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. as eloquently documented by Rajiv Malhotra. Another key player in the call for Pakistan was Maulana Maududi. in addition to power and glory for himself and the new nation. A third factor that contributed to the formation of Pakistan was the political power aspiration of Mohammad Ali Jinnah who saw in the formation of the new nation of Pakistan a ready made constituency of Muslims.

Pakistan had come into existence.beginning. With Jinnah as leader the heady success of nation formation in 1947 was enough. unbelievers. For the new Pakistanis India was a land of kafirs. Pakistan would represent Islam itself it would be a leading light of Islam in the world. And Pakistan would claim to represent the Muslims who had stayed behind in India. strong and Islamic. In civilizational terms. It was a victory of Islam over the British and the Hindus. been taught to regard themselves as Muslims first and foremost. Although the purpose of this book is to present a study of Pakistan after partition. It was Islamic. discrimination. Pakistan would not be like India. This is a condition in which a live human body spontaneously discards and casts off a dead or diseased part. hunger and poverty. A nation in decline. such as a 76 . civilizations can often be seen to behave like live beings. Pakistan was supposed to be a homeland for Muslims of India and its formation was pushed through by the groups who wanted it. satisfaction. It was the first Islamic state to be created in the modern era ab initio. Pakistan would be progressive. it would not be out of place to mention briefly the civilizational effect that partition had on India. The fact of being Pakistani brought with it a liberal dose of pride. the splitting up of British India into modern India and Pakistan can be compared to an act of auto-amputation. It was a land of superstition. honour and dignity. including some such as the Jamaat-i-Islami who did not favor the formation of Pakistan. When studied over centuries. over the wishes of other groups. and as opposed to being citizens of the nation. Pakistan. It was not Indian. Not much thought was put into whether a state based on religion alone would be able to survive.

and that India would fragment and break. in which those who wanted to opt out of India were allowed to opt out. They saw themselves as Muslims. They were wrong. The initial fragmentation and breaking that occurred at partition. and Pakistani leaders assumed that the Muslims remaining in India would automatically rise up and revolt. stayed. partition was not so much an act of separation of all Hindus from all Muslims. and and all the people who did not wish to live and work in India were placed in Pakistan. Pakistan had filled itself with people whose intent was less to live and work in harmony. continued in Pakistan.toe or a fingertip so that the body itself can survive and not be affected by the disease that damaged the toe or finger. with the formation of Bangladesh. more than two-thirds of the population of India having been after 1947. but it merely segregated a sub-group of Indians who did not want to co-exist with other Indians. this tumultuous self-mutilating act was a profoundly democratic one. the people of the Indian subcontinent agreed to place all the people who wanted to live and work in a united India in one place. after the painful events of partition. and more to live away from some group or the other. In one convulsive act. For India partition was akin to that . Strange as it may sound. of Indians rooted for India and worked for Pakistanis did not see things that way.a civilizational auto-amputation. It is easier for these younger Indians to see that for India. The actual act of partition was accompanied by horrifying suffering and death. The vast majority India. and those who wanted to stay. 77 . but after five decades the memories of the pain are beginning to fade.

The fact that East Pakistani Bengalis were Muslim did not help to stop the West Pakistani disdain for the short. That would have been totally unacceptable to the Pakistani Punjabi. But they were educated and held all the important bureaucratic posts. fish and rice-eating Bengali. dark. fair. dark. The possibility of democracy in Pakistan brought with it the threat of a short.It was only after the formation of Pakistan that all the assumptions made about Islam as a unifying concept began to break down. Punjabis made up 90% of the Pakistani army. Apart from the mohajirs was the other half of Pakistan. and while Pakistanis struggled to meet the 78 . as opposed to the tall. The mohajirs found that their survival in Pakistan would be made easier by creating and maintaining an India scare .a phobia against the scheming Hindu who was out to subjugate or kill all Muslims. the Bengalis. There were contradictions at every turn. rice-eating Bengali becoming Prime Minister of Pakistan. East Pakistan. India and Indians were continuously and bitterly accused of being anti-Pakistan and anti-Muslim. even when caused by internal politics and mismanagement was blamed on India. The mohajirs. and any setback to Pakistan. Any threat. and the army had no intention of seeing its Punjabi dominance being subordinate to the inferior Bengali. wheat eating Pakistani Punjabi. It was drummed into ordinary Pakistanis that they must be good Muslims. with its people. This complex web of factors kept Pakistanis from uniting with each other but the Islam argument was used for unity. The 15 million mohajirs who migrated to Pakistan from India were not welcomed. the Muslim elite of India who had migrated to Pakistan were in an ideal position to concoct any stories they wished about the bestial Hindus they had left behind.

Every act or event in Pakistan has to be seen through the prism of whether it is Islamic or not. It would now provide for that nation. and records interviews with a diverse group of Pakistanis.standards set for them. After all Islam had given them a nation. it was to be guided constantly by rules. Among the Believers(75). The Pakistani citizen is judged by whether he is a good Muslim or not. it was to live in a fever of the faith and always to be aware of the distinctiveness of the faith. Naipaul describes travels through Pakistan.S. A repeated observation that comes out is that the ordinary Pakistani citizen is under pressure to be a good Muslim. Naipaul says. the ruling elite lived as they pleased. It was only necessary for everyone to be a good Muslim. And Pakistanis believed that this was all that was needed. To be a devout Muslim was always to have distinctive things to do. and everything else would look after itself. Nobel Prize winning author V. In his book. 79 . One of the problems that crops up from this is the definition of “Who is a good Muslim?”.

But this charade could only last a few years before the fallacies began to show. Demographer P. Jinnah. This is a shameful piece of fiction that needs to be set right. "Pakistan ka matlab kya. Even independence. La ilaha illallah".H. out of a total of 435 districts in undivided India. The slogan combines a few words taken from the the Islamic call to prayer La ilaha illallah . (76).meaning there is no God but God and attaches those words to Pakistan to make the meaning What does Pakistan mean there is no God but God . for decades behaved as Pakistan was Islam and Islam was Pakistan. there were 76 in which more than 50 per cent of the people were Muslims. Reddy noted in the Times of India on 8th April 2003 (77): According to the 1941 census. Pakistani leaders. and not all Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. Pakistan was unable to grab and hold Islam as though Islam and Pakistan were one and the same. A very popular slogan in Pakistan was. it could perhaps be said that Islam was too big for Pakistan to keep as its private domain.Chapter 8 ISLAM AND PAKISTAN In the end. Pakistan was formed for some. It is endlessly and erroneously repeated that Pakistan was formed for the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. the founder of Pakistan had the flag of his political party.implying that Pakistan and Islam are one and the same. Based on 80 . the Muslim League as the Flag of Islam and had said you cannot separate the Muslim League from Islam. To be though before called sure.

which was born in Arabia. Western Pakistan comprised the north-west part of the sub-continent and Eastern Pakistan comprised eastern part of Bengal and one district in Assam. "to two different civilizations". and do not seek to deny the ancient. that they "derive their inspiration from different sources of history". the Sir Cyril Radcliffe's Boundary Commission allotted these 76 districts to Pakistan.this demographic fact. social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals 81 and according to the . (with) different epics. making up 9. using the Persian language.In 1951. An entire literature and culture of Islam developed in Persia. Similarly Islam developed and flowered in India with its own unique literature. Jinnah exploited a cleavage in Indian society to proclaim: Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies. and Arab culture adopted and internalized Islam.. arts and architecture produced by an intermingling of two rich cultures. different heroes and different episodes.. Egyptians live in peace with their past. Arab culture had existed in Arabia for centuries before Islam was born. "to develop to the fullest our spiritual. Islam spread peacefully into Indonesia and was absorbed and rationalized by the local culture. cultural. literature". Over the centuries Islam reached a balance with the cultures of the people who adopted Islam.9 per cent of the total population of India... he declared. One cluster was in north-west India and the other in north-east India. social customs.54 crore. preIslamic Egyptian civilization of Pharaohs who built the Pyramids." "We wish our people". The formation of Pakistan sought to deny this vibrant entity. The 76 Muslim-majority districts were grouped together in two clusters. economic. Muslims numbered 3.

In an experimental and unparalleled act of ignorance.You will find that in 82 ..a culture of centuries was to be washed clean. it was not Indonesian. free from India or any Indian roots. They will enjoy same rights and privileges as any other citizens. Was Pakistan Jinnah say: . The India connection had to be stripped clean. But the leaders of the new Pakistan who took over after Jinnah died in 1948. and the You are of Parsis . Pakistan was deliberately set on the path of being an orphan. but it was definitely not going to be Indian any more.genius of our people. and nobody had any idea of what would replace the void. and good Muslims. Indian culture had to be actively cleaned out of the minds of millions of Pakistani citizens . The only thing people knew was that Pakistanis would have to be Islamic. Christians. Pakistan was not Arabic. are free. it was not Egyptian or Persian.. you free to go to your mosques or to any other places worship in this State of Pakistan... culture-less nation." Perhaps Jinnah did not mean to strip Pakistan of the rich culture that Islam had developed in its centuries of interaction in India (78).but they are all Pakistanis.we have a nation for Muslims only? But why did many non-Muslims - Hindus. But there were inconsistencies and contradictions right from the beginning and the confusion has remained to this day. The formation of Pakistan was considered a great victory. for Muslims alone. you are free to go to your temples. Islamic.. certainly felt that Pakistan should be stripped of all its connections with India. leaving Pakistan purely Islamic.

For Pakistan. parts of Pakistan.course of time Hindus would cease to Muslims would cease to be Muslims. or to accuse an adversary of Pakistani leaders hid behind the excuse for their actions. and Pakistan. a modern day Caliphate? But if that was the case Pakistan should not have had any boundaries. and represented Islam. today. Islam has used when convenient. People who are not Islamic.e.) Pakistani leaders. to get aid. as the majority of Muslims chose to remain in India. As long as Islam anything. in their confusion as to what Pakistan was and what it should do. (76) Was Pakistan a nation for all Muslims be Hindus and of the Indian subcontinent? If so. ended up trying to make Pakistan take all the routes that it could possibly take simultaneously. That is indeed what some Pakistani Islamists believe: Muslims all over the world must realize that nationalism is kufr. And like a man whose arms and legs are being pulled apart by horses moving in different directions. were purely Islamic. Pakistan had failed at birth. (79) (kufr refers to unbelievers i. groups of directions. Islam was and still remains the ultimate excuse. and social and ethnic Pakistan have all headed in different resulting in the chaos that Pakistan is Pakistani leaders claimed that they. the lever that is used in Pakistan to justify served as a tool to be or to deflect blame misdeeds. and that the modern nation-states are a creation of that period in history when Muslims were defeated and dominated by kufr.. Was Pakistan the leader of all Islamic nations. an example for Islamic nations to follow as the leader of the ummah. nobody could question 83 .

Any criticism of Pakistan was criticism of Islam. And in this manner. Pakistan could do no wrong. India would be defeated. democracy or common sense. sacrifice and allow their army to get stronger. instead of consolidating and unifying the new state of Pakistan. India could be fought and opposed. genocide. Allah (God). Pakistanis had failed the faith. But as repeated Pakistani assaults against India failed. India was the source the enemy of Pakistan. and therefore anything that Pakistan did. Opposing Pakistan was anti-Islamic. India did not dare question Pakistani claims no matter how preposterous or obscene they were. The threat from India became the common denominator for all Pakistani actions. They had to starve. there was no pressure to change policy. be it development. the people of Pakistan could be kept busy. its leaders set about using Islam to divert Indian territory of all problems. was providing funds and arms via the US. because Pakistan was Islamic. and therefore the The India problem had to be solved. who had given Pakistan to the faithful. Islam could not fail. avoiding elections. and that took priority over everything else in Pakistan. attention to India.them. for postponing elections and for postponing development of Pakistan indefinitely. and to meddle with and Indian Muslims. As long as the money kept coming in. it was because Islam was naturally anticommunist. Money and the economy were not a problem. If Pakistan obtained military and economic aid from the US. They were not Islamic enough they had to strive to be better Muslims. Pakistan was Islamic. so that Islam could be upheld against India. And conveniently. and elections postponed. After all. corruption could not be criticized by anyone. from waging wars. enemy of Islam. and 84 . the number one threat to Pakistan. aid and funds poured into Pakistan in the early years as part of US aid to Pakistan as a cold war ally.

used in Pakistan to make every opinion or move. Islam gradually became the remained a major potential challenge. thought they could isolate the Bengali nationalists by raising religious slogans of Islamic ideology and Islamic identity to counter Bengali anger. commitment to Islamic ideology and the need to unite against all odds.. and later all the Muslims in India would be rescued from Hindu tyranny by Pakistan. 1952 the historic Bengali language movement erupted spontaneously all over East Bengal. The Islam card was used by everybody in Pakistan to suit their own purpose.. Foolishly our ruling elite. because opposing India meant devotion to Islamic ideals. In his essay on the role of the power structure in Pakistan (80). The Pakistani elite. no sacrifice could be too great in opposing India. Elections were a threat that had to be postponed or canceled and an imaginary threat to Islam was invoked.the migrant elite. 85 .. No method was ruled out.. A report in Pakistan's Friday Times (81) carried this scathing message on the role of the migrant elite in using Islam: On Feb 21. instead of going some way to meet Bengali demands. migrants from India.dreaded the prospects of their exit from power in the event of elections.therefore to Islam. Muslims in Kashmir. the prop... Mohammad Waseem wrote: Muslim migrants from East Punjab and further East in India shaped the psyche of the new nation along feelings of insecurity at the hands of India. saw their positions threatened by the prospect of elections which would unseat them in favor of locals. holding all the important government posts.

whom Zia Malhotra wrote (74): Islamic texts are had deposed in a coup.The army of Pakistan was initially subservient to the government. the army started seeing Islam in more and more of its actions. There are even serious attempts under way to define an Islamic military doctrine. Pluralism or Western-style democracy was incompatible with the mullah's world view. and they supported every measure to make Islam the basis of the existence of all Pakistanis. After 1971 Zia-ul-Haq started a campaign of Islamization of the Pakistani army. M. And as Islam was stirred into the mindset of the Pakistani army. for the mullahs (Islamic scholars) of Pakistan. 'There was a hidden hand deflecting the rounds'. Only in an Islamic state could mullahs be influential and prominent. Another compelling reason to be very cautious about overuse of religion is to avoid seeping of sectarian tendencies into the armed forces.. anything less than an Islamic state in Pakistan was a threat.General Mahmud Ahmad during Pakistani ambassador's conference reprimanded the ambassadors for not relying on the intercession of Providence while analyzing Pakistan's Afghan policy. Finally. as distinct from the international military doctrines. A. Columnist Hamid Husain has this to say about Islamization of the Pakistan army (58): Brigadier Gulzar Ahmad explaining the role of celestial powers to lessen his troop casualties in 1965 war stated. Rajiv being introduced into Pakistani military training. Hussain wrote (82): 86 . Middle ranking officers must take courses and examinations on Islam. and strengthened the process of Islamization of Pakistan started by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. so as to fight in accordance with the Koran.

But that did not happen. the people. but making it reality was easier said than done. No Muslim polity has measured up to the combination of piety and social justice achieved by the Medinese community. The idea of an Islamic state seemed noble enough. which remains to this day the blueprint for a genuinely Islamic society. Maulavi.But trying to replicate the Medinese polity remains an ideal. Everything should have fallen in place. he left behind a tradition. the bureaucracy and government. It explains why even those Ulamas and Maulavis (like Moulana Maudoodi). and gone without a hitch. etc. When the Prophet Mohammad died in AD 632.. but there were no written guidelines on how a state should be run. The desire for an ideal Islamic state has been described as follows (83): The quest for it reflects the desire to model Muslim politics on the original Islamic community in Medina.Imam. who had opposed Jinnah. The Ideal Islamic state existed at the time of the Prophet Mohammad.. Every group in Pakistan needed Islam only for their narrow self interest. the army and the mullahs seemingly being in agreement with each other on the question of the Islamic status of Pakistan. The men 87 who controlled the sword. With everyone in Pakistan. Islamic people often ended up being controlled by the nearest strongman. went to Pakistan as they saw no role in India for themselves. Mo-alim.. . there really should have been no problem.have a vested interest in establishing an Islamic state where they are locus of power and have tremendous scope for employment.. Mozin. In the absence of such guidelines.

. the poets and the ulema of the age. but there were no formal criteria for determining the community's leadership or judging its legitimacy.the military ruler taking absolute control over Islamic people had already existed in Mughal India.In general.. the Prophet's successors were expected to be personally pious and to behave according to the guidance left by the Prophet.In theory the sultan's authority in religious matters was limited by the holy law of the Qu'raan and no sultan could clearly divorce religion from politics. Succession of leadership among Islamic people has been a bone of contention ever since that time. 88 and was implemented and .. The real source of the sultan's authority was military strength. (a non-profit multinational organization resolving conflict) the introduction following quote (85): committed to carries the The Muslim state in India was a theocracy. a Professor of religious studies. Tamara (84): Sonn. But in practice the Muslim sultan of India was a perfect autocrat and his word was law... wrote (The Prophet) Muhammad's prophetic mantle was not inherited by his successors. In a report on the relationship of the mullahs and the military in Pakistan by the International Crisis Group. and this was understood and acquiesced the soldiers. and he did not leave behind a specific political system or designate a successor. The precedent of the strongman .controlled the ulema (scholars) and the people.. And Pakistan is no exception.

zakat. and in that invention faith was of little help. seceded and formed Bangladesh (chapter 11). always Islamic and they compelled their people to be more and more Islamic. Other forces in Pakistan who wanted power and influence. could only supply the simple negatives that answered emotional needs: no alcohol. The Pakistan army was invited to take power.perpetuated in Pakistan. It was done. Criticism of Pakistan was criticism of Islam. no feminine immodesty. After all Pakistan was formed for Islam. it had to be invented. More and more Islamic laws had to be passed and implemented. liked it. The effort to make Pakistan purely described by V. or reached some accommodation with the army. Pakistani leaders claimed. at the moment. East Pakistanis their minds poisoned by India according to some West Pakistani commentators. And it was all done in the name of Islam. to uphold Islam and represent Islam.S Naipaul in his believers”(75) Islamic has been book “Among the This Islamic state couldn't simply be decreed. no interest in the banks. The sharia. Faith. and put and end to the people's misery. Pakistani leaders were always right. would solve all of Pakistan's problems. it was implied. This blow to Pakistan was explained on the basis of Pakistan not being Islamic enough. such as the politicians. But soon in 89 . Anything that Pakistan did was done in the name of Islam. revolted. It was to be assumed by all who were watching that Pakistan itself was the embodiment of Islam. and the Hudood ordinance were brought in. bureaucrats and the ulema used the army. Gradually the non-Muslim minorities of Pakistan were squeezed out (chapter 6) They had no role in Islamic Pakistan. Islamic fervor. and held on to power.

ensured the delivery number of men to fight for Pakistan. liberal lifestyle conveyed the impression of a progressive society to Western aid givers. no parliament. no dissent. The rich got money. no law courts. The burgeoning of madrassas and ensured that they would have jobs and influence. the army got weapons. ensured that foreign aid poured in and the economy of the wealthy in Pakistan boomed. the serfs and underlings.Pakistan these negatives were to be added to: no political parties. and the army became richer. and in the vacuum only the army could rule. the rulers and influential people of Pakistan did not have to be all that Islamic. getting richer. the army. More and more Pakistanis were needed to fight Pakistan's wars. They took charge of the madrassas with gusto and preached with fervor. Men were needed to fight India.S. secure and happy in their newly funded madrassas. The elite stayed rich. However. The army brass. Pakistan's alliance with the U. Pakistanis were urged to do jihad . Each Islamic jihadi. and the mullahs. Pure Islam was for the hoi-polloi. but the external violence of the Generals and their games of military domination. ready to embrace 90 . Men were needed to fight the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. self correcting jihad of the Koran. while the poor of Pakistan got madrassas (Islamic schools) to ensure that they became more Islamic. and their modern. brought up with fervor of any in a madrassa. the faith was asserted because only the faith seemed to be whole. They preached jihad.not the internal. In order to be good Muslims. needed men to do their fighting. The mullahs of Pakistan were doubly happy. for Islam. So existing institutions were deemed to be unIslamic and undermined or undone. Jihad against the enemies of Islam. was ready to die for a cause..

it was to be the first truly Islamic state since the days of the Prophet and his close companions 91 .Extraordinary claims began to be made for Pakistan: it was founded as the land of the pure. This glorious scene became Pakistan's version of Islam. while their wards and students were encouraged to seek the pleasures of an afterlife. The state withered. their families accepting that the death of their son would bring glory and honour. Rich generals doing office jobs while men from the poor classes with little to live for were trained. And in that quest of the Islamic absolute the society of believers.. it could only be because men had failed the faith. where every action was instinct with worship men lost sight of the political origins of their state. aiding the Generals' wars. indoctrinated and prepared for death. Failure only led back to the faith. grew stronger. got fatter.the people who trained them and sent them to die the army and the mullahs. The state had been founded as a homeland for Muslims. As the institutions of Pakistan failed in this unique and unorthodox concept of a nation. And as these men prepared for and died fighting for the cause that they had been told was Islamic . in league with lazy Generals. If the state failed it wasn't because the dream was flawed. obtainable only by violence and death. In a remarkably prescient passage Naipaul observes (75). and more powerful. the faith Islam. but faith didn't. The Islam of Pakistan's mullahs. or the faith flawed. preaching an Islam that would keep the mullahs comfortable in this life..and accept the guaranteed benefits of dying in jihad in an afterlife to be enjoyed in a well-stocked heaven.

