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Vena V. Verga
CRIMINAL LAW REVIEWER
I. History of the Revised Penal Law Codification Movement -- sought to have all laws codified or written in a single body of aw. Spanish Codigo Penal which, without expressly prohibiting certain acts, impose a penalty on their commission. Note: Non-payment of taxes is merely a civil liability/indemnity. The tax code as it exists today which carries punishments may be considered penal provisions. People vs. Moran Facts: The accused violated the election code and was sentenced by the lower court. He was asking for reconsideration and filed a special motion alleging that the crime complained of had prescribed under the provision of section 71 of Act 3030, enacted by the Legislature on March 9, 1922. Issue: W/N penal laws provide for not only penalty but also prescription. Decision: Yes. Decision: The court found the crime to have prescribed (in accordance with the new law) and set aside the decision. The Election law contained in the Administrative Code and Act 3030 which amended and modified the former, it is evident that the provision declaring that offenses resulting from the violations of said Act shall prescribe one year after their commission must have retroactive effect, the same being favorable to the accused. An exception- to give them retroactive effect when favorable to accused. The exception applies to a law dealing with prescription of crime: Art 22 applies to a law dealing with prescription of an offense which is intimately connected with that of the penalty, for the length of time for prescription depends upon the gravity of the offense. Penal laws not only provide for penalties but also prescriptions. III. Rationale of Penal Laws
The royal order dated December 17, 1886, directing the execution of the royal decree of September 4, 1884, wherein it was ordered that the Penal Code in force in the Peninsula, as amended in accordance with the recommendations of the code committee, be published and applied in the Philippine Islands, as well as the Provisional Law of Criminal Procedure which accompanied it. These two laws, having been published in the Official Gazette of Manila on March 13 and 14, 1887, became effective in July 14, 1876. (US. vs. Tamparong)
Codigo Penal ng Pilipinas – modified the Spanish Penal Code. US Period – they tried to translate the Penal code but certain areas were defectively translated Definition of Penal Law and Criminal Law
A. B. C. D. E. F.
Penal laws – laws which relates to penalties Criminal laws – laws which relates to crimes Felony -- A crime under the Revised Penal Code is referred to as a felony. Do not use this term in reference to a violation of special law. Offense -- A crimes punished under a special law is called as statutory offense. Misdemeanor --A minor infraction of the law, such as a violation of an ordinance, is referred to as a misdemeanor. Crime -- Whether the wrongdoing is punished under the Revised Penal Code or under a special law, the generic word crime can be used.
US vs. Sotto Facts: Vicente Sotto is the director, editor, publisher and printer of a weekly paper. On May 1915, he edited the paper with the intention of attacking them reputation of Lope K. Santos and two other principals of a labor group. He was found guilty of libel. Issue: W/N Sotto was guilty Decision: Yes. Penalties are used to deter people from doing the same crime. A deterrent effect upon others is one of the purposes of the infliction of a penalty for the violation of the criminal law (Exemplarity). People vs. Carillo and Raquenio
Lorenzo vs. Posadas Issue: W/N Art. 3606 of a tax law is a penal law thus can be applied retroactively in conformity with the provisions of Art. 22 of RPC. Decision: A statute is penal when it imposes punishment for an offense committed against the state. “Penal Statutes” are statutes, which command or prohibit certain acts and establish penalties for their violation, and even those,
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Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes)
Facts: Carillo was sentenced with death penalty for the crimes of robbery, attempted rape and homicide. His accomplice was only charged for robbing Emma Abaya and Marcelino Lontok. Issue: W/N the penalty for Carillo was justified. Decision: The accused is a dangerous enemy of the society thus, imposition of the highest penalty if justified. Carillo has proved himself to be a dangerous enemy of society. The latter must protect itself from such enemy by taking his life in retribution for his offense and as an example and warning to others. In these days of rampant criminality it should have a salutary effect upon the criminally minded to know that the courts do not shirk their disagreeable duty to impose the death penalty in cases where the law so requires. People vs. Young Facts: Jimmy Young is a hired killer who committed a crime of murder under Art 248 of the RPC. He refused to plea guilty because according to him, his guilt is lighter than those who ordered the killing of Alfonso Liongto. He was sentenced with death penalty in accordance with Art 248 in relation to Art 64 of the RPC. However, RA 296, which was approved 17 June 1948, provides that for a penalty of death is imposed, all justices of the Supreme Court must first concur. Said law is procedural thus can be applied to cases pending at the time of its approval. Issue: W/N Young should be charged with the crime of murder. Decision: One of the justices dissented, thus death penalty was not imposed. The killing in question was attended by evident premeditation which qualified the crime as murder: (a) it was committed in consideration of a price reward or promise and (b) with treachery. This case also provides the notion of aggravating circumstances (acts that would provide for higher penalties – art 14) and mitigating circumstances (provides for lighter penalties – art 13). Death penalty was imposed to rationalize the concept of Exemplarity: making a person example to serve as a deterrent) People vs. Revilla Facts: The accused was charged for the crime of infidelity in the custody of the prisoners. Nicasio Junio, the prisoner, was only sentenced to suffer six days of arresto menor only, a penalty that may be served in the house of the offender because of the condition of his health. The municipality also could not feed him Nicasio for lack of appropriation, Revilla then believed that this act in permitting Nicasio to sleep in his own house was not grave in nature, being at most a mere relaxation of the rules prescribed for the care and custody of municipal prisoners. Revilla was charged under Art 223 for his actions.
Vena V. Verga
Issue: W/N the charge against Revilla is proportionate to the act he committed. Decision: No. His action then was due to a mistaken conception of his duty, hence it is obvious that the penalty imposed against him is notoriously excessive to the extent of being cruel for being out of proportion with the crime committed. The penalty was not proportionate to the evil to be curbed. Retribution, the penalty should be commensurate with the gravity of the offense. The penalty imposed upon the accused for infidelity in the custody of a prisoner sentenced to only six days of arresto menor being excessive, such fact should be brought to the attention of His Excellency, the President of the Philippines for him to decide whether or not it would be convenient to recommend to the national assembly the amendment of art 223 of RPC (conniving with or consenting to evasion) so as to make it more in consonance with the amplitude of the matters that a court must consider in meting out punishment to whoever may have the misfortune f infringing the precept regarding infidelity in the custody of prisoners or detained prisoners. People vs. Galano Facts: Galano was accused of falsification of one peso bill, which he used to purchase four eggs. He was found guilty and was sentenced to suffer intermediate penalty ranging from 10 years and 1 day to 12 years and 10 months. The Solicitor General believes that the punishment is too harsh. Issue: W/N the penalty if too harsh Decisions: The punishment is too harsh and it may not actually serve the purpose of the legislator. Imprisonment may change an individual but it can also expose the person to hardened criminal. Thus, punishments should be applied with care. A copy of the decision was sent to the president for the exercise of executive clemency. IV. Two theories in Criminal Law Classical Theory Basis of criminal liability is human free will and purpose of penalty is retribution “An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.” – Oculo pro oculo, dente pro dente.] Man is a moral creature with absolute free will to choose between good and evil, thereby placing more stress upon the effect or result of felonious act than upon the man. Endeavored to establish a mechanical and direct proportion between crime and penalty
1. 2. 3. 4.
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Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes)
5. The purpose of penalty is retribution. The offender is made to suffer for the wrong he has done. There is scant regard to the human element.
Vena V. Verga
provisions of a municipal ordinance. The petitioner was criminally convicted by the trial court for not paying the surcharge. Issue: W/N the petitioner can be prosecuted criminally of her non-payment of the rental. Decision: No. The surcharge for non-payment if not a penalty under criminal law but only an amount added to the usual charge. It is more of an administrative penalty, which can be recovered only by civil action. VI. Common Law Crimes definition: body of principles, usages and rules of action which do not rest for their authority upon any express or positive declaration of the will of the legislature common law crimes are not recognized in the country the codification movement provided for all crimes to be codified, thus, a crime not punishable by law is not a crime at all. Power to define and punish crimes
Positivist theory 1. Man is occasionally subdued by a strange and morbid phenomenal which pushes him to do wrong in spite or contrary to his volition 2. Crime is a social and natural phenomenon, it cannot be created and checked by application of abstract principle of law and jurisprudence nor by imposition of penalties, fixed and determined a priori. 3. Rehabilitation by means of individual measures on case to case basis. Advocates personal and individual investigation, conducted by competent body of psychiatrist and social scientist.
A. B. C.
Crimes Definition 1. Felony 2. Offense 3. Infraction of Ordinance (a) When penalty imposed is not an exercise of sovereign power to define crimes and provide punishment.
People vs. Santiago Facts: Defendant was found guilty of killing a seven-year-old boy. He is now appealing the decision stating that Act 2886 of the Philippine Legislature, which provides that “all prosecution for offenses shall be in the name of the People of the Philippines” is unconstitutional for amending General Order No. 58 which has a character of a constitutional law. Issue: W/N Act 2886 is unconstitutional. Decision: The procedure in criminal matters is not incorporated in the constitution but is left in the hands of the legislature so that it falls within the real of public statutory law. The state has the authority, under its police power, to define and punish crimes and to lay down the rules of criminal procedure. States, as a part of their police power, have a large measure of discretion in creating and defining criminal offenses. People vs. Taylor Facts: The defendant, being the acting editor and proprietor, manager, printer and publisher of Manila Bulletin was accused of committing libel against a member of the Philippine bar. Issue: W/N the defendant is guilty of libel.
De Guzman vs. Subido Facts: de Guzman who is a civil service eligible for passing the civil service exam was disqualified from any appointment for having violated the Jaywalking laws and ordinance concerning cocheros, which according to the lower court constitutes a crime. Issue: W/N said acts constitute a crime Decision: No. A penalty imposed for breach of a municipal regulation does not necessarily constitute a criminal offense. A violation of a municipal ordinance to qualify as a crime must involve a least a certain degree of evil doing, immoral conduct, corruption, malice or want of principles reasonably related to the requirements of the public office. A crime is an act committed or omitted in violation of public laws. Ordinances are not public laws. Criminal acts, in its commission, have some immoral intention. Conde vs. Mamenta Facts: Petitioner refused to pay the new rates of the stall she was holding stating that the increased rate was excessive. The increase is based on the
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Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes)
Decision: In the Philippines, there exist no crimes called “common law crimes” No act constitutes a crime here unless it is made so by law. Libel is made a crime here by Act 277 of the US Philippine Commission. However, in order to prove that the defendant is Guilty of the crime, it must be proven that he is the ‘auditor, editor, or proprietor’ of the said newspaper. There was no proof of this because evidence shows that he is merely the manager. Petition was dismissed. People vs. Pomar Facts: The manager of La Flor granted a maternity leave to Macaria but refused to pay Php 80.00 to which the employee is entitled as her regular wage as stated in Sec. 13 of Act 3071. Issue: W/N Act 3071 us unlawful exercise of police power. Decision: The police power is the power vested in the legislature of the state to make, ordain, and establish all manner of wholesome and reasonable laws, statutes, and ordinances, either with penalties or without, which are not repugnant to the constitution as they shall judge to be for the good and welfare of the commonwealth, and of the subjects of the state US vs. Pablo Facts: Andres Pablo, a policeman, reported that he saw Rodrigo and Malicsi in the jueteng arena and then testified on the contrary during the trial. He was charged with perjury and convicted under Act. 1697 which was said to have repealed articles 318 and 324 of the penal code. Issue: Can the defendant be punished? Decision: The right of prosecution and punishment for a crime is one of the attributes that by a natural law belongs to the sovereign power instinctively charged by the common will of the members of society to look after, guard and defend the interests of the community as well as rights of each individual. Imposing punishments should be the last resort: our laws do not merely provide for retribution but it also provides for laws that are in favor of the offender. US vs. Gustillo Facts: Gustillo was already convicted of a crime for illegal possession of firearms. However, another information was filed against him for the same crime but for a different ammunition which he already possessed at the same time and same place the first information was filed against him. Issue: W/N Gustillo may be prosecuted for the second time for the same violation.
Vena V. Verga
Decision: The prosecution violated the Philippines Bill and Act No. 89 which embody the principle that no person shall be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense because this rule covers as nearly as possible every single criminal act born of a single criminal intent even though more than one crime is committed by said act. People vs. Chong Hong Facts: The defendants were convicted for violation of Ordinance No. 394, which prohibits the playing of jueteng. The court ordered for the dismissal of the case on the ground that said ordinance is null and void for it conflicts with Art 195 of the RPC, which provides for lesser penalties than the ordinance. Issue W/N Ordinance 394 conflicts with the law. Decision: It is admitted that jueteng is already prohibited and penalized in article 195 of the Revised Penal Code. But the fact that an act is already prohibited and penalized by a general law does not preclude the enactment of a municipal ordinance covering the same matter. The rule is well settled that the same act may constitute an offense against both the state and a political subdivision thereof and both jurisdictions may punish the act, without. infringing any constitutional principle. As a general rule, additional regulation to that of the state law does not constitute a conflict therewith. The fact that an ordinance enlarges upon the provisions of a statute by requiring more than the statute requires creates no conflict therewith, unless the statute limits the requirement for all cases to its own prescription. Both the ordinance and RPC prohibit and penalize the same act and the distinction in penalties is necessary because of the peculiar conditions of the locality. Ngo Yao Tit and Chia Eng Cheng vs. Sheriff of Manila Facts: Before the court is an application for the writ of habeas corpus. Petitioners were charged of visiting a house where opium was smoked. They now claimed that the court erred in their decision because it does not have jurisdiction over the case. Issue: W/N the court has jurisdiction to try the case. Decision: It is not a jurisdictional defect and one which deprives the trial court of its authority to try, convict, and pass sentence, that a criminal action is brought in the name of the city of Manila instead of the United States. That fact constitutes a mere defect or error curable at any stage of the action does not deprive the court of the power to pronounce a valid judgment and impose a valid sentence. Offenses committed in the Philippines are crimes against the people of the Philippines.
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1. (a) (b)
Vena V. Verga
Persons subject to Military Law (Art. 2 of the Commonwealth Act No. 408, articles of war) are not immune from suit but are covered by the articles of war. Officers, members of nurse corps and soldiers belonging to the regular forces of the Philippine Army All reservist from the date of theor call to active duty and while on such active duty All trainees undergoing military duty All persons lawfully called/drafted Cades. Flying cadets and probationary third lieutenants Retainers to the camp All persons under sentence adjudged by courts martial As provided in the treaties and laws of preferential application. Example: Bases agreements between US and Philippines and RP-US Visiting Forces Accord. RA No. 75 – law of preferential application in favor of diplomatic representatives. It extends the diplomatic privilege to the members of the household and domestic servants that were registered with the DFA The constitution is a law of preferential operation By virtue of principles of Pubic international law – these people possess immunity from the criminal jurisdiction of the country of their sojourn and cannot be sued, arrested or punished by the law of that country: Absolute Exemptions (a) Sovereigns and other chiefs of state (b) Ambassadors, ministers plenipotentiary, ministers resident, and charges d’affaires, ambassadors extraordinary (Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and Protocol) Relative Exemptions (c) consuls and vice consuls: honorary consuls not exempted.
Characteristics of criminal law
GENERAL -- criminal law is binding on all persons who live or sojourn in Philippine territory (art 14, New Civil Code).
People vs. Galacgac Facts: Enrique Galacgac was a naturalized US citizen. He arrived in the Philippines to visit his wife and in his possession is a gun, which is gift to the said spouse. Upon reaching his in-law’s home, he and his wife had a fight, which caused his brother in law to beat him on the head. In retaliation, he fired indiscriminately wounding his wife’s brothers and sisters. He was accused of attempted parricide but retorted that the Philippines has no jurisdiction over him since he is an American Citizen. Issue: W/N Galagcac enjoys extra-territoriality rights Decision: No. No foreigner enjoys in this country extra-territorial right to be exempted from its laws and jurisdiction, with exception of heads of states and diplomatic representatives who, by virtue of customary law of nations, are not subject to the Philippine territorial jurisdiction. Note: As a general rule, the jurisdiction of the civil courts is not affected by the military character of the accused US vs. Sweet Facts: Sweet was an employee of the US Army in the Philippines. He assaulted a prisoner of war for which he was charged with the crime of physical injuries. Sweet interposed the defense that the fact that he was an employee of the US military authorities deprived the court if the jurisdiction to try and punish him. Issue: W/N Philippine courts have jurisdiction to try Sweet Decision: An assault committed by a military employee upon a prisoner of war is a violation of the general penal law, and as such it imposes criminal responsibility. Jurisdiction of the civil tribunals is unaffected by the military or other special character of the person brought before them for trial, unless controlled by express legislation to the contrary. Exemptions to the Principle of Generality 3. 2.
(c) (d) (e) (f) (g)
Note: a) b) Public International Law and treaties are deemed part of the law of the land. For a person to be immune, he/she must be able to invoke a provision of public international law/treaty; law of preferential application or customary international law.
Schneckenburger vs. Moran Facts: Petitioners is a honorary consul of Uruguay in manila charged with falsification of private documents. He objected on the jurisdiction of the Courts
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of First Instance on the ground that under the Philippine an US constitution, lower courts have no jurisdiction to try him Issue: W/N the lower courts have jurisdiction to try the consul. Decision: It is well settled that a consul is not entitled to the privileges and immunities of an ambassador or minister, but is subject to the laws and regulations of the country to which he is accredited. A consul is not exempt from criminal prosecution for violations of the laws of the country where he resides. Courts of First Instance were vested with original jurisdiction over all criminal cases in which a penalty of more than six months' imprisonment or a fine exceeding one hundred dollars might be imposed. Such jurisdiction included the trial of criminal actions brought against consuls. Time Inc. vs. Reyes Facts: Enrile and Villegas filed a suit against Time Inc for an article regarding corruption in Asia where the two were featured. RA 4363 provides that public officials should file their petitions in the place where they are rendering their service. Villegas filed his petition in Rizal and not in Manila. Issue: W/N the case will prosper and W/N corporations may be sued Decision: The rule is that where a statute creates a right and provides a remedy for its enforcement, the remedy is exclusive; and where it confers jurisdiction upon a particular court, that jurisdiction is likewise exclusive, unless otherwise provided. Hence, the venue provisions of Republic Act No. 4363 should be deemed mandatory for the party bringing the action, unless the question of venue should be waived by the defendant which was not the case here. A corporation is immune from suit but it may, by writ of prohibition, seek relief against the wrongful assumption of jurisdiction. And a foreign corporation seeking a writ of prohibition against further maintenance of a suit, on the ground of want of jurisdiction, is not bound by the ruling of the court in which the suit was brought. WHO vs. Aquino Facts: Respondent judge issued a search warrant for the search and seizure of the personal effects of the petitioner, an official of the WHO. Despite intervention of the Solicitor General and the DFA that Mr. Verstuyft is covered with diplomatic immunity, the judge refused to withdraw the search warrant. Issue: W/N the action of the judge is a violation of RA 75 and thus an abuse of discretion. Decision: Yes. It is a recognized principle of international law and under our system of separation of powers that diplomatic immunity is essentially a political question and courts should refuse to look beyond a determination by 1. 2. 3. 4.
Vena V. Verga
the executive branch of the government, and where the plea of diplomatic immunity is recognized and affirmed by the executive branch of government as, in the case at bar, it is then the duty of the courts to accept the claim of immunity upon appropriate suggestion by the principal law officer of the government, the Solicitor General in this case, or other officer acting under his direction. Hence, in adherence to the settled principle that courts may not so exercise their jurisdiction by seizure and detention of property, as to embarrass the executive arm of the government in conducting foreign relations, it is accepted doctrine that "in such cases the judicial department of (this) government follows the action of the political branch and will not embarrass the latter by assuming an antagonistic jurisdiction."
PRINCIPLE OF TERRITORIALITY -- As a rule. Penal laws of the Philippines are enforceable only within its territory. If the power to define crimes is the power of the sovereign, it must be followed that such sovereign can only exercise such power within its jurisdiction/territory. Territory Atmosphere Interior Waters Maritime zone
Note: Limits of the territorial sea (by UNCLOS) is only 3 miles from the seashore. What is followed now is the 12-mile rule plus the 12-mile contiguous zone. But for purposes of criminal law, our jurisdiction only extends to the territorial sea. Classification of Vessels: 1. Foreign public vessels – war vessels/war ships (ex. Lawton Ship in US vs. Fowler). War vessels are considered to be an extension of the nationality of the owner of said vessel and cannot be subjected to the laws of the state (a) US vs. Fowler Facts: Theft was committed on board a transport while navigating the high seas. The accused were brought to trial and defendants contends that the Court of First Instance have no jurisdiction over the case because the crime was committed in a foreign public vessel and on high seas. Issue: W/N the court has jurisdiction to try the case. Decision: No. Courts of First Instance of the Philippines have no jurisdiction to take cognizance of crimes committed on the high seas on board of a transport or other vessel not registered or licensed in the Philippines. Warships are Foreign Public Vessels
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the person in possession of opium on board the vessel is liable. authorities found said substances. the vessel is within the territorial waters and thus. without being used in our territory. which makes it a Philippine ship or airship. Note: In the Philippines. the laws of the Philippines shall apply. Foreign merchant vessels – more or less subjected to the territorial laws. Jose). Issue: W/N the Philippines has jurisdiction over this case. It is not necessary that the opium be discharged or taken from the ship (US vs. (b) Foreign Merchant Vessel In Transit Foreign Merchant Vessels Note: A Philippine vessel or aircraft must be understood as that which is registered in the Philippine Bureau of Customs. because that fact alone does not constitute a breach of public order. we observe the English rule (a) US vs. Bull Facts: H. Issue: W/N the crime of illegal importation of opium in to the Philippines was proven. Importation is complete when the ship anchored in the Philippine port. (US vs. (US vs. Bull contends that the Philippine courts have no jurisdiction over his offense. because he may be held guilty of illegal importation of opium. Defendant brought eight cans of opium and upon inspection. which was of English nationality. He was on board the steamship Errol. Decision: When a vessel comes within 3 miles from the headland which embrace the entrance of Manila Bay. A charge of illegal importation was served against him. A continuing crime committed on board a Norwegian merchant vessel sailing to the Philippines is within the jurisdiction of the courts of the Philippine when the forbidden conditions existed during the time the ship was within the territorial waters. Foreign Merchant Vessels not in transit Note: The state is not obligated to give immunity on crimes done in foreign public vessels. Issue: W/N the courts have jurisdiction over a foreign vessel in transit. The defense moved for the dismissal of the case on the ground that the courts have no jurisdiction since the act does not constitute a crime. who was the master of a vessel transporting cattle. Ah Sing Facts: Defendant is a fireman of the steamship Shun Chang.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) always reputed to be the territory of the country to which they belong an cannot be subjected to the laws of another state. regardless of the fact that the same conditions existed when the ship sailed from the foreign port and while it was on the high seas. Rules as to jurisdiction over crimes committed aboard foreign merchant vessels while in the territorial waters of another country 1. (c) US vs. Vena V. such crimes are triable in that country where they were committed. It is the registration of the vessel or aircraft in accordance with the laws of the Philippines. carabao and other animals from Formosa to Manila. not the citizenship of its owner. A US Army transport is considered a warship. Verga US vs. 275 of the Philippine Commission. This is just a matter of comity. Landing or using opium is an open violation of the Philippine laws. Decision: Mere possession of opium aboard a foreign merchant vessel in transit is not triable in the Philippines. French courts therefore claim exclusive jurisdiction over crimes committed on board French merchant vessels in foreign ports by one member of the crew against another. The mere possession of opium on such a ship. a foreign steamer. Such neglect was a violation of Act. 2. failed to provide suitable means for securing animas while they are in transit. Look Chaw Facts: The defendant was charged with unlawful possession and sale of opium. otherwise. Bull) 5. which docked at the port of Cebu. Decision: When a foreign merchant vessel is not in transit because the Philippines is its terminal port. No. Exemptions to the territorial application of criminal law Article 2 of RPC provides that its provisions shall be forced outside of the jurisdiction of the Philippines against those who: 1) Should commit an offense while on a Philippine ship or airship. /vvverga Page 7 of 100 .N Bull. French Rule – such crimes are not triable in the courts of that country. Bull) English Rule –The English only exercise their jurisdiction on issues that involve the internal management of vessel. does not bring about in this country those disastrous effects that our law contemplates on avoiding. unless their commission affects the peace and security of the territory or the safety of the state is endangered. But our courts acquire jurisdiction when the tunes of opium are landed from the vessel on Philippine sol. which came from Hong Kong and was bound to Mexico via the ports of Manila.
There is no crime when there is no law punishing the same. Penal statutes cannot be made retroactive with respect to a crime. The judge imposed a sentence with heavier penalty in accordance with a new law. flight to enemy’s country. PRINCIPLE OF IRRESTROSPECTIVITY OR PROSPECTIVITY – penal law cannot make an act punishable in a manner in which it was not punishable when it was not committed. piracy and mutiny on the high seas. treason. while being a public officer or employee. Nullum crimen. 4) When the offender. it should be substituted by the words "United States" and wherever "Spaniards" are mentioned. 3) When the offender should be liable for acts connected with the introduction to the Philippines of the obligations and securities mentioned in the preceding number. Ex post facto laws Rule: No ex post facto laws shall be enacted. LOL-LO and SARAW Facts: The defendants were charged of the crime of piracy for pirating two Dutch boats as well as raping two of the women. which took effect two months after the trial. Issue: W/N Act. The jurisdiction of piracy unlike all other crimes has no territorial limits. in the exercise of public functions are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 5) direct bribery indirect bribery frauds against the public treasury possession of prohibited interest malversation of public funds or property failure of accountable officer to render accounts illegal use of public funds or property failure to make delivery of public funds or property falsification by a public officer or employee committed with abuse of his official position. Note: Counterfeiting or forging Philippine coins or bank notes in a foreign country may be prosecuted before Philippine civil courts. US vs. He was sentenced to pay a fine and was also sentenced to imprisonment in case of insolvency with respect to the fine imposed. Macasaet Facts: The defendant was proven guilty of selling native wine at retail without the license required by law. conspiracy and proposal to commit treason. violation of neutrality. It may be punished in the competent tribunal of any country where the offender may be found or into which lie may be carried. even in abroad. When the offender should commit any of the crimes against the national security and law of nations. Note: This case is an exception to the exception. Defendants contend that the provisions of the penal code dealing with piracy are no longer in force.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. Spain ceded the Philippine Islands to the US. espionage. Decision: No. 1732 which imposed both the fine and the imprisonment should be applied on this case. should commit an offense in the exercise of his functions. when committed. At 366 of RPC provide that crimes are punished under the laws in force at the time of their commission. An ex post facto law is one which: (1) makes criminal in act done before the passage of the law and which was innocent when done. inciting was and giving motives for reprisals. or other offense. the word should be substituted by the expression. 1732 did not go into force until after the commission of the offense. (2) aggravates a crime. Decision: Yes. unless they are favorable to the person accused. Inasmuch as Act No. Issue: W/N the provisions of the penal code dealing with the crime of piracy are still in force. C. "citizens of the United States and citizens of the Philippine Islands. By virtue of the Treaty of Paris. but not to common law countries. Note: Introducing fake currency in the Philippine is as dangerous as forging or counterfeiting of the same. to the economical interest of the country. It is but a logical construction that wherever "Spain" is mentioned in the Penal Code. Note: This include. Verga 2) When the offender should forge or counterfeit any coin or currency note of the Philippines or obligations and securities by the Government. subsidiary imprisonment can not be lawfully imposed. nulla poena sine lege -. correspondence with hostile country. This is true to civil law countries. People vs. /vvverga Page 8 of 100 . It is logical for laws to look forward and not backward." Piracy is a crime not against any particular State but against all mankind. No. or makes it greater than it was. Note: crimes that may be committed. and punishes such in act.
(a) Degree of Imposable Penalty is reduced People vs. Issue: W/N the law is unconstitutional Decision: A bill of attainder is a legislative act.000 pesos with subsidiary imprisonment in case of insolvency. The prohibition against ex post facto laws applies only to criminal or penal matters. as long as he is not a habitual delinquent.A.000 pesos only. The principle of the retroactivity of penal laws in so far as it is favorable to the defendant is sanctioned by the Revised Penal Code. 6132 saying that it is an ex post facto law. Even if the accused is serving final judgment. such as the protection of a former conviction or acquittal. the penalty is imposed only for acts committed after the approval of the law and not those perpetuated prior thereto. It is so provided in Art. he can avail of the amended." Only those who "knowingly. Issue: W/N Subido be required to suffer subsidiary imprisonment. in effect imposes penalty or deprivation of a right for something which when done was lawful. in case of insolvency to pay his civil liability. This was denied. 5465 which exempts an accused person from subsidiary imprisonment in case of insolvency to pay his civil liability. Considering that Art. as amended by R. Decision: No. The CA ordered the accused to pay a fine of 500 pesos and indemnity is reduced to 5. not to laws. In re: Kay Villegas Kami. to indemnify the offended party. 8 (a) and 18 of RA No. he cannot also be required to serve his civil liability to the offended party in form of subsidiary imprisonment because this is no longer required by the aforesaid article. to pay a fine of 500 pesos. become or remain members of the Communist Party of the Philippines and/or its successors or of any subversive association" after June 20. Its essence is the substitution of a legislative for a judicial determination of guilt. or a proclamation of amnesty. as amended is favorable to the accused. Applying Art. Inc. which inflicts punishment without trial. and authorizes conviction upon less or different testimony than the law required at the time of the commission of the offense. Section 4 of the Anti-Subversion Act expressly states that the prohibition therein applies only to acts committed "After the approval of this Act. 1957. Facts: The petitioners are assailing the constitutionality of Sec. Bill of Attainder as Ex Post Facto Law People vs. Decision: No. and (6) deprives a person accused of a crime of some lawful protection to which he has become entitled. Appealed to the Court of Appeals. Subido Facts: CFI of Manila found the accused guilty of libel and is hereby sentenced to 3 months of arresto mayor with accessory penalties of the law. /vvverga Page 9 of 100 . Decision: Yes.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) (3) changes the punishment and inflicts a greater punishment than the law annexed to the crime when committed. (4) alters the legal rules of evidence. even if the same was not stated in the decision of CA. 39 as amended. lighter penalty. having already served for more than three years is entitled to be discharged under the provisions of Art. willfully and by overt acts affiliate themselves with. 22 of the RPC. interest of accused in the twostorey building. When favorable to the accused Vena V. are punished. Sheriff then attached whatever rights. the same should be made applicable to him. 22 of the penal code. (5) assuming to regulate civil rights and remedies only. 1700 or the Anti Subversion Act on the ground that is a bill of attainder. The petitioner. Issue: W/N the petition is justified. and so he filed a third party claim enjoining the sheriff to proceed with the sale. Santos Facts: Petitioner was convicted for the crime of estafa and was sentenced to serve for 2 years and 11 months imprisonment to indemnify the offended party. 39 of the RPC. Macasaet Escalante vs. he has not yet been released. Lower court issued a writ of injunction. which concern civil matters. Lower court states that he should suffer subsidiary imprisonment. After 3 years. 39. but the same was registered in the name of Agapito Subido. Appellant said that he could not be required to serve the amount of fine and indemnity in the form of subsidiary imprisonment because said judgment did not expressly provide that. Verga People vs. Ferrer Facts: The defendants assail the constitutionality of RA No. The said law prohibits the petitioner’s nominee to be nominated in the constitutional convention since he represents a part. Accused-appellant is favored by the retroactive force of Art. He is petitioning for habeas corpus. Although section 18 penalizes a violation of any of the provision of RA 1632. Exceptions to the prospective application of criminal laws (When penal law apply retroactively) 1. Mayor Arsenio Lacson in the sum of 10. Issue: W/N the said law is an ex post facto law and thus unconstitutional.
