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Dedicated to the memory of my cousin, late Wg Cdr. Kukke Suresh, VrC
The reason for writing this book is explained in the first chapter. Once I had collected the reference material it took me only three months to write the book. It then took me two years to refine and release the book as a freely downloadable e-book. I must take this opportunity to thank members of the forum at www.bharat-rakshak.com for their invaluable and selfless help in digging up material that served as references for this book. Furthermore I wish to thank the dozen or so people who helped me proof read the book and came up with useful suggestions. Prominent among these are ramana, acharya, kgoan and sudhir. Shiv January 20, 2007
plebiscite. Wars and genocide Provinces and Assorted Fragments Pakistan.Failed state Page Page Page Page Page Page Page 6 14 20 35 43 65 71 Page 80 Page 93 Page 99 Page 117 Page Page Page Page 131 135 147 160 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 References Page 174 Page 177 Page 180 Page 183 Page 186 5 .CHAPTERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Why Pakistan? The people of Pakistan Education Industries and Economy of Pakistan Pakistani psyche general observations Women and Minorities of Pakistan Partition and the two-nation theory Islam and Pakistan Attitudes toward India and Indians The Pakistani Army Kashmir. Jihad and Terrorism The Government and criminal activity Pakistan .
That may appear true but it is important to understand that Pakistanis do not feel like Indians and do not like to say "Indians are just like us".Chapter 1 WHY PAKISTAN? Why write about Pakistan? Pakistan is a huge. no effort been made to collect this information and put it all together between the covers of a single book. That document then serves as a comprehensive reference point for information about the subject. Such a review collects up all the available information about a given disease from all the medical papers available on the subject and consolidates the information in one document. newspaper reports and magazines. "Pakistanis are just like us". this book can be considered a Review of the literature on Pakistan. Many tend to look at the similarities and remark. And in the intervening years Pakistan. populous and diverse nation that has the curious distinction of having been suddenly born in 1947. a Review of the literature is often used to collect and collate information about a disease from various sources. More that anything else. While these features have been noted time and again by innumerable people in a large number of books. Most Indians do not understand Pakistan or Pakistanis. and it has been an aggressive and implacable neighbor of India. In fact Pakistanis have spent all those decades since independence trying to show how Pakistan is not like India. In the field of medical research. Pakistani institutions and Pakistanis have developed certain unique and recognizable defining features. 6 .
some Indians make the simplistic assumption that because (nearly) all Pakistanis are Muslims. Vir Sanghvi. and it is an insult to Indian Muslims to refer to them as being associated with Pakistan. This is an obvious logical fallacy and it is also deeply insulting 7 to all Indian Muslims - . while the sources from which the quotes have been taken are listed in the reference section at the end of the book. not to be discussed by secular non-Muslim Indians. so all Muslims must be Pakistanis in their hearts. An automatic and needless mental connection is made between the subject of Pakistan and the Muslims of India. and are sometimes called saffron sympathisers. First. Indian Muslims are quite different from Pakistanis. For this reason Pakistan and Islamic extremism emanating from Pakistan have almost been taboo subjects in India.This book is a collection and review of what has been written about Pakistan in various sources over many years. Today. It is a summary of the experiences and descriptions of many people who have reported or written about Pakistan. referring to Pakistan does not mean that we are obliquely referring to Indian Muslims. the managing editor of the Hindustan Times has written about this (1): At a sub-conscious level. There are a few things that Indian readers should keep in mind while reading this book. Indians who talk about Pakistan or Islam are often considered to be opponents of secularism and tolerance. The book carries many direct quotes from various authors and these quotes are in italics. Indians often become embarrassed or angry in discussions about Pakistan and Pakistanis. lest they should hurt the sentiments of Muslims in India. This is both unfortunate and unfair to Indian Muslims.
not Pakistanis.including Zaheer Khan and Irfan Pathan who are setting out for Pakistan. Confusion and misunderstanding in Indian attitudes more than five decades after independence are certainly a factor in the Indian Pakistan policy. Pakistanis are no longer Indians. they are Indians. and Pakistanis are Pakistanis. and these will become clear in subsequent chapters. Indians are Indians. This vestigial thought process remains in many Indian minds like a dark cloud. not Indians. a hangover from partition. and call for an avoidance of what seems to be an Indian obsession with Pakistan. There are many assumptions and misconceptions that need to be reviewed. we must remember that when we speak of Pakistan and Islam we are not referring to Indian Muslims and the vastly different way in which Islam has evolved in India since independence. The situation and attitudes of Muslims in India are no longer comparable to those in Pakistan. to say nothing of the thousands of Muslims who have died fighting Pakistan. But 8 . Muslims in India are not Pakistanis. determined to keep the Indian flag flying on the cricket field. As the Indian economy forges ahead there is an increasing constituency of Indians who feel that Pakistan is a small problem that can be ignored. One of the purposes of this book is to show precisely what has been done with Islam in Pakistan. and that is unfortunate. Pakistan is Pakistan. Another point to inability to develop a coherent note is that no discussion or description of Pakistan can even begin to be meaningful without considering the role that Islam plays on the mind of the Pakistani. a separate nation. It requires a deliberate act of mental re-orientation for non-Muslims in India to learn to talk about Pakistanis without equating them with Indian Muslims. Here again.
as Indians like everyone else. neither of whom were able to look upon Indian Muslims as they should have been looked at. Another group of Indians took the opposite viewpoint that Indian Muslims. In five of those wars armed forces from Pakistan have been the adversary that Indian civilians and Indian soldiers have had to face. and has put a great strain on the ancient Indian tradition of tolerance and pluralism. and the fifth engagement with Pakistan still continues at the time of writing. The events of independence and partition had a deep effect on the Indian psyche. a love-hate relationship that affected Indian society. with the infiltration terrorists from Pakistan into India as part grade war to bleed India (chapter 12). Four of these conflicts are discussed in chapter 11. The appearance of the new nation Pakistan as a neighbor. From Indian armed forces and paramilitary have had of armed of a low1965. the to expand to keep pace with the massive build up and continuing 9 . with people who were brothers and compatriots until very recently created a complex conflict. In the first 55 years after independence. With Pakistani leaders attempting to speak for the Muslims in India. unless treated in an especially favorable and kind manner. Pakistan has thus had a great impact on Hindu-Muslim relations in India. many non-Muslim Indians got polarized mainly into two groups. would somehow feel upset enough to want to side with Pakistan. the Indian armed forces have had to fight wars on eight occasions (2). the importance of Pakistan lies in its extreme hostility to India. Apart from the deep mental scar that partition left on the Indian psyche. One group of Indians began to view their Muslim compatriots with hostility as recessed Pakistanis who were always seen cheering for Pakistan in cricket matches.Pakistan cannot be ignored by India for many reasons.
ignoring corruption. Indians cannot afford to forget the lessons that can be learned from events like the India-China conflict of 1962. Overconfidence. 10 . mistakes that India could still make. the presence of a belligerent neighbor is a signal that military strength must be adequate to meet any aggressive intent. Indians have a lot to learn. No matter how well intentioned and peaceable a nation state may be. Unilateral pacifism displayed by one nation state when another nation shows every sign of being ready for war is a policy that begs for defeat and disaster. A policy of ignoring Pakistan's military intent and might would be a formula for a disaster of unimaginable proportions. That is one of the mistakes that Pakistani leaders committed. or the naive policy of appeasement of Adolf Hitler followed by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. It is still possible for Indians to make the mistakes Pakistanis have made. Pakistan has made a whole tapestry of errors that Indians can choose to repeat or avoid. and if necessary take the battle into the aggressor's territory.assaults from Pakistan. and attempting to play great power games in the absence of a matching military-industrial-economic capability are some of the mistakes that Pakistan has made. a population explosion and social inequity. By studying what Pakistan has done. But this build up must not come in the way of urgently needed development and modernization. or has not done since independence. and India would do well to learn from that. discrimination against minorities and maldistribution of wealth. blindness to the impact of religious discrimination. underestimation of problems and hurdles. while a policy that puts too much emphasis on hurriedly delivering a total military defeat on Pakistan could divert too large a proportion of meager resources towards a war machine.
India is four times larger than Pakistan in land area and currently has a population that is over seven times the size of Pakistan's population. Imagine Pakistan to be a smaller box with 10 eggs in it. All references to Pakistani problems are referred to by Pakistani spokespersons as South Asian problems. is that the India box has 70 intact eggs while the Pakistan box has only 5 intact eggs. But what is hidden from this comparison. There is a very important reason for that. but Pakistani leaders have persistently tried to hide problems within Pakistan such as poverty and illiteracy by saying that India has more problems than Pakistan. All that this does is to hide the magnitude of the problems in Pakistan. Although both India and Pakistan started off as having been part of one nation in the pre-Independence era. the two entities cannot really be compared. comparison will show that the India box has 30 eggs. and it requires elaboration. and South Asian illiteracy. and the Pakistan box has only 5 broken eggs. South Asian hunger. and 5 of those eggs are broken. To illustrate why a direct comparison between India and Pakistan can be misleading we need to use an analogy: Imagine India to be a box with 100 eggs in it. This means that all numbers and figures relating to India are automatically bigger than those of Pakistan.Finally. A direct broken and it shape. 11 and hide the chronic . Direct comparisons of numbers regarding Pakistan and India are misleading because of the difference in size. except where it is unavoidable. but 30 of those eggs are broken. would seem that the India box is in a far worse with many more broken eggs. South Asian poverty. every attempt has been made in this work to avoid direct comparisons between India and Pakistan.
For every child that Pakistan educates. Pakistan of course was amply aided by other nations. it has moved ahead in literacy and is racing ahead in other parameters. a quick comparison of the Pakistani armed forces and the Indian armed forces is illustrative of what the two countries have been doing since Independence. With India having a population that is seven times as big as that of Pakistan. the Indian army is less than one and a half times as big as the Pakistani army. India has to educate seven children in order to "match Pakistan". the Indian army should have been at least three or four times the size of the Pakistan army. In this book we will examine the state that Pakistan has got itself into and deal with how it got into its current crisis. since independence India has spent relatively more on development and less on defence while Pakistan has spent almost everything on arms and very little on development. And while these figures get worse. but Pakistan is failing even to achieve a smaller task. even though the number of people who are poor in Pakistan. But India is not merely matching Pakistan. In 2007 12 . But that is not the case. and is falling behind. That is because. but a comparison of the real figures between India and Pakistan shows that Pakistan is not doing well. India and Pakistan do share many of the same problems. Pakistan's task should have been easier.mismanagement of Pakistan. A direct comparison of numbers will not reveal this and such direct comparisons are useful only to hide Pakistan's increasing problems. but these details will be discussed later. and the number of people requiring education in Pakistan are far smaller than the number in India.
Pakistan is not in an enviable state. Anyone who has wished for anything bad to happen to Pakistan is likely to find great joy in the condition that Pakistan has reached. 13 .
housing units... living in rural areas. food. or one Pakistani is born every 10 seconds. The population explosion has led to the shortage of educational facilities. 53.With almost one third of the population living in abject poverty. According to some estimates. The "average Pakistani" is poor and uneducated. but it was finally conducted in 1998. making it the fourth most populated country in the world The report goes on to say: The population growth has caused an eight-time increase in the unemployment. and education among women is very low since few women are allowed to acquire 14 ..5 million are illiterates.8% per year. Nobody knows exactly. health services. but even at the lower estimate 8000 children are being born every day in Pakistan. by the year 2050.. 54 million people do not have access to safe drinking water . 70% of the population of Pakistan is uneducated. Some estimates say that Pakistan's population will double to over 300 million. living space. arable land and clean water The vast majority of Pakistanis are villagers. The Pakistani paper the Jang reported in September 2003 (3): Pakistan's population will swell to 349 million by year 2050. Pakistan's internal turmoil prevented a routine census from taking place in 1991. Pakistan's population is currently thought to be increasing at the rate of between 2.1% and 2.Chapter 2 THE PEOPLE OF PAKISTAN Pakistan is currently estimated to have between 160 and 170 million people.
These facts may seem surprising considering the smartly dressed. The "smartly dressed. the lords and the industrial barons. nearly 2. Pakistani Elite". well spoken Pakistani men and women that one may see on television" form a small. VP Dutt wrote: Another fundamental flaw is the very narrow social base of the groups feudal nucleus ruling elite. land and industries of Pakistan are said to be concentrated among about 43 top families of Pakistan. the cream of Pakistani society. They actually form a very small minority. It is they who own Pakistan and rule in the name of the people. it is believed. they are rich. A report in the Jang (5) on Dec 5th 2003 says: Top 20 per cent of the population has 50 per cent of 15 . Pakistan is ruled by four interest or their coalition: military.000 in all.an education in a society that believes the women should not be seen in public places. numbering perhaps 25. wealthy elite group that have been described by the expression "Rich.000 officers and less than 50 industrial families. along with top army officers. But that is another curious hidden fact about Pakistan. As the description suggests. Making up the of these four interest groups. bureaucracy. a cadre of nearly 1. they speak English and they form the elite. form the cream of Pakistan(4). are a dozen corps commanders. mixing with strangers. Most of the wealth. well spoken Pakistani men and women that one may see on television.000 landlords owning more than half the cultivable land. In an editorial in the Indian Express that appeared on January 28th 2002. Anglophone. who.
About 75 percent of all Pakistanis reside in rural areas. While the wealthy send their children to college in America or Britain. such as Harvard. and they own much of the land. the turn of a street corner can seem to be time travel between centuries.7) forming about 8% of the population. A fifth of Pakistan's government schools are "ghosts.000 acres of land in a Pakistan that is full of impoverished people. In some areas. The literacy rate is below 40 percent. Oxford and Cambridge. They drive the Pajeros and the Mercedes-Benz cars of Pakistan. making private laws and operating private jails.national income. Their children go to the best schools in Pakistan. Wide boulevards clogged with expensive cars become narrow lanes where shrouded women carry jugs of water on their heads. while the bottom 20 per cent has only 6 percent. On October 2nd 2001. feudal families still hold sway." with buildings but no students or teachers A third curious anomaly of Pakistan is the almost complete absence of a "middle class". The elite of Pakistan come from rich. The Rich Anglophone Pakistani Elite have a great influence on the image of Pakistan abroad. the New York Times carried a report about Pakistan: In the cities. Most are sharecroppers. feudal landowning families as well as from the armed forces. The middle class in Pakistan have been estimated as being about 10 to 12 million in total (6. The contrast with India now is stunning with estimates of the middle class in India forming about 25 16 . and often study abroad in the best institutions of the US and UK. with some feudal lords owning over 20. eking out a subsistence. many of the poor are deprived of even an elementary education.
Nine out of ten Pakistanis are poor and uneducated. which the nation cannot keep denying anymore. A report by Pakistani researcher Masooda Bano carried in the News International Pakistan on 31st August 2001 said: Pakistan's middle class is shrinking while India's middle class is growing. (8. A large middle class is an essential component of a ‘modern’ state and its absence marks a feudal state. A large middle class creates a society in which people have the economic clout to break the economic stranglehold of a rich elite and ensure that their rights are looked after. On top of that the rising of the fundamentalist groups in Pakistan is a fact. The whole of Pakistan has only about 400. More and more people in Pakistan are slipping in to poverty. Pakistan has only 3 million TV sets. This is a dangerous trend as the middle class is the backbone for any progressive society. The average Pakistani is an illiterate and poor Muslim. consists of a small. Less than one out of ten belongs to the middle class and a very small number are extremely rich. 17 . The old feudal structure of society which Pakistan still retains.9) We can thus define the "average Pakistani". very rich elite governing a large mass of poor people. Being a Muslim is important to the Pakistani citizen because it brings a semblance of order to his otherwise miserable and unenviable existence. A large middle class is an indicator of the development of a society from the traditional feudal pattern into a more modern society. Fitting in perfectly well with these facts are other items of information about the life of Pakistanis. for a population of 145 million.to 30% of the population.000 cars.
which is dealt with in chapter 5. the poor and deprived Pakistani does not question or complain about his miserable life. as a result of this belief. Paradoxically. This stoic acceptance has allowed the rapacious elite and the resource-swallowing army of Pakistan to carry on with their atrociously rich lifestyles and blatant corruption for decades. and.Religion also helps to define the psyche of the Pakistani. Islam teaches its followers to accept their lives as being preordained by God. tyrannical and corrupt leaders of Pakistan. without having to be population. answerable to an angry or demanding 18 . religion also helps in the survival of the rich.
Development and technology require education. imagine a small town or village that needs a school. and the unquestioned technological leader among "Islamic nations" A closer look at the facts suggests that this was only an impression created by the fortuitous alliance between the suave. English speaking Pakistani elite and the postworld war superpower. The low literacy rate in Pakistan is an indicator of the facts that these fundamental investments have been ignored or sidelined for decades. the United States of America. with electricity for light bulbs. But it 20 appears that a series of . Most people who take education for granted tend to forget the highly organized and civilized system that needs to be set up for an underdeveloped nation to build up a group of educated citizens who can serve as the pioneers of development. and the world's most powerful media apparatus that came with the US.a separate education system must exist to have a supply of teachers. Pakistan was believed to be a leading light among developing nations. Teachers are needed and for this the teacher himself must be educated . The people of the village or town need to understand the value of sending their children to be educated in school as opposed to keeping them at home for help in the fields or other work. The precise manner in which lack of education and a runaway increase in population affects a country needs to be understood by leaders in power. A building is required.Chapter 3 EDUCATION Through the 1950s and 1960s. For example.
Pakistan has today 21 a very young population . A report on reforming education in Pakistan on NBC said (10): Two years ago. maybe more. and simple treatments were devised to save lives in cases of deadly killer diarrheas. populations in many countries remained relatively stable.000 in 2004. In the 20th century.500 primary schools. The UNFPA has recognized this and says in a report on Pakistan: The major contributing factor to population growth has been the sustained gap between low mortality and high fertility levels for the last three decades or so. making it increasingly difficult to catch up." said Zubaida Jalal. That's the kind of numbers we needed two years earlier. But once these scientific changes affected human society. rapid advances in the development and application of vaccination of people against killer diseases like smallpox and diphtheria led to a significant reduction in the number of children dying from these diseases. Pakistan's minister for education. Effective means were developed to reduce complications and deaths during pregnancy and childbirth. "The numbers that came up is 8.Pakistani leaders have never really understood how the twin facts of population explosion and lack of education feed upon each other leading to the population-illiteracy cycle getting worse at a faster and faster rate as time passes. populations began to rise rapidly. They can become 10. Until these developments occurred. As a result. the Pakistani government tried to estimate how many schools it would take to handle the 8 million kids of primary age not in class now. because the number of people dying was approximately equal to the number of babies being born.
healthcare and education. If the original 1 million people lived in a poor. more poverty. Generations of Pakistanis have been born into poverty and deprivation without the knowledge or the means to slow down population growth or earn a living though a modern job from a modernizing economy. a rapid rise in population typically leads to more hunger. Populations grow by what is called "geometric progression". Unless a great deal of money and effort is put into planning for population growth such as food production. All these extra people have to have food and opportunities for employment. it will have to look after 32 million people just fifty years later. This is exactly what is happening in Pakistan (11. In fifty years.12). more diseases from malnutrition and more unemployment. That means more people who are unhappy and have reason to be angry. with 43 per cent below the age of 15 and 63 per cent below the age of 25. The population has increased by 50 million people in the last 15 years and the number of poor has doubled. That means that if a population of 1 million people doubles to 2 million in ten years. a population of 1 million can increase to 32 million. since that is essential for slowing down the population explosion. and they need to be educated regarding the importance of birth control and family planning. and then become 8 million in ten more years and so on. developing country that is barely able to feed and provide employment for 1 million people.structure. 22 . Unfortunately Pakistan's leaders have never put in the required amount of money and effort into education of the Pakistani masses. it will double to 4 million in a further ten years.
A report in the San Francisco Chronicle (13) in Oct 2002 on the state of education in Pakistan states: According to government statistics for this year, the literacy rate is 49 percent overall, 61.3 for men and 36.8 for women .. putting Pakistan among the 20 least literate countries, according to World Bank's World Development Index. A government study commissioned last year demonstrated a clear cause-and- effect relationship between the lack of basic education and increasing poverty. A study of education in Pakistan reveals many reasons to be concerned, and few reasons to be happy. The state of education in Pakistan was described by Raymond Bonner in the New York Times on 31st March 2002: Pakistan's literacy rate ranks below that of countries like Haiti, Rwanda and Sudan, according to the most recent United Nations Development Program report... Pakistan's most recent budget sets aside $107 million for education, compared with $2 billion for the military.
Madrassa education in Pakistan: Over large areas of Pakistan, the lack of schools was made up to some extent by madrassas or Islamic schools. Madrassas exist in all nations with a Muslim population, but what is taught in a madrassa can vary significantly depending on the country and government. The madrassas of Pakistan have played a prominent role in making Pakistan the unstable, recessed theocratic state that it is today. Columnist ABS Jafri wrote in the Dawn (14): 23
...in Sindh province we have more than a quarter of a million students in the religious Madaris. In Karachi alone there are well over 226,000 children in these religious seminaries.. In the whole of the province there are only 1,500 middle schools. Compare this with 869 Madaris in Karachi alone.
Nadeem Iqbal, writing for the Asia Times reported (15): Currently there are some one million to 1.7 million
students enrolled in madrassas in Pakistan, most of them between the ages of five to 18 and from poor families. According to Dr. Tariq Rahman, Professor of Linguistics and South Asian Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan had only 137 madrassas in 1947. Dr. Rahman writes of Pakistani madrassas (16): In 1950 there were 210 of them while in 1971 they increased to 563. Nowadays there are at least 7000 of them. After the 1971 war of liberation of Bangladesh, the process of making Pakistanis more Islamic, the so called Islamization of Pakistan was given impetus. It was initiated by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, and the Pakistani General Zia ul Haq who removed Bhutto in a coup and later hanged him, accelerated the process. The exact number of madrassas cannot be known because of the lack of registration or census. Analyst Alexei Alexiev writes(17): While no official nation-wide study of these madrassas exists, estimates of their overall number range between 24
10,000 and 20,000; unregistered seminaries may add another 10,000 to the total. As for the number of students, here the estimate ranges from a conservative half-million to over 2 million. (By comparison, some 1.9 million Pakistani schools in 2002.) children reportedly attended primary
In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, and this gave the US an opportunity to utilize its Cold War alliance with Pakistan to battle the Soviet invasion. The US pumped in large amounts of money and arms into Pakistan, much of it channeled via Saudi Arabia. The Saudi connection enabled the setting up of a vast number of madrassas in Pakistan. Because of the great poverty and lack of schools in Pakistan, madrassas were a natural attraction for the average Pakistani, as being schools that adhered to Islamic values while feeding and housing students, and taking over the burden of looking after one or more sons from a large, poor and ill-fed Pakistani family. Pamela Constable, a columnist for the Washington Post wrote on 20th September 2001 (18), just days after the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York: In recent years, however, a number of religious parties and groups have been rapidly gaining influence throughout Pakistani society. Based in thousands of mosques and Islamic academies called madrassas, they spread their message in part by offering services, especially low-cost education, that millions of poor Pakistani families cannot obtain any other way. The name madrassa merely connotes a school. Aijazz Ahmed wrote about madrassas in the Asia Times (19) in January 2003:
Madrassas were introduced about 300 years ago on the Indian subcontinent by then Muslim monarchs and rulers to produce a bureaucracy capable of running the day-to-day affairs of state, especially in terms of financial and legal issues, according to the wishes and pleasure of the king. Ahmed continues: Professor Dr Manzoor, a renowned scholar, writer and researcher, comments that nowadays many madrassas have taken an unfortunate direction. "The new role of the madrassas and [the influence] of religious elements has added nothing but hatred against non-Muslims and different sects of Islam. Although some major schools produced better results and play their role for religious harmony, many inject the poison of extremism, sectarianism and ignorance and have become a source of increasing ignorance and religious intolerance in Pakistani society." At he best of times, the normal curriculum in madrassas did not offer a well rounded education that included maths, science and information technology. The subjects were frozen 300 years ago, and included logic, Arabic literature and grammar, and Koranic teachings. But during the Cold War, the number of madrassas
burgeoned rapidly and tens of thousands were set up offering only a narrow interpretation of Islam in which young people were indoctrinated into the concept of a violent jihad against unbelievers, and taught to believe that death on the battlefield fighting against the enemies of Islam such as the Soviet Union would ensure eternal paradise for the Islamic fighters. The preparation of young men for jihad and death in the 26
battlefield was surely very useful and convenient to provide an endless supply of soldiers to fight in Afghanistan, and such fighters under the name Taliban took over when the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan. But even after this, the madrassas that had supplied all these fanatical men did not close down, and indeed could not be closed down. The curriculum teaching jihad did not change either. Having nowhere else to go, thousands of madrassa trained students in Pakistan collected up, ready for jihad in any part of the world, including Kashmir, Bosnia, Chechnya, the Philippines, Indonesia, Palestine, Iraq and Turkey. Pamela Constable wrote in the Washington Post: During the 1980s, some radical Sunni groups in Pakistan sent young men to fight in Afghanistan against Soviet occupation, and many members of the Taliban graduated from their madrassas. More recently, a...number of Islamic students have been sent to fight against Indian troops in Kashmir.. In addition, Pakistan columnist Khaled Ahmed wrote in the Friday Times in November 21-27, 2003: What better example than the one found in Pakistan whose private armies interfered in Central Asia and China with public acclaim? Let's take a look at the Harkat al-Jahad al-Islami, Pakistan's biggest jihadi militia headquartered in Kandahar before it was scattered by the Americans. The Harkat was one of the militias boasting international linkages. It called itself 'the second line of defence of all Muslim states' and was active in Arakan in Burma, and Bangladesh, with well organised seminaries in Karachi, Chechnya, Sinkiang, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Its fund-raising was largely from Pakistan, but an additional source was 27 its activity of selling
weapons to other militias
Schools in Pakistan: Education in Pakistani schools outside of madrassas is not available to most Pakistanis. But even in the few schools that exist, the curriculum is deeply flawed. The following quotes are taken from an in depth study of what Pakistani school children are being taught in a compilation entitled The Subtle Subversion - The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan by A.H. Nayyar and Ahmed Salim (20): Madrassas are not the only institutions breeding hate, intolerance, a distorted world view, etc. The educational material in the government run schools do much more than madrassas. The textbooks tell lies, create hate, incite for jehad and shahadat, and much more. ...children are now taught that the history of Pakistan starts from the day the first Muslim set foot in India. History and Pakistan studies textbooks rarely mention the ancient and non-controversial cultures of the Indus valley (Moenjodaro, Harrappa and Kot Diji), and completely bypass the entire Buddhist and Hindu periods of history. They suddenly jump to the advent of Mohammed bin Qasim in India and treat it as the beginning of history... this structuring is to make children regard the Muslim part of the history as the .. most significant part.' From about 1972 onwards, history taught in Pakistan was detached from history as we know it. Quoting further from the Nayyar and Salim report: 28
Four themes emerge most strongly.. 1. ... Pakistan is for Muslims alone; 2. ...Islamiat is to be forcibly taught
students, whatever their faith, including a compulsory reading of Qur'an; 3. that Ideology of Pakistan is to be internalized as faith, and hate be created against Hindus and India; 4. and students are to be urged to take the path of Jehad and Shahadat (martrydom). Associated with the insistence on the Ideology of
Pakistan has been an essential component of hate against India and the Hindus...the existence of Pakistan is defined only in relation to Hindus, and hence the Hindus have to be painted as black as possible. Curriculum documents ask the following as the specific learning objectives: The child should be able to understand the Hindu and Muslim differences...India's evil designs against Pakistan ..Hindu has always been an enemy of Islam. The class II Urdu book has a lesson on "Our Country", the first sentences of which read: Our country is Pakistan. ...Pakistan is an Islamic country. Here Muslims live. Muslims believe in the unity of Allah. They do good deeds. The Class 6 book says: Who am I? I am a Muslim. I am a Pakistani...you are a Muslim and your religion is Islam. A book lists "Acchi baten" (good deeds). Among them: "Good people are those who read the Qur'an and teach the Qur'an to others" implying that those of another faith cannot be good people. 29
The subject of hate in Pakistani educational material is Hindu and India.In the 'Fundamentals of War' themes like objects and causes. children. reflecting both the perceived sense of insecurity from an 'enemy' country. Another book tells the students: Hindus worship in temples which are very narrow and dark places. In our mosques. the means short of war and modern Warfare were thoroughly discussed. where they worship idols.Hindus did not respect women. and an attempt to define one's national identity in relation to the 'other'. as a result of which the Hindu and Sikh enemies of mankind killed and dishonoured thousands. principles ethics. And Pakistani children are taught about war as follows: Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto introduced a full two-year course on 'Fundamentals of War' and 'Defence of Pakistan' for class XI and XII respectively. Only one person can enter the temple at a time. the old and the young with extreme cruelty and heartlessness. nay hundreds of thousands of women. The first serves the military and the second the political Islamists.. ...Other things taught in state school texts: After the partition of the subcontinent the Hindus and Sikhs started a properly planned campaign of exploiting the Muslims.. In another article on Pakistani education AH Nayyar wrote (21): The class 4 text book states: The religion of the Hindus did not teach them good things -.. conduct. on the other 30 . operations. nature. modern weapons.
scheming.hand. the terrible events that led to the breaking away of East Pakistan and the creation of Bangladesh are never mentioned. For another. the Hindus as a monolith were always cunning. while if the Muslim kings and invaders plundered Hindu temples then presumably they did so with very noble intentions. Regarding history as taught to Pakistani children Kamila Hyat wrote in the Jang in August 2003 (22): .. all Muslims can say their prayers together. The Hindus always desired to crush the Muslims as a nation. and conspiring to deprive the Muslims of their due rights. the child should be able to 31 . are hardly ever discussed or even spoken off on passing within the Pakistan of today.. Members of the generation who grew up after 1971 often have no idea at all of what issues underpinned the civil war or why it took place.. Pervez Hoodbhoy.. The genocide committed in the territory that now constitutes Bangladesh ... Several attempts were made by the Hindus to erase the Muslim culture and civilization . The experience of colonialism is described in a textbook as a British-Hindu conspiracy: The British joined forces with the Hindus to bring harm to the Muslims. Muslims tried in every way to maintain good relations with the British and Hindus. a Pakistani scientist writes (23): At the completion of Class-V. but they did not allow it to be so. If the Hindus had any national aspirations then these were clearly a sign of their prejudices..