‘the army of Islam. out of its Islamic striving. Co-opting the Pakistani citizen under the Islam banner eminently served the interests of the rich and corrupt elite of Pakistan in maintaining their grip and preserving their business and territorial interests. And the Pakistani state died. India had been held in check only by God and the Pakistani army.’ upholding the faith and protecting Pakistan. and replaced it with nothing 92 .S. In his characteristically astute manner V. was created by Muslims for Muslims. To be Pakistani was to be a good Muslim. the mullahs and the ulema were necessarily allowed to exercise spiritual control over the Pakistani masses to ensure that Pakistan remained adequately and properly Islamic in all arenas. which presented itself as the savior. Naipaul concludes (75): Step by step. it was stressed. Pakistan had undone the rule of law it had inherited from the British. It was drummed in that this was necessary because India was always there to swallow up Pakistan. Every Pakistani had to strive to be a good Muslim.The average Pakistani citizen was coerced or co-opted by putting Islam first. Pakistan. Muslim clerics.

I will tell you the country in two sentences. Pakistan itself means “Land of the Pure” and Pakistani identity has been sought to be defined on the basis that Pakistan is a land of pure Muslims. the Muslims of India woke up. They hated the foreigners and they hated the Hindus. and encouraged the replacement of that culture by an invented Islamic culture. Among the Believers. In the first century the Hindus of India decided that was wrong had to do with foreigners and foreign influence. (75) Naipaul quotes the words of a man story of this quarter of this everything that describing Pakistan. Aiyer says that the best definition for Pakistani is “One who is not Indian”. In their effort to ensure that Pakistanis are not Indian. and survival of Pakistan required the rejection of all that was Indian. This experiment is unique in the world. The birth.Chapter 9 ATTITUDES TOWARDS INDIA AND INDIANS Career diplomat-turned-politician Mani Shankar Aiyer served as India's first Consul General in Karachi. Pakistani authorities have done everything in their power to discourage any Pakistani from displaying cultural traits that are seen as Indian in character. They had a double hate. and he has published his collected writings on Pakistan in a book entitled Pakistan Papers (86). But Mani Shankar Aiyer has recognised a gradual change of attitudes to India 93 . Then in the second quarter. The predominant Pakistani attitude toward India is hatred. and go on further to define themselves as pure Muslims. Pakistanis define their identity as being non-Indian. So the country of Pakistan was built on hate and nothing else. No other nation has attempted to so totally reject its existing culture while retaining only the faith or religion. In his book.

or ten or whatever number of Kafirs was widely believed. Up until 1971 it was hate and contempt.all but the most blind Pakistani today looks back on what happened to his country in 1971 at the hands of India as a great defeat. which evolved from simple 94 . lad lad ke lengey Hindustan' We got Pakistan with a triumphant smile We fill fight and take Hindustan (India) Myths about a single Muslim soldier being the equal of four. perhaps hours. India struggled but improved.. it was put about and accepted implicitly that in a matter of days. but after 1971. till 1971 he looked back on what happened . Dislike and distrust of India became an industry in Pakistan. Aiyer continues: From 1947 to 1971 the general belief (in Pakistan) was: 'hans hans ke liya tha Pakistan. Like life itself.among Pakistanis. while Pakistan split up and tottered. the flag of Islam would be imparted on the ramparts of the Red Fort. as a great victory. Aiyer writes (86): .. And hatred of India grew. Pakistani attitudes have changed to hate and fear. Columnist Hamid Hussain describes the Pakistani army officer corps' attitude toward Indians prior to the 1965 war (58): The general despise (sic) of Hindus and doubting their capacity of able (sic) to give a good fight was almost universal Over the years.

The fact that in 1965 and also in Kargil it was the Moslems of India who alerted the country is too insulting to believe. India who caused the trauma of of India was the reason defeating India for this reason was a hateful nation of people partition. in the Pakistani mindset. huge Banyan trees. and opposition to India was the reason for Pakistan's birth. Brig. tigers. For others. is the cause of their 95 . Hatred for India and Indians has been made into a national purpose. It was worth alone. Pakistan existed because Muslims would be suppressed in India. The cup of Pakistani hatred brims over and organisms into a multitude of life forms. Pakistanis evolved a plethora of reasons to hate India. In an article written for Pinnacle magazine (87). to be fought. hatred of India was nurtured to evolve. insects and men. grow and metamorphose into a multitude of reasons and justifications. Hatred and mistrust for the creation of Pakistan. makes it difficult for the Pakistanis to accept the reality of India's intrinsic superiority in size and economy. with active hatred being taught in Pakistani schools as described in Chapter 3. fragrant flowers. a national obsession in Pakistan. This was a source of resentment to many elite Pakistanis who had left everything in India to be in Pakistan. based on assumed religious superiority. India was the enemy. elephants. The act of partition at independence left Pakistanis with a small moth-eaten nation. Raychaudhuri sums up Pakistani attitudes to India: This shattering of the psychological indoctrination. For these people nothing would be better than exacting revenge for their lost lives. defeated and brought to its knees.

Pakistanis had to be good Muslims to survive. the continued occupation of that state against the will of its people. As recently as December 2003. they had to give up Indianness. and Islamic fervor had to be increased to oppose India. 96 .000 or 70. to make them more Islamic. who are always at work to create disgruntlement in Pakistan's smaller provinces. hatred and fear of India had to grow stronger.nation('s) deprivations. Pakistan could not develop because of India. and the merciless killing of thousands of innocent Kashmiris by the Indian occupation forces. • Constant efforts to destabilize Pakistan through its agents. just like India was accused of killing or raping 30. to make them good Muslims. hatred of India was needed as the justification for the wealth of the Pakistan army. and for the health of army businesses surviving on state handouts. some of which are: • Indian usurpation of Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistanis were poor because of Indian aggression. thus forcing this country to enter into a suicidal arms race with the consequent irreparable damage to its economy. a retired Colonel of the Pakistan Army wrote the following accusations against India (88): There is a long list of other hostile Indian actions against Pakistan. And as India grew stronger. • Conducting terrorist activities in various parts of Pakistan to exploit ethnic and religious differences. Furthermore.. • Developing Pakistan-specific nuclear and conventional arsenal. because India was there to subjugate or kill all Muslims.000 or whatever number of people in Kashmir. India had to be hated to keep Pakistanis in line.

by adopting either the Riyal or the Dinar. Persian..• Keep bullying Pakistan by concentrating Indian armed forces on its borders and on the Line of Control in Kashmir on trumped up grounds.ministries must. others try to urge Pakistan to virtually move out of the Indian subcontinent into Central Asia or even the Middle East.from the perigee of wanting to occupy and subjugate parts of India.... • Educational: The other major facets of Pakistan's identity . • Cultural: Islamabad's cultural cooperation with West Asian and Central Asian countries must be revitalized. having previously imposed three wars on Pakistan.. Turkic and Central Asian . And while some Pakistanis have reacted to India with this degree of hatred and suspicion. even denying 97 .the Arab.. and these must be compulsory reading for Pakistani students It is both ludicrous and sad to see Pakistani loathing for India covering the full spectrum .instead of the Rupee.deemphasize Pakistan's inclusion in South Asia and play up Pakistan's role in Central and West Asia. Expecting an enemy with such a criminal record to change its heart overnight and become friendly toward us is nothing but inanity.the following steps are necessary: • Political: Pakistan's..must be emphasized in our schoolbooks.. • Changing the name of Pakistan's national monetary unit . If this requires drafting new books on Pakistan studies. Ahmad Quraish wrote in the Pakistani paper the Nation (89): .. so be it. to the apogee of wiping out memories of India. which has exclusive Indian connotations.

98 . And all this while Indian children are taught to recognise Pakistanis as just like us.Pakistan's links with India and claiming imagined links with Central and West Asia.

which included a large number of Punjabi Muslims from the area that was to later become Pakistan. deception. and from many sources. There is almost no activity in Pakistan that the army is not involved in doing. Because of their loyalty and docility under British leadership. Time and time again. crime. business. industry. lucre and self preservation. these troops began to be known as hailing from a martial race 99 . the Pakistani army leads a charmed existence.Chapter 10 THE PAKISTANI ARMY: POWER AND GLORY IN THE FAMILY The word Army for the Pakistan army is a pitifully inadequate description for an organization that does vastly more. It has been noted in an earlier chapter (Chapter 5) that due to historic reasons dating from the 1857 war of Indian independence. and there is no group in Pakistan or among Pakistan's neighbors that the Pakistani army has not fought. although that has begun to change recently. fighting by proxy. the Pakistani army started off as a regular army. How the Pakistani army changed from a regular army into this Hydra-headed monster has an interesting history. antagonised or disagreed with. power. guns. Calling the Pakistan army by that name is akin to describing a 30-course meal as a light snack. being admired by most of Pakistan. generals. But yet. and has diversified into more ventures than most armies in the world could dream of doing. one can find people who have made the quote: Pakistan is not a nation with an army. terrorism. religion. with soldiers. the British increasingly recruited people from the Northwest of undivided India. it is an army with a nation Of course. greed. But its tentacles have spread into politics. tanks and valor.

• Pakistani army units from Punjab were tasked with the protection of civilians in the post-partition violence. vast tracts of land in West Punjab had been awarded to them. but had political clout as well as political opinions. • As part of the settlement of retired army personnel. the military in Pakistan was not merely the military. who began to see themselves as being of a superior martial race. • 70% of the voters in Pakistani Punjab had some connection with the military • Punjab itself was partitioned so a lot of army personnel had relatives or friends in Punjab who were affected by the events of partition. or families were affected during • Punjabi units were also utilised in Pakistan's unsuccessful attack to wrest Kashmir from India in 1947. The Punjabi dominated army 100 also considered itself a . so the personnel in these army units served both as protectors of the civilians as well as sufferers as their villages partition. The military also actually owned a lot of land because of the policy of settling retired soldiers by gifting land. • Punjab was the most populous province of Pakistan. especially a deep hatred for India. Thus the Pakistani army was dominated by Punjabis. several other unique observations can be made about the Pakistani province of Punjab (West Punjab) at the time of independence and partition(80). For these reasons. Apart from the predominance of Muslim Punjabis in the Pakistani army.(57). • Pakistani Punjab was militarized because of the large number of Punjabis in the military.

They were not about to fritter away that victory by allowing power to pass into the hands of the more numerous uneducated locals in democratic elections. and apart from the Punjabi dominated Army. and the rule of Pakistan to a Bengali party from faraway East Pakistan. a new nation. who stood to lose their lands and influence. Besides 101 . considered an inferior race. The army. All these tendencies were present or had set in shortly after independence in 1947. Pakistan . and for Islam. might actually end up ruling all of Pakistan.martial race with superior fighting and leadership qualities compared to the East Bengalis (East Pakistanis) who were considered effeminate. These people suddenly had a nation to lead. The areas that constituted West Pakistan were largely rural. Democracy was feared democracy attenuating their inconvenient for the ruling elite of Pakistan. But there was an additional factor that led to the induction of the Pakistani army into the role of absolute rulers of of the biggest countries on earth. there were not many educated local people to make up the bureaucrats. and the Hindu Indians. These posts were filled by the educated elite migrants from British India. the reason these migrants had left India was precisely because they privileges. largely mohajirs and Punjabis. After all. legal experts. And democracy also brought with it the danger that the more numerous Bengalis. in the same way as they would later refuse to hand over power. having been tasked to protect Pakistanis during partition began to consider itself as the protector and savior of Islam. It was also inconvenient for the feudal lords in Pakistan. It was a victory for them. engineers and technocrats that were required in the government of the new Pakistan.

ruled in league with Army Chief. Elections were constantly the civilian authority used the Army to until the first bloodless military coup although that was the first year that the postponed and stay in power of 1958. who had to give up space and resources to the migrants from India. general Mohammad Ayub Khan. Ayub ousted Mirza and imposed martial law in October 1958 The military coup by Gen Ayub Khan was a watershed of sorts as it marked the first step by the Pakistani military to gain and retain control of Pakistan. And Pakistani army officially came into power. from their huge neighbor India. and to Islam itself. It seems virtually certain that no single individual in the Pakistani 102 army could have been a . (Governor- General Iskander) Mirza. Pakistan was nominally a parliamentary ruled the state with the elections were held . the army nevertheless had shared power with the elite in Pakistan for nearly a decade before that.. No President had power to dismiss used it liberally. The ruling elite of Pakistan therefore had a deep vested interest in not handing power to the people of Pakistan.. A report from the International Crisis Group (53) has this to say: In the first decade of Independence.. And what better way to do that than to declare a threat to Pakistan. and stopped being a junior partner to the civil bureaucracy in government. the migrant elite faced some resistance from the locals in West Pakistan. In the period from 1958 to 1971 the Pakistan Army gradually consolidated its hold on power in Pakistan. Dispensing even with the pretence of democracy.these facts.the the Prime Minister and democracy but civil bureaucrats military as junior partner.

be they power. undesirable individuals or rewarding others is. finances or honour are not harmed. thus. The International Crisis Group's paper on democracy in Pakistan (53) refers to the Pakistani Army's role in this period as follows: Fearing that its defeat would translate into popular demands for accountability. It is a cooperative system. rather than power handed down from a single supremo.strongman without the connivance and cooperation of the Punjabi and feudal lord dominated military brass of the Pakistani army. The Pakistani army is like a close-knit fraternity. however.. a biradari. been 103 . a preferred choice.The military's defeat in the 1971 war with India had. The Army replaced Ayub Khan when it was sensed that popular opposition to Ayub Khan would harm the Army’s interests. Pakistani (90): security analyst Ayesha Siddiqa-Agha writes It is important to note that Pakistan's armed forces especially the army operates like a fraternity. who oversaw the splitting away of East Pakistan and the formation of Bangladesh after the worst defeat that the Pakistani armed forces have ever faced replaced him. severe punishments to individuals or extraordinary treatment of a similar nature are viewed as undermining the morale of the institution. during and after 1965 when he launched and lost a war with India. Sidelining discreetly Ayub exercised total control of Pakistan before. while ensuring that its interests. and General Yahya Khan. In this environment. a family or brotherhood. that protects its own from harm and disrepute. the (army) high command transferred power to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.

All military governments in Pakistan. In fact a damning report on the actions and defeat of the Pakistani army in the 1971 war. businesses and non-military interests of the Pakistan army that are so keenly protected and preserved. The army ensures that its officer class live in great style and to East Pakistan. But the Pakistani army has always grabbed power from elected governments or prevented democracy from actually being established. Military leaders quickly recouped losses and closed ranks against perceived civilian threats to their personal and institutional interests It is clear that even as early as 1971 the Pakistan Army had enough of a vested interest in retaining power in Pakistan to pretend to hand over power to a civilian government in order to maintain the reputation and interests of the Pakistan army from public scrutiny and accountability. A report in the Washington Post in 2002 (91) described army life in the following words: The officer class in Pakistan has always had a strong sense of entitlement stemming from its dominant role in defending the country and in running it. the Hamoodur Rehman report was never made public until a copy was obtained and published by the Times of India. Despite 93. One of the fanciest clubs in Karachi is the Defense Housing Authority County and Golf Club.. and have prevented all attempts to check the finances or power of the military in any way.. its infrastructure in the West was untouched. including the one currently headed by General Musharraf have grabbed power to save Pakistan and bring in a sound democratic system. a sparkling new facility 104 .000 prisoners of war in India. It is informative to look at the perquisites.

according to the club's fee schedule The same paper goes on to say: the military also rewards its senior officers by allowing them to purchase agricultural and urban land from the army's vast inventory of real estate at prices far below market value. Mediterranean-style villas grouped around a playground and an elaborately landscaped Japanese-style garden. the handsome school is an educational showpiece whose computer..with lush fairways. A gated community protected by paramilitary troops. the development consists of spacious.. compared with $9. Active-duty military personnel can join the club for an initiation fee of $16. restaurants and a yoga studio Describing the decrepit and run-down state of most schools in Pakistan. a two-story driving range and a gracious stone clubhouse overlooking an inlet of the Arabian Sea...One of Pakistan's most coveted addresses. is the blandly named Army Housing Scheme II. jewelry stores. physics and biology labs would not seem out of place in an American suburb There are an enormous number of news media reports of the money and businesses that the Pakistani army controls.166 for civilians. Nearby are clothing the upscale Karachi suburb of Clifton. the Washington Post goes on to compare that with a Pakistani army run school: Geared toward preparation for the competitive O Level exams required by British universities. The Independent of London described the contrast between a Pakistani army establishment and the rest of Pakistan (92): 105 . for example.

rose bushes surround welltended lawns and officers' messes decorated with polished brass fittings. Where does the money for all this come from? A report in the Daily Times of Pakistan in August 2002 says. In recent relation to country's per capita income Pakistani senior military officers are one of the best paid in the world. with equivalent academic qualifications and so little productivity produces comparable personal affluence as that of the officer cadre of the Pak military.. Inside. senior military officers have been transformed into powerful landlords through grants of choice agricultural lands and real estate.. No other career. Defense expenditures consume between onethird and one-half of the national budget. The Pakistan Weekly reported (94): .. All countries have armies. Their children have a quota at most public universities. No rubbish litters this perfect world of discipline. but in Pakistan the army has a country.Outside in the street.. Why should anyone living here want a return to corrupt democracy? A report in the online edition of the Pakistani newspaper Dawn said (93): The perks don't end here: military personnel are entitled to a 50 per cent discount on air and rail fares as well as cinema tickets. Retired officers head 106 . Afghan refugees and Pakistan's urban poor root through garbage tips and crowd on to soot-pumping buses to work in sweatshops and brick factories. newly painted cannons and battalion flags. and serving and retired officers are routinely inducted into civilian jobs. behind the ancient.