Act No. found guilty. B. Moran Exceptions to retroactivity of laws (a) Accused is a habitual criminal (Art. as it was in the Code that preceded it. And the Legislature. under section 366 of the New Penal Code. People vs. Issue: W/N the new law can apply to the accused. which provided that such a marriage extinguished penal liability. article 344. and was accordingly relieved from the criminal prosecution by virtue of section 2." If it was not the intention of the Legislature to make the new Code retroactive. and article 448 of the Penal Code then in force. (c) Later Statute Precludes Application to Existing Actions or Pending Cases Tavera vs. Santos Facts: The petitioner. Decision: No. he had been prosecuted. the penalty. committed prior to the date of effectiveness of this Code. 22) (b) Accused Disregards Later law and invokes prior statute under which he was prosecuted. Decision: It is believed that the Revised Penal Code. Verga Facts: The accused was charged with offense of injurias graves under articles of the RPC. but not to common law countries. all crimes must be so defined and penalized under the law (art. but as to such causes of action or pending actions existing laws shall remain in full force and effect. so far as the same may be in conflict herewith.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Note: Removal of subsidiary imprisonment to pay civil liability (b) Prescribing Grounds for Mitigation or Extinction of Criminal Liability Vena V. With Nicolas Lachica. F. All penal laws have been declared retroactive by the Honorable Supreme Court. are hereby repealed: Provided. X. Issue: W/N Laceste should be freed. applies to the case of the herein petitioner." The principle of retroactivity of penal laws in so far as they favor the defendant. Act No. felonies and misdemeanors. 1773. B. A. Clemente Laceste. Laceste vs. which was not affected by the marriage of his coaccused and the offended party. This is true to civil law countries. IX. XI. Principle of Pro Reo -. has been sanctioned in the Revised Penal Code. That nothing herein contained shall operate as a repeal of existing laws in so far as they are applicable to pending actions or existing causes of action.Whenever a penal law is to be construed or applied and the law admits of two interpretations – one lenient to the /vvverga Page 10 of 100 . PRINCIPLE OF LEGALITY: Nullum crimen. 21) PERSONAL – Penal laws does not allow anyone to assume another’s criminal liability PRINCIPLE OF CERTAINTY – every act made punishable by law must be so defined as to leave no penumbra of doubt or uncertainty as to its applicability to a given case. Magdalena de Ocampo. prays the court to set him at liberty through the writ of habeas corpus. Valdez A. pleading that there is no sufficient legal ground for continuing his imprisonment any longer." The general rule that penal laws shall be retroactive in so far as they favor the accused has no application where the later law is expressly made inapplicable to pending actions or existing causes of action. and that he should be discharged from prison. no liability if felonious act is committed without free will Ignorance of the law excuses no one from compliance therewith Limitations on the power of the lawmaking body to enact penal legislation No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted No person shall be held to answer for criminal offenses without due process of law – criminal laws must be of general application and must clearly define the acts and omissions punished as crimes. Basic Maxims in Criminal Law E. 3815. shall be punished in accordance with the Code or Acts in force at the time of their commission. But the petitioner herein continued serving his sentence. last paragraph. Nicola Lachica married the victim. Other fundamental Assumptions of Penal Law Free-will or freedom to choose between right and wrong. A. nulla poena sine lege -. because section 366 provides: "Without prejudice to the provisions contained in article 22 of this Code. has clearly intended to give retroactive effect to article 22. and sentenced to commitment for the crime of rape. instead of "without prejudice.There is no crime when there is no law punishing the same. and hence. Section 13 of the new act provides as follows: "All laws and parts of laws now in force. it would have used the words "notwithstanding" or "in spite of". (c) Providing for Prescription of offenses D.
Charge of rape based upon the sole testimony of the one who complains of rape should be regarded with utmost caution and that the person charged with the offense should not be convicted unless the complainant's testimony is impeccable and rings true throughout. The requirement of proof beyond reasonable doubt calls for moral certainty of guilt -. /vvverga Page 11 of 100 . nisi mens sit rea -. or those that result from negligence. Decision: No.The act cannot be criminal where the mind is not criminal. This rule may be invoked only where the law is ambiguous and there is doubt as to its interpretation. Decision: No. This kind of construction is very much open to police extortion thus must be avoided. Purisima Facts: Twenty six petitions for review were filed by the People of the Philippines involving the information filed charging the respective accused with violation of PD No. RTC convicted the defendant but he appealed contending that evidences were not enough to warrant a conviction. Decision: No. Penal statues must be construed strictly against the state and liberally in favor of the accused. Alzaga Facts: Roy Alzaga was found guilty by the RTC for the crime of murder. but not a felony resulting from culpa. the object is to establish a certain rule by conformity to which mankind would be safe. Gatchalian). The case at bar falls short to the quantum of evidence required to sustain a conviction of rape thereby creating reasonable doubt as to appellant's guilt. Ng Facts: The defendant was charged with the crime of forcible abduction with rape. People vs. there is no room for the application of this rule (People vs. See: Principle of Pro-reo B. The reason for this is the “tenderness of the law of the rights of individuals. The courts of first instances issued an order quashing the in formations filed alleging that the facts failed to state one essential element of the crime Issue: W/N the informations filed by the people were sufficient in form and substance to constitute an offence of ‘illegal possession of deadly weapon’ penalized under PD No. Verga XII. B. Vena V. During arraignment. the accused should be acquitted since evidence failed to fulfill the test of moral certainty to support a conviction. 9. There were also testimonies which were inconsistent to the guilt of the accused. then we have to sustain the interpretation. Construction of penal laws Liberal Construction In Favor of the Offender (a) Reason Note: Ambiguity – occurs when an act falls under more than one law or when the law is susceptible to more than one interpretation People vs. Where the law is clear and unambiguous. Actus non facit reum. and the discretion of the court limited. The informations merely contained the first element – that is. carrying outside one’s residence of any bladed. which leads to acquittal.a certainty that convinces and satisfies the reason and the conscience of those who are to act upon it. The purpose is not to enable the guilty person to escape punishment through technicality but to provide precise definition of forbidden acts. A. No person should be brought within their terms who is not clearly within them nor should any act be pronounced criminal which is not made clearly so be a statute. Penal laws should be construed strictly. Issue: W/N the evidences were enough to warrant a charge of guilty beyond reasonable doubt. blunt or pointed weapon – but it failed to include the second element. accused pleaded not guilty.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) offender and one strict to the offender – that interpretation which is lenient or favorable to the offender will be adopted. The court agrees with the accused that where facts are susceptible of two interpretations. Penal laws are strictly construed against the Government and liberally in favor of the accused (US vs. one consistent and another inconsistent with the guilt of the accused. The accused maintained his innocence saying that tit was the victim who accidentally shot himself while they were battling for the gun. This maxim is not an absolute one because it is not applied to culpable felonies. which is the intention or motivation behind it. Issue: W/N the Alzaga should be charged beyond reasonable doubt. The rule is that reasonable doubt in criminal cases must be resolved in favor of the accused. This is true to a felony characterized by dolo. People vs. Abad Santos). 9. Proof of guilt must convince beyond reasonable doubt. There were two witnesses with contradicting testimonies. Where inculpatory facts are susceptible of two interpretations.
When there is ambiguity. When the language if a statute is susceptible of more than one construction. 1 of Act. the prohibitions of Act 1147 does not apply. and there is doubt as to the subject matter to which the law is to be applied.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) (a) When the law is clear. the task of the court of to know the meaning and intention of the law. Gaanan vs. thus. entitled An Act to prohibit and penalize wire-tapping and other related violations of private communication. and other purposes. Language capable of more than one meaning is to be taken in the sense. branding and slaughtering of large cattle without a license. (d) Appellant contends that since in his town. Will not also apply when strict construction will defeat the intent. 30 and 33 of the act prohibit and penalize the slaughtering or causing to be slaughtered for human consumption of large cattle at any place without the permit provided for in sec.A. because the applicable facts and circumstances pointing to a violation of R. Where the language of a statute is clear and unambiguous. In cases like this. Verga and the statute itself explicitly mentions the unauthorized "recording" of private communications with the use of tape-recorders” as among the acts punishable. Legislative intent is determined principally from the language of a statute. As a result of her actions. The phrase is ambiguous and the principle that "penal statutes must be construed strictly in favor of the accused. the law is applied according to its express terms. is not the same with private communication. 30. The intention of the legislature and object aimed at are to control the literal interpretation of a particular language in a statute. CA) Facts: This case involves an act of overhearing a conversation by use of an extension line. The task of the court is to apply the law. Issue: W/N there is ambiguity in the meaning of private conversation and private communication. there is no room for interpretation. Vena V. US vs. 30 and 33 of Act 1147. respondent filed a case against her for violation of Republic Act 4200. she presented a transcript of her conversation with the respondent. and interpretation would be resorted to only where a literal interpretation would be either impossible or absurd or would lead to an injustice.A. which she and the respondent had. Sec. US vs. 4200 suffer from no ambiguity. Decision: Yes. No. Decision: Yes. not authorized by all the parties to any private communication to secretly record such communication by means of any gadget. The case of Ramirez turns on a different note. Issue: W/N the defendant incurred liability. /vvverga Page 12 of 100 . 4200 because a telephone extension device was neither among those devices enumerated in Section 1 of the law nor was it similar to those "device(s) or arrangement(s)" enumerated therein. which regulates the registration. The phrase “ at the municipal slaughterhouse” may bet taken as limiting and restricting the words “killed for food” (b) Ramirez vs. Garcia for allegedly vexing and humiliating her. 1696 of the Philippine commission which prohibits the display of any flag. Issue: W/N there is ambiguity in the phrase "device(s) or arrangement(s)" Decision: The use of a telephone extension for the purpose of overhearing a private conversation without authorization did not violate R. the preamble may be used. banner or device used during the insurrections in the Philippines. that construction should be adopted which will most tend to give effect to the manifest intent of the legislature. Chico Facts: Defendant was charged for violating sec. If the law is ambiguous. Issue: W/N the accused should be held liable for the violation. There are two constructions of these prohibitions: (c) The phrase ‘at the municipal slaughter house’ may be taken as limiting and restricting both the word ‘slaughtered’ and “killed for food” in section 30 and “killing for food” in section 33. the latter construction should be adopted. The contention is nonsense. In support of her allegations." Must be followed. policy and purpose. The afore stated provision clearly and unequivocally makes it illegal for any person. which will harmonize the intention and object. the court shall resort to the principle that the spirit of the law controls the letter. Court of Appeals Facts: Petitioner filed a case against private respondent. Intermediate Appellate Court (in contrast with Ramirez vs. Petitioner also alleged that private conversation. He contends that he is ignorant of the law and that the prohibition is only against the actual use of identical banners and devices which were used during the Philippine insurrection. Decision: There is no ambiguity. The act primarily seeks to protect large cattle from theft. there are no slaughterhouses. Toribio Facts: Defendant was charged for violation of Art.
The first complaint was made by the chief of police of Dumagete. the thing stolen was really hulled rice (arroz) but there is nothing in the complaint which shows that fact. the Spanish text governs. The victim then filed the same complaint. Since the first complaint filed was not the complaint of the offended party. The judgment of the court was therefore void for lack of jurisdiction over the subject matter. It may be hulled rice (arroz) or it may be rice seeds (palay). is incorrect. Therefore. Inasmuch as the Revised Penal Code was originally approved and enacted in Spanish. the defendant submits that the doubt should always be resolved in favor of the accused. the Spanish text should prevail. 97 regarding good conduct allowance is. then "rice' is included under the term 'semilla alimenticia' or cereal seed." The allowance for good conduct "for each month of good behavior" then unquestionably refers to good behavior of a prisoner while he is serving his term as a convict and not otherwise.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. but the judgment was set aside and the case dismissed on the ground that the court /vvverga Page 13 of 100 . Our society is a tolerant one and surely. Note: There are already amendments that use English terms. Legamia vs. The accused was tried and convicted. Director of prisons Facts: Petitioner has been in detention for 18 years of preventive imprisonment for the crime of rebellion. and the defendant was never in jeopardy. In cases of doubt in the interpretation of the Revised Penal Code. Manaba Facts: Manaba was charged with rape. Decision: The third paragraph of article 344 of the Revised Penal Code provides that: The offenses of seduction. People vs. into which was translated the phrase "semilla alimenticia". because the complaint had not been filed by the offended party. he contended that the term rice does not only mean hulled rice but also includes palay. People vs. Issue: W/N Corazon violated the Anti-Alias Law. the Spanish text is controlling." who is a convict or a person already sentenced by final judgment. Decision: The term "any prisoner" in the English text of Art. Corazon filed for support for their son. Under the circumstances. This time. After the death of husband Emilio.not one under "prison preventiva. but by the chief of police. Intermediate Appellate Court Facts: Petitioner has been living with a married man for 20 years and the relationship ended with the death of the man. the lawmakers could not have meant to criminalize what Corazon had done especially because some of them probably had their own Corazons. This came to the knowledge of the real spouse thus she filed a complaint against Corazon for using the name Reyes although she was not married to Emilio. Manaba filed a motion to dismiss on the ground of jeopardy for the same offense. Mesias Facts: The defendant was accused of robbing seven sacks of rice and before arraignment. which is controlling. The complaint merely alleges that the object stolen was seven sacks of rice. the Spanish text is controlling. Cultural environment by which the legislature is operating can also be a source of the meaning as well as the intention of the law. Decision: It is in the light of our cultural environment that the law must be construed. had no jurisdiction over the person of the defendant or the subject matter of the action.” It will be observed that the Spanish equivalent of the word "filed" is not found in the Spanish text. Issue: W/N the phrase "hulled rice" was within the meaning of "semilla alimenticia" as used in the Spanish text. "el penado. abduction. He is claiming for allowance for good conduct as provided for by Art 97 of the RPC. Decision: The English word "cereal". Issue: W/N Art 97 of the RP is applicable to detention prisoners or prisoners who are just serving preventive imprisonment. But for those. in the Spanish text. Because it speaks of the buena conducta observada por el penado . it was not a valid complaint in accordance with the law. Issue: W/N the plea for double jeopardy should be granted. D. rape or acts of lasciviousness. the offense with which the appellee is charged in the information does not fall under article 303 of the Revised Penal Code but under the second to the last paragraph of article 302 where the offense therein defined is penalized with arresto mayor in its maximum degree to prision correccional. Inasmuch as hulled rice (arroz) cannot be considered as seedling (semilla alimenticia). used in the Spanish text of article 303 of the Revised Penal Code. For these amendments.. there is no need to go back to the Spanish text. as it was the Spanish text of the Revised Penal Code that was approved by the Legislature. Baking vs. shall not be prosecuted except upon a complaint filed by the offended party…. which remained in their original form. In the construction or interpretation of the provisions of the RPC. If the word rice includes the grain in its original state without the hull being taken away. Verga C. There is no doubt that Article 97 does not embrace detention prisoners within its reach.
The Code instituted the leasehold system and abolished share tenancy subject to certain conditions indicated in section 4 thereof. Balubar Facts: Balubar was found guilty of the crime of physical injuries by the lower court.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. 2) 3) People vs. The prohibition against pre-threshing has no more raison d'etre because the lessee is obligated to pay a fixed rental as prescribed in section 34 of the Agricultural Land Reform Code. "laws are repealed only by subsequent ones and their violation or nonobservance shall not be excused by disuse. which was an offense under the Agricultural Tenancy. 1971." People vs. The conflict arose from the ambiguous term “any other members” which is necessary for the charge. The defendant must be acquitted. Spanish text is given more weight. 503. If the new law imposes a heavier penalty. the new law shall be applied. Tamayo Facts: The accused was prosecuted for and convicted of a violation of an ordinance. the ordinance was repealed by eliminating the section under which the accused was being prosecuted. To prosecute it as an offense when the Code of Agrarian Reforms is already in force would be repugnant to the policy and spirit of that Code and would subvert the manifest legislative intent not to punish anymore pre-reaping sod pre-threshing without notice to the landholder. 1) Different effects of repeal of penal law If repeal makes the penalty lighter in the new law. A. The victim lost four of his front teeth. or the Code of Agrarian Reforms. except when the offender is a habitual delinquent or when the new law is made not applicable to pending action or existing causes of action. the Code of Agrarian Reforms. the crime is obliterated. was superceded by the Compilation of Civil Service Laws and Rules under which his rating of 84% is considered a high degree of efficiency. the offense ceases to be criminal. which prescribes a minimum efficiency of 85% for promotion. is no longer punishable. It is significant that section 39 is not reproduced in the Agricultural Land Reform Code whose section 172 repeals "all laws or part of any law inconsistent with" its provisions. the law itself also ceases). series of 1934 since under Article 7 of the Civil Code. The accused is not relieved of liability from the requisite “deforme” even if the victim can lessen the deformity through artificial means. "Cualquier otro miembro" is more accurately translated "any other member". The English text contained “loss on any other part of his body” while the Spanish text provided the loss of “any other member” resulting in “disfigurement”. Where the repeal is absolute and not a reenactment or repeal by implication. as redesignated in Republic Act No. a foot. 503. or a leg resulting to "Deforme" or "disfigured". Verga People vs. /vvverga Page 14 of 100 . which was penalized under the old law. a hand. Decision: The Agricultural Land Reform Code superseded the Agricultural Tenancy Law (except as qualified in sections 4 and 35 of the Code). Thus. XIII. One who unlawfully wounds another is responsible for the consequences of his act. Repeals Decision: The repeal is absolute. Almuete Facts: The defendant supposedly violated Sec 39 of he Agricultural Tenancy Law which is premised on the existence of the rice share tenancy system. While the case was pending appeal. David vs. Issue: W/N Almuete violated a law. Such is the case at bar. or custom or practice to the contrary. The Compilation of Civil Service Laws and Rules was prepared merely by the Bureau of Civil Service and could not possibly have repealed Executive Order No. an arm. the law in force at the time of the commission of the offense shall be applied If the new law totally repeals the existing law so that the act. No. an Administrative Compilation. cessat ipsa lex (the reason for the law ceasing. Issue: W/N the accused is still liable for his actions. Decision. He further contends that EO No. Decision: In this case. applies to the case at bar. the legal maxim cessante ratione legis. Issue: W/N the absolute repeal obliterated the criminal liability. meaning any other member than an eye. Later cases seem to suggest that loss of teeth does not constitute disfigurement because it can easily be replaced. The act of pre-reaping and pre-treshing without notice to the landlord. Dancel Facts: Petitioner is assailing the promotion of Angel Dancel to Chief of Tax Registration a position to which he claims to be lawfully entitled. has ceased to be an offense under the subsequent law. Issue: W/N EO 503 was repealed by Compilation of Civil Service Laws and Rules. 6389 which took effect on September 10.
for the reason that said provisions of the Penal Code had been repealed by the Libel Law (Act No. 885 which repealed RA 1700 took effect. when those crimes are expressed publicly in writing. 277). so that if the repeal is more lenient to them. or insult. and the repealing law is more favorable to the accused. the latter is held to be repealed by necessary implication. A penal law. Castro Facts: The defendant was charged with injuries graves for sending letter to a medical health officer which contained insults and accusations. 277.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. abuse. like any other statute. Verga B. c. abuse or insult any minister of the Crown or other person shall be punished. 6 and 25 Facts: The petitioners were accused of rebellion for having allegedly participated in public uprising to overthrow the government. The appellant contends (a) that the evidence adduced during the trial did not show that he was guilty of the crime of injurias graves as defined under the Penal Code. the crime still remains to be a crime. Article 256 of the Spanish Penal Code is not now in force because abrogated by the change from Spanish to American sovereignty over the Philippines and because inconsistent with democratic principles of government. Decision: The Philippine Libel Law. 1. and it plainly appears to have been the purpose of the Legislature to give expression in it to the whole law on the subject. People vs. he could not be punished. 277-the Libel Law. even if the repealing law is partial or relative. Those who are not habitual delinquents will benefit on the effect of that repeal. PD No. They were accused of subversion under RA 1700 (Anti-Subversion Law). Sometime of 1976. and such statute or law is repealed by implication if the later statute is so repugnant to the earlier one that the two cannot stand together or if the whole subject of the earlier statute is covered by the latter one having the same object. Where the later statute clearly covers the old subject-matter of antecedent acts. and which was clearly intended to prescribe the only rule applicable to the subject. Issue: W/N Art 256 is still in force. editor of La Nacion was found guilty of violating Art. may be repealed either expressly or by necessary implication. Buscayno vs. /vvverga Page 15 of 100 . the repealing law will be the one to apply unless there is a saving clause in the repealing law that it shall not apply to pending causes of action. Effects (1) Pending Criminal Action is not dismissed C. such that the two laws cannot stand together. (1) Consequences if repeal of penal law is partial or relative If a case is pending in court involving the violation of the repealed law. and (b) that even though the evidence did show that he had violated the provisions of the Penal Code providing a punishment for injurias graves. An implied repeal will take place when there is a law on a particular subject matter and a subsequent law is passed also on the same subject matter but is inconsistent with the first law. the former is thereby repealed. Defendant was acquitted. 2. Art 256 of the Penal Code provides that any person who by writing. It is the earlier that will give way to the later law because the later law expresses the recent legislative sentiment. One of the petitioners contends that her criminal liability was extinguished by the repeal. are repealed by Act No. and it plainly appears to have been the purpose of the Legislature to give expression in it to the whole law on the subject. Act No. Military Commissions No. has had the effect of repealing so much of article 256 of the Penal Code as related to written defamation. Issue: W/N the penal code provisions were already repealed by the Libel Law. shall defame. Where the latter or revising statute clearly covers the whole subject matter of antecedent acts. it shall be the one applied to him. 257 of the Penal Code for attacking the virtue of the members of the Senate. Defendant questions whether this article is still in force or whether the Libel law already repealed it. if the case is still pending in court. Express or implied repeal – Express or implied repeal refers to the manner the repeal is done. (2) Decision: Provisions of the Penal Code. So whether he is a habitual delinquent or not. one of the two laws must give way. People vs. it will be the repealing law that will henceforth apply to them. which define and punish grave insults. If a case is already decided and the accused is already serving sentence by final judgment. (a) (b) Repeal by implication is not favored There is implied repeal if there are irreconcilable inconsistencies. previous laws are held to be repealed by necessary implication. Perfecto Facts: Gregorio Perfecto. If a criminal law deals with the same subject as a prior law and is inconsistent with and repugnant to the prior law. 1.
(2) If the repeal is express. Youngberg Facts: Petitioner attacked the constitutionality of Act No. 3155 was declared unconstitutional. the petitioner would still be prohibited from importing because Act. So the act or omission which was punished as a crime under the original law will be revived and the same shall again be crimes although during the implied repeal they may not be punishable. 3052 which was repealed by Act. it is not inconsistent with such former law. As to moral trait of the offender In crimes punished under the Revised Penal Code. which also defines and penalizes perjury. since being void. 3052. Decision: Yes. the moral trait of the offender is considered. The purpose of the party is the decisive factor in determining whether it is a subversive organization. Therefore. People vs. is itself repealed. 1697 impliedly repeals Art. 1700. This is why liability would only arise when there is dolo or culpa in the commission of the punishable act. No. but by implication. No. the petitioner would not be entitled to relief because of Act. is not expressly. An unconstitutional statute can have no effect to repeal former laws or parts of laws by implication. 2. 2. The fact that Presidential Decree No. PD No. Distinction between crimes punished under the Revised Penal Code and crimes punished under special laws 1. 1697. the subsequent repeal of the repealing law will revive the original law. No. 319 of the penal code. 1697 was expressly repealed by a Section in the administrative code. Issue: W/N Act. That saving or transitory clause is reenacted in section 14(i) of the National Security Code. Act no. the repeal of the repealing law will not revive the first law. in repealing or superseding Republic Act No. so the act or omission will no longer be penalized. which expressly repealed a prior law. Express repeal takes place when a subsequent law contains a provision that such law repeals an earlier enactment. Verga (1) If a penal law is impliedly repealed. Decision: No. Respondent demurred that even id Act No. No 3155 is constitutional. the provisions of the penal code is revived. 885 extinguished the criminal liabilities of persons charged with violation of the older law. Accused contends that his criminal liability should be extinguished because of the repeal. it is enough that the prohibited act was voluntarily done. XIV. While he was serving his sentence. is itself repealed. (2) But penalty under second law will be applied if favorable to accused. No 3155 will be revived. As to use of good faith as defense In crimes punished under the Revised Penal Code. which repeals a prior law. Soliman Facts: Defendant was accused of perjury under Art 1697. It is entirely unnecessary to pass upon the validity of the statute attacked because even if it were declared unconstitutional. Decision: Section 12 of the administrative code provides that a law. good faith or lack of criminal intent is a valid defense. the old rule continues in force where a law. Act. (3) Effects of nullity of repealing laws Cruz vs. No. Issue: W/N the criminal liability was extinguished because of the repeal. which is the Revised Anti-Subversion Law. Vena V. thus. 2657 expressly repealed Act no. 885 does not mention the CPP does not mean that the party is no longer regarded as a subversive organization. 3155 which prohibits the importation of cattle from foreign countries to the Philippines. It is similar to article 366 of the Revised Penal Code which provides that felonies and misdemeanors committed prior to the effectivity of the Revised Penal Code shall be punished in accordance with the old Penal Code and the laws in force at the time of their commission. 1700. expressly provides in its Section 7 that "acts committed in violation" of the former law before the effectivity of the said decree "shall be prosecuted and punished in accordance with the provisions of the former Art" and that nothing in the said decree "shall prevent prosecution of cases pending for violation of" Republic Act No. In crimes punished under special laws. Consequences if repeal of penal law is express or implied /vvverga Page 16 of 100 .Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Issue: W/N in repealing RA 1700. Act. the first law repealed shall not be revived unless expressly provided. unless the crime is the result of culpa D. That decree. the moral trait of the offender is not considered.
There is a provision in the election law which proscribes any person from preventing or disenfranchising a voter from casting his vote. frustrated. Consequently. All who perpetrated the prohibited act are penalized to the same extent. and that he did not act with intent to gain. As to degree of participation In crimes punished under the Revised Penal Code. Sunico. offenders are classified as principal. The crime involved is malum prohibitum. it is malum in se. but because with or without a law. the military was alerted. take note if the crime is a violation of the Revised Penal Code or a special law. good faith is not a defense 3. that act is wrong. He appeals alleging his defenses raised in the Sandiganbayan that he did not profit from the transaction. good faith is a defense. accomplice and accessory. the election registrar raised as good faith as a defense. A mayor awarded a concession to his daughter. but before the same could be accomplished. The trial court convicted him saying that good faith is not a defense in violation of special laws. Therefore culpa is not a basis of liability. As to mitigating and aggravating circumstances In crimes punished under the Revised Penal Code. In the case of People v. there are attempted. which such law seeks to prevent. there are no attempted or frustrated stages. he was acquitted. XV. 5. 4. but the trial court sustained its validity. that the contract was advantageous to the municipality. Questions & Answers 1. The losing bidder challenged the validity of the contract. Three hijackers accosted the pilot of an airplane. In crimes punished under special laws. the degree of accomplishment of the crime is taken into account in punishing the offender. In other words. an election registrar was prosecuted for having failed to include in the voter’s register the name of a certain voter. What was the crime committed? Grave coercion. There is no principal or accomplice or accessory to consider. will the act still be wrong? If the wording of the law punishing the crime uses the word “willfully”. Verga In crimes punished under special laws. is not a defense. Judgment affirmed. the penalty is not imposed unless the act is consummated. The contention of the mayor that he did not profit anything from the transaction. In violation of special law. it was held by he Supreme Court that disenfranchising a voter from casting his vote is not wrong because there is a provision of law declaring it as a crime. the degree of participation of the offenders is not considered. Since the prosecution failed to prove that the accused acted with malice. and that he did not act with intent to gain. When given a problem. good faith is a defense. In crimes punished under special laws. and consummated stages in the commission of the crime. unless the special law expressly penalize the mere attempt or frustration of the crime. that the contract was advantageous to the municipality. mitigating and aggravating circumstances are taken into account in imposing the penalty since the moral trait of the offender is considered. Crimes committed against the provisions of a special law are penalized only when the pernicious effects. Under special laws. She was also the highest bidder. As to degree of accomplishment of the crime In crimes punished under the Revised Penal Code. 3019 (Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act). Test to determine if violation of special law is malum prohibitum or malum in se Analyze the violation: Is it wrong because there is a law prohibiting it or punishing it as such? If you remove the law. mitigating and aggravating circumstances are not taken into account in imposing the penalty. They compelled the pilot to change destination. In trial. when there is more than one offender. There is no such thing as attempted hijacking. arise. 2. The award was even endorsed by the municipal council as the most advantageous to the municipality. Where malice is a factor. Rule. the act gives rise to a crime only when it is consummated. The case goes to the Sandiganbayan and the mayor gets convicted for violation of Republic Act No. unless the special law punishes an omission. /vvverga Page 17 of 100 . then malice must be proven. In crimes punished under special laws. Article 2 Source of RPC A. the act constituting the crime is a prohibited act. thus. On appeal. the degree of participation of each in the commission of the crime is taken into account in imposing the penalty. thus.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V.
Article 2 makes it clear that it does not refer only to Philippine archipelago but it also includes the atmosphere. there is no occasion to apply the two rules. except when the crime committed affects the national security or public order of such foreign country. The intention is to do away with that requirement so that as long as the /vvverga Page 18 of 100 . Both the rules apply only to a foreign merchant vessel if a crime was committed aboard that vessel while it was in the territorial waters of another country. it is the foreign country’s criminal law that will apply. the Archipelagic Rule shall be observed. Then the vessel entered our territory. the requirement that the vessel must be licensed and registered in accordance with Philippine laws has been deleted from Section 25. the vessel must be registered in the Philippines in accordance with Philippine laws. Intraterritorial application In the intraterritorial application of the Revised Penal Code. C. these rules will not apply. A crime is committed outside Philippine territorial waters. However. Otherwise. So whenever you use the word territory. If that vessel is in the high seas or open seas. except if the crime affects only the internal management of the vessel in which case it is subject to the penal law of the country where it is registered. do not limit this to land area only. interior waters and maritime zone. unless the crime committed endangers the national security of a foreign country where the vessel is within jurisdiction in which case such foreign country will never lose jurisdiction over such vessel. Philippine laws shall govern. as long as such vessel is not within the territorial waters of a foreign country. The French Rule The French Rule provides that the nationality of the vessel follows the flag which the vessel flies.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) (1) Rafael del Pan’s Correctional Code of 1916 (2) Code of Maruecos (3) Original Draft of German Penal Code of 1913 Where offense punishable under RPC is also punished under military law Piracy is triable anywhere (see Lo-Lol and Saraw) Vena V. (2) SCOPE OF APPLICATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE REVISED PENAL CODE The provision in Article 2 embraces two scopes of applications: (1) (2) Intraterritorial – refers to the application of the Revised Penal Code within the Philippine territory. Under the Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure. When the crime is committed in a war vessel of a foreign country. The law of the foreign country where a foreign vessel is within its jurisdiction is strictly applied. Will the Revised Penal Code apply? Yes. If it is not within the jurisdiction of any country. however. for our courts to take cognizance of any crime committed on board a vessel during its voyage. When the foreign country in whose territorial waters the crime was committed adopts the French Rule. Extraterritorial – refers to the application of the Revised Penal Code outside the Philippine territory. Extraterritorial application Extraterritorial application of the Revised Penal Code on crime committed on board Philippine ship or airship refers only to a situation where the Philippine ship or airship is not within the territorial waters or atmosphere of a foreign country. which applies only to merchant vessels. Any crime committed in interior waters comprising the Philippine archipelago shall be subject to our laws although committed on board a foreign merchant vessel. Under the old Rules of Criminal Procedure. because war vessels are part of the sovereignty of the country to whose naval force they belong. Verga (1) B. So the three-mile limit on our shoreline has been modified by the rule. Under international law. A vessel is considered a Philippine ship only when it is registered in accordance with Philippine laws. there are two situations where the foreign country may not apply its criminal law even if a crime was committed on board a vessel within its territorial waters and these are: Question & Answer A vessel is not registered in the Philippines. The American or Anglo-Saxon Rule This rule strictly enforces the territoriality of criminal law. As far as jurisdiction or application of the Revised Penal Code over crimes committed on maritime zones or interior waters. paragraph c of Rule 110 of the Rules of Court.