There seems to be no way in which a child in Pakistan can grow up without fearing or hating India in particular and non-Muslims in general. corrupt. Even children who study in Pakistani state schools imbibe a curriculum of discrimination and hate. an acknowledgment of the existence of a biased curriculum 32 . This mindset cannot be wiped out overnight. in the first sign that a glimmering of realization of the consequences of a curriculum of hate. self-obsessed.. It is clear from this that it is not only the madrassas that offer a curriculum of hatred to Pakistani children. The problem is so serious that the Pakistani government must be engaged and encouraged to change the curriculum in Pakistani schools. It is surprising that faults in an education system that may have such great an impact on Indian-Pakistani relations in future are not being addressed at all at the highest governmental level in India. Meanwhile. and ideologically charged education bureaucracy today squarely blocks Pakistan's entry into the 21st century.." "India's evil designs against Pakistan.. "Make speeches on Jehad and Shahadat" "Understand Hindu-Muslim differences and the resultant need for Pakistan." Hoodbhoy goes on to say in the same article: A moronic. incompetent. The real worry in having such a faulty educational system that actively encourages hatred is that millions of Pakistani children are growing up to be adults thinking that India and Indians exist to subjugate Muslims and should be hated for that.
Government has set up a committee to look into the matter and send its recommendations within a month But such change cannot come easily in Pakistan. As a result these people are likely to form a strong body of anti-India.and a call for change was made by Pakistani Federal Minister for Education Ms Zobaida Jalal in a statement published in the Pakistan Tribune online in March 2004 (24): a committee has been constituted to work out recommendations for deletion of material from curricula which is aimed at fomenting hatred against India adding that the committee will submit its recommendations within a month. In a sternly worded reaction to the idea of reform of the hate curriculum. The authors' warped logic is that knowing the differences breeds hatred! So one should really do away with 33 inculcating the rationale . Several social organizations have raised objection that hatred is fanned against India through the curricula of educational institutions in Pakistan. Mazari. More than half of Pakistan's population of nearly 170 million are thirty years old or younger and have been exposed to a hate-India curriculum from childhood. Dr. the influential director of the Pakistan Institute of Strategic Studies. commenting on the Nayyar report said: the authors take exception to the fact that the present curriculum documents suggest that children should be able to understand the Hindu-Muslim differences and the need for the creation of Pakistan. Shireen Mazari accused the authors of the report on Pakistan's biased school books as being biased and having been written for the handsome payment the authors received (25): Dr. Besides there is strong opposition to change. anti-Hindu opinion for decades to come.
In the same article. With influential Pakistanis opposing change in the curriculum. Mazari's words: deflect "Also. with the madrassahs now a central target of the West.behind the struggle for Pakistan! Of course. 34 . there is no doubt that some of the texts do denigrate the Hindus but this should not be a pretext for not creating an awareness of the differences that led to the creation of Pakistan. Mazari dismissed criticism of madrassas as having an anti-Islam motive . efforts at change are in serious danger of being quashed even before they commence. Islam seems to have also become fair game. Dr.a time honored diversion used by the Pakistani elite to criticism (see chapter 8). Dr.
That is far from the truth. Not a single wrist-watch.Chapter 4 INDUSTRIES AND ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN In a report about the Pakistani economy. Pakistan remains primarily an agricultural economy. Still. At another level. clothes. This level of industrial technology in Pakistan is in keeping with the overall picture of Pakistan as a nation in which almost 70% of the people are illiterate. scooter or motorcycle has appeared on the international market with a Made in Pakistan label on it.Easy and cheap availability of goods and services through foreign aid discouraged the development of a large scale indigenous industry. Goods manufactured in Pakistan are mostly no more complex than bicycles.. a sophisticated Pakistani public relations machine has managed to build up the idea. Pakistan failed to do even the basics of economic development which most of the developing countries have done. textiles and agricultural products like sugar. It is worth looking at some of these items and Pakistani claims in 35 . Pakistan has survived for over 50 years giving the impression that it is somehow a powerhouse in its depth and breadth of manufacturing and industrial capacity. More than fifty years after independence. at least in the minds of Indians. that Pakistani industry is producing some state of the art high technology goods. sports goods such as footballs and cricket balls. economist Sreedhar states (26): Pakistan's economy during the past fifty years can be described as a classic example of a case where artificial prosperity was maintained by heavy doses of foreign aid and overseas remittances of Pakistanis..
In keeping with the Pakistani psyche of according the highest importance to the armed forces Pakistani claims of high technology indigenous manufacture have revolved around armament.given names like Hatf. but to point out the compulsion that Pakistani authorities have to maintain a facade of indigenous production for items that are widely known to be imported. but even a cursory search of authoritative sources shows that Pakistan's Hatf. In a detailed report on Pakistani missiles from NTI Nuclear Threat Initiative. guidance systems. and other critical missile components. or at least their major component parts. as well as the liquid propellants to fuel its missiles 36 .. or North Korean No-Dong missiles (27).. Ghauri and Shaheen missiles are Chinese M-9 or M-11 missiles. nuclear capable missiles are being supplied by countries like China and North Korea to Pakistan ignoring international treaties that forbid such exports.some detail.Pakistan will remain dependent on North Korea for importing complete liquid engines. specifically missiles and Pakistan's nuclear program. The most likely reason for maintaining this charade of indigenous development of missiles is to obscure the fact that dangerous. Pakistani spokespersons never tire of speaking of Pakistan's indigenous missiles . Ghauri and Shaheen. The idea is not to downplay the considerable risk that Pakistan's missiles pose to India and other nations. These brave names may perhaps be essential for national pride. a private body aimed at studying the risk of nuclear conflict it was reported that (28): Pakistan is still dependent on China for specialty materials.
They are a serious risk either way..He has acknowledged he did take advantage of his experience of many years of working on similar projects in Europe and his contacts with various manufacturing firms. worked at the Urenco uranium enrichment facility in the Dutch city of Almelo in the 1970s. Back home in Pakistan. Experts have argued that it does not matter if Pakistan's atomic bombs are stolen or made in Pakistan." A report from the Netherlands.In 1976. from which Abdul Qadeer Khan got his designs for Uranium enrichment says Khan received a MSc degree in metallurgy from Delft in 1967 and later stole nuclear secrets from his Dutch employer.Even more peculiar is Pakistan's nuclear program.. A news report about this in a New Zealand news portal reads (29): The father of Pakistan's atom bomb. The strong Pakistani insistence that the program is entirely indigenous is contradicted by the facts. Centrifuges are devices that are used to rotate something 37 at high speed to . helping Pakistan develop its first nuclear bomb. Khan suddenly left Europe before his espionage was detected. Abdul Qadeer Khan.. but it is important to place on record the fact that the designs were stolen and not the result of some prolonged research effort in Pakistan. After his return to Pakistan he was convicted in absentia of nuclear espionage by an Amsterdam court. The designs that Abdul Qadeer Khan obtained from the URENCO labs were for centrifuges. This is true. then Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto gave Khan the job of organizing Pakistan's nuclear program Pakistan can hardly be expected to publicly proclaim that the Father of Pakistan's nuclear program stole the technology.
the heavier U238 and lighter U235. Several techniques exist for this and Pakistan chose the route of Uranium enrichment using the technology stolen by Qadeer URENCO labs.Subrahmanyam quotes Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam as being skeptical about Pakistani ability to actually produce a working nuclear bomb. and 38 . Uranium occurs naturally primarily in two forms. Making a workable and reliable nuclear bomb requires further technology. which can then be used for making a nuclear bomb. China provided Pakistan with the necessary technology to make its nuclear bomb. For this reason Uranium needs to be enriched to get material that contains 90% or more of U235. Obtaining centrifuges was necessary for Pakistan to start enriching Uranium. One week after the Indian nuclear tests of May 1998. The latter. by centrifuges Khan from the But making a nuclear bomb goes far beyond merely enriching Uranium. a rotating centrifugal dryer in a washing machine is a centrifuge that separates water from clothes and makes wet clothes much more dry. U235 is needed for nuclear bombs but occurs in very small quantities mixed with U238. This is where Pakistan's role as a Cold War ally of the US and its role in helping China and the US get closer came in handy. For example. It is widely reported that China gave to Pakistan the complete design of a nuclear bomb that it had tested in 1964 (31).separate out heavier from lighter components. Indian analyst K. Subrahmanyam goes on to indicate similar skepticism of Pakistani ability in Indian scientific circles by saying (30): Their scepticism was based on their judgement that Pakistan did not have the critical mass of scientific and engineering talent necessary for the project.
a one week before the official Pakistani nuclear test an announcement was made at a G8 meeting that Pakistan had tested a nuclear device. as well as from Libya and other sources. and its army chiefs of staff (chapter 13). Pakistan does not currently produce any fighter. Some experts believe that the device tested was a ready made device provided to Pakistan by China after the failure of an earlier test. Since Pakistani bomb designs were Uranium based ones. on the 28th of May 1998. it lends credence to the theory that Pakistan may actually have tested a ready made Chinese nuclear device. there is no way Plutonium could have appeared. The next week. At the time of writing this. in exchange for missiles from North Korea and great personal wealth for himself. Abdul Qadeer Khan stands discredited and accused of selling equipment and the plans for Uranium enrichment centrifuges to Libya. News reports indicate that Pakistan's nuclear program was based on a network of clandestine imports from a network of proliferators personally built up by Abdul Qadeer Khan. funded by unlimited financial support from the Pakistani government. Iran and North Korea. It seems clear that Pakistan's entire nuclear weapons manufacturing program was based on a clandestine black-market of contacts with companies all over the world who produced components that could not be fashioned in Pakistan. It is said that the device failed to detonate. bomber 39 . If the Plutonium story is true. Pakistan conducted a nuclear test in Chagai. the father of Pakistan's nuclear program. During this period mysterious news reports surfaced that Plutonium was detected in the atmosphere over Chagai in Pakistan (32). After this there was a flurry of activity when Pakistani officials visited China. It appears that this was done with the knowledge and tacit approval of the military government of Pakistan.
The th st . Pakistan's labor force is growing at the rate of 2. such as Haiti and Rwanda. convinced by the exaggerated claims of their own countrymen have allowed their nation to lapse into a state of underdevelopment in which Pakistan is now being compared with the other countries at the bottom of the development ladder. But in 1981 Pakistan imported the entire assembly line for the manufacture of a 1969 vintage Swedish designed. in a list of 174 countries (33).or civilian aircraft and does not have a noteworthy aerospace research or design team. and not in Pakistan. possibly for domestic consumption that it is a leader in many technologies. single engine. Pakistan's industrial sophistication today is arguably not much higher than that of Britain in the early 20th century. the State Department said in its most recent human rights report. but Pakistan has continuously maintained. Pakistan's literacy rate ranks below that of countries like Haiti. The aircraft. but the number of unemployed people in Pakistan is rising at more than twice 40 that rate 6% (34). a report in the The New York Times stated.4% per year. called the Saab Supporter in Sweden is assembled in Pakistan under the name Mushshak. Another trainer aircraft that Pakistan became involved in is a Chinese designed K-8 jet trainer. Even using a very low standard. Barely a third of Pakistan's population is literate. Pakistani leaders. This pretence probably does Pakistan more harm than anyone else. Rwanda and Sudan. two seater trainer aircraft from Sweden. Furthermore A UNDP report in 2003 ranked Pakistan a low 138 . On March 31 2002. according to the most recent United Nations Development Program report. Current reports indicate that the trainers will be manufactured in China.
A large number of reports speak of all the economic th problems that Pakistan has (35. regarding industries and poverty have been listed above.. fully integrating itself into every facet of the economy and draining state coffers with generous benefit plans for its officers. The Karachi Stock Exchange has trading in only about 30 stocks . army run businesses and private enterprise due to rampant corruption at the highest places. 36. the San Francisco Chronicle reported: Pakistan's powerful military has ruled the country for more than half of the nation's 56-year history.2 billion in the last 10 years to purchase such amenities as land. while the population of the poor during the period under review increased by 10 per cent. 37. population increased by 6 million people (4. But many other factors contribute to the decrepit state of the Pakistani economy. One report (36) says only one million Pakistanis pay tax in a country of over 150 million people.corrupt military officers have siphoned off more than $1. The report warns that population is shifting from upper poverty bands to lower ones. In the Punjab province. mansions and luxury cars.Pakistan Human Condition report of 2003 says that between 1998-99 and 2000-01. showing a decline in their welfare level On February 5 2003. Aid and loan money has been constantly misused for personal gain by the Pakistani army. according to a recent report by Pakistan's auditor general. There is an extremely wealthy class of Pakistani at the top of the economic pyramid and this class includes Army Officers as well as feudal landowners some owning as much as 45.with 41 ..46 per cent). 39. one percent of the landowners own 26 percent of the land.. 40) Some of these problems.000 acres of land. 38.
while the rulers of Pakistan build up their personal fortunes and protect their lucre with an army whose upper ranks are like a Mughal court. corrupt and self-serving army officers and feudal lords who literally rule over their subjects like medieval kings. and they help build up a picture of Pakistan as a country of predominantly poor people. That ratio "is probably the most severe" of any country in the world. one of Pakistan's leading economists." The number of such damning reports is enormous. whose number is increasing by the year as the population rises.over 700 other stocks listed for tax advantages. The same report goes on to say. while the lower ranks are the bodyguards to protect the powerful from both external enemies and opponents within Pakistan. which includes everything from underground banking to narcotics to the smuggling of consumer goods. being told that India is forever planning to attack Pakistan and kill all Muslims. The Exchange is run by a handful of crooked brokers and scams are rampant. says Muhammad Mansoor Ali. Governing these people is a small elite of wealthy. range up to 100% of the so-called formal sector. The population is kept busy with jihad. Estimates of the size of the country's black-market economy. "It is essentially a parallel economy. 42 .
For example. Even so.GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Very few studies exist on the subject of the mind of the Pakistani or the Pakistani psyche. and in negotiation and reaching agreements. The important role of saving face and avoiding shame is well recognised.i. including Indian leaders and strategists have been content with describing Pakistanis as being “Just like us” . Another well known example of the consequences of an inability to understand cultural nuances comes from a transcript 43 of a telephone . it is worth recognizing minor differences because this knowledge has some value in understanding behavior. But groups of thousands or millions of people anywhere in the world. while most Indians. A deep understanding of Japanese culture was required before international agreements could be reached with Japan on the issue of whaling and protection of endangered species of whales.Chapter 5 PAKISTANI PSYCHE . because the behavior is very much like that of anyone else. pain and other emotions which are indistinguishable from anyone else on an individual level. experiences and history of their particular society. anger. Pakistan has been too low on the priority of sociologists and psychologists. communication between cultures becomes difficult if negotiators from different cultures cannot understand each others' behavior. like all other people.e. Pakistanis. who live together in nations tend to develop certain unique patterns of behavior based on the stresses. just like Indians. display the usual range of human behavioral patterns: joy. sorrow. Some cultures. Sometimes these unique patterns of behavior are very difficult to recognise. such as Japanese culture have been well studied (41). and must be taken into account in negotiation.
conversation in Arabic between Egyptian President Gamel Abdel Nasser and King Hussein of Jordan when Egyptian forces were being defeated by Israeli forces in 1967. a certain envy Pakistanis would not acknowledge openly about the 44 failure of their civil . At stake is its pride. These are listed in a review of his book (44): Dixit identifies a series of Pakistani traits that refuse to live amicably with India. In his testimony to the United States' Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in January 2004 (43) Stephen Cohen. There are few studies of unique behavioral patterns among Pakistanis. Second. "artificially nurtured memories of Muslim superiority and a subconscious desire to rectify the unfair arrangements of partition". The cultural need to avoid shame forced Nasser to state that his forces were fighting well against their enemy. First. N. and it literally calls the shots But the subject of a specific and defined Pakistani mind has not gone unnoticed among Indian observers. and their importance must not be underestimated. In the words of one Pakistani of pride was in officer. the army understands it cannot wrest Kashmir from India. But such patterns do exist. That left Hussein. former Indian foreign secretary has spoken of the psychological hurdles that come in the way of Indian and Pakistani relations. speaking on India-Pakistan relations quoted a Pakistani army officer saying how important the question Pakistani actions relating to India. J. and Jordan unprepared for their defeat in the war subsequently (42). but King Hussein was unable to understand the nuances by which Nasser hinted that his forces were being defeated. Dixit. but it cannot turn its back on a 55 year struggle.
problems and priorities. Eighth. as was publicly declared by Foreign Minister Gauhar Ayub Khan at a press conference in Delhi. it can easily be observed that there are certain behavioral characteristics that can be called Purely Pakistani There is. irrational faith in the "profound capacity for commitment to jihad amongst the momin". Sixth. avenging the military defeat of 1971. Pakistan will emerge as the strongest and most powerful political entity in South Asia". But after over 50 years of being a separate nation with different threat perceptions. confidence that Pakistan's nuclear weapons program is an instrumentality to further geopolitical objectives in Kashmir. who in the words of Maulana Azad. It is useful to be aware of this in dealing with Pakistan 45 . in effect a Pakistani psyche or a Pakistani mindset. which is a formal objective declared in the official oath-taking ceremony of every Pakistani officer-cadet when he graduates. widespread belief in the Pakistani establishment and media circles that India is getting exhausted in Kashmir and would not be able to hold on to it for long (a presumption of Musharraf in Kargil). "the unarticulated ambition and hope that if India broke up. that is separate from the old Indian identity. Seventh. in 1947 and a few years after that it would have been perfectly valid and accurate to describe Pakistanis as being just like Indians. assumption by Pakistan of the role of protector and overseer of the welfare of Indian Muslims. Fifth.society to solidify democratic and tolerant traditions in comparison to an India where khakis and bayonets follow popularly elected representatives. and with 75 % of present day Pakistanis having been born after 1947. and most significantly. could be exploited from forces across the border owing to their "socio-political schizophrenia" since partition. Third. Of course. Fourth.
and this characteristic has been used to good effect by Pakistan over the years. No visitor to Pakistan goes away without being touched by this. Certain statements and actions are repeated time and again. An article in the American magazine. but careful observations of Pakistani statements and actions show that a sufficiently large proportion of Pakistanis. especially their leadership. These similarities are striking. and a pattern can be seen in the way Pakistanis react to people and events. There are certainly some parallels in Pakistani behavior to Arab behavior described by Raphael Patai in his seminal book on The Arab Mind (42). reject their earlier Indian Certain types of behavior stand out among Pakistanis and are best demonstrated by studying examples of statements and actions by prominent Pakistani leaders and spokespersons.as a nation and in predicting Pakistani responses to events. and the most likely explanation is the internalization of Arab culture in Islam. leading to a degree of Arabization of behavior among devoutly Islamic people such as some Pakistanis who have actively sought to culture (see chapter 9). It would be wrong to assume that every Pakistani displays all the characteristics described here. Hospitality and generosity: The characteristic of being extremely hospitable and generous to guests has stood Pakistanis and Pakistan in good stead. No single characteristic is unique to Pakistanis alone. The Weekly Standard had this to say in its Nov 5 th 2001 edition: 46 . display one or more of the following characteristics to make them recognizable as general guidelines to Pakistani psyche.
and have later served as honorary ambassadors for Pakistan in the Western media. As recently as June 2002." A series of Western writers and prominent people have been hosted and feted in Pakistan. the Washington Post reported: It was mid afternoon Tuesday. One prominent example is the famous American pilot. who was a guest of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) and who later went on to write paeans about the PAF For many years after the PAF was comprehensively defeated in successive wars with India. Yeager's words of praise of the Pakistan Air Force continued to be quoted. Compared with their haughty Indian and chaotic Afghan neighbors.. Pakistani VIPs are often wittier. warmer. politics. Chuck Yeager. maintaining a reputation for the PAF that extended far beyond its real performance. the Indians are jerks.the attractive character of elite Pakistani officials. and some have gone as far as to make needlessly hostile and malicious references to India in their writings despite strong evidence that their words are misinformed at best. Pakistani hospitality has charmed a large number of prominent writers to write positively about Pakistan.. and more knowledgeable about the insider gossip of U. succinctly put it. American diplomats and spooks often have a good deal of fun with their Westernized Pakistani counterparts.S. 47 and Anwar Mahmood. and often just plain wrong. Eric Margolis and John Fricker. Prominent among people who have written warm words for Pakistan are writers like Brian Cloughley. As one congressional staffer. "I like 'em. . who frequently visits south-central Asia.
Five times in the past month.000 it will cost his ministry to rent the plane from Pakistan International Airlines.. respect..disgrace. complete with maps. You won't get such hospitality from the Indian army. lying. displays of Indian mortar shells -..The Pakistani government. has ordered foreign embassies to expedite visas for journalists. There they are treated to hour-long military briefings. the Information Ministry has rented air-conditioned buses to carry journalists to the Line of Control. and the converse avoidance of shame.enforce identity and conformity of behaviour.. in the form of an honour killing is often the sentence carried out on a woman who is thought to have shamed the family. 48 . David Pryce Jones has written (45) that the key to understanding some Islamic societies is to recognise the need for acquisition of honour. It is often more important to maintain honour and avoid shame than anything else.. Death.if it keeps the reporters satisfied. eager to make its voice heard. Everything is permitted in order to safeguard the family or tribal honour. The powerful codes of shame and honour. tribal level in Pakistan.. and even murder.. Honour and Dignity: The need to maintain honour and dignity is a fundamental pillar in the mind of the Pakistani. and humiliation.. dignity. cheating. it's worth the $3.. maintenance of honour often relates to women and doubts about fidelity or adultery.. was on the phone discussing with an underling how to keep more than 100 foreign journalists happy for the rest of the week. he figured. pride.and tea sandwiches served on trays by white-gloved soldiers.Pakistan's information secretary. At a rural.
General Musharraf. General Musharraf on the 6th of June 2002:(46) . The 1965 war with India started with the infiltration of Pakistani special forces into Kashmir for sabotage and to incite acts of violence.. As the conflict evolved war broke out over a wide front and by the time a cease fire 49 .I would note that the conversations we had with President Musharraf made it very clear to me that he wants to do everything that he can to avoid war.." The need to maintain honour and avoid shame by Pakistani military commanders goes to the extent of suppressing any news of a defeat or setback suffered by the military.. Of course he wants to do this. The need to maintain honour and avoid the perceived national shame of appearing weak in front of India has led to the sacrificing of all developmental effort towards arms purchases to pursue military parity with India. Stephen Cohen's quote of a Pakistan army officer's words in this regard has already been alluded to at the beginning of this chapter. On 14th March 2003. The importance of honour is evident from the words used by US deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage after a meeting with the President of Pakistan. keeping intact the honour and dignity of the nation and the armed forces.. A brief study of the way Pakistan's wars with India have been reported in Pakistan are illustrative of this. while insisting that victory was always achieved. military leader of Pakistan said about Pakistan's nuclear weapons aspirations (47) "We only want the deterrence capability to preserve our honour and dignity...But honour and dignity play an equally important role among the richer and apparently liberated Pakistani elite rulers of Pakistan.
Millions of refugees poured into India to escape this. The need to maintain honour and dignity is so important to the Pakistani. that any available fact may be either picked up or selectively forgotten in order to save face and maintain the pretence of victory.was declared both India and Pakistan had captured small areas of each other's territory. Sheikh Mujibur Rehman would have become Prime Minister of Pakistan. Indian forces entered East Pakistan and defeated the Pakistani military and a new nation. with Indian troops in the towns on the outskirts of Lahore. Significantly. and Pakistani General Ayub Khan's plans to take Srinagar were foiled. Bangladesh. More than ninety thousand Pakistani soldiers were taken prisoner of war. was born. This was disliked by the West Pakistani Punjabi dominated army of Pakistan. unparalleled since the German Blitzkrieg that overran Poland was described by historian Brigadier Shelford Bidwell (48) as follows: The operations of 1971 finally that the 'sword-arm' of old numerical inferiority. the triumph of an East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) based political party in an election would have meant that a Bengali. sweep effete Hindus and win another dispelled any vain dreams India could. Not an Indian brigade had to be moved West. In 1971. General Jagjit Singh Aurora's daring concentric attack on East Pakistan went forward uninterrupted and on 16 December he received the surrender of the Pakistani commander in Dacca. In a humanitarian move. Indian forces were well within striking range of the Pakistani city of Lahore. 50 . The Indian victory. despite its aside the armies of the battle of Panipat outside the walls of Delhi. But the 1965 war has always been portrayed from the Pakistani side as a war in which attacking Indian forces were defeated. who commenced a genocide in East Pakistan.
the whole Northern Infantry was blown up and 2. said in an interview to the Weekly Independent from his place of exile in Saudi Arabia. Nawaz Sharif. An editorial in the Pakistani newspaper The Jang recalled the 1971 reports in Pakistan (49): So great was the ignorance and absence of principles in West Pakistan that the government of the day had the temerity to issue a disgraceful statement casually mentioning that "by agreement between local commanders. The Kargil conflict of 1999 ended with the rapid withdrawal of Pakistani forces facing rout. Some of the defeated Generals in that war even received gallantry awards and honours in later years.when the battle began. Mistakes made by the Pakistan army in the war were never investigated or made public. who was Prime Minister of Pakistan during this conflict. The Pakistani need to maintain honour and dignity at the expense of truth is a fault that has done Pakistan no good. when used in a psy-ops role. fighting had ceased in East Pakistan and that Indian troops had entered Dacca.." Pakistani children are not taught about the 1971 war. neither were the failures admitted or analysed. It may even be a characteristic that can be used to predict Pakistani behavior or provoke desired responses from Pakistanis. The death toll exceeds even that of the 51 .The ignominious defeat of the Pakistan armed forces in 1971 and the formation of Bangladesh almost went unreported in Pakistan. . By the time the withdrawal started the Indian forces had wiped out almost the entire Northern Light Infantry of the Pakistan army.700 soldiers were martyred and hundreds were injured.
because dishonour. A study of Pakistani society and kinship patterns (50) notes that the household is the primary unit for kinship and the male descendants. With the entire ruling apparatus of Pakistan under control of a small group of family units. A quote from the study says: There disunity means is considerable pressure for patrilineal kin to maintain good relations with one another. Pakistanis do not admit the involvement of their armed forces. The deeply Islamic fervor of the average Pakistani comes in handy here as all errors and defeats can be explained 52 . the family obligations of Pakistani society to avoid shame creates the need for whitewashing military disasters and other mistakes. (the biradari) are under pressure to maintain a picture of unity. It has been observed that Pakistan itself is ruled by a small group of between 22 and 43 families (4). and yet do not explain how the Pakistan army withdrew from the conflict zone if they were not involved. Biradari members who quarrel will try to resolve their differences before major social occasions so that the patrilineage can present a united front to the village.1965 and 1971 full-scale wars. but it is difficult to imagine how the Pakistani army can learn critical lessons from a disastrous war if the sole aim of its officer class is the save face and maintain honour and dignity An explanation exists for the tendency of the Pakistani elite and officer class to protect each other's honour even after embarrassing or disastrous events. face has been saved and honour retained by the Pakistani army. In doing this. But the only history that is acknowledged by Pakistan is that the Kargil conflict was a great victory for mujahideen who held the Indian army at bay.
breaking a 24 year self-imposed moratorium. The national sense of shame in being unable to publicly match India was so intense that Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif acknowledged that he would not survive unless he sanctioned nuclear tests by Pakistan. Rhetoric and Hyperbole: The Pakistani need for the maintenance of honour and avoidance of shame ideally involves and outright military 53 . when India conducted a series of nuclear weapon tests.away as God's will . Even before the 1998 tests Pakistan was widely acknowledged to possess nuclear weapons. It is possible that the Pakistani need to maintain honour and dignity and somehow appear equal or superior to India was understood and exploited by Indian leaders in 1998. the test greatly diluted the international attention that India was getting after its tests. Pakistan did test a nuclear device of its own two weeks after India's tests and although there is some controversy about the real origin of the device tested by Pakistan.an explanation that most devout Pakistanis will accept without question. it would have put India in a very tight situation. If Pakistan had not tested. and put the spotlight on Pakistan. Pakistan need not have tested immediately after India's tests. with international censure and sanctions. But the need to save Pakistani honour was too great after the Indian tests. a spotlight that has only become brighter after the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks in the US. while Pakistan could have basked in the sympathy it would surely have got for having an aggressive nuclear neighbor in India.
the war needs to be continued verbally to avoid shame. 54 . although it often sounds hollow and unconvincing. with Pakistanis being courageous. its wars and about India. David Pryce Jones has described the connection between honour. and shame means public humiliation. Every accusation is made to show that an adversary is cowardly.victory. Such hyperbole seems to be necessary psychological support for the Pakistani mind. Indian leaders are often referred to as scheming high caste Brahmins or Banias who are plotting to either dominate or eliminate people of all other religions and social groups. When such victory is not possible or unlikely. righteous and heading for victory. Shame and honour involve publicity. success involves bragging. Arms built under licence are always shown as indigenous. shame and rhetoric (45): Honour makes life worth living whereas shame is a living death. weak and untruthful. Indians are always depicted as being conniving and scheming. The degree of misinformation is astonishing. The Indian armed forces are always referred to by Pakistan as being weak and dishonourable and always accused of raping and murdering civilians. For example. Ballistic missiles imported from China and North Korea are repainted and given Pakistani names to be flaunted as missiles designed and manufactured in Pakistan. and any defeats are temporary setbacks. but easy to understand in the light of the deep Pakistani need to maintain honour and avoid shame. wars are never lost. Stemming directly from this rhetoric and hyperbole is the decades old campaign of misinformation that Pakistan has maintained about itself. its armed forces. never as courageous and honourable. Only a total victory or a mediator leading to a solution on Pakistani terms can maintain honour enough to allow such hyperbole to die down.