. Pakistan. The high defence budget is not the only source of income for the luxury loving Pakistani army. security analyst Dr. In her study of the Pakistan military's economic activities. Shaheen Sehbai wrote in the Weekly Independent in 2002 (95). at the expense of all other expenditure and all other groups in Pakistan. For decades almost 35 to 40 per cent of Pakistan's and no- revenues have been going into questions-asked defence budget.4% of GDP. It also controls a huge business empire. from among the poorest of countries . The News International.many. but the army ensures great personal wealth for its serving and retired personnel especially those of the higher ranks. as Pakistan's poor multiply and the economy falters. spends the highest on defence. Ayesha-Siddiqa Agha describes 107 why the businesses were . 2001: Pakistan reported on Sunday As a % of GDP. and those seen as cooperative people who toe the line. former editor of the English language daily the News was threatened by the army and forced to flee Pakistan and live in exile (96). This garrison economy is increasingly unsustainable. un-audited For this report and other reports on the activities of the Pakistani army. at 4. public corporations. The excuse for the high defence expenditure has been the external threat from India. September 09. Shaheen Sehbai. Part of the army's wealth is from the extremely high defence budget that Pakistan has maintained for decades. if not most.

cement.. Siddiqa-Agha.started in the first place (90).800 million according to Dr. with a small quota for the Air Force and Navy. Aksari aviation was set up merely to accommodate retired army helicopter pilots who could not get a job in the 108 . fertilizer. They are not necessarily profitable. safe from accountability and questions. and the senior employees make fat salary packets. shoes. aviation. wool. rice and sugar mills. power and education and healthcare. The four key armed-forces run business organizations in Pakistan are The Fauji Foundation. but they survive on government subsidies and grants. the Army Welfare Trust. mostly in middle and upper management positions. The Pakistani army's business enterprises were started for the welfare of retired personnel. The Fauji foundation's assets have grown from Pakistani Rs. fish farms.the military's business empire in Pakistan was created to guarantee welfare of retired and serving personnel. the Shaheen Foundation and the Bahria Foundation. pharmaceuticals. to 9. plastics. The Fauji Foundation's businesses include sugar mills. and employs 6 to 7 thousand military personnel. insurance and security with many bearing the name Aksari. Initially only the army had its businesses. Natural gas. and the vast enterprise has grown to gargantuan proportions. Later these two branches started off their own businesses. commercial complexes. banking. hosiery. travel agencies. . The Army Welfare Trust has 26 projects including farms. 152 million in 1970. cement factories. It was a pattern inherited from the pre-independence days. stud farms. cereal and corn. competition is scared off by military threats.

paints. But they are normal and routine for the Pakistani armed forces. radio.000-acre dairy. cargo. Not to be outdone. Farrukh Saleem. the 17. Not too long ago. insurance. The only wrapping that Fauji Cereal ever uses comes from Fauji Poly Propylene Products. the Pakistani armed forces have diversified into fields well outside the mandate of an armed force. insurance. salvage and even a university. trading. construction. The Bahria Foundation deals in commercial complexes. The only sugar that I ever liked was either from the four Fauji Sugar Mills or Army Welfare Sugar Mills.private sector. to start its own venture. the navy. the Bahria Foundation in 1981. meat and grain-producing project. a travel agency. dredging. During my days at the village. There is no nation in the world whose armed forces are involved in as many non-military business ventures as the Pakistan armed forces. deep sea fishing. airport services. pay TV. Like a core business that has diversified. milk use to come from the nearby Okara Military Farms. a freelance Pakistani columnist wrote in the Pakistani daily Jang (97): Fauji Cereal has been part of my daily breakfast for as long as I can remember. ship breaking. 109 I didn't want to be . the Pakistan air force established the Shaheen foundation which is now involved in air transportation. my wife wanted to build a house. commercial complexes and radio stations are ventures that do not obviously appear to be an essential part of the armed forces of any nation and would not be justifiable in any other nation on earth. Dr. Banking. FM That left Pakistan's smallest force. knitwear and commercial complexes.

The only cement I will use is Fauji Cement. the military run businesses of Pakistan are above all accountability. (98) With the military in government. Fauji Jordan Company. Siddiqa-Agha makes a scathing indictment(90): Ayesha The top management of the armed forces jealously guard their interests.anywhere but in one of the six Askari Housing Schemes. Dr. The paint for my house must come from no one but Bahria Paints. the ventures were started not based on any feasibility study but on the whims of the top management to accommodate certain highranking officers. and are preserved by intimidation 110 that scares away . employing thousands of serving and retired army personnel. In her study of the Army's businesses. Fauji Oil Terminal Company Project and Mari Gas Company. FONGAS. corruption and self-interest. The army also operates what is called the National Logistic Cell (NLC) which is a trucking and transportation giant in Pakistan. The web page of the NLC describes its army connection euphemistically as a unique logistic based Public Sector Organisation which has [a] blend of corporate culture and Army's discipline. I wish I was right next to Fauji Kabirwala Power Company because I hate the power that Wapda comes out with. The businesses run by the Pakistani armed forces are marked by inefficiency. A feature peculiar to a number of cases is. Over the years the interests have narrowed down from the greater benefit of the institution to the personal welfare of the generals. and the defence ministry manned by retired military officers. Fauji also owns and operates Fauji Corn Complex. Fauji Fertilizer Company.

Nearly half the billionaires were from the army or close relatives of senior army personnel. Such lists exist all over Punjab and Sindh where a new breed of landlords has already been created through similar allotments.. you find out they are inefficient. heart of Punjab." Siddiqa-Agha said. "to defend it from the enemy. the Pakistan army's main problem shifts away from the defence of Pakistan to the defence of their own wealth and power. In another report in August 2002. Which wealthy army general living in the lap of luxury would want to give up his good life for the hardship and travails of war? Besides. and there is evidence of corruption.a list of over 100 armed forces men who allotted to themselves at least 400 or more acres of prime land in Bahawalpur. the South Asia Tribune reported (99): ." at the throw away rate of Rs 380 per acre (US Dollars Six & 50 cents). The list is only of one District.. which could cure many political and social imbalances in the Pakistani society. "There is also evidence of corruption linked to monopolization of government contracts.This conversion of generals into landlords also explains why no serious effort has been made by the military to introduce land reforms in the country. wealth and power. An online report in the Crescent International revealed a list of Pakistani billionaires and millionaires with accounts in Swiss banks.competitors or people who try to question their activities. Corruption in running these businesses has been noted by Siddiqa-Agha and others (96): "When you dig into them. the risk to this life is not so 111 . With this degree of money..

The Islamicists have offered two critical inputs to the military: they have provided armed manpower for the military's security agendas in the neighborhood. the center of anti-Indian sentiment. A report in the Washington Times recognised this (102): The Pakistani army. This Islamization of Pakistan and the Pakistani army accelerated after the 1971 defeat of the Pakistani army by India in the war of liberation of Bangladesh. the hundreds of Islamic seminaries have become breeding 112 . and recruitment to the army benefits the poor who are inclined to Islamic fundamentalism. In fact. Poverty and destitution in Pakistan are because India is trying to attack Pakistan and kill Muslims. a staggering 85% of whom live on less than US $2 per day (100). the Pakistan army has maintained a mutually profitable relationship with Islamic elements in the country. but by anger and opposition to the corrupt and wealthy army from the desperately poor people of Pakistan. Increasingly under pressure within Pakistan for their greed the Pakistani army has used Islam and the external threat from India to retain their power and wealth. And they have been ever ready to join hands with the military to undermine popularly elected and mainstream civilian governments inimical to the military's corporate view of Pakistan's interests in one way or another. rallied radical Islamic forces to the cause. because the sacrifice of jihad is required to fight India. Pakistani journalist Najam Sethi noted in an article in the Friday Times of Pakistan (101): Since the late 1970s. as in Afghanistan since 1979 and in India since 1989. The people must be more Islamic. Pakistan is a poor country.much from an attack by India.

Another report in the Asia Times in 2003 (103) reveals the depth to which the Pakistan army's fighting forces have become intertwined with Islamic jihadis. The Pakistan army has.. a regular army of around 500. But there is an Army of Islam. so in the 1990s it was decided that they would act as a front-line force in any IndiaPakistan war. Each jihadi commander is given funds and the brief to devise a strategy for his unit's combat operations. Thus. subcontracted its fighting to the jihadis. with a total strength of about 200. they gradually subcontracted the actual fighting to Islamist irregular forces. so-called by Pakistan itself.. the army has become a harbinger for Islamic ideological orientations. Each unit has a commander who reports to an army officer.000.grounds for terrorism and centers for the recruitment of junior officers to the Pakistan army.. During the Kargil conflict 113 of 1999. these jihadis played so vital a role that they outdid the army.000. First-hand observations by this correspondent in Azad Kashmir camps confirm that the jihadi outfits are in fact paramilitary troops.purpose was to develop a paramilitary force that would assist the Pakistan army in the event of war. However. The commanders have lap top computers in which they store their data. The jihadi outfits. As the Pakistani army generals consolidated their financial and business empires. from which they generate summaries of their operations for their military officers.. over the course of the last few decades.Raman was quoted in the online portal Rediff (104): Pakistan has two armies. in the course of the 1989 uprising in Kashmir. Former Indian Intelligence analyst B. Pakistan .

refused to admit that any of their forces were involved in the fighting. In another article. Parthasarathy. but not before the Pakistani Northern Light Infantry was virtually wiped out. information regarding the Pakistani army would be incomplete without mention of the criminal activities and genocide that they have been involved in: G. owns the largest construction company and the largest transportation company the National Logistics Cell— that has the dubious distinction of not only transporting weapons for the ISI and the CIA. Rouge led by the genocidal Pol Pot. saying that Kashmiri mujahideen were doing the fighting. controls the largest network of elite public schools. except the Khmer evidence following (1971). Documented of the numbers of Pakistani citizens killed the carnage by the Pakistan army in Bangladesh Baluchistan (1972-1974). former Indian High Commissioner to Pakistan wrote (106): The Pakistan army is today the largest investor in the Karachi Stock Exchange. rural Sind (1983 onwards) and the urban centres of Sind against the MQM 114 . Parthasarathy outlines the role of the Pakistani army in genocides and the killing of its own people(107): The Pakistan army has killed more of its own citizens in the past three decades than any other armed force. But as Pakistani soldiers bodies began appearing in Pakistan the truth leaked out. The latter fact was confirmed in an interview with deposed Former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in an interview at his place of exile in Saudi Arabia (105). but also heroin from Peshawar for export from Karachi. Pakistani troops withdrew in the face of defeat. Finally.

RAW's former Pakistan expert.two or three of the 10 corps commanders are seen as Islamicists. B. A large number of men in the lower ranks of the Pakistani army now have fundamentalist Islamic leanings. it may be said that the Pakistani army retained a great degree of respect among the people of Pakistan from the time of independence. it is 115 .(in the 1990s). On the other hand are the Islamists. But the army did none of these things. The Pakistani army has set itself on the course of a serious split. the army commanders on the one hand and Allah on the other. promising to bring back democracy and to fight and defeat the number one enemy. One of these masters will lose and it is unlikely that the followers of God as supreme army commander will give up without a fight. On the one hand are the rich and corrupt generals. Indian Intelligence analyst B. the Pakistani army being the only viable institution out. and built up a huge business empire for its senior officers and sycophants while the actual fighting was given over to jehadis fired up with Islamic zeal. who are indoctrinated on the exclusivity and superiority of their brand of religion. the With that seems to be represented almost all over Pakistan. with their businesses and lands. says only one of the 30 officers of lieutenant-general rank and above is definitely a jehadi.Raman was quoted in a report (108): . Based on this the army repeatedly took power in Pakistan with the promise of setting things right. India. It started unwinnable wars. In short the Pakistani army has people who are serving two masters. confirms this fact. In late 2003. This Islamic zeal has gradually entered the ranks of the Pakistani army. Raman.. In conclusion. and these lower ranks will be senior officers with the passage of time.

difficult to imagine what could be in store for Pakistan other than serious instability when differences begin to show up between the Islamists and the corrupt mafia of the Pakistani army. 116 .

in two clusters that were to form West and East Pakistan. documents 111). and needs to be described. It is interesting to note that.Chapter 11 KASHMIR. Much has been written on this subject and many references are available. Within this 117 . Pakistan and Bangladesh. and video clips on the Internet (109. Demographer PH Reddy pointed out in an article in the newspaper The Deccan Herald on January 25th 2002 that the basis of division of British India into India and Pakistan was Sir Cyril Radciffe's Boundary Commission which had been tasked with demarcating the districts in India that had a Muslim majority of more than 75% which were to be allotted to Pakistan. But a brief description of the background and outcome of the wars that have been fought give an insight into how Pakistani leaders have viewed the world around them and their relationship with India. WARS AND GENOCIDE It is beyond the scope of this book to enter into a detailed military discussion of the wars that Pakistan has fought with India. 110. myth and misinformation. The commission found 76 out of 435 districts with such a majority. The exact circumstances under which this war started is generally lost in a maze of rhetoric. Kashmir was not one of them. shortly after independence and the formation of Pakistan. Pre-independence India (British India) consisted of present day India. The 1947-48 war: The first conflict started in 1947. including some excellent online references complete with photographs. PLEBISCITE.

the Pakistani army sent in irregular non-army forces as well as army personnel in civilian attire at the forefront of the invasion of Kashmir. The dominion of Kashmir was one such Princely State that was ruled by a King (Maharaja Hari Singh) who had to make the decision of joining India or Pakistan. and he therefore requested both India and Pakistan to sign a treaty called a standstill agreement to maintain supplies and postal services to his landlocked state while he made up his mind. the 600 Princely States were given the option of joining either India or Pakistan by signing a document called the Instrument of Accession. This King had not made up his mind about signing the Instrument of Accession at the time of Indian independence on 15th August 1947. Pakistani leaders suspected that this was a ploy by India to make the Maharaja of Kashmir accede to India.or agreed to join India or Pakistan. 118 . The Instrument of Accession was a legal document saying that a state ruled by a Prince or King had acceded . the Maharaja of Kashmir signed the instrument of accession to India and requested assistance from the Indian Armed forces in protecting his people who were being subjected to rape and pillage by the invading Pakistani forces. and hastily commenced an invasion of Kashmir to take over the Kingdom before the Maharaja made up his mind (112).area were also about 600 states that were not directly ruled by Britain. When it was decided that British India was to be split up into India and Pakistan and given independence. but were Princely States with kings or rulers of their own. Faced with this invasion from Pakistan. In a tradition that was to be repeated in 1965 and 1999. He was hoping to retain his kingdom. India wanted to formalize this agreement with a representative of the King.

. cannot possibly be done without the knowledge of the Provincial Government of the North-West Frontier Province and the Government of has become difficult to stop the wanton destruction of life and property and the looting of the Mahura power house. after which a plebiscite. at a time when Pakistani forces still occupied about onethird of Kashmir in the North West...The letter of accession to India written by the Maharaja of Kashmir (113) is as chilling as it is telling.. but an excerpt follows: The Dominion of India desired further discussion with representatives of my Government.. armed with up-to-date weapons.. The wild forces thus let loose on the State are marching on with the aim of capturing Srinagar. soldiers in plain clothes. salt and petrol to my State. The number of women who have been kidnapped and raped makes my heart bleed. and desperadoes with modern weapons have been allowed to infiltrate into the State. 14th March 1950. After the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India. Though we have got a standstill agreement with the Pakistan Government. The United Nations resolution on Kashmir (Appendix 2) called for a withdrawal of military forces within five months from the date of the resolution. The entire text of the letter is reproduced in Appendix 1. the Indian armed forces started their process of evicting the invading Pakistani marauders in a war that continued till an official UN sponsored cease fire was declared in 1949. the Government permitted a steady and increasing strangulation of supplies like food. Afridis. which supplies electric current to the whole of Srinagar and which has been burnt. (meaning a vote. or a 119 .

and was lauded as a progressive leader among developing nations. and the failure to bend the terms of the now defunct UN resolution to suit Pakistan has been the basis for all further attempts by Pakistan to take Kashmir by force. Pakistan could do no wrong.referendum) could be held to poll the people of the state of Kashmir on the issue. The Pakistan-India war of 1965: The early 1960s were great years for Pakistan. History has shown that Pakistani forces have not withdrawn from the portions of Kashmir that they occupied even 600 months. Pakistan's alliance with the US allowed a great deal of aid money to flow into Pakistan. In the meantime. a portion of Kashmir that Pakistani forces occupied was gifted away to China it appears that no plebiscite of the people of Kashmir was required for giving away a part of the state to China. The economy was booming. and communism was considered the most serious threat by the US. when Soviet nuclear missiles were placed in Cuba right under the nose of the US. held afloat 120 . subversion or diplomacy. Any ally was welcomed as long as he declared that he was opposed to communism. Under military rule. The US in the 1960s had just emerged from the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Pakistan allied itself with the United States of America in the cold war against the Soviet Union. The US was also fighting communist forces in Vietnam. deception. Pakistan's failure to get Kashmir on their terms. or 50 years after the UN resolution was passed. as well as the most sophisticated arms that were available. armed with Sidewinder air to air missiles. These included state-of-the-art supersonic F-104 Starfighter aircraft.

against India. and that the Muslims of India were waiting to rise up in revolt and join Pakistan. The plan was to conduct acts of sabotage and create mayhem after which a radio broadcast was to be made saying that Kashmir had been taken over by revolutionary liberation forces. In the event. as a general rule Hindu morale would not stand more than a couple of hard blows delivered at the right time and place. Pakistani leaders were wrong on both counts. Pakistanis. starting from their military supremo Ayub Khan. Pakistan's military leader felt that the 1960s offered him a chance to invade and take over Kashmir from India. Columnist Hamid Hussain quotes from a letter written by Ayub Khan. after having naively trusted China to do good. In the heady 1960s. The planned broadcast did not take place. mainly from Pakistan. the military dictator of Pakistan (58): General Ayub Khan in his letter to C-in-C General Muhammad Musa stated. Through August 1965 Pakistani forces in civilian clothes were infiltrated into Kashmir as part of Operation Gibralter (sic). Indian forces in 1962 fought valiantly but valor is no substitute for planning and equipment in a war that the Indian Army had not been given the funds or strategy to prepare for. India on the other hand was smarting from a military defeat in the hands of the Chinese in the 1962 war. genuinely believed that one Pakistani soldier equals six Indian soldiers (68). though leaflets were distributed. 121 . the infiltration of Pakistani forces was not welcomed with the pro-Pakistan rebellion of Indians in Kashmir that the Pakistanis had expected. who would ask for international aid dollars.

Pakistan occupied about 490 square kilometers of Indian territory in the Akhnoor region. West Pakistanis always considered their East Pakistani 122 . India opened a second front by attacking Pakistan across the border in Punjab. India ended the war holding about 1. At the time of writing of this. and advancing toward the Pakistani city of Lahore.100 square kilometers of Pakistani territory in the Poonch and Lahore regions. The attackers were planning to take the town of Akhnoor. on September 1st 1965 Pakistan launched Operation Grand Slam. the capital of Jammu and Kashmir. beating back Indian defences. The lessons and punishment suffered by Pakistan should really have been an eye-opener for any responsible and patriotic forces in Pakistan. Gen. Pakistan appears to be repeating the same mistakes again and again. By the time a cease fire was declared on 23rd September 1965. The cease fire was formalized with the Tashkent declaration of January 10th 1966 (Appendix 3) The 1971 war of liberation of Bangladesh: The 1971 war was one of the most shameful episodes in the history of Pakistan. en route to the taking of Srinagar. with Indian troops occupying the Pakistani town of Barki in the Lahore sector.At this stage. Ayub Khan's plan of annexing Kashmir had been foiled. In order to relieve the intense Pakistani pressure in Kashmir. but no such awakening has occurred. the instability that Pakistan displays more than three decades after the 1971 war is indicative of the deeply dysfunctional internal forces that have kept Pakistan in turmoil since then. a massive armor attack on India.