Paragraph 5 of Article 2. he commits the crime of concubinage for which he can be prosecuted. since it is as if he contracted the marriage here in the Philippines. they can be prosecuted. Will the crime be subject to the Revised Penal Code? If so. contracts another marriage abroad. The daughter persuaded the consul and the latter agreed. The crime may be regarded as an act of piracy as long as it is done with “intent to gain”.00. However. The Revised Penal Code shall not apply to any other crime committed in a foreign country which does not come under any of the exceptions and which is not a crime against national security. Falsification. However. the crime committed is bigamy. after the second marriage. reference should be made to the provision of paragraph c of Section15 of the Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure. the Revised Penal Code governs only when the crime committed pertains to the exercise of the public official’s functions. Under the Rules of Court. More than this. such that wherever the pirates may go. his function being the promotion of trade and commerce with another country. With the revision. But the Filipino can not be prosecuted when he comes back to the Philippines. The functions contemplated are those. use the phrase “as defined in Title One of Book Two of this Code.000. a consul can take depositions or letters rogatory. Under international law rule. So the intention is clear to adopt generally accepted principles of international law in the matter of exercising jurisdiction over crimes committed in a vessel while in the course of its voyage. if the Filipino. When he agreed to the falsification of the deposition. the crime would not have been prosecutable in our court. a definite provision of the law making it the consul’s function to take depositions. because Title I of Book 2 does not include rebellion. Verga A consul was to take a deposition in a hotel in Singapore. he was doing so as a public officer in the service of the Philippine government. a vessel which is not registered in accordance with the laws of any country is considered a pirate vessel and piracy is a crime against humanity in general. you cannot give territorial application to the Revised Penal Code. XVI. Illustration: A Philippine consulate official who is validly married here in the Philippines and who marries again in a foreign country cannot be prosecuted here for bigamy because this is a crime not connected with his official duties. [they] should commit an offense in the exercise of their functions:” As a general rule. Normally. those having to do with the discharge of their duties in a foreign country. however. Exception: The Revised Penal Code governs if the crime was committed within the Philippine Embassy or within the embassy grounds in a foreign country. the deponent approached the consul’s daughter and requested that certain parts of the deposition be changed in consideration for $10. because Title I of Book 2 (crimes against national security) does not include rebellion.” This is a very important part of the exception. Article 3: Felonies /vvverga Page 19 of 100 . our courts can take cognizance of the crime committed in such vessel. because the bigamy was committed in a foreign country and the crime is not covered by paragraph 5 of Article 2. So if acts of rebellion were perpetrated by Filipinos who were in a foreign country. In your answer. When public officers or employees commit an offense in the exercise of their functions The most common subject of bar problems in Article 2 is paragraph 4: “While being public officers or employees. the revised provision added the phrase “in accordance with generally accepted principles of International Law”. therefore.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) vessel is not registered under the laws of any country. Question & Answer Vena V. what crime or crimes have been committed? Yes. returns to the Philippines and cohabits here with his second wife. which are. he may be prosecuted here. Illustration: When a Filipino who is already married in the Philippines. to be performed by the public officer in the Foreign Service of the Philippine government in a foreign country. the taking of the deposition is not the function of the consul. if the second marriage was celebrated within the Philippine embassy. Piracy is considered a crime against the law of nations. This is because embassy grounds are considered an extension of sovereignty. Prior to the revision. After the deposition. under the law. registration is not anymore a requirement and replaced with generally accepted principles of international law. There is.
Vena V. Issue: W/N Divino committed a crime considering he acted on good faith. Mere passive presence at the scene of another’s crime. Classification of Felonies Intentional Felonies (a) Act or omission of offender is malicious. 2. A specific instance is found in Article 160 – Quasi-Recidivism. This is important because there are certain provisions in the Revised Penal Code where the term “felony” is used. /vvverga Page 20 of 100 . So whenever you encounter the term felony. not being regular practitioner. he accidentally stumbled onan embankment and two shots were discharged. act committed by means of culpa (a) Negligence – lack of foresight (b) Imprudence – lack of skill 1. before beginning to serve sentence or while serving the same. mere silence and failure to give alarm. But as he was nearing the quarry. There must be a low requiring the performance of such act. On the night of the crime. which reads: A person who shall commit a felony after having been convicted by final judgment. MAY BE LIABLE FOR CULBABLE FELONY US vs. Divino was held liable for culpable felony because the acts he committed were out of ignorance with the intent to bring about remedy instead of harm. which means that the provision is not extended to crimes under special laws. Verga Decision: No. shall be punished under the maximum period of the penalty. Elements: 1. 2. Note that the word "felony" is used. Catangay was tasked to negotiate the distance. without evidence of agreement or conspiracy is not punishable. Definition: Felonies are acts and omissions punishable by the law. such act is not a crime. Alfonsa became more injured and deformed after the treatment. Decision: One who. Catangay Facts: Catangay was found guilty of homicide through reckless negligence. from such treatment. Romana was acquitted. PERSON CAUSING INJURY. The case of Romana was appealed because there is no strong evidence that can prove that she was an accomplice of Martin. Crimes can also be punishable by special laws. Silvestre and Atienza Facts: Martin and Romana were both convicted of the crime of arson by the Court of First Instance. WITHOUT EVIL INTENTION. it is to be understood as referring to crimes under the Revised Penal Code . Divino Facts: Divino was charged for the crime of lesiones graves for burning the feet Alfonsa believing in good faith that applying petroleum on her sores and ulcers would cure her wounds. A. and the fact that he acted in good faith and according to the best of his ability does not relieve him from responsibility. Unfortunately. People vs. When the crime is punishable under a special law you do not refer to this as a felony.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) HOW A FELONY MAY ARISE Punishable by the Revised Penal Code The term felony is limited only to violations of the Revised Penal Code. If there is no law that defines an act as a crime and provides for its penalty. Note: Reckless Negligence means voluntary act without malice. Issue: W/N Romana’s act of omission is punishable. nulla poena sine lege. act committed by means of dolo (b) Act is performed with deliberate intent. Note: The phrase “punishable by law” is not only constrained to those acts that are punishable by the RPC. although his ignorance may be considered as a mitigating circumstance. Culpable Felonies – performed without malice. Nullum crimen. WHEN THERE IS NEITHER MALICE OR FAULT People vs. undertakes to render medical assistance to another person. 3. the failure to perform a positive duty which one is bound to do. B. only external acts are punished Omission is synonymous to inaction. is liable for any injuries resulting. one killing his companion. Acts may be omissions or commissions.
or reckless negligence. there was no intent because Catangay had a very good relationship with the victim. but at the same time punishable. 1. 3. though in a lesser Vena V. Issue: W/N defendant Siy Cong Being should be held liable for the actions of his store manager. without proof of guilty knowledge of the fact of adulteration or criminal intent in the making of the sale. It is a mistaken notion that positive. Decision: Between an act performed voluntarily and intentionally. Note: Reason for punishing acts of negligence: A man must use common sense. Defendants maintained that falsification does not constitute the crime complained of. there exists another. to violate the criminal law. he seemed to have seen an eye of a deer and shot it. this is especially so as to statutory offenses. rights and property. he shot one of his companions. and exercise due reflection in all his acts. and those of his fellow beings. is an essential ingredient in every criminal offense. which no one would have performed. Maleza Facts: Maleza and Adlaon were charged with crimes of falsification of public documents by reason of reckless negligence. To his surprise. willful intent and purpose. No. He performed a voluntary act in discharging his gun. Issue: W/N reckless negligence is considered a crime. He is responsible for such results as anyone might foresee and for acts. 1655 of the Philippine Commission known as the Pure Food and Drugs Act. although the offender was honestly mistaken as to the meaning of the law he violates. Verga degree and with an equal material result. which requires that the damage be inflicted without malice but through a voluntary act. although the resulting homicide was without malice. C. careful. The embankment cannot also be anticipated. There was no negligence either because opening the latch while approaching the quarry is very usual for hunters. because he did not have the intention of killing the deceased. Go Chico) Act alone constitutes the offense US vs. Issue: W/N there is reckless imprudence on this case. nothing is left to interpretation. an intermediate act which the Penal Code qualifies as negligence. Rule: There is no need for the pattern analysis for acts that involve public policy (statutory law). then through fear of incurring punishment. 2. vs. performed without malice. When the statute plainly forbids an act to be done. the law implies conclusively the guilty intent. would ever be exposed to all manner of danger and injury. and that where there is the absence of such intent there is no offense. and another committed unconsciously and quite unintentionally. Maleza is the municipal treasurer and he certified an account showing payments for the construction of the municipal building. he should have exercised all the necessary diligence to avoid every undesirable accident. Decision: Under the Philippine Pure Food and Drugs Act. US vs. Decision: Yes. if not from instinct. When the language is plain and positive. The fact that the defendant offered to the mother of the deceased a carabao and a horse by way of indemnity indicates that the defendant admitted the commission of the crime although he performed that act without criminal intent and only through imprudence. (People vs. Moreover. Adlaon signed that he received the money when in fact the money was never for the construction of municipal building but was to be given to Bastes who loaned a sum of money to the municipal president and treasurer. The accused is guilty of homicide through reckless imprudence. the eyes of a man is not luminous in the dark thus it would be impossible to mistake it to that of a deer. and prudent. REASON WHY CULPABLE FELONIES ARE PUNISHED People vs. he knew he had two companions. Felonies are committed not only by means of deceit (dolo) but also by means of fault (culpa). and the offense is not made to depend upon the positive. thus. Crimes punished under special laws. Benito Siy Cong Bieng appealed for: (a) He did not have any knowledge of the acts done by his agent which was the sale of adulterated coffee. (b) Co Kong was in charge of the store. But nonetheless.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Issue: W/N Catangay was guilty of reckless negligence Decision: No. Mala Prohibita and Mala in Se /vvverga Page 21 of 100 . except through culpable abandon. it is his duty to be cautious. Ramirez Facts: Pedro Ramirez went on hunting together with two other companions. victim's death having been purely accidental and wholly involuntary on the part of the accused. After walking for about 50 meters. proof of the fact of the sale of prohibited drugs and food products is sufficient to sustain a conviction of a violation of the statute. Otherwise his own person. Siy Cong Bien Facts: Defendants Benito Siy Cong Bieng and Co Kong were convicted of a violation of Section 7 of Act. The discharge of a firearm that caused the. and it is done by some person. no dolo is required (US. his action lacks the element essential for holding that it was performed with reckless negligence. He asked his two companions to watch over their prey while he looks for another. Maleza and Adlaon). willful intent. In this case. as distinguished from a mere intent.
Ongsod was also found guilty of the crime of illegal possession of firearms. Mapa Facts: The accused is a secret agent contending that being such. However. The owners of the stalls charged the petitioner with the offense of grave coercion. He further stated that he has every intention of surrendering the gun. Intent governs. Exceptions to the good faith rule in crimes of Mala Prohibita. Since the offense is malum prohibitum punished by special law. Grave coercion is committed when "a person who. Special penal laws Intent to perpetuate a crime Vena V. regardless of the intent of the holder is sufficient to sustain a conviction. merely implemented the aforesaid recommendation of the Municipal Health Officer. petitioner incurred no criminal liability. The petitioner then filed a complaint against the owners of the stalls saying that these stalls constituted public nuisance as well as nuisance per se. It does not matter for the conviction of Ongsod that he is the owner or borrower of the gun because this fact has no bearing on his guilt. The spirit of the law regarding possession of firearms is to punish those who possess the same without knowledge of the authorities concerned. Despite his plea that he already applied for the renewal of his license. Ongsod contends that it was Orquijo who owned the gun and it was merely in his possession when the Philippine constabulary seized it. Where the accused had a pending application for permanent permit to possess a firearm. enough to call for a conviction. Mala Prohibita Acts that are wrong merely because it is prohibited by a statute. Intent to perpetuate the act is required. Issue: W/N the absence of criminal intent and good faith are valid defenses in crimes punishable by special laws. 286 of the Revised Penal Code. Issue: W/N the lower court was correct in their decision. he was still sentence by the lower court. The testimony of the witnesses were credible and accurate. Mallari Facts: Mallari was found guilty of illegal possession of firearms. RPC Criminal Intent Good faith can be invoked as defense for violation of the RPC (Mala in Se) Timoner vs. In statutory offenses. Petitioner. Issue: W/N the conviction of the court of appeals that the petitioner committed grave coercion is correct the complainants were public nuisance. The mere unlicensed possession of firearm. in addition. it is enough that the statue has been violated and that it is not necessary to inquire whether there was intent to violate it. Decision: The court is in agreement that the complainants were public nuisance for affecting a considerable number of persons in their neighborhood. People Facts: The Court of Appeals found the petitioner guilty beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of Grave Coercion penalized under Art. prevent another from doing something not prohibited by law or compel to do something against his will. petitioner cannot be held guilty of grave coercion. 6. as mayor of the town. and without even bothering themselves to legalize such possession. and such possession was not unknown to an agent of the law who advised the former to keep it in the meantime. Good Faith and absence of criminal intent are not valid defenses in crimes punished by special laws (Mala Prohibita) /vvverga Page 22 of 100 ." The third element being absent in the case at bar. he barricaded some establishments and stalls which protruded into the sidewalk of the Maharlika highway and who were not complying with certain health and sanitation requirement. and good faith and absence of criminal intent are not valid defenses. a fact corroborated by an office of the constabulary. Verga Definition People vs. Intent Violates Minimum required for a person to incur criminal liability 4. The petitioner was the mayor of a town and by the recommendation of the Municipal Health Officer. People vs.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Mala in Se Acts that are wrong from their nature. either it be right or wrong. Decision: No. Decision: The accused was absolved. any doubt as to his claim should be resolved in his favor. which expired some 3 months before he was arrested. Having then acted in good faith in the performance of his duty. shall by means of violence. without authority of law. People vs. 5. he should be exempted from the law prohibiting illegal possession of firearm. Orquijo and Ongsod Facts: Orquijo and Ongsod were guilty of the crime of robbery. Intent is not important. for the court can adopt a more liberal view.
was playing with his best friend. is his mental capacity to understand the difference between right and wrong. who commits an act prohibited by law. Issue: 1. freedom of action. Dorico Facts: Romualdo Dorico. which ordered the Fiscal to file a case against petitioner for Homicide through reckless Imprudence. namely. Dionisio Ballonico and Fernando Dorico were all found guilty beyond reasonable doubt for murdering Gervacio Dapulag and was sentenced each with death penalty. Teodoro was hit by a pellet on his left collar bone which caused his death. Obviously. For him to be criminally liable. However. Discernment constitutes an exception to the exemption from criminal liability of a minor under fifteen years of age but over nine. Vena V. (b) (1) (2) (c) Kinds of Intent general notion of intent – motive is not essential in establishing this notion of criminal intent specific notion of intent – there is no great difference between specific criminal intent ad motive. In evaluating felonies committed by means of culpa. Proof of motive is not essential for conviction. Delito Deloso (dolo) Freedom Intelligence Intent (a) Delito culposa (culpa) Freedom Intelligence Negligence/Imprudence Decision: The two terms should not be confused. There was no reason shown why the witnesses for the prosecution would foist a crime on DIONISIO BALLONICO if he did not really commit it. the former refers to the desired of one's act while the latter relates to the moral significance that person ascribes to the said act. intent is wanting in such felonies. The Solicitor General insists that discernment and intent are two different concepts. The petitioner was in position that "discernment" connotes "intent". intelligence remains as an essential element. he must discern the rightness or wrongness of the effects of his negligent act. Decision: As secret agent is not included in the enumeration in Section 879 of the Revised Administrative Code of persons who are not prohibited in Section 878. While both are products of the mental processes within a person. from possessing any firearm. hence. as used in Article 12(3) of the Revised Penal Code (RPC) is synonymous with "intent. The three were said to have killed the accused because he insisted on filing a criminal complaint against Romualdo for the killing of his nephew. a minor over nine years of age but below fifteen may be held liable for a quasi-offense under Article 365. 4. /vvverga Page 23 of 100 . In the course of their game. 2." Distinguished from Motive WHEN MOTIVE IS RELEVANT People vs. Construction and interpretation come only after it has been demonstrated that application is impossible or inadequate without them. it is necessary that a minor above nine but below fifteen years of age be possessed with intelligence in committing a negligent act which results in a quasi-offense. three (3) elements are indispensable. Ignacio Almodovar Facts: Petitioner John Philip Guevarra. Verga D. Dionisio said that he was merely a bystander and did not participate in the crime Issue: W/N motive is relevant to establish guilt Decision: It is true that no motive has been shown why he would kill Gervacio Dapulag. and negligence. 1. as amended by Republic Act No. Revised Administrative Code. The victim's parents appealed to the Ministry of Justice. intelligence. 2. Intent Defined distinguished from discernment Guevarra vs. Pattern of analysis in determining criminal liability Was there criminal intent (dolo)? Or was the act done by means (imprudence/negligence)? Delito Deloso and Delito Culposa Elements of culpa E. It is clear that the terms "intent" and "discernment" convey two distinct thoughts. Hon. W/N the term "discernment". which may cause injury to the same person in negligently handling an air rifle. They were target-shooting a bottle cap placed with an air rifle borrowed from a neighbor. Hence a person may not intend to shoot another but may be aware of the consequences of his negligent act. The first and fundamental duty of courts is to apply the law. Fiscal exculpated petitioner due to his age and because the unfortunate occurrence appeared to be an accident. but this Court has repeatedly held that motive is pertinent only when there is doubt as to the identity of the culprit. Appellant is not also exempted from the requirement of license. Indeed.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Issue: W/N Mapa should be exempted from complying with the law. W/N an eleven (11) year old boy could be charged with the crime of homicide thru reckless imprudence. 11 years old. This not a situation which falls under ‘who had done it’ since DIONISIO BALLONICO was positively identified by credible witnesses as one of the assailants of the victim.
Maximo and Cesaria contended that it was Ananias who first attacked them and that Maximo merely defended himself. 30. Motive is not important to have a conviction. bidden away and inaccessible to our observation. he was able to tell his wife who his attackers were. furnishes a powerful motive for the commission of the crime (circumstantial evidence). they found a hole. his motive in committing the act becomes irrelevant to his conviction and the failure of the State to establish his motive is of no moment. and that their business operations over a period approximately eighteen months just prior to the fire had resulted in a considerable loss. It appears from the evidence that that the day before the commission of the crime. he dreamed that Collantes was trying to stab him with a bolo while Abadilla held his feet. fire also broke out in House no. The accused had dry goods store in house no. Even if there is such motive. When they got inside. Where. motive need not be established HOW MOTIVE IS PROVED. that it was insured for three times its value. wounded her abdomen and attacked other. The question of what motive is sufficient to impel one to commit a particular act is always relative and no fixed norm of conduct can be said to be decisive of every imaginable case. as in this case. they heard something moving. Before the victim’s life expired. an aid to the prosecution. The fact that the defendants owned a stock of goods. but that simply they are not known to us. Maximo and Cesaria Diva conspired to attack the victim. it is not a sufficient ground for him to ambush. 26 broke out when the fire in House no. Since the prosecution was not able to establish the motive. he was stopped by his wife and his mother. The defendant was not held liable for the crime. set fire on house no. fact that was seen in the vicinity of the crime. who invited him to come down and fight. Note: When assailant is positively identified. and as it seemed to him that his enemies were inviting him to come down. attack and kill Ananias. After some time. The defendant states that when he fell asleep. he armed himself with a bolo and left the room. The success of their crime meant that they would receive about twice the value of their stock of goods and thus converting a losing investment into a profitable one. 26. for having acted in a dream. The appellants had been conducting their business at a loss for nearly 18 months. On the day the crime was committed. which was just across the passageway from House No. A person who suddenly hot up in his sleep left the room with a bolo in his hand. However. 30 was about to be put out. While the firefighters were trying to break into the storeroom. Their dispute was regarding boundaries of the adjoining lands they own. and the failure of the prosecution to establish motive is completely inconsequential. Verga Disclosure of motive is an aid in completing the proof of the commission of the crime. 26. he had no criminal intent. he went to bed and slept. Decision: No. Note: Circumstantial Evidences defined: indirect evidence. by reason of which he got up. Decision: No. and when he was about to go down. Or. Issue: W/N the motive is needed to convict the defendants. 30. Decision: The accused were found guilty of the crime. Issue: W/N the defendant is guilty of the crime of parricide. MOTIVE ALONE IS NOT PROOF OF CRIME /vvverga Page 24 of 100 . it was noted that the defendant was not feeling well. Maximo claims that he should not be convicted of the crime.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. which supported the fact that someone. Taneo Facts: Potenciano Taneo was accused of parricide for killing his wife. and upon meeting with his wife who tried to stop him. for we cannot probe into the depths of one's conscience where they may be found. On the day of the commission of the crime. and wounding his father in law and two of their guests. proof of crime US vs. 26. thus. Maximo also contended that the trial court erred in saying that the motive of the killing was a land case because he has no interest therein since it was his father who was the plaintiff in the said case. he apparent lack of a motive for committing a criminal act does not necessarily mean that there are none. Issue: W/N the accused was guilty of arson. Diva Facts: Maximo Diva and his wife were accused of murdering Ananias Bano. But motive is unessential to conviction in murder cases when there is no doubt as to the identity of the culprit or where the offender had admitted the deed. An extreme moral perversion may lead a man to commit a crime with a real motive but just for the sake of committing it. the identity of the appellant as the author of the killing is not disputed as he admitted having killed the deceased. Go Foo Suy Facts: Fire broke out in house no. the accused had a fight with Enrique Collantes and Valentin Abadilla. WHEN MOTIVE IS IRRELEVANT When assailant is positively identified People vs. Lack of motive may be an aid in showing the innocence of the accused People vs. witnesses testified that the fire in House no.
the crime committed by him cannot be that of homicide through reckless imprudence. The accused having had no intention to commit so serious an evil as that which resulted. When the grenade exploded. much less of the guilt of the defendants-appellants. Marcos Facts: Mariano Marcos. he was extremely disappointed in President Roxas for his alleged failure to redeem his promises made by him during the presidential election. his son Ferdinand Marcos and brother in law. kicked it away from the platform. In criminal negligence. 1950 Vena V. It is neither necessary nor profitable to examine the corroborative evidence presented by the prosecution. Issue: W/N Julio Guillen is guilty of the crime charge considering that it was the president which he intended to kill and not Simeon Varela. or became aware of it. Julio won over Mariano for the office of representative of Ilocos Norte. upon seeing the grenade. it being simply the incident of another act performed without malice. The Marcoses and Lizardo became the suspects. He is therefore liable for all the consequences of his wrongful act. is not proof of the commission of a crime. Ramirez It must be noted that there could be no motive in this case because Ramirez and the victim were good friends. it injured Simeon Varela and four other men. Verga Facts: Julio Guillen was found guilty beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of murder and multiple frustrated murder. The following night. “in order that an act may be qualified as imprudence it is necessary that neither malice nor intention to cause injury should intervene. In the words of Viada. Divino OFFENSES PUNISHABLE AS MALA PROHIBITA (e) Intentional and Culpable Felonies Distinguished Decision: Yes. even though it may not have been the intention of the actor to cause an evil of such gravity as that produced”. /vvverga Page 25 of 100 . Quirino Lizardo were accused for the murder of Julio Nalundasan. PROOF OF MOTIVE CONVICTION People vs. because he did have the intention to do some evil unlawfully (maltreating the deceased). People vs. Where the principal and basic evidence upon which the prosecution rests its case fails. 17933 March 23. While the defeat of Marcos followed by such insulting parade. Simeon died because of the injuries he sustained. L-1477 January 18. Nanquil struck Severino with his gun. the appellant acted with malice. if it appears from the evidence that neither of the two persons could in any manner put up a defense against the attack. Decision: No. Nanquil GR No. During the 1935 elections. thus it shall be discredited. criminal liability is incurred by any person committing a felony (delito) although the wrongful act done be different from that which he intended to do. FELONIES COMMITED BY MEANS OF CULPA See: US vs. for in accordance with article 4 of the Revised Penal Code. The primary witness of the prosecution was Lizardo’s bodyguard who said that he was there when the crime was committed and the motive was said to be the victory parade before Julio’s death. is inconsistent with reckless imprudence. The act could not have been done deliberately. He carried two hand grenades in Plaza Miranda and hurled it on the stage where the president was making a speech. Guillen GR No. the court found the testimony of Aguinaldo to be inherently improbable and full of contradictions in important details. all evidence intended to support or corroborate it must likewise fail. By and large. The qualifying circumstance of treachery may properly be considered. In throwing a hand grenade at the President with the intention of killing him. Hence. Issue: W/N the accused should be charged with a crime of homicide through reckless imprudence. the victim died after a few moments. he was determined to assassinate the president. Decision: Yes. As a consequence. During the victory parade. might have irritated the herein defendants. though perhaps an important consideration. the injury caused to another should be unintentional. General Castaneda. Julio’s men were said to have passed over Mariano’s house to humiliate the defeated candidate. Issue: W/N the parade was a sufficient motive to warrant a sentence. Julio was found dead. although it was not that of killing. During the investigation. where such intention exists. 1922 Facts: Nanquil was investigating a certain Severino Ramiscal for the theft of Juan Rosas’s carabao. Mariano’s archrival. According to the accused. (d) When crimes may be committed without criminal intent ALONE IS NOT SUFFICIENT TO SUPPORT People vs.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) US vs. even when the victim of the attack was not the one whom the defendant intended to kill. and this intention. the act should be qualified by the felony it has produced. the existence of a motive alone.
Mistake of fact indicates good faith. or become aware of it. Without intent. Mabug-at in both. As required by law. One day. Good faith negates intent. Verga (f) (g) (h) People vs. it was not proven that the accused justice of peace used the money for personal use. In other words.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. regardless of the circumstances outside him. Decision: That act of the accused. was not unlawful. ignorance or mistake of fact relieves tha accused from criminal liability (ignoratia facti excusat) MISTAKE OF FACT AS A DEFENSE People vs. Good faith is a defense and in this case. Issues: W/N the accused is guilty of frustrated murder. Catolico GR No. When they were about to go up their house. but the latter refused on account of the accused having frequently visited the house of a certain Carmen. under the law. except in those cases where the circumstances demand a conviction under the penal provisions governing negligence. after the defendant had gone to bed. and in cases where. When there is no intent. Decision: Under such circumstances. struck and fatally wounded the intruder. there would have been no crime. provided that the ignorance or mistake of fact was not due to negligence or bad faith. the accused went to a house where Juana had gone to take part in some devotion. in permitting the sums deposited with him to be attached in the satisfaction of the judgment rendered by him. The qualifying circumstance of treachery may properly be considered. there is no crime. a justice of peace. One night. Everything he did was in good faith under the belief that he was acting judiciously and correctly. Ramirez) Acts that are negligently executed are voluntary Intent is shown by overt acts accused as justice of peace. the accused invited Juana to take a walk with him. The circumstances proved that in Ah Chong’s mind. the accused followed the girl and her niece on their way home. he was awakened by some one trying to open the door. a person voluntarily committing an act incurs criminal liability even though the act be different from that which he intended to commit. so far as appears form the record. if such ignorance or mistake of facts is sufficient to negate a particular intent which. and both were employed in the same place and usually slept in the same room. Upon petition of the plaintiffs.00 for each case. Later on. Decision: Yes. there is no crime. the defendants deposited Php 16. Ah Chong Facts: Defendant was a cook and the deceased was a house boy. at most a pure mistake of judgment.00 and a bond of Php 50. and called out twice. Thereafter. the accused dismissed the appeals and ordered said sums attached and delivered to the plaintiffs in satisfaction of the judgment. Good faith negates intent. nisi mes sit rea). Would the facts been as he though them to be. he seized a kitchen knife. The act committed. yet when the surrounding circumstances of the act are such that they leave no room for doubt that the intention was to kill the person fired upon. he was being attacked. US vs. the accused fired a shot intended for Juana but which wounded Perfecta instead. 217. Facts: The accused and Juana Buralo were sweethearts. Believing that he was being attacked. acts are voluntary (People vs. get the gild and kill anyone who would stop him. 6486 02 March 1911 Facts: The defendant. there is no criminal liability. under the provisions of article 1 of the Penal Code. Issue: W/N Ah Chong should be acquitted because of mistake of fact. In this case. Note: It is a prima facie evidence in Malversation that such missing funds or property have been put to personal use or used for personal ends by such person. even when the victim of the attack was not the one whom the defendant intended to kill. the accused threatened that if Juana refuses to see him." but homicide or murder as the case may be. if it appears from the evidence that neither of the two persons could in any manner put up a defense against the attack. who turned out to be his roommate. (i) Criminal Intent Presumed from Commission of the crime Mistake of fact – while ignorance of the law excuses no one (ignorantia legis non excusat). the crime is not simply "discharge of firearm. from which the defendants appealed. is a necessary ingredient of the offense charged it destroys the presumption of intent and works an acquittal. The accused was prosecuted for malversation. After the devotion. a felony under Art. A crime is not committed if the mind if the person performing the act complained of be innocent (actus non facit reum. Although the mere act of firing at a person is not proof per se of intent to kill. Issue: W/N the accused was guilty of the said crime considering that his actions were not contrary to law. there is good faith. he will enter the house. It appeared that the sureties on the said bonds were insolvent and that the defendants did not present new bonds within the time fixed by the /vvverga Page 26 of 100 . each one for damages resulting from a breach of contract. He rendered decisions in certain cases. an error of the mind operating upon a state of facts. was charged of malversation of public funds.