55) have documented the surrender of 90. having a pro-India prejudice . The Indian intervention to stop the genocide by Pakistani troops is described in the following way: it was an act of military piracy at the highest level to destroy the professional propriety of soldiers who were on lawful duty. 54. written by a former Pakistani army officer. Brigadier Anjum 55 records his version of . In a farcical and fanciful description Brigadier Anjum does not say a word about the 1971 elections in Pakistan that were won by the East Pakistani Awami league party.000 Pakistani troops in East Pakistan at the end of the 1971 war.addressed a press conference in New Delhi to say that he was convinced that Pakistan army had committed genocide in East Pakistan.. Anjum's explanation of why reports of genocide by Pakistani troops are false is as follows: Senator Edward Kennedy. 52).An example of this tendency can be seen in a two part article on the events of 1971 that appeared in the online edition of the Pakistani paper the Jang as recently as 2004.The interference of Indian army in East Pakistan was a well thought out conspiracy hatched by India and vociferously backed by the Soviet Union Many sources (53.. Brigadier Anjum (51. This was enough to disparage Pakistan Army Brigadier Anjum makes this record of India's role: India with a mission in hand to destroy Pakistan was first to demolish its basis... and denies the well documented genocide of ethnic East Pakistani Bengalis by West Pakistani troops (chapter 11).
000 socalled prisoners of war was just over forty thousands. The rest of PoWs mostly children. the need to maintain honour and avoid shame requires that Pakistan must not sue for peace by directly negotiating with India. Accepting that India and Indians may be in any way better than Pakistan is deeply dishonourable and shameful to the Pakistani.history as: The number of combatant soldiers out of the 90. but it is honourable to agree to peace when mediated by a respected third party. Courage and a willingness to fight are honourable. an offer of peace by any party is considered as a sign of weakness. and offering peace is a sign of cowardice and an unwillingness to fight. the Pakistani assessment of Indian weakness has led to a situation in which Pakistan is faced with military defeat. Disputes and mediation: Pakistani leaders have initiated war against India mainly when they have assessed India as being weak. were civilians and their families. It is cowardly to call for peace directly. The feeling threatens the very existence of Pakistan and is a feeling that must avoided at all cost. Any concessions that Pakistan is forced to make can be conveniently blamed on 56 . This calls for the introduction of a mediator or middleman. which avoids the need for defeat and dishonour. That is what justifies the formation and existence of Pakistan. But to the Pakistani leadership. The need to appear superior to and better than India is fundamental for the Pakistani. When faced with a situation in which Pakistan is the weaker party. On every occasion.
the International community or any other third party rather than facing shame by negotiating for settlement directly with India. but on the other hand India refuses third party mediation which a weak nation should 57 .the mediating party. For India. This confuses and angers the Pakistani leadership. Indian peace a sign of weakness. But an India that appears to be showing weakness by talking about peace mystifies Pakistan by refusing third party mediation. This explains the tendency that Pakistani leaders have to call for third party mediation in settling a dispute between India and Pakistan by appealing to the US. which must be met with threats and demands for concessions. the Pakistani Prime Minister Clinton remnants that it Nawaz Sharif demanded an audience with President of the US and then ordered withdrawal of the of the Pakistani forces to give the appearance was not a clear defeat. The important need here is for Pakistani leaders to appear to be strong and retain their honour in front of their own people. it is likely been misinterpreted by initiatives are seen as is considered to be a sign of that peace offers from India have Pakistani leaders. third party mediation is unacceptable in what is essentially a bilateral dispute with Pakistan. and are not seen as having lost their honour to the weaker party India. Because talk of peace weakness. In the Kargil conflict. but a respected third party's request from President Clinton of the US that made a triumphant Pakistan pull back from defeating India. It does not matter if anyone else considers that Pakistan was defeated. because on the one hand India appears weak to them by asking for peace. weak or dishonoured as long as the Pakistani people see their leaders as having pulled off some kind of victory. the UN. when Pakistani forces were facing rout.
One more factor that must be taken into account in negotiation with Pakistan is that Pakistan may fail to honour prior agreements as it has done with the UN resolutions and the subsequent Simla agreement of 1972 with India. In 1857. It is possible that Pakistani leaders consider all agreements and treaties as temporary instruments to buy time. When faced with the stark choice of being with America. President General Musharraf explained to his people in a speech in Urdu that his aligning with the US would be a temporary alliance with the devil. The Martial Mind: One of the enduring myths to have come out of Pakistan is that Pakistanis are somehow a martial race . In support of this plan General Musharraf used the analogy of the charter of Madina and the treaty of Hudaibiya signed by the Prophet Mohammad in his September 19 th 2001 speech (56).with military tradition in their blood. with the courage and valor that such a military tradition suggests somehow enshrined in the Pakistani's genes. or against America after the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. being General Ayub Khan who led Pakistan into the 1965 war with India had boasted that One Pakistani soldier is equal to six Indian soldiers The genesis of this attitude is interesting.accept with gratitude to save its own face. That rebellion was eventually quelled by the British with troops mainly from the Punjab particularly Muslim troops from what is now the Pakistani 58 . soldiers of the British Indian army rose up in a rebellion in what is now known as the first war of Indian Independence.
by recruiting mainly Muslim Punjabi troops and Pashtun troops from the North Western parts of preindependence India. Various British writers like Philip Mason frankly admitted that the real reason for selective recruitment was political reliability in crisis situations. from the beginning..Punjab. Pakistani military adventurism has been guided by a firm belief in the innate racial superiority of the Pakistani soldier and supported by a belief that Pakistan and Pakistanis are somehow performing Allah's will and 59 .the Pakistani GHQ placed entire reliance on the Superior Valour and Martial Qualities of the Pakistani (Punjabi and Pathan Muslim soldier) vis a vis the Hindu Indian soldier. These troops were subsequently in the thick of all the campaigns that Imperial Britain was fighting. which the Punjabis had exhibited during the 1857-58 Bengal Army rebellion. somehow superior by virtue of its being composed of martial races. The British gradually began to refer to these groups as martial races. After this event. which are now part of Pakistan. as proved in 1965 war and felt that somehow. Amin goes on to write: The Pakistani nation had been fed on propaganda about martial superiority of their army.. the British greatly changed the composition of the Indian army forces. in the next war to miracles would occur and the Pakistan Army would do well Hard as it may be for a rational thinking person to believe. Retired Pakistani army Major Agha Humayun Amin wrote about the Pakistani army feeling of martial superiority (57): The "Martial Races Theory" in reality was an Imperial gimmick to boost the ego of the cannon fodder. Pakistan the nation was formed with the belief that its army was. Maj. assisted by Pashtun troops.
pride and constant struggle to excel professionally are essential elements of a good officer's corps. dark-complexioned and eat rice. A good self-image can be a useful personality attribute if it is not carried to extreme lengths in which all others are considered inferior. especially Punjabi Pakistanis is an extremely good and positive self-image of themselves and their people. Former Prime Minister of Pakistan. The East Pakistanis were held in contempt by West Pakistanis. which now enter the zone of grandiose ideas and selfrighteousness. while East Pakistanis (Bengalis) are short. recalls having been taught as a child that West Pakistanis are tall. herself a Sindhi. Hamid Hussain wrote of Pakistani military officers' selfimage in Pakistan's defence journal (58): these military officers also have dangerously self- exaggerated opinion of their capacities both in terms of defence of the country's frontiers and their ability as an organized body to fix all problems of the society. Benazir Bhutto. Confidence in one's abilities. Major Amin writes(57): 60 . to the detriment of Pakistan. Positive Self-image: One remarkable feature noticeable among Pakistanis. Unfortunately that has occurred among Pakistan's elite. fair-complexioned and eat wheat. The problem starts when these positive traits are stretched to unrealistic limits. Their self-esteem is unshakable to the extent that no factor is allowed to get in the way of identifying themselves as superior and excellent.that God would therefore be on their side no matter how preposterous or ill advised the action.
This contempt with which West Pakistanis viewed their own countrymen contributed to the secession of East Pakistan and the formation of few elections held in thumping majority to based political party Bangladesh in 1971. dark and non-martial Bengalis could not face the idea of being ruled by an inferior Bengali as Prime Minister. ugly” Hindustani Indians. an East Pakistan headed by a Bengali. who considered themselves superior to the short. it is not surprising to note that Pakistanis have considered themselves racially superior to the “dark. the better man he was likely to be and fairer a A visible symbol of the contempt with which Indians are taught to be regarded in Pakistan can be seen from some 61 . Sheikh Mujibur Rehman. If the results of these elections had been carried through to their logical conclusion. Mujibur Rehman and his party should have formed the government of Pakistan in Islamabad. the 1971 elections gave a the Awami League.. But the Punjabi generals of the Pakistani army. If Bengali Muslim East Pakistanis were considered racially inferior by West Pakistanis. To Kiplings contemporaries. A subsequent genocide of over three million East Pakistanis led to the Indian military intervention in East Pakistan. In one of the Pakistan.The Bengalis were despised as non martial by all West Pakistanis. and the liberation of Bangladesh. Amin writes. the taller native. The results of the election were annulled and martial law was clamped in East Pakistan. This feeling was a carry over from the pre-Independence days when the British relied on the martial race for their army recruits. Maj.the generals were convinced that the Bengali was too meek to ever challenge the martial Punjabi or Pathan Muslim.
but in the Pakistani context it is a derogatory term for a nonMuslim. or does not have any bearing on behavior.which is often the picture of a Hindu of a Sikh. Arab scholar Raphael Patai.Pakistani textbooks for small children to learn the Urdu alphabet. Stemming from the self-image of the Pakistani is his sense of entitlement. back for services rendered and Islamic overlay in Pakistani behavior: The obvious question is “Why would anyone's religion make his behavior different or peculiar?” It is better to answer the question than ignore it and assume that religion has. the US or the world owe Pakistan a lot more that it is getting. and that India. The word kafir means unbeliever. Pakistan is always portrayed as being just. in his seminal work on Arab psyche (42) lists a few characteristics of Arab personality that arise from Islamic beliefs. At every step. Pakistan is said to have already done. From the profound application of Islamic beliefs among Pakistanis. dark. ugly. Even today. or already given more than necessary and that the onus is on the other party to pay Pakistan sacrifices made. fair and sacrificing. Spokespersons for Pakistan never tire of pointing out that Pakistan is not getting its due. in the 21st century it is possible to visit Pakistani chat-rooms and discussion fora on the Internet to find references to Indians as short. weak or cowardly. Children's alphabet books carry the word kafir as an example of a word that starts with the Urdu equivalent of the letter k. 62 . Associated with the word is a picture of a kafir .
The average. the belief that all events are predestined or decided beforehand by God and cannot be avoided or changed in any way.it seems that the same characteristics can be seen among Pakistanis. The docility of the average Pakistani in day-to-day life is probably beneficial to the stability Pakistani society. with evidence of the same in their behavior. local lord. either to hasten or otherwise influence events. Not even in everyday life can a man do anything. or religious leader tells him to do. the average Pakistani is unlikely to revolt against his lot in life. He will do what his feudal master. poor uneducated Pakistani believes that his life is pre-ordained by Allah to be the way it is. These beliefs are referred to in the words kismat and naseeb that occur in Urdu. but stem from Arabic and Persian respectively. or even to try to fight to make it better. Patai quotes this Islamic belief as the requirement that Man has no choice but to go through the course of events. Development requires effort and the belief in predestiny rules that conditions of feudal well for change and and events that the Pakistani experiences in life are ordained by 63 . which have been written down for him in God's Book to the smallest detail. and that he will be rewarded for his piety in an afterlife with an assured place in a well-stocked heaven. For this reason. but does not augur development. The average citizen's life may be lived in poverty in someone's service because that is what God has willed for him and attempting to change that would be against the will of God. One powerful Islamic belief is that of predestiny. so long as it does not go against his Islamic conscience.
He is well looked after during the indoctrination and training period. Unless there is a fundamental and deep rooted effort within Pakistan to change the relationship of the Pakistani with his religion. to die in action.Allah to be as they are tampered with in any way. as is quite likely. a relationship deliberately cultivated by the Pakistani elite for their own ends. Such a life is tempting because it meets all his human and psychological requirements. and any subsequent violence he takes part in would ensure for him a respected place in his society as an Islamic warrior. there can be virtually no hope of achieving a sea-change in the internal situation of Pakistan. and the external consequences of that. or ensure a place in heaven if he were. 64 . and must not be changed or Such beliefs also make the average Pakistani male citizen a prime candidate for motivation into leading a life as an Islamic warrior.
Those women who rebel by asserting their rightful place in society are punished and considered immoral. while a powerful clergy rejects all notions of equality and freedom for women. Most Islamic communities are averse to the idea of giving women social status equal to that of men. rape. to be counted along with other minorities of Pakistan such as Shia Muslims.Chapter 6 WOMEN AND MINORITIES OF PAKISTAN With 108 men for every 100 women in Pakistan (59). The importance of this fact lies in that many studies show that poverty. Lack of awareness about their rights and their need for education has added to their predicament. malnutrition and child labor are where the women are uneducated. in an article entitled To be a woman in Pakistan is to ask for a life of subservience (60) wrote: Pakistani women continue to be victims of an unjust society rooted in history and tradition. the women of Pakistan could probably be called a minority. and murder. That a strong feudal elite still rules the roost in the vast countryside is a major impediment to enlightenment and democracy. higher in societies Pakistani women's rights activist Ameera Javeria. many have been the victims of domestic violence. Hindus and Christians. For example. Ahmedis. two out of three women in Pakistan are uneducated. The state of Pakistani women has a powerful bearing on the condition of Pakistan. Another report (50) on Pakistani society says this about women: A woman's life is difficult during the early years of 65 .
.marriage.A wife gains status and power as she bears sons. A gender bias toward boys is clear from this description. or Daughter in front of other adult and small members of the family. An explanation of how this law is applied can be seen in the following quote (62): 66 . One of the purposes of the Hudood ordinance is apparently to discourage extramarital sex. Therefore. Sons will bring wives for her to supervise and provide for her in her old age.a law that is in effect in Pakistan. A young bride has very little status in her husband's household. Daughters are a liability. Among some groups it is believed that education of girls leads to immorality. A report on family violence in Pakistani society (61) says: (sic)The Male dominant society of Pakistan with strong sense of complete " Mastery " feel's pride to Dictate his terms of Physical and Mental Torture to his Wife. The woman of the family is considered fundamental to maintaining the honour of the family group. mothers favor their sons. education of girls has a low priority in Pakistan. Sister. Particularly egregious is the Hudood ordinance . With girls being a liability to be given away after marriage. to be given away in an expensive marriage with their virginity intact. and failure to do this can lead to dishonour a crime punishable by death... she is subservient to her mother-inlaw and must negotiate relations with her sisters-inlaw. honour killings in which a father or a brother kill a woman for having dishonoured the family are common in Pakistan. A woman must be chaste and subservient to the man.
Since the passage of the Hudood Ordinance in 1979 under the military government of Zia al Haq, "zina" or extramarital intercourse, has been considered a crime against the state in Pakistan...this law often prescribes cruel and devastating punishments, such as whipping or stoning the individual(s) in question, and explicitly discriminates against women...the Hudood Ordinance has legally blurred the distinction between rape and extramarital sex, resulting in the imprisonment and/or physical punishment of numerous women who have come forward with charges of rape without witnesses. Consequently, many rape victims are deemed criminals in a Pakistani court of law. Pakistan is stuck in a vicious circle in which the elite corner all the resources, leaving little for education of the poor. And among this class the women are the worst off, uneducated and discriminated; and this leads to further poverty and degradation in society. No force in Pakistan seems change this. to have the wisdom, will or power to
Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan is said to have had a vision for Pakistan in which people of all religions in Pakistan would co-exist. In his 11th August 1947 speech to the constituent assembly of Pakistan, Jinnah said (63): You may belong to any religion or caste or creed - that has nothing to do with the business of the state ... in the course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the state."
A few months vision:
We have many non-Muslims-Hindus, Christians and Parsis ... but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan." But Jinnah's vision for Pakistan died with Jinnah. Pakistan's record in the treatment of its religious minorities is shameful and unapologetic. In his landmark paper (64), possibly the first scientific statistical analysis of the question of ethnic cleansing in Pakistan, researcher Sridhar notes: ..almost 89% of the minorities in West Pakistan were ethnically cleansed, i.e. killed, converted or driven out of the country. Almost 54% of the minority population ended up as refugees in India, while a very high 35% of the minority population is simply unaccounted for. These are people who were likely killed or converted into Islam. Population researcher P.H. Reddy has noted that at the time of formation of Pakistan, there were over 20 million non-Muslims in the areas that formed Pakistan mostly Hindus. After the migration of partition, approximately 7 million non-Muslims remained in what is now making up approximately ten per cent of the West Pakistan. In the years since Pakistan's population has more than doubled West Pakistan population of independence, to nearly 150
million, but only three per cent, or 4.5 million people are non Muslims in modern day Pakistan. About half of that number are Hindus and the other half are Christian. In simple terms, in 56 years 68 since independence the
population of Muslims in Pakistan went up from about 60 million to 145 million, while the population of nonMuslims fell from 7 million to 4.5 million. Hindus formed the largest minority in Pakistan at independence and their number has reduced to around 1.5 million.
In November 2002, the Times of India (65) quoted Noor Naz Agha, a prominent Pakistani lawyer and rights activist as saying: Minorities are not safe in Pakistan. Recently, several attacks have been made on churches, hospitals, even on human rights organisations. And several people have been killed," The treatment of religious minorities in Pakistan leaves a lot to be desired. The problem stems from an attitude that Pakistan is for Sunni Muslims alone, and people of other religions, and even Shia Muslims are to be looked upon with contempt. The discrimination extends to derogatory references to non-Islamic people in school textbooks, as noted in chapter 3. M.H. Aksari, writing in the Pakistani paper Dawn (66) said, The former Indian foreign secretary, J.N. Dixit,
recalling his days as ambassador in Islamabad says that once when he called on a Pakistani friend, the latter's six-year old daughter on discovering that Dixit was a Hindu skipped around the table chanting 'Hindu Kutta', 'Hindu Kutta.' Hindu Kutta means Hindu Dog. But it is not Hindus alone who are discriminated against in Pakistan. Over the years the Pakistan army leadership 69 has encouraged a
particularly intolerant thrive in Pakistan. subjected to terrorist the Ahmediya sect have
Islamic mindset to prevail and Shia Muslims in Pakistan are attacts and discrimination, and been declared as non-Muslims in
Pakistan for their beliefs. Pakistan is busy changing Islam to suit the needs of a small elite. The role of the Pakistani army leaders in this is clear from a report that was carried in the November 2003 (67). Ziaul Haq actively encouraged this paper Dawn in
fervour...Ziaul Haq's advice led to widespread religious riots ... Many people, mostly Shias, were killed and their houses burnt. The local administration did little to control the situation. A foreign diplomat, who happened to be travelling by road from Skardu to Islamabad a couple of days after all this started, told me that he saw houses en-route burning and that the route provided a spectacle of war and destruction. There is a movement in Pakistan to have Shias declared non-Muslim. Following a massacre of Shia Muslims in a Pakistani mosque on the Islamic holy day of Moharram in 2004, senior analyst B. Raman hostility in Pakistan (68): wrote about anti-Shia
The last years of the Zia regime saw the Shias of Gilgit come out with a demand for a separate Shia State consisting of Gilgit and the Shia majority areas of Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). They wanted the Shia state to be called the Karakoram Province and remain part of regime crushed the 1988, the Pakistan force from the NWFP a confederation of Pakistan. The Zia Shia movement ruthlessly. In August Army inducted a large Sunni tribal and the Federally-Administered Tribal
Areas (FATA), led by Osama bin Laden, into Gilgit and it 70
massacred hundreds of Shias and crushed their revolt. The only things that have been preserved intact and untouched in Pakistan are the power and wealth of the elite of the army. have consistently fought and opposed anyone and everyone. but civilian as well. the preachers of a narrow brand of Sunni Islam. Successive governments in Pakistan. The hatred of the Shias for Osama bin Laden and his Al Qaeda dates from this period. who are responsible for a rising tide of Islamic fundamentalism. 71 . a few businessmen and the feudal lords and their allies. foreign nations as well as their own people. mostly military.
This group of individuals formed a migrant nation. they would not automatically regain control of the lands they had lost to the British. it was intolerable. The demand for a separate nation was a natural extension of this Mughal mindset. For the English-educated Muslim elite.. some of the Muslim elite in India.Chapter 7 PARTITION AND THE TWO-NATION THEORY When Indians and Pakistanis meet. it was realised by these real or perceived descendants of Mughals that in a democratic India. one is struck by their similarity. live under non-Muslim rule.. so a Muslim "Land of the Pure"--the literal meaning of Pakistan--was essential to protect and nurture the faithful. if at all possible. Before India was partitioned in 1947. When the British were set to leave India. 1947. The Weekly Standard reported in October 2001 (69): Created on August 15. whom the Muslim Mogul dynasty had dominated for centuries before the arrival of the English. from the northern. who were later to go to Pakistan. Living under the far more numerous Hindus. primarily Muslim provinces of British India. Gandhi's Indian democracy was going to be Hindu. Indians are fond of saying “Pakistanis are just like us” but one will find that Pakistanis do not tend to say “Indians are just like us”. Being different from Indians is a fundamental requirement that defines the Pakistani. Living under the all-mighty British was unpleasant for many. 72 . It is a geographic expression of an ageold Islamic ideal: Muslims should not. Pakistan isn't really a nation-state. considered themselves the descendants of the Mughals who had ruled vast tracts of India. was worse.
not to accept democracy's implications. especially in Northern India. The end of the Caliphate was a symbolic blow to Muslims who has grown up to look at the Islamic empire 73 .reservations and separate electorate. May be they would be punished for former uppishness and for real or imagined wrongs.the leitmotif of preindependence Indian Muslim politics.actually equality of treatment with Hindus . which is what distinguished them from Hindus. two traits: first. They feared being falling down into the vast assimilative sea of Hindudom surrounding them wherein they will be at the bottom of social heap. especially the equality with Hindus. Muslims thus demanded weightage . Their religious exhibitionism and a superiority complex led to emphases on differences with Hindus and regarding themselves as rulers' kith and kin deserving privileges and safeguards -. The second was to depend on a ruling or hegemonic power to get them their due. and encouraged education in Islamic schools. Others' refusal to accept Muslims demands. Another root of partition lay with the defeat of the Turkish Caliphate by the British in 1918. calculated to preserve imagined privileges. affected a superiority complex. One of the consequences was that they discouraged their children from attending secular schools. and certainly in pre-independence India attempted to go back to their Islamic roots. madrassas.MB Naqvi wrote in the Jang of Pakistan (70): Historically the majority of Muslims. angered them and an adversarial attitude vis-a-vis Hindus developed. Muslims all over the world. originally low- caste Hindus. and strengthened. But Pakistan was not formed merely by people with this Mughal mindset. These came from. That explained their demonstrative adherence to Islam. When that occurred.
a house or a group of followers of Islam. of Islam. when Islamic empire. and the first Caliph had been appointed by the Prophet Mohammad. India and South East Asia to the East. the poet who composed the popular Indian patriotic song Saare Jahaan se achcha. and Muslims would always be under threat in the dar ul harb. The Caliph was the symbolic head of this empire. The word Caliph means deputy in Arabic. Inherent in the concept of dar ul harb was that Islam. although he by no means controlled even a fraction of that empire. staying in India would be tantamount to living under subjugation in the dar ul harb. The demand for a separate state for Muslims only was a logical extension of this thought process. who were at war For Muslims who could not have their way with separate representation in pre-independence India. a house of Islam . Muslim existence was deemed a kind of permanent emergency (dar-ul-harb) and migration was considered an option in the defiance of British raj. Allama Iqbal. The concept probably dates back to the early years there was a central but rapidly expanding around which were lands with non-Muslims with the followers of the new religion. Southern Europe to the North and Central Asia. a completely unacceptable situation. and a dar ul harb or house of war. The Friday Times had this to say (71): In India. Hindustan hamara later paradoxically endorsed the need for a separate nation for Muslims (72): 74 .as extending from Arabia in the center to North Africa in the West. and the end of the Caliphate was the end of a long line of Caliphs that extended from antiquity. consisting of unbelievers people who were not followers of Islam. A concept in Islam speaks of a dar ul Islam.
the logic that prevailed was that Muslims require segregation of political and social life in order to be in compliance with the demands of sharia. A third factor that contributed to the formation of Pakistan was the political power aspiration of Mohammad Ali Jinnah who saw in the formation of the new nation of Pakistan a ready made constituency of Muslims. With Islam.Allama Iqbal asserted that there is only one nation opposed to the Muslim Umma. the ideological founder of Pakistan (73): (The) Pakistan Movement was based on the theory that Muslims are entirely separate people from Hindus in every respect.. the Muslims and Non-Muslims. The result. Under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. was (74): Without any concrete 'dispute' between Hindus and Muslims. in less than a decade gave birth to Pakistan The man who is most credited as an intellectual force behind the two-nation theory and a front against united Indian nationalism is Maulana Abul Ala Maududi. right from the 75 . the world is divided into two camps. in addition to power and glory for himself and the new nation. The TwoNation Theory was a manifestation of the doctrine of darul-islam versus dar-ul-harb.. Another key player in the call for Pakistan was Maulana Maududi. the movement. Pakistanis have. as eloquently documented by Rajiv Malhotra. and that is the nation of non-Muslims! In other words. This theory is popularly known as two-nation theory. and Islamic reasons being the basis for the formation of Pakistan.
discrimination. satisfaction. Pakistan had come into existence. Not much thought was put into whether a state based on religion alone would be able to survive. over the wishes of other groups. In civilizational terms. including some such as the Jamaat-i-Islami who did not favor the formation of Pakistan. A nation in decline. strong and Islamic. hunger and poverty.beginning. it would not be out of place to mention briefly the civilizational effect that partition had on India. Pakistan would not be like India. And Pakistan would claim to represent the Muslims who had stayed behind in India. Pakistan would be progressive. It was a victory of Islam over the British and the Hindus. Pakistan. With Jinnah as leader the heady success of nation formation in 1947 was enough. It was not Indian. It was a land of superstition. honour and dignity. been taught to regard themselves as Muslims first and foremost. Although the purpose of this book is to present a study of Pakistan after partition. Pakistan was supposed to be a homeland for Muslims of India and its formation was pushed through by the groups who wanted it. Pakistan would represent Islam itself it would be a leading light of Islam in the world. The fact of being Pakistani brought with it a liberal dose of pride. and as opposed to being citizens of the nation. For the new Pakistanis India was a land of kafirs. the splitting up of British India into modern India and Pakistan can be compared to an act of auto-amputation. civilizations can often be seen to behave like live beings. This is a condition in which a live human body spontaneously discards and casts off a dead or diseased part. such as a 76 . It was the first Islamic state to be created in the modern era ab initio. unbelievers. When studied over centuries. It was Islamic.
stayed. and and all the people who did not wish to live and work in India were placed in Pakistan. the people of the Indian subcontinent agreed to place all the people who wanted to live and work in a united India in one place. Strange as it may sound. and that India would fragment and break. of Indians rooted for India and worked for Pakistanis did not see things that way. 77 . They were wrong. more than two-thirds of the population of India having been after 1947.a civilizational auto-amputation. partition was not so much an act of separation of all Hindus from all Muslims. The initial fragmentation and breaking that occurred at partition. Pakistan had filled itself with people whose intent was less to live and work in harmony. The vast majority India. The actual act of partition was accompanied by horrifying suffering and death. They saw themselves as Muslims. For India partition was akin to that . but it merely segregated a sub-group of Indians who did not want to co-exist with other Indians. In one convulsive act. It is easier for these younger Indians to see that for India. but after five decades the memories of the pain are beginning to fade.toe or a fingertip so that the body itself can survive and not be affected by the disease that damaged the toe or finger. and Pakistani leaders assumed that the Muslims remaining in India would automatically rise up and revolt. this tumultuous self-mutilating act was a profoundly democratic one. with the formation of Bangladesh. and those who wanted to stay. continued in Pakistan. in which those who wanted to opt out of India were allowed to opt out. and more to live away from some group or the other. after the painful events of partition.