The Pakistani army could not countenance this. gambling that no party would get an overall majority. East and West. This was the beginning of the Pakistani army's darkest and most shameful phase to date.. An East Pakistani party. for a period of 36 hours from the night of the 25th till the 26th night. which meant that true democracy in Pakistan could pave the way for an East Pakistani Bengali to become leader of Pakistan.. Raging infernos everywhere. when General Yahya Khan. the incumbent military dictator of Pakistan allowed an election to be held.. the Pakistani Army began their attack on the Student Halls and Staff Quarters of the University. That was unacceptable to the ruling elite of West Pakistan as well as the Pakistani army. Jagannath Hall. Elections were somehow postponed or avoided until 1971. The killing of Bengalis.Just after midnight Iqbal Hall came under a barrage of heavy mortar and machine-gun attack from near the pond in front and the police barracks behind it. 123 .. headed by Sheikh Mujibur Rehman won a landslide victory and should have formed the government of all of Pakistan. I saw with my own eyes. followed by a genocide of East Pakistani Bengalis. who were all Muslims and fellow Pakistanis was shocking and brutal. and adjoining residential areas.I don't have the words to express the bestiality and barbarity that was perpetrated on the Dhaka University area.Bengali compatriots as somehow inferior and weak. One description. especially Iqbal Hall. Rafiqul Islam of Dhaka Just after midnight on the night of 25th March. the Awami league. He was wrong. But East Pakistan had a population greater than that of West Pakistan. by University reads(114): Prof. What transpired around Iqbal Hall.. and martial law was clamped in East Pakistan.

black against the silvery water. and then silence. The prisoners fell on their sides and their bodies lapped against the shore. The sound of shells bursting and guns firing. Then a new bunch of prisoners was brought out. shooting down at the compact bunches of prisoners wading in the water. floating down rivers. The heaped bodies of the dead from the slum were also set on fire near the Nilkhet rail gate petrol pump. One online source (115) has a collection of references to this and the descriptions are horrific: R. or near army camps. The genocide by the Pakistani army in East Pakistan was the worst seen after the holocaust of Jews by the Nazis in the second World War. they were easy targets. Sweeps were conducted of young men who were never seen again. the cars parked around the residences were burning. There were screams in the hot night air. Bodies of youths would be found in fields.the slum was burning.young boys. In the morning the village boatmen hauled the bodies into midstream and the ropes binding the bodies were cut so that each body drifted separately 124 . the smoke and fire. allowing their bodies to float down-river (115) They were in batches of six or eight. the smell of gun-powder and the stench of the burning corpses all transformed the area into a fiery hell. Bangladesh is a nation criss-crossed by rivers. Rummel likewise writes that "the [sought] out those especially likely Pakistan army to join the resistance -. The executioners stood on the pier. and the process was repeated.J. and the Pakistan army tended to line up men along river-banks at night and shoot them. and in the light of a powerful electric arc lamp.

while Bengali resistance fighters sought Indian help. The Indian plan was a masterly combination of airborne. Unable to stand by and watch the horrific events in East Pakistan.downstream.000 prisoners of war. 1973]. (Payne. is an eminently defensible country cut up by rivers five miles wide and obstructed by marshes. Massacre [Macmillan. putting a great strain on resources. In a whirlwind war the Indian armed forces overran East Pakistan. Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Armed forces into East Pakistan on the humanitarian mission of stopping the killing. A two-front war broke out when the Pakistani Air Force commenced hostilities in the West with air raids on Indian targets on December 3rd 1971. p. the Indian Prime Minister Mrs. taking 93. Shelford Bidwell summarized the military action as follows(48): A close study of this campaign will edify military students for a long time to come. comprehensively defeating the Pakistani army. now Bangladesh (literally Land of Bengal). the new nation of Bangladesh was born out of the ravaged remains of East Pakistan.) Descriptions of rape and killing of Hindus abound and over over 3 million people were killed over a 267 day period seconds an average of one murder committed every 8 by Pakistani army personnel for nearly 9 months. More than 10 million people were accommodated in refugee camps in India. The army of the martial races of Pakistan had capitulated and surrendered a nation of 144.000 square kilometers along with 93.000 of its men in a mere 16 days. Bengal. guerrilla and conventional forces. based on complete mobility and the bypassing of all centres of 125 . The killings in East Pakistan led to a massive influx of refugees into India. 55. Military historian Brig. At the end of this action.

troops and guns were ferried over the rivers by helicopter. Pakistan seems to have gleaned more shame than honour from this action. An astonishing momentum was maintained from start to finish . the war started after their discovery. One of the major disadvantages of a state trying to deny involvement in a war is that neither escalation nor pullout are possible without admitting involvement or conceding that the earlier denial of involvement was a lie in the first place. the Pakistan army had sent soldiers disguised as civilians into Indian territory. albeit a war limited in area. While the entry of these Pakistani forces had gone was a Blitzkrieg without tanks. canoe or country cart as suitable. boat. The advance was not held up for bridging operations. The 1999 Kargil conflict: It was a while before anyone realized that a war had erupted between India and Pakistan in 1999. and 'supply and transport' was by air. Pakistani fortified soldiers in civilian garb occupied themselves within Indian territory in and the heights of the mountains in the Kargil region of Kashmir.resistance. when Indian forces began the 126 process of evicting the . This ultimately has a great bearing on credibility and international standing. and tried to deny any involvement with the conflict. For the third time since independence. These soldiers were then in an advantageous position to defend their positions and to direct accurate artillery fire to cut off a major Indian highway and Indian army supply route.

any answers that fit the known facts suggest a frightening disconnect between perception and reality among the seniormost leaders of Pakistan. accompanied by Indian media coverage of captured Pakistani army identity papers and weapons. Why did Pakistan do it? And having done it. 127 . and an equally frightening lack of communication and cooperation between the leaders themselves. By the time the last abandoned Pakistani soldiers' corpses had been buried by the Indian army. mountain bunkers and supply depots occupied by Pakistani forces were systematically destroyed. Small organizations. The Kargil conflict is very difficult to explain from the Pakistani viewpoint. Pakistan's Northern Light Infantry had been all but wiped out in a war that Pakistan denied till the last moment (105). why did they deny involvement? If they did not want to be identified as being involved. let alone nations cannot function if leaders display a disconnect between their actions and reality.the retreat being announced after a visit by Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to meet US President Clinton. why was it done so half-heartedly? If they wanted to be involved in the conflict. Using the overwhelming firepower at the disposal of the Indian army and air force. why did they admit to involvement later? What was it that Pakistani leaders hoped would be achieved by this action? While there are more questions than answers. The war ended when the last few surviving Pakistani soldiers were pulled out in a humiliating retreat that Pakistan conducted under the fig-leaf of American mediation .Pakistanis from their positions within India. Pakistan denied any involvement in the war until coffins of their soldiers started turning up at their hometowns in Pakistan.

It appears that Pakistani generals believed that India would be afraid to repeat that in 1999 because they feared nuclear retaliation from Pakistan. since they could not prevent their men from carrying identification papers in their personal effects. the more commonly quoted one. and pretending not to be involved? Why the was its did the Pakistani military not plan a counter-offensive to blunt or stop India from relentlessly clearing the heights as it did? The logic defies explanation. after which a Pakistani attack would have isolated and encircled Indian positions in Siachen glacier region. But did they not expect Indian retaliation when they were discovered? Were they so worried about the possibility of discovery that they refused to allow their men to wear uniforms? But that was futile. In the 1965 war. If that was the case. It has been said that after Pakistan's nuclear tests in 1998. it was believed that the morale of the Indian armed forces was at breaking point and that Indian soldiers would be ready to run away from battle at the slightest threat.000 feet high on mountains just within the Indian border? One explanation is that they sought to salami slice into Indian territory by surreptitiously occupying unguarded Indian territory.What could have been Pakistan's motive and ultimate objective in sending army troops dressed in mufti to fortify themselves and occupy positions above 15. is that the men on the mountains were there to help cut off the Srinagar-Leh highway. why Pakistan so concerned about keeping the identity of men secret. and some of the explanations are ludicrous enough to be unbelievable. And within Kashmir it was 128 . India had taken Pakistani pressure off Kashmir by opening a second front in Punjab. Another theory. Pakistani military leaders believed India to be very afraid of Pakistan. Furthermore.

at about the time when Pakistani army men were secretly taking up their positions in the mountains near Kargil. as events have shown. less reassuring assessments. After the Kargil conflict. It is interesting to note that the large and powerful army of Pakistan has cultivated a leadership that somehow believes that the Indian military will be a pushover in battle. In February 1999. with a self-image amounting to delusions of grandeur rather than objective and rational military judgment. senior Pakistani General Javid Nasir wrote in the prestigious Pakistani Defence Journal (116): I say with all the authority and professionalism that 'The Indian army is incapable of undertaking any conventional operations at present what to talk of enlarging conventional conflict' It is inconceivable that a professional Pakistani soldier and senior officer should deliberately and publicly choose to underestimate an adversary without paying the slightest heed to the possibility that the assessment may be wrong. Such an attitude can be termed as nothing short of suicidal. or that there may be alternate. such assessments are more indicative of the psychological state of the Pakistani army officer. This statement by a senior Pakistani army general eerily echoes the assessment made by Pakistani dictator Ayub Khan 34 years earlier when he stated that Indian morale would break after a couple of hard blows. Ved Prakash Malik. the 129 . Gen. As indicated in the description of the Pakistani mind in chapter 5.expected that the Indian army would capitulate and run away.

That is a disquieting thought. 3. 4.India is militarily weak and unprepared.Indian Chief of Army Staff who oversaw the defeat of Pakistani forces in the Kargil conflict wrote about Gen Javid Nasir's article and misperception within the Pakistani army's high command that led them to attempt the Kargil misadventure (117): This was not only a gross underestimation of a possible adversary but also a poor assessment and misperception. 2. will either over-react or under-react.Nuclear umbrella allows offensive action without risk. Some other assumptions and misperceptions which led to the Pakistani offensive operation in Kargil were: 1. 6. weak and indecisive.International community would intervene or stop the war at an early stage. Assumptions regarding enemy weakness and fear can only be termed as high hopes unless they are balanced out by other. putting the onus of escalation on India. But it does not appear that the Pakistani army had planned for anything but easy and cheap victory in Kargil. 130 . If Pakistani Generals persist in thinking of war and easy victories against India.Indian frustration will lead to escalation. less rosy scenarios.The coalition government in India. the chance of Pakistan viewing India with any sanity or objectivity can also be dismissed as high hopes. 5.Military operation under the garb of Mujahideen would focus attention on Kashmir and Pakistan would be able to claim this as a victory.

Much of this area is sparsely populated. The state of Pakistan can be compared to a shattered cookie within an intact wrapper – each fragment is separate. but held together forcibly by the wrapper. Indeed more than half the land area of Pakistan is outside the control of the Pakistan government.” Pakistan has four provinces. The map below 131 . other illtreatment and enforced disappearance. Each province is one part that contributes to the whole. but the peoples in such areas have either declared independence. The “wrapper” that holds the Pakistan state together is the Pakistan army. to the security of the person. In 2006 Amnesty International published a report (159) about human rights violations in the tribal Pakistan.In the "war on terror". with vast swathes of Pakistan falling outside the bounds of any control. including the right to life.. and to legal remedies and reparations. Sindh. Pakistan has violated a wide array of human rights. which has regularly massacred people within those provinces in an effort to maintain control. Balochistan and the Northwest Frontier Province. or are seeking separation from Pakistan. An excerpt from the report says: areas of “. Punjab. to freedom from torture. to freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention.Chapter 12 PROVINCES AND ASSORTED FRAGMENTS The word “provinces” calls to the mind the idea of a nation that has been divided into smaller blocks for administrative reasons. In the case of Pakistan this idea is misleading – Pakistan’s provinces belong to the Pakistani state in name only.

) form the “core provinces” of Pakistan.depicts the provinces of Pakistan. in the absence of any reliable recent census is estimated to be between 160 and 170 million in 2006. which. and contributing over 60% of the personnel in the Pakistan armed forces. The fact that most of the population and economic activity of Pakistan occurs in these three provinces can be seen in the photograph below.P. with Punjabis comprising over 50% of Pakistan’s total population.F. Punjab is by far the dominant province. These provinces form less than half the land area of Pakistan. but are home to over 80% of Pakistan’s population. which shows a map of Pakistan super-imposed on a satellite 132 . Sindh and the Northwest frontier provinces (N. These were the provinces that voted to be part of Pakistan from the outset.W. Punjab.

Almost all of Pakistan is dark. BALOCHISTAN: Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan. which show lights and population activity. Balochistan became part of Pakistan after it was forcibly annexed by the Pakistani army after Pakistan was created in 1947. comprising 42% of the land area. The people of Balochistan have long fought for independence of their land from Pakistani rule.. but it has a population of only about 7 million – or just over 4% of Pakistan’s population.W. and more recently for a fair share of the proceeds from the natural Baluchistan. resources being exploited in In return. except for a strip close to the Indian border representing the provinces of Punjab. including natural gas and minerals. the Pakistan army and successive governments have shown that they want the natural resources more than 133 .F. Sindh and N.photograph of the Indian subcontinent at night.P. Balochistan is rich in natural resources.

In 2006 the same army made an ignominious retreat from the area after suffering hundreds of casualties. This has resulted in the death in 2006 of a prominent and respected Balochi leader and a fierce opponent of Pakistani occupation.A.A. Despite a long struggle the sparse population of Balochistan cannot match the firepower of the Pakstani army.T. The F.A.A.T. The Pakistan army actually entered the F.T. for the first time in its history in 2002 on the pretext of helping the US in its war on terror. area that and other 134 . Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti. signing a peace deal with the Taliban who control an area of the F. called Waziristan (see map on page 136).A. This has been described as a defacto acceptance of an independent “Islamic Emirate of Waziristan” – ruled by the Taliban. They do not recognize Pakistan’s border with Afghanistan and the area is home to a thriving arms industry in which clones of almost any type of small arms are made in small workshops (139).A.A. It is a strip of land on the Northwest border of Pakistan with Afghanistan populated by tribes. of whom less than 2% live in urban areas.they want the people of Balochistan. – or Federally Administered Tribal Areas is a euphemism for a completely lawless area that does not come under Pakistani control at all. A series of massacres of Balochi tribals have occurred with the use of deadly force. F.T. including helicopter gun ships.A. as well as the payment of reparations for damage. in an serves as a safe harbor for the Al Qaeda assorted Islamist militia personnel. The “peace deal” (160) made by the Pakistani Army with people who are supposed to be Pakistani citizens guarantees that the Pakistani army will never return to Waziristan and a return of confiscated weapons.

falls asleep the Sorcerer's Apprentice. in which aircraft were hijacked and crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington were a wake-up call to the somnolent and blinkered intelligence communities of the West about the deep changes taking place in Pakistan. A panicky Mickey wakes up and chops the magic broom into small pieces but each piece then becomes a new apprentice that carries water and the flooding starts to 135 . the magic broom. The sorcerer (magician) is Mickey himself and has the task of drawing water from a well to fill job himself. working tirelessly. Since 1989. the statement came as sweet music to the ears Indians who have been fighting terrorism from Pakistan for over a decade (118). A charming tale for children is told in an animated film called “The Sorcerer's Apprentice” featuring Walt Disney's cartoon character Mickey Mouse. the sorcerer broom grow hands and legs As Mickey relaxes and a tub. The terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001 in the US. transfers enough water to cause a flood and does not stop.Chapter 13 PAKISTAN. The statement was a vindication of long-standing Indian concerns.S. JIHAD AND TERRORISM When it was declared by the US Treasury department that two thirds of all terrorist groups had a link with Pakistan. India had been ploughing a lonely furrow in the diplomatic capitals of the world calling attention to Pakistan's role in terrorism. Treasury Department. according to the U. Being too lazy to do the uses his magic powers to make a to draw water to fill the tub. About two-thirds of all designated terrorist groups in the world have a Pakistani connection.

monster threatens to devour Islamic scholars. In his study of jihadi groups in Pakistan. In the Pakistani context. The government in Islamabad supports these militants and their religious schools as cheap ways to fight India and educate Pakistan's youth. and destabilizes the region. an expert on terrorism wrote (119): Pakistani militant groups are killing civilians and engaging in terrorism in Indian-held Kashmir under the guise of holy war. Ehsan Ansari says of jihad (120): various Islamic groups have been interpreting it to mean 'holy war' against everything the perceive as being 'non Islamic' An interview with a leading Pakistani expert on jihad. have repeatedly tried to point out that jihad is not terrorism. Pakistan and jihad are like the story of the Sorcerer's Apprentice. was published by the Asia Times online. Arif Jamal. But this policy is creating a culture of violence that exacerbates internal sectarianism Without change. this Pakistani society. But this assertion goes against the facts on the ground. The Pakistani army tried to use jihad to do it's work but jihad. terrorism and jihad are one and the same. It is stated that jihad is an internal struggle and not external violence. especially from Pakistan.get out of control. Jessica Stern. Terrorism and senseless violence are being routinely committed in the name of jihad. and terrorism associated with jihad now has a life of its own and may be getting out of control of the Pakistani army. Jamal has this to say about jihad (121): 136 .

The main objective of jihad even today is to defeat the infidels and establish Islamic states all over the world.. 137 . The extent to which the system to promote violent jihad against non-Muslims has spread in Pakistan may be gauged from the following reports: Terrorism expert Jessica Stern writes (119): Only about 4. (120) so Pakistanis are not strangers to the concept of jihad. with enrollment at more than 650. 2002: there are as many as 500...000 members of jihadi . Pakistani officials estimate that 10 to 15 percent of the madrasas in Pakistan promote extremist ideologies. Maulana Maududi. Jihad became a driving force in Pakistan under General Zia ul Haq in the 1980s.000 students. acts of terrorism are considered normal and par for the course by a large number of Pakistanis. placed a great emphasis on jihad. And with jihad being defined as holy war to defeat Pakistan.Muslim holy war organizations .000 to 50. A report from the US council of Foreign Relations said: According to The Washington Post. some 7.. Madrasahs are the supply line for jihad.350 of the estimated 40.000 madrasas currently operate in Pakistan. including many thousands committed to the cause of forcing India out of the sector of Kashmir that it controls. The New York Times reported on May 27. One of the ideological founding fathers of Pakistan.000 madrasahs in Pakistan have registered with the government.

This is supported by a report in the Asia Times (122): The jihadi outfits were in fact a part of the ISI's operations and the brainchild of late dictator General Zia ul-Haq and General Akhtar Abdul Rehman. paving the way for the Pakistan sponsored Taliban to form a government in Afghanistan. were created.5 billion from these countries in the 1985 to 1989 period. The purpose was to develop a para-military force that would assist the Pakistan army in the event of war. Stern reports that Pakistan received US $ 3.500 madrassahs produced a 138 crop of 225.000 fanatics . to fund the US backed war against Soviet troops in Afghanistan.. Along with the money came guns and drugs. General Zia-ul-Haq.During his rule (1977-89). Iraq. Tariq Ali wrote in The Independent of the UK (123): religious fundamentalism is the legacy of a previous military dictator. the Soviet Union was put under sufficient military pressure to withdraw from Afghanistan. funded by the Saudi regime.. With US arms. Iran and other Gulf states. with funds coming in from diverse sources such as Libya.. Jihad in Pakistan received a lot of funding from the US and Saudi Arabia. mainly heroin.Quoting Jessica Stern (119): Pakistani dictator General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq promoted the madrasahs as a way to garner the religious parties' support for his rule and to recruit troops for the antiSoviet war in Afghanistan..The 2. Saudi funds and Jihad recruits from Pakistan. Jihad became an important business in Pakistan. a network of madrassahs (religious boarding schools).

carried the following passage in a commentary (124): Sponsoring militancy in Kashmir is regarded as a relatively cheap and effective way of offsetting existing power symmetries (essentially through the philosophy of a 'war of a thousand cuts') while simultaneously . they were hurled into battle. Pakistani forces and leaders could withdraw into Afghanistan and continue to fight. inspired by the Wahhabi sect that rules Saudi Arabia. Meanwhile strategic Afghanistan itself was depth . 139 . if seen by Pakistan as India ever attacked Pakistan..that is. should this ever become necessary.The Taliban creed is an ultra-sectarian strain.ready to kill and die for their faith when asked to do so by their religious leaders. however.. The Pakistani army could describe the jihadi-terrorists as freedom fighters and deny any link with them. RAND. Dispatched across the border by the Pakistan Army. The forces of jihad provided a huge supply of trained and experienced soldiers to fight India in a low cost war.. Afghanistan also served as a safe place to continue to train jihadis to fight Pakistan's war against India.. a US based non-profit organization that helps policy and decision making..The Taliban could not..They were armed and commanded by "volunteers" from the Pakistan Army For the Pakistani army. ensuring that Pakistan has sufficient strategic depth to undertake a protracted conventional war on the subcontinent. while Pakistan claimed to provide only moral and diplomatic support to them.. have captured Kabul on their own . control of Afghanistan with its puppet. the Taliban government was a double blessing.