1902 Note: 1. 3. The defendant was not liable for the crime because he had no intent to commit the crime. being an act mala prohibita has no bearing on the case because this is not a case of willful or conscious violation of a penal statue. In effect it suffices to remember the first article. there is no crime. does not relieve the accused from criminal responsibility (People vs. that so her parents gave her to understand ever since she was young. Lack of intent to kill the deceased. Issue: W/N Formaran was unjustly prosecuted on the case at bar. intention is immaterial. the act of the defendant in answering “no” to the question can be considered only as an error of judgment and did not indicate an intention to commit the crime of perjury. Coching Facts: Coching and several others were accused of falsification of public document and violation of the election code. when the truth and in fact he had been charged with the offense of unjust vexation in a criminal case before the Justice of the Peace Court. No criminal intent. The act. the defendant claimed that he answered “No” to the question whether he had been accused of a violation of any law. Decision: No. The women believed that she was born in 1879. Note: Lack of intent to commit a crime may be inferred from the facts of the case. since the act is malum prohibitum – against a law/statute. The defendants are in honest belief Good faith has many sources (a) Mistake of fact (b) Act is lawful The point is: when good faith is established. One cannot be convicted under Art. an act that falls within the sphere of ethics if there is not a moral wrong. it was held that in view of the factual background of the case. Fernando) Vena V. Formaran No. because the intention was to kill another. the husband relied on the statement of his wife that she is of age when they got married. In the same instance. 1 before a notary public that he was never accused of a violation of any law before any court or tribunal. Issue: W/N Coching and the others are guilty of the crime charges. 475 when by reason of a mistake of facts there does not exist the intention to commit the crime. Conching and the others sincerely believed that booklets 4100 to 4120 were sample ballots because three ballots from the booklet were detached and two ballots were used to cover the openings of the boxes that was given to them before the election. But according to them. the intention of the accused in performing the act should be lawful. People vs. The lower court was in agreement that the defendants did not intend to perpetuate the act. according to the court. 12089-CR Facts: Formaran was accused of a crime of perjury for having sworn to a Civil Service Form No. the act would have been lawful. Note: There is no felony by dolo if there is no intent. Penalosa /vvverga Page 27 of 100 . 2. Mistake of fact establishes good faith because have the facts been as she thought them to be. to the husband). 4. in violation of Art 475 of he old Penal Code which punished any minor who shall contract marriage without the consent of his or her parents. because he relied on the opinion of the provincial fiscal that unjust vexation does not involve moral turpitude and he thought it was not necessary to mention it in Civil Service Form No. which states that where there is no intent there is no crime. In order to assert without fear of mistake that in our Code the substance of a crime does not exist if there is not a deed. no crime. When he testified in his defense. Verga Facts: A minor married without parental consent. There is no crime of resistance when there is a mistake of fact (US vs. They have no way of checking since the receipt copy signed by Coching when he received the ballots were not given to them. When there is no intention. The case at bar is a case of ignorance of the fact. Gona). People vs. mistake of fact is not a defense. People vs. It is not criminal negligence for a husband to rely upon his wife's statement of her age nor for the wife to rely upon that of her father. Issue: W/N the husband and the wife violated the said provision of the Penal code Decision: A minor who marries without parental consent in the false belief that she is of age is not criminally responsible. It appeared that he was previously prosecuted twice for perjury for answering ‘NO’ to the same question but he was acquitted on the first case and the second case was dismissed. Decision: No.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) GR No 424 January 27. Good faith negates intent. In mistake of fact. and she did not ask them concerning her age. nor of ignorance of the law. Bautista) When the accused is negligent. Good faith is transferable (in this case. (People vs. Thus. it negates criminal intent. 1. The Court is in disagreement with this notion. they did not include in the counting booklets 4100 to 4120.
which ensued between the defendant and a certain Pacas. Upholding the maxim ignorantia facti excusat as established in People vs. VALDEZ Wrong done is direct. before shooting him. shoots and kills him. which shows that Emigdio took part in the fight. Accused called out to the person to identify himself. Issue: W/N de Fernando was guilty of homicide through reckless negligence. PEOPLE vs. After some time. The accepted rule is that an offender is always liable for the consequence of his criminal action even though the result be different from what he intended. it cannot be held that the accused was committing a crime and it cannot be said that the death of the child was a direct result of a crime. Issue: W/N Bindoy should be charged for killing Emigdio Decision: The appellant should be acquitted since there is no evidence.G. SALINAS 62 O. (1) PEOPLE vs. Neither was there any indication that the accused was aware of the victim’s presence. 3186 Facts: Crisanto Salinas was charged for the death of Jaime Tibule. Infuriated. to whom notice had been given of the presence of suspicious looking persons. is not guilty of murder or homicide. of course. BINDOY Facts: The accused was charged of the crime of homicide for wounding with his bolo Emigdio who was merely a spectator of the fight. prowling around the vicinity. under the circumstances. The residents of the barrio were alarmed of the news. did not answer thus. and the said agent of the law considering that the said stranger has not been recognized by any person in the household. He however. acted with reckless negligence in failing to exercise the ordinary diligence that. de Fernando GR No 24978 27 March 1926 Facts: The accused. While doing rounds in the barrio. he should have exercised by inquiring of the occupants of the house whether the stranger was known to them. and later in the evening sees a person with a bolo in hand approaching the house in the -attitude of going up the stairs. Defendants were acquitted. (b) US vs. But in view of the evidence. Issue: W/N Crisanto should be liable for the death of the baby Decision: No. or was really what be thought him to be. Jaime died after falling from his mother’s hold while the mother was freeing his father from Crisanto’s hold. there could have been no crime committed. Oanis. An agent of the law. and who enters a house to keep watch. Article 4: Criminal Liability Facts: The accused was not satisfied with the slow raising of the anchor which caused him to abuse his men with offensive language. The act being lawful. The defendant was acquitted.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) that the series of unused ballots were not official but sample ballots. was informed that three convicts had escaped. he was called by the daughter of a certain Delgado to inform him that three unknown persons were prowling around their house. the accused moved towards the victim with big /vvverga Page 28 of 100 . As the unknown person continued to ascend the stairs and believing that he was one of the escaped convicts. MISTAKE OF FACT NOT A DEFENSE See: People vs. and thinking him to be an evil-doer. have had to answer for his criminal act. Decision: Yes. the accused fired directly at the man who turned our to be the nephew of the house. Had the defendant tried to wound his adversary and instead had bit the bystander. 1. who might be escaped prisoners from a nearby penitentiary. who does not answer the challenge of the officer of the law. as he seemed to have called somebody in the house. Oanis People vs. he would. natural. Crisanto was holding the victim’s grandfather in order to prevent him from fighting with the defendant’s father. they saw a person going up the stairs dressed in dark clothes and carrying a bolo. de Fernando fired a shot in the air. Under the circumstances. which makes said officer guilty of homicide through reckless negligence. The courts should judge the accused not by the facts as they later turned out to be but what they believed to be as facts at the time of the offense and the conditions obtaining them (US vs. logical consequence of felony committed When act is lawful XVII. The person. a policeman. One of the crew remonstrated that they would be able to work better if the accused stops insulting them. Vena V. Ah Chong). and continues his advance notwithstanding that the latter had fired a shot into the air. Verga Committing a felony even if the consequences are unintended Elements: (a) Felony is committed A. the injury was accidental and the defendant should be acquitted.
Issue: W/N the defendant should be held liable for the death of the victim. which determined his death. was the cause. That the victim had a delicate condition and suffered from incipient tuberculosis does not affect criminal liability of the defendant who gave him a severe blow. the bus was set on fire. DE BATACLAN. was convicted of a crime of homicide for the death of Andres Aribuabo. It was also natural that the rescuers would innocently approach the bus to extend aid. The accused is presumed to have intended the natural consequences of the wrongful act. Juan died of internal hemorrhage and contusion on the liver. it is evident that the act in question should be qualified as homicide. 181 Facts: The victim. (i) How proximate cause is determined VDA. which the appellant inflicted upon the deceased. he should be responsible. Issue: W/N Quianson should be held liable for the death of the victim Decision: One who inflicts an injury on another is deemed by law to be guilty of homicide if the injury contributes mediately or immediately to the death of the victim. a deranged person who constantly asked for food from the former. when the rescuers came with torches came near the bus. Decision: Yes. Thus. (2) Blow was proximate cause of death PEOPLE vs. ET AL. the appellant dragged the deceased towards the streets and stabbed her in the chest with the fan knife. It was the defendant’s blow in the right hypocondrium. As the wound. which was the cause of the death. died from the explosion of the bus of which he was a passenger. Verga the efficient cause of the death remains the same. Issue: W/N the overturning of the bus was the proximate cause of the death. believing that he is going to be killed. Appellant’s assault being the proximate cause of the death.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) knife threatening to stab him. death could reasonable be anticipated. (1) PEOPLE vs. Decision: Yes. vs. The crew’s death was a consequence of the defendant’s action. threw himself in water and never resurface. 162 Facts: The defendant. which bruised the liver and produced internal hemorrhage. the burning of the bus was a natural cause and should be attributed to the negligence of the driver and the conductor. PEOPLE vs. the leaking of the gasoline was the natural consequence. causing said bus to overturn. a d in order to escape jumps into water. The reason that when the vehicle turned. If a person against whom. Due to overturning of the bus. (ii) Definition /vvverga Page 29 of 100 . ILLUSTRE 54 PHIL. The victim was said to have died from shock. The girl died from shock as a result of the wound inflicted by the defendant. a criminal assault is directed reasonably believes himself to be in danger of death or great bodily harm. When the victim tried to end their affair. There is intention in the commission of the crime because when a person who stabs another with a lethal weapon. There was no intent but this does not extinguish the crime. The defendant took hold of a firebrand and applied it to the abdomen of the man who pestered him. Victim was treated in the hospital but died. Before the explosion. Blow was efficient cause of death Vena V. Defendant contends that the victim would have survived if he did not remove the drainage placed to isolate the infection. 544 Facts: The defendant. QUIANSON 62 PHIL. husband of the petitioner. the vehicle zig-zagged into a canal. Issue: W/N the appellant should be acquitted considering the fact that the wound was only a slight one Decision: No. MEDINA 102 PHIL. the gasoline leaked soaking the soil underneath thus. Issue: W/N the defendant should be liable for his crew’s death Decision: Yes. The fact that other causes contribute to the death does not relieve the actor of responsibility. who was in charged in making sure that the roasted pig will not be consumed before the end of the parade gave a blow to Juan Magsino who tried getting a piece of the pig. the assailant us responsible for homicide in case death results by drowning. A person is responsible for the consequences of his criminal act even of the deceased have been shown to be suffering from a deceased heart (which was not shown). impelled by the instincts of self-preservation. it is a well settled that such is not the law. even of the weakened condition made the blow more fatal. The victim. 341 Facts: The appellant and victim were having an illicit relationship. REYES 61 PHIL. In this jurisdiction.
(c) When there is an intervening cause US vs. Issue: W/N the defendant should be held liable for the death of the child. (iv) Death attributable to tetanus URBANO vs. examination to exercise PEOPLE vs. The hacking incident could not have been the cause of the victim’s death since the tetanus appeared only on the 22nd day after the hacking incident. PALALON 49 PHIL. /vvverga Page 30 of 100 . The child did not obey thus. It is possible that the victim may have been inflicted with a mild tetanus but since Javier died only two or three days from the onset. it is logical to assume that there may be other causes other than the hacking incident. Held: That the testimony of the physician was not conclusive and that the ecchymosis described by him might have been nothing. It is a rule that in criminal conviction. the child was brought home sick by his father. PALALON The defendant was convicted of homicide largely on the testimony of a young physician who stated. and without which. which in natural and continuous sequence. the child died. Decision: No. Since the cause of the death was unknown. wherefore the latter fell to the ground and had hardly risen and started to walk when he again fell down dead. the child died. in substance. (iii) When felony committed not proximate cause: (3) Intervening active force. A fight ensued between the two when Urbano learned that Javier opened the floodgates thereby causing his palay to be flooded. the crime committed is rightly classified as homicide and the accused is responsible therefore. the proof that the accused caused the victim’s death must convince a rational mind beyond reasonable doubt. he who caused such acceleration is responsible for the death as the result of an injury willfully and unlawfully inflicted. Since there may be other efficient causes of the death. The doctor testified it was the blow which was the cause of the death. One day. The child fell but continued to work. the accused should be acquitted. the defendant cannot be held liable for said death. defendant struck him on the thighs with a slipper. there was a congestion of the right lung which was the principal cause of the death. he died from tetanus. produces injury. In case of death under suspicious circumstances.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) URBANO vs. Verga (iii) Cause of death not proved US vs. Embate was acquitted. 177 Facts: Appellant was found guilty of the crime of homicide for the death of a child whom he slapped after answering insolently. Decision: When the fact is well established that the accused struck the victim twice with his fist. No autopsy of the body was made and the physician admitted that his conclusions were partly based upon the statements of the members of the family of the deceased. that he examined the body of the deceased on the day after the commission of the crime and found ecchymosis on the body from which he concluded that hard blows had been inflicted on the deceased and that as a result thereof. INTERMEDIATE APPELLATE COURT (4) Blow accelerated death PEOPLE vs. there is reasonable doubt as to the true cause of the death. RODRIGUEZ Facts: The defendant was charged with having dealt with Manciano Magno with two blows which knocked the victim down. EMBATE Facts: The child has been seriously ill for three weeks. Two days later. It was found that Magno provoked the defendant. Even though a blow with the fist or a kick does not cause any external wound it may easily produce inflammation of the spleen and peritonitis and cause death. the victim continued working. Decision: No. defendant ordered said child to transfer. After 22 days. unbroken by any efficient intervening cause. but suggillations or "death spots" formed after the death. INTERMEDIATE APPELLATE COURT 157 SCRA 1 Facts: Urbano was charged for the crime of homicide for the death of Marcelo Javier. It appears that the examination of the body was incomplete and the conclusion of the doctor have been much more than mere guesses. Decision: No. Marcelo was only hit in the palm and while the wound was healing. One-half days later. and even though the victim may have been previously affected by some internal malady. Issue: W/N the defendant should be held liable for the death of the child. the result would not have occurred. That same afternoon. Furthermore. it was proven that fever was prevalent among the children in the locality thus. it is the duty of the physician performing the post mortem. as the child lain on a damp floor. Issue: W/N the hacking incident can be considered a proximate cause of Marcelo’s death. yet if a blow with the fist or foot accelerated death. which is distinct and absolutely foreign to felonious act of accused (i) Resulting injury is due to intentional act of victim (ii) Death attributable to fever prevalent in locality Vena V. in the abdomen and in the back. Proximate cause it the case. Appellant therefore should be acquitted.
PEOPLE vs. CAGOCO Keywords: Fell backwards Decision: Under the circumstances of this case the defendant is liable for the killing of the deceased because his death was the direct consequence of defendants felonious act of striking him on the head. not because of carelessness or a desire to increase the criminal liability of his assailant. the court said: "Even admitting that the defendant intended to injure Hilario Lauigan instead of Pedro Acierto. GONA There can be no doubt that the defendant killed Mapudul and that he is guilty of the crime charged. (1) Error in personae: mistake in identity of victim PEOPLE vs. in no way could be considered as a relief from his criminal act. cannot lessen the assailant's responsibility. SUPRA (iv) Neglect of victim or third person: US vs. or both. and because his responsibility cannot be lessened on account of the bad state of health and the weakened constitution of the victim. This contention is contrary to earlier decisions of this court. SUPRA (ii) Nervousness or temperament of victim PEOPLE vs. when it is proved that he acted maliciously and willfully. Mendieta (34 Phil. simply because the doctor was of opinion that the wound might have healed in seven days. that the finger. he would nevertheless have been guilty of homicide. he is guilty of murder because of the presence of the qualifying circumstance of treachery. he should have been found guilty of homicide through negligence under paragraph 1 of article 568 of the Penal Code and not of the graver crime of intentional homicide. OANIS PEOPLE vs. could be restored to substantially its normal condition by a surgical operation. Neither do we believe that the fact that he "And any such person who shall make a false or fraudulent return shall be punished by a fine not exceeding ten thousand pesos or by imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years. cannot relieve him from criminal responsibility. 242). on account of which it is admitted that his constitution and physical condition retarded the healing of his wounds. as the defense itself claims. although useless at present. ALMONTE When a person dies in consequence of an internal hemorrhage brought on by moving about against the doctor's orders. The accused is then liable for all acts contrary to law and their natural and logical consequences. in removing the drainage from his wound. A person injured in an assault is not obliged to submit to a surgical operation to relieve the person who assaulted him from the results of his crime. the victim was mentally deranged. such act of the victim does not have the effect of altering the natural juridical consequences of the punishable act of the accused all the more because. a motion for a new trial will be denied when based upon the allegation that appellant would be able to prove. according to the opinion of the physician who attended him. SUPRA PEOPLE vs. BAYUTAS The fact that the victim was addicted to the habit of drinking tuba. (1) Instances not constituting efficient intervening cause: (i) Weak or diseased physical condition of victim Vena V. (iii) Causes inherent in victim: (1) Addiction to tuba drinking US vs. but because of his nervous condition due to the wound inflicted by said assailant. because he is responsible for all the consequences of the personal injury which was produced by the act that he had willfully performed in violation of a prohibitive law. QUIANSON Where it does not appear that the victim. That he made a mistake in killing one man instead of another. MABUG-AT (3) Prater intentionem: injurious result is greater than that intended PEOPLE vs. although he did not intend to kill the deceased. In the case of United States vs. MARASIGAN Where it appears from the evidence in the case that the appellant inflicted a wound upon the complaining witness which destroyed the use of one of the fingers of the left hand.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) the utmost care and not draw unwarranted conclusions from external appearances susceptible of different interpretations. REYES. and since the defendant did commit the crime with treachery. even that. Verga (1) Victim refused medical attendance or surgical operation PEOPLE vs. ILLUSTRE. if opportunity were given. (2) Victim did no know how to swim US vs. had acted voluntarily and with the knowledge that he was performing an act prejudicial to his health. as this should be attributed to his pathological condition and to his state of nervousness and restlessness on account of the physical pain caused by the peritonitis from which he was suffering. VALDEZ. If the defendant had not committed the assault in a treacherous manner." (2) Aberratio ictus: mistake in the blow PEOPLE vs. in view of the mortal wound which he inflicted upon the latter. /vvverga Page 31 of 100 . beyond the time that it should have taken. but his attorney argues that in view of the fact that said defendant had no intention to kill the deceased and committed the crime by mistake.. the crime is homicide and not merely slight physical injuries. (d) Even if unintended.
GARDON If a person against whom a criminal assault is directed reasonably believes himself to be in danger of death or great bodily harm and in order to escape jumps into the water. even after the victim had disappeared beneath the surface of the sea. However. therefore. and gave him fist blows. impelled by the instinct of self preservation. there is employment of violence or intimidation or the victim is deprived of reason. A suddenly swerved his car inside. when the houseboy could no longer resist the urge. When we say inherent impossibility. A was driving his car around Roxas Boulevard when a person hitched a ride. with the new rape law amending the Revised Penal Code and classifying rape as a crime against persons. The act performed should not constitute a violation f another provision of the RPC INTOD vs. That the act was done with evil intent 3. CA In our jurisdiction. Accused was a houseboy in a house where only a spinster resides. The impossibility of accomplishing the criminal intent is not merely a defense. he climbed into the ceiling. not knowing that she was already dead five minutes earlier. which makes a person criminally liable for an act "which would be an offense against persons or property. the phrase "inherent impossibility" that is found in Article 4(2) of the Revised Penal Code makes no distinction between factual or physical impossibility and legal impossibility. Finally. if this was done against the will of the passenger. This is a crime that is not limited to a victim who is a woman. the houseboy would follow and peek into the keyhole. the assailant is responsible for homicide in case death results by drowning Appellant should likewise be chargeable with Homicide. Verga 2.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. PEOPLE vs. where the acts of lasciviousness were committed under circumstances of rape. Is an impossible crime committed? If not. It was also the habit of the houseboy that whenever she enters her room. Cause of the cause is the cause of the evil caused An impossible crime is an act which would be an offense against person or property were it not for the inherent impossibility of its accomplishment or on account of the employment of inadequate or ineffectual means. deserves no consideration. however. 1. is there any crime committed at all? It cannot be an impossible crime. were it not for the inherent impossibility of its accomplishment x x x. It is customary for the spinster to sleep nude because her room was warm. An impossible crime is true only if the act done by the offender constitutes a crime against person or property." In that case. it is now possible that an impossible crime was committed. Under Article 336. The essence of an impossible crime is the inherent impossibility of accomplishing the crime or the inherent impossibility of the means employed to bring about the crime. Because this person was exquisitely dressed. That its accomplishment is inherently impossible or the means employed is either inadequate or ineffectual 4. Even if the victim is a man. The act performed would have been constituted a crime against chastity. and so he pushed him out of the car. Note. the crime could not have materialized. but an act penalized by itself. And under Article 4. Furthermore. The determined resolution to do the victim wrong was evident when. act performed is against property 2. the act performed by the offender could not have been a crime against person or property. 2. Is an impossible crime committed? Yes. such is sufficient to make the act an impossible crime. A readily welcomed the fellow inside his car and he continued driving. impossible crimes are recognized. To uphold the contention of respondent that the offense was Attempted Murder because the absence of Palangpangan was a supervening cause independent of the actor's will. placed himself on top of her and abused her. that the crime might also fall under the Revised Administrative Code – desecrating the dead. will render useless the provision in Article 4. The factual situation in the case at bar presents a physical impossibility which rendered the intended crime impossible of accomplishment. Acts of lasciviousness require a victim to be a woman only when it is committed under circumstances of seduction. because the act would have been a crime against chastity. If the crime could have materialized under /vvverga Page 32 of 100 . meaning to say. A started kissing his passenger. he cruelly asked "are you already dead?" Appellant's bid for acquittal in his sixth assignment of error. The crime is physical injuries or acts of lasciviousness. Impossible crime Question & Answer 1. the crime of acts of lasciviousness is committed. There are two ways of committing acts of lasciviousness. but he found out that his passenger was not a woman but a man. If it is committed under the circumstances of rape. Before. Ubi lex non distinguit nee nos distinguiere debemos. IMPOSSIBLE CRIMES Requisites: 1. II. went inside the room of his master. all circumstances which prevented the consummation of the offense will be treated as an accident independent of the actor's will which is an element of attempted and frustrated felonies. The mitigating circumstance of lack of intent to commit so grave a wrong cannot be appreciated in appellant's favor. this means that under any and all circumstances. the victim may be a man or a woman. paragraph 2 of the Revised Penal Code. When he reached a motel.
It would be a case of physical injuries. he would be electrocuted. A entered a department store at about midnight. then you state the reason for the inherent impossibility. 4. Do not confuse an impossible crime with the attempted or frustrated stage. he is a criminal. an impossible crime would be constituted if a person who was thinking that it was a poison that he was putting into the food of the intended victim but actually it was vetsin or sugar or soda. but the safe was empty. when he started squeezing the trigger. none of them discharged. he did not realize that the firearm was empty. it would have fired. It was purely accidental that the firearm did not discharge because the bullets were old. That is a cause other than the spontaneous desistance of the offender. So it implies that if the woman was not of such physical condition. where there is plenty to steal. But in a department store. against persons and those against property under Title X. not only the money inside the vault or safe. when it was already closed. this is a catching question. Although objectively. it is not an impossible crime. That purpose of the law will also be served if he is prosecuted for some other crime constituted by his acts which are also punishable under the RPC. Under any and all circumstances. shot B. He succeeded in opening the safe. But if let us say. but subjectively. an attempted homicide. When Scott opened the doorknob. That is only true if there is nothing more to steal. and therefore. He prepared her breakfast every morning. he will not be liable for an impossible crime. it is not inherently impossible to realize the killing. He went directly to the room where the safe or vault was being kept. he got an electric cord tied the one end to the door knob and plugged the other end to an electric outlet. upon seeing B. Hence. Was an impossible crime committed? No. then you suggest than an impossible crime is committed. 3. What prevented the consummation of the crime was because of some cause independent of the will of the perpetrator. and every morning. There was no bullet at all. Even though the facts constitute an impossible crime. Scott leaves for work but before leaving he would lock the food cabinet where he kept his food. if the act done by the offender constitutes some other crimes under the Revised Penal Code. then you judge that question on the basis of the facts. Vena V. Under Article 4. A and B are enemies. If really the facts constitute an impossible crime. There are other things that he could take. Scott and Charles are roommate in a boarding house. The crime committed therefore is attempted robbery. no crime is committed. He was just surprised to find out that there was an electric cord plugged to the outlet and the other hand to the door knob. The fact that the vault had turned out to be empty is not really inherently impossible to commit the crime of robbery. an unloaded firearm will never fire. The crime committed is frustrated parricide. if the act done does not amount to some other crime under the Revised Penal Code.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) a different set of facts. because under any and all circumstances. A and B were lovers. Is an impossible crime committed? If not. she developed a physical condition that rendered her so strong and resistance to any kind of poisoning. nothing happened to him. the crime could not have been realized. got the revolver of his father. Verga 5. then it would not be a case of impossible crime anymore. when Scott comes home to open the door knob. B was willing to marry A except that A is already married. An impossible crime is true only to any of those crimes. The reason is an offender is punished for an impossible crime just to teach him a lesson because of his criminal perversity. A thought of killing his wife. If the question asked is “Is he liable for an impossible crime?”. but the revolver did not discharge because the bullets were old. The idea was that. One day. so the amount of poison applied to her breakfast has no effect to her. Scott is working in an electronic shop where he received a daily dosage of electric shock. assuming that he did not lay his hands on any other article. 6. /vvverga Page 33 of 100 . It is. the poison would have taken effect. The means employed is not inherently impossible to bring about the consequence of his felonious act. If they were new. impossible crime is true only when the crime committed would have been against person or against property. important to know what are the crimes under Title VIII. This could not be trespass to dwelling because there are other things that can be stolen. be careful about the question asked. If the question asked is: “Is an impossible crime committed?”. Unknown to Charles. He will be prosecuted for the crime constituted so far by the act done by him. what crime is possibly committed? This is not an impossible crime. the intended victim developed LBM and was hospitalized. it would be an attempted felony. paragraph 2. A. Is there an impossible crime? No impossible crime is committed because the fact itself stated that what prevented the poison from taking effect is the physical condition of the woman. The wife consumed all the food prepared by her husband including the poison but nothing happened to the wife. Charles resented this. he placed a little dose of arsenic poison into the breakfast of the wife. Because of the volume of the household chores that the wife had to attend to daily. If it were a case of poisoning . But if due to the quantity of vetsin or sugar or soda. employing the same mean or the same act. Everyday. Whenever you are confronted with a problem where the facts suggest that an impossible crime was committed. There is an impossible crime. Whether an impossible crime was committed or not? It is not an impossible crime. therefore.
to wit: Art 4. et al. But whether we agree or not. Modified concept of impossible crime: In a way. By any person performing an act which would be an offense against persons or property. If you want to play safe. the Supreme Court has spoken. the culprits set fire on the intended victim’s house. depending on the “social danger and degree of criminality shown by the offender” (Article 59). an impossible crime is committed. unknown to the culprits. Because criminal liability for impossible crime presupposes that no felony resulted from the wrongful act done. Paragraph 2 refers to a situation where the wrongful act done did not constitute any felony. yet it is a principle of criminal law that he will only be penalized for an impossible crime if he cannot be punished under some other provision of the Revised Penal Code. it is the principle of criminal law that the offender shall be punished for an impossible crime only when his act cannot be punished under some other provisions in the Revised Penal Code.00. regardless of whether the wrongful act was an impossible crime against persons or against property. this felonious act negates the idea of an impossible crime. A and B are neighbors. Otherwise. In the Intod case. considering the lawlessness by which the culprits carried out the intended crime. because on the basis of the facts stated. a redundancy and duplicity would be perpetrated. Eventually the culprits were prosecuted and convicted by the trial court for attempted murder. believing she was there when in fact she was not. petitioneraccused was sentenced to imprisonment of only six months of arresto mayor for the felonious act he committed with intent to kill: this despite the destruction done to the intended victim’s house. were it not for the inherent impossibility of its accomplishment or on account of the employment of inadequate or ineffectual means. An impossible crime is a crime of last resort. the wrongful acts of the culprits caused destruction to the house of the intended victim. four culprits. If the question is “Is an impossible crime is committed?”. Verga intended victim did not come home that evening and. would the criminal liability be for an impossible crime? Until the Intod case. the prevailing attitude was that the provision of the Revised Penal Code on impossible crime would only apply when the wrongful act. add another paragraph: However. just to teach the offender a lesson because of his criminal perversity. the offender will not be prosecuted for an impossible crime but for _____ [state the crime]. and so some members of the bench and bar spoke out against the soundness of the ruling. the criminal liability should be for such other felony and not for an impossible crime. the decision depreciated the seriousness of the act committed. /vvverga Page 34 of 100 . If he could be taught of the same lesson by charging him with some other crime constituted by his act. They are jealous of each other’s social status. Some asked questions: Was it really the impossibility of accomplishing the killing that brought about its non-accomplishment? Was it not purely accidental that the Vena V. There is no logic in applying paragraph 2 of Article 4 to a situation governed by paragraph 1 of the same Article. Somehow. the penalty is fixed at arresto mayor or a fine from P200. Because it is a principle in criminal law that the offender can only be prosecuted for an impossible crime if his acts do not constitute some other crimes punishable under the Revised Penal Code. this idea of an impossible crime is a one of last resort. but because the act would have given rise to a crime against persons or against property. she was not in her bedroom at the time it was shot and riddled with bullets? Suppose.00 to P500. if such act constituted any other felony although different from what the offender intended. thinking that the intended victim was already there as it was about 10:00 in the evening. instead of using firearms. In other words. the concept of impossible crime has been modified by the decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Intod v. In this case. then that will be the proper way. It so happened that the intended victim did not come home on the evening and so was not in her bedroom at that time. which would have constituted a crime against persons or property. you state there that although an impossible crime is constituted. Paragraph 1 refers to a situation where the wrongful act done constituted a felony although it may be different from what he intended. Although the act done by A against B constitutes an impossible crime. that is. CA. Criminal liability – Criminal liability shall be By any person committing a felony (delito) although the wrongful act be different from that which he intended. we have to respect its ruling. all four fired at and riddled said room with bullets. the same is penalized to repress criminal tendencies to curtail their frequency. went to the intended victim’s house and after having pinpointed the latter’s bedroom. But to play safe. A thought of killing B so A climbed the house of B through the window and stabbed B on the heart.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) 7. Is A liable for an impossible crime? No. As a result. incurred: 1. thus. all armed with firearms and with intent to kill.. could not and did not constitute another felony. Otherwise. not knowing that B died a few minutes ago of bangungot. The Court of Appeals affirmed the judgment but the Supreme Court modified the same and held the petitioner liable only for the so-called impossible crime. The attitude was so because Article 4 of the Code provides two situations where criminal liability shall be incurred. the answer is yes. where a felony resulted. 2. A shall be liable for qualified trespass to dwelling. 215 SCRA 52.