That would have been totally unacceptable to the Pakistani Punjabi. and while Pakistanis struggled to meet the 78 . the Bengalis. The mohajirs found that their survival in Pakistan would be made easier by creating and maintaining an India scare .a phobia against the scheming Hindu who was out to subjugate or kill all Muslims. But they were educated and held all the important bureaucratic posts.It was only after the formation of Pakistan that all the assumptions made about Islam as a unifying concept began to break down. There were contradictions at every turn. The fact that East Pakistani Bengalis were Muslim did not help to stop the West Pakistani disdain for the short. The mohajirs. the Muslim elite of India who had migrated to Pakistan were in an ideal position to concoct any stories they wished about the bestial Hindus they had left behind. East Pakistan. The possibility of democracy in Pakistan brought with it the threat of a short. with its people. It was drummed into ordinary Pakistanis that they must be good Muslims. and the army had no intention of seeing its Punjabi dominance being subordinate to the inferior Bengali. even when caused by internal politics and mismanagement was blamed on India. wheat eating Pakistani Punjabi. Any threat. Apart from the mohajirs was the other half of Pakistan. and any setback to Pakistan. The 15 million mohajirs who migrated to Pakistan from India were not welcomed. India and Indians were continuously and bitterly accused of being anti-Pakistan and anti-Muslim. dark. as opposed to the tall. fish and rice-eating Bengali. rice-eating Bengali becoming Prime Minister of Pakistan. Punjabis made up 90% of the Pakistani army. This complex web of factors kept Pakistanis from uniting with each other but the Islam argument was used for unity. dark. fair.
One of the problems that crops up from this is the definition of “Who is a good Muslim?”. the ruling elite lived as they pleased. Among the Believers(75). It would now provide for that nation. A repeated observation that comes out is that the ordinary Pakistani citizen is under pressure to be a good Muslim. To be a devout Muslim was always to have distinctive things to do. It was only necessary for everyone to be a good Muslim.S. it was to be guided constantly by rules. 79 . Nobel Prize winning author V. In his book. And Pakistanis believed that this was all that was needed. After all Islam had given them a nation. The Pakistani citizen is judged by whether he is a good Muslim or not. Naipaul says. and records interviews with a diverse group of Pakistanis. and everything else would look after itself. Naipaul describes travels through Pakistan. Every act or event in Pakistan has to be seen through the prism of whether it is Islamic or not.standards set for them. it was to live in a fever of the faith and always to be aware of the distinctiveness of the faith.
the founder of Pakistan had the flag of his political party.meaning there is no God but God and attaches those words to Pakistan to make the meaning What does Pakistan mean there is no God but God . Pakistani leaders. the Muslim League as the Flag of Islam and had said you cannot separate the Muslim League from Islam. Based on 80 . "Pakistan ka matlab kya.Chapter 8 ISLAM AND PAKISTAN In the end. Jinnah. it could perhaps be said that Islam was too big for Pakistan to keep as its private domain. there were 76 in which more than 50 per cent of the people were Muslims. Pakistan was unable to grab and hold Islam as though Islam and Pakistan were one and the same.H. Demographer P. Even independence. and not all Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. La ilaha illallah". This is a shameful piece of fiction that needs to be set right.implying that Pakistan and Islam are one and the same. for decades behaved as Pakistan was Islam and Islam was Pakistan. It is endlessly and erroneously repeated that Pakistan was formed for the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. Pakistan was formed for some. A very popular slogan in Pakistan was. But this charade could only last a few years before the fallacies began to show. out of a total of 435 districts in undivided India. (76). The slogan combines a few words taken from the the Islamic call to prayer La ilaha illallah . Reddy noted in the Times of India on 8th April 2003 (77): According to the 1941 census. To be though before called sure.
arts and architecture produced by an intermingling of two rich cultures.. The 76 Muslim-majority districts were grouped together in two clusters. and do not seek to deny the ancient. using the Persian language. preIslamic Egyptian civilization of Pharaohs who built the Pyramids. "to develop to the fullest our spiritual. and Arab culture adopted and internalized Islam. (with) different epics. An entire literature and culture of Islam developed in Persia.this demographic fact.. different heroes and different episodes. social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals 81 and according to the . economic. Islam spread peacefully into Indonesia and was absorbed and rationalized by the local culture. which was born in Arabia. social customs. Over the centuries Islam reached a balance with the cultures of the people who adopted Islam.. making up 9.9 per cent of the total population of India." "We wish our people". Muslims numbered 3. Western Pakistan comprised the north-west part of the sub-continent and Eastern Pakistan comprised eastern part of Bengal and one district in Assam. cultural. Egyptians live in peace with their past. Jinnah exploited a cleavage in Indian society to proclaim: Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies. literature".In 1951. that they "derive their inspiration from different sources of history".. Similarly Islam developed and flowered in India with its own unique literature. he declared. "to two different civilizations".54 crore. The formation of Pakistan sought to deny this vibrant entity. One cluster was in north-west India and the other in north-east India. the Sir Cyril Radcliffe's Boundary Commission allotted these 76 districts to Pakistan. Arab culture had existed in Arabia for centuries before Islam was born.
and the You are of Parsis .. culture-less nation. They will enjoy same rights and privileges as any other citizens. The India connection had to be stripped clean. it was not Indonesian. But there were inconsistencies and contradictions right from the beginning and the confusion has remained to this day.a culture of centuries was to be washed clean.You will find that in 82 . and nobody had any idea of what would replace the void.. you are free to go to your temples. and good Muslims. Islamic. Christians. it was not Egyptian or Persian. but it was definitely not going to be Indian any more.but they are all Pakistanis. The formation of Pakistan was considered a great victory. Pakistan was not Arabic. But the leaders of the new Pakistan who took over after Jinnah died in 1948. for Muslims alone.. free from India or any Indian roots. Was Pakistan Jinnah say: .. are free." Perhaps Jinnah did not mean to strip Pakistan of the rich culture that Islam had developed in its centuries of interaction in India (78). Pakistan was deliberately set on the path of being an orphan. The only thing people knew was that Pakistanis would have to be Islamic. certainly felt that Pakistan should be stripped of all its connections with India.we have a nation for Muslims only? But why did many non-Muslims - Hindus. Indian culture had to be actively cleaned out of the minds of millions of Pakistani citizens .genius of our people. you free to go to your mosques or to any other places worship in this State of Pakistan.. leaving Pakistan purely Islamic. In an experimental and unparalleled act of ignorance.
e. groups of directions. and represented Islam. And like a man whose arms and legs are being pulled apart by horses moving in different directions. parts of Pakistan. today.. Islam was and still remains the ultimate excuse. Was Pakistan the leader of all Islamic nations.course of time Hindus would cease to Muslims would cease to be Muslims. (79) (kufr refers to unbelievers i. As long as Islam anything. or to accuse an adversary of Pakistani leaders hid behind the excuse for their actions. a modern day Caliphate? But if that was the case Pakistan should not have had any boundaries. nobody could question 83 . ended up trying to make Pakistan take all the routes that it could possibly take simultaneously. as the majority of Muslims chose to remain in India.) Pakistani leaders. Islam has used when convenient. That is indeed what some Pakistani Islamists believe: Muslims all over the world must realize that nationalism is kufr. to get aid. an example for Islamic nations to follow as the leader of the ummah. and that the modern nation-states are a creation of that period in history when Muslims were defeated and dominated by kufr. the lever that is used in Pakistan to justify served as a tool to be or to deflect blame misdeeds. and Pakistan. and social and ethnic Pakistan have all headed in different resulting in the chaos that Pakistan is Pakistani leaders claimed that they. (76) Was Pakistan a nation for all Muslims be Hindus and of the Indian subcontinent? If so. in their confusion as to what Pakistan was and what it should do. People who are not Islamic. For Pakistan. were purely Islamic. Pakistan had failed at birth.
genocide. instead of consolidating and unifying the new state of Pakistan. and elections postponed. India could be fought and opposed. there was no pressure to change policy. The threat from India became the common denominator for all Pakistani actions. As long as the money kept coming in. Pakistan was Islamic. and therefore anything that Pakistan did. for postponing elections and for postponing development of Pakistan indefinitely. corruption could not be criticized by anyone. so that Islam could be upheld against India. and to meddle with and Indian Muslims. And conveniently. attention to India. After all. be it development. They were not Islamic enough they had to strive to be better Muslims. India would be defeated. Islam could not fail. democracy or common sense. India was the source the enemy of Pakistan. its leaders set about using Islam to divert Indian territory of all problems. avoiding elections. it was because Islam was naturally anticommunist. And in this manner. because Pakistan was Islamic. aid and funds poured into Pakistan in the early years as part of US aid to Pakistan as a cold war ally. Any criticism of Pakistan was criticism of Islam. Money and the economy were not a problem. and therefore the The India problem had to be solved. and 84 . If Pakistan obtained military and economic aid from the US. enemy of Islam. and that took priority over everything else in Pakistan. Pakistanis had failed the faith. who had given Pakistan to the faithful. Pakistan could do no wrong. But as repeated Pakistani assaults against India failed. the number one threat to Pakistan.them. India did not dare question Pakistani claims no matter how preposterous or obscene they were. sacrifice and allow their army to get stronger. They had to starve. Opposing Pakistan was anti-Islamic. Allah (God). from waging wars. the people of Pakistan could be kept busy. was providing funds and arms via the US.
1952 the historic Bengali language movement erupted spontaneously all over East Bengal.it remained a major potential challenge. thought they could isolate the Bengali nationalists by raising religious slogans of Islamic ideology and Islamic identity to counter Bengali anger. no sacrifice could be too great in opposing India.. because opposing India meant devotion to Islamic ideals. 85 . No method was ruled out. A report in Pakistan's Friday Times (81) carried this scathing message on the role of the migrant elite in using Islam: On Feb 21. the prop. instead of going some way to meet Bengali demands.. Mohammad Waseem wrote: Muslim migrants from East Punjab and further East in India shaped the psyche of the new nation along feelings of insecurity at the hands of India..the migrant elite. Foolishly our ruling elite..therefore to Islam. Elections were a threat that had to be postponed or canceled and an imaginary threat to Islam was invoked. Muslims in Kashmir. and later all the Muslims in India would be rescued from Hindu tyranny by Pakistan. The Pakistani elite. saw their positions threatened by the prospect of elections which would unseat them in favor of locals.. In his essay on the role of the power structure in Pakistan (80). migrants from India. holding all the important government posts.dreaded the prospects of their exit from power in the event of elections. Islam gradually became the tool. The Islam card was used by everybody in Pakistan to suit their own purpose.. commitment to Islamic ideology and the need to unite against all odds. used in Pakistan to make every opinion or move.
and they supported every measure to make Islam the basis of the existence of all Pakistanis. M. And as Islam was stirred into the mindset of the Pakistani army. There are even serious attempts under way to define an Islamic military doctrine. for the mullahs (Islamic scholars) of Pakistan. Middle ranking officers must take courses and examinations on Islam. Finally. and strengthened the process of Islamization of Pakistan started by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. as distinct from the international military doctrines. Another compelling reason to be very cautious about overuse of religion is to avoid seeping of sectarian tendencies into the armed forces..The army of Pakistan was initially subservient to the government. Hussain wrote (82): 86 .General Mahmud Ahmad during Pakistani ambassador's conference reprimanded the ambassadors for not relying on the intercession of Providence while analyzing Pakistan's Afghan policy. After 1971 Zia-ul-Haq started a campaign of Islamization of the Pakistani army. so as to fight in accordance with the Koran. the army started seeing Islam in more and more of its actions. Only in an Islamic state could mullahs be influential and prominent. A. whom Zia Malhotra wrote (74): Islamic texts are had deposed in a coup. Pluralism or Western-style democracy was incompatible with the mullah's world view. Rajiv being introduced into Pakistani military training. Columnist Hamid Husain has this to say about Islamization of the Pakistan army (58): Brigadier Gulzar Ahmad explaining the role of celestial powers to lessen his troop casualties in 1965 war stated. 'There was a hidden hand deflecting the rounds'. anything less than an Islamic state in Pakistan was a threat.
. No Muslim polity has measured up to the combination of piety and social justice achieved by the Medinese community. Everything should have fallen in place.. But that did not happen. the bureaucracy and government. went to Pakistan as they saw no role in India for themselves. Islamic people often ended up being controlled by the nearest strongman. and gone without a hitch. The Ideal Islamic state existed at the time of the Prophet Mohammad. but making it reality was easier said than done. The desire for an ideal Islamic state has been described as follows (83): The quest for it reflects the desire to model Muslim politics on the original Islamic community in Medina.have a vested interest in establishing an Islamic state where they are locus of power and have tremendous scope for employment. Mo-alim. Every group in Pakistan needed Islam only for their narrow self interest. When the Prophet Mohammad died in AD 632. . The men 87 who controlled the sword. there really should have been no problem..But trying to replicate the Medinese polity remains an ideal. he left behind a tradition. etc. but there were no written guidelines on how a state should be run. Mozin.. who had opposed Jinnah. It explains why even those Ulamas and Maulavis (like Moulana Maudoodi). Maulavi. With everyone in Pakistan.Imam. In the absence of such guidelines. The idea of an Islamic state seemed noble enough. the people. which remains to this day the blueprint for a genuinely Islamic society. the army and the mullahs seemingly being in agreement with each other on the question of the Islamic status of Pakistan.
In theory the sultan's authority in religious matters was limited by the holy law of the Qu'raan and no sultan could clearly divorce religion from politics. But in practice the Muslim sultan of India was a perfect autocrat and his word was law.. And Pakistan is no exception. In a report on the relationship of the mullahs and the military in Pakistan by the International Crisis Group.. and he did not leave behind a specific political system or designate a successor. wrote (The Prophet) Muhammad's prophetic mantle was not inherited by his successors..In general. The precedent of the strongman .the military ruler taking absolute control over Islamic people had already existed in Mughal India.. 88 and was implemented and .by the soldiers.. a Professor of religious studies. and this was understood and acquiesced in. The real source of the sultan's authority was military strength. but there were no formal criteria for determining the community's leadership or judging its legitimacy. (a non-profit multinational organization resolving conflict) the introduction following quote (85): committed to carries the The Muslim state in India was a theocracy. the Prophet's successors were expected to be personally pious and to behave according to the guidance left by the Prophet.. Succession of leadership among Islamic people has been a bone of contention ever since that time.controlled the ulema (scholars) and the people. Tamara (84): Sonn. the poets and the ulema of the age.
zakat. Other forces in Pakistan who wanted power and influence. But soon in 89 . revolted. and in that invention faith was of little help. it was implied. and the Hudood ordinance were brought in. it had to be invented. The Pakistan army was invited to take power.perpetuated in Pakistan. Pakistani leaders were always right. Anything that Pakistan did was done in the name of Islam. This blow to Pakistan was explained on the basis of Pakistan not being Islamic enough. It was to be assumed by all who were watching that Pakistan itself was the embodiment of Islam. Gradually the non-Muslim minorities of Pakistan were squeezed out (chapter 6) They had no role in Islamic Pakistan. And it was all done in the name of Islam. no interest in the banks. no feminine immodesty. Faith. and put and end to the people's misery. or reached some accommodation with the army. Criticism of Pakistan was criticism of Islam. The sharia. The effort to make Pakistan purely described by V. Pakistani leaders claimed. such as the politicians. always Islamic and they compelled their people to be more and more Islamic.S Naipaul in his believers”(75) Islamic has been book “Among the This Islamic state couldn't simply be decreed. liked it. would solve all of Pakistan's problems. More and more Islamic laws had to be passed and implemented. seceded and formed Bangladesh (chapter 11). to uphold Islam and represent Islam. could only supply the simple negatives that answered emotional needs: no alcohol. and held on to power. East Pakistanis their minds poisoned by India according to some West Pakistani commentators. at the moment. After all Pakistan was formed for Islam. bureaucrats and the ulema used the army. It was done. Islamic fervor.
and in the vacuum only the army could rule. They preached jihad. the army got weapons. Pakistan's alliance with the U. However. liberal lifestyle conveyed the impression of a progressive society to Western aid givers. ready to embrace 90 . the serfs and underlings. and the army became richer. More and more Pakistanis were needed to fight Pakistan's wars. for Islam. getting richer. Jihad against the enemies of Islam. The rich got money. was ready to die for a cause. and their modern. The army brass. the faith was asserted because only the faith seemed to be whole.Pakistan these negatives were to be added to: no political parties. Pakistanis were urged to do jihad . the army. needed men to do their fighting.not the internal. no dissent.S. but the external violence of the Generals and their games of military domination. The burgeoning of madrassas and ensured that they would have jobs and influence. ensured that foreign aid poured in and the economy of the wealthy in Pakistan boomed. In order to be good Muslims. ensured the delivery number of men to fight for Pakistan. So existing institutions were deemed to be unIslamic and undermined or undone. They took charge of the madrassas with gusto and preached with fervor. no law courts. secure and happy in their newly funded madrassas. self correcting jihad of the Koran. Men were needed to fight India. The mullahs of Pakistan were doubly happy. no parliament. the rulers and influential people of Pakistan did not have to be all that Islamic. and the mullahs. brought up with fervor of any in a madrassa. Each Islamic jihadi. while the poor of Pakistan got madrassas (Islamic schools) to ensure that they became more Islamic. Men were needed to fight the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. The elite stayed rich. Pure Islam was for the hoi-polloi..
it was to be the first truly Islamic state since the days of the Prophet and his close companions 91 . or the faith flawed. indoctrinated and prepared for death. If the state failed it wasn't because the dream was flawed. Failure only led back to the faith.the people who trained them and sent them to die the army and the mullahs. The Islam of Pakistan's mullahs. And in that quest of the Islamic absolute the society of believers. And as these men prepared for and died fighting for the cause that they had been told was Islamic . aiding the Generals' wars. in league with lazy Generals. the faith Islam. while their wards and students were encouraged to seek the pleasures of an afterlife.Extraordinary claims began to be made for Pakistan: it was founded as the land of the pure. As the institutions of Pakistan failed in this unique and unorthodox concept of a nation. Rich generals doing office jobs while men from the poor classes with little to live for were trained. and more powerful. it could only be because men had failed the faith. The state withered. preaching an Islam that would keep the mullahs comfortable in this life. The state had been founded as a homeland for Muslims.. their families accepting that the death of their son would bring glory and honour. but faith didn't. grew stronger.and accept the guaranteed benefits of dying in jihad in an afterlife to be enjoyed in a well-stocked heaven. In a remarkably prescient passage Naipaul observes (75). obtainable only by violence and death. This glorious scene became Pakistan's version of Islam.. got fatter. where every action was instinct with worship men lost sight of the political origins of their state.
the mullahs and the ulema were necessarily allowed to exercise spiritual control over the Pakistani masses to ensure that Pakistan remained adequately and properly Islamic in all arenas. It was drummed in that this was necessary because India was always there to swallow up Pakistan.’ upholding the faith and protecting Pakistan. In his characteristically astute manner V. Naipaul concludes (75): Step by step. Pakistan. and replaced it with nothing 92 . which presented itself as the savior.The average Pakistani citizen was coerced or co-opted by putting Islam first. Every Pakistani had to strive to be a good Muslim. Co-opting the Pakistani citizen under the Islam banner eminently served the interests of the rich and corrupt elite of Pakistan in maintaining their grip and preserving their business and territorial interests. India had been held in check only by God and the Pakistani army. was created by Muslims for Muslims. And the Pakistani state died. To be Pakistani was to be a good Muslim. it was stressed. ‘the army of Islam. Muslim clerics. out of its Islamic striving. Pakistan had undone the rule of law it had inherited from the British.S.
In his book. the Muslims of India woke up. So the country of Pakistan was built on hate and nothing else. Among the Believers. Then in the second quarter. Pakistan itself means “Land of the Pure” and Pakistani identity has been sought to be defined on the basis that Pakistan is a land of pure Muslims. (75) Naipaul quotes the words of a man story of this quarter of this everything that describing Pakistan. No other nation has attempted to so totally reject its existing culture while retaining only the faith or religion. In their effort to ensure that Pakistanis are not Indian.Chapter 9 ATTITUDES TOWARDS INDIA AND INDIANS Career diplomat-turned-politician Mani Shankar Aiyer served as India's first Consul General in Karachi. They had a double hate. But Mani Shankar Aiyer has recognised a gradual change of attitudes to India 93 . I will tell you the country in two sentences. Aiyer says that the best definition for Pakistani is “One who is not Indian”. They hated the foreigners and they hated the Hindus. Pakistanis define their identity as being non-Indian. The birth. and he has published his collected writings on Pakistan in a book entitled Pakistan Papers (86). The predominant Pakistani attitude toward India is hatred. This experiment is unique in the world. Pakistani authorities have done everything in their power to discourage any Pakistani from displaying cultural traits that are seen as Indian in character. and survival of Pakistan required the rejection of all that was Indian. and encouraged the replacement of that culture by an invented Islamic culture. and go on further to define themselves as pure Muslims. In the first century the Hindus of India decided that was wrong had to do with foreigners and foreign influence.
or ten or whatever number of Kafirs was widely believed.all but the most blind Pakistani today looks back on what happened to his country in 1971 at the hands of India as a great defeat. the flag of Islam would be imparted on the ramparts of the Red Fort.among Pakistanis. And hatred of India grew. Like life itself. Up until 1971 it was hate and contempt. Dislike and distrust of India became an industry in Pakistan. Pakistani attitudes have changed to hate and fear. but after 1971.. which evolved from simple 94 . it was put about and accepted implicitly that in a matter of days.. Columnist Hamid Hussain describes the Pakistani army officer corps' attitude toward Indians prior to the 1965 war (58): The general despise (sic) of Hindus and doubting their capacity of able (sic) to give a good fight was almost universal Over the years. till 1971 he looked back on what happened . as a great victory. perhaps hours. Aiyer writes (86): . lad lad ke lengey Hindustan' We got Pakistan with a triumphant smile We fill fight and take Hindustan (India) Myths about a single Muslim soldier being the equal of four. while Pakistan split up and tottered. Aiyer continues: From 1947 to 1971 the general belief (in Pakistan) was: 'hans hans ke liya tha Pakistan. India struggled but improved.
For others. based on assumed religious superiority. defeated and brought to its knees. For these people nothing would be better than exacting revenge for their lost lives. huge Banyan trees. Pakistan existed because Muslims would be suppressed in India. Raychaudhuri sums up Pakistani attitudes to India: This shattering of the psychological indoctrination. India was the enemy. It was worth alone. Brig. Hatred and mistrust for the creation of Pakistan. This was a source of resentment to many elite Pakistanis who had left everything in India to be in Pakistan. a national obsession in Pakistan. to be fought. India who caused the trauma of of India was the reason defeating India for this reason was a hateful nation of people partition. Hatred for India and Indians has been made into a national purpose. hatred of India was nurtured to evolve. grow and metamorphose into a multitude of reasons and justifications. in the Pakistani mindset.one-celled organisms into a multitude of life forms. elephants. The cup of Pakistani hatred brims over and India. In an article written for Pinnacle magazine (87). is the cause of their 95 . tigers. and opposition to India was the reason for Pakistan's birth. insects and men. Pakistanis evolved a plethora of reasons to hate India. with active hatred being taught in Pakistani schools as described in Chapter 3. The act of partition at independence left Pakistanis with a small moth-eaten nation. fragrant flowers. makes it difficult for the Pakistanis to accept the reality of India's intrinsic superiority in size and economy. The fact that in 1965 and also in Kargil it was the Moslems of India who alerted the country is too insulting to believe.
to make them good Muslims. India had to be hated to keep Pakistanis in line. Furthermore. just like India was accused of killing or raping 30. to make them more Islamic. Pakistanis had to be good Muslims to survive. and Islamic fervor had to be increased to oppose India.nation('s) deprivations. some of which are: • Indian usurpation of Jammu and Kashmir. As recently as December 2003. • Conducting terrorist activities in various parts of Pakistan to exploit ethnic and religious differences. a retired Colonel of the Pakistan Army wrote the following accusations against India (88): There is a long list of other hostile Indian actions against Pakistan. the continued occupation of that state against the will of its people. they had to give up Indianness.000 or whatever number of people in Kashmir. hatred and fear of India had to grow stronger. thus forcing this country to enter into a suicidal arms race with the consequent irreparable damage to its economy. Pakistan could not develop because of India. and for the health of army businesses surviving on state handouts.. because India was there to subjugate or kill all Muslims. • Developing Pakistan-specific nuclear and conventional arsenal. and the merciless killing of thousands of innocent Kashmiris by the Indian occupation forces. hatred of India was needed as the justification for the wealth of the Pakistan army. Pakistanis were poor because of Indian aggression. who are always at work to create disgruntlement in Pakistan's smaller provinces. And as India grew stronger.000 or 70. 96 . • Constant efforts to destabilize Pakistan through its agents.
.ministries must. even denying 97 ... so be it...instead of the Rupee. • Changing the name of Pakistan's national monetary unit . and these must be compulsory reading for Pakistani students It is both ludicrous and sad to see Pakistani loathing for India covering the full spectrum .the Arab. Turkic and Central Asian .. • Cultural: Islamabad's cultural cooperation with West Asian and Central Asian countries must be revitalized.must be emphasized in our schoolbooks. If this requires drafting new books on Pakistan studies. Persian. Expecting an enemy with such a criminal record to change its heart overnight and become friendly toward us is nothing but inanity..• Keep bullying Pakistan by concentrating Indian armed forces on its borders and on the Line of Control in Kashmir on trumped up grounds.deemphasize Pakistan's inclusion in South Asia and play up Pakistan's role in Central and West Asia. which has exclusive Indian connotations. having previously imposed three wars on Pakistan. And while some Pakistanis have reacted to India with this degree of hatred and suspicion.from the perigee of wanting to occupy and subjugate parts of India.. Ahmad Quraish wrote in the Pakistani paper the Nation (89): . by adopting either the Riyal or the Dinar.the following steps are necessary: • Political: Pakistan's. others try to urge Pakistan to virtually move out of the Indian subcontinent into Central Asia or even the Middle East.. to the apogee of wiping out memories of India. • Educational: The other major facets of Pakistan's identity .