. . the recruitment has to go on. "The success of the jihadi strategy in Afghanistan compelled the generals to try it on India. The Kashmir jihadis are our cannon fodder because they are willing to die for their cause in a way that no paid soldiers would. Walls between Havelian and Haripur are full of jehadi slogans and adverts Pervez Hoodbhoy. it was jehadi territory.Pakistan's military and intelligence services struck upon the idea of employing jihadis to wrest control of the Kashmir from India. a Pakistani scientist and columnist th wrote(126): Islam. Just a few kilometers from the Havelian cantonment. Wall chalking after wall chalking advertised jehadi outfits and announced recruitment for jehadi fighters. there are slogans such as Jehad is the shortest route to Paradise and Contact us for commando Jehadi training. Pakistan. 140 .. Jihad is advertised in Pakistan as a career path to follow. "We have fought three wars with India and have not won even one of them." said an expert on the country's jihad movements.A report in the New York Times (27 May 2002) describes how the jihadis from Afghanistan were applied against India: drawing on the 80.. A new ethos was created. Shahid Nadeem wrote in the Daily Times of Pakistan (125): The moment we left Fortress Abbottabad." And even today as Pakistani jihadis continue to be used as cannon fodder against India.000 fighters whom Pakistan had trained and armed to fight the Soviet forces in Afghanistan. too. Jihad became emblazoned on banners at Pakistani army recruitment centers. this was to be an army not just for Pakistan..

Jihad has been made attractive and financially rewarding. The article is revealing in the extent to which Pakistan has been organizing and funding terrorists who have long been said to receive only moral and diplomatic support from Pakistan. There are salary and pension rules in place as well. cash incentives for high-risk operations and retainers for guides. among more worldly rewards (127): The mujahideen were assured of entering Paradise before the first drop of their blood fell to earth. With jihad and terrorism being Pakistan's main industry.but for the greater glory of Islam.S.I. These houris are more beautiful than all the beauties of the world combined. 141 . The Holy Scriptures of virgins of the take the spirit the first drop Islam also say that houris [beautiful Koranic Paradise] come down to Earth to of the mujahid who is about to die before of his blood falls to earth.000 rupees a month). porters and informers. Appendix 4 reproduces an article carried in the online paper Mid-Day listing details of incentives and salaries offered to terrorists from Pakistan. support to next of kin.000 to 10. The martyrs are promised 72 houris in Paradise. (124): annual ISI expenditure to the main militant organisations runs to between US$125 and $250 million a year. The rewards of waging jihad include the following. These funds are used to cover salaries for fighters (which run from 5. A RAND report quotes Indian Intelligence estimates of the budget of the Pakistani agency responsible for training and coordinating jihad-terrorist action in India the so called Inter Services Intelligence or I.

shot dead another person and set off two explosions damaging a bridge " • "Terrorists have slit the throats of two of the four policemen abducted after the attack on a police post in Udhampur on Sunday. A paper published by the South Asia Analysis Group (SAAG) carries examples of newspaper headlines resulting from terrorist acts sponsored by Pakistan in India(128). and over 59.000 terrorists who were found committing acts of terrorism or infiltrating into India from Pakistan. The US army discovered in Vietnam that groups of armed men carrying machine guns and explosives. The US in Vietnam had being able to withdraw from Vietnam. the officer said.000 civilians have been killed by Pakistani trained terrorists in Jammu and Kashmir from 1990 to 2003.000 assault rifles and machine guns. Men have to be met by men in deadly face to or cordon and the luxury of Indians do not face encounters at the end of long vigils search operations. A few samples are quoted below: • "Suspected Islamic militants axed to death six members of a shepherd's family overnight. Statistics of deaths of Indians in Kashmir show that over 17. 6 million rounds of ammunition and 34. hiding in jungles in mountainous regions cannot be fought with tanks and attack aircraft. Over the same period Indian security forces have intercepted and killed 17. along with the staggering recovery of over 27." • "Militants slit the throats of two women.000 hand grenades.000 kilograms of explosives (129). The attackers killed four women and two children.the effect on India has been murderous. but have the option of withdrawing from their 142 .

and diplomatic protests grew shriller as Indian security forces chalked up success after success. and by starting to fence the India-Pakistan boundary where possible. the only country that tried to alert the world about the global terrorist threat emanating from Pakistan's jihad factory 143 was India. and gradually. terrorists from Pakistan were unable to enter India at all or were able to infiltrate through in the smallest numbers. because the Pakistani government started protesting against the presence of large numbers of Indian counterinsurgency personnel within India. In many areas. Terrorism.own land. Once again. and the average life-span of a jihadi-terrorist entering India from Pakistan was reduced to weeks or months rather than years (130). but Indian . One Indian army major is quoted in an interview as saying (131): Once somebody picks up the gun then his family knows that it is only a matter of days before they hear that he has been killed in an encounter. jihadis started getting eliminated in increasing numbers. A backlog of violent. and India met the threat by building a powerful counter-insurgency apparatus. these terrorists began to target other nations of the world. As the Indian strategy proved effective. with hundreds of thousands of jihadis entering from Pakistan required a robust response. This seems to have had a significant effect on the morale of Pakistan's army backed jihadi-terrorist apparatus. We put the average lifespan of a terrorist at two-and-half years. trained and indoctrinated terrorists built up in Pakistan. Within this period we are bound to eliminate him.

The Sorcerer's Apprentice is out of control. UK. A detailed study exists in an online portal of the evidence of Pakistani links to terrorism against the US. Chechnya. Afghanistan. Latvia.. a powerful and deadly Pakistan based jihad group. Not only would they become too large for the ISI to manage but also their strong links with the underworld would create a sort of double whammy. Russia. Terrorism Central would not be an inappropriate name for Pakistan.Indian authorities reckon that groups like the LeT could. Yemen. Mongolia. This view is echoed by one 144 of India's premier anti- . including links to the September 11th attacks (133). and it is by no means certain that anybody in Pakistan can control the forces that have been unleashed. the magazine India Today. Uzbekistan. had this to say in its December 2003 edition (132): There is a terrible price to pay for this facilitation because the same forces that drive jehad in Jammu and Kashmir drive it in other lands too. the I. Tajikistan. (119. Nepal..I. Turkey. intelligence communities of the world then terrorist links leading back to the September 11 That woke up the with a jolt.information fell on deaf ears. Canada. Indonesia and the Philippines. The entire world. Bangladesh.132). become more dangerous. Since Pakistan have been th found in countries like Burma. Pakistan has now become the home base of global terrorism. in time. referring to the L-e-T (Lashkar-eTayeba). Kuwait. and Pakistan itself is being targeted by the Islamist groups spawned and nurtured by the Pakistani army and its intelligence cell. In an article on Pakistan-sponsored terrorism.S. Australia. until 2001 terrorist attacks on the US.

a suicide bombing involving multiple bomb laden trucks was a very real indicator of the sort of forces that exist in Pakistan today. In an indication of increasing international understanding of how jihad threatens to eat up Pakistan. not only their Army and ISI handlers. Although the first of the two assassination attempts was thought to have been stage managed by Musharraf's supporters to win greater sympathy for him (138). but the Government itself. 145 . President of Pakistan occurred that the known to survived two attempts to assassinate him that within days of each other (135. In an interview quoted in the BBC (137). 136).terrorism experts. Pakistan is awash with weapons. Musharraf blamed the Al Quaeda for attempting to assassinate him. Gill. In Decemeber 2003. the second one. a report carried by RAND said (124): it is no longer apparent that the army or ISI exercise complete control over the proxies they have helped to create.P. General Pervez Musharraf. K. in addition to 2 million registered ones (139). Other reports too have pointed to Islamist forces within Pakistan as being responsible for wanting to replace General Musharraf. Apart from multiple Islamist groups. These forces will not be easy to eliminate.S. The fact route of the motorcade he was travelling in was the people who wanted to kill him suggests that someone close to General Musharraf was involved in these attempts. who warned (134): There is now mounting evidence of a loss of control as these autonomous religious groups challenge. some of which are now openly talking about fomenting a fundamentalist revolution in Pakistan itself. There are an estimated 18 million illegal firearms in Pakistan.

That means that the government. (the army. 146 . a reliable weapon of choice for terrorists. including inexpensive clones of the Kalashnikov AK-47 assault rifle.Pakistan is home to a Kalashnikov culture with hundreds of firearm manufacturing workshops making weapons. being able to spray a high volume of fire at targets. But that monopoly over coercive power may have slipped out of the hands of the Pakistani army. in Pakistan's case) retains the armed power to suppress and control all other groups. the government retains coercive power. In a coherently functioning nation-state. into the hands of Islamic fundamentalists in Pakistan.

I rise to bring to the attention of my colleagues a report that appeared in the Washington Post of September 12. Heroin addicts become so physically dependent on the drug. However.Chapter 14 THE GOVERNMENT AND CRIMINAL ACTIVITY There is probably no government in the world which does not have one or more people in power who are either themselves criminals or have links to criminals. which describes a disturbing link between narcotics and terrorism. headlined `Heroin 147 Plan by Top Pakistanis a news . In most countries of the world. 1994. Pakistan. heroin is illegal to manufacture or possess because of its dangerous potential to cause addiction. Heroin smuggling and Narco terrorism: Heroin is a drug that is a derivative of the medically used pain-killer morphine. it is extremely addictive when administered to normal people. People are said to crave for the drug after experiencing its effects just once. heroin the star compound of the illegal drug In October 1994. making trade. US Senator Frank Pallone brought to the attention of the US house of representatives report in the Washington Post (140): Mr Pallone said: Mr. The report from Karachi. Speaker. It is obtained from the Opium Poppy plant. successive Pakistani governments and the army have been unique in actively supporting and participating in international criminal activity as an integral component of the Pakistani economy and foreign policy. and crave the drug so much that they are willing to pay very high prices to obtain it. Although heroin itself has medicinal value as a potent pain-killer.

Zia ul Haq's rule and in the early years of Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. including missiles from North Korea. Aslam Beg and Gen. Asad Durrani.Alleged' quotes Pakistan's former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif saying that `drug deals were to pay for covert operations' brings to mind other reports not so long ago of Pakistani involvement in using the Bank of Credit and Commerce International [BCCI] to launder drug money that was eventually believed to have been used in financing terrorist groups involved in the New York World Trade Center bombing. It has also enabled it to maintain a high 148 . The news report said that three months after Nawaz Sharif became Prime Minister of Pakistan he was approached by the Pakistan army chief of staff. B. under one Brigadier Imtiaz. The report cites Pakistan's army chief and head of intelligence agency proposing to then-Prime Minister Sharif `a detailed blueprint for selling heroin to pay for the country's covert military operations in early 1991. a special cell was set up by Pakistan's ISI for the use of heroin for covert action. Raman writes: Pakistan's illegal heroin economy has kept its legitimate State economy sustained since 1990 and prevented its collapse. During the late years of Gen. Gen. Raman writes (141) that money earned through Pakistan's heroin trade was used to fund Pakistan's arms purchases. submarines from France and components for Pakistan's covert nuclear program. Indian analyst. the head of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) with the blueprint for a plan to export heroin to raise money for the Pakistan army's covert foreign operations a euphemism for Pakistan sponsored terrorism in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

where the drugs were processed. Pak trucks are used by the drug mafia for narcotics smuggling. which is in the thick of action against terrorists from Pakistan has this to say in an article on Narco-Terrorism on its website (142): Both the Pakistan Army and the Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) agency are known to be extensively involved in narcotics trade. Rawalpindi and other such city centres. Nuclear Proliferation: Nuclear weapons. the Indian army captured from Pakistani infiltrators about 19 Kilograms of Heroin with a street value of US $ 5 million. The primary reason for indulging in narcotics trade by these two premier institutions of Pakistan is the need for money to finance covert foreign operations. They have been used only twice in August 1945 when the Unites States dropped a bomb on each of the Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Indian army's 15th Corps. In a one and a half year period from January 1997 to May 1998. packaged and despatched towards their destination. which the otherwise cash strapped economy of Pak could ill afford to pay for.a drug derived from Cannabis (Ganja). Also recovered was 60 Kilograms of Charas . Islamabad. Even during the Afghan crisis Pak trucks and National Logistic Cell (NLC) vehicles transporting arms to Afghan Mujahideen were used for shipping large consignments of drugs from the drug producing areas to Karachi. also known as atomic bombs are extremely destructive. 149 A single bomb .level of arms purchases from abroad and to finance its proxy war against India through the jehadi organisations. The nexus between Pak ISI and Pak Army with the drug mafia is a well documented and established fact.

That brought the second World War to an end. Pakistan had obtained funds from Libya in exchange for this technology and North Korea paid for the technology by supplying Pakistan with ballistic missiles capable of 150 . The destructive potential of nuclear weapons made them attractive terrifying waging war because of to nations as a deterrent . Libya and Iran. Centrifuges made from the very designs Qadeer Khan had stolen from URENCO were found in Iran. And their destructive potential. Upon his return to Pakistan. available to only a handful of nations in the world. killing hundreds of thousands of people. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to set up facilities to enrich Uranium manufacture nuclear bombs. the technology for manufacturing nuclear weapons remained a closely guarded secret.a weapon of power to scare a potential attacker from for fear of being hit by nuclear weapons. and these centrifuges had radioactive contaminants that unmistakably bore the signature of a Pakistani source. a Pakistani metallurgist stole the blueprints for making Uranium enrichment centrifuges from a Dutch concern called URENCO that he worked for. Abdul Qadeer Khan. causing Japan to surrender within days. it became clear that Pakistani nuclear technology to enrich Uranium had been supplied to North Korea. Abdul Qadeer Khan became a hero and achieved cult status in Pakistan as the father of Pakistan's Islamic bomb In late 2003 and early 2004. As described in chapter 4. along with actual blueprints of nuclear bomb designs in order to help these nations manufacture atomic bombs.reduced each city to rubble. Shipments of centrifuge components to North Korea and Libya were intercepted. Enrichment of Uranium is one of the first steps in making one type of nuclear bomb. Khan was encouraged and funded by the Prime Minister of Pakistan at the time.

" On February 4 th 2004.carrying nuclear weapons (143). This confession was followed by a prompt presidential pardon for Dr. It would be naive to imagine that successive Pakistani governments and the military were unaware of Khan's activities. "It is difficult to accept that the scientists could have violated government policy on their own.A. nuclear experts and a former prime minister of Pakistan expressed doubts Monday about how Khan and a handful of associates could have circumvented the extraordinary controls on the country's nuclear technology without the military's blessings. Times said (143): U." she told the Los Angeles Times.S. officials. Benazir Bhutto. Khan by President and army chief Gen. the New York Times reported (144): experts inside and outside the government say it is difficult to believe that Pakistan's nuclear secrets could have been exported without the knowledge of some in 151 . said she doubted that the transfers could have taken place without the knowledge of senior military officials. In early 2004 the world was witness to an incredible drama on Pakistan television in which Abdul Qadeer Khan made a public confession of having sold nuclear weapons technology to other nations entirely on his own. who served twice as prime minister before going into exile in the face of corruption charges. Musharraf. An article in the online edition of the L. "Those who violated the policy are now hiding behind the scientists. with no knowledge of the Pakistani army or government.

It is virtually certain that the televised drama of Qadeer Khan absolving the army of all responsibility for proliferation while taking all the blame. Airliner hijacking: The most blatant case of an airliner hijacked with Pakistani army and government complicity is the shameful episode of Indian Airlines Flight number IC 814 that hijacked in December 2000 by five Pakistani nationals boarded the flight in Kathmandu in Nepal. especially since some shipments were made on Pakistani military aircraft. Four days later. the Pakistani government must have known something about how its new missile fleet materialized. Khan operated alone. this whole hijacking story could have 152 . the New York Times carried a report in which it was said (145): Few of Mr. Pakistan got missiles from North Korea.the military and the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence agency. in return for uranium enrichment technology. He has the deepest ties to the military. Bush's aides believe Pakistan's story that Dr. If it had been for the murder that the hijackers committed was who not and their success in achieving their aim of securing the release of jailed terrorists in India terrorists who were later to enter Pakistan and mastermind further murders and play a role in the suicide attacks of September 11th 2001 in New York. and supplied it with a cargo fleet. only to be pardoned by the army is in keeping with the Pakistan army's time honoured tradition of protecting its self interest and attempting to appear farcically squeakyclean in the face of contrary evidence. investigators believe. which oversaw the Khan Research Laboratories. Clearly.

Pakistan's record with reference to Indian airliners hijacked to Pakistan has been condemnable. where it came under control of Pakistan's puppet Taliban government. The hijackers also secured the release of three dangerous Pakistani terrorists in prison in India. The plane was then flown to Kandahar in Afghanistan. and 153 . When that was decided to be impracticable.come out of a B-grade semi-comic motion picture. The five hijackers actually received their weapons in a diplomatic bag checked in by Pakistani First Secretary in Nepal. Amritsar and Lahore. After a 1971 hijack the hijackers were granted asylum in Pakistan. the money was deposited in the account of a Pakistani diplomat in Delhi. On Aziz's instructions the hijackers demanded a ransom of nearly one million US dollars. Gen. In a surreal turn of events. Mohammad Arshad Cheema (146). which was to be delivered in cash. and Omar Shaikh. and his body thrown out of the aircraft while his wife remained on board for the rest of the duration of the hijack. and disappeared from Kandahar Omar Shaikh was later the attacks on the World was finally arrested for the murder of the Jewish-American reporter Daniel Pearl. Indian intelligence agencies who monitored and recorded the communications of the hijackers on the aircraft in Kandahar found them receiving instructions from Lt. the hijackers were provided with new weapons in Kandahar. as reported by a French tourist hostage who survived the ordeal (147). including Maulana Masood Azhar the founder of the Pakistan based terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammad. Mohammad Aziz. a Pakistani Corps commander (148). The released terrorists and resurfaced in Pakistan. and the newlywed husband of a honeymooning couple was murdered by slashing his throat. implicated in helping to fund Trade center in New York. The hijacked aircraft was flown to the UAE.