The purpose of classifying penalties is to bring about a proportionate penalty and equitable punishment. There are felonies which do not admit of division. shall demand an amount bigger than or different from what the law authorizes him to collect. but the court is mandated to report to the Chief Executive that said act be made subject of penal legislation and why. Overt act begins when the husband mixed the poison with the food his wife is going to take. If the offender has not yet performed all the acts of execution – there is yet something to be performed – but he was not able to perform all the acts of execution due to some cause or accident other than his own spontaneous desistance. After that. Before this. These acts do not give rise to criminal liability. the judge should impose the law. Police arrested him and charged him with attempted parricide. criminal liability correspondingly does not begin. You could only hold him liable for attempted robbery when he has /vvverga Page 35 of 100 . A thought of eliminating B and to poison her. you are not allowed to speculate. then the crime is already in the frustrated stage. Mere demanding of an amount different from what the law authorizes him to collect will already consummate a crime. in oral defamation. under the article. and therefore. So the policemen went to A’s house and found A still unwrapping the arsenic poison. but apply the provisions of the law of the facts given. A and B are husband and wife. But even certain crimes which are punished under the Revised Penal Code do not admit of these stages. in illegal exaction under Article 213 is a crime committed when a public officer who is authorized to collect taxes. But the act of entering is an ingredient of robbery with force upon things. In the attempted stage. The most that he could do is to recommend to the Chief Executive to grant executive clemency. he went to the drugstore and bought arsenic poison. When a person starts entering the dwelling of another. So. (2) Question & Answer STAGES IN THE COMMISSION OF FELONY The classification of stages of a felony in Article 6 are true only to crimes under the Revised Penal Code. but he is already married. he met D.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) NO CRIME UNLESS THERE IS A LAW PUNISHING IT When a person is charged in court. Vena V. On the way out. The word "directly’" emphasizes the requirement that the attempted felony is that which is directly linked to the overt act performed by the offender. Verga The difference between the attempted stage and the frustrated stage lies on whether the offender has performed all the acts of execution for the accomplishment of a felony. This is significant. In the attempted stage. For example. the court will acquit the accused and the judge will give his opinion that the said act should be punished. that act is already trespassing. Is the charge correct? No. there is no attempted oral defamation or frustrated oral defamation. An overt act is that act which if allowed to continue in its natural course would definitely result into a felony. there is no attempted stage yet. the law uses the word “demanding”. Not any act will mark the beginning of a felony. the acts so far performed may already be a crime or it may be just an ingredient of another crime. A met C who was willing to marry him. The penalties are graduated according to their degree of severity. if the offender has performed all the acts of execution which should produce the felony as a consequence but the felony was not realized. the definition uses the word “directly”. there is such a thing as preparatory act. not the felony he has in his mind. whether the taxpayer pays the amount being demanded or not. they parted ways. then you have an attempted felony. A confided to D that he bought the poison to poison his wife in order to marry C. The policemen asked A if he was planning to poison B and A said yes. The stages may not apply to all kinds of felonies. Formal crimes Formal crimes are crimes which are consummated in one instance. Where the court finds the penalty prescribed for the crime too harsh considering the conditions surrounding the commission of he crime. This does not apply to crimes punished under special laws. D went directly to the police and reported that A is going to kill his wife. So also. Article 5 covers two situations: (1) The court cannot convict the accused because the acts do not constitute a crime. D asked him who was sick in the family. You will notice that the felony begins when the offender performs an overt act. and the court finds that there is no law applicable. not to imagine what crime is intended. In criminal law. Payment of the amount being demanded is not essential to the consummation of the crime. The proper judgment is acquittal. Literally. if the act so far being done does not begin a felony. licenses or impose for the government. it is always in the consummated stage. Under sub-paragraph a of Article 213 on Illegal exaction. In criminal law.
so he lost interest and left. Even though there was desistance on the part of the offender. your desire may lead to acts of lasciviousness. because there was an intention to kill. What A then did was to approach B. He was already able to detach two wood panels. But in criminal law. “Now you are dead. Namaja was prosecuted for attempted robbery. Do not go far and imagine what you should do. but which are. In US v. When A entered the house through the window. not complex because one is not necessary means to commit the other. Desistance Desistance on the part of the offender negates criminal liability in the attempted stage. In abduction. If you were to prosecute this fellow. There was force applied in order to enter. the only conclusion that will come to your mind is that this fellow started to enter the store to steal something. If under the definition of the felony. A had always been looking at B and had wanted to possess her but their status were not the same. Qualified trespass because he did so by cutting through the screen. which is not intended for entrance. if the desistance was made when acts done by him already resulted to a felony. I will kill you.” But A took pity and kept the revolver and left. The desistance was with the second shot and would not affect the first shot because the first shot had already hit B. and A went out of the window again. for what crime are you going to prosecute him? The act done by him of entering through an opening not intended for the purpose is only qualified trespass. so far as could be reasonably linked to the overt act done by him. The attempted stage was erased because the offender desisted after having commenced the commission of the felony. Beside the man was a bag containing picklocks and similar tools. that offender will still be criminally liable for the felony brought about his act. He can only be prosecuted for trespass. He may be liable for a consummated felony constituted by his act of trespassing. One evening. illegal possession of picklocks and similar tools is a crime. He found out that the man entered his sala by cutting the screen on his window. which prevented the crime from being consummated. Vena V. that there is no more felony committed. The crime committed is attempted homicide and not physical injuries. A has a very seductive neighbor in the person of B. Dwelling is taken as an aggravating circumstance so he will be prosecuted for attempted rape aggravated by dwelling. after A saw B at her house and thought that B was already asleep. In so far the woman being carried is concerned. by themselves. found out that B was nude. If the offender proceeded to abuse the woman. The elements of the crime. the attempted stage is only that overt act which is directly linked to the felony intended to be committed. since the act of removing the panel indicates only at most the intention to enter. Although. the accused was arrested while he was detaching some of the wood panels of a store. Namaja. To a layman. Thus. he entered the house of B through the window to abuse her. The crime is not attempted abduction but acts of lasciviousness. however. there are three criteria involved: (1) (2) (3) The manner of committing the crime. Illustrations: A fired at B and B was hit on the shoulder. it is always presumed to be against the will of the owner. not an attempt to rob. he can be prosecuted for two crimes: (1) qualified trespass to dwelling. Can a be accused of attempted rape? No. He would not be there just to sleep there. and (2) illegal possession of picklocks and similar tools. The act of entering alone is not yet indicative of robbery although that may be what he may have planned to commit. but there may be other felony constituting his act. There are some acts which are ingredients of a certain crime. Verga The spontaneous desistance of the offender negates only the attempted stage but not necessarily all criminal liability. because there was desistance. The removal of the panelling is just an attempt to trespass. already criminal offenses. Other than that. she may already be the victim of lascivious acts. In deciding whether a felony is attempted or frustrated or consummated. he could not be prosecuted for qualified trespass. and The nature of the crime itself. the Supreme Court held it is only attempted trespass because that is the crime that can be directly linked to his act of removing the wood panel. But B's wound was not mortal. It does not mean. The second attempt has nothing to do with the first. and told B. In another instance. however. but the latter screamed. /vvverga Page 36 of 100 . Desistance is true only in the attempted stage of the felony. no amount of desistance will negate criminal liability. In law. What is negated is only the attempted stage.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) already completed all acts performed by him directly leading to robbery. The attempted felony is erased by desistance because the offender spontaneously desisted from pursuing the acts of execution. You only hold him liable for an attempt. Question & Answer A awakened one morning with a man sleeping in his sofa. He. under Article 304 of the Revised Penal Code. the act done is already in the frustrated stage.
the giver and the receiver. On the other hand.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. No matter what the offender may do to accomplish a penetration. they cannot arise without the other. Because of this. there are felonies where the offender can only be determined to have performed all the acts of execution when the resulting felony is already accomplished. bribery is the crime of the receiver not the giver. it is only possible in the attempted stage. There are instances where an intended felony could already result from the acts of execution already done. but he had reported the matter to higher authorities. therefore. it is only attempted bribery. This is because it requires the link of two participants. If the one to whom the demand was made pretended to give. When the giver delivers the money to the supposed receiver. the crime is consummated. Garcia. Actually. that is already an indication that the premises have begun to burn. But indirect bribery is always consummated. It is not possible for him to perform all the acts of execution because in the first place. In short. This was the ruling in the case of People v. no frustrated stage. the moment it begins to burn. For this reason. An example of this is the crime of rape. It does not require that the entire premises be burned to consummate arson. The public officer received the money but just the same. there could hardly be a frustrated stage.) The confusion arises from the fact that this crime requires two to commit -. the frustrated stage of arson has been eased out. Because of that. the receiver has no intention of being corrupted. there is no bribery. For instance. the corruption is already beyond the attempted stage. If you have bribery only. If that link is there. That thinking does away with the concept of the crime that it requires two to commit. No penetration at all. Only attempted or consummated. The essence of the crime is carnal knowledge. You will notice that under the Revised Penal Code. Once there is penetration already. Giving the idea that these are independent crimes. there is no way of stating that the offender has already performed all the acts of execution. arrested him. The crime of the giver is corruption of public official. The reasoning is that one cannot say that the offender. when it takes two to commit the crime. If it has not begun to burn. This is because the manner of consummating the crime does not admit of attempt or frustration. you cannot have a consummated corruption without the corresponding consummated bribery. In arson. Bribery is the crime of the public officer who in consideration of an act having to do with his official duties would receive something. The manner of committing the crime requires the meeting of the minds between the giver and the receiver. In rape. has already performed all the acts of execution which could produce the destruction of the premises through the use of fire. the common concept of bribery is that it is the act of one who corrupts a public officer. rape admits only of the attempted and consummated stages. there is no way of determining whether the offender has already performed all the acts or not. if there is a meeting of the minds. but actually. He received the money to have evidence of corruption. the crime is already frustrated bribery. A corruptor gives money to a public officer for the latter not to prosecute him. there is no meeting of the minds. On the other hand. If the public officer was arrested. if only one side of the crime is present. it requires the connection of the offender and the offended party. if there was no penetration yet. he has already performed all the acts of execution. only corruption. the Supreme Court followed the analysis that one cannot say that the offender in the crime of arson has already performed all the acts of execution which would /vvverga Page 37 of 100 . Slightest penetration or slightest connection. but there is no meeting of the minds. in the crime of arson. the crime of adultery. Can the crime of frustrated bribery be committed? No. There cannot be a consummated bribery without the corresponding consummated corruption. and. there is only an attempted stage. when a public officer demands a consideration by official duty. Do not think that because the corruptor has already delivered the money. it cannot be said that the offender has performed all the acts of execution. let us take the crime of bribery. We can only say that the offender in rape has performed all the acts of execution when he has effected a penetration. the crime is consummated. there is only an attempted adultery. As far as the stage is concerned. the only act done by the giver is an attempt. no matter how slight. If you have a corruption only. there is consummated bribery or consummated corruption. It does not admit of the frustrated stage. You will notice this from the nature of the crime requiring two participants. do not think that because the public officer already had the money in his possession. The law called the crime of the giver as corruption of public official and the receiver as bribery. the offense is consummated. consummated. the frustrated stage is already standing on the consummated stage except that the outcome did not result. Verga Manner of committing a crime For example. or accept any promise or present in consideration thereof. There is no frustrated adultery. (Incidentally. There is no middle ground when the link is there and when the link is absent. This leaves out the frustrated stage because of the manner of committing the crime. the money was marked and this was delivered to the public officer. unless a part of the premises has begun to burn. Orita. Actually. the frustrated stage overlaps the consummated stage. Similarly. Hence. the corruptor turns down the demand. It is in such felonies that the frustrated stage does not exist because without the felony being accomplished. Because of this reasoning by the Court of Appeals in People v. it is possible only in the attempted stage. Without the resulting felony. that means that the offender has not yet performed all the acts of execution. This is because the supposed corruptor has no intention to corrupt. if such link is absent. the moment any particle of the premises intended to be burned is blackened. This is also true in the crime of arson.
the house being a nipa hut. the court does not only consider the definition under Article 6 of the Revised Penal Code. it is either already frustrated or consummated. where the offender. But even then. The fact that the occupant of the other room came out and put out the fire is a cause independent of the will of the perpetrator. There are also certain crimes that do not admit of the attempted or frustrated stage. It is enough that any part of the premises. When the offender has already passed the subjective stage of the felony. This is because consummated arson does not require that the whole of the premises be burned. The analysis made by the Court of Appeals is still correct: that they could not demonstrate a situation where the offender has performed all the acts of execution to bring about the crime of arson and the situation where he has not yet performed all the acts of execution. On the other hand. Garcia. unless a part of the premises has started to burn.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) produce the arson as a consequence. the offended party was able to sidestep away from the blow. Valdez. in the jurisprudence recognizing the objective phase and the subjective phase. If the felony does not follow as a consequence. the Vena V. The ruling in the case of US v. or the stages of execution of the felony. somebody holds that arm. in determining whether the felony is attempted. arson is consummated. he also stated that the crime of physical injuries may be committed in the frustrated stage when the offender was able to throw the blow but somehow. Actually. but before he could throw the blow. On the subjective phase. less serious or slight. If the felony did not result. If he has reached that point where he can no longer control the ensuing consequence. The weight of the authority is that the crime of arson cannot be committed in the frustrated stage. the Supreme Court considered not only the acts of the offender. The court held that what was committed was frustrated arson. the situation is different. Supreme Court said the subjective phase has passed. it is beyond the attempted stage. you could not punish the attempted or frustrated stage because you do not know what crime of physical injuries was committed. Valdez. torch burned out. That although the offender may not have done the act to bring about the felony as a consequence. The trouble is that. lighted the same. In that case. This is because. there is no simple crime of physical injuries. Valdez is still correct. and as soon as the jute sacks began to burn. If the felony follows as a consequence. It is already on the consummated or frustrated stage depending on whether a felony resulted. The reason for this is because the offender was not able to perform all the acts of execution to bring about physical injuries. The explanation is academic. but also his belief. The reason is because we can hardly determine whether the offender has performed all the acts of execution that would result in arson. If you say physical injuries. frustrated or consummated. it is consummated. He reasoned out that the crime would be frustrated because the offender was able to perform all the acts of execution which would bring about the felony were it not for a cause independent of the will of the perpetrator. the offender had tried to burn the premises by gathering jute sacks laying these inside the room. This case was much the way before the decision in the case of People v. the moment a particle or a molecule of the premises has blackened. That act demonstrated that in his mind. the crime of physical injuries is penalized on the basis of the gravity of the injuries. if a person who was about to give a fist blow to another raises his arms. On the other hand. you do not know which article to apply. no matter how small. like physical injuries. he believed that he has performed all the acts of execution and that it is only a matter of time that the premises will burn. This being so. as a consequence. But in the case of People v. The occupants of the room put out the fire. Questions & Answers /vvverga Page 38 of 100 . frustrated. you cannot say that the offender believed that he had performed all the acts of execution. the crime has already passed the subjective phase and. The attempted stage is said to be within the subjective phase of execution of a felony. This was applied in the case of US v. There was not even a single burn of any instrument or agency of the crime. unless and until a part of the premises had begun to burn. it is already frustrated. Garcia was handed down and the Court of Appeals ruled that there is no frustrated arson. if he could have continued committing those acts but he himself did not proceed because he believed that he had done enough to consummate the crime. has begun to burn. the offender who put the torch over the house of the offended party. In US v. You have to categorize because there are specific articles that apply whether the physical injuries are serious. Here. He lighted these. so he ran away. You will notice that under the Revised Penal Code. Verga But the torch which was lighted could easily burn the roof of the nipa hut. One of the known commentators in criminal law has advanced the view that the crime of physical injuries can be committed in the attempted as well as the frustrated stage. The moment the execution of the crime has already gone to that point where the felony should follow as a consequence. Valdez is correct. there would be attempted physical injuries. having already put kerosene on the jute sacks. it is that point in time when the offender begins the commission of an overt act until that point where he loses control of the commission of the crime already. he ran away. it is no longer attempted. in law. He explained that by going through the definition of an attempted and a frustrated felony under Article 6. he had no reason not to believe that the fire would spread. the analysis in the case of US v. therefore.
a deformity can be said to exist. This is so true when he removed the wallet from the confines of the table. the estafa can only be frustrated or attempted. so that there is damage already suffered by the offended party. Along this concept of deformity in law. “Taking” in the concept of theft. A threw muriatic acid on the face of B. you have to consider the manner of committing the felony. There is no real hard and fast rule. attempted. Elements of the crime In the crime of estafa. In the same manner that when you are discussing the crime of theft. You cannot classify the physical injuries. the element of the felony and the nature of the felony itself.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. then there is no problem. The ugliness would not disappear through natural healing process. the larceny cannot be consummated. But in receiving the property. The crime committed is serious physical injuries. the element of damage is essential before the crime could be consummated. etc. A stranger comes inside the room. What is necessary only is intent to gain. B became more handsome. Verga 1. Illustration: I placed a wallet on a table inside a room. If there is no damage. Without that carrying away. otherwise. If he has started lifting the wallet. what is considered is not the artificial or the scientific treatment but the natural healing of the injury. That complete control simply means that the offender has already supplanted his will from the will of the possessor or owner of the personal property involved. On the other hand. he can drop this on the floor. there can only be attempted or frustrated theft. When you are discussing estafa. this is where you have to decide whether what was transferred to the offender is juridical possession or physical possession only. you do not know. He can exercise his will over the wallet already. three factors must concur: (1) (2) (3) The injury should bring about the ugliness. he does not take it. If there is no result. If there is no damage yet. It is not a matter of carrying away. If he is in the act of trying to take the wallet or place it under. It can only be estafa if what was transferred to him is not only material or physical possession but juridical possession as well. the offender receives the property. the recipient may be committing theft. For the crime of estafa to be consummated. After the surgery. What crime is committed? Is it attempted. the commentator’s opinion cannot stand because you cannot tell what particular physical injuries was attempted or frustrated unless the consequence is there. In order that in law. That cannot be estafa. The mere intent to derive some profit is enough but the /vvverga Page 39 of 100 . the plastic surgery applied to B is beside the point. It is a matter of whether he has already acquired complete control of the personal property involved. But as long as the wallet remains on the table. such that he could exercise his own control on the thing. It is consummated. frustrated or consummated? The crime committed here is serious physical injuries because of the deformity. I suddenly started searching him and I found the wallet inside his pocket. if what was transferred to him was only the physical or material possession of the object. That is why we made that distinction between theft and estafa. but took the same from the possession of the owner without the latter’s consent. The ugliness must be visible. 2. When there is deformity. do not talk of damage. This is so because the concept of theft under the Revised Penal Code differs from the concept of larceny under American common law. So the fact that there was plastic surgery applied to B does not relieve the offender from the liability for the physical injuries inflicted. The crime of theft is the one commonly given under Article 6. estafa cannot be considered as consummated. Under American common law. In estafa. if it were a crime of theft. In determining whether a felony is attempted. The crime of theft is already consummated because he already acquired complete control of my wallet. In our concept of theft. the offender need not move an inch from where he was. Criminal law cannot stand on any speculation or ambiguity. The injuries would have resulted in deformity were it not for timely plastic surgery. this is only theft or none at all. the presumption of innocence would be sacrificed. the theft is not yet consummated. If the offender did not receive the personal property. you disregard the healing duration of the wound or the medical treatment required by the wound. damage or intent to cause damage is not an element of theft. gets the wallet and puts it in his pocket. do not talk about intent to gain. not estafa. In law. there must be misappropriation already done. Is there an attempted slight physical injuries? thinking must be complete before a crime of theft shall be consummated. If the personal property was received by the offender. simply means exercising control over the thing. frustrated or consummated. even if the offender succeeded in carting away the personal property involved. not even gain is important. the crime of larceny which is equivalent to our crime of theft here requires that the offender must be able to carry away or transport the thing being stolen. it is frustrated. Therefore.
As far as the crime committed is concerned. The will of the owner is to keep the fighting cock inside the chicken coop. the moment he brought it out. As long as he has not taken this table out of the four walls of this room. there is frustrated theft. He discovered that the fighting cocks were not physically fit for cockfighting so he returned it. as long as the object has not been brought out of that room. In People v. The return of the thing cannot be desistance Vena V. the accused were on their way out of the supply house when they were apprehended by military police who found them secreting some hospital linen. after having taken the object out of the container changed his mind and returned it. One evening. the fact that he changed his mind and returned the same will no longer affect his criminal liability. because it is only then that death will follow. and before he could leave the room. it is indispensable that the victim be mortally wounded. Nature of the crime itself In crimes involving the taking of human life – parricide. Illustration: A and B are neighbors. and being consummated. It refers only to whether it is theft or robbery with force upon things. The crime is not yet consummated. An exception to the general rule is the so-called subjective phase. The Supreme Court has decided cases which applied the subjective standard that when the offender himself believed that he had performed all the acts of /vvverga Page 40 of 100 . the crime is only attempted. Under the definition of the frustrated stage. If the offender has already acquired complete control of what he intended to take. it cannot be said that the offender has performed all the acts of execution which would produce parricide. it is the perimeter of the compound that is the container. I apprehended him. to consider the offender as having performed all the acts of execution. He took the valuables. When the offender succeeded in bringing the cock out of the coop. in both cases. he was apprehended. and murder – in the definition of the frustrated stage. As far as the boxes of rifle are concerned. This is the confusion raised in the case of US v. what were taken were hospital linens. theft is consummated. Espiritu. If the thing is stolen from a compound or from a room. that the receptacle is locked or sealed has nothing to do with the stage of the commission of the crime. the offender. But why is it that in one. Verga because in criminal law. It turned out that he is not authorized at all and is interested only in the wallet. You do not have to go out of the compound to complete the taking or the control. the crime was already consummated. While taking the table out of the room. If the crime is one of theft. Diño. Is he criminally liable? Do not make a mistake by saying that there is a desistance. The crime is consummated theft. This is very decisive in the problem because in most problems given in the bar. The emphasis. The offender is criminally liable but he will not be civilly liable because the object was returned. It was held that what was committed was consummated theft. put them in his pocket and was arrested. the offender is criminally liable and the crime is consummated theft. murder or homicide as a consequence. the acts already done by him must produce or be capable of producing a felony as a consequence. homicide or murder as a result. the boxes of rifle were stocked file inside the compound of the South Harbor. the accused loaded boxes of rifle on their truck. Diño compared with People v. so they were not able to leave the compound. the control is complete. On the other hand. It will only affect the civil liability of the crime because he will no longer be required to pay the object. Diño. the man who entered the room pretended to carry the table out of the room. the taking is not complete. not the table. they were checked at the checkpoint. But if he does not take the valuables but lifts the entire chest. and the wallet is there. These were taken from a warehouse. From the moment they took it out of the boxes where the owner or the possessor had placed it. It was held that what was committed was frustrated Theft. in lieu of theft. It is only frustrated because as far as the table is concern. which was erroneously laid in some commentaries.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) If instead of the wallet. the crime is robbery with force upon things. If the wound is not mortal. the return of the owner’s property is not desistance anymore. The general rule is that there must be a fatal injury inflicted. A man entered a room and found a chest on the table. is that. it is frustrated and in the other. When the receptacle is locked or sealed. Hence. the taking is not complete. When they were on their way out of the South Harbor. Espiritu. Hospital linens were taken from boxes that were diffused or destroyed and brought out of the hospital. and the offender broke the same. Adio and People v. the crime is only frustrated. or from the perimeter of the compound. Espiritu. A entered the yard of B and opened the chicken coop where B keeps his fighting cocks. the offenders were not able to pass the checkpoint. As long as they were not able to bring these boxes of rifle out of the compound. You cannot talk of desistance anymore when it is already in the consummated stage. it is the confines of this room that is the container. He opened it found some valuables inside. homicide. However. it is consummated? In the case of US v. desistance is true only in the attempted stage. in the case of People v. it is clear that his will completely governed or superseded the will of the owner to keep such cock inside the chicken coop. it was consummated. In US v. In this case. The reason is that the wound inflicted is not capable of bringing about the desired felony of parricide.
This is only true when the law expressly punishes the mere conspiracy. When several offenders act in a synchronized. Lim Buanco had an account with the said bank and drew large sums of money therefrom by means of checks that were signed by him and endorsed by Reyes. The mere conspiracy is the crime itself. to the prejudice of an individual or public is a distinct offense. Treason. 5 (b) RA 1700 Two kinds of conspiracy: (1) (2) Conspiracy as a crime. even though no mortal wound was inflicted. a felony is committed by two or more malefactors. conspiracies punished by special laws (a) commonwealth act no 616 sec. and does not attempt to charge them with the crime of conspiracy (a) But of pivotal importance perpetuators of crime in determining liability of PEOPLE vs. conspiracies punished by RPC (a) conspiracy to commit treason (Art 115) (b) conspiracy to commit rebellion (Art 136) (c) conspiracy to commit sedition (Art 141) 3. The crime of conspiracy known to the common law is not an indictable offense in the Philippines. The prison riot was an offshoot of the long standing clashes between the warring groups.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) execution. coordinated manner. Exception: As provided by Law 2. conspiracy existed between the defendants for the withdrawal of funds from the bank regardless of whether Lim Baunco had funds in the bank to his credit or not. Decision: Under the common law. A. However. rebellion. conspiracy is not a crime except when the law specifically provides for a penalty therefore as in treason. LIM BUANCO Facts: Defendants are being accused of estafa for defrauding El Banco EspanolFilipino. which defines certain specific acts as conspiracies. 1. Proposals punished in the code (a) proposal to commit treason (Art 115) (b) Proposal to commit rebellion (Art 136) 4. PERALTA Facts: The accused were OXO members and were charged for multiple murder for killing three members/sympathizers of the Sigue-Sigue gang during a prison riot. However. otherwise. Generally. rebellion and sedition. a combination of two or more persons to do an unlawful act by lawful means. and decide to commit it. The crime of conspiracy as known to the common law does not exist under the system embodied in the Spanish Penal Code. the sovereignty of the State is not outraged and the tranquility of the public remains undisturbed. sedition. when in resolute execution of a common scheme. The Penal code defines /vvverga Page 41 of 100 . Vena V. and Conspiracy as a manner of incurring criminal liability When conspiracy itself is a crime. but as long as the conspirators do not perform overt acts in furtherance of their malevolent design. or a lawful act by unlawful means. Issue: W/N the defendants should be charged with conspiracy or estafa. General Rule: conspiracies and proposals to commit a felony are not punishable Not indictable in the Philippines US vs. the act is already in the frustrated stage. Article 4 of the Penal code says that there is a conspiracy when two or more persons act together for the commission of a crime. the existence of conspiracy assumes pivotal importance in the determination of liability of the perpetrators. There is an implied agreement. and provides that a conspiracy to commit a crime is punishable only in the cases in which the law specifically makes them so. CONSPIRACY AND PROPOSAL TO COMMITE A FELONY Two ways for conspiracy to exist: (1) (2) There is an agreement. Sigue-sigue’s members are predominantly Tagalogs while OXO’s members came from Visayas and Mindanao: Issue: W/N there is conspiracy in this case Decision: A conspiracy exists when two or more persons come to an agreement concerning the commission of a felony and decide to commit it. and coup d’etat are the only crimes where the conspiracy and proposal to commit to them are punishable. Verga certain acts as conspiracies and makes them punishable. the fact that their acts complimented each other is indicative of the meeting of the minds. no overt act is necessary to bring about the criminal liability. the conspiracy does not bring about the commission of the crime because conspiracy is not an overt act but a mere preparatory act. An agreement to commit a crime is a reprehensible act from the viewpoint of morality. Reyes manipulated the books as to make them show an apparent credit when in fact Lim Buanco was owing the bank a large sum of money. The information in this case charges the defendants with the crime of estafa. The participants acted in concert or simultaneously which is indicative of a meeting of the minds towards a common criminal goal or criminal objective.
The conditions attending its commission and the acts executed may be indicative of a common design to accomplish a criminal purpose and objective.' The usual phraseology employed in many of the later cases is 'common and joint purpose and design. who previously had a confrontation with one the truck passengers. Decision: It is urged that the said offer was a mere proposal to commit a crime. a member of said board. A. came and attacked the persons inside the truck killing the victim. as the offer of money is an overt act in a crime of this nature. Guido died from traumatic injuries in the head. MERE CONSPIRACY AS CONSTITUTING COMMISSION OF CRIME Combinations in restrain of Trade (Art 186) Brigandage (Art 306) Certain violations of the dangerous drugs act MERE PROPOSAL AS OVERT ACT PUNISHED BY LAW: BRIBR NOT ACCEPTED (Art. a 1909 decision. III. Thus the defendant. What is required is assent to the perpetration of such a misdeed. it may be deduced from the mode and manner in which the offense was perpetrated. PEOPLE vs. Figueras) They decide to commit it. there is a conspiracy CONSPIRACY TO COMMIT A CRIME IS DISTINGUISHED CONSPIRACY AS A MEANS TO COMMIT TO CRIME FROM A. Verga A. LIABILITY OF CONSPIRATOR determination to commit felony taking part in every detail is not essential PEOPLE vs.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) II. three men. Malilay and People v. wherein it is said that "there is an attempt when the guilty person makes a beginning in the commission of a crime by direct. if proposal is accepted. and that there is nothing in said code which penalizes a proposal to commit the crime of bribery. C. RPC) Issue: W/N there is conspiracy in the case at bar. B. the act of one is the act of all the others involved and each is to be held to the same degree of liability as the others. IV. can not be said to have made a mere proposition. OGAPAY Facts: The defendants was said to have conspired to kill Ogapay. B. Moreover. and its refusal on the part of the official whom it was proposed to bribe alone prevented the consummation of the crime. V. GLORIA Facts: Gloria was an unsuccessful candidate for election as president of his town. CABILING Facts: The victim was a driver of a truck that was to deliver a truckload of rice to Manila. Magcomot. Defendant was charged with “attempt" to commit the crime of bribery” Issue: W/N the act is punishable by the RPC. by reason of some cause or action other than his own voluntary desistance. Issue: W/N Cabiling is as guilty as his other companions for the murder of Guido. /vvverga Page 42 of 100 . Two or more persons come to an agreement (US vs. Pudpud : "A conspiracy 'exists when two or more persons come to an agreement concerning the commission of a felony and decide to commit it. A. VI. 'The objective then on the part of the conspirators is to perform an act or omission punishable by law. There is need in the language of Justice Mapa in the early leading case of United States v. Note: When conspiracy relates to crime actually committed. Suddenly. C. ELEMENTS OF PROPOSAL A person has decided to commit a crime He proposes its commission to another 1. Villarino) Agreement concerns commission of felony (US vs.’ 'Thus a conspiracy need not be proved be direct evidence. not a felony but only a means of incurring criminal liability. having made an offer of money for the purpose of bribery. In the case in question the proposal was in fact an "attempt" as defined in article 3 of said code. B. for 'concurrence of wills' or unity of action and purpose. That must be their intent. A conflict arose between the victim and one of the defendants when the former accused the latter of land-grabbing lands owned by the former’s grandfather. ELEMENTS OF CONSPIRACY Decision: There is no conspiracy in this case. with several others had the victim killed. According to People v. Vena V. the godson of one of the defendants. the victim did not support the defendant during the elections. Upon filing a protest. and offered and promised to give him the sum of 200 pesos if he would "lend his aid and support to the said protest. If such be the case then. and that under the provisions of article 4 such proposals can only be punished in cases where specific authority therefor is to be found in the Penal Code. Their truck broke down while in the highway causing them to stop. Cabiling contends that he could not have killed Guido since he was not the one with the lead pipe. B. he approached the treasurer of said treasurer of said province. 212. overt acts and does not perform all of the acts of execution which constitute the crime. VII." the accused. US vs.
inferences presumptions LIABILITY IN ABSENCE OF CONSPIRACY Individual liability A. each doing a part so that their acts. The victim went to Francisco’s house.50 share in the loot that was promised to him. or that one should know the exact part to be performed by the other conspirator in the execution of the conspiracy. provided that he has not taken direct part in the execution of the crime or forced or induced others to execute it. and although he did not directly participate in the robbery he gave moral encouragement to them with his presence and shared in the loot in the amount of Php . for the prosecution need not establish that all the parties thereto agreed to every detail in the execution of the crime or that they were actually together at all stages of the conspiracy. /vvverga Page 43 of 100 .50. It is not essential that each conspirator shall take part in every act. he went along with Toling because he was afraid to displease the latter and he only learned of their purpose on their way. Issue: W/N Bolando is as guilty as the other defendants Decision: Conspiracy not having been established. the prosecution was not able to establish whether it was really the defendant who killed the victim. However. An accomplice is one who cooperates in the execution of the crime by previous or simultaneous acts. as mere Presence of the accused at the scene of the crime. which caused his untimely death. Upon seeing this. Bolando contends that he did not know of Tolings plan till they were in the barrio. by their acts. VIII. Francisco shouted for help. Conspiracy is not proven in this case because it Question & Answer Union A proposed acts of sedition to Union B. does not appear that the appellants had a common design. does not establish criminal liability. each of the accused is responsible only for the consequences of his own act. Toling shot Isabelo thereby killing him. Is there a crime committed? Assuming Union B accepts the proposal. Proposal to commit sedition is not a crime. But if Union B accepts the proposal. Mere companionship does not establish conspiracy 2. Every one of the conspirators who took active part in its execution is therefore responsible for all he acts of the others done in the furtherance of the common design. Upon seeing Isabelo. Alonzo) Solidary indemnity for victim’s indemnity DEGREE OF PROOF REQUIRED TO ESTABLISH CONSPIRACY Same Degree of proof required to establish crime 1. Conspirators need not all join in the agreement at the same time Collective criminal responsibility: Act of one. had a heated encounter with the victims in topside café. were in fact connected and cooperative. there is no evidence tending to show conspiracy. B. indicating a closeness of personal association and a concurrence of sentiments. the nature and extent of appellant's participation. D. he should be criminally responsible as an accomplice for the crime of robbery. Issue: W/N Quinto should be acquitted Decision: It is significant that in the instant case. It is settled that where conspiracy is absent. IX. It was said that Quinto and his companions. Considering that Bolando after knowing that thy were to rob someone still went with them to the Barrio. E. PEOPLE vs. It is enough that from the individual acts of each accused. TOLING Facts: The defendants were all found guilty for the crime of Robbery in Band with Homicide. He only joined them because of the Php . C. or A. or cooperated in its perpetuation by an indispensable act. among whom could have been the culprits.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. Conspiracy implies concert of design and not participation in every detail of execution. in the company of others. in the acts leading to the commission of the felony has not been established by the evidence for the prosecution. will your answer be different? There is no crime committed. conspiracy may be inferred although no actual meeting between them to conspire is proved. through apparently. it is necessary to prove who shot and killed the victim. it may be reasonably deduced that they had a common plan to commit the felony. there will be conspiracy to commit sedition which is a crime under the Revised Penal Code. at the accomplishment of some unlawful object. In the absence of conspiracy. Verga Decision: Yes. C. QUINTO Facts: The defendants were charged of murder for hitting and inflicting upon the vital parts of Patrolman Butawa’s body mortal gunshot wounds. In the instant case. who were at that time already drunk. Toling an Bolando robbed a certain Francisco Lumpayao. Mere presence at crime scene does not establish conspiracy Positive and convincing Founded on facts and not mere conjectures. PEOPLE vs. if any. According to Bolando. the criminal responsibility of several accused is individual. act of all (People vs. Quinto’s guilt was not proved beyond reasonable doubt thus he was acquitted. If it is proved that two or more persons aimed.