98 . And all this while Indian children are taught to recognise Pakistanis as just like us.Pakistan's links with India and claiming imagined links with Central and West Asia.
antagonised or disagreed with. But its tentacles have spread into politics. with soldiers. the British increasingly recruited people from the Northwest of undivided India. Because of their loyalty and docility under British leadership. Time and time again. and from many sources. which included a large number of Punjabi Muslims from the area that was to later become Pakistan.Chapter 10 THE PAKISTANI ARMY: POWER AND GLORY IN THE FAMILY The word Army for the Pakistan army is a pitifully inadequate description for an organization that does vastly more. and there is no group in Pakistan or among Pakistan's neighbors that the Pakistani army has not fought. terrorism. It has been noted in an earlier chapter (Chapter 5) that due to historic reasons dating from the 1857 war of Indian independence. lucre and self preservation. generals. But yet. one can find people who have made the quote: Pakistan is not a nation with an army. guns. religion. How the Pakistani army changed from a regular army into this Hydra-headed monster has an interesting history. industry. being admired by most of Pakistan. crime. the Pakistani army leads a charmed existence. although that has begun to change recently. and has diversified into more ventures than most armies in the world could dream of doing. Calling the Pakistan army by that name is akin to describing a 30-course meal as a light snack. these troops began to be known as hailing from a martial race 99 . deception. tanks and valor. greed. the Pakistani army started off as a regular army. There is almost no activity in Pakistan that the army is not involved in doing. business. power. fighting by proxy. it is an army with a nation Of course.
• Punjab was the most populous province of Pakistan. especially a deep hatred for India. • 70% of the voters in Pakistani Punjab had some connection with the military • Punjab itself was partitioned so a lot of army personnel had relatives or friends in Punjab who were affected by the events of partition. several other unique observations can be made about the Pakistani province of Punjab (West Punjab) at the time of independence and partition(80). but had political clout as well as political opinions. who began to see themselves as being of a superior martial race. • Pakistani Punjab was militarized because of the large number of Punjabis in the military. Apart from the predominance of Muslim Punjabis in the Pakistani army.(57). The Punjabi dominated army 100 also considered itself a . For these reasons. vast tracts of land in West Punjab had been awarded to them. Thus the Pakistani army was dominated by Punjabis. The military also actually owned a lot of land because of the policy of settling retired soldiers by gifting land. so the personnel in these army units served both as protectors of the civilians as well as sufferers as their villages partition. • Pakistani army units from Punjab were tasked with the protection of civilians in the post-partition violence. or families were affected during • Punjabi units were also utilised in Pakistan's unsuccessful attack to wrest Kashmir from India in 1947. • As part of the settlement of retired army personnel. the military in Pakistan was not merely the military.
and the rule of Pakistan to a Bengali party from faraway East Pakistan. and the Hindu Indians. It was also inconvenient for the feudal lords in Pakistan. legal experts. It was a victory for them. a new nation. The areas that constituted West Pakistan were largely rural.one of the biggest countries on earth. All these tendencies were present or had set in shortly after independence in 1947. The army. in the same way as they would later refuse to hand over power. the reason these migrants had left India was precisely because they privileges. They were not about to fritter away that victory by allowing power to pass into the hands of the more numerous uneducated locals in democratic elections. having been tasked to protect Pakistanis during partition began to consider itself as the protector and savior of Islam. These people suddenly had a nation to lead.martial race with superior fighting and leadership qualities compared to the East Bengalis (East Pakistanis) who were considered effeminate. Pakistan . Democracy was feared democracy attenuating their inconvenient for the ruling elite of Pakistan. might actually end up ruling all of Pakistan. After all. there were not many educated local people to make up the bureaucrats. and for Islam. Besides 101 . and apart from the Punjabi dominated Army. And democracy also brought with it the danger that the more numerous Bengalis. who stood to lose their lands and influence. But there was an additional factor that led to the induction of the Pakistani army into the role of absolute rulers of Pakistan. These posts were filled by the educated elite migrants from British India. largely mohajirs and Punjabis. considered an inferior race. engineers and technocrats that were required in the government of the new Pakistan.
.. And what better way to do that than to declare a threat to Pakistan. the army nevertheless had shared power with the elite in Pakistan for nearly a decade before that. and stopped being a junior partner to the civil bureaucracy in government. No President had power to dismiss used it liberally. The ruling elite of Pakistan therefore had a deep vested interest in not handing power to the people of Pakistan. Ayub ousted Mirza and imposed martial law in October 1958 The military coup by Gen Ayub Khan was a watershed of sorts as it marked the first step by the Pakistani military to gain and retain control of Pakistan.ruled in league with Army Chief. Dispensing even with the pretence of democracy.the the Prime Minister and democracy but civil bureaucrats military as junior partner. from their huge neighbor India. the migrant elite faced some resistance from the locals in West Pakistan. general Mohammad Ayub Khan.. (Governor- General Iskander) Mirza.these facts. A report from the International Crisis Group (53) has this to say: In the first decade of Independence. In the period from 1958 to 1971 the Pakistan Army gradually consolidated its hold on power in Pakistan. who had to give up space and resources to the migrants from India. Pakistan was nominally a parliamentary ruled the state with the elections were held . It seems virtually certain that no single individual in the Pakistani 102 army could have been a . And Pakistani army officially came into power. and to Islam itself. Elections were constantly the civilian authority used the Army to until the first bloodless military coup although that was the first year that the postponed and stay in power of 1958.
while ensuring that its interests. finances or honour are not harmed. a family or brotherhood. the (army) high command transferred power to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. who oversaw the splitting away of East Pakistan and the formation of Bangladesh after the worst defeat that the Pakistani armed forces have ever faced replaced him. It is a cooperative system. Pakistani (90): security analyst Ayesha Siddiqa-Agha writes It is important to note that Pakistan's armed forces especially the army operates like a fraternity. thus. The International Crisis Group's paper on democracy in Pakistan (53) refers to the Pakistani Army's role in this period as follows: Fearing that its defeat would translate into popular demands for accountability. a preferred choice. In this environment. and General Yahya Khan. The Army replaced Ayub Khan when it was sensed that popular opposition to Ayub Khan would harm the Army’s interests. severe punishments to individuals or extraordinary treatment of a similar nature are viewed as undermining the morale of the institution. rather than power handed down from a single supremo. that protects its own from harm and disrepute. a biradari. Sidelining discreetly Ayub exercised total control of Pakistan before. been 103 .The military's defeat in the 1971 war with India had.strongman without the connivance and cooperation of the Punjabi and feudal lord dominated military brass of the Pakistani army. undesirable individuals or rewarding others is.. The Pakistani army is like a close-knit fraternity. however. be they power. during and after 1965 when he launched and lost a war with India.
All military governments in Pakistan. Military leaders quickly recouped losses and closed ranks against perceived civilian threats to their personal and institutional interests It is clear that even as early as 1971 the Pakistan Army had enough of a vested interest in retaining power in Pakistan to pretend to hand over power to a civilian government in order to maintain the reputation and interests of the Pakistan army from public scrutiny and accountability. businesses and non-military interests of the Pakistan army that are so keenly protected and preserved. It is informative to look at the perquisites. A report in the Washington Post in 2002 (91) described army life in the following words: The officer class in Pakistan has always had a strong sense of entitlement stemming from its dominant role in defending the country and in running it. But the Pakistani army has always grabbed power from elected governments or prevented democracy from actually being established. One of the fanciest clubs in Karachi is the Defense Housing Authority County and Golf Club. a sparkling new facility 104 . the Hamoodur Rehman report was never made public until a copy was obtained and published by the Times of India.000 prisoners of war in India. including the one currently headed by General Musharraf have grabbed power to save Pakistan and bring in a sound democratic system. its infrastructure in the West was untouched. Despite 93.. The army ensures that its officer class live in great style and luxury. In fact a damning report on the actions and defeat of the Pakistani army in the 1971 war.limited to East Pakistan.. and have prevented all attempts to check the finances or power of the military in any way.
for example. Nearby are clothing boutiques.in the upscale Karachi suburb of Clifton. is the blandly named Army Housing Scheme II.. Mediterranean-style villas grouped around a playground and an elaborately landscaped Japanese-style garden.166 for civilians. a two-story driving range and a gracious stone clubhouse overlooking an inlet of the Arabian Sea. the Washington Post goes on to compare that with a Pakistani army run school: Geared toward preparation for the competitive O Level exams required by British universities. The Independent of London described the contrast between a Pakistani army establishment and the rest of Pakistan (92): 105 .. restaurants and a yoga studio Describing the decrepit and run-down state of most schools in Pakistan.One of Pakistan's most coveted addresses. the development consists of spacious. Active-duty military personnel can join the club for an initiation fee of $16. physics and biology labs would not seem out of place in an American suburb There are an enormous number of news media reports of the money and businesses that the Pakistani army controls. the handsome school is an educational showpiece whose computer. jewelry stores. compared with $9. A gated community protected by paramilitary troops.with lush fairways.. according to the club's fee schedule The same paper goes on to say: the military also rewards its senior officers by allowing them to purchase agricultural and urban land from the army's vast inventory of real estate at prices far below market value..
In recent decades. The Pakistan Weekly reported (94): . Inside. Their children have a quota at most public universities. Why should anyone living here want a return to corrupt democracy? A report in the online edition of the Pakistani newspaper Dawn said (93): The perks don't end here: military personnel are entitled to a 50 per cent discount on air and rail fares as well as cinema tickets. and serving and retired officers are routinely inducted into civilian jobs. rose bushes surround welltended lawns and officers' messes decorated with polished brass fittings. No rubbish litters this perfect world of discipline.Outside in the street. Defense expenditures consume between onethird and one-half of the national budget. senior military officers have been transformed into powerful landlords through grants of choice agricultural lands and real estate. but in Pakistan the army has a country.. Where does the money for all this come from? A report in the Daily Times of Pakistan in August 2002 says. behind the ancient... Afghan refugees and Pakistan's urban poor root through garbage tips and crowd on to soot-pumping buses to work in sweatshops and brick factories. newly painted cannons and battalion flags.in relation to country's per capita income Pakistani senior military officers are one of the best paid in the world.. All countries have armies. No other career. with equivalent academic qualifications and so little productivity produces comparable personal affluence as that of the officer cadre of the Pak military. Retired officers head 106 .
security analyst Dr. The high defence budget is not the only source of income for the luxury loving Pakistani army. 2001: Pakistan reported on Sunday As a % of GDP. For decades almost 35 to 40 per cent of Pakistan's and no- revenues have been going into questions-asked defence budget. spends the highest on defence. at the expense of all other expenditure and all other groups in Pakistan. The News International. and those seen as cooperative people who toe the line. Shaheen Sehbai wrote in the Weekly Independent in 2002 (95).4% of GDP. if not most. but the army ensures great personal wealth for its serving and retired personnel especially those of the higher ranks. Ayesha-Siddiqa Agha describes 107 why the businesses were .many. Shaheen Sehbai. September 09.. Part of the army's wealth is from the extremely high defence budget that Pakistan has maintained for decades. public corporations. un-audited For this report and other reports on the activities of the Pakistani army. from among the poorest of countries . as Pakistan's poor multiply and the economy falters. Pakistan. former editor of the English language daily the News was threatened by the army and forced to flee Pakistan and live in exile (96). The excuse for the high defence expenditure has been the external threat from India. This garrison economy is increasingly unsustainable. In her study of the Pakistan military's economic activities. at 4. It also controls a huge business empire.
The Pakistani army's business enterprises were started for the welfare of retired personnel. commercial complexes. hosiery. Aksari aviation was set up merely to accommodate retired army helicopter pilots who could not get a job in the 108 . safe from accountability and questions. and the vast enterprise has grown to gargantuan proportions. power and education and healthcare. stud farms. shoes. The Fauji foundation's assets have grown from Pakistani Rs. . The Army Welfare Trust has 26 projects including farms.. fertilizer. Initially only the army had its businesses. and employs 6 to 7 thousand military personnel. They are not necessarily profitable. 152 million in 1970. the Shaheen Foundation and the Bahria Foundation. and the senior employees make fat salary packets. It was a pattern inherited from the pre-independence days. banking. but they survive on government subsidies and grants. plastics. The Fauji Foundation's businesses include sugar mills.the military's business empire in Pakistan was created to guarantee welfare of retired and serving personnel. cereal and corn. travel agencies. wool. rice and sugar mills. the Army Welfare Trust. Siddiqa-Agha. mostly in middle and upper management positions. fish farms. Natural gas. Later these two branches started off their own businesses. cement. aviation. insurance and security with many bearing the name Aksari.started in the first place (90). competition is scared off by military threats.800 million according to Dr. pharmaceuticals. with a small quota for the Air Force and Navy. cement factories. The four key armed-forces run business organizations in Pakistan are The Fauji Foundation. to 9.
insurance. pay TV. ship breaking. But they are normal and routine for the Pakistani armed forces. 109 I didn't want to be . cargo. the 17. Dr. The Bahria Foundation deals in commercial complexes. milk use to come from the nearby Okara Military Farms. Not too long ago. Like a core business that has diversified. deep sea fishing. to start its own venture. the navy. The only sugar that I ever liked was either from the four Fauji Sugar Mills or Army Welfare Sugar Mills. trading. the Bahria Foundation in 1981. Farrukh Saleem. insurance. construction. knitwear and commercial complexes. During my days at the village.private sector. the Pakistan air force established the Shaheen foundation which is now involved in air transportation. dredging. a freelance Pakistani columnist wrote in the Pakistani daily Jang (97): Fauji Cereal has been part of my daily breakfast for as long as I can remember. meat and grain-producing project. my wife wanted to build a house. radio. a travel agency. FM That left Pakistan's smallest force. airport services.000-acre dairy. commercial complexes and radio stations are ventures that do not obviously appear to be an essential part of the armed forces of any nation and would not be justifiable in any other nation on earth. The only wrapping that Fauji Cereal ever uses comes from Fauji Poly Propylene Products. There is no nation in the world whose armed forces are involved in as many non-military business ventures as the Pakistan armed forces. Not to be outdone. Banking. salvage and even a university. the Pakistani armed forces have diversified into fields well outside the mandate of an armed force. paints.
Dr. the military run businesses of Pakistan are above all accountability. corruption and self-interest. the ventures were started not based on any feasibility study but on the whims of the top management to accommodate certain highranking officers.anywhere but in one of the six Askari Housing Schemes. The army also operates what is called the National Logistic Cell (NLC) which is a trucking and transportation giant in Pakistan. employing thousands of serving and retired army personnel. The businesses run by the Pakistani armed forces are marked by inefficiency. FONGAS. I wish I was right next to Fauji Kabirwala Power Company because I hate the power that Wapda comes out with. Siddiqa-Agha makes a scathing indictment(90): Ayesha The top management of the armed forces jealously guard their interests. (98) With the military in government. In her study of the Army's businesses. and are preserved by intimidation 110 that scares away . and the defence ministry manned by retired military officers. Over the years the interests have narrowed down from the greater benefit of the institution to the personal welfare of the generals. Fauji also owns and operates Fauji Corn Complex. Fauji Oil Terminal Company Project and Mari Gas Company. The web page of the NLC describes its army connection euphemistically as a unique logistic based Public Sector Organisation which has [a] blend of corporate culture and Army's discipline. A feature peculiar to a number of cases is. Fauji Jordan Company. Fauji Fertilizer Company. The paint for my house must come from no one but Bahria Paints. The only cement I will use is Fauji Cement.
" Siddiqa-Agha said. The list is only of one District.a list of over 100 armed forces men who allotted to themselves at least 400 or more acres of prime land in Bahawalpur. Corruption in running these businesses has been noted by Siddiqa-Agha and others (96): "When you dig into them.... the Pakistan army's main problem shifts away from the defence of Pakistan to the defence of their own wealth and power. In another report in August 2002. wealth and power. Nearly half the billionaires were from the army or close relatives of senior army personnel. the South Asia Tribune reported (99): . Such lists exist all over Punjab and Sindh where a new breed of landlords has already been created through similar allotments. An online report in the Crescent International revealed a list of Pakistani billionaires and millionaires with accounts in Swiss banks.This conversion of generals into landlords also explains why no serious effort has been made by the military to introduce land reforms in the country. the risk to this life is not so 111 .competitors or people who try to question their activities. you find out they are inefficient. heart of Punjab. which could cure many political and social imbalances in the Pakistani society. With this degree of money. "to defend it from the enemy. "There is also evidence of corruption linked to monopolization of government contracts. Which wealthy army general living in the lap of luxury would want to give up his good life for the hardship and travails of war? Besides. and there is evidence of corruption." at the throw away rate of Rs 380 per acre (US Dollars Six & 50 cents).
And they have been ever ready to join hands with the military to undermine popularly elected and mainstream civilian governments inimical to the military's corporate view of Pakistan's interests in one way or another. A report in the Washington Times recognised this (102): The Pakistani army. rallied radical Islamic forces to the cause. and recruitment to the army benefits the poor who are inclined to Islamic fundamentalism. the center of anti-Indian sentiment. In fact. The Islamicists have offered two critical inputs to the military: they have provided armed manpower for the military's security agendas in the neighborhood. Pakistani journalist Najam Sethi noted in an article in the Friday Times of Pakistan (101): Since the late 1970s. as in Afghanistan since 1979 and in India since 1989. because the sacrifice of jihad is required to fight India. the hundreds of Islamic seminaries have become breeding 112 . but by anger and opposition to the corrupt and wealthy army from the desperately poor people of Pakistan. The people must be more Islamic. This Islamization of Pakistan and the Pakistani army accelerated after the 1971 defeat of the Pakistani army by India in the war of liberation of Bangladesh.much from an attack by India. Increasingly under pressure within Pakistan for their greed the Pakistani army has used Islam and the external threat from India to retain their power and wealth. Poverty and destitution in Pakistan are because India is trying to attack Pakistan and kill Muslims. Pakistan is a poor country. a staggering 85% of whom live on less than US $2 per day (100). the Pakistan army has maintained a mutually profitable relationship with Islamic elements in the country.
Thus.. Another report in the Asia Times in 2003 (103) reveals the depth to which the Pakistan army's fighting forces have become intertwined with Islamic jihadis. so-called by Pakistan itself. over the course of the last few decades. subcontracted its fighting to the jihadis.. these jihadis played so vital a role that they outdid the army. the army has become a harbinger for Islamic ideological orientations.000. a regular army of around 500. so in the 1990s it was decided that they would act as a front-line force in any IndiaPakistan war.000. from which they generate summaries of their operations for their military officers.. During the Kargil conflict 113 of 1999. Former Indian Intelligence analyst B. Each unit has a commander who reports to an army officer. in the course of the 1989 uprising in Kashmir. The commanders have lap top computers in which they store their data. Pakistan . The jihadi outfits. As the Pakistani army generals consolidated their financial and business empires..purpose was to develop a paramilitary force that would assist the Pakistan army in the event of war. they gradually subcontracted the actual fighting to Islamist irregular forces. Each jihadi commander is given funds and the brief to devise a strategy for his unit's combat operations.Raman was quoted in the online portal Rediff (104): Pakistan has two armies. The Pakistan army has. However. First-hand observations by this correspondent in Azad Kashmir camps confirm that the jihadi outfits are in fact paramilitary troops.grounds for terrorism and centers for the recruitment of junior officers to the Pakistan army. But there is an Army of Islam. with a total strength of about 200.
rural Sind (1983 onwards) and the urban centres of Sind against the MQM 114 . owns the largest construction company and the largest transportation company the National Logistics Cell— that has the dubious distinction of not only transporting weapons for the ISI and the CIA.refused to admit that any of their forces were involved in the fighting. Finally. information regarding the Pakistani army would be incomplete without mention of the criminal activities and genocide that they have been involved in: G. saying that Kashmiri mujahideen were doing the fighting. former Indian High Commissioner to Pakistan wrote (106): The Pakistan army is today the largest investor in the Karachi Stock Exchange. Pakistani troops withdrew in the face of defeat. except the Khmer evidence following (1971). but also heroin from Peshawar for export from Karachi. controls the largest network of elite public schools. The latter fact was confirmed in an interview with deposed Former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in an interview at his place of exile in Saudi Arabia (105). Rouge led by the genocidal Pol Pot. Parthasarathy outlines the role of the Pakistani army in genocides and the killing of its own people(107): The Pakistan army has killed more of its own citizens in the past three decades than any other armed force. In another article. but not before the Pakistani Northern Light Infantry was virtually wiped out. Parthasarathy. Documented of the numbers of Pakistani citizens killed the carnage by the Pakistan army in Bangladesh Baluchistan (1972-1974). But as Pakistani soldiers bodies began appearing in Pakistan the truth leaked out.
two or three of the 10 corps commanders are seen as Islamicists. promising to bring back democracy and to fight and defeat the number one enemy. Raman. and built up a huge business empire for its senior officers and sycophants while the actual fighting was given over to jehadis fired up with Islamic zeal. who are indoctrinated on the exclusivity and superiority of their brand of religion.. with their businesses and lands.Raman was quoted in a report (108): . Indian Intelligence analyst B. the army commanders on the one hand and Allah on the other. it is 115 . and these lower ranks will be senior officers with the passage of time. It started unwinnable wars. it may be said that the Pakistani army retained a great degree of respect among the people of Pakistan from the time of independence. In short the Pakistani army has people who are serving two masters. In late 2003.(in the 1990s). says only one of the 30 officers of lieutenant-general rank and above is definitely a jehadi. confirms this fact. the With that seems to be represented almost all over Pakistan. RAW's former Pakistan expert. On the one hand are the rich and corrupt generals. India. Based on this the army repeatedly took power in Pakistan with the promise of setting things right. A large number of men in the lower ranks of the Pakistani army now have fundamentalist Islamic leanings. On the other hand are the Islamists. the Pakistani army being the only viable institution out. One of these masters will lose and it is unlikely that the followers of God as supreme army commander will give up without a fight. The Pakistani army has set itself on the course of a serious split. In conclusion. But the army did none of these things. This Islamic zeal has gradually entered the ranks of the Pakistani army. B.
116 .difficult to imagine what could be in store for Pakistan other than serious instability when differences begin to show up between the Islamists and the corrupt mafia of the Pakistani army.
But a brief description of the background and outcome of the wars that have been fought give an insight into how Pakistani leaders have viewed the world around them and their relationship with India. The 1947-48 war: The first conflict started in 1947.Chapter 11 KASHMIR. in two clusters that were to form West and East Pakistan. Demographer PH Reddy pointed out in an article in the newspaper The Deccan Herald on January 25th 2002 that the basis of division of British India into India and Pakistan was Sir Cyril Radciffe's Boundary Commission which had been tasked with demarcating the districts in India that had a Muslim majority of more than 75% which were to be allotted to Pakistan. It is interesting to note that. including some excellent online references complete with photographs. The exact circumstances under which this war started is generally lost in a maze of rhetoric. Kashmir was not one of them. and needs to be described. 110. WARS AND GENOCIDE It is beyond the scope of this book to enter into a detailed military discussion of the wars that Pakistan has fought with India. Pakistan and Bangladesh. Pre-independence India (British India) consisted of present day India. and video clips on the Internet (109. Much has been written on this subject and many references are available. Within this 117 . PLEBISCITE. The commission found 76 out of 435 districts with such a majority. myth and misinformation. shortly after independence and the formation of Pakistan. documents 111).
the 600 Princely States were given the option of joining either India or Pakistan by signing a document called the Instrument of Accession. This King had not made up his mind about signing the Instrument of Accession at the time of Indian independence on 15th August 1947.or agreed to join India or Pakistan. 118 . Faced with this invasion from Pakistan. but were Princely States with kings or rulers of their own. and he therefore requested both India and Pakistan to sign a treaty called a standstill agreement to maintain supplies and postal services to his landlocked state while he made up his mind. the Pakistani army sent in irregular non-army forces as well as army personnel in civilian attire at the forefront of the invasion of Kashmir. and hastily commenced an invasion of Kashmir to take over the Kingdom before the Maharaja made up his mind (112). In a tradition that was to be repeated in 1965 and 1999. Pakistani leaders suspected that this was a ploy by India to make the Maharaja of Kashmir accede to India.area were also about 600 states that were not directly ruled by Britain. He was hoping to retain his kingdom. The dominion of Kashmir was one such Princely State that was ruled by a King (Maharaja Hari Singh) who had to make the decision of joining India or Pakistan. India wanted to formalize this agreement with a representative of the King. the Maharaja of Kashmir signed the instrument of accession to India and requested assistance from the Indian Armed forces in protecting his people who were being subjected to rape and pillage by the invading Pakistani forces. When it was decided that British India was to be split up into India and Pakistan and given independence. The Instrument of Accession was a legal document saying that a state ruled by a Prince or King had acceded .
(meaning a vote. soldiers in plain clothes. but an excerpt follows: The Dominion of India desired further discussion with representatives of my Government. at a time when Pakistani forces still occupied about onethird of Kashmir in the North West.. The entire text of the letter is reproduced in Appendix 1. The number of women who have been kidnapped and raped makes my heart bleed. After the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India. 14th March 1950... The United Nations resolution on Kashmir (Appendix 2) called for a withdrawal of military forces within five months from the date of the resolution. salt and petrol to my State. armed with up-to-date weapons.. Though we have got a standstill agreement with the Pakistan Government. cannot possibly be done without the knowledge of the Provincial Government of the North-West Frontier Province and the Government of Pakistan. the Government permitted a steady and increasing strangulation of supplies like food. and desperadoes with modern weapons have been allowed to infiltrate into the State. Afridis.. which supplies electric current to the whole of Srinagar and which has been burnt. after which a plebiscite. or a 119 .it has become difficult to stop the wanton destruction of life and property and the looting of the Mahura power house.. the Indian armed forces started their process of evicting the invading Pakistani marauders in a war that continued till an official UN sponsored cease fire was declared in 1949.The letter of accession to India written by the Maharaja of Kashmir (113) is as chilling as it is telling. The wild forces thus let loose on the State are marching on with the aim of capturing Srinagar.