2. 2001. and a brief description of their activities (150): 1. Pakistan. Maulana Masood Azhar. He is also wanted for an attack on the J&K Assembly on Oct 1. co-founder of Lashkar-e-Toiba. He lives in and operates from Karachi. man behind the planning and financing of 13 explosions in Mumbai in 1993 in which almost 300 people died. He operates from Muridke town. funding alleged criminals. Hafiz Mohammad Saeed.the aircraft blown up on the ground. 2001 in which 38 people were killed. the hijackers were given refuge in Pakistan. an Indian underworld don. 3. The following is a list of names of the twenty. man behind the attack on India's parliament on December 13. 154 . In two instances of hijacking in 1981 and 1984. Dawood Ibrahim. murder and smuggling. counterfeiting. near Lahore in Pakistan. and obtain refuge. He currently lives in and operates from Bahawalpur. Pakistan. also blamed for the attack on parliament in New Delhi. the hijackers were imprisoned for a token one month in Pakistan for entering Pakistan without due documents. And in an unbelievable second hijacking event in 1984. leader of Jaish-i-Mohammad. drugs trade. India has a list of 20 most wanted criminals who are living in Pakistan. Refuge for Criminals: Pakistan has positioned itself as an ideal place for any criminal from India to seek. After a 1976 hijack. the hijackers received a weapon along with snacks in Lahore (149). Ibrahim is wanted in connection with cases of arms supply.

which has claimed responsibility for dozens of attacks on Indian forces in Kashmir. extortion. accused of executing the 1993 Mumbai blasts. India. 5. Ayub Memon. lives in and 9. Syed Salahuddin. extortion. 7. He is wanted in cases of terrorism and smuggling. He is alleged to have helped his brother Ibrahim Memon carry out the blasts. Wanted for murder. a member of Harkat-ul-Ansar. He currently lives in and operates from Bahawalpur. He lives in and operates from Karachi. He is wanted in cases of terrorism and arms smuggling. terrorism and smuggling arms and explosives in India. kidnapping. 8. 6. Pakistan. Abdul Razzak. accused of executing the 1993 Mumbai blasts. kidnapping and murder. Pakistan. Chhota Shakeel. He is currently living in Pakistan. Ibrahim Athar. He lives in and operates from Karachi. accused of involvement in the Mumbai blasts. an associate of Maulana Azhar Masood and was one of the hijackers of Indian Airlines flight IC-814 from Kathmandu to Delhi in 1999. He is wanted in cases of murder."Tiger" Ibrahim Memon. 10. blackmail of businessmen and film stars in India. Zahoor Ibrahim Mistri. He lives in and operates from Karachi. head of Hizbul Mujahideen. Pakistan. Pakistan. He currently operates from Muzaffarabad.4. which later changed its name to Harkat-ul-Mujahideen. He is wanted in connection with the hijacking of IC-814 and 155 . kidnapping. He is a member of Jaish-i-Mohammad and is wanted for hijacking. Pakistan. a key associate of Dawood Ibrahim.

is wanted in connection with a conspiracy to kill Indian Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister L. Ranjit Singh Neeta. operates from Karachi. Sagir Sabir Ali Shaikh. 17. bomb blasts and smuggling of arms in India. 12. Pakistan. 14. He is wanted in cases of murder. He lives in and 13. 16. Pakistan.K. an associate of Dawood Ibrahim. He lives in and operates from 156 .in cases of kidnapping and murder. He lives in and operates from Karachi. operates from Karachi. He lives in and operates from Karachi. is wanted He lives in and for the IC-814 hijacking and for kidnapping and murder. a Kashmiri terrorist blamed for more than 30 bomb blasts in Delhi and parts of northern India in 1996-97. 11. Pakistan. wanted in the IC-814 hijacking case and in cases of kidnapping and murder. He lives in and operates from Lahore. Wadhawan Singh Babbar. Pakistan. Pakistan. He is wanted in over a dozen cases of sedition. He lives in and operates from Lahore. is also wanted in connection with the conspiracy to kill Advani. Abdul Karim. Pakistan. Advani. an associate of Dawood Ibrahim. Ishaq Atta Hussain. chief of Sikh group Babbar Khalsa International. murder and in connection with the assassination of East Punjab's then chief minister Beant Singh. Azhar Yusuf. which was involved in an insurgency in East Punjab during the 1980s. Shahid Akhtar Sayed. 15. Pakistan. chief of Khalistan Zindabad Force. He lives in and operates from Karachi.

He was arrested by Pakistan after he hijacked the plane to Lahore and tried. The admission came after a bomb blast at a Karachi business centre. Paramjit Singh Panjwar. He lives in and operates from Lahore.Lahore. is wanted in cases of arms smuggling. He lives in and operates from Lahore. treason. Lakhbir Singh Rode. 18. 20 . is accused of hijacking an Indian Airlines plane from Srinagar to Delhi in 1981. He is accused of trying to revive the Sikh insurgency in East Punjab and is wanted in more than a dozen cases of murder. He lives in and operates from Lahore. the Kawish Crown Plaza. Dawood Ibrahim in Pakistan in September 2003 after news of a bomb blast in Karachi. conspiracy to attack government leaders in Delhi and inciting religious hatred in East Punjab. which the inspector general of Sindh police said was "ostensibly owned by Ahmed Jamal but actually belonged to Dawood Ibrahim". Pakistan. Pakistan. leader of Sikh group Dal Khalsa. Pakistan. Pakistan admitted the presence of the third man on the list. the Islamist extremist group that was founded by Maulana Masood Azhar. 19. Dawood Ibrahim was subsequently designated a global terrorist by the US for his links with Al Quaeda and the Lashkar-e-Tayeba. Pakistani journal The Herald said. leader of the International Sikh Youth Federation. Rediff reported (151): Pakistan has admitted gangster Dawood Ibrahim's presence in the country. according to a report. Pakistan.Gajinder Singh. conspiracy and arms smuggling. leader of the Khalistan Commando Force. the first man on India's 157 .

The right contacts can ensure that Pakistani counterfeit 158 . The Pakistani ambassador tried to stop the arrest claiming diplomatic immunity for the staffer but it turned out that he did not have diplomatic immunity. one of the prisoners released by India after the 1999 hijacking of an Indian Airlines aircraft to Kandahar in Afghanistan.the range depending on the buyers' bargaining skills and the volume required. Printing and circulation of counterfeit currency: In January 2000.25) in exchange for every Pakistani-made Rs 100 note . in an apparent hint that Pakistan was indulging in massive printing of fake notes to abet its terrorist activities against India. The Indian Express reported (152): Officials said the quality of fake notes was "such that it could only be printed in security presses". which apparently intended to destabilize the Indian economy by flooding India with fake currency. One report (153) quoted the street value of the Pakistan made counterfeit currency in India: The prevailing price for counterfeit currency in Punjab is Rs 40-60 (83 US cents-$1. a staffer from the visa section of the Pakistan embassy in Nepal was arrested in Kathmandu (Nepal) after passing counterfeit Indian currency to Nepalese police in a sting operation. With Indian currency being valid in Nepal.Most wanted list. that country was a natural choice for anti-India activities from Pakistan.

Butki is a front man of notorious mafia don Dawood Ibrahim and controls the gang for pumping fake currency into India through the porous Indo-Nepal border.currency is available even cheaper. Crime Branch.. Joint Commissioner of Police. "The counterfeit currency notes were sent for damaging the Indian economy. 159 . U K Katna said. Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan has been providing logistical support to the underworld dons for flooding the Indian market with counterfeit currency with the sole aim of creating panic in the Indian market. The high quality of the counterfeit notes and official sponsorship of this and other criminal activities by Pakistani governmental agencies is a frightening indicator of the chaotic state that Pakistan is in with no expense being spared to prepare for war or jihad against India and very little being spent on development and education within Pakistan. Another report of the arrest counterfeit currency said (154): of a man carrying The racket was being remote controlled by Aftab Butki from Dubai in United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Afghania (North West Frontier Province). In the first place. Another theory is that the acronym was composed by a group of students in Cambridge in England. Sindh (including Karachi and Kathiawar). which was part of Pakistan until it seceded with the creation of Bangladesh. Punjab. Afghanistan. and Baluchistan. A second curious anomaly is that the name of this nation that is claimed to be derived from Urdu and Persian is composed of letters in the English alphabet with the English letters forming the acronym. beliefs and the ethnical stocks of our people. It symbolizes the religions. The theory that Pakistan is an acronym does not stand up to scrutiny. the Pakistan described by the acronym includes Iran and Central Asia (Tukharistan) as part of Pakistan and makes no mention of East Bengal. It is composed of letters taken from the names of all our homelands . and it stands for all the territorial constituents of our original Fatherland. Kashmir. Iran. It seems more likely that the acronym theory of the name is a confabulation."Indian" and "Asian". It is not clear if Rehmat Ali was one of these students. A passage attributed to him says (155): "Pakistan" is both a Persian and an Urdu word. That is. It means the land of the Paks-the spiritually pure and clean. Tukharistan. a plausible but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what 160 . Such an acronym is non-existent when the name is written in Urdu.Chapter 15 PAKISTAN FAILED STATE The credit for coining the name Pakistan probably goes to one Choudhry Rehmat Ali who is said to have thought of the name in 1933 as an acronym containing letters from the names of all the areas which this man thought were representative of the ancestry of his people.

Ahmediyas and later even Shia Muslims in Pakistan were not pure enough for Pakistan. the very rich and the very poor and these classes comprise 90% of Pakistan's population. the stress on pure Islam and a nation purely for Muslims. is perhaps an apt description of what 161 . that has Urdu as its official language suggests that the real origin of the name Pakistan derives from the Urdu word Paki. There is a very small. and Pakistanis have spent the years since 1947 years struggling to weed out anything that they consider impure. poverty and greed were all minor blips in the route to Pakistan's mythical purity.A. Further purity was required by fighting wars and making sacrifices.with stan meaning country (156). one must simultaneously define what is impure. Minorities and religious groups in Pakistan were impure Hindus. and Indians were impure and were rejected. As noted in chapter 2. Sikhs. They are the Rich Anglophone Pakistani Elite. India. very rich class of Pakistani. and can only be grasped in relation to something else that is impure. To define purity. rather than concentrate on nation building.P. Purity is a subjective concept. Ultimately. sometimes facetiously referred to by the acronym of that name.E. That stress on purity . Christians.or purity with a narrow definition has certainly played a role in Pakistan's remembered as to how Pakistan got its name. The acronym R. there are only two main classes of society in Pakistan. corruption. Classical Hindi and English defines Paki as Purity . The dictionary of Urdu. Social imbalance. Conditions of life for a Pakistani depend on what class of society one belongs to and whether one lives in a rural or urban area.

. Irfan Husain wrote in the Dawn: An old friend was recently invited to a serving general's official residence for a small dinner party. They are the feudal lords. These charmed people are the Pakistanis that we see and hear. and the army staff who served the small gathering had apparently been trained at a fivestar hotel. They might be rich industrialists and businessmen.. or they might be serving or retired army officers. These are the beautiful people. Rome. Paris. the waiters. Geneva. They travel.. the discreet lighting. the mascara and lipstick adorned women in designer dresses. The elite are educated. No burkha (veil) for these women. But 90 percent of Pakistanis are rarely seen or heard outside Pakistan.. often in the best schools and universities of the world. They live in fabulous mansions. actors and society people. who may own thousands of acres of land.this class have been doing to Pakistan. London. the 162 .The food and refreshments were of the highest quality. They are the servants. and are familiar with all the major cities that a man of this world should know about New York. and came away hugely impressed by the acres of immaculate lawns. the tasteful furnishings and the overall level of luxury. the casual laborers and sharecroppers. maintained and supported by armies of servants. They are seen in parties and receptions attended by friends and diplomats. the handsome men clad in lounge suits or traditional sherwanis. Their photographs appear in glossy magazines and on the Internet. the sweepers. The lifestyles of these people can be compared to that of the rich and famous anywhere.

More than half these people do not earn enough money for a decent life. Even those who earn more than that often sink below poverty level at certain times of the year. For more than five decades since independence. are covered in burqas as expected of women in Islamic Pakistan. Malnutrition is rampant. Pakistani leaders have sacrificed enormous and fruitless amounts of money. as is lack of education. The hard life. being Islamic and who appear forever busy to defend Pakistan. . The men wear crumpled and seemingly unwashed salwar suits. Others try to migrate to Europe and beyond. And that has been an integral part of Pakistan's problem. in the few places where schools exist. if seen at all. human life and 163 effort to somehow equal. They can be seen on Pakistani streets and in the villages. and many try to find work in the Middle East to earn a living as menial laborers. But girls are not allowed. time. Others are angry and frustrated at their lot and these people are told by their elite masters that poverty and hardship are because of Indian aggression or some other extraneous factor. Life is harsh. Any education that can be gained. Pakistani leaders.goatherds and the cleaners with their wives and their children. Most earn less than the equivalent of US $1 per day. That is a welcome source of relief for a very poor family with many children to care for. or in times of illness or drought. The women. can be gained only from madrassas that often provide food and shelter for its students. The women do not work outside the home and may have four or more children to bring up. are above blame. hunger. and girls are not sent to schools either. poverty and destitution are accepted by some people as the will of Allah that cannot be questioned or mitigated.

And even that is used against Pakistan's arch enemy. Anger is carefully re-directed away from the ruling elite. the poor of Pakistan are left with the only succour they can get . In the midst of this. but their emotional hunger for explanations 164 . while the stoic Pakistani public. or is internalised as people not being "Islamic" enough. India. roads and hospitals in Pakistan was spent on building a war machine that could never overwhelm an India that was just too big. with women and children at the bottom of the pile received little. The anger is compounded by what is taught in schools and madrassas following curricula that actively teach hatred and discrimination to impressionable children. Pakistan was halved when Bangladesh seceded.match or defeat India. and development of the poor was bypassed as usual. and a system of salaries and pensions had to be set up for them. Israel. The build up of Pakistani armed forces into a formidable war machine was initially to defeat India and take Kashmir. Popular devotion to Islam is channelled to provide an endless supply of men for jihad. Money from any source was poured developing nuclear weapons to deter India. the US or other Western nations. Money and effort that should have gone into building schools. The madrassa is the place where students' physical hunger is assuaged. to be directed at India. Even criminal activity aimed against India. Money was diverted to training Islamist operatives for covert operations against India. The bloated ranks of army retirees had to be accommodated.Islam. but even then the wasteful expenditure did not stop. gun running or currency counterfeiting swallowed funds that should have gone into schools and healthcare in Pakistan. and businesses were custom made for employing them. and later to defend against an India that had no intention of attacking Pakistan.

or a woman who marries against the wishes of her family is considered to be committing a crime by bringing dishonour on the family . A woman who breaks rules by exposing herself or by being seen with a non-approved male companion. The other extreme is the harsh life of a woman living under the two or and burden of strict discriminatory rules. Boys are preferred in all ways in this male-dominated act that is punishable by death. marry and produce children. but individuals in such a society grow up in 165 . Every son sent to a madrassa is one mouth less to feed for a poor family. either alone. as the British had found them. and sending one son to die for jihad financial reward to the family. they are generally uneducated.she is not supposed to be seen outside. On the one hand the society has a small minority of wealthy and emancipated people among whom women can get educated and work. The girl child gets less food and is more likely to die of malnutrition and disease. the level of education for women is invariably less than that of men. They do not easily rise up in revolt against tyranny or injustice. The ratio of men to women in Pakistan is grossly skewed with many more men than women. or in the company of a man who is not her husband or father. The people are docile. But women hold the key to family honour. A woman's place is in the home . live at home until they come of age. Between these extremes are a vast mass of Pakistanis who are more less generally poor.about the miserable existence of their families is often met by a call for violent jihad against forces that are blamed for hunger and misery. brings honour and Girls grow up uneducated. Pakistani society has both extremes.

The Army gets money. be it government funds. The only funding that reaches this level comes from unaccounted and unaccountable sources funding the madrassas that preach an agenda of hatred and jihad. the businessmen and feudal lords get money. For the survival of corrupt business interests in Pakistan the elite must remain in power and not be bothered by rebellion or the uncertainties of democracy. All the money in Pakistan. Pakistan is controlled by an oligarchy of a thousand individuals or so (157) in a few dozen families. aid money or export profits is split up and shared by a small percentage of wealthy people at the top. secular and well-intentioned democrats who are keeping Islamic fundamentalism at bay. schools. and very little reaches the Pakistani on the ground. The 140 million mostly poor people of Pakistan are kept in check with the excuse that their faith. health care. roads. as well as feudal landowners. and other nations. people and will to provide these things never reach the population. the ruling elite of Pakistan behave like moderate. This ruling elite is composed of senior army officers. is under threat from India. giving a mother time to recover and nurse an earlier child before bearing another child. Time and again Pakistani leaders change masks depending 166 . The to people need clean drinking water. But the money. and access to family planning so that births can be spaced out. fuel oil and cement. Pakistanis have been told that the army and the ruling elite have protected Pakistan and Islam from these external threats. the army businesses do well.conditions that make their minds receptive indoctrination into a life of terrorism and jihad. Islam. business magnates controlling key businesses such as transport. For aid givers like the US and rich Western nations.

on whom they are addressing. Within a day. They appear in Western suits or crisp army uniforms. and allowed to keep all the wealth that he had earned from nuclear proliferation activities. Western aid givers are the ruling elite are forces at bay and that are essential for told what they want to hear. To their deprived population. This mechanism was clearly illustrated after the father of Pakistan's nuclear bomb Abdul Qadeer Khan made a public confession that he was responsible for the proliferation of nuclear technology (chapter 13). They are gently sidelined. In the meantime the ruling clique in Pakistan ensures its own survival. Whether this is likely or not. The threat that is held up is that if the ruling clique goes. The ruling clique of Pakistan stands to gain from this form of loose cooperation in which all the business interests survive at the expense of the constitution and law. that fighting to hold fundamentalist more aid and lifting of sanctions the prevention of a Islamic fundamentalist takeover of Pakistan. the US administration and some US think tanks seem to believe this providing the ideal setting for Pakistani rulers to play a double game of pretending to be devoutly Islamic for their people. 167 . while people are constantly fed with the anti-Muslim India threat. along with sops to keep them happy. Opponents are rarely killed. Pakistan will sink into an uncontrollable morass of 160 million hankering for an Islamic state. Each member of this elite community knows that too much action in curbing or controlling the vast business empires of their rivals will upset one's own business interests. they appear in traditional Pakistani salwar suits. and speak in Urdu. he was publicly pardoned by Pakistani President General Musharraf. while appearing moderate to aid givers. punished severely or publicly humiliated. speaking in English to aid givers and donors.