200 SCRA 489. the court will not consider the same. CA. not by conjectures or speculations. Illustration: A. But when one of them commits any overt act. Unfortunately. Vena V. C and D came to an agreement to commit rebellion. otherwise. agreement to cooperate. must have a clear and convincing evidence of its existence. and his desistance negates criminal liability. The wife ran away. the same may be deduced or inferred from the acts of several offenders in carrying out the commission of the crime. This legal consequence is not true if the conspiracy is not a crime. Illustration: Three persons plan to rob a bank. all of them shall be held liable. A law student resented the fact that his brother was killed by A. there is no crime yet. however. so that when they reached the place. without cooperation or at least.000. the law student changed his mind so he immediately went to the police and told them to dispatch police officers to prevent B from committing the crime. acquiescence to. regardless of the degree of injury inflicted by any one of them. Even if none of them has performed the act of rebellion. The wife was prosecuted for parricide. The goons got hold of her husband and started mauling him. is not enough to constitute a conspiracy. This subsists even though the other co-conspirator does not know that one of them had already done the act of rebellion. On the other hand. B had already killed A. Verga Although conspiracy is defined as two or more person coming to an agreement regarding the commission of a felony and deciding to commit it.00. there was no proposal but a conspiracy. 204 SCRA 9. /vvverga Page 44 of 100 . Conspiracy is a matter of substance which must be alleged in the information. it was held that it must be established by positive and conclusive evidence. They have conspired to execute a crime but the crime involved here is murder and a conspiracy to commit murder is not a crime in itself but merely a basis for incurring criminal liability. Do not think that participants are always known to each other. but he tried to prevent the commission of the crime As a general rule. it was held that mere knowledge. He disclosed to B that A was being arraigned in the City Hall of Manila and told him to execute the plan on the following day. the act of one is the act of all. For as long as none of the conspirators has committed an overt act. When several persons who do not know each other simultaneously attack the victim. Laurio. for as long as anyone shall desist before an overt act in furtherance of the crime was committed. But the Supreme Court said that there was desistance so she is not criminally liable. The existence of a conspiracy may be reasonably inferred from the acts of the offenders when such acts disclose or show a common pursuit of the criminal objective. In this case. When the conspiracy itself is a crime. There must be an intentional participation in the crime with a view to further the common felonious objective. the crime of all is no longer conspiracy to commit rebellion but rebellion itself. if there has been a conspiracy to commit a crime in a particular place. A conspiracy of the second kind can be inferred or deduced even though they have not met as long as they acted in concert or simultaneously. In Taer v. Pinto. the police were caught in traffic causing their delay. or approval of the act. Their agreement was to bring about the rebellion on a certain date. The wife took pity and shouted for them to stop but the goons continued. Every crime must be proved beyond reasonable doubt. unless a co-conspirator was absent from the scene of the crime or he showed up. When the conspiracy is just a basis of incurring criminal liability. anyone who did not appear shall be presumed to have desisted. A conspiracy is possible even when participants are not known to each other. All will be liable for the consequences. He hired B to kill A and offered him P50. In People v. indicative of a meeting of the minds toward a common goal or objective. We have to observe the distinction between the two because conspiracy as a crime. there is already criminal liability arising from the conspiracy to commit the rebellion. 186 SCRA 5980. this cannot be inferred or deduced because there is no overt act. All that there is the agreement. the crime would no longer be the conspiracy but the overt act itself. such a desistance would negate criminal liability. The exception to this is if such person who did not appear was the mastermind. She hired some persons to kill him and pointed at her husband. Illustrations: A thought of having her husband killed because the latter was maltreating her. This was the ruling in People v. the word “person” here should not be understood to require a meeting of the coconspirator regarding the commission of the felony. there must be an overt act done before the co-conspirators become criminally liable. If the conspiracy is only a basis of criminal liability. In the evening of that same day. unless there is an overt act. B. But if anyone of them has committed the overt act of rebellion. none of the co-conspirators would be liable. This is just a preparatory act. if the co-conspirator or any of them would execute an overt act.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) When the conspiracy is only a basis of incurring criminal liability. So.
all these participants shall be considered as having acted in conspiracy and they will be held collectively responsible. robbery with rape. D invited the young lady and she accepted the invitation. C and B followed. The taxi driver did not really stay during the commission of the robbery. Illustration: A. The taxi driver agreed but said. Vena V. B and C have been courting the same lady for several years. Without the principle of conspiracy. A. like in a killing. they have equal criminal responsibility. For example. he saw D laughing menacingly. His cooperation was not really indispensable. As pointed out earlier. conspiracy is bilateral. B and C became hostile with one another. Question & Answer There are several offenders who acted simultaneously. In the crime of robbery with force upon things. When they fled. and the taxi driver was present during the planning. When A looked back at the young lady with D. The reason given is that penal laws always favor a milder form of responsibility upon an offender. under the influence of marijuana. the young lady agreed to marry D. This notion is no longer absolute. broke into a house because they learned that the occupants have gone on an excursion. thus. in the eyes of the law. such that even without his cooperation. In case the crime committed is a composite crime. robbery with physical injuries. Do not search for an agreement among the participants. it requires two parties. one party makes a proposition to the other.” Where there are several persons who participated. So it is no longer accurate to think that when there is a conspiracy. A stabbed D. Once the proposal was accepted. such co-conspirator should be punished as an accomplice only. That is why he was given only that penalty for an accomplice. so much so that it cannot be known what participation each one had. And when conspiracy exists. As a general rule. and they attacked the victim simultaneously. “I will bring you there. Before this stage. After the robbery was finished. That means the penalty which shall be imposed upon him is one degree lower. Eventually. the penalty is based on the totality of the value of the personal property taken and not on the individual property taken by him. Verga The common notion is that when there is conspiracy involved. Because of this. The taxi driver brought the conspirators where the robbery would be committed. They ransacked the house. B saw a camera and took that. they even visited the lady on intervening hours. and after committing the robbery I will return later”. and C found a can of salmon and took that. B and C learned about this. There is conspiracy when the offenders acted simultaneously pursuing a common criminal design. desistance is true only in the attempted stage. Proposal is unilateral. the crimes of robbery with homicide. it was held that the idea of a conspiracy is incompatible with the idea of a free for all. There is no definite opponent or definite intent as when a basketball crowd beats a referee to death. B. the conspirator will be liable for all the acts committed during the commission of the crime agreed upon. do not consider the degree of participation of each conspirator because the act of one is the act of all. a conspiracy arises. the Supreme Court ruled that even though there was conspiracy. On several occasions. One day. In the case of People v. Nierra. the participants are punished as principals. they all stood up to leave the house of the young lady feeling disappointed. the law shall reward him for doing so. Composite crimes Composite crimes are crimes which. It was held that the taxi driver was liable only as an accomplice. consist of more than one crime but in the eyes of the law. a co-conspirator may be held liable only as an accomplice. what he only extended was his cooperation. the conspirators told the taxi driver that they are going to use his taxicab in going to the place of robbery. Conspiracy is only in the preparatory stage. Who should be liable for the killing if who actually killed the victim is not known? There is collective responsibility here. A got a colored TV. At that instance. acting out a common criminal intent. nobody would be prosecuted. For example. there is the rule on collective responsibility since it cannot be ascertained who actually killed the victim. If they acted simultaneously to bring about their common intention. in substance. /vvverga Page 45 of 100 . In Siton v. all are principals. This is because. there is only one crime. there was a planned robbery. There.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Proposal is true only up to the point where the party to whom the proposal was made has not yet accepted the proposal. The Supreme Court has ruled that one who desisted is not criminally liable. CA. “When a person has set foot to the path of wickedness and brings back his foot to the path of righteousness. In this case. hence. if a co-conspirator merely cooperated in the commission of the crime with insignificant or minimal acts. it was held that conspiracy was present. and C. When A. there is only a preparatory stage. Notwithstanding that there is conspiracy. At most. the crime could be carried out as well. conspiracy exists. A. he took the conspirators back to his taxi and brought them away. The robbers could have engaged another taxi. all those acts done in pursuance of the crime agreed upon are acts which constitute a single crime. a victim was found dead.
reckless imprudence. B would stay in the first floor. and C would stay on the first floor. Illustration: A. This principle applies only to the crime agreed upon. intentional felonies or those committed with deliberate intent. A.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Illustrations: A. these are felonies classified according to their gravity. stages and the penalty attached to them. (3) CLASSIFICATION OF FELONIES Vena V. 6 and 9. A killed him. A. all will be liable for such crime. yet rape was part of robbery. The crimes committed are homicide and theft. Even if B and C did not know that rape was being committed and they agreed only and conspired to rob. The crime committed is robbery with rape. but an indivisible felony under the Article 294 of the Revised Penal Code. felonies are classified as attempted felony when the offender commences the commission of a felony directly by overt acts. and light felonies or those infractions of law for the commission of which the penalty is arresto menor. It was agreed that A would go the second floor. When they saw the opportunity. the owner was awakened. B. B and C are liable because that was agreed upon and theft was not an integral part of homicide. A. B and C will be liable for robbery with homicide. As a general rule. That was what the examiner had in mind because the question does not require candidate to classify but also to define. According to their gravity Under Article 9. As far as the homicide is concerned. 6 and 9. Pursuant to their agreement. they are classified as. All of them will be liable for robbery with rape. B and C killed D and after that. and C stands guard outside. A raped the girl upstairs. frustrated felony when the offender commences the commission of a felony as a consequence but which would produce the felony as a consequence but which nevertheless do not produce the felony by reason of causes independent of the perpetrator. less grave or light? To determine whether these felonies can be complexed or not. Rape can not be separated from robbery. and does not perform all the acts of execution which should produce the felony by reason of some cause or accident other than his own spontaneous desistance. felonies are classified as grave felonies or those to which attaches the capital punishment or penalties which in any of their periods are afflictive. C inspected the pocket of the victim and found that the victim was wearing a ring – a diamond ring – and he took it. Take note that when the Revised Penal Code the not the the /vvverga Page 46 of 100 . B and C agreed to kill D. Insofar as the crime of theft is concerned. A and B ran into different directions. when there is conspiracy. and culpable felonies or those resulting from negligence. the rule is that the act of one is the act of all. and C decided to commit robbery in the house of D. (2) According to the stages of their execution Under Article 6. Why is it necessary to determine whether the crime is grave. While A was ransacking the second floor. Do not write classification of felonies under Book 2 of the Revised Penal Code. and. A. consummated felony when all the elements necessary for its execution are present. Unknown to B and C. They can only evade responsibility for any other crime outside of that agreed upon if it is proved that the particular conspirator had tried to prevent the commission of such other act. All went to their designated areas in pursuit of the plan. lack of foresight or lack of skill. and to determine the prescription of the crime and the prescription of the penalty. which is not a complex crime. This is because. Therefore. The rule would be different if the crime committed was not a composite crime. Felonies are classified as follows: (1) According to the manner of their commission Under Article 3. less grave felonies or those to which the law punishes with penalties which in their maximum period was correccional. the examiner was after classifications under Articles 3. A would ransack the second floor. This is a distinct crime so the rule will not apply because it was not the crime agreed upon. The exception is if any of the co-conspirator would commit a crime not agreed upon. In other words. C will be the only one liable. So C will be liable for homicide and theft. Exception to the exception: In acts constituting a single indivisible offense.. This happens when the crime agreed upon and the crime committed by one of the co-conspirators are distinct crimes. Verga This question was asked in the bar examination: How do you classify felonies or how are felonies classified? What the examiner had in mind was Articles 3. B was to wait outside. it is well settled that any killing taking place while robbery is being committed shall be treated as a single indivisible offense. B and C agreed to rob the house of D. even though the co-conspirator performed different acts bringing about the composite crime.
which adopted the scale of penalties in the Revised Penal Code. There are two others which are found elsewhere in the provisions of the Revised Penal Code: /vvverga Page 47 of 100 . The amendments of Presidential Decree No. Aggravating circumstances. But a crime in the Revised Penal Code can absorb a crime punishable by a special law if it is a necessary ingredient of the crime in the Revised Penal Code. His violation caused damage or injury to a private party.00 is considered a correctional penalty under Article 26. or simply correlate the violated special law. which prescribes in five years. apply Article 26. It is considered as correctional penalty and it prescribes in 10 years.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) speaks of grave and less grave felonies. a special law punishes a certain act as a crime. If the offender is apprehended at any time within ten years. except arresto mayor. do not give suppletorily application of the Revised Penal Code to that of special law. With regard to Article 10. it is already a special law. May the court pronounce that he is civilly liable to the offended party. the fine of P200. it was held that the use of arms is an element of rebellion. and (2) illegal possession of firearms. and Alternative circumstances. Rodriguez. 6425 does not expressly prohibit the suppletory application of the Revised Penal Code. That article shall be applied suppletory to avoid an injustice that Vena V. it can be promulgated even if absent under the New Rules on Criminal Procedure.00. In the crime of sedition. But do not think that when a crime is punished outside of the Revised Penal Code. Thias was the ruling in People v. Here is a person who violated the special law and he was prosecuted. if he would not be indemnified for the damages or injuries sustained by him. because Article 100 of the Revised Penal Code may be given suppletory application to prevent an injustice from being done to the offended party. In Article 10. two prosecutions can be had: (1) sedition. 6425 (The Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972) by Republic Act No.00. the state loses the right to prosecute unless the running period is suspended. SUPPLETORY APPLICATION OF THE REVISED PENAL CODE Article 10 is the consequence of the legal requirement that you have to distinguish those punished under special laws and those under the Revised Penal Code. Murder would be a qualifying circumstance in the crime of qualified cattle rustling. For example. Article 100 states that every person criminally liable for a felony is also civilly liable. The special law is silent as to the civil liability of one who violates the same. is not a special law. If the penalty is fine and exactly P200. crimes prescribe in two months. Circumstances affecting criminal liability There are five circumstances affecting criminal liability: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Justifying circumstances. Presidential Decree No. murder was committed. observe the distinction. Hence. there is a reservation “provision of the Revised Penal Code may be applied suppletorily to special laws”. After two months. so a rebel cannot be further prosecuted for possession of firearms. he can be made to suffer the fine. Do not omit the phrase “In accordance with Article 25” because there is also a classification of penalties under Article 26 that was not applied. Verga would be caused to the private offended party. the offender cannot be prosecuted for murder. 533. If in the course of cattle rustling. if there was already judgment that was passed. If the crime is correctional. the definition makes a reference specifically to Article 25 of the Revised Penal Code. Exempting circumstances. This classification of felony according to gravity is important with respect to the question of prescription of crimes. the use of firearms is not an ingredient of the crime. You will only apply the provisions of the Revised Penal Code as a supplement to the special law. The stages of the commission of felonies will also apply since suppletory application is now allowed. considering that the special law is silent on this point? Yes. In the case of light felonies. If the fine is imposed as an alternative penalty or as a single penalty. If no justice would result. because violations of the Revised Penal Code are more serious than a violation of a special law. It can absorb the crime of murder. For example. If the penalty is exactly P200. it prescribes in ten years. the crime of cattle-rustling is not a mala prohibitum but a modification of the crime theft of large cattle. means that mitigating and aggravating circumstances can now be considered in imposing penalties. A violation of a special law can never absorb a crime punishable under the Revised Penal Code. punishing cattle-rustling. In People v. it is only considered a light felony under Article 9. If the offender escapes while in detention after he has been loose. 7659. if needed to avoid an injustice. So Presidential Decree No. Mitigating circumstances. Martinada.
It has the same effect as an exempting circumstance. The law enforcers told the undercover man that if he is offered a cigarette. and Extenuating circumstances. ascendants. and as to pecuniary penalties. descendant. If the crime is culpable. legitimate. Absolutory cause The effect of this is to absolve the offender from criminal liability. Amnesty. This fellow went to the place and mingled there. there is no criminal liability. Instigation is associated with criminal intent. in entrapment. ascendant. In justifying and exempting circumstances. or relatives by affinity within the same degrees with the exception of accessories who profited themselves or assisting the offender to profit by the effects of the crime. are incompatible with dolo. descendants. he in effect admits the commission of a crime but tries to avoid the liability thereof. Vena V. Justifying circumstances contemplate intentional acts and. natural and adopted brothers and sisters. Illustrations: An agent of the narcotics command had been tipped off that a certain house is being used as an opium den by prominent members of the society. When an accused invokes them. a legally married person who kills or inflicts physical injuries upon his or her spouse whom he surprised having sexual intercourse with his or her paramour or mistress in not criminally liable. What is shifted is only the burden of evidence. the offender simply acts as a tool of the law enforcers and. It did not emanate from the mind of the law enforcer entrapping him. the crime is committed with dolo. swindling and malicious mischief. Entrapment does not exempt the offender or mitigate his criminal liability. therefore. Absolutory cause has the effect of an exempting circumstance and they are predicated on lack of voluntariness like instigation. Prescription of the crime. not the burden of proof. The law enforcers cannot themselves penetrate the house because they do not belong to that circle so what they did was to convince a prominent member of society to visit such house to find out what is really happening inside and that so many cars were congregating there. Then. Under Article 247. he would not have done the criminal act which he did upon instigation of the law enforcers. hence. the criminal plan or design exists in the mind of the law enforcer with whom the person instigated cooperated so it is said that the person instigated is acting only as a mere instrument or tool of the law enforcer in the performance of his duties. Difference between instigation and entrapment In instigation. before such property had passed on to the possession of third parties. and rape. the marriage of the offended party shall extinguish the criminal action. and Marriage of the offended woman as provided in Article 344. Entrapment is not an absolutory cause. in cases of seduction.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) (1) (2) Absolutory cause. Article 89 provides how criminal liability is extinguished: Death of the convict as to the personal penalties. Absolute pardon. do not talk of instigation. then he should try it to find out whether it is loaded with dangerous drugs or not. there is no criminal liability but only civil liability. abduction. when the offender and the offended party are related as spouse. Service of the sentence. Prescription of the penalty. a criminal design is already in the mind of the person entrapped. Under Article 332. but you do not call it as such in order not to confuse it with the circumstances under Article 12. Exempting circumstances may be invoked in culpable felonies. /vvverga Page 48 of 100 . liability therefor is extinguished if death occurs before final judgment. Do not consider culpa in connection with instigation. On the other hand. It is confused with entrapment. Under Article 344. In instigation. brother and sister-in-law living together or where in case the widowed spouse and the property involved is that of the deceased spouse. Verga Under Article 219. he is acting without criminal intent because without the instigation. Article 20 provides that the penalties prescribed for accessories shall not be imposed upon those who are such with respect to their spouses. although not from civil liability. The burden is upon him to establish beyond reasonable doubt the required conditions to justify or exempt his acts from criminal liability. discovering secrets through seizure of correspondence of the ward by their guardian is not penalized. Entrapment involves only ways and means which are laid down or resorted to facilitate the apprehension of the culprit. But instigation absolves the offender from criminal liability because in instigation. in the case of theft. acts of lasciviousness.
Defense is instigation. How can one sell marijuana if he is not in possession thereof. On the other hand. The offender must believe he is performing a lawful act. There is absence of criminal intent. Defense was that he would not give a cigarette if he was not asked. not instigation. So the element of voluntariness which is necessary in dolo and culpa is not present. Instigation absolves the person instigated from criminal liability. Mistake of fact is not absolutory cause. mere possession is already a crime. Even without selling. This is entrapment. He arrested the fellow. you cannot have a case of instigation. Extenuating circumstances The effect of this is to mitigate the criminal liability of the offender. because he would not have come out for the marijuana leaves if the law enforcer had not instigated him. Is he criminally liable? No. the person involved is definitely acting without freedom and without sufficient intelligence. Entrapment is not an absolutory cause because in entrapment. On his own. the person. he pleaded to spare him a smoke so this fellow handed to him the cigarette he was smoking and found out that it was loaded with a dangerous drug. He is moving like a robot. it is necessary that had the facts been true as the accused believed them to be. If the person instigated does not know that the person is instigating him is a law enforcer or he knows him to be not a law enforcer. Selling is not necessary to commit the crime. It would be contrary to public policy to prosecute a citizen who only cooperated with the law enforcer. He apprehended the fellow. So in mistake of fact. In another instance. He was only there upon instigation of the law enforcers. The law enforcer ascertained if it is a violation of the Dangerous Drugs Act. who happens to be a law enforcer. The law enforcer asked him. If not. Illustrations: /vvverga Page 49 of 100 . He approached a person suspected to be a pusher and prevailed upon this person to sell him two kilos of dried marijuana leaves and this fellow gave him and delivered them. Somnambulism is an absolutory cause. the private citizen only cooperates with the law enforcer to a point when the private citizen upon instigation of the law enforcer incriminates himself. The element which makes instigation an absolutory cause is the lack of criminal intent as an element of voluntariness. both will be criminally liable. is to discover whether the crime is committed. he is not committing a crime. In case of somnambulism or one who acts while sleeping. and if the circumstance is not among those enumerated in Article 12. both will be criminally liable. entrapment is not an absolutory cause. he would not be there. It is not even mitigating. A policeman suspected a fellow selling marijuana. A fellow wants to make money. The reason he is there is because he cooperated with the law enforcers. to whom the package was brought to found it to be marijuana. the person entrapped is actually committing a crime. nobody would offer him a cigarette because he is unknown. The means employed by the law enforcer did not make the accused commit a crime.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) The time came when he was offered a stick of cigarette and he tried it to see if the cigarette would affect him. a law enforcer pretended to be a buyer of marijuana. refer to the circumstance as an absolutory cause. If element of voluntariness is absent. This is based on the rule that a person cannot be a criminal if his mind is not criminal. the person entrapped is actually engaged in a violation of the law. because there is no mistake of fact anymore. so this is entrapment. The offender is acting without criminal intent. In instigation. because he is asleep. there is no criminal liability. there is a crime committed by him: illegal possession of dangerous drugs. without which he would not have been a criminal. although there is civil liability. The fact that he was appointed to another person to find out its contents. unaware of what he is doing. The law enforcer is only ascertaining if this fellow is selling marijuana leaves. Vena V. but even without those ways and means. Is he criminally liable? Yes. there is criminal liability. He was approached by a law enforcer and was asked if he wanted to deliver a package to a certain person. Even without bringing. the person instigated cannot be criminally liable. When he saw somebody. Is he criminally liable? This is a case of instigation. Verga If the instigator is a law enforcer. the raid was conducted and he was among those prosecuted for violation of the Dangerous Drugs Act. this act is justified. This is a case of inducement. because it is the law enforcer who planted that criminal mind in him to commit the crime. The private citizen believes that he is a law enforcer and that is why when the law enforcer tells him. The idea is incompatible with each other because in entrapment. If the instigator is not a law enforcer. Even if the law enforcer did not ask for a cigarette. This is a case of entrapment and not instigation. In other words. The officer who entrapped him only lays down ways and means to have evidence of the commission of the crime. the person entrapped should not know that the person trying to entrap him was a law enforcer. If the law enforcer were able to enter the house and mingle there. In entrapment. It is a case of entrapment because the fellow is already committing the crime from the mere fact that he is possessing marijuana. this is not a case of instigation. he is already possessing the marijuana. he believes that it is a civil duty to cooperate. Unfortunately. this has the same effect as mitigating circumstances. “Are you selling that? How much? Could you bring that to the other fellow there?” When he brought it there. When that fellow was delivering the package. he was apprehended. the offender is already committing a crime. only you do not call it mitigating because this is not found in Article 13. the offender was already committing a crime.
in paragraphs 4 and 7 of Article 12. Since there is a material lowering of the penalty or mitigating the penalty. If the unlawful aggressor was killed. So this is an extenuating circumstance. /vvverga Page 50 of 100 . Never confuse unlawful aggression with provocation. The reasonableness of the means employed depends on the gravity of the aggression. Distinctions between circumstances justifying circumstances and exempting (3) Vena V. The concealment of honor by mother in the crime of infanticide is an extenuating circumstance but not in the case of parricide when the age of the victim is three days old and above. Is B criminally liable? What crime was committed. is it necessary for her to seek the company of another man. but not insofar as the father of the child is concerned. not the actor. there is no crime. there is no imminent danger to the life or limb of B. an unlawful aggression is an attack or a threatened attack which produces an imminent danger to the life and limb of the one resorting to self-defense. there is absence of dolo or culpa. In justifying circumstances – (1) (2) (3) (4) The circumstance affects the act.” Self Defense In justifying circumstances. Therefore. there is civil liability for the wrong done. The effect is to mitigate the criminal liability. The concealment of dishonor is an extenuating circumstance insofar as the unwed mother or the maternal grandparents is concerned. When the effect of the circumstance is to lower the penalty there is an extenuating circumstance. When he was about five feet away from B. not the act. however. But because the actor acted without voluntariness. But there is no criminal liability. there is no criminal liability as well as civil liability. Since the act complained of is actually wrongful. it is legitimate and lawful in the eyes of the law. it is the element of unlawful aggression that is in issue. However. it is confession and avoidance and burden of proof shifts to the accused and he can no longer rely on weakness of prosecution’s evidence Justifying circumstances Since the justifying circumstances are in the nature of defensive acts.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) (2) An unwed mother killed her child in order to conceal a dishonor. penalty is lowered by two degrees. the act of B in shooting A is not justified. One who is a kleptomaniac and who would steal objects of his desire is criminally liable. hence. this is an extenuating circumstance. the most important is self-defense. (4) When you apply for justifying or exempting circumstances. what was said was that A was holding a bolo. and because there is no crime. It cannot be characterized as an unlawful aggression because in criminal law. there is no criminal. when A saw B one afternoon. Illustration: A and B are long standing enemies. The act complained of is considered to have been done within the bounds of law. But he would be given the benefit of a mitigating circumstance analogous to paragraph 9 of Article 13. Mother killing her new born child to conceal her dishonor. Since there is no crime or criminal. That bolo does not produce any real or imminent danger unless a raises his arm with the bolo. It only extenuates or reduces criminal liability. depriving him of the consciousness of his act. Mere provocation is not enough. A kleptomaniac is one who cannot resist the temptation of stealing things which appeal to his desire. Verga The act complained of is actually wrongful. killing him. there is a crime. The equation is “life was taken to save life. There is no criminal. this can only be justified if it was done to save the life of the person defending or the person being defended. Since the act is considered lawful. In the facts of the problem given above. B pulled out a revolver and shot A on the chest. Abandonment by the husband does not justify the act of the woman. As long as that arm of A was down holding the bolo. there must be always unlawful aggression. He is a mere tool or instrument of the crime. that of suffering from an illness which diminishes the exercise of his will power without. at the time she was abandoned by her husband. he approached the latter in a menacing manner with a bolo in his hand. In the crime of adultery on the part of a married woman abandoned by her husband. Since there is a crime committed but there is no criminal. This is not exempting. In exempting circumstances – (1) The circumstances affect the actor. there is neither criminal nor civil liability. but the actor acted without voluntariness. When this is given in the bar. Because of their continuous quarrel over the boundaries of their adjoining properties. if any? The act of A is nothing but a provocation.