The US in the 1960s had just emerged from the Cuban missile crisis of 1962.referendum) could be held to poll the people of the state of Kashmir on the issue. a portion of Kashmir that Pakistani forces occupied was gifted away to China it appears that no plebiscite of the people of Kashmir was required for giving away a part of the state to China. and was lauded as a progressive leader among developing nations. These included state-of-the-art supersonic F-104 Starfighter aircraft. The US was also fighting communist forces in Vietnam. Pakistan's alliance with the US allowed a great deal of aid money to flow into Pakistan. The economy was booming. held afloat 120 . Any ally was welcomed as long as he declared that he was opposed to communism. deception. History has shown that Pakistani forces have not withdrawn from the portions of Kashmir that they occupied even 600 months. and the failure to bend the terms of the now defunct UN resolution to suit Pakistan has been the basis for all further attempts by Pakistan to take Kashmir by force. as well as the most sophisticated arms that were available. In the meantime. and communism was considered the most serious threat by the US. Under military rule. Pakistan could do no wrong. Pakistan allied itself with the United States of America in the cold war against the Soviet Union. Pakistan's failure to get Kashmir on their terms. when Soviet nuclear missiles were placed in Cuba right under the nose of the US. armed with Sidewinder air to air missiles. subversion or diplomacy. or 50 years after the UN resolution was passed. The Pakistan-India war of 1965: The early 1960s were great years for Pakistan.
as a general rule Hindu morale would not stand more than a couple of hard blows delivered at the right time and place. The plan was to conduct acts of sabotage and create mayhem after which a radio broadcast was to be made saying that Kashmir had been taken over by revolutionary liberation forces. In the heady 1960s. 121 .by aid dollars. and that the Muslims of India were waiting to rise up in revolt and join Pakistan. mainly from Pakistan. who would ask for international assistance. starting from their military supremo Ayub Khan. Through August 1965 Pakistani forces in civilian clothes were infiltrated into Kashmir as part of Operation Gibralter (sic). genuinely believed that one Pakistani soldier equals six Indian soldiers (68). Columnist Hamid Hussain quotes from a letter written by Ayub Khan. the infiltration of Pakistani forces was not welcomed with the pro-Pakistan rebellion of Indians in Kashmir that the Pakistanis had expected. the military dictator of Pakistan (58): General Ayub Khan in his letter to C-in-C General Muhammad Musa stated. after having naively trusted China to do good. In the event. The planned broadcast did not take place. India on the other hand was smarting from a military defeat in the hands of the Chinese in the 1962 war. against India. Pakistan's military leader felt that the 1960s offered him a chance to invade and take over Kashmir from India. though leaflets were distributed. Pakistani leaders were wrong on both counts. Indian forces in 1962 fought valiantly but valor is no substitute for planning and equipment in a war that the Indian Army had not been given the funds or strategy to prepare for. Pakistanis.
and advancing toward the Pakistani city of Lahore. with Indian troops occupying the Pakistani town of Barki in the Lahore sector. on September 1st 1965 Pakistan launched Operation Grand Slam. the instability that Pakistan displays more than three decades after the 1971 war is indicative of the deeply dysfunctional internal forces that have kept Pakistan in turmoil since then.100 square kilometers of Pakistani territory in the Poonch and Lahore regions. Gen. en route to the taking of Srinagar. Ayub Khan's plan of annexing Kashmir had been foiled. The attackers were planning to take the town of Akhnoor.At this stage. the capital of Jammu and Kashmir. a massive armor attack on India. beating back Indian defences. Pakistan appears to be repeating the same mistakes again and again. West Pakistanis always considered their East Pakistani 122 . In order to relieve the intense Pakistani pressure in Kashmir. The lessons and punishment suffered by Pakistan should really have been an eye-opener for any responsible and patriotic forces in Pakistan. At the time of writing of this. but no such awakening has occurred. Pakistan occupied about 490 square kilometers of Indian territory in the Akhnoor region. By the time a cease fire was declared on 23rd September 1965. India ended the war holding about 1. India opened a second front by attacking Pakistan across the border in Punjab. The cease fire was formalized with the Tashkent declaration of January 10th 1966 (Appendix 3) The 1971 war of liberation of Bangladesh: The 1971 war was one of the most shameful episodes in the history of Pakistan.
the Pakistani Army began their attack on the Student Halls and Staff Quarters of the University. especially Iqbal Hall. and adjoining residential areas. the incumbent military dictator of Pakistan allowed an election to be held. followed by a genocide of East Pakistani Bengalis.. East and West.Bengali compatriots as somehow inferior and weak. by University reads(114): Prof. One description.. headed by Sheikh Mujibur Rehman won a landslide victory and should have formed the government of all of Pakistan. He was wrong.Just after midnight Iqbal Hall came under a barrage of heavy mortar and machine-gun attack from near the pond in front and the police barracks behind it. I saw with my own eyes. This was the beginning of the Pakistani army's darkest and most shameful phase to date. What transpired around Iqbal Hall. the Awami league. and martial law was clamped in East Pakistan. when General Yahya Khan.. But East Pakistan had a population greater than that of West Pakistan.I don't have the words to express the bestiality and barbarity that was perpetrated on the Dhaka University area. for a period of 36 hours from the night of the 25th till the 26th night. An East Pakistani party. 123 . Raging infernos everywhere. That was unacceptable to the ruling elite of West Pakistan as well as the Pakistani army. Rafiqul Islam of Dhaka Just after midnight on the night of 25th March.. The Pakistani army could not countenance this. gambling that no party would get an overall majority. who were all Muslims and fellow Pakistanis was shocking and brutal. Jagannath Hall. which meant that true democracy in Pakistan could pave the way for an East Pakistani Bengali to become leader of Pakistan. Elections were somehow postponed or avoided until 1971. The killing of Bengalis..
In the morning the village boatmen hauled the bodies into midstream and the ropes binding the bodies were cut so that each body drifted separately 124 . floating down rivers. and the Pakistan army tended to line up men along river-banks at night and shoot them. and in the light of a powerful electric arc lamp. One online source (115) has a collection of references to this and the descriptions are horrific: R. The heaped bodies of the dead from the slum were also set on fire near the Nilkhet rail gate petrol pump. the smoke and fire. Sweeps were conducted of young men who were never seen again. There were screams in the hot night air. Bodies of youths would be found in fields. Rummel likewise writes that "the [sought] out those especially likely Pakistan army to join the resistance -. The sound of shells bursting and guns firing. they were easy targets. or near army camps. Bangladesh is a nation criss-crossed by rivers. The executioners stood on the pier.J.the slum was burning. The prisoners fell on their sides and their bodies lapped against the shore. and the process was repeated. allowing their bodies to float down-river (115) They were in batches of six or eight. and then silence. the cars parked around the residences were burning.young boys. shooting down at the compact bunches of prisoners wading in the water. The genocide by the Pakistani army in East Pakistan was the worst seen after the holocaust of Jews by the Nazis in the second World War. the smell of gun-powder and the stench of the burning corpses all transformed the area into a fiery hell. Then a new bunch of prisoners was brought out. black against the silvery water.
000 of its men in a mere 16 days. (Payne. 1973].000 prisoners of war. while Bengali resistance fighters sought Indian help. In a whirlwind war the Indian armed forces overran East Pakistan. More than 10 million people were accommodated in refugee camps in India.) Descriptions of rape and killing of Hindus abound and over over 3 million people were killed over a 267 day period seconds an average of one murder committed every 8 by Pakistani army personnel for nearly 9 months. putting a great strain on resources. p. is an eminently defensible country cut up by rivers five miles wide and obstructed by marshes. the Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Bengal. comprehensively defeating the Pakistani army. taking 93. now Bangladesh (literally Land of Bengal). Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Armed forces into East Pakistan on the humanitarian mission of stopping the killing. At the end of this action. A two-front war broke out when the Pakistani Air Force commenced hostilities in the West with air raids on Indian targets on December 3rd 1971.downstream. Unable to stand by and watch the horrific events in East Pakistan. The Indian plan was a masterly combination of airborne. Massacre [Macmillan. The army of the martial races of Pakistan had capitulated and surrendered a nation of 144. guerrilla and conventional forces. Military historian Brig. based on complete mobility and the bypassing of all centres of 125 . The killings in East Pakistan led to a massive influx of refugees into India. Shelford Bidwell summarized the military action as follows(48): A close study of this campaign will edify military students for a long time to come.000 square kilometers along with 93. 55. the new nation of Bangladesh was born out of the ravaged remains of East Pakistan.
This ultimately has a great bearing on credibility and international standing. boat. and tried to deny any involvement with the conflict. One of the major disadvantages of a state trying to deny involvement in a war is that neither escalation nor pullout are possible without admitting involvement or conceding that the earlier denial of involvement was a lie in the first place. the war started after their discovery. when Indian forces began the 126 process of evicting the . troops and guns were ferried over the rivers by helicopter. and 'supply and transport' was by air. For the third time since independence. While the entry of these Pakistani forces had gone undetected. Pakistan seems to have gleaned more shame than honour from this action. Pakistani fortified soldiers in civilian garb occupied themselves within Indian territory in and the heights of the mountains in the Kargil region of Kashmir.resistance. An astonishing momentum was maintained from start to finish .it was a Blitzkrieg without tanks. albeit a war limited in area. These soldiers were then in an advantageous position to defend their positions and to direct accurate artillery fire to cut off a major Indian highway and Indian army supply route. The 1999 Kargil conflict: It was a while before anyone realized that a war had erupted between India and Pakistan in 1999. canoe or country cart as suitable. the Pakistan army had sent soldiers disguised as civilians into Indian territory. The advance was not held up for bridging operations.
Pakistanis from their positions within India. Small organizations. Why did Pakistan do it? And having done it. why was it done so half-heartedly? If they wanted to be involved in the conflict.the retreat being announced after a visit by Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to meet US President Clinton. let alone nations cannot function if leaders display a disconnect between their actions and reality. mountain bunkers and supply depots occupied by Pakistani forces were systematically destroyed. Using the overwhelming firepower at the disposal of the Indian army and air force. Pakistan denied any involvement in the war until coffins of their soldiers started turning up at their hometowns in Pakistan. and an equally frightening lack of communication and cooperation between the leaders themselves. By the time the last abandoned Pakistani soldiers' corpses had been buried by the Indian army. accompanied by Indian media coverage of captured Pakistani army identity papers and weapons. why did they admit to involvement later? What was it that Pakistani leaders hoped would be achieved by this action? While there are more questions than answers. The Kargil conflict is very difficult to explain from the Pakistani viewpoint. why did they deny involvement? If they did not want to be identified as being involved. The war ended when the last few surviving Pakistani soldiers were pulled out in a humiliating retreat that Pakistan conducted under the fig-leaf of American mediation . Pakistan's Northern Light Infantry had been all but wiped out in a war that Pakistan denied till the last moment (105). any answers that fit the known facts suggest a frightening disconnect between perception and reality among the seniormost leaders of Pakistan. 127 .
And within Kashmir it was 128 .000 feet high on mountains just within the Indian border? One explanation is that they sought to salami slice into Indian territory by surreptitiously occupying unguarded Indian territory. Another theory. But did they not expect Indian retaliation when they were discovered? Were they so worried about the possibility of discovery that they refused to allow their men to wear uniforms? But that was futile. the more commonly quoted one. In the 1965 war. why Pakistan so concerned about keeping the identity of men secret. since they could not prevent their men from carrying identification papers in their personal effects. If that was the case. and pretending not to be involved? Why the was its did the Pakistani military not plan a counter-offensive to blunt or stop India from relentlessly clearing the heights as it did? The logic defies explanation.What could have been Pakistan's motive and ultimate objective in sending army troops dressed in mufti to fortify themselves and occupy positions above 15. is that the men on the mountains were there to help cut off the Srinagar-Leh highway. Furthermore. India had taken Pakistani pressure off Kashmir by opening a second front in Punjab. and some of the explanations are ludicrous enough to be unbelievable. It appears that Pakistani generals believed that India would be afraid to repeat that in 1999 because they feared nuclear retaliation from Pakistan. it was believed that the morale of the Indian armed forces was at breaking point and that Indian soldiers would be ready to run away from battle at the slightest threat. after which a Pakistani attack would have isolated and encircled Indian positions in Siachen glacier region. Pakistani military leaders believed India to be very afraid of Pakistan. It has been said that after Pakistan's nuclear tests in 1998.
less reassuring assessments. As indicated in the description of the Pakistani mind in chapter 5. Gen. Such an attitude can be termed as nothing short of suicidal. or that there may be alternate. senior Pakistani General Javid Nasir wrote in the prestigious Pakistani Defence Journal (116): I say with all the authority and professionalism that 'The Indian army is incapable of undertaking any conventional operations at present what to talk of enlarging conventional conflict' It is inconceivable that a professional Pakistani soldier and senior officer should deliberately and publicly choose to underestimate an adversary without paying the slightest heed to the possibility that the assessment may be wrong. such assessments are more indicative of the psychological state of the Pakistani army officer. with a self-image amounting to delusions of grandeur rather than objective and rational military judgment. This statement by a senior Pakistani army general eerily echoes the assessment made by Pakistani dictator Ayub Khan 34 years earlier when he stated that Indian morale would break after a couple of hard blows.expected that the Indian army would capitulate and run away. It is interesting to note that the large and powerful army of Pakistan has cultivated a leadership that somehow believes that the Indian military will be a pushover in battle. at about the time when Pakistani army men were secretly taking up their positions in the mountains near Kargil. After the Kargil conflict. as events have shown. the 129 . In February 1999. Ved Prakash Malik.
3.Indian Chief of Army Staff who oversaw the defeat of Pakistani forces in the Kargil conflict wrote about Gen Javid Nasir's article and misperception within the Pakistani army's high command that led them to attempt the Kargil misadventure (117): This was not only a gross underestimation of a possible adversary but also a poor assessment and misperception. Assumptions regarding enemy weakness and fear can only be termed as high hopes unless they are balanced out by other. 130 . 6. If Pakistani Generals persist in thinking of war and easy victories against India. But it does not appear that the Pakistani army had planned for anything but easy and cheap victory in Kargil. putting the onus of escalation on India.The coalition government in India.Military operation under the garb of Mujahideen would focus attention on Kashmir and Pakistan would be able to claim this as a victory. Some other assumptions and misperceptions which led to the Pakistani offensive operation in Kargil were: 1. less rosy scenarios. weak and indecisive. 2. That is a disquieting thought.Nuclear umbrella allows offensive action without risk. 4.Indian frustration will lead to escalation. 5. the chance of Pakistan viewing India with any sanity or objectivity can also be dismissed as high hopes. will either over-react or under-react.India is militarily weak and unprepared.International community would intervene or stop the war at an early stage.
The “wrapper” that holds the Pakistan state together is the Pakistan army. Sindh. Balochistan and the Northwest Frontier Province. In the case of Pakistan this idea is misleading – Pakistan’s provinces belong to the Pakistani state in name only. or are seeking separation from Pakistan.In the "war on terror". In 2006 Amnesty International published a report (159) about human rights violations in the tribal Pakistan. Indeed more than half the land area of Pakistan is outside the control of the Pakistan government. Pakistan has violated a wide array of human rights. Punjab. The state of Pakistan can be compared to a shattered cookie within an intact wrapper – each fragment is separate. other illtreatment and enforced disappearance. but the peoples in such areas have either declared independence. to the security of the person.. An excerpt from the report says: areas of “. to freedom from torture.Chapter 12 PROVINCES AND ASSORTED FRAGMENTS The word “provinces” calls to the mind the idea of a nation that has been divided into smaller blocks for administrative reasons.” Pakistan has four provinces. including the right to life. to freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention. which has regularly massacred people within those provinces in an effort to maintain control. Each province is one part that contributes to the whole. The map below 131 . with vast swathes of Pakistan falling outside the bounds of any control. but held together forcibly by the wrapper. Much of this area is sparsely populated. and to legal remedies and reparations.
These provinces form less than half the land area of Pakistan. The fact that most of the population and economic activity of Pakistan occurs in these three provinces can be seen in the photograph below. which.F.depicts the provinces of Pakistan. Punjab is by far the dominant province. Sindh and the Northwest frontier provinces (N.) form the “core provinces” of Pakistan.P.W. which shows a map of Pakistan super-imposed on a satellite 132 . in the absence of any reliable recent census is estimated to be between 160 and 170 million in 2006. These were the provinces that voted to be part of Pakistan from the outset. and contributing over 60% of the personnel in the Pakistan armed forces. but are home to over 80% of Pakistan’s population. Punjab. with Punjabis comprising over 50% of Pakistan’s total population.
except for a strip close to the Indian border representing the provinces of Punjab. including natural gas and minerals.W. Almost all of Pakistan is dark. Balochistan became part of Pakistan after it was forcibly annexed by the Pakistani army after Pakistan was created in 1947.F. which show lights and population activity. but it has a population of only about 7 million – or just over 4% of Pakistan’s population. Sindh and N. and more recently for a fair share of the proceeds from the natural Baluchistan. the Pakistan army and successive governments have shown that they want the natural resources more than 133 . resources being exploited in In return.P. The people of Balochistan have long fought for independence of their land from Pakistani rule.. comprising 42% of the land area. BALOCHISTAN: Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan.photograph of the Indian subcontinent at night. Balochistan is rich in natural resources.
A. This has been described as a defacto acceptance of an independent “Islamic Emirate of Waziristan” – ruled by the Taliban.A. in an serves as a safe harbor for the Al Qaeda assorted Islamist militia personnel.T.A. They do not recognize Pakistan’s border with Afghanistan and the area is home to a thriving arms industry in which clones of almost any type of small arms are made in small workshops (139). The “peace deal” (160) made by the Pakistani Army with people who are supposed to be Pakistani citizens guarantees that the Pakistani army will never return to Waziristan and a return of confiscated weapons. F.T.they want the people of Balochistan. The F. area that and other 134 . of whom less than 2% live in urban areas. The Pakistan army actually entered the F. Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti. This has resulted in the death in 2006 of a prominent and respected Balochi leader and a fierce opponent of Pakistani occupation. called Waziristan (see map on page 136).A. signing a peace deal with the Taliban who control an area of the F. In 2006 the same army made an ignominious retreat from the area after suffering hundreds of casualties. for the first time in its history in 2002 on the pretext of helping the US in its war on terror.T.T. Despite a long struggle the sparse population of Balochistan cannot match the firepower of the Pakstani army.A. A series of massacres of Balochi tribals have occurred with the use of deadly force.A.A. – or Federally Administered Tribal Areas is a euphemism for a completely lawless area that does not come under Pakistani control at all. including helicopter gun ships. It is a strip of land on the Northwest border of Pakistan with Afghanistan populated by tribes.A. as well as the payment of reparations for damage.
India had been ploughing a lonely furrow in the diplomatic capitals of the world calling attention to Pakistan's role in terrorism. in which aircraft were hijacked and crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington were a wake-up call to the somnolent and blinkered intelligence communities of the West about the deep changes taking place in Pakistan. working tirelessly. the statement came as sweet music to the ears Indians who have been fighting terrorism from Pakistan for over a decade (118). Being too lazy to do the uses his magic powers to make a to draw water to fill the tub.Chapter 13 PAKISTAN. The sorcerer (magician) is Mickey himself and has the task of drawing water from a well to fill job himself. About two-thirds of all designated terrorist groups in the world have a Pakistani connection. Treasury Department. falls asleep the Sorcerer's Apprentice. Since 1989. A panicky Mickey wakes up and chops the magic broom into small pieces but each piece then becomes a new apprentice that carries water and the flooding starts to 135 . JIHAD AND TERRORISM When it was declared by the US Treasury department that two thirds of all terrorist groups had a link with Pakistan. The terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001 in the US.S. A charming tale for children is told in an animated film called “The Sorcerer's Apprentice” featuring Walt Disney's cartoon character Mickey Mouse. according to the U. The statement was a vindication of long-standing Indian concerns. transfers enough water to cause a flood and does not stop. the magic broom. the sorcerer broom grow hands and legs As Mickey relaxes and a tub.
have repeatedly tried to point out that jihad is not terrorism. especially from Pakistan. But this policy is creating a culture of violence that exacerbates internal sectarianism Without change. Terrorism and senseless violence are being routinely committed in the name of jihad.get out of control. But this assertion goes against the facts on the ground. terrorism and jihad are one and the same. Ehsan Ansari says of jihad (120): various Islamic groups have been interpreting it to mean 'holy war' against everything the perceive as being 'non Islamic' An interview with a leading Pakistani expert on jihad. Pakistan and jihad are like the story of the Sorcerer's Apprentice. The government in Islamabad supports these militants and their religious schools as cheap ways to fight India and educate Pakistan's youth. this Pakistani society. The Pakistani army tried to use jihad to do it's work but jihad. It is stated that jihad is an internal struggle and not external violence. and terrorism associated with jihad now has a life of its own and may be getting out of control of the Pakistani army. Arif Jamal. In his study of jihadi groups in Pakistan. In the Pakistani context. monster threatens to devour Islamic scholars. an expert on terrorism wrote (119): Pakistani militant groups are killing civilians and engaging in terrorism in Indian-held Kashmir under the guise of holy war. Jamal has this to say about jihad (121): 136 . Jessica Stern. and destabilizes the region. was published by the Asia Times online.
acts of terrorism are considered normal and par for the course by a large number of Pakistanis.The main objective of jihad even today is to defeat the infidels and establish Islamic states all over the world.. The extent to which the system to promote violent jihad against non-Muslims has spread in Pakistan may be gauged from the following reports: Terrorism expert Jessica Stern writes (119): Only about 4. The New York Times reported on May 27.000 students. some 7. with enrollment at more than 650. And with jihad being defined as holy war to defeat infidels.. 137 .000 members of jihadi . 2002: there are as many as 500.000 madrasas currently operate in Pakistan.350 of the estimated 40.. One of the ideological founding fathers of Pakistan.Muslim holy war organizations .000 madrasahs in Pakistan have registered with the government. including many thousands committed to the cause of forcing India out of the sector of Kashmir that it controls. Maulana Maududi. placed a great emphasis on jihad.in Pakistan. Jihad became a driving force in Pakistan under General Zia ul Haq in the 1980s. Madrasahs are the supply line for jihad. Pakistani officials estimate that 10 to 15 percent of the madrasas in Pakistan promote extremist ideologies.000 to 50.. A report from the US council of Foreign Relations said: According to The Washington Post. (120) so Pakistanis are not strangers to the concept of jihad.
to fund the US backed war against Soviet troops in Afghanistan. Saudi funds and Jihad recruits from Pakistan. This is supported by a report in the Asia Times (122): The jihadi outfits were in fact a part of the ISI's operations and the brainchild of late dictator General Zia ul-Haq and General Akhtar Abdul Rehman.. Iraq.000 fanatics .The 2.. Jihad became an important business in Pakistan. were created.Quoting Jessica Stern (119): Pakistani dictator General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq promoted the madrasahs as a way to garner the religious parties' support for his rule and to recruit troops for the antiSoviet war in Afghanistan. Iran and other Gulf states. paving the way for the Pakistan sponsored Taliban to form a government in Afghanistan. General Zia-ul-Haq. Along with the money came guns and drugs. With US arms. mainly heroin. Jihad in Pakistan received a lot of funding from the US and Saudi Arabia. funded by the Saudi regime. a network of madrassahs (religious boarding schools). Tariq Ali wrote in The Independent of the UK (123): religious fundamentalism is the legacy of a previous military dictator. Stern reports that Pakistan received US $ 3.500 madrassahs produced a 138 crop of 225.During his rule (1977-89). with funds coming in from diverse sources such as Libya.5 billion from these countries in the 1985 to 1989 period... The purpose was to develop a para-military force that would assist the Pakistan army in the event of war. the Soviet Union was put under sufficient military pressure to withdraw from Afghanistan.
. RAND. inspired by the Wahhabi sect that rules Saudi Arabia.ready to kill and die for their faith when asked to do so by their religious leaders. should this ever become necessary.. The forces of jihad provided a huge supply of trained and experienced soldiers to fight India in a low cost war. carried the following passage in a commentary (124): Sponsoring militancy in Kashmir is regarded as a relatively cheap and effective way of offsetting existing power symmetries (essentially through the philosophy of a 'war of a thousand cuts') while simultaneously ... 139 . Meanwhile strategic Afghanistan itself was depth . control of Afghanistan with its puppet. ensuring that Pakistan has sufficient strategic depth to undertake a protracted conventional war on the subcontinent.They were armed and commanded by "volunteers" from the Pakistan Army For the Pakistani army.that is.The Taliban could not. while Pakistan claimed to provide only moral and diplomatic support to them. the Taliban government was a double blessing.The Taliban creed is an ultra-sectarian strain. if seen by Pakistan as India ever attacked Pakistan. a US based non-profit organization that helps policy and decision making. however. Pakistani forces and leaders could withdraw into Afghanistan and continue to fight.. have captured Kabul on their own .. Afghanistan also served as a safe place to continue to train jihadis to fight Pakistan's war against India. Dispatched across the border by the Pakistan Army. The Pakistani army could describe the jihadi-terrorists as freedom fighters and deny any link with them.. they were hurled into battle.
"The success of the jihadi strategy in Afghanistan compelled the generals to try it on India. . Wall chalking after wall chalking advertised jehadi outfits and announced recruitment for jehadi fighters. A new ethos was created. "We have fought three wars with India and have not won even one of them. Shahid Nadeem wrote in the Daily Times of Pakistan (125): The moment we left Fortress Abbottabad.. Pakistan. Jihad is advertised in Pakistan as a career path to follow. Just a few kilometers from the Havelian cantonment. The Kashmir jihadis are our cannon fodder because they are willing to die for their cause in a way that no paid soldiers would.000 fighters whom Pakistan had trained and armed to fight the Soviet forces in Afghanistan.... too.Pakistan's military and intelligence services struck upon the idea of employing jihadis to wrest control of the Kashmir from India. a Pakistani scientist and columnist th wrote(126): Islam. this was to be an army not just for Pakistan.A report in the New York Times (27 May 2002) describes how the jihadis from Afghanistan were applied against India: drawing on the 80. there are slogans such as Jehad is the shortest route to Paradise and Contact us for commando Jehadi training." And even today as Pakistani jihadis continue to be used as cannon fodder against India. Jihad became emblazoned on banners at Pakistani army recruitment centers. 140 . it was jehadi territory. the recruitment has to go on. Walls between Havelian and Haripur are full of jehadi slogans and adverts Pervez Hoodbhoy." said an expert on the country's jihad movements.
Jihad has been made attractive and financially rewarding. porters and informers. (124): annual ISI expenditure to the main militant organisations runs to between US$125 and $250 million a year. The martyrs are promised 72 houris in Paradise.I. 141 .000 rupees a month). The rewards of waging jihad include the following. There are salary and pension rules in place as well. A RAND report quotes Indian Intelligence estimates of the budget of the Pakistani agency responsible for training and coordinating jihad-terrorist action in India the so called Inter Services Intelligence or I. Appendix 4 reproduces an article carried in the online paper Mid-Day listing details of incentives and salaries offered to terrorists from Pakistan. These houris are more beautiful than all the beauties of the world combined. The article is revealing in the extent to which Pakistan has been organizing and funding terrorists who have long been said to receive only moral and diplomatic support from Pakistan. cash incentives for high-risk operations and retainers for guides. These funds are used to cover salaries for fighters (which run from 5.000 to 10.but for the greater glory of Islam. The Holy Scriptures of virgins of the take the spirit the first drop Islam also say that houris [beautiful Koranic Paradise] come down to Earth to of the mujahid who is about to die before of his blood falls to earth. support to next of kin. With jihad and terrorism being Pakistan's main industry.S. among more worldly rewards (127): The mujahideen were assured of entering Paradise before the first drop of their blood fell to earth.
6 million rounds of ammunition and 34. but have the option of withdrawing from their 142 . The US in Vietnam had being able to withdraw from Vietnam.the effect on India has been murderous. A few samples are quoted below: • "Suspected Islamic militants axed to death six members of a shepherd's family overnight. hiding in jungles in mountainous regions cannot be fought with tanks and attack aircraft.000 hand grenades. along with the staggering recovery of over 27.000 assault rifles and machine guns. Statistics of deaths of Indians in Kashmir show that over 17.000 kilograms of explosives (129). shot dead another person and set off two explosions damaging a bridge " • "Terrorists have slit the throats of two of the four policemen abducted after the attack on a police post in Udhampur on Sunday. Over the same period Indian security forces have intercepted and killed 17.000 terrorists who were found committing acts of terrorism or infiltrating into India from Pakistan. The US army discovered in Vietnam that groups of armed men carrying machine guns and explosives.000 civilians have been killed by Pakistani trained terrorists in Jammu and Kashmir from 1990 to 2003. the officer said. A paper published by the South Asia Analysis Group (SAAG) carries examples of newspaper headlines resulting from terrorist acts sponsored by Pakistan in India(128)." • "Militants slit the throats of two women. Men have to be met by men in deadly face to or cordon and the luxury of Indians do not face encounters at the end of long vigils search operations. The attackers killed four women and two children. and over 59.
trained and indoctrinated terrorists built up in Pakistan. jihadis started getting eliminated in increasing numbers. these terrorists began to target other nations of the world. and India met the threat by building a powerful counter-insurgency apparatus. This seems to have had a significant effect on the morale of Pakistan's army backed jihadi-terrorist apparatus. Terrorism. In many areas. and diplomatic protests grew shriller as Indian security forces chalked up success after success. because the Pakistani government started protesting against the presence of large numbers of Indian counterinsurgency personnel within India. We put the average lifespan of a terrorist at two-and-half years. As the Indian strategy proved effective. and the average life-span of a jihadi-terrorist entering India from Pakistan was reduced to weeks or months rather than years (130). and by starting to fence the India-Pakistan boundary where possible. with hundreds of thousands of jihadis entering from Pakistan required a robust response. the only country that tried to alert the world about the global terrorist threat emanating from Pakistan's jihad factory 143 was India. A backlog of violent. terrorists from Pakistan were unable to enter India at all or were able to infiltrate through in the smallest numbers. One Indian army major is quoted in an interview as saying (131): Once somebody picks up the gun then his family knows that it is only a matter of days before they hear that he has been killed in an encounter. but Indian . Once again. and gradually. Within this period we are bound to eliminate him.own land.