This ploy is a fail safe formula that has allowed the survival of the Pakistani oligarchy so far. The rich get richer and the poor get poorer. The average poor Pakistani is taught that his misery is because of Indian aggression. He spoke in English initially. saying words of support to please the US. knowing that this would be understood by viewers in the US. and the population of the poor is rising rapidly. health care and development of the poor. As long as the poor can be left to vent their anger against some external foe by joining jihad or accepting their misery as Allah's will the rich army. told them that his alliance with the US was akin to a temporary alliance with the devil to deter an immediate threat. using Islamic examples. The powerful and wealthy groups of Pakistan stand to lose their money and lifestyles if funds are diverted to education. No power on earth can coax this small group of rich and powerful Pakistanis that wealth in a nation has to be shared and spread around for development of society and the nation as a whole. or more recently. he addressed Pakistanis in Urdu and. even as the human condition of the people in Pakistan has gradually deteriorated. These people will form a huge mass of uneducated and unemployed 168 . External anti-Islamic forces are always to blame. and their level of education is falling. he made his decision to support the US in a speech (56) that used the time tested Pakistani mask-changing routine to address different groups of people. elite and feudal leadership of Pakistan will be under no pressure to change. But in the course of the same speech. because of the US' war on terror.When Pakistani President and Army Chief Pervez Musharraf was given an ultimatum by the US government in September 2001 that he could be With the US or against the US in its war on terror.

people in a few years' time. The ruling elite of Pakistan are engaged in a strange experiment in which they seem out of touch with reality. They exist on a different plane from the poor and they do not seem to understand that the burgeoning population of the poor, and the anger that is now being channeled against India or the West can turn inwards. The poor are over 100 million strong now but will be twice that number in a single generation, and they will be jobless, hungry and angry. Nations like India, China, Russia and Western countries, who have all had to face the violent consequences of trained jihadi fighters from Pakistan are vigorously resisting and neutralizing them. The forces of jihad are unlikely to receive sanctuary or be allowed to survive in these nations in the current geo-political scenario. Faced with such pressure outside Pakistan, thousands of indoctrinated, armed and dangerous young men could well turn inwards at Pakistani rulers, blaming them for their inability to help in the victory of jihad over unbelievers. If Pakistani leaders can show constant military victories, it is likely that their population will at least temporarily continue to be happy at the successes. But when low-tech irregular Islamic militias spawned by the Pakistani army and governments are unable to achieve victories despite tremendous losses, they are increasingly likely to ask the leaders of Pakistan, the army and the elite why they are being defeated. From the beginning Pakistanis, rich or poor have had no sense of nationhood, no sense of whom and what they are other than being a group of Muslims who have escaped from India. Every effort at development and good governance has been destroyed by a vested interest, always living in the vain hope that some Western nation, or rich Islamic 169

nation will bail the country out. Democracy was first derailed by the migrant bureaucracy who had moved to Pakistan from India. Later it was the army that stood to lose from democracy. Political parties have been disempowered, and the judiciary lives under the shadow of the army. The only forces that are gaining strength are those of fundamentalist Islam, the forces that seek to fight India or the US, or even Shias within Pakistan. The two most powerful groups in Pakistan today are the army and Islamic groups, Pakistan is getting to the stage when the Islamic groups have infiltrated into the ranks of the army and appear set to take control of Pakistan. The Islamic groups themselves are divided, and their unity may only last as long as it takes for them to gain control of Pakistan. None of these powerful groups seems to be interested in development or progress. No group seems set to allow modern education, peace with India, women's rights or birth control in Pakistan, all essential for progress. The political parties and democratic forces did not do this. The army did not do it and the Islamic groups do not show any intent of fostering a progressive Pakistan. Predictably, they too are careening down the path of more and purer Islam as the answer to Pakistan's problems. And worse for Pakistan, Islamist groups, with trans-national loyalties, cannot be guaranteed to be interested in the territorial integrity and borders of Pakistan as they exist. And so the disease eating Pakistan from the inside continues. Jessica Stern wrote (119): Pakistan is a weak state, and government policies are making it weaker still. 170 Its disastrous economy,

exacerbated by a series of corrupt leaders, is at the root of many of its problems. Yet despite its poverty, Pakistan is spending hundreds of millions of dollars on weapons instead of schools and public health. Ironically, the government's "cost-saving" measures are even more troubling. In trying to save money in the short run by using irregulars in Kashmir and relying on madrasahs to educate its youth, Pakistan is pursuing a path that is likely to be disastrous in the long run, culture of violence to take root. allowing a

Pakistan is in an unstable state and there appears to be no leader who can show Pakistan a way out. Too many Pakistanis have been taught that they exist only for Islam and for jihad and these people are now caught between the twin pincers of the global war on terror being conducted by many nations on the one hand, and by the rich and corrupt Pakistani rulers on the other. The long term outlook for Pakistan does not appear encouraging. In a paper on Pakistan, Stephen Cohen wrote (158): When security, human services, justice, and necessities are not provided, states fail.


Pakistan can be compared to a broken biscuit whose pieces are held together by some wrapping paper. The area labelled as Pakistan on maps is called Pakistan, but that area is not wholly under the control of any single government or leadership, as one would expect of a normally functioning nation-state. The first fragment of the biscuit that broke off was Bangladesh, in 1971. There is no guarantee that the other fragments dysfunctional state will hold together. of this

Pakistan is already a nation that is only partially under control of its government which is basically the army. 171

Only 5% of Baluchistan, Pakistan's largest province, is under Pakistani control. Tribal law rules the sparsely populated land. The Pakistani government has little or no control over the Federally Administered Tribal Areas the so called FATA. Areas of Pakistan's first city, Karachi, are outside government control. Gaining control of Pakistan is easier said than done. As indicated in Chapter 12, weapons. The FATA areas arms factories and shops million illegal firearms, Pakistan is awash with illegal are home to hundreds of small that sell them (151). With 18 Pakistanis outside the military

and government have enough weapons to equip several armies, and anyone trying to bring heavily armed private militias under control will have to contend with a lot of firepower. But as the history of nations shows, if the Pakistan government is unable to control its own territory, someone else is likely to step in to fill the vacuum sooner or later. Therein lies the real significance of having large areas in a country that are out of governmental control. The fact that a government can only govern areas that it controls means that areas beyond government rule are ripe for control by some other force or alternate government. These schisms are begging to be exploited. The United States already has a powerful military presence in Pakistan, and perhaps that is an eerie harbinger of yet another civilization set to rule this lawless land. Pakistan is perhaps fortunate that the nation state of India is not yet as adept and conscious of international hegemonic games and how India can interfere to bring law and order to the fraying edges of Pakistan. But that may be changing as the lawlessness of Pakistan continues to spill into an increasingly powerful India as terrorism, 172

of its role and 173 .forcing India to become conscious responsibility in the region.

I to accordingly enter into approached Dominions and Pakistan standstill agreement with my State. I could not arrange this in view of the developments indicated below. Afridis. Though we have got a standstill agreement with the Pakistan Government. and desperadoes wnh modern weapons have been allowed to infiltrate into the State.the State of Jammu and Kashmir has not acceded to either the Dominion of India or Pakistan.kashmir-information. lhe Govemment permitted a steady and increasing strangulation of supplies like food. I have to inform Your Excellency that a grave emergency has arisen in my State and request the immediate assistance of your Government. The Dominion of India desired further discussion with representatives of my Government. ln fact the Pakistan Goernment under the standstill agreement is operating the post and telegraph system inside the State. soldiers in plain clothes. The Pakistan Government accepted this arrangement. In their external relations the Dominion of India and Pakistan cannot ignore this Letter from Maharaja Hari Singh to Lord Mountbatten on the eve of Pak invasion on J&K in 1947 My dear Lord Mountbatten. salt and petrol to my State. my State has a common boundary with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and with China. of course with friendly the and cordial of relations India with both. at first in the Poonch area. The result has been that the limited number of troops at the disposal of the State had to 174 . Besides. then from Sia1kot and finally in a mass in the area adjoining-Hazara district on the Ramkote side. Geographically my State is contiguous wit h both of them. As Your Excellency is aware.APPENDIX 1 http://www. I wanted to take time to decide to which Dominion I should accede or whether it is not in the best interests of both the Dominions and of my State to stand independent.

The other alternative is to leave my state and people to free booters. I have accordingly decided to do so. With the conditions obtaining at present in my State and the great emergency of the situation as it exists. generally have taken no part at all. The number of women who have been kidnpped and raped makes my heart bleed. The people of my State. cannot of possibly be done of without the knowledge made of by the my Provincial Govemment of the North-West Frontier Province and the Government Pakistan. In fact. if further explanation is 175 . The Pakistan radio even put out the story that a provisional government has been set up in Kashmir. The wild forces thus let loose on the State are marching on with the aim of capturing Srinagar. using the Manwehra-Mazaffarabad road and fully armed with up-to-date weapons. coming regularly in dispersed and thus had to face the enemy at several points simultaneously. Menon is fully aware of the gravity of the situation and will explain it to you. This alternative I will never allow to happen so long as I am the ruler of the State and I have life to defend my country. V.P. as a first step to overrunning the whole State. and I attach the instrument of accession for acceptance by your Government. both radio and the Press of Pakistan have reported these occurences. Mr. the summer capital of my government. so that it has become difficult to stop the wanton destruction of life ad property and the looting of the Mahura power house. I have no option but to ask for help from the Indian Dominion. both Muslims and non-Muslims. I may also inform your Excellency's Government that it is my intention at once to set up an interim government and to ask Sheikh Abdullah to carry the responsibilities in this emergency with my Prime Minister.The mass infiltration of tribesman drawn from distant areas of the North-West Frontier Province. which supplies electric current to the whole of Srinagar and which has been burnt. Inspite repeated appeals Government no attempt has been made to check these raiders or to stop them from coming into my State. Naturally they cannot send the help asked for by me without my State acceding to the Dominion of India. needed. On this basis no civilised government can exist or be maintained. immediate assistance must be available at Srinagar. If my State is to be saved.

In haste and with kindest regards. Hari Singh October 26. Yours sincerely. 1947 176 .

1950). 177 . Nimitz shall be Plebiscite Administrator.APPENDIX 2 http://www.htm Resolution 80 (1950) Concerning the India-Pakistan question. Norway. Having also received and noted the report of General A. Commending the Governments of India and Pakistan for their statesman like action in reaching the agreements embodied in the United Nations Commission's resolutions of August 13. G. 1949. (2) The establishment of a cease-fire line on July 27. THE SECURITY COUNCIL. and that steps should be taken forthwith for the demilitarisation of the State and for the expeditious determination of its future in accordance with the freely expressed will of the inhabitants. 1949. McNaughton on the outcome of his discussions with the representatives of India and Pakistan which were initiated in pursuance of the decision taken by the Security Council on December 17. and (3) The agreement that Fleet Admiral Chester W.mtholyoke. 1949. S/1469). Kashmir and for for the the demilitarisation determination of of the its State final of Jammu and in disposition accordance with the will of the people through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite. United Kingdom and United States and adopted by the Security Council on March 14. 1950. Having received and noted the reports of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan establishing its resolutions 39 (1948) of 20 January and 47 (1948) of 21 April Considering should be that based the upon resolution the of the outstanding measure of difficulties agreement of substantial fundamental principles already reached. 1949 for a cease-fire. dated the 14th March. L. and commending the parties in particular for their action in partially implementing these Resolutions by (1) The cessation of hostilities effected January 1. (Document No. 1948 and January 5. submitted by the Representatives of Cuba.

2.1. (a) to assist in the preparation and to supervise the implementation of the programme of demilitarisation referred to above and' to interpret the agreements reached by the parties for demilitarisation. to prepare and execute within a period of five months from the date of this resolution a programme of demilitarisation on the basis of the principles of paragraph 2 of General McNaughton proposal or of such modifications of those principles as may be mutually agreed. to exercise all of the powers and responsibilities devolving upon the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan by reason of existing resolutions of the Security Council and by reason of the agreement of the parties embodied in the Resolutions of the United Nations Commission of August 13. 1948 and January 5. 1949. submitting his conclusions and any recommendations which he may desire to make. and "calls upon them to take all possible measures to ensure the creation and maintenance of 'in atmosphere favourable to the promotion of further negotiations. G. 5. Calls upon the Governments of India and Pakistan to make immediate arrangements. to report to the Security Council as he may consider necessary. Agrees that the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan 178 . to arrange at the appropriate stage of demilitarisation for the assumption by the Plebiscite Administrator of the functions assigned to the latter under agreements made between the parties. Requests the two Governments to take all necessary precautions to ensure that (heir agreements regarding the cease-fire shall continue to be faithfully observed. without prejudice to their rights or claims and with due regard to the requirements of law and order. (b) to place himself at the disposal of the Governments of India and Pakistan and to place before those Governments or the Security Council any suggestions which. are likely to contribute to the expeditious and enduring solution of the dispute which has arisen between the two Governments in regard to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. in his opinion. Decides to appoint a United Nations Representative for the following purposes who shall have authority to perform his functions in such place or places as he may deem appropriate. McNaughton for their arduous and fruitful labours. Extends its best thanks to the members of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan and to General A. 3. L. 4.

Norway.S. Egypt.shall be (terminated. Ecuador. France. and decides that this shall take place one month after both parties have informed the United Nations Representative of their acceptance of the transfer to him the powers and responsibilities of the United Nations Commission referred to in paragraph 2 (c) above. Cuba.K. The Security Council voted on this Resolution on 14-3-50 with the following result: In favour: China.A. and U. Against: None Abstaining: India and Yugoslavia Absent : USSR 179 . U.

and each of the sides set forth its respective position. having met at Tashkent and having discussed the existing relations between India and Pakistan. hereby declare their firm resolve to restore normal and peaceful relations and between their countries between and to promote They understanding friendly relations their peoples. They reaffirm their obligation under the Charter not to have recourse to force and to settle their disputes through peaceful means. capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Soviet Union.indianembassy.APPENDIX 3 http://www. consider the attainment of these objectives of vital importance for the welfare of the 600 million people of India and Pakistan.html Tashkent Declaration January 10. They considered that the interests of peace in their region and particularly in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent and. II 180 . 1966 The 1965 armed to an conflict end by between India and Pakistan at was formally the brought signing this declaration Tashkent. Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and President Ayub Khan signed it on behalf of their respective countries in the presence of the Soviet Premier Alexi Kosygin who mediated between 10_1966. It was against this background that Jammu and Kashmir was discussed. indeed. I The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agree that both sides will exert all efforts to create good neighborly relations between India and Pakistan in accordance with the United Nations Charter. the interests of the people so India and Pakistan were not served by the continuance of tension between the two countries. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan.

Both Government shall observe the Vienna Convention of 1961 on Diplomatic Intercourse. and to take measures to implement the existing agreements between India and Pakistan. to the positions they held prior to 5 August. 181 . 1966. and will encourage propaganda which promotes the development of friendly relations between the two countries. communications. VI The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed to consider measures towards the restoration of economic and trade relations. V The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the High Commissioner of India to Pakistan and the High Commissioner of Pakistan to India will return to their posts and that the normal functioning of diplomatic missions of both countries will be restored. IV The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that both sides will discourage any propaganda directed against the other country. III The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that relations between India and Pakistan shall be based on the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of each other. and both sides all observe the cease-fire terms on the cease-fire line. 1965. as well as cultural exchanges between India and Pakistan.The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that all armed personnel of the two countries shall be withdrawn not later than 24 February.

They further agreed to discuss the return of the property and assets taken over by either side in connection with the conflict. They invite the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR to 182 .S.S.R. the the Soviet of Government of and the personally U. friendly and noble part in bringing about the present meeting which has resulted in mutually satisfactory results. VIII The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the two sides will continue the discussion of questions relating to the problems of refugees and eviction/illegal immigrations. Both sides have recognized the need to set up joint Indian-Pakistani bodies which will report to their Governments in order to decide what further steps should be taken. They also agreed that both sides will create conditions which will prevent the exodus of people.VII The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that they will give instructions to their respective authorities to carry out the repatriation of the prisoners of war. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan recorded their feelings of deep appreciation and gratitude to the leaders of the Soviet of Union. IX The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the two sides will continue meetings both at the highest and at other levels on matters of direct concern to both countries. They also express to the Government and friendly people of Uzbekistan their sincere thankfulness for their overwhelming reception and generous hospitality. to the Chairman Council Ministers for their constructive.

htm Terrorists earn a peon's wage By: M K Tayal November 2.000 per month ensures that the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) meets its manpower requirements. the heftier the pay package and the more discreet it Payments relate directly to performance. A district commander gets around Rs 20. enrol himself at a training camp in Pakistan. one thing is clear that Kashmiri youth get a raw deal compared to the Pakistani or foreign counterpart. Commanders get much more. The lure of a mere Rs 3. 2003 What motivates a young man to take up terrorism. A Kashmiri company or battalion gets from Rs 5. motivation level and other HR criterion. The higher they go. The rank and file from Pakistan or Afghanistan or any other country gets a starting salary of Rs 5.000 that can go up to Rs 7.mid-day. fire at the Army and possibly never return home? It is a small pay package that equals the wage of a peon or driver. number of casualties the terrorist has inflicted upon Indian security forces. infiltrate India. The pay scale is not rigid as it varies depending on the risks one is willing to take and his commitment to the cause. Lashkar-e-Taiba's (LeT) Doda district commander Mohd Shahzad.000.000. a 183 . not every terrorist gets Rs 3. However. the ISI maintains dossiers and gives annual marks to its cadres very much like the Pakistan Army does for its regular employees.000. The Kashmiri mujahideen is paid less by the ISI than a Pakistani terrorist. the annual increment increases. area of operation.witness this declaration.000 to Rs 10. Some of the more 'enthusiastic' Kashmiri youth get around Rs 5. With the number of years one puts in. A commander starts at anything above Rs 25.000. APPENDIX 4 http://web.000. In short.000. Nevertheless.

"Money didn't matter. Competition and style for instance drive most youth into the realm of the AK-47. since naturally none survive to tell their tale. One must go over to Pakistan to get the complete four to five month training and then work his way back into India from the 120 launch pads. The second term involves training of special operations-explosives.000 per month but that limit was waived off as a special case. The basic training at the 85 training camps is the same and involves handling small arms (AK-47) and explosives. I could get as much as I wanted.Pakistani national. A Kashmiri gets Rs two lakh as one-time payment to join. His monthly emoluments were being directly sent to his home in Pakistan. he remained silent when asked what was the amount his parents were getting in Pakistan. LeT's Shahzad said he came to Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) to fight jehadis as he was told harrowing stories of atrocities being committed on the Muslims in the Valley. The amount is too tempting for anyone to say 'no'. The fidayeens (soldiers on a suicide mission) get highly sophisticated training but their emoluments remain a mystery. "It has become a style." Shahzad had said. captured by the Army after a fierce encounter in September 2003." explains an official. If you don't have a gun you don't get good girlfriends and nobody respects you. 184 . But it is sure that the money Shahzad got was for operations in his area and his logistical support. There are other factors too at work. small unit tactics of raid and ambush and radio communication. There is a catch. However. "Poor economic conditions in the Valley force some to cross over to Pakistan for their training. The main attraction in joining the ISI is the initial offer. said he came to Jammu & Kashmir to be a jehadi and was paid nearly Rs 20. Sources also point to the presence of foreign militants who come to the Valley after sessions of intense motivation and psychological drills." a militant said to an army officer serving in the Valley.

the ISI makes sure that those who help recruit while on the job are not neglected. It rewards handsomely." explained a source. there have been reports of parents of the deceased militant not getting a single penny. initially the ISI made sure the money was delivered to the militant's parents but as the numbers started dwindling. However. Though no one complains publicly.I felt I had to take revenge but now after fighting the army for more than three years I realise the futility of this 'freedom' movement. he can make upto Rs 1. "If a militant motivates and enrols another youth." he said in a heart-to-heart talk. 185 . Realising this. so did it the commitment. Kashmiri youths are now averse to taking up the gun while recruitment from Pakistan remains high.5 lakh. However.