In US v. when she killed the supposed unlawful aggressor. Therefore. There was already some sort of aggression but it was not enough to warrant the act resorted to by the accused in getting a small knife from her bag and thrusting it on the chest of the offended party. a woman went into the house of another woman whom she suspected of having an affair with her husband. In the process. In this case. resentment or evil motive is not a requirement in defense of relative. When the lights were turned on. Apparently. depending on how the court will regard the absence or presence of conditions to justify the act. /vvverga Page 51 of 100 . That will be the situation. resentment or some evil motive in killing the aggressor. The policeman who shot the other guy fell on the floor. Rodriguez. It will be defense of stranger. Life cannot be equal to property. But the fellow who killed the aggressor had some score to settle with the aggressor. under the Revised Penal Code. there is no self-defense. She could not possibly be raped in that place. It was held that the whole matter is purely her imagination. One shot the other. he started emptying the revolver of the other policeman who was lying on the floor. her sister and brother-in-law went to see a movie and came home late that evening. She said that she believed that her own honor was at stake. they wrestled for possession of the gun. If that is not the situation. her availing of defense of honor is not tenable. Actually. it was held that it was not possible to rape the accused because the whole thing transpired in the church. She started pouring gasoline on the house of the woman. her life and limb were no longer in imminent danger. where there were so many people. he cannot invoke the justifying circumstance if the relative defended is already a stranger in the eyes of the law. The policeman who was wounded on the thigh jumped on the arm of the fellow who shot him. the honor of a woman in respect of her defense is equated with her virginity. What justifies the killing of a supposed unlawful aggressor is that if the offender did not kill the aggressor. It is enough that there was unlawful aggression against the relative defended. he awakened the accused. The woman who was pouring gasoline had a bolo. this policeman who was shot at the thigh was already able to get hold of the revolver. Mateo. was her life in danger? If the answer is no. the condition that a person making the defense did not act out of revenge. Since the woman has children inside the house. At that moment. In that position. she got a pair of scissors and stabbed the man. it was held that the defense of self-defense is no available. and that the person defending did not contribute to the unlawful aggression. it has the effect of lowering the penalty by one to two degrees. Jaurigue. The accused was already asleep. In law. If ordinary. The accused claimed as having acted in defense of her honor and mistake of fact. In this case. The other was wounded on his thigh. He started feeling through the dark. At the time the accused killed the supposed unlawful aggressor. even though he acted out of some evil motive. Defense of stranger If the person being defended is already a second cousin. Believing that her honor was at stake. Is he entitled to a justifying circumstance? Yes. Verga Defense of rights is included in the circumstances of defense and so is defense of honor. The brother-in-law came up first while his wife was still in the staircase. if the relative defended is still within the coverage of defense of relative. it has the effect of reducing the imposable penalty to the minimum period. That is the focal point. the one who jumped out of the house was able to wrest the bolo away and started hacking the other woman. Defense of property rights This can only be invoked if the life and limb of the person making the defense is also the subject of unlawful aggression. But if it is privileged. Illustration: Two policemen quarreled inside a police precinct. Defense of honor here is being equated with one of abuse of chastity of a woman. This is only required in defense of strangers. it would still apply. it will be his own life that will be lost. while a woman was sleeping. It was held that the hacking was not justified. Question & Answer The person being defended was a relative – a first cousin.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. This is a mitigating circumstance under paragraph 1 of Article 13. and in the process. even if there was an unlawful aggression that has already begun. But while there may be no justifying circumstance. They grappled with the bolo. the offended party placed his hand on the thigh of the woman who was then praying. Do not confuse unlawful aggression with provocation. In US v. you do not invoke defense of relative anymore. On that point. so she started hacking the other woman with it. The shooting was not justified. In People v. she realized that she had stabbed her brother-in-law. she jumped out to prevent this other woman from pouring gasoline around the house. On the other hand. This is vital because if the person making the defense acted out or revenge. This mitigating circumstance is either privileged or ordinary. do not forget the incomplete self-defense. Touching the arm could not produce such danger as would really be imminent to the honor of the woman. you cannot invoke self-defense.
When there are only two conditions to justify the act or to exempt from criminal liability. In such a case. He will not be civilly liable. destroying it and killing the occupant therein. if at all. B owns the land for raising certain goats. State of necessity Vena V. C drove all the goats of B to the land of A. when you are given a problem on this premise. there can be no incomplete self-defense. you need only to say this: If less than a majority of the requisites necessary to justify the act or exempt from criminal liability are present. the penalty would be reduced by one or two degrees. to have incomplete self-defense. there are only two conditions: (1) (2) The felony was committed while the offender was in the fulfillment of a duty or in the lawful exercise of a right or office. How. He swerved his car towards a house. Dam was opened. A owns the land for planting certain crops. but C is not civilly liable because he did not receive benefits. although he was not the actor. Verga The state of necessity must not have been created by the one invoking the justifying circumstances. B will answer only to the extent of the benefit derived by him. If a majority of the requisites needed to justify the act or exempt from criminal liability are present. Second. the question should be. This is what you call incomplete justification of fulfillment of duty or incomplete justification of exercise of a right. First. defense of relative. you have to qualify your answer. /vvverga Page 52 of 100 . C used another land for a vegetable garden. Without this. you always have to specify the element of unlawful aggression. Third. The goats rushed to the land of A to be saved. on the principle that “no one should enrich himself at the expense of another”. if at all?” Make a separate answer with respect to self-defense. It is wrong to treat this as an exception to the rule that in justifying circumstances. and the first condition is present. but not all. In that case. the offender shall be given the benefit of a privileged mitigating circumstance. The penalty shall be lowered by one or two degrees. defense of relative or defense of stranger. “how may incomplete justifying circumstance affect criminal liability of the offender. So the accused will not be civilly liable if he did not receive any benefit out of the state of necessity. there would be no incomplete selfdefense. He cannot claim that it was fortuitous event. the offended party must be guilty of unlawful aggression. Civil liability is based on the benefit derived and not on the act. If C who drove all the goats is accused of malicious mischief. Fulfillment of duty In the justifying circumstance of a person having acted out of fulfillment of a duty and the lawful exercise of a right or office. it means that not all the requisites to justify the act are present or not the requisites to exempt from criminal liability are present. persons who did not participate in the damage or injury would be pro tanto civilly liable if they derived benefit out of the state of necessity. may incomplete self-defense affect the criminal liability of the offender? If the question specifically refers to incomplete self-defense. The author of the act is C.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Incomplete self-defense or incomplete justifying circumstance or incomplete exempting circumstances When you say incomplete justifying circumstance. or defense of stranger. the imposable penalty shall be reduced by one or two degrees depending upon how the court regards the importance of the requisites present. with respect to other circumstances. There was heavy rain and floods. the presence of one shall be regarded as the majority. Civil liability referred to in a state of necessity is based not on the act committed but on the benefit derived from the state of necessity. the offender will be entitled to a privelege mitigating circumstance. the offender shall be given only the benefit of an ordinary mitigating circumstance. defense of relative or defense of stranger. Illustration: A and B are owners of adjoining lands. A cannot be justified because the state of necessity was brought about by his own felonious act. and The resulting felony is the unavoidable consequence of the due fulfillment of the duty or the lawful exercise of the right or office. if aside from the element of unlawful aggression another requisite. there is no criminal nor civil liability. otherwise. In general. are present. the offender shall only be entitled to an ordinary mitigating circumstance. If the question refers generally to justifying or exempting circumstances. A drove his car beyond the speed limit so much so that when he reached the curve. Invariably. damage or injury caused. but the second is not because the offender acted with culpa. his vehicle skidded towards a ravine. his defense would be that he acted out of a state of necessity. It was B who was benefited. if only the element of unlawful aggression is present. defense of relative or defense of stranger because in these cases. On the other hand. the other requisites being absent. the offender shall be given the benefit of a privileged mitigating circumstance. but the land of A was destroyed. For example. Or absent.
It seems that the view of many is that when the offender is a youthful offender. Verga In exempting circumstances. or absence of negligence. The accused. The second requisite is absent because they acted with negligence. But although he will be criminally liable. When they were there. the unlawful aggression ceased. to bring the criminal to the authorities. There was an order to kill Balagtas if he would resist. The accused arrived at the house of a dancer who was supposedly the girlfriend of Balagtas. You apply paragraph 5 on fulfillment of duty. the policeman was stabbed and despite the fact that the aggressor ran into a crowd of people. After firing a shot in the air. Do not confuse fulfillment of a duty with self-defense. 603. There was nothing that prevented them from looking around the house and looking at the face of the fellow who was sleeping. there must be an application filed with the court which should pronounce sentence. this is true only if it was the person who stabbed was the one killed. The insanity that is exempting is limited only to mental aberration or disease of the mind and must completely impair the intelligence of the accused. imprudence. who mistook him for someone else. the accused Chief of Police and the constabulary soldier were sent out to arrest a certain Balagtas. When A saw B. The justifying circumstance of self-defense cannot be invoked because the unlawful aggression had already ceased by the time A shot B. Is the act of A justified? Yes. he will be given the benefit of an incomplete fulfillment of duty. without going around the house. Note that the commitment of the offender in a reformatory is just a consequence of the suspension of the sentence. However. In People v. Illustration: A. Hence. he drew his revolver and went after B. B did not stop so A shot B who was hit at a vital part of the body. while waiting for his wife to go home. or whether the accused acted with complete deprivation of intelligence in committing said crime. But if. a hoodlum. Self-defense cannot be invoked. since suspension of sentence requires certain conditions: /vvverga Page 53 of 100 . decided on November 21. he must necessarily be confined in a reformatory. Presidential Decree No. Oanis and Callanta. a policeman. the following are the two tests for exemption on grounds of insanity: (1) (2) The test of cognition. There is no lucid interval unlike in insanity. This was the ruling in People v. there is absence of freedom of action or intelligence. Rafanan. the policeman still fired indiscriminately. Minority In exempting circumstances. If the sentence is not suspended. This is wrong. emotional or spiritual insanity are exempting circumstances unlike in this jurisdiction because the Revised Administrative Code. and The test of volition. A youthful offender can only be confined in a reformatory upon order of the court. or whether the accused acted in total deprivation of freedom of will. the Supreme Court granted them the benefit of incomplete justification of fulfillment of duty and the penalty was reduced by one or two degrees. there is no commitment in a reformatory. However. 1179 requires that before a youthful offender may be given the benefit if a suspension of sentence. supposedly a notorious bandit. he becomes the unlawful aggressor. B died. There could not be any danger on their life and limb. started firing at the man. In case it is a culpable felony. As long as he was not acting out of malice when he fired at the fleeing criminal. If the person attacked runs after him. The intellectual deficiency is permanent. The offender was not only defending himself but was acting in fulfillment of a duty. the most important issue is how the minority of the offender affected his criminal liability. they saw a certain person who resembled Balagtas in all his bodily appearance sleeping on a bamboo bed but facing the other direction. The policeman would be held criminally liable because he acted with imprudence in firing toward several people where the offender had run. Dungo. Exempting circumstances Vena V. in the eyes of the law. Under the amendment to Presidential Decree No. They found out later on that the man was not really Balagtas. they were held guilty of the crime of murder because the fellow was killed when he was sleeping and totally defenseless. The commitment is in a penitentiary. Imbecility and insanity There is complete absence of intelligence. or freedom of action on the part of the offender is missing.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) In People v. Under common law countries. as defined is limited to mental aberration of the mind. let us say. he cannot be made criminally liable. intelligence. They tried to invoke the justifying circumstance of having acted in fulfillment of a duty. was suddenly stabbed at the back by B. Imbecile has an IQ of 7. When the unlawful aggressor started fleeing. lack of foresight or lack of skill. the reason for the exemption lies on the involuntariness of the act – one or some of the ingredients of voluntariness such as criminal intent. 1991. Schizoprenia (dementia praecox) can only be considered a mitigating circumstance because it does not completely deprive the offender of consciousness of his acts.
It is a crime. If the prosecution would want to pin criminal liability on him. If over nine but below 15. tripped on a stone with one of his car tires. the penalty to be imposed is discretionary on the court. the court will impose a penalty one degree lower. Verga committed to a penitentiary. Article 275 gives you the crime of abandoning the victim of one’s own accident. The burden is upon the prosecution to prove that the offender acted with discernment. Although. How does the minority of the offender affect his criminal liability? (1) If the offender is within the bracket of nine years old exactly or less. he is exempt from criminal liability but not from civil liability. Here. injury resulted by mere accident without fault or intention of causing it. The offender should not have been given the benefit of a suspended sentence before. The driver is not under obligation to defray the medical expenses. He must be below 18 years old because a youthful offender is one who is below 18. while considering the condition of the traffic and the pedestrians at that time.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. depending upon whether the court deems best for the interest of the offender. it has to prove that the crime was committed with discernment. this is just an exempting circumstance. Even if the offender nine years or below acted with discernment. that he was doing it with due care but somehow. he would be committed in a reformatory. This means that the offender must be performing a lawful act. All that the minor has to show is that he is within the age bracket. this should not be taken against him because in this age bracket. There is no more bracket where the offender is a minor yet no longer entitled to a mitigating circumstance. in paragraph 4 of Article 12. Since he cannot be committed to a reformatory anymore because he is not less than 18 years old. He may be given the benefit of a suspended sentence under the conditions mentioned earlier and only if he would file an application therefor. It cannot be less than two degrees. although the minor may be qualified. The limitation that it should be lowered by at least two degrees is just a limitation on the power of the court to reduce the penalty. the exemption is absolute. What is the liability of the driver? There is no civil liability under paragraph 4 of Article 12. the be will the (1) (2) (3) The crime committed should not be punishable by reclusion perpetua or death penalty. there is no exemption anymore but he is also given the benefit of a suspended sentence under the conditions stated earlier and if at the time the sentence is promulgated. this is where the court may give him the benefit of a suspended sentence. If the sentence should not suspended. paragraph 4. That means promulgation of sentence shall not be suspended. This type of offenders are absolutely exempt. This time it is fixed. The stone flew hitting a pedestrian on the head. However. Illustration: A person who is driving his car within the speed limit. It may be lowered by three or four degrees. It is not for the minor to prove that he acted without discernment. The reason is because if the sentence were to be suspended. The pedestrian suffered profuse bleeding. yet. /vvverga Page 54 of 100 . a distinction has to be made whether the offender acted with or without discernment. he cannot avail of a suspended sentence. (2) Damnum absque injuria Under Article 12. Here. he is not 18 years old or over yet. An offender below 18 is always entitled to a mitigating or exempting circumstance. This means he is a first timer. This paragraph embodies the Latin maxim “damnum absque injuria”. If the offender is proven to have acted with discernment. Note that the age of majority has been reduced to 18. the accident referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 275 is in the concept of paragraph 4 of Article 12. correlate paragraph 4 of Article 12 with the second paragraph of Article 275. where generally there is civil liability. (4) If the offender is 15 years old and above but below 18. If the youthful offender has filed an application therefor. Suspension of sentence is not automatic. It is to be imposed one degree lower and in the proper periods subject to the rules in Article 64. but lowered by at least two degrees. the court promulgate the sentence but the minor shall be entitled to reduction of the penalty by at least two degrees. he is only civilly liable but he will be committed to the surveillance of his parents who will be required to report to the court periodically on the progress or development of the offender. if the offender was exempt from criminal liability because the prosecution was not able to prove that the offender acted with discernment. (3) If at the time the judgment is to be promulgated he is already above 18. there is no civil liability as well as criminal liability. If the sentence is promulgated. the offender is exempt not only from criminal but also from civil liability. he would have to be When the offender is over nine but below 15.
when the crime committed is punishable by a divisible penalty. but the requisites for exemption are not all present. penalty for parricide is reclusion perpetua to death. will operate to reduce the penalty to the minimum period. even if force was employed on him or even if he is suffering from uncontrollable fear. therefore. do not compensate because that would be violating the rules. Although the bulk of the circumstances in Article 13 are ordinary mitigating circumstances. the offender must act without voluntariness. So also. Notice that in the last paragraph of Article 365. Verga Ordinary mitigating circumstances. he is not exempt from criminal liability because he is still possessed with voluntariness. Will he be given the benefit of Indeterminate Sentence Law? Then. among other situations. It cannot be offset by an aggravating circumstance. Privilege mitigating circumstance aggravating circumstance. can never be offset by any (2) As to effect /vvverga Page 55 of 100 . when the penalty imposed is death or life The offender must be totally deprived of freedom. under paragraph 4 of Article 12. If the penalty is lowered by one or two degrees. you do not apply Article 275. before you go into any circumstance. except in paragraph 1. paragraph 2. if not offset. Article 13 is meaningless without knowing the rules of imposing the penalties under Articles 63 and 64. yet. Mitigating circumstances Distinctions between ordinary mitigating circumstances (1) mitigating circumstances and privileged As to the nature of the circumstances Ordinary mitigating circumstances can be offset by aggravating circumstances. The circumstances under Article 13 are generally ordinary mitigating. it is a privilege. the facts state. Here. when you are given indeterminate sentences. In other words. If less than a majority of the requisites for exemption are present. in the case of the so-called hit and run drivers who have injured somebody and would abandon the victim of the accident. When there is a lowering of penalties by degrees. but the person who caused the injury is duty bound to attend to the person who was injured. it is privilege. That is precisely why this circumstance is considered privileged. You have learned that the Indeterminate Sentence Law does not apply. whether to act or not. in cases where the offender is below 18 years old. the infliction of the injury by mere accident does not give rise to a criminal or civil liability. even if there is an aggravating circumstance. such an offender if criminally liable is entitled to the lowering of penalty by one degree. provided the penalty is a divisible one. In bar problems. that is. If he would abandon him. the offender was negligent. where it is privilege. the offender is still entitled to a mitigating circumstance of incomplete exemption under paragraph 1 of Article 13. That means that the penalty prescribed of the crime committed shall be reduced by one or two degrees in accordance with Article 69 of the Revised Penal Code. lower first the penalty to the proper degree. It takes preference over all other circumstances. Correlate Article 13 with Articles 63 and 64. it will be Article 365 on criminal negligence. In exempting circumstances. If the offender has still freedom of choice. When the circumstance which mitigates criminal liability is privileged. two or more of this ordinary mitigating circumstances shall have the effect of a privilege mitigating circumstances if there is no aggravating circumstance at all. you give effect to it above all considerations. the offender shall be given only the benefit of ordinary mitigating circumstances. You can easily detect whether the circumstance which mitigates the liability of the offender is privilege or not. if the penalty is reduced by degree. it is in that abandonment that the crime arises which is punished under the second paragraph of Article 275. The offender shall be given the benefit of privelege mitigating circumstances.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) If at the very beginning. unless the mitigating circumstance is offset by an aggravating circumstance. he is entitled to a discretionary penalty of at least two degrees lower. In a situation where the offender would otherwise be exempt. Compulsion of irresistible uncontrollable fear force and under the impulse of an Vena V. these articles are very important. Question & Answer A 17 year old boy committed parricide. Privilege mitigating circumstances operate to reduce the penalty by one or two degrees. That means the penalty shall be reduced to the minimum period of the prescribed penalty. But if over nine but under 15. paragraph 2. the penalty is qualified to a higher degree. Instead. depending upon what the law provides. Apply the rule if majority of the requisites to exempt from criminal liability are present. Article 69 would apply.
it is the age of the offender at the time the sentence is to be promulgated. not a culpable one. There may actually be sufficient provocation which immediately preceded the act. Criminal laws are to be construed always in a manner liberal or lenient to the offender.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) imprisonment. but A cannot hit back at B because B is bigger. so A boxed C. has stretched this criterion – it is not only a matter of time anymore. the offender is a 17-year old boy. is yes. the person provoked retaliated on a younger brother or on an elder father. mitigating circumstances does not apply. This circumstance does not apply when the crime results from criminal negligence or culpa. The imposable penalty. The answer. means that there must be a notable disproportion between the means employed by the offender compared to that of the resulting felony. as well as the Court of Appeals. That privilege lowers the penalty by one degree. but if provocation did not come from the person offended. not the age of the offender at the time the sentence is to be imposed. paragraph 4. The Indeterminate Sentence Law applies to this and so the offender will be given its benefit. there is sufficient provocation. this is the product of intentional felony. B at that time was with his brother C. and because he was small. But then in the problem given. Can A invoke sufficient provocation to mitigate criminal liability? No. he cannot fight the bully at that time /vvverga Page 56 of 100 . If there is sufficient break of time before the provocation or threat and the consequent commission of the crime. So before you go in the Indeterminate Sentence Law. it is not mitigating because the one who gives the provocation is not the one against whom the crime was committed. Reclusion temporal is already governed by the Indeterminate Sentence Law. the age of the offender at the time the crime was committed is not considered. the felony was committed precisely because he was then and there provoked. It is wrong for you to determine whether the Indeterminate Sentence Law will apply or not on the basis of reclusion perpetua because that is not the imposable penalty. there was a ruling that if a period of one hour had lapsed between the provocation and the commission of the felony. The commission of the felony must be immediate to the threat or provocation in order that this circumstance be mitigating. For purposes of lowering the penalty by one or two degrees. When you arrive at the correct penalty. this mitigating circumstance is no longer applicable. The accused tried to reason out but the bully slapped him several times in front of so many people. thus. When the crime is the product of reckless imprudence or simple negligence. whatever anger or diminished self control may have emerged from the offender had already vanished or disappeared. there is more reason to give him its benefit. B approached A and boxed him. that is not the imposable penalty. you have to apply that circumstance first. Although in fact. Question & Answer A was walking in front of the house of B. Verga Sufficient threat or provocation This is mitigating only if the crime was committed on the very person who made the threat or provocation. there was a bully and he told the accused that he is not allowed to go inside. the recent rulings of the Supreme Court. However. he did not fight back. The person provoked cannot retaliate against him. Vena V. this circumstance does not avail. therefore. In applying this mitigating circumstance. Privilege mitigating circumstance will apply over and above all other considerations. C told B that sometime in the past. The common set-up given in a bar problem is that of provocation was given by somebody. some of whom were ladies who were being courted by the accused. That circumstance is privileged. therefore. so he was humiliated and embarrassed. This is one of the three instances where the offender has performed a felony different from that which he intended. the age of the offender at the time of the commission of the crime shall be the basis. Although the penalty prescribed for the crime committed is reclusion perpetua. Being a 17-year old boy. Illustration: The accused went to a barrio dance. Article 13 will not apply. However. is reclusion temporal. since being 17 years old is a privilege mitigating circumstance. the law presupposes that during that interval. Before. Sufficient provocation must come from the offended party. the penalty would go one degree lower and the penalty for parricide which now stands at reclusion perpetua will go down to reclusion temporal. Between giving the offender the benefit of the Indeterminate Sentence Law and withholding it away from him. The moment you do that. Praeter intentionem The common circumstance given in the bar of praeter intentionem. In other words. under paragraph 3. A boxed him. In that gathering. therefore. that is the time when you find out whether the Indeterminate Sentence Law will apply or not. the courts are generally considering that there must be no break between the provocation or threat and the commission of the felony. You are only treating it as an ordinary mitigating circumstance. He shall be given the benefit of the Indeterminate Sentence Law. If the resulting felony could be expected from the means employed. But for purposes of suspension of the sentence. you disregard the privileged character of minority. Therefore.
therefore. The reason stated by the Supreme Court for allowing the accused to be benefited by this mitigating circumstance is that the effect of the humiliation and outrage emitted by the offended party as a provocation upon the accused was still present when he committed the crime and. then you use the criterion based on the time element. As a rule. any man who discovers that infidelity was (2) In People v. The evidence for the accused showed that when he went home. However. sufficient provocation was one of mitigating circumstances considered by the Supreme Court in favor of accused. he came home and surprised his common law wife having sexual intercourse with a friend. In a case where the relationship between the accused and the woman he was living with was one of common law. This infuriated him. The accused was still acting under a diminished self control because he was thinking of the humiliation he suffered in the hands of the offended party. Diokno. he is acting under a diminished self control. this time. whether natural. Passion or obfuscation This stands on the premise or proposition that the offender is suffering from a diminished self control because of the passion or obfuscation. although they arose from one and the same case. Accused had no choice but to go home. he was not able to sleep throughout the night. education and social status will be considered. thinking of the humiliation and outrage done to him. The Supreme Court gave him the benefit of this mitigating circumstance. there is a material lapse of time stated in the problem and there is nothing stated in the problem that the effect of the threat or provocation had prolonged and affected the offender at the time he committed the crime. his age. a Chinaman eloped with a woman. was the the the Vena V. It is enough if what was imputed or what was done was wrong. one of the mitigating circumstances under paragraphs 4. then you can predicate any one of these circumstances on one fact and the other on another fact and so on. it need not be the same person who committed the grave offense or who was offended by the wrong done by the offended party. So. Vindication of a grave offense The word “offense” should not be taken as a crime. despite the lapse of about 22 hours. This is the reason why it is mitigating. it is enough that the offender committed the crime with the grave offense done to him. This is the correct interpretation of paragraph 4.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) because the latter was much bigger and heavier. consider whether passion or obfuscation is generated by common law relationship or by some other human consideration. it cannot be based on common law relationship because common law relationships are illicit. The same is true with the circumstances under paragraphs 4 and 5. he cannot be given the benefit of paragraph 5 or 6. On review. The word “immediate” here does not carry the same meaning as that under paragraph 4.” Therefore. Only one of the three mitigating circumstances should be given in favor of the offender. Verga who made the threat or provocation. Actually. he is still suffering from outrage of the threat or provocation done to him. Hence. Here. When he saw the bully again. adopted or legitimate and that is the proximate cause of the commission of the crime. in one case. in vindication of a grave offense. Since they are predicated on different set of facts. or vice-versa. they may be appreciated together. his spouse. However. Article 13. and another mitigating circumstance arises from another set of facts. the prohibition against considering all these mitigating circumstances together and not as one applies only if they would be taken on the basis of the same set of facts. If the case involves a series of facts. In considering whether the wrong is a grave one upon the person who committed the crime. if there is that time element and at the same time. The trial court denied his claim because the relationship was a common law one. then he will still get the benefit of this mitigating circumstance. However. 5 and 6 stands or arises from a set of facts. unlike in sufficient threat or provocation where the crime should be inflicted upon the very person /vvverga Page 57 of 100 . here. You have to look at two criteria: (1) If from the element of time. the reason for paragraph 4 still applies. his ascendant or descendant or to his brother or sister. it almost three days before accused was able to locate the house where Chinaman brought the woman. the accused was given the benefit of the circumstances and the basis of considering passion or obfuscation in favor of the accused was the act of the common law wife in committing adultery right from the conjugal bed. He killed the friend and he claimed passion or obfuscation. Whether or not they are married. The outrage was so serious unless vindicated. The word “immediate” here is an erroneous Spanish translation because the Spanish word is “proxima” and not “immediatementa. there is a ruling to the effect that if the offender is given the benefit of paragraph 4. facts are given indicating that at the time the offender committed the crime. So. the vindication need not be done by the person upon whom the grave offense was committed. As long as the offender at the time he committed the felony was still under the influence of the outrage caused by the provocation or threat. The passion must be legitimate. Here. he was armed with a knife and he stabbed the bully to death.
the time and the expenses to be incurred in looking for him. A. Therefore. Although this is the ruling. if after committing the crime. personal property was entrusted to him and he misappropriated the same. Vena V. there is a ruling that if after committing the crime. When a married person surprised his better half in the act of sexual intercourse with another. 1992. Mindac. the offender would come out in the open and he gives himself up. The surrender here is only done out of convenience to save his own self. The man left the village where they were living and never returned home. In short. almost naked. In this case. However. he continues to elude arrest. the offender had the opportunity to go into hiding. Surrender to be considered voluntary and thus mitigating. A saw this and stabbed C. that requisite which in the first place. this is not voluntary surrender. the ruling was that voluntary surrender is mitigating. a female classmate. the surrender is not considered as indicative of remorse or repentance. the offender must have surprised his/her spouse actually committing sexual intercourse should be present. If he kills them. Verga As a general rule. had evaded the law enforcers and the law enforcers do not know of his whereabouts. If the surprising was done not in the actual act of sexual intercourse but before or after it. In a case where the offender is deaf and dumb. if the law enforcers had already known where he is hiding and it is just a matter of time before he is flushed out of that place. he tried to avoid responsibility by claiming self-defense which however he was not able to prove. Illustrations: A is courting B. it is not mitigating. a male classmate is escorting B. the offender did not flee and instead waited for the law enforcers to arrive and he surrendered the weapon he used in killing the victim. She gave him the best years of her life. because (1) he acknowledges his guilt (2) he wishes to save the government the trouble and expenses of searching and capturing him.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) committed on the very bed provided by him to the woman would naturally be subjected to obfuscation. She practically waited for him day and night. the offender did not flee and he went with the responding law enforcers meekly. must be spontaneous. after having committed the crime. Even if the offender may have gone into hiding. if he comes out from hiding because he is seriously ill and he went to get medical treatment. It was held that passion and obfuscation were considered mitigating. when a married man upon coming home. This was held to be obfuscation. his act of surrendering under such circumstance indicates that he is willing to accept the consequences of the wrong he has done and also thereby saves the government the effort. decided December 14. C danced with B. When a man saw a woman bathing. then Article 247 does not apply. Where the offender went to the municipal building not to own responsibility for the killing. Hence. Physical defect The physical defect that a person may have must have a relation to the commission of the crime. some men whistled lustfully. such fact is not tantamount to voluntary surrender as a mitigating circumstance. The /vvverga Page 58 of 100 . Voluntary surrender The essence of voluntary surrender requires that the offender. On the scheduled wedding day. However. surprises his wife who was nude and lying with another man who was also nude. A man and a woman were living together for 15 years. She confessed and explained that any woman cannot tolerate what he did to her. People v. Although he admitted his participation in the killing. It was held that jealousy is an acknowledged basis of passion. for which reason he raped her. On the way out. However. Article 247 does not apply. Where the reason for the surrender of the accused was to insure his safety. under this circumstance. a receptionist in a beerhouse. If. The criterion is whether or not the offender had gone into hiding or had the opportunity to go into hiding and the law enforcers do not know of his whereabouts. still. his act of doing so will be considered as indicative of repentance and he also saves the government the time and the expense of looking for him. vindication of a grave offense will be mitigating in favor of the offender. his arrest by policemen pursuing him being inevitable. The male classmate stabbed said men. The common law wife learned that he was getting married to a classmate. this may be considered as mitigation of a grave offense to him or otherwise as a situation sufficient to create passion or obfuscation. Ingratitude was shown here. demonstrating an intent to submit himself unconditionally to the person in authority or his agent in authority. then even if the law enforcers do not know exactly where he was hiding and he would come out. voluntary surrender is not applicable. the accused will be given the benefit of sufficient provocation if the intercourse was done in his dwelling. Whether or not a warrant of arrest had been issued against the offender is immaterial and irrelevant. she stabbed the groom in the chest. the fact that he did not flee is not voluntary surrender. the surrender is not spontaneous. he gets the benefit of Article 247. If he would give up. instantly killing him. such man cannot claim passion as a mitigating circumstance. If this act was done somewhere else and the accused kills the paramour or the spouse.