Canada. in time. and Pakistan itself is being targeted by the Islamist groups spawned and nurtured by the Pakistani army and its intelligence cell. Kuwait. until 2001 terrorist attacks on the US.. Bangladesh. Not only would they become too large for the ISI to manage but also their strong links with the underworld would create a sort of double whammy.S. The Sorcerer's Apprentice is out of control. intelligence communities of the world then terrorist links leading back to the September 11 That woke up the with a jolt.I. UK. Afghanistan. In an article on Pakistan-sponsored terrorism. and it is by no means certain that anybody in Pakistan can control the forces that have been unleashed. Australia. Nepal. Yemen. Indonesia and the Philippines. Russia. The entire world. Mongolia. Latvia.information fell on deaf ears. Terrorism Central would not be an inappropriate name for Pakistan. had this to say in its December 2003 edition (132): There is a terrible price to pay for this facilitation because the same forces that drive jehad in Jammu and Kashmir drive it in other lands too. including links to the September 11th attacks (133).Indian authorities reckon that groups like the LeT could. This view is echoed by one 144 of India's premier anti- . become more dangerous. the magazine India Today. Turkey. Since Pakistan have been th found in countries like Burma. Pakistan has now become the home base of global terrorism..132). referring to the L-e-T (Lashkar-eTayeba). Uzbekistan. Tajikistan. a powerful and deadly Pakistan based jihad group. Chechnya. (119. A detailed study exists in an online portal of the evidence of Pakistani links to terrorism against the US. the I.
some of which are now openly talking about fomenting a fundamentalist revolution in Pakistan itself. Although the first of the two assassination attempts was thought to have been stage managed by Musharraf's supporters to win greater sympathy for him (138). a report carried by RAND said (124): it is no longer apparent that the army or ISI exercise complete control over the proxies they have helped to create. 136). President of Pakistan occurred that the known to survived two attempts to assassinate him that within days of each other (135. In an interview quoted in the BBC (137). not only their Army and ISI handlers. In an indication of increasing international understanding of how jihad threatens to eat up Pakistan. a suicide bombing involving multiple bomb laden trucks was a very real indicator of the sort of forces that exist in Pakistan today. the second one. Apart from multiple Islamist groups. 145 . K. The fact route of the motorcade he was travelling in was the people who wanted to kill him suggests that someone close to General Musharraf was involved in these attempts. Pakistan is awash with weapons. Musharraf blamed the Al Quaeda for attempting to assassinate him. Gill.P. who warned (134): There is now mounting evidence of a loss of control as these autonomous religious groups challenge. There are an estimated 18 million illegal firearms in Pakistan. but the Government itself. General Pervez Musharraf. In Decemeber 2003. These forces will not be easy to eliminate. in addition to 2 million registered ones (139).S. Other reports too have pointed to Islamist forces within Pakistan as being responsible for wanting to replace General Musharraf.terrorism experts.
including inexpensive clones of the Kalashnikov AK-47 assault rifle. being able to spray a high volume of fire at targets. a reliable weapon of choice for terrorists. the government retains coercive power.Pakistan is home to a Kalashnikov culture with hundreds of firearm manufacturing workshops making weapons. into the hands of Islamic fundamentalists in Pakistan. (the army. 146 . In a coherently functioning nation-state. But that monopoly over coercive power may have slipped out of the hands of the Pakistani army. That means that the government. in Pakistan's case) retains the armed power to suppress and control all other groups.
However. Speaker. heroin the star compound of the illegal drug In October 1994. Pakistan. I rise to bring to the attention of my colleagues a report that appeared in the Washington Post of September 12. headlined `Heroin 147 Plan by Top Pakistanis a news . US Senator Frank Pallone brought to the attention of the US house of representatives report in the Washington Post (140): Mr Pallone said: Mr. making trade. Although heroin itself has medicinal value as a potent pain-killer. heroin is illegal to manufacture or possess because of its dangerous potential to cause addiction. It is obtained from the Opium Poppy plant. The report from Karachi. and crave the drug so much that they are willing to pay very high prices to obtain it. successive Pakistani governments and the army have been unique in actively supporting and participating in international criminal activity as an integral component of the Pakistani economy and foreign policy. In most countries of the world. Heroin smuggling and Narco terrorism: Heroin is a drug that is a derivative of the medically used pain-killer morphine.Chapter 14 THE GOVERNMENT AND CRIMINAL ACTIVITY There is probably no government in the world which does not have one or more people in power who are either themselves criminals or have links to criminals. People are said to crave for the drug after experiencing its effects just once. it is extremely addictive when administered to normal people. 1994. Heroin addicts become so physically dependent on the drug. which describes a disturbing link between narcotics and terrorism.
The news report said that three months after Nawaz Sharif became Prime Minister of Pakistan he was approached by the Pakistan army chief of staff. the head of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) with the blueprint for a plan to export heroin to raise money for the Pakistan army's covert foreign operations a euphemism for Pakistan sponsored terrorism in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. under one Brigadier Imtiaz. Aslam Beg and Gen.Alleged' quotes Pakistan's former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif saying that `drug deals were to pay for covert operations' brings to mind other reports not so long ago of Pakistani involvement in using the Bank of Credit and Commerce International [BCCI] to launder drug money that was eventually believed to have been used in financing terrorist groups involved in the New York World Trade Center bombing. Asad Durrani. During the late years of Gen. a special cell was set up by Pakistan's ISI for the use of heroin for covert action. The report cites Pakistan's army chief and head of intelligence agency proposing to then-Prime Minister Sharif `a detailed blueprint for selling heroin to pay for the country's covert military operations in early 1991. including missiles from North Korea. Indian analyst. B. submarines from France and components for Pakistan's covert nuclear program. Raman writes: Pakistan's illegal heroin economy has kept its legitimate State economy sustained since 1990 and prevented its collapse. Raman writes (141) that money earned through Pakistan's heroin trade was used to fund Pakistan's arms purchases. Zia ul Haq's rule and in the early years of Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. Gen. It has also enabled it to maintain a high 148 .
which the otherwise cash strapped economy of Pak could ill afford to pay for.level of arms purchases from abroad and to finance its proxy war against India through the jehadi organisations.a drug derived from Cannabis (Ganja). Pak trucks are used by the drug mafia for narcotics smuggling. the Indian army captured from Pakistani infiltrators about 19 Kilograms of Heroin with a street value of US $ 5 million. also known as atomic bombs are extremely destructive. packaged and despatched towards their destination. Rawalpindi and other such city centres. Even during the Afghan crisis Pak trucks and National Logistic Cell (NLC) vehicles transporting arms to Afghan Mujahideen were used for shipping large consignments of drugs from the drug producing areas to Karachi. In a one and a half year period from January 1997 to May 1998. The Indian army's 15th Corps. Nuclear Proliferation: Nuclear weapons. 149 A single bomb . which is in the thick of action against terrorists from Pakistan has this to say in an article on Narco-Terrorism on its website (142): Both the Pakistan Army and the Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) agency are known to be extensively involved in narcotics trade. Islamabad. where the drugs were processed. Also recovered was 60 Kilograms of Charas . They have been used only twice in August 1945 when the Unites States dropped a bomb on each of the Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The nexus between Pak ISI and Pak Army with the drug mafia is a well documented and established fact. The primary reason for indulging in narcotics trade by these two premier institutions of Pakistan is the need for money to finance covert foreign operations.
the technology for manufacturing nuclear weapons remained a closely guarded secret. Abdul Qadeer Khan. Pakistan had obtained funds from Libya in exchange for this technology and North Korea paid for the technology by supplying Pakistan with ballistic missiles capable of 150 . and these centrifuges had radioactive contaminants that unmistakably bore the signature of a Pakistani source. Shipments of centrifuge components to North Korea and Libya were intercepted. Enrichment of Uranium is one of the first steps in making one type of nuclear bomb. As described in chapter 4. Abdul Qadeer Khan became a hero and achieved cult status in Pakistan as the father of Pakistan's Islamic bomb In late 2003 and early 2004. along with actual blueprints of nuclear bomb designs in order to help these nations manufacture atomic bombs. causing Japan to surrender within days.a weapon of power to scare a potential attacker from for fear of being hit by nuclear weapons. killing hundreds of thousands of people. That brought the second World War to an end. it became clear that Pakistani nuclear technology to enrich Uranium had been supplied to North Korea. available to only a handful of nations in the world. Upon his return to Pakistan. Libya and Iran. Khan was encouraged and funded by the Prime Minister of Pakistan at the time.reduced each city to rubble. The destructive potential of nuclear weapons made them attractive terrifying waging war because of to nations as a deterrent . And their destructive potential. a Pakistani metallurgist stole the blueprints for making Uranium enrichment centrifuges from a Dutch concern called URENCO that he worked for. Centrifuges made from the very designs Qadeer Khan had stolen from URENCO were found in Iran. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to set up facilities to enrich Uranium manufacture nuclear bombs.
"Those who violated the policy are now hiding behind the scientists." On February 4 th 2004.A." she told the Los Angeles Times. Times said (143): U. nuclear experts and a former prime minister of Pakistan expressed doubts Monday about how Khan and a handful of associates could have circumvented the extraordinary controls on the country's nuclear technology without the military's blessings. It would be naive to imagine that successive Pakistani governments and the military were unaware of Khan's activities. who served twice as prime minister before going into exile in the face of corruption charges. officials. An article in the online edition of the L.S. the New York Times reported (144): experts inside and outside the government say it is difficult to believe that Pakistan's nuclear secrets could have been exported without the knowledge of some in 151 . Benazir Bhutto. This confession was followed by a prompt presidential pardon for Dr.carrying nuclear weapons (143). with no knowledge of the Pakistani army or government. In early 2004 the world was witness to an incredible drama on Pakistan television in which Abdul Qadeer Khan made a public confession of having sold nuclear weapons technology to other nations entirely on his own. said she doubted that the transfers could have taken place without the knowledge of senior military officials. Khan by President and army chief Gen. "It is difficult to accept that the scientists could have violated government policy on their own. Musharraf.
the military and the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence agency. If it had been for the murder that the hijackers committed was who not and their success in achieving their aim of securing the release of jailed terrorists in India terrorists who were later to enter Pakistan and mastermind further murders and play a role in the suicide attacks of September 11th 2001 in New York. especially since some shipments were made on Pakistani military aircraft. Khan operated alone. He has the deepest ties to the military. only to be pardoned by the army is in keeping with the Pakistan army's time honoured tradition of protecting its self interest and attempting to appear farcically squeakyclean in the face of contrary evidence. this whole hijacking story could have 152 . Airliner hijacking: The most blatant case of an airliner hijacked with Pakistani army and government complicity is the shameful episode of Indian Airlines Flight number IC 814 that hijacked in December 2000 by five Pakistani nationals boarded the flight in Kathmandu in Nepal. It is virtually certain that the televised drama of Qadeer Khan absolving the army of all responsibility for proliferation while taking all the blame. investigators believe. Four days later. in return for uranium enrichment technology. Bush's aides believe Pakistan's story that Dr. Clearly. Pakistan got missiles from North Korea. the Pakistani government must have known something about how its new missile fleet materialized. the New York Times carried a report in which it was said (145): Few of Mr. and supplied it with a cargo fleet. which oversaw the Khan Research Laboratories.
Mohammad Aziz. including Maulana Masood Azhar the founder of the Pakistan based terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammad. The hijacked aircraft was flown to the UAE. Gen. The released terrorists and resurfaced in Pakistan. The five hijackers actually received their weapons in a diplomatic bag checked in by Pakistani First Secretary in Nepal. Amritsar and Lahore. where it came under control of Pakistan's puppet Taliban government. the money was deposited in the account of a Pakistani diplomat in Delhi. After a 1971 hijack the hijackers were granted asylum in Pakistan. When that was decided to be impracticable. the hijackers were provided with new weapons in Kandahar. which was to be delivered in cash. and his body thrown out of the aircraft while his wife remained on board for the rest of the duration of the hijack. The hijackers also secured the release of three dangerous Pakistani terrorists in prison in India. On Aziz's instructions the hijackers demanded a ransom of nearly one million US dollars. and 153 . and disappeared from Kandahar Omar Shaikh was later the attacks on the World was finally arrested for the murder of the Jewish-American reporter Daniel Pearl. Indian intelligence agencies who monitored and recorded the communications of the hijackers on the aircraft in Kandahar found them receiving instructions from Lt. implicated in helping to fund Trade center in New York. and Omar Shaikh. Pakistan's record with reference to Indian airliners hijacked to Pakistan has been condemnable. a Pakistani Corps commander (148). The plane was then flown to Kandahar in Afghanistan. In a surreal turn of events. as reported by a French tourist hostage who survived the ordeal (147).come out of a B-grade semi-comic motion picture. and the newlywed husband of a honeymooning couple was murdered by slashing his throat. Mohammad Arshad Cheema (146).
2001. India has a list of 20 most wanted criminals who are living in Pakistan. and obtain refuge. also blamed for the attack on parliament in New Delhi. the hijackers were given refuge in Pakistan. counterfeiting. an Indian underworld don.the aircraft blown up on the ground. 2001 in which 38 people were killed. murder and smuggling. 154 . He operates from Muridke town. The following is a list of names of the twenty. Refuge for Criminals: Pakistan has positioned itself as an ideal place for any criminal from India to seek. In two instances of hijacking in 1981 and 1984. funding alleged criminals. man behind the planning and financing of 13 explosions in Mumbai in 1993 in which almost 300 people died. Pakistan. He is also wanted for an attack on the J&K Assembly on Oct 1. Pakistan. 2. And in an unbelievable second hijacking event in 1984. near Lahore in Pakistan. the hijackers were imprisoned for a token one month in Pakistan for entering Pakistan without due documents. man behind the attack on India's parliament on December 13. Ibrahim is wanted in connection with cases of arms supply. He lives in and operates from Karachi. 3. Hafiz Mohammad Saeed. co-founder of Lashkar-e-Toiba. After a 1976 hijack. Maulana Masood Azhar. drugs trade. the hijackers received a weapon along with snacks in Lahore (149). He currently lives in and operates from Bahawalpur. and a brief description of their activities (150): 1. Dawood Ibrahim. leader of Jaish-i-Mohammad.
extortion. accused of executing the 1993 Mumbai blasts. kidnapping. He is wanted in cases of terrorism and arms smuggling. kidnapping. He lives in and operates from Karachi. Ibrahim Athar. 10. head of Hizbul Mujahideen. India. 7. Wanted for murder. 6. He is currently living in Pakistan. Pakistan. an associate of Maulana Azhar Masood and was one of the hijackers of Indian Airlines flight IC-814 from Kathmandu to Delhi in 1999. 8. He is wanted in cases of terrorism and smuggling. Zahoor Ibrahim Mistri. He is alleged to have helped his brother Ibrahim Memon carry out the blasts. Ayub Memon."Tiger" Ibrahim Memon. which has claimed responsibility for dozens of attacks on Indian forces in Kashmir. which later changed its name to Harkat-ul-Mujahideen. He is wanted in cases of murder. blackmail of businessmen and film stars in India. Syed Salahuddin. kidnapping and murder. Pakistan. He lives in and operates from Karachi. Chhota Shakeel. He is a member of Jaish-i-Mohammad and is wanted for hijacking. a key associate of Dawood Ibrahim. He currently lives in and operates from Bahawalpur. 5. extortion. Pakistan. lives in and 9. Abdul Razzak. terrorism and smuggling arms and explosives in India. He currently operates from Muzaffarabad. accused of involvement in the Mumbai blasts. He is wanted in connection with the hijacking of IC-814 and 155 . Pakistan. a member of Harkat-ul-Ansar. He lives in and operates from Karachi. Pakistan. accused of executing the 1993 Mumbai blasts.4.
He lives in and operates from Lahore. He lives in and operates from Karachi. is wanted He lives in and for the IC-814 hijacking and for kidnapping and murder. Pakistan. Pakistan.in cases of kidnapping and murder. which was involved in an insurgency in East Punjab during the 1980s. Ranjit Singh Neeta. operates from Karachi. He is wanted in over a dozen cases of sedition. Pakistan. He lives in and operates from 156 . Abdul Karim. chief of Khalistan Zindabad Force. Azhar Yusuf. 14. an associate of Dawood Ibrahim. a Kashmiri terrorist blamed for more than 30 bomb blasts in Delhi and parts of northern India in 1996-97.K. Pakistan. Pakistan. is also wanted in connection with the conspiracy to kill Advani. 12. operates from Karachi. wanted in the IC-814 hijacking case and in cases of kidnapping and murder. chief of Sikh group Babbar Khalsa International. an associate of Dawood Ibrahim. He lives in and operates from Karachi. 17. 11. bomb blasts and smuggling of arms in India. He lives in and operates from Karachi. He is wanted in cases of murder. Pakistan. 16. Shahid Akhtar Sayed. Ishaq Atta Hussain. Wadhawan Singh Babbar. is wanted in connection with a conspiracy to kill Indian Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister L. He lives in and 13. 15. murder and in connection with the assassination of East Punjab's then chief minister Beant Singh. Sagir Sabir Ali Shaikh. Advani. He lives in and operates from Lahore. Pakistan.
is wanted in cases of arms smuggling. leader of Sikh group Dal Khalsa. Dawood Ibrahim was subsequently designated a global terrorist by the US for his links with Al Quaeda and the Lashkar-e-Tayeba. leader of the Khalistan Commando Force.Lahore. 18. 20 . leader of the International Sikh Youth Federation. Pakistan. He was arrested by Pakistan after he hijacked the plane to Lahore and tried. Pakistan. Dawood Ibrahim in Pakistan in September 2003 after news of a bomb blast in Karachi. He lives in and operates from Lahore. Pakistan. according to a report. Pakistan. the Islamist extremist group that was founded by Maulana Masood Azhar. the Kawish Crown Plaza. Rediff reported (151): Pakistan has admitted gangster Dawood Ibrahim's presence in the country. Pakistan admitted the presence of the third man on the list. is accused of hijacking an Indian Airlines plane from Srinagar to Delhi in 1981. the first man on India's 157 . conspiracy to attack government leaders in Delhi and inciting religious hatred in East Punjab. The admission came after a bomb blast at a Karachi business centre. Pakistani journal The Herald said. He is accused of trying to revive the Sikh insurgency in East Punjab and is wanted in more than a dozen cases of murder. treason. He lives in and operates from Lahore.Gajinder Singh. conspiracy and arms smuggling. which the inspector general of Sindh police said was "ostensibly owned by Ahmed Jamal but actually belonged to Dawood Ibrahim". Paramjit Singh Panjwar. Lakhbir Singh Rode. He lives in and operates from Lahore. 19.
the range depending on the buyers' bargaining skills and the volume required. that country was a natural choice for anti-India activities from Pakistan. in an apparent hint that Pakistan was indulging in massive printing of fake notes to abet its terrorist activities against India.Most wanted list. One report (153) quoted the street value of the Pakistan made counterfeit currency in India: The prevailing price for counterfeit currency in Punjab is Rs 40-60 (83 US cents-$1. With Indian currency being valid in Nepal.25) in exchange for every Pakistani-made Rs 100 note . The right contacts can ensure that Pakistani counterfeit 158 . which apparently intended to destabilize the Indian economy by flooding India with fake currency. The Indian Express reported (152): Officials said the quality of fake notes was "such that it could only be printed in security presses". The Pakistani ambassador tried to stop the arrest claiming diplomatic immunity for the staffer but it turned out that he did not have diplomatic immunity. Printing and circulation of counterfeit currency: In January 2000. one of the prisoners released by India after the 1999 hijacking of an Indian Airlines aircraft to Kandahar in Afghanistan. a staffer from the visa section of the Pakistan embassy in Nepal was arrested in Kathmandu (Nepal) after passing counterfeit Indian currency to Nepalese police in a sting operation.
159 . U K Katna said. Joint Commissioner of Police. Butki is a front man of notorious mafia don Dawood Ibrahim and controls the gang for pumping fake currency into India through the porous Indo-Nepal border. Another report of the arrest counterfeit currency said (154): of a man carrying The racket was being remote controlled by Aftab Butki from Dubai in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The high quality of the counterfeit notes and official sponsorship of this and other criminal activities by Pakistani governmental agencies is a frightening indicator of the chaotic state that Pakistan is in with no expense being spared to prepare for war or jihad against India and very little being spent on development and education within Pakistan.currency is available even cheaper. "The counterfeit currency notes were sent for damaging the Indian economy.. Crime Branch. Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan has been providing logistical support to the underworld dons for flooding the Indian market with counterfeit currency with the sole aim of creating panic in the Indian market.
It seems more likely that the acronym theory of the name is a confabulation. It symbolizes the religions. It is not clear if Rehmat Ali was one of these students. That is. a plausible but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what 160 . Iran. Punjab. It means the land of the Paks-the spiritually pure and clean. In the first place. The theory that Pakistan is an acronym does not stand up to scrutiny. Tukharistan. Afghania (North West Frontier Province). It is composed of letters taken from the names of all our homelands . and Baluchistan. Another theory is that the acronym was composed by a group of students in Cambridge in England. A passage attributed to him says (155): "Pakistan" is both a Persian and an Urdu word. which was part of Pakistan until it seceded with the creation of Bangladesh.Chapter 15 PAKISTAN FAILED STATE The credit for coining the name Pakistan probably goes to one Choudhry Rehmat Ali who is said to have thought of the name in 1933 as an acronym containing letters from the names of all the areas which this man thought were representative of the ancestry of his people. Such an acronym is non-existent when the name is written in Urdu. the Pakistan described by the acronym includes Iran and Central Asia (Tukharistan) as part of Pakistan and makes no mention of East Bengal. and it stands for all the territorial constituents of our original Fatherland. beliefs and the ethnical stocks of our people. Kashmir. Afghanistan. A second curious anomaly is that the name of this nation that is claimed to be derived from Urdu and Persian is composed of letters in the English alphabet with the English letters forming the acronym."Indian" and "Asian". Sindh (including Karachi and Kathiawar).
P. one must simultaneously define what is impure. rather than concentrate on nation building. India.A. As noted in chapter 2. Ultimately. that has Urdu as its official language suggests that the real origin of the name Pakistan derives from the Urdu word Paki. the stress on pure Islam and a nation purely for Muslims. Purity is a subjective concept. That stress on purity . Sikhs. To define purity. Christians. and Pakistanis have spent the years since 1947 years struggling to weed out anything that they consider impure. Conditions of life for a Pakistani depend on what class of society one belongs to and whether one lives in a rural or urban area. corruption. sometimes facetiously referred to by the acronym of that name. there are only two main classes of society in Pakistan. very rich class of Pakistani. Further purity was required by fighting wars and making sacrifices. Minorities and religious groups in Pakistan were impure Hindus. and Indians were impure and were rejected.E. The acronym R.is remembered as to how Pakistan got its name. the very rich and the very poor and these classes comprise 90% of Pakistan's population. is perhaps an apt description of what 161 .or purity with a narrow definition has certainly played a role in Pakistan's undoing. Ahmediyas and later even Shia Muslims in Pakistan were not pure enough for Pakistan. They are the Rich Anglophone Pakistani Elite. Classical Hindi and English defines Paki as Purity .with stan meaning country (156). Social imbalance. The dictionary of Urdu. poverty and greed were all minor blips in the route to Pakistan's mythical purity. There is a very small. and can only be grasped in relation to something else that is impure.
this class have been doing to Pakistan. The lifestyles of these people can be compared to that of the rich and famous anywhere. who may own thousands of acres of land. They might be rich industrialists and businessmen. Irfan Husain wrote in the Dawn: An old friend was recently invited to a serving general's official residence for a small dinner party. the tasteful furnishings and the overall level of luxury. They are the feudal lords. the waiters. London. They travel. the sweepers. But 90 percent of Pakistanis are rarely seen or heard outside Pakistan. the mascara and lipstick adorned women in designer dresses. and came away hugely impressed by the acres of immaculate lawns.. the discreet lighting.The food and refreshments were of the highest quality. The elite are educated. or they might be serving or retired army officers.. actors and society people. Paris. These are the beautiful people. Geneva. They are the servants. They are seen in parties and receptions attended by friends and diplomats. Their photographs appear in glossy magazines and on the Internet. maintained and supported by armies of servants. Rome. They live in fabulous mansions... the handsome men clad in lounge suits or traditional sherwanis. These charmed people are the Pakistanis that we see and hear. the 162 . often in the best schools and universities of the world. the casual laborers and sharecroppers. No burkha (veil) for these women. and the army staff who served the small gathering had apparently been trained at a fivestar hotel. and are familiar with all the major cities that a man of this world should know about New York.
human life and 163 effort to somehow equal. But girls are not allowed. time. Others try to migrate to Europe and beyond. hunger. The men wear crumpled and seemingly unwashed salwar suits. And that has been an integral part of Pakistan's problem. The women. are above blame. Pakistani leaders. Life is harsh. and girls are not sent to schools either. . Even those who earn more than that often sink below poverty level at certain times of the year. can be gained only from madrassas that often provide food and shelter for its students. Any education that can be gained. and many try to find work in the Middle East to earn a living as menial laborers. poverty and destitution are accepted by some people as the will of Allah that cannot be questioned or mitigated. as is lack of education. More than half these people do not earn enough money for a decent life. That is a welcome source of relief for a very poor family with many children to care for. Pakistani leaders have sacrificed enormous and fruitless amounts of money. or in times of illness or drought. They can be seen on Pakistani streets and in the villages. Most earn less than the equivalent of US $1 per day. The women do not work outside the home and may have four or more children to bring up. Others are angry and frustrated at their lot and these people are told by their elite masters that poverty and hardship are because of Indian aggression or some other extraneous factor. being Islamic and who appear forever busy to defend Pakistan. are covered in burqas as expected of women in Islamic Pakistan. Malnutrition is rampant. in the few places where schools exist. The hard life. if seen at all. For more than five decades since independence.goatherds and the cleaners with their wives and their children.
and a system of salaries and pensions had to be set up for them. Israel. but even then the wasteful expenditure did not stop. Money and effort that should have gone into building schools. and development of the poor was bypassed as usual. gun running or currency counterfeiting swallowed funds that should have gone into schools and healthcare in Pakistan. the US or other Western nations. India. Pakistan was halved when Bangladesh seceded. but their emotional hunger for explanations 164 . to be directed at India. and businesses were custom made for employing them. In the midst of this. The anger is compounded by what is taught in schools and madrassas following curricula that actively teach hatred and discrimination to impressionable children.match or defeat India.Islam. Anger is carefully re-directed away from the ruling elite. and later to defend against an India that had no intention of attacking Pakistan. The build up of Pakistani armed forces into a formidable war machine was initially to defeat India and take Kashmir. or is internalised as people not being "Islamic" enough. The bloated ranks of army retirees had to be accommodated. Money was diverted to training Islamist operatives for covert operations against India. while the stoic Pakistani public. Money from any source was poured developing nuclear weapons to deter India. Even criminal activity aimed against India. the poor of Pakistan are left with the only succour they can get . with women and children at the bottom of the pile received little. And even that is used against Pakistan's arch enemy. Popular devotion to Islam is channelled to provide an endless supply of men for jihad. The madrassa is the place where students' physical hunger is assuaged. roads and hospitals in Pakistan was spent on building a war machine that could never overwhelm an India that was just too big.
Every son sent to a madrassa is one mouth less to feed for a poor family. On the one hand the society has a small minority of wealthy and emancipated people among whom women can get educated and work. The ratio of men to women in Pakistan is grossly skewed with many more men than women. The people are docile. live at home until they come of age. The other extreme is the harsh life of a woman living under the two or and burden of strict discriminatory rules. The girl child gets less food and is more likely to die of malnutrition and disease.she is not supposed to be seen outside. or in the company of a man who is not her husband or father. either alone.an act that is punishable by death. brings honour and Girls grow up uneducated. but individuals in such a society grow up in 165 . They do not easily rise up in revolt against tyranny or injustice. Boys are preferred in all ways in this male-dominated society. the level of education for women is invariably less than that of men. A woman who breaks rules by exposing herself or by being seen with a non-approved male companion. and sending one son to die for jihad financial reward to the family. or a woman who marries against the wishes of her family is considered to be committing a crime by bringing dishonour on the family . But women hold the key to family honour. they are generally uneducated. as the British had found them. Between these extremes are a vast mass of Pakistanis who are more less generally poor. Pakistani society has both extremes. marry and produce children. A woman's place is in the home .about the miserable existence of their families is often met by a call for violent jihad against forces that are blamed for hunger and misery.