September 28th 2003. National stock-taking.August 14th 2002. and Operation Pawan. M B Naqvi.hindustantimes. online edition. Vir Sanghvi. http://jang.tripod. http://jang. the Indian peacekeeping operations in Northern Sri Lanka in the late 1980s. online edition.htm m 2. 186 . the India-China war of 1962.Indian Muslims and Pakistan. Syed Asif Ali and Muddassir Rizvi KARACHI/ISLAMABAD: The Daily Jang. Pak population will swell to 349m by 2050. The Daily Jang. the long running lowgrade war of cross border terrorism from Pakistan described in Chapter 12.htm 5. 3. Pakistan. The Daily Jang. Who Owns Pakistan? Website by Shahid-ur-Rehman http://members. December 5th 2003.htm 4. Operation Vijay against the Portuguese occupation of Goa in 1961. The eight conflicts that the Indian armed forces have been involved in since 1947 are the four conflicts with Pakistan described in Chapter By Nadeem AND REFERENCE MATERIAL 1. Sunday 7th March 2004 http://www. online edition. Counterpoint. Human conditions not improving in Pakistan: report.

com/id/4264215/ 11. aphy/Gpop/HTMLENH/stats/tvs. page 2.cpj.htm 12.dawn. November 6th 2003. the combined circulation of Pakistan's entire Englishlanguage press is no more than 7.pdf .pk/thenews/aug2002-daily/14-082002/oped/o5. Special Report According to London's Financial Times. online edition.statpak.Pakistan has 22 TV sets per 1000 population http://www.dailytimes. Musharraf determined to change Muslim schools' 'indoctrination'. Donors want poverty trends reversed. online edition.msnbc. 187 By Tom Brokaw Anchor. Reforming Pakistan's madrassas. By Ihtashamul Haque.a document published by the statistics division.asp?page=story_1-82003_pg3_3 8. The Daily Times. by Kavita ook2003/chapter02. Television sets per 1000 people . Pakistan. Government of Pakistan.htm 9. Pakistan. http://www.alsagerschool. Op-ed: Our missing Pakistan. August 1st 2003. The Dawn. NBC News http://www.000 in a population of 134 07feb00Br. http://www. The Press for Change. http://www.html 10.

atimes. online edition. The News . The madrassas and the have-nots.DT September 19th 2001. Quaidi-Azam University. online edition.cgi?f=/chronicle/a/2002/10/10/MN155006. The Pakistani Time . Dr Tariq Rahman."At the time of the partition there were 137 madrassas. These are the Sunni madrassas" http://light. Chronicle Foreign Service. 20th January 2003. Jafri.13.jsp?section= static&page=alexievpakistan 18. Pakistan. Pamela Constable. http://www.In 1950 there were 210 of them while in 1971 they increased to 563.and most are still unregistered .centerforsecuritypolicy. 29 Aug 02 http://www. Deplorable schools angering Pakistanis Issue at the top of voters' agenda Juliette Terzieff. Out of the registered ones . Alexei Alexiev. Islamabad.php?sid=7657 17.Jang : Opinion. Center for Security Policy http://www. What and wherefore of Madaris. http://www.html 16. 2001 . the Deobandis 550 and the Ahl-e-Hadith 347. The Saturday September Medievalism and Pakistan's madrassas. B. The Asia Times online edition. S.htm1 15.sfgate. Thursday.afgha.washingtonpost. Nadeem Iqbal.the Barelvis have 1400. online edition. Nowadays there are at least 7000 of hem. Professor of Linguistics and South Asian Studies. A. The San Francisco Chronicle. 2002. October The Washington Post.

H.zmag. Others. 2004 (1520 PST) http://www. By Aijazz Ahmed http://www. June 18. Fellow. http://members. The Daily Jang.htm#1 23. Khurshid Hasanain and A. as we know them.html Shireen M Mazari.paktribune.htm Sr.htm IDSA.html 20. http://www. August 10th 189 . "The Subtle Subversion .tripod. 1998. Zobaida says anti-India material from curricula to be deleted. online edition Kamila Hyat. Conflict and Violence in the Educational Process.htm 21.dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A592202001Sep19&notFound=true 19.nyu. Sreedhar.THE MENACE OF EDUCATION What Are They Teaching In Pakistani Schools Today? by Pervez Hoodbhoy.Pakistan's Economic Dilemma. A. Monday March Nayyar and Ahmed Salim. Nayyar.jang. http://www.H. A not-so-subtle 25. Madrassas: A make-believe http://www. http://www.sdpi.The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan".

Pak Link with Nuclear Black Market. China Nuclear art.wisconsinproject. Missile Overview.htm "According to a report leaked out of the Los Alamos Nuclear Laboratory.2741933a12. Feb 1st 2004 31. Nuclear Threat Initiative. Non Proliferation Project: Countries Possessing Ballistic Missiles http://www.S. in the autumn of ndex_3066.00.asp?p=8 28.html 30. http://www.2106. The Risk Report Volume 6 Number 6 (November-December 2000). 32.. Subrahmanyam.ceip. K.http://www. No 003/Issue Aug 16 http://www. April 2004 http://www. had not had time to develop a warhead from the minimal quantities of plutonium 190 .stratmag. Gaurav Kampani.htm : U. the air samples acquired over Chagai by US intelligence agencies. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.html 27. The Pretence is Over . around the period of the tests. contained traces of plutonium. Strategic Affairs Editorial. Pakistan. The Times of India. intelligence discovers China gave Pakistan a tested nuclear bomb 29.

htm 35. given the moratorium on nuclear testing" 33. Truth about Zia's 'status quo' era. The confusion in our minds. Washington Post Foreign Service Tuesday.indianexpress.generated by the research reactor at PINSTECH. FORTUNE. http://meadev. Therefore. Kidnapped Nation. 2003. 6 Aug 2002 http://www.htm) 34.htm 39.dawn.php?content_id=6224. April 8. http://www. By Zubeida Mustafa. Shalini Chawla. April 29. John Lancaster. thats the question. Richard torsdesk. Shaheen Sehbai. Fri 19 July 2002.htm 38. 2003.dawn. Page A29 191 .pakistaneconomist. Monday. or the device itself was not a Pakistani warhead but that of another nuclear weapons state which needed to validate a modernized warhead. By KHURRAM Feb 03 09. http://www. When will Pakistan get an apology?. By Special Correspondent. HOW POOR ARE THE POOR. there is evidence that the devices tested were either plutonium supplied by non-Pakistani sources.satribune.Jobs or http://www.htm 37.

"The Arab Mind".htm 48. Brigadier Shelford th 44. London WC1N 3AF.nci. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. I M Mohsin. Asian Wars of Imperial Succession.sfu.html 45. India and Pakistan: Steps towards Rapproachement. review in the Asia Times http://www. Pervez hoodbhoy http://www. No intention to enter into nuclear race:"The Encyclopedia of Land Warfare in the 20th Century". Overview" by Professor Stella January 28 2004. 192 http://www. Leisure Books. http://usembassy. We must hang together. by J N Dixit.washingtonpost. Islam and Secularization. http://www. Cross-Cultural Face-Negotiation: An Analytical Ting-Toomey. .secularislam.dailytimes. 27 Old Gloucester St. Part 5.atimes. Testimony of Professor Stephen P. UK 47.asp?page=story_17-82002_pg3_5 Raphael Patai Cohen. Salamander Books Ltd 1977.htm 46.http://www. India-Pakistan in War & 40.html 42. Pages 164-173. Musharraf and the Jihad industry.

Fall of Dhaka: the true face-2. 53. an army of 2001.html 51: Fall of Dhaka-the true http://www. Pakistan:Transition to Democracy?" 3rd Oct 2002.htm 193 . http://www. Maj (Retd) AGHA HUMAYUN AMIN. Sixth Edition. its eastern half. DEFENCE NOTES. 1971.ecoi.000 History Channel http://www.htm West Pakistani troops surrendered to Indian forces in Bangladesh and the war came to an end. Brig (r) A Q Anjum http://www.doc Speech Archive. Text of speech by General Pervez Musharraf.bartleby. 90. Prospects for social cohesion.1upinfo. report from the International Crisis The Pakistan Army From 1965 to Brig (r) A Q Anjum http://www.html Pakistan lost soldiers. http://www. The Columbia Encyclopedia.defencejournal.pdf 54.htm India-Pakistan Wars http://www. html On December 17.jang.

htm 60. Ethnic Cleansing in Pakistan during Partition: A Preliminary Statistical Analysis.htm 59. Times of India. International Perspective on Family Violence in Pakistani Pains Welfare Trust International. NOVEMBER 10."TO BE A WOMAN IN PAKISTAN IS TO ASK FOR A LIFE OF SUBSERVIENCE" By Ameera Javeria.html 2002 http://timesofindia. http://www.Pakistan Officer Corps thought-process about Defence. Martial Mind .pakistaneconomist. Social Work Group.htm 64. Columnist Hamid Hussain explores the Pakistan military Zafar Abbas. act_2380.defencejournal.geocities.dll/html/uncomp/ar 194 .com/MONITOR/ISSUE62/sridhar. http://www. SUNDAY.bharat-rakshak. Sridhar N. Khurram Faheem http://www. Karachi.htm 62. http://www.confex. How poor are the poor. Pakistan Abdus Sattar Ghazali. online ng99/pakistan.html 65.indiatimes. Pak army siphoning off US aid in Swiss accounts.58.html 63 Islamic Pakistan illusions and reality..

page 116. http://www. Askari http://www.htm#2 the 69. Rajiv By M.13288/news_detail.witnesspioneer. http://www. Monday. Paper no. Jinnah's Vision of Pakistan.tolueislam. M.html 74 The Root of India-Pakistan Conflicts. Among the Believers. Asghar Khan. 2002. February 11.htm 73. 941.htm#1 68. Monday. Massacres of shias in Iraq & Pakistan background. Jihad and the United States. page 112. 03. Some obstacles in 1981. Pakistan's Taliban Problem.dawn. By Reuel Gerecht. 2001. H. 28th March 2003 28 March 2003 http://www.The Friday Times page 87. Sharif al Mujahid http://members. October 29.asp?cid=170243 75. by B.http://www. Naipaul.Raman.htm 71. 195 .com. page 102. 03. The Weekly Standard.ticleshow?artid=27859526 66.asp page 159 76.http://www. 2004 http://www. Picador.http://www.saag.

The Times of Understanding Political Islam. Islamic Revolution: the only possible future for Pakistan. By Hamza Alavi. Crescent International. The Friday Times.asia1. The shadows of this influence are quite visible on the marriage ceremonies and festivals like "Basant" 79. Asad Latif JAN 21.77. Dec 6-12. Dr Kalim Siddiqui. there is a strong influence of Hindu culture on the present Pakistani culture. 8th April 2003. Reddy. 2002 82.php3?article_id=1642&g roup=webcast 83. Tamara Sonn 196 . 2002 http://straitstimes.A.essortment. Social forces and ideology in the making of Pakistan. P.html 84 Political Authority in Classical Islamic Thought. 2001 80.indymedia. 78. Sunday August 5. Prof Karrar Hussain Memorial Lecture Nov http://ny. Explore Pakistani culture. 2002. M. Demographer.htm "Pakistani culture can be called as "Mixed Culture".00. Although the majority of people in Pakistan are Muslims by birth and faith. Mohammad Waseem: 81. Wed Jun 25 '03 http://jakarta. The reality of an Islamic Military in the Power structure of Pakistan. the Rupee into Riyal or Dinar. Ahmed Quraishi http://www. November 22.jsp?story=101459 Mani Shankar Aiyer. By John Lancaster Washington Post Foreign Service.independent. Soldiers in 93. S. http://www. Know thy enemy!.asp 85. Prestige and Privileges: Military's economic activities in Pakistan Dr Ayesha Siddiqa-Agha 91. 197 .K Raychaudhuri VSM (Retd).htm 89. 2002. An Advanced History of India. 87.nation.html 92.asp 90. Majumdar. Whose land is it anyway? Irfan Husain. Masud Akhtar Shaikh. Perks. Robert Fisk: Farewell to democracy in Pakistan. ARTRAC [Army Training Command] magazine. UBSPD. p 391).com. page 10. 1994. (Lahore.http://www. Vol 1. PINNACLE Vol 2 No 2 October 2003.washingtonpost.islamonline. "Power. Raychaudhuri and Datta. Pakistanis Question Perks of Power. 26 October 2001"Pakistan Papers". 86. 1980).co. MILITARY INVOLVEMENT IN THE POLITICAL 'DEVELOPMENT' OF PAKISTAN AND ITS RATIONALE.

jang. Farrukh Saleem y. TIMES STAFF WRITER http://www.htm 97. while the percentage of people living below $2 a day is a staggering The Friday Times. Issue #48. A first hand list of Army land lords.satribune. Pakistan struggles with poverty 99. Military Inc. Special SAT Report Dominates Life in Pakistan. Pakistan http://www. Oped by Dr. http://www.htm 95. 101.htm 98 Official Web Page of the National Logistic Cell of Pakistan.atimes.7 percent.satribune.thefridaytimes. The Weekly bing.html In its "World Development Indicators-2002". Rightsizing of the Armed Forces http://www.htm 100. Era of mullah coddling is over. Najam Sethi. 2002 Nadeem Iqbal http://www. PAUL WATSON.htm 94. May 23-29. the World Bank says that 31 percent of Pakistan's population lives off $1 a day.shtml 198 .nlc.

No 7. Pramit Pal Chaudhuri http://www. abroad. 2003 http://www.htm 109.htm 108.hindustantimes.0008. The Pakistan army and Islamic radicals. Syed Saleem Shahzad http://www. http://www. The Washington Times.indianembassy.html 199 . The rogue army of Pakistan. reproduced on the website of the Indian Embassy http://www.rediff. htm 107. 2002 106. quoted in the online portal Rediff: http://www.Raman. Indian Navy History.html 110. By Amos Perlmutter. November 17. Parthasarathy. Pakistan-India: Same game. new Pakistan's privileged army Quest for hegemony at home. What if Pervez Musharraf is killed. Interview with Nawaz Sharif. Financial Daily from THE HINDU group of publications Thursday. Weekly Independent.Indian Army History. Jan 02.html 104.htm _army_radicals%20_nov_17_99.hinduonnet.bharatrakshak. Parthasarathy http://www.htm 103. Vol 1. March 7-13.

html 114.S.htm 117. Ram Krishen K.gendercide.asp?ARTICLE_ID=3633 4 Lessons from Kargil. Lt Gen (Retd) JAVED NASIR .111.kashmirinformation. November/December 2000 http://www. 116. Jessica Stern. Calling the Indian Army Chief's Bluff. http://www. Paul Sperry http://worldnetdaily.html Virtual Bangladesh : History : Eyewitness accounts. http://www. Rafiqul Islam. http://www. Foreign Affairs. Terrorists plan to pose as disabled travelers Pakistani nationals behind U.bharat-rakshak. KASHMIR AND PARTITION OF INDIA (Part II) by Prof.html 118. Case Study: Genocide in Bangladesh. Indian Air Force History. plot. Professsor Rafiqul Islam 115. warns new Homeland Security memo. Gen VP Malik PVSM. AVSM (Retd) http://www.html 1971 http://www. Letter from Maharaja Hari Singh to Lord Mountbatten on the eve of Pak invasion on J&K in 1947. Pakistan's Jihad Culture. 127. Syed Saleem Shahzad.html 128.html 123. Pepe Pervez hoodbhoy http://www. The Taliban's Pakistan connection. Shahid Nadeem Musharraf and the Jihad industry.asp?page=story_7-82002_pg3_7 126. Pakistan's Role in the Kashmir Insurgency. Ehsan Ansari. The spirit of Gandhar. Peter Chalk http://www.atimes. Nuclear Pakistan and the New Great Game. page 5 121.html 201 . THE ROVING EYE Jihad: 'The ultimate thermonuclear bomb'.ca/~mayworks/911/1/ in The Independent (UK) http://www. South Asia Analysis Group. new rules. Asia Times Online. Nov 27th 2003 http://www. Delusions and Fantasies!! Guest Column: Arindam Banerji.html 122.Pakistan-India: Same game. Jihad: 'The ultimate thermonuclear bomb'. Excerpts from a Sept. Jihadi Groups.html Indo-Pakistan Talks http://www.shtml 124. Pepe Escobar http://www. published by the Strategic Studies 15 article by Tariq Ali.

PROFILE OF A MILITANT: Based on the statistics available the average life span of a militant / mercenary does not exceed 20 months from the time he returns to J&K to participate in the so called Jihad. December 8 133.html 129.html 130.bharat-rakshak. BHARAT RAKSHAK MONITOR .deccanherald.S.Paper no. 09. India Today.Dec 14th 2003. Harvest of Terror. The 135. http://cnnstudentnews.Volume 5(2) September-October 2002 http://www.The Politics of Islam in Pakistan.armyinkashmir. Musharraf eludes assassination bid . The Truth About http://www. a website maintained by the Indian Army's 15 th Corps.html 06. 2001 K.armyinkashmir.forceindia. trying to avoid contact with the security forces http://www.S. Pioneer. Beyond Control. Indrani th Bagchi 2003 with Anil Padmanabhan.cnn. http://www. A period in which he is a fugitive. Gill. Narayanan Komerath. Musharraf escapes second assassination attempt.asp 202 . March 2.P.asp 132. 2003 http://www.musharraf/ 136. moving from one hide to another. By Ghazala Wahab. 710. Pakistani Role in Terrorism Against the

htm 203 .html 139. Friday. Frank Pallone. 2004. Monday. Hon. 23 January. About 18 million firearms are held illegally in Pakistan in addition to the two million weapons that are legally Guns are also produced The Dawn report said Darra Adamkhel still had around 900 arms factories. all of them illegal and about 150 shops selling arms and ammunition 140.137.. notably in the tribal town of Darra Adamkhel. JR.pakistanfacts. October 3. in the House of Representatives. awash with arms after more than 23 years of war. BBC News online. Musharraf admission on secrets.stm 138. Syed Saleem Shahzad http://www. which is famous for imitation weapons from all over the world.php/20030115094510198 The main concentrations of illegal arms in Pakistan are in semi-autonomous tribal regions bordering 18:30 GMT http://news. Pakistan has 18 million illegal quoting Reuters Alertnet http://www. 1994 http://www. Many of the weapons have been imported from Assassination 'windfall' for Musharraf.atimes.fas.

Pakistan Caught in Web of Evidence. Aziz hand seen in Kandahar hijacking.Raman.armyinkashmir.nytimes. 142. http://pak-terror. By DAVID E. 2000. newsnight. Agence France-Presse. 204 .com/2004/02/08/weekinreview/08sang.html 147. NARCO TERRORISM IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR AND PAKISTAN'S ROLE.htm l?hp 146. By Douglas Frantz. January 143. IC 814 Hijack. SANGER. http://users. Published: February http://www.asp?recno =23&ctg=community Published: February 8. http://www. BROAD and DAVID E. By Samuel Baid Sunday.htm 148. Warhead Blueprints Link Libya Project to Pakistan Figure By WILLIAM J. 2004. http://www.senet. http://www.freeservers.html 145. Plane hijackers received new weapons in Afghanistan: French hostages.indiareacts. http://www. Confronting the Nuclear Threat America Didn't Want to Be True.nytimes. 2004 http://www.saag. Pakistan's role in hijacking. Paul Watson and Mubashir Zaidi.nic. Public Affairs Taliban & by B.story?coll=la-home-headlines 144.

Financial Times (London. Page: 218.asp 155. ant.150. Platts. "A Dictionary of Ltd. September 21. Publisher: (Indian Edition) Mushiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. 6 . Pak embassy official in Nepal held selling fake Indian currency.November 2003 http://www.alphalasertek. Friday Europe Edition 1# 158. http://www.rediff. The Nation and State of Pakistan. PRESS TRUST OF INDIA.kashmirherald.Dawood in Karachi.htm 154.twq. 157. New Delhi. How did the word "Pakistan" come into existence? http://www28. Stepehen Cohen.htm 152. April 4. Dated 24th September 2002 http://www.pdf 205 . No. Extracted from 'The Pioneer'.com/programs/news4. 2003 15:13 IST. Rahul Bedi. Volume 3. admits Pakistan. Classical Hindi and English" Author: John T.globalpolicy.html 151. ISBN: 81-215-0098-2.indianexpress. International currency racket 20 Most Wanted Terrorists that India has demanded Pakistan to extradite back to l 156. 2002 from the Asia Times: http://www.h tml 153.England) January 16. Stephen Cohen http://www.brinkster. Kashmir Herald on the Web.

Pakistan Human Rights ignored in the ‘War on Terror’. Issue 03http://www. by Daveed Gartenstein-Ross & Bill Roggio .org/library/index/engasa330352006 160. http://web. Pakistan Surrenders The Taliban control the border with Afghanistan.159.amnesty.weeklystandard.10/02/2006.asp 206 . Volume 00/000/012/738ijawx. Executive summary.

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