The to people need clean drinking water. schools. aid money or export profits is split up and shared by a small percentage of wealthy people at the top. is under threat from India. For the survival of corrupt business interests in Pakistan the elite must remain in power and not be bothered by rebellion or the uncertainties of democracy. For aid givers like the US and rich Western nations. roads. business magnates controlling key businesses such as transport. the ruling elite of Pakistan behave like moderate. Pakistan is controlled by an oligarchy of a thousand individuals or so (157) in a few dozen families. and access to family planning so that births can be spaced out. fuel oil and cement. But the money. health care. the businessmen and feudal lords get money. secular and well-intentioned democrats who are keeping Islamic fundamentalism at bay. and other nations. The 140 million mostly poor people of Pakistan are kept in check with the excuse that their faith. as well as feudal landowners. giving a mother time to recover and nurse an earlier child before bearing another child. people and will to provide these things never reach the population. Islam. and very little reaches the Pakistani on the ground. The Army gets money. the army businesses do well. Pakistanis have been told that the army and the ruling elite have protected Pakistan and Islam from these external threats. All the money in Pakistan. be it government funds. This ruling elite is composed of senior army officers. The only funding that reaches this level comes from unaccounted and unaccountable sources funding the madrassas that preach an agenda of hatred and jihad.conditions that make their minds receptive indoctrination into a life of terrorism and jihad. Time and again Pakistani leaders change masks depending 166 .
punished severely or publicly humiliated. that fighting to hold fundamentalist more aid and lifting of sanctions the prevention of a Islamic fundamentalist takeover of Pakistan. and allowed to keep all the wealth that he had earned from nuclear proliferation activities. the US administration and some US think tanks seem to believe this providing the ideal setting for Pakistani rulers to play a double game of pretending to be devoutly Islamic for their people.on whom they are addressing. To their deprived population. Each member of this elite community knows that too much action in curbing or controlling the vast business empires of their rivals will upset one's own business interests. while appearing moderate to aid givers. They are gently sidelined. This mechanism was clearly illustrated after the father of Pakistan's nuclear bomb Abdul Qadeer Khan made a public confession that he was responsible for the proliferation of nuclear technology (chapter 13). The threat that is held up is that if the ruling clique goes. they appear in traditional Pakistani salwar suits. They appear in Western suits or crisp army uniforms. and speak in Urdu. Within a day. he was publicly pardoned by Pakistani President General Musharraf. Pakistan will sink into an uncontrollable morass of 160 million hankering for an Islamic state. In the meantime the ruling clique in Pakistan ensures its own survival. while people are constantly fed with the anti-Muslim India threat. speaking in English to aid givers and donors. The ruling clique of Pakistan stands to gain from this form of loose cooperation in which all the business interests survive at the expense of the constitution and law. Whether this is likely or not. Western aid givers are the ruling elite are forces at bay and that are essential for told what they want to hear. 167 . along with sops to keep them happy. Opponents are rarely killed.
using Islamic examples.When Pakistani President and Army Chief Pervez Musharraf was given an ultimatum by the US government in September 2001 that he could be With the US or against the US in its war on terror. These people will form a huge mass of uneducated and unemployed 168 . He spoke in English initially. The rich get richer and the poor get poorer. elite and feudal leadership of Pakistan will be under no pressure to change. saying words of support to please the US. he made his decision to support the US in a speech (56) that used the time tested Pakistani mask-changing routine to address different groups of people. No power on earth can coax this small group of rich and powerful Pakistanis that wealth in a nation has to be shared and spread around for development of society and the nation as a whole. because of the US' war on terror. even as the human condition of the people in Pakistan has gradually deteriorated. knowing that this would be understood by viewers in the US. But in the course of the same speech. health care and development of the poor. and the population of the poor is rising rapidly. told them that his alliance with the US was akin to a temporary alliance with the devil to deter an immediate threat. External anti-Islamic forces are always to blame. or more recently. As long as the poor can be left to vent their anger against some external foe by joining jihad or accepting their misery as Allah's will the rich army. he addressed Pakistanis in Urdu and. The powerful and wealthy groups of Pakistan stand to lose their money and lifestyles if funds are diverted to education. and their level of education is falling. The average poor Pakistani is taught that his misery is because of Indian aggression. This ploy is a fail safe formula that has allowed the survival of the Pakistani oligarchy so far.
people in a few years' time. The ruling elite of Pakistan are engaged in a strange experiment in which they seem out of touch with reality. They exist on a different plane from the poor and they do not seem to understand that the burgeoning population of the poor, and the anger that is now being channeled against India or the West can turn inwards. The poor are over 100 million strong now but will be twice that number in a single generation, and they will be jobless, hungry and angry. Nations like India, China, Russia and Western countries, who have all had to face the violent consequences of trained jihadi fighters from Pakistan are vigorously resisting and neutralizing them. The forces of jihad are unlikely to receive sanctuary or be allowed to survive in these nations in the current geo-political scenario. Faced with such pressure outside Pakistan, thousands of indoctrinated, armed and dangerous young men could well turn inwards at Pakistani rulers, blaming them for their inability to help in the victory of jihad over unbelievers. If Pakistani leaders can show constant military victories, it is likely that their population will at least temporarily continue to be happy at the successes. But when low-tech irregular Islamic militias spawned by the Pakistani army and governments are unable to achieve victories despite tremendous losses, they are increasingly likely to ask the leaders of Pakistan, the army and the elite why they are being defeated. From the beginning Pakistanis, rich or poor have had no sense of nationhood, no sense of whom and what they are other than being a group of Muslims who have escaped from India. Every effort at development and good governance has been destroyed by a vested interest, always living in the vain hope that some Western nation, or rich Islamic 169
nation will bail the country out. Democracy was first derailed by the migrant bureaucracy who had moved to Pakistan from India. Later it was the army that stood to lose from democracy. Political parties have been disempowered, and the judiciary lives under the shadow of the army. The only forces that are gaining strength are those of fundamentalist Islam, the forces that seek to fight India or the US, or even Shias within Pakistan. The two most powerful groups in Pakistan today are the army and Islamic groups, Pakistan is getting to the stage when the Islamic groups have infiltrated into the ranks of the army and appear set to take control of Pakistan. The Islamic groups themselves are divided, and their unity may only last as long as it takes for them to gain control of Pakistan. None of these powerful groups seems to be interested in development or progress. No group seems set to allow modern education, peace with India, women's rights or birth control in Pakistan, all essential for progress. The political parties and democratic forces did not do this. The army did not do it and the Islamic groups do not show any intent of fostering a progressive Pakistan. Predictably, they too are careening down the path of more and purer Islam as the answer to Pakistan's problems. And worse for Pakistan, Islamist groups, with trans-national loyalties, cannot be guaranteed to be interested in the territorial integrity and borders of Pakistan as they exist. And so the disease eating Pakistan from the inside continues. Jessica Stern wrote (119): Pakistan is a weak state, and government policies are making it weaker still. 170 Its disastrous economy,
exacerbated by a series of corrupt leaders, is at the root of many of its problems. Yet despite its poverty, Pakistan is spending hundreds of millions of dollars on weapons instead of schools and public health. Ironically, the government's "cost-saving" measures are even more troubling. In trying to save money in the short run by using irregulars in Kashmir and relying on madrasahs to educate its youth, Pakistan is pursuing a path that is likely to be disastrous in the long run, culture of violence to take root. allowing a
Pakistan is in an unstable state and there appears to be no leader who can show Pakistan a way out. Too many Pakistanis have been taught that they exist only for Islam and for jihad and these people are now caught between the twin pincers of the global war on terror being conducted by many nations on the one hand, and by the rich and corrupt Pakistani rulers on the other. The long term outlook for Pakistan does not appear encouraging. In a paper on Pakistan, Stephen Cohen wrote (158): When security, human services, justice, and necessities are not provided, states fail.
Pakistan can be compared to a broken biscuit whose pieces are held together by some wrapping paper. The area labelled as Pakistan on maps is called Pakistan, but that area is not wholly under the control of any single government or leadership, as one would expect of a normally functioning nation-state. The first fragment of the biscuit that broke off was Bangladesh, in 1971. There is no guarantee that the other fragments dysfunctional state will hold together. of this
Pakistan is already a nation that is only partially under control of its government which is basically the army. 171
Only 5% of Baluchistan, Pakistan's largest province, is under Pakistani control. Tribal law rules the sparsely populated land. The Pakistani government has little or no control over the Federally Administered Tribal Areas the so called FATA. Areas of Pakistan's first city, Karachi, are outside government control. Gaining control of Pakistan is easier said than done. As indicated in Chapter 12, weapons. The FATA areas arms factories and shops million illegal firearms, Pakistan is awash with illegal are home to hundreds of small that sell them (151). With 18 Pakistanis outside the military
and government have enough weapons to equip several armies, and anyone trying to bring heavily armed private militias under control will have to contend with a lot of firepower. But as the history of nations shows, if the Pakistan government is unable to control its own territory, someone else is likely to step in to fill the vacuum sooner or later. Therein lies the real significance of having large areas in a country that are out of governmental control. The fact that a government can only govern areas that it controls means that areas beyond government rule are ripe for control by some other force or alternate government. These schisms are begging to be exploited. The United States already has a powerful military presence in Pakistan, and perhaps that is an eerie harbinger of yet another civilization set to rule this lawless land. Pakistan is perhaps fortunate that the nation state of India is not yet as adept and conscious of international hegemonic games and how India can interfere to bring law and order to the fraying edges of Pakistan. But that may be changing as the lawlessness of Pakistan continues to spill into an increasingly powerful India as terrorism, 172
of its role and 173 .forcing India to become conscious responsibility in the region.
lhe Govemment permitted a steady and increasing strangulation of supplies like food.com/LegalDocs/Maharaja_letter. I wanted to take time to decide to which Dominion I should accede or whether it is not in the best interests of both the Dominions and of my State to stand independent. In their external relations the Dominion of India and Pakistan cannot ignore this fact. I to accordingly enter into approached Dominions and Pakistan standstill agreement with my State.APPENDIX 1 http://www. ln fact the Pakistan Goernment under the standstill agreement is operating the post and telegraph system inside the State.kashmir-information. my State has a common boundary with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and with China. Though we have got a standstill agreement with the Pakistan Government. The Dominion of India desired further discussion with representatives of my Government. at first in the Poonch area. of course with friendly the and cordial of relations India with both. Besides.html Letter from Maharaja Hari Singh to Lord Mountbatten on the eve of Pak invasion on J&K in 1947 My dear Lord Mountbatten. The Pakistan Government accepted this arrangement. Geographically my State is contiguous wit h both of them. I could not arrange this in view of the developments indicated below. then from Sia1kot and finally in a mass in the area adjoining-Hazara district on the Ramkote side. I have to inform Your Excellency that a grave emergency has arisen in my State and request the immediate assistance of your Government. As Your Excellency is aware. The result has been that the limited number of troops at the disposal of the State had to 174 . and desperadoes wnh modern weapons have been allowed to infiltrate into the State. salt and petrol to my State. soldiers in plain clothes. Afridis.the State of Jammu and Kashmir has not acceded to either the Dominion of India or Pakistan.
and I attach the instrument of accession for acceptance by your Government. V. generally have taken no part at all.P. The people of my State.The mass infiltration of tribesman drawn from distant areas of the North-West Frontier Province. immediate assistance must be available at Srinagar. cannot of possibly be done of without the knowledge made of by the my Provincial Govemment of the North-West Frontier Province and the Government Pakistan. I have no option but to ask for help from the Indian Dominion. coming regularly in motortrucks. which supplies electric current to the whole of Srinagar and which has been burnt. if further explanation is 175 . the summer capital of my government. Naturally they cannot send the help asked for by me without my State acceding to the Dominion of India. both Muslims and non-Muslims. so that it has become difficult to stop the wanton destruction of life ad property and the looting of the Mahura power house. I may also inform your Excellency's Government that it is my intention at once to set up an interim government and to ask Sheikh Abdullah to carry the responsibilities in this emergency with my Prime Minister. Inspite repeated appeals Government no attempt has been made to check these raiders or to stop them from coming into my State. The other alternative is to leave my state and people to free booters. With the conditions obtaining at present in my State and the great emergency of the situation as it exists. needed. The Pakistan radio even put out the story that a provisional government has been set up in Kashmir. both radio and the Press of Pakistan have reported these occurences. The number of women who have been kidnpped and raped makes my heart bleed. using the Manwehra-Mazaffarabad road and fully armed with up-to-date weapons.be dispersed and thus had to face the enemy at several points simultaneously. This alternative I will never allow to happen so long as I am the ruler of the State and I have life to defend my country. In fact. The wild forces thus let loose on the State are marching on with the aim of capturing Srinagar. On this basis no civilised government can exist or be maintained. Menon is fully aware of the gravity of the situation and will explain it to you. I have accordingly decided to do so. as a first step to overrunning the whole State. Mr. If my State is to be saved.
Hari Singh October 26.In haste and with kindest regards. 1947 176 . Yours sincerely.
Norway. Commending the Governments of India and Pakistan for their statesman like action in reaching the agreements embodied in the United Nations Commission's resolutions of August 13. 177 .APPENDIX 2 http://www. G. THE SECURITY COUNCIL. 1949. Having received and noted the reports of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan establishing its resolutions 39 (1948) of 20 January and 47 (1948) of 21 April 1948. 1949. (2) The establishment of a cease-fire line on July 27. S/1469). dated the 14th March.mtholyoke. and that steps should be taken forthwith for the demilitarisation of the State and for the expeditious determination of its future in accordance with the freely expressed will of the inhabitants. 1949. and (3) The agreement that Fleet Admiral Chester W. Considering should be that based the upon resolution the of the outstanding measure of difficulties agreement of substantial fundamental principles already reached. L. 1949 for a cease-fire. Kashmir and for for the the demilitarisation determination of of the its State final of Jammu and in disposition accordance with the will of the people through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite.edu/acad/intrel/kashun80. 1948 and January 5. McNaughton on the outcome of his discussions with the representatives of India and Pakistan which were initiated in pursuance of the decision taken by the Security Council on December 17. Nimitz shall be Plebiscite Administrator. 1950. United Kingdom and United States and adopted by the Security Council on March 14. 1950). submitted by the Representatives of Cuba. Having also received and noted the report of General A. and commending the parties in particular for their action in partially implementing these Resolutions by (1) The cessation of hostilities effected January 1.htm Resolution 80 (1950) Concerning the India-Pakistan question. (Document No.
L. to arrange at the appropriate stage of demilitarisation for the assumption by the Plebiscite Administrator of the functions assigned to the latter under agreements made between the parties. Requests the two Governments to take all necessary precautions to ensure that (heir agreements regarding the cease-fire shall continue to be faithfully observed. Calls upon the Governments of India and Pakistan to make immediate arrangements. 5. 2. Agrees that the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan 178 . without prejudice to their rights or claims and with due regard to the requirements of law and order. are likely to contribute to the expeditious and enduring solution of the dispute which has arisen between the two Governments in regard to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. 1949. to report to the Security Council as he may consider necessary. and "calls upon them to take all possible measures to ensure the creation and maintenance of 'in atmosphere favourable to the promotion of further negotiations. to exercise all of the powers and responsibilities devolving upon the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan by reason of existing resolutions of the Security Council and by reason of the agreement of the parties embodied in the Resolutions of the United Nations Commission of August 13.1. in his opinion. submitting his conclusions and any recommendations which he may desire to make. Decides to appoint a United Nations Representative for the following purposes who shall have authority to perform his functions in such place or places as he may deem appropriate. (b) to place himself at the disposal of the Governments of India and Pakistan and to place before those Governments or the Security Council any suggestions which. McNaughton for their arduous and fruitful labours. to prepare and execute within a period of five months from the date of this resolution a programme of demilitarisation on the basis of the principles of paragraph 2 of General McNaughton proposal or of such modifications of those principles as may be mutually agreed. (a) to assist in the preparation and to supervise the implementation of the programme of demilitarisation referred to above and' to interpret the agreements reached by the parties for demilitarisation. 3. G. 4. Extends its best thanks to the members of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan and to General A. 1948 and January 5.
The Security Council voted on this Resolution on 14-3-50 with the following result: In favour: China. France. Against: None Abstaining: India and Yugoslavia Absent : USSR 179 . Norway. U. Ecuador. and U. Egypt.S.shall be (terminated.K. and decides that this shall take place one month after both parties have informed the United Nations Representative of their acceptance of the transfer to him the powers and responsibilities of the United Nations Commission referred to in paragraph 2 (c) above.A. Cuba.
indianembassy.html Tashkent Declaration January 10. It was against this background that Jammu and Kashmir was discussed. They reaffirm their obligation under the Charter not to have recourse to force and to settle their disputes through peaceful means. II 180 . Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and President Ayub Khan signed it on behalf of their respective countries in the presence of the Soviet Premier Alexi Kosygin who mediated between them. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan. I The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agree that both sides will exert all efforts to create good neighborly relations between India and Pakistan in accordance with the United Nations Charter. having met at Tashkent and having discussed the existing relations between India and Pakistan. hereby declare their firm resolve to restore normal and peaceful relations and between their countries between and to promote They understanding friendly relations their peoples. 1966 The 1965 armed to an conflict end by between India and Pakistan at was formally the brought signing this declaration Tashkent. and each of the sides set forth its respective position. They considered that the interests of peace in their region and particularly in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent and. the interests of the people so India and Pakistan were not served by the continuance of tension between the two countries. consider the attainment of these objectives of vital importance for the welfare of the 600 million people of India and Pakistan. capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Soviet Union. indeed.APPENDIX 3 http://www.org/South_Asia/Pakistan/Tashkent_Declaration_January_ 10_1966.
Both Government shall observe the Vienna Convention of 1961 on Diplomatic Intercourse. and both sides all observe the cease-fire terms on the cease-fire line. to the positions they held prior to 5 August. 1966. 1965.The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that all armed personnel of the two countries shall be withdrawn not later than 24 February. and will encourage propaganda which promotes the development of friendly relations between the two countries. 181 . IV The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that both sides will discourage any propaganda directed against the other country. VI The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed to consider measures towards the restoration of economic and trade relations. as well as cultural exchanges between India and Pakistan. III The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that relations between India and Pakistan shall be based on the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of each other. communications. V The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the High Commissioner of India to Pakistan and the High Commissioner of Pakistan to India will return to their posts and that the normal functioning of diplomatic missions of both countries will be restored. and to take measures to implement the existing agreements between India and Pakistan.
The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan recorded their feelings of deep appreciation and gratitude to the leaders of the Soviet of Union. They also express to the Government and friendly people of Uzbekistan their sincere thankfulness for their overwhelming reception and generous hospitality. IX The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the two sides will continue meetings both at the highest and at other levels on matters of direct concern to both countries.S. They also agreed that both sides will create conditions which will prevent the exodus of people. VIII The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that the two sides will continue the discussion of questions relating to the problems of refugees and eviction/illegal immigrations. friendly and noble part in bringing about the present meeting which has resulted in mutually satisfactory results. to the Chairman Council Ministers for their constructive.VII The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan have agreed that they will give instructions to their respective authorities to carry out the repatriation of the prisoners of war. They further agreed to discuss the return of the property and assets taken over by either side in connection with the conflict. They invite the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR to 182 .R.S. Both sides have recognized the need to set up joint Indian-Pakistani bodies which will report to their Governments in order to decide what further steps should be taken. the the Soviet of Government of and the personally U.
000 per month ensures that the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) meets its manpower requirements. enrol himself at a training camp in Pakistan.000 that can go up to Rs 7. infiltrate India.000. However. a 183 . Lashkar-e-Taiba's (LeT) Doda district commander Mohd Shahzad. fire at the Army and possibly never return home? It is a small pay package that equals the wage of a peon or driver.000. The pay scale is not rigid as it varies depending on the risks one is willing to take and his commitment to the cause.000. not every terrorist gets Rs 3.000. With the number of years one puts in. Nevertheless. the heftier the pay package and the more discreet it becomes. area of operation. A commander starts at anything above Rs 25. Payments relate directly to performance. number of casualties the terrorist has inflicted upon Indian security forces.htm Terrorists earn a peon's wage By: M K Tayal November 2. In short.000. one thing is clear that Kashmiri youth get a raw deal compared to the Pakistani or foreign counterpart. APPENDIX 4 http://web. 2003 What motivates a young man to take up terrorism. the ISI maintains dossiers and gives annual marks to its cadres very much like the Pakistan Army does for its regular employees.com/news/nation/2003/november/67781. The lure of a mere Rs 3. A Kashmiri company or battalion gets from Rs 5. The rank and file from Pakistan or Afghanistan or any other country gets a starting salary of Rs 5.000 to Rs 10.witness this declaration.000. Some of the more 'enthusiastic' Kashmiri youth get around Rs 5.mid-day. the annual increment increases. motivation level and other HR criterion. The Kashmiri mujahideen is paid less by the ISI than a Pakistani terrorist. A district commander gets around Rs 20. The higher they go. Commanders get much more.
000 per month but that limit was waived off as a special case. The main attraction in joining the ISI is the initial offer. The second term involves training of special operations-explosives. Sources also point to the presence of foreign militants who come to the Valley after sessions of intense motivation and psychological drills. I could get as much as I wanted. The amount is too tempting for anyone to say 'no'.Pakistani national. The fidayeens (soldiers on a suicide mission) get highly sophisticated training but their emoluments remain a mystery." Shahzad had said. captured by the Army after a fierce encounter in September 2003. LeT's Shahzad said he came to Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) to fight jehadis as he was told harrowing stories of atrocities being committed on the Muslims in the Valley. His monthly emoluments were being directly sent to his home in Pakistan." a militant said to an army officer serving in the Valley. he remained silent when asked what was the amount his parents were getting in Pakistan. There are other factors too at work. The basic training at the 85 training camps is the same and involves handling small arms (AK-47) and explosives." explains an official. small unit tactics of raid and ambush and radio communication. Competition and style for instance drive most youth into the realm of the AK-47. "It has become a style. If you don't have a gun you don't get good girlfriends and nobody respects you. There is a catch. A Kashmiri gets Rs two lakh as one-time payment to join. "Poor economic conditions in the Valley force some to cross over to Pakistan for their training. "Money didn't matter. However. But it is sure that the money Shahzad got was for operations in his area and his logistical support. said he came to Jammu & Kashmir to be a jehadi and was paid nearly Rs 20. 184 . since naturally none survive to tell their tale. One must go over to Pakistan to get the complete four to five month training and then work his way back into India from the 120 launch pads.
" he said in a heart-to-heart talk. It rewards handsomely. there have been reports of parents of the deceased militant not getting a single penny. so did it the commitment. Though no one complains publicly. Kashmiri youths are now averse to taking up the gun while recruitment from Pakistan remains high. However. 185 . However. the ISI makes sure that those who help recruit while on the job are not neglected. initially the ISI made sure the money was delivered to the militant's parents but as the numbers started dwindling. Realising this.I felt I had to take revenge but now after fighting the army for more than three years I realise the futility of this 'freedom' movement. "If a militant motivates and enrols another youth." explained a source. he can make upto Rs 1.5 lakh.
The eight conflicts that the Indian armed forces have been involved in since 1947 are the four conflicts with Pakistan described in Chapter 11. The Daily Jang. M B Naqvi. and Operation Pawan. online edition.Indian Muslims and Pakistan.hindustantimes. 186 . online edition. the Indian peacekeeping operations in Northern Sri Lanka in the late 1980s. Who Owns Pakistan? Website by Shahid-ur-Rehman http://members. Sunday 7th March 2004 http://www. http://jang. Operation Vijay against the Portuguese occupation of Goa in 1961.com/richpaki/whoowns. September 28th 2003.ht m 2. Pakistan. the India-China war of 1962.com/news/181_602882. the long running lowgrade war of cross border terrorism from Pakistan described in Chapter 12.August 14th 2002.00300001. By Nadeem Malik.pk/thenews/dec2003daily/05-12-2003/main/main5. The Daily Jang.tripod.SOURCES AND REFERENCE MATERIAL 1. Human conditions not improving in Pakistan: report. December 5th 2003. Pakistan. 3. National stock-taking. http://jang.htm 6.com.htm 4. Pak population will swell to 349m by 2050. online edition.com.htm 5. Vir Sanghvi. Pakistan. Syed Asif Ali and Muddassir Rizvi KARACHI/ISLAMABAD: The Daily Jang.pk/thenews/sep2003-daily/26-092003/main/main7. Counterpoint.
htm 9.com. Special Report According to London's Financial Times.000 in a population of 134 million. http://www.com/id/4264215/ 11.msnbc. online edition. NBC News http://www. Pakistan.http://jang. Musharraf determined to change Muslim schools' 'indoctrination'. Television sets per 1000 people . Kavita Menon.com.pdf .a document published by the statistics division. the combined circulation of Pakistan's entire Englishlanguage press is no more than 150.pk/depts/fbs/publications/pocket_b ook2003/chapter02. The Press for Change.statpak.asp?page=story_1-82003_pg3_3 8.htm 7.htm 12. http://www. Op-ed: Our missing middle. online edition.alsagerschool. November 6th 2003.co.uk/subjects/sub_content/geogr aphy/Gpop/HTMLENH/stats/tvs.org/Briefings/2000/Pakistan_feb00/Pakistan 07feb00Br.pk/thenews/aug2002-daily/14-082002/oped/o5.pk/default. The Dawn. Pakistan. Donors want poverty trends reversed. http://www. August 1st 2003.msn. Reforming Pakistan's madrassas. The Daily Times. Pakistan. By Ihtashamul Haque. 187 .dailytimes.com/2003/11/06/op. by Ravian.Pakistan has 22 TV sets per 1000 population http://www. http://www.dawn.gov.html 10.cpj. page 2. By Tom Brokaw Anchor. Government of Pakistan.
http://www. online edition. S. The Washington Post. Pakistan.com/2003/01/20/fea.washingtonpost.13. 20th January 2003.the Barelvis have 1400. the Deobandis 550 and the Ahl-e-Hadith 347.In 1950 there were 210 of them while in 1971 they increased to 563. Thursday.dawn.centerforsecuritypolicy. online edition."At the time of the partition there were 137 madrassas. Quaidi-Azam University. The Asia Times online edition.com/atimes/South_Asia/DH29Df05. 2001 . Alexei Alexiev. 29 Aug 02 http://www.html 16. B.jsp?section= static&page=alexievpakistan 18. Chronicle Foreign Service. http://www.com/article. Nowadays there are at least 7000 of hem.php?sid=7657 17. A. Professor of Linguistics and South Asian Studies.DT 14. September 19th 2001. October 10. What and wherefore of Madaris. Center for Security Policy http://www. These are the Sunni madrassas" http://light. Nadeem Iqbal. Pamela Constable.htm1 15. Islamabad. Medievalism and Pakistan's madrassas. 2002.sfgate. The Pakistani Time Bomb.Jang : Opinion.and most are still unregistered . Jafri. The Dawn. The madrassas and the have-nots. Dr Tariq Rahman.atimes. The News . http://www.afgha.org/index. Out of the registered ones .cgi?f=/chronicle/a/2002/10/10/MN155006.com/cgibin/article. The San Francisco Chronicle. Deplorable schools angering Pakistanis Issue at the top of voters' agenda Juliette Terzieff. Saturday September 08. online edition.com/ac2/wp188 .
Sr. Khurshid Hasanain and A. Conflict and Violence in the Educational Process.pk/thenews/aug2003-weekly/nos-10-082003/enc.edu/globalbeat/southasia/06181998sreedhar1 189 . By Aijazz Ahmed http://www.htm 26. http://www. Sreedhar.com/atimes/South_Asia/EA14Df01. Others. http://www. http://members. Kamila Hyat.org/archive/nayyar_report.sdpi.THE MENACE OF EDUCATION What Are They Teaching In Pakistani Schools Today? by Pervez Hoodbhoy. Zobaida says anti-India material from curricula to be deleted. as we know them. Nayyar.com.H.Pakistan's Economic Dilemma. A not-so-subtle subversion. 1998.htm#1 23. June 18. The Daily Jang. Fellow. H. A.org/sustainers/content/200009/14hoodbhoy. "The Subtle Subversion . Monday March 08.nyu. Shireen M Mazari. http://www.com/~no_nukes_sa/chapter_8.html 22.com/news/index. online edition http://jang. http://www.paktribune.tripod.htm 24.The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan".dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A592202001Sep19¬Found=true 19. August 10th 2003. 2004 (1520 PST) http://www.zmag. Madrassas: A make-believe world.html 20.jang. IDSA.atimes. Pakistan.com.htm 21.php?id=57435 25.pk/thenews/mar2004-daily/10-032004/oped/o3. Nayyar and Ahmed Salim.
Subrahmanyam. Strategic Affairs Analysis. Editorial.Pak Link with Nuclear Black Market. K.stratmag.stuff.html 29. intelligence discovers China gave Pakistan a tested nuclear bomb design. Nuclear Threat Initiative.2106. April 2004 http://www.http://www.org/files/Publications/BallisticMissileCh art.00.nti..co. The Times of India.2741933a12. the air samples acquired over Chagai by US intelligence agencies.html 27. No 003/Issue Aug 16 http://www.wisconsinproject. Missile Overview. http://www.org/countries/china/nukemiles.com/issueAug-15/page06.ceip. around the period of the tests.asp?p=8 28.html 30. contained traces of plutonium.htm "According to a report leaked out of the Los Alamos Nuclear Laboratory.S.htm : U.nz/stuff/0. in the autumn of 1998. China Nuclear Milestones. had not had time to develop a warhead from the minimal quantities of plutonium 190 . Pakistan. The Risk Report Volume 6 Number 6 (November-December 2000). Gaurav Kampani. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 32. The Pretence is Over .org/e_research/profiles/Pakistan/Missile/i ndex_3066. Feb 1st 2004 31. Non Proliferation Project: Countries Possessing Ballistic Missiles http://www.
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