To say qualifying aggravating circumstance is redundant. it will be considered only as generic aggravating circumstance. Verga Most important of the classification of aggravating circumstances are the qualifying and the generic aggravating circumstances. in the crime of murder. If the offender is blind in one eye. (3) In qualifying circumstance – (1) The circumstance affects the nature of the crime itself such that the offender shall be liable for a more serious crime. you have to think about these as aggravating circumstances which are the ingredients of the crime. It will only do so if it has some relation to the crime committed. as long as his means of action. such circumstance is not mitigating. The crime committed was physical injuries. as a result of which he became poor. Therefore it is included in the provision of law defining the crime. however. The so-called qualifying aggravating circumstances are simply referred to as qualifying circumstances. The circumstance is actually an ingredient of the crime. Being an ingredient of the crime. if you find qualifying circumstances. If it is proved during trial. (2) (3) An aggravating circumstance is qualifying when it is an ingredient of the crime. it is not qualifying. this is not so where the offender became impoverished because of his own way of living his life. In Article 248. defense or communication with others are not restricted. Analogous cases The act of the offender of leading the law enforcers to the place where he buried the instrument of the crime has been considered as equivalent to voluntary surrender. Inherent or those that must of necessity accompany the commission of the crime. Stealing by a person who is driven to do so out of extreme poverty is considered as analogous to incomplete state of necessity. The fact that he was deaf and dumb is not mitigating because that does not bear any relation to the crime committed. /vvverga Page 59 of 100 . If this happens. If it is not so included. It only affects the penalty to be imposed but the crime remains the same. Not any physical defect will affect the crime. If a person is deaf and dumb and he has been slandered. they are susceptible of being offset by a mitigating circumstance. you understand that only one is qualifying. The aggravating circumstances must be established with moral certainty. it cannot be offset by any mitigating circumstance. as long as it is proven during trial. However. can be offset by an ordinary mitigating No need to allege this circumstance in the information. Distinctions between aggravating and qualifying circumstances: In aggravating circumstances – (1) (2) The circumstance circumstance. Aggravating circumstances Kinds of aggravating circumstances: (1) (2) (3) (4) Generic or those that can generally apply to all crime. If not alleged but proven during the trial.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) crime committed was estafa. The Supreme Court held that being a deaf and dumb is mitigating because the only way is to use his force because he cannot strike back. he cannot talk so what he did was. Vena V. The act of a thief in leading the authorities to the place where he disposed of the loot has been considered as analogous or equivalent to voluntary surrender. with the same degree of proof required to establish the crime itself. Qualifying circumstances to be appreciated as such must be specifically alleged in the complaint or information. All of these will qualify a killing from homicide to murder. If his lifestyle is one of having so many vices. Specific or those that apply only to a particular crime. This is so because there is no qualifying circumstance that is not aggravating. It is not an ingredient of a crime. In the examination. In practice. the law specifically mentions thereunder several circumstances which are aggravating under Article 14. the court would consider the same in imposing the penalty. This circumstance must also have a bearing on the crime committed and must depend on how the crime was committed. Qualifying or those that change the nature of the crime. the so-called generic aggravating circumstances are referred to simply as aggravating circumstances. his subsequent stealing because of his poverty will not be considered mitigated by incomplete state of necessity. he got a piece of wood and struck the fellow on the head.
Just the same. It was held that the abuse of confidence is not aggravating. let us say. colleges and universities. like treachery. dwelling is no longer aggravating. Let us say. it will only aggravate the criminal liability of those who employed the same. During the trial. professors. The fellow who hired him will not be liable for the crime he had done because that was not the crime he was hired to commit. it is only appreciated as a generic aggravating circumstance. The reason is because /vvverga Page 60 of 100 . if there are three of the qualifying circumstances alleged in the complaint or information. If he was driven by the master already out of the house for some time and he came back and poisoned the child. they are only to be taken as generic. If any one of the three circumstances was proven. Article 62 gives you the different rules regarding aggravating circumstances. such will be wiped out by these circumstances.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) If let us say. abuse of confidence is no longer aggravating. 156 SCRA 790). This is only true however. Aggravating circumstances will not be considered when it is the crime itself. That fellow killed the other guy and employed treachery. What is present is betrayal of trust and that is not aggravating. He killed a stranger and not the parent. Thus. it cannot qualify the crime. but proven during the trial. Correlate Article 14 with Article 62. the offended party is different from the fellow who reposed the confidence and abuse of confidence in this case is not aggravating. the crime was already murder. reward or promise were alleged as aggravating. evident premeditation and act was done in consideration of a price. the two other circumstances which are otherwise qualifying could be offset by the mitigating. as well as lawyers are persons in authority only for purposes of direct assault and simple resistance. The servant poisoned the child. However. What was committed is different from what was agreed upon. If the crime charged is qualified trespass to dwelling. Abuse of confidence Do not confuse this with mere betrayal of trust. 182 SCRA 601). Even if any of the qualifying circumstances under Article 248 on murder was proven. even if they are alleged in the information or complaint. if that is not the circumstance alleged in the information. Article 14. Illustration: A person induced another to kill somebody. As far as the killing is concerned. If the other two are also proven. When the aggravating circumstance refers to the material execution of the crime. the treachery will qualify only the criminal liability of the actual executioner. reward or promise as a consideration for killing. the accused was charged with murder. Ga. The mitigating circumstance referred to in the amendment as not affecting the imposition of the penalty in the maximum are only ordinary mitigating circumstances. if the servant was still in the service of the family when he did the killing. It is generic because it is not alleged in the information at all. he is liable for the same crime committed. the offended party is one of the members of the family. it cannot be considered qualifying because a qualifying is an ingredient of the crime and it cannot be taken as such without having alleged in the information because it will violate the right of the accused to be informed of the nature of the accusation against him. sex Aggravating only in crimes against persons and honor. The others will merely be considered as generic. although initially they are considered as qualifying. Disrespect due to rank. Three of these circumstances: treachery. Taoan. provided the mitigating circumstance is not a privileged mitigating circumstance. This is aggravating only when the very offended party is the one who reposed the confidence. supervisors of public and duly recognized private schools. The legal import of this amendment is that the subject circumstance has been made a qualifying or special aggravating that shall not be offset or compensated by a mitigating circumstance. The treachery was not proved. Illustrations: A mother left her young daughter with the accused because she had nobody to leave the child with while she had to go on an errand. Only one of these is qualifying. 7659. Verga Taking advantage of public position Article 62 was also amended by the Republic Act No. Privileged mitigating circumstances always lower the penalty accordingly. what was alleged in the information was treachery. only one will qualify the crime. the accused cannot be convicted of murder because the circumstance proven is not qualifying but merely generic. not against property like Robbery with homicide (People v. but not for purposes of aggravating circumstances in paragraph 2. if there is any ordinary mitigating circumstance in favor of the accused. If any of these qualifying circumstances is not alleged in the information. If there is any mitigating circumstance in favor of the offender. the fellow was hired to kill the parent of the one who hired him. The accused abused the child. In a case where the offender is a servant. Do not hesitate to offset on the principle that a qualifying circumstance cannot be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance because only one is necessary. Teachers. If not alleged in the information. The fellow who induced him becomes a co-principal and therefore. (People v. however. what was proven was the price. Therefore. If the confidence is reposed by another. Vena V. age. It was held that abuse of confidence is aggravating.
even if the offender caught up with him already out of the house. Dwelling need not be owned by the offended party. The term “dwelling” includes all the dependencies necessary for a house or for rest or for comfort or a place of privacy. the law is presuming that he is not intending to commit a wrong so one who attacks him while in the tranquility of his home shows a degree of perversity in him. then the aggravating circumstance of dwelling is present. A man was killed in the house of his common law wife. In the provinces where the comfort rooms are usually far from the house proper. where the offended party seeks privacy. dwelling is already aggravating. maintaining the room. The paramour is not a resident of the same dwelling. Illustration: Husband and wife quarreled. Illustrations: A and B are living in one house. in order to be aggravating must be owned by the offended party is no longer absolute. It was held that dwelling is aggravating. A person has more than one dwelling. dwelling is not considered aggravating. Dwelling is aggravating in this case because the house was provided by the man. Verga places of their own. the aggravating circumstance of dwelling is not present. Even a room in a hotel if rented as a dwelling. was shot. like what the salesmen do when they are assigned in the provinces and they rent rooms. dwelling is not aggravating. So. Peace of mind and comfort. when an attack is made while A is on the stairs. the same being necessary and an integral part of his house or dwelling. peace of mind and comfort. It was held that dwelling was aggravating although it is not owned by the offended party because the offended party is considered as a member of the family who owns the dwelling and that dwelling is where she enjoyed privacy. The wife left the conjugal home and went to the house of her sister bringing her personal belongings with her. considering that any dependency necessary for the enjoyment of a place of abode is considered a dwelling. If the place used is on the second floor. Dwelling can be aggravating even if it is not owned by the offended party. A room in a hotel or motel will be considered dwelling if it is used with a certain degree of permanence. dwelling is not aggravating. Dwelling Dwelling will only be aggravating if it is the dwelling of the offended party. All the appurtenances necessary for the peace and comfort. the husband pulled out a knife and stabbed the wife which caused her death. Whenever one is in his dwelling. The rule that dwelling. For this reason. Dwelling is aggravating. It should also not be the dwelling of the offender. Dwelling is not limited to the house proper. if the offended party while answering the call of nature is killed. rest. Hence. It is enough that he used the place for his peace of mind. Due to the wife's refusal to go back to the conjugal home and live with the husband. if a man has so many wives and he gave them a /vvverga Page 61 of 100 . rest. Hence. If he is killed there. Roof still part of the house. When he is only a visitor there. each one is his own dwelling. However. The crime of adultery was committed. dwelling will be aggravating. rest and peace of mind in the abode of the offended party is considered a dwelling. A occupies the ground floor while B the upper floor. Husband inflicted physical violence upon the wife. If the attack is made while B was on the stairs. Vena V. Illustrations: A man was fixing something on the roof of his house when he was shot. If the offended party was assaulted while on the stairs. If a young man brought a woman in a motel for a short time and there he was killed. is considered a dwelling. The stairs here would form part only of B's dwelling. provided that he also stays there once in a while. privacy and comfort. If the offender entered the house and the offended party jumped out of the house. provided that the offended party is considered a member of the family who owns the dwelling and equally enjoys peace of mind. the stairs which are used to reach the second floor is considered a dwelling because the second floor cannot be enjoyed without the stairs. Dwelling was considered aggravating on the part of the paramour. this aggravating circumstance. if the paramour was also residing on the same dwelling. The sister accommodated the wife in the formers home. then dwelling is aggravating because the comfort room is a necessary dependency of the house proper.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) that confidence has already been terminated when the offender was driven out of the house. Dwelling should not be understood in the concept of a domicile. comfort and privacy. A person while in the room of his house. The husband went to the house of the sister-in-law and tried to persuade the wife to come back to the conjugal home but the wife refused because she is more at peace in her sister's house than in the conjugal abode. If the dwelling is both that of the offended party and the offender. dwelling is not aggravating.
However. Whenever you talk of band. the chances of B receiving some help was very little. dwelling is not aggravating because whenever a store is open for business. there was a reasonable possibility of the victim receiving some help. Balcony is part of the dwelling because it is appurtenant to the house Dwelling is aggravating in robbery with homicide because the crime can be committed without necessarily transgressing the sanctity of the home (People v. If the offended party was inside the house and the offender was outside and the latter shot the former inside the house while he was still outside. B and C also are on board on their respective bancas. Even if the crime was committed at night. band becomes aggravating. in case the store is closed. A garage is part of the dwelling when connected with an interior passage to the house proper. Dwelling is aggravating where the place is. a “home”. as well as crime began at night and ended at day is not aggravated by the circumstance of nighttime. Uninhabited place Illustration: Vena V. shall be necessary. Crime began at day and ended at night. Evidence tending to prove that the offender took advantage of the place and purposely availed of it is to make it easier to commit the crime. Is there an aggravating circumstance of uninhabited place here? Yes. decided October 22. Even if there are four. but only three or less are armed.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) dwelling is still aggravating. darkness was not present. It must be shown that the offender deliberately sought the cover of darkness and the offender purposely took advantage of nighttime to facilitate the commission of the offense. The reason is because he could not have left his dwelling were it not for the fact that the attacker entered the house. Illustration: A is on board a banca. even for a brief moment. hence. a crime was committed near the lamp post. where brigandage is actually committed. One evening. there is no aggravating circumstance here. 1992). Do not say three or more because it is four or more. The way the law defines a band is somewhat confusing because it refers simply to more than 3. If the dwelling portion is attacked. no aggravating circumstance just by the fact of nighttime alone. Dwelling is still aggravating even if the offender did not enter the house. it is a public place and as such is not capable of being the subject of trespass. Verga It is determined not by the distance of the nearest house to the scene of the crime but whether or not in the place of the commission of the offense . The Supreme Court held that there is no aggravating circumstance of nighttime. However. If not connected. One-half of the house is used as a store and the other half is used for dwelling but there is only one entrance. As a rule. De Los Reyes. although he is not the owner thereof as when victim was shot in the house of his parents. Even if there was darkness but the nighttime was only an incident of a chance meeting. Band In band. the store is not a public place as in the first case. D showed up from underwater and stabbed B. Suddenly. from dusk to dawn. considering the fact that A and C before being able to give assistance still have to jump into the water and swim towards B and the time it would take them to do that. If the dwelling portion is attacked where even if the store is open. there should at least be four persons. it is not a band. All of them should be armed. dwelling is aggravating since here.Brigandage. but there was light. Darkness is what makes this circumstance aggravating. Different forms of repetition or habituality of the offender /vvverga Page 62 of 100 . Nocturnity is the period of time after sunset to sunrise. always have in mind four at least. when actually it should be 4 or more. the circumstance is aggravating. The crime is the band itself. The mere forming of a band even without the commission of a crime is already a crime so that band is not aggravating in brigandage because the band itself is the way to commit brigandage. the crime must begin and end during the nighttime. not so far away. it is not considered part of the dwelling. there is another separate entrance to the portion used for dwelling. Nighttime What if the crime started during the daytime and continued all the way to nighttime? This is not aggravating. Correlate this with Article 306 . despite the fact that there were other persons not so far from the scene.
there was no other crime of which he was convicted so he cannot be regarded as a repeater. hence it cannot be offset by any mitigating circumstance. estafa or falsification. Recidivism is imprescriptible. it would only increase the penalty prescribed by law for the crime committed to its maximum period. Pardon does not erase recidivism. The conviction became final because he did not appeal anymore and the trial for his earlier crime which was robbery ended in 1984 where he was also convicted. A committed robbery. (2) (4) (3) (5) Recidivism In recidivism. Habitual delinquency under Article 62 (5) – The offender within the period of 10 years from the date of his release or last conviction of the crimes of serious or less serious physical injuries. Habitual delinquency is a special aggravating circumstance. There is no time limit between the first conviction and the subsequent conviction. Illustration: In 1980. (4) Distinctions between recidivism and habitual delinquency In recidivism – (1) (2) (3) (4) Two convictions are enough. The circumstance must be alleged in the information. . an additional penalty shall be imposed depending upon whether it is already the third conviction. it is enough that they may be embraced under the same title of the Revised Penal Code. It is a generic aggravating circumstance which can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance. he committed theft in 1983. (c) robbery. It is important that the conviction which came earlier must refer to the crime committed earlier than the subsequent conviction. (5) In habitual delinquency – (1) (2) At least three convictions are required. Recidivism cannot be had if the crime committed is a violation of a special law. Verga There is a time limit of not more than 10 years between every convictions computed from the first conviction or release from punishment thereof to conviction computed from the second conviction or release therefrom to the third conviction and so on . the crimes committed should be felonies. even if it is absolute because only excuses the service of the penalty. The crimes are not specified. otherwise the court cannot acquire jurisdiction to impose additional penalty.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) (1) Recidivism under Article 14 (9) – The offender at the time of his trial for one crime shall have been previously convicted by final judgment of another embraced in the same title of the Revised Penal Code. ordinarily. He also did not appeal this decision. the fourth. hurto. Aside from the penalty prescribed by law for the crime committed. if he is subsequently convicted of a crime embraced in the same title of the Revised Penal Code. In recidivism. the emphasis is on the fact that the offender was previously convicted by final judgement of a felony and subsequently found guilty of another felony embraced in the same title of the Revised Penal Code. Recidivism does not prescribe. Is the accused a recidivist? The subsequent conviction must refer to a felony committed later in order to constitute recidivism. (b) less serious physical injuries. . The circumstance need not be alleged in the information. (d) theft. . The crimes are limited and specified to: (a) serious physical injuries. No matter how long ago the offender was convicted. He was found guilty and was convicted of theft also in 1983. /vvverga Page 63 of 100 . . it is taken into account as aggravating in imposing the penalty. Quasi-recidivism under Article 160 – Any person who shall commit a felony after having been convicted by final judgment before beginning to serve such sentence or while serving such sentence shall be punished by the maximum period prescribed by law for the new felony. The reason for this is as the time the first crime was committed. (3) Vena V. Repetition or reiteracion under Article 14 (10) – The offender has been previously punished for an offense which the law attaches an equal or greater penalty or for two or more crimes to which it attaches a lighter penalty. is found guilty of the any of said crimes a third time or oftener. but not the conviction. robo. Hence. the fifth and so on . when a person commits a crime under different titles. While the case was being tried. If not offset. The law considers this aggravating when a person has been committing felonies embraced in the same title because the implication is that he is specializing on such kind of crime and the law wants to prevent any specialization. no aggravating circumstance is present. (e) estafa or swindling and (f) falsification.
the pardon shall erase the conviction including recidivism because there is no more penalty so it shall be understood as referring to the conviction or the effects of the crime. the court cannot admit the evidence presented to prove habitual delinquency over the objection of the accused. the fourth time will have to fall under any of the three categories. After determining the correct penalty for the last crime committed. because the robbery which was committed earlier would be decided later. It must be the other way around. this would seem to be covered but that is not so. Habitual delinquency We have to consider the crimes in it and take note of the titles of crimes in the Revised Penal Code. he committed theft. If it is not alleged in the information and in the course of the trial. Habitual delinquency refers to prior conviction and therefore this must be brought in the information before the court can acquire jurisdiction over this matter. the objection should be overruled. the court has no jurisdiction to consider the offender a habitual delinquent. if proven during trial. the present rule is that it can be appreciated even if not alleged in the information. May the judge in imposing the penalty for robbery consider the accused a recidivist considering that he was already convicted in 1980 for the crime of theft which is under the same title of the Revised Penal Code as that of robbery? No. even if recidivism is not alleged in the information. However. In recidivism. but if the defense does not object to the presentation of evidence during the trial and the same was proven. the prosecution when introducing evidence was objected to. In 1980. The reason why habitual delinquency cannot be appreciated unless alleged in the information is because recidivism has nothing to do with the crime committed. he is not a recidivist. it does not have to be alleged in the information because even if not alleged. This is because in 1975 when he committed the robbery. the trial court can appreciate it. the offender committed robbery. On the other hand. Recidivism may be considered even though not alleged in the information because this is only a generic aggravating circumstance. it is necessary that the conviction must come in the order in which they are committed. The trial for robbery ended in 1981. Habitual delinquency. the prosecution tried to prove that the offender is a habitual delinquent over the objection of the accused. although the law defines it as a circumstance where a person having been convicted by final judgement was previously convicted also by final judgement for a crime embraced in the same title in the Revised Penal Code. the dates when they were committed. It need not be alleged in the information. While the same was being tried in 1978. Thus. if that conviction is subsequent to the commission of the robbery. the information is defective. you cannot avoid that he is a habitual delinquent and at the same time a recidivist because at least. the procedure you know that when the prosecutor alleges habitual delinquency. Verga If the offender has already served his sentence and he was extended an absolute pardon. When the offender is a recidivist and at the same time a habitual delinquent. the court shall consider such aggravating circumstance because it is only generic. If you will interpret the definition of recidivism. as long as there is an allegation there that the accused is a habitual delinquent. the date when the accused was convicted or discharged. If the prosecution tried to prove recidivism and the defense objected. then the moment the habitual delinquent is on his fourth conviction already. the court can appreciate the same. in a relatively recent ruling of the Supreme Court. The reason is recidivism is a generic aggravating circumstance only. that is enough to confer jurisdiction upon the court to /vvverga Page 64 of 100 . Right now. If the first conviction is for serious physical injuries or less serious physical injuries and the second conviction is for robbery. it was held that even though the details of habitual delinquency was not set forth in the information. It is necessary to allege recidivism in the information. Thus. there was no crime committed yet. it must specify the crimes committed. Question & Answer In 1975. recidivism is a generic aggravating circumstance.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. As such. If the offender had committed and was convicted of each of the crimes under each category so that no two crimes fall under the same title of the Revised Penal Code. there was already a previous conviction. If these are not alleged. even though in imposing the penalty for the robbery. Even if the accused is in fact a habitual delinquent but it is not alleged in the information. the penalty for the crime for which he will be convicted will be increased to the maximum period unless offset by a mitigating circumstance. he was convicted of theft and he did not appeal this decision. you have a situation where the offender is a habitual delinquent but not a recidivist because no two crimes fall under the same title of the Code. This is the correct view because recidivism is a generic aggravating circumstance. if proven during trial. the court which tried the case. theft or estafa and the third is for falsification. an added penalty will be imposed in accordance with Article 62. Generally. being a special or specific aggravating circumstance must be alleged in the information.
When there is a third conviction. If he committed another lesser one. Illustration: The offender was convicted of homicide. he was found smoking marijuana. he committed a felony before beginning to serve sentence or while serving sentence. So. the penalty attached to the crime subsequently committed should be higher or at least equal to the penalty that he has already served. he committed a felony. pay attention to the penalty attached to the crime which was committed for the second crime. if he commits a felony carrying a lighter penalty. In so far as the earlier crime is concerned. repetition is not aggravating. you disregard whatever penalty for the subsequent crimes committed. even if literally. the accused has the right to avail of the so-called bill of particulars. This is so because if the penalty attached to the felony subsequently committed is not equal or higher than the penalty already served. Illustration: Offender had already been convicted by final judgement. He was prosecuted for illegal use of prohibited drugs and was convicted. reiteracion is not aggravating because the law considers that somehow. subsequently.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) consider habitual delinquency. You will only consider the penalty in reiteracion if there is already a second conviction. but even at this stage. That means he has not yet tasted the bitterness of life but if he had already served out the penalty. The emphasis here is on the crime committed before sentence or while serving sentence which should be a felony. because the crime committed while serving sentence is not a felony. in reiteracion. If that is the situation. the law considers that somehow he has been reformed but if he. It is necessary in order that there be reiteracion that the offender has already served out the penalty. Is he a quasi-recidivist? Yes. the offender is already a repeater. The emphasis is on the nature of the crime committed while serving sentence or before serving sentence. Verga This is found in Article 160. even though over and above the objection of the defense. Is he a quasi-recidivist? No. While he was serving sentence. then he becomes a repeater because that means he has not yet reformed. a violation of the Revised Penal Code. since there are already two of them subsequently. Reverse the situation. Reiteracion This has nothing to do with the classification of the felonies. Sentence was promulgated and he was under custody in Muntinlupa. In the absence of the details set forth in the information. This is the philosophy on which the circumstance becomes aggravating. the law expects that since he has already tasted punishment. he killed someone. In reiteracion. he is deemed to have waived the required particulars and so the court can admit evidence of the habitual delinquency. forget about reiteracion. then he becomes a repeater. if there is only a second conviction. While he was in Muntinlupa. that means that the offender was never reformed by the fact that he already served the penalty imposed on him on the first conviction. Even if the penalty for the subsequent crimes committed are lighter than the ones already served. However. again commits another felony which carries a lighter penalty. That is why it is said that reiteracion is not always aggravating. the accused may file a motion for bill of particulars. the offender has already tasted the bitterness of the punishment. In consideration of a price. Quasi-recidivism Vena V. If the offender had not yet served out his penalty. this fellow was corrected because instead of committing a serious crime. he committed a lesser one. Assume that the offender was found guilty of illegal use of prohibited drugs. reward or promise The Supreme Court rulings before indicate that this circumstance aggravates only the criminal liability of the person who committed the crime in /vvverga Page 65 of 100 . he got involved in a quarrel and killed a fellow inmate. The killing was committed before serving sentence but convicted by final judgement. it is necessary that it be a felony. When there is a privileged mitigating circumstance. but then it shall be imposed in the maximum period if the offender is a quasirecidivist. That is why if the offender committed a subsequent felony which carries with it a penalty lighter than what he had served. the offender is a repeater. he will more or less refrain from committing crimes again. If the accused fails to file such. as the case may be. Quasi-recidivism is a special aggravating circumstance. However. This cannot be offset by any mitigating circumstance and the imposition of the penalty in the maximum period cannot be lowered by any ordinary mitigating circumstance. He becomes a quasi-recidivist because the crime committed was a felony. the penalty prescribed by law for the crime committed shall be lowered by 1 or 2 degrees. he escaped from his guard and in the course of his escape. because while serving sentence. While serving sentence in Muntinlupa. It should not be a violation of a special law. Even in a criminal case. The offender must already be convicted by final judgement and therefore to have served the penalty already.
As far as the killing of C is concerned. the crime is arson since he intended to burn the house only. Whenever a killing is done with the use of fire. Law enforcers only use this to indicate that a killing occurred while arson was being committed. the crime is attempted murder because there is evident premeditation. he waited for B but killed C instead. there must be a clear reflection on the part of the offender. "This week shall not pass. One argument led to another until A struck B to death with a bolo. On Friday." A bought firearms. It is either arson or murder. I will kill you. the crime is homicide because there was no evident premeditation. Insofar as C is concerned. By means of inundation or fire Fire is not aggravating in the crime of arson. Illustrations: A and B fought. he told B. The crime committed is only murder. If the intent is to destroy property. the son of B was also in their house and who was peeping through the door and saw what A did. However." On Friday. If the victim is already dead and the house is burned. he hid somewhere in the house. this is murder. A met B and killed him. There is no such crime as murder with arson or arson with homicide. the following conditions must concur: (1) (2) (3) The time when the accused determined to commit the crime. reward or promise but also the criminal liability of the one giving the offer. What condition is missing to bring about evident premeditation? Evidence to show that between Monday and Friday. Hence. As a consequence. They are both principals and that is why the recent rulings of the Supreme Court are to the effect that this aggravating circumstance affects or aggravates not only the criminal liability of the receiver of the price. A and B fought on Monday but since A already suffered so many blows. the person making the offer is an inducer. their responsibilities are the same. Is there evident premeditation? None but there is treachery as the attack was sudden. "I will kill you this week. A knew that B is coming home only on Friday so A decided to kill B on Friday evening when he comes home. the crime is arson. However. So. promise. if the killing was accidental. reward or consideration. a principal by inducement while the person receiving the price. An act manifestly indicating that the accused has clung to his determination. A boxed B. A told B that someday he will kill B. that murder cannot be considered for C. you could designate it as “death as a consequence of arson. Verga For evident premeditation to be aggravating. Is there evident premeditation? There is aberratio ictus. Illustration: A. If the intent is to kill. On Thursday. C was burned and eventually died too. you burn down his house while the latter is inside. A did not know that C. It could not be murder. to allow him to reflect upon the consequences of his act. the crime is arson even if someone dies as a consequence. /vvverga Page 66 of 100 . acts indicative of his having clung to his determination to kill B. Illustration: A and B were arguing about something. reward or price offered or given as a consideration for the commission of the crime. A killed B. the offender clung to his determination to kill the victim.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) consideration of the price. Can there be evident premeditation when the killing is accidental? No. too. and subsequently killed the victim. A told B. thought of killing B on Friday. when there is a promise. as when to kill someone. A then dragged B's body and poured gasoline on it and burned the house altogether. Sufficient lapse of time between such determination and execution. As far as the killing of B is concerned. Evident premeditation shall not be considered when the crime refers to a different person other than the person premeditated against. In evident premeditation. On Friday. reward or promise who would execute the crime is a principal by direct participation. A killed B.” Evident premeditation Vena V. qualify. there was no evident premeditation. it is homicide since it is noted that they were arguing. A and B had a quarrel. No such crime as arson with homicide. on Monday. At the most. Afraid that A might kill him. or reward but not the criminal liability of the person who gave the price. there is murder even if the house is burned in the process. However. What is necessary to show and to bring about evident premeditation aside from showing that as some prior time. Insofar as B is concerned. the offender has manifested the intention to kill the victim. Is there evident premeditation in both cases? None in both cases.
This is one aggravating circumstance where the offender who premeditated. The fact that the offender premeditated is not prima facie indicative of evident premeditation as the meeting or encounter between the offender and the offended party was only by chance or accident. method or form employed my be an aggravating circumstance which like availing of total darkness in nighttime or availing of superior strength taken advantage of by the offender. Because of this. the law says evident. Vena V. Same where A planned to kill any member of the Iglesio ni Kristo. He. He bought a firearm and practiced shooting and then sought B. When A saw B in the restaurant with so many people. sharpened it and stabbed the first man he met on the street. B was having too much to drink. he stabbed B. It is not necessary that the victim is identified. A premeditated to kill any member of particular fraternity.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) While it is true that evident premeditation may be absorbed in treachery because the means. method and form of attack may be premeditated and would be resorted to by the offender. If this was the very means employed. B accepted. Treachery Treachery refers to the employment of means. A proposed that to celebrate their renewed friendship. It is essential for this aggravating circumstance for the victim to be identified from the beginning. A saw a knife and used it to stab B with all suddenness. The mere fact that there were two persons who attacked the victim does not per se constitute abuse of superior strength (People v. 191 SCRA 12). It is enough that the victim is determined so he or she belongs to a group or class who may be premeditated against. This is a circumstance that will qualify a killing from homicide to murder. This is murder – a homicide which has been qualified into murder by evident premeditation which is a qualifying circumstance. What is the essence of treachery? /vvverga Page 67 of 100 . It is only treachery because the evident premeditation is the very conscious act of the offender to ensure the execution. It must appear that the offender clung to his determination to commit the crime. It is required that there be evidence showing meditation between the time when the offender determined to commit the crime and the time when the offender executed the act. He then killed one. The means. decided on December 20. They fought on Monday and parted ways. the circumstance may be treachery and not abuse of superior strength or means to weaken the defense. A did not dare fire at B for fear that he might hit a stranger but instead. It is not enough that there is some premeditation. Abuse of superior strength There must be evidence of notorious inequality of forces between the offender and the offended party in their age. Evident premeditation is part of the crime like kidnapping for ransom. but once inside the jeepney. A and B are enemies. robbery with force upon things where there is entry into the premises of the offended party. Carpio. size and strength. method and form in the commission of the crime which tend directly and specially to insure its execution without risk to himself arising from the defense which the offended party might make. then bought a knife. Verga There are some crimes which cannot be aggravated by evident premeditation because they require some planning before they can be committed. they were going to drink. Craft Aggravating in a case where the offenders pretended to be bona fide passengers of a jeepney in order not to arouse suspicion. A pretended to befriend B. A decided to seek revenge. Illustration: A person who has been courting a lady for several years now has been jilted. Do not consider both aggravating circumstances of treachery and evident premeditation against the offender. employing means to weaken the defense. and estafa through false pretenses where the offender employs insidious means which cannot happen accidentally. Illustration: A and B have been quarreling for some time. It was held that evident premeditation is not present. 1991). the very person/offended party premeditated against must be the one who is the victim of the crime. Lee. Intoxication is the means deliberately employed by the offender to weaken the defense of the offended party. Evident premeditation was not absorbed in treachery because treachery refers to the manner of committing the crime. A approached B and befriended him. he thought of killing somebody. But there may be evident premeditation and there is treachery also when the attack was so sudden. Evident premeditation is always absorbed in treachery. One day. robbed the passengers and the driver (People v. In order for evident premeditation to be considered. just to intoxicate the latter. A was just waiting for him to get intoxicated and after which. Premeditation must be clear. and that the offender took advantage of such superior strength in committing the crime.
A thought of killing B but then he cannot just attack B because of the latter's size. Suddenness of the attack does not by itself constitute treachery in the absence of evidence that the manner of the attack was consciously adopted by the offender to render the offended party defenseless (People v. But in murder. A was wounded but not mortal so he managed to run away. treachery was considered as the victim was not in a position to defend himself (People v. The SC ruled this is only homicide because treachery must be proven. due to the means. the offended party was not able to put up any defense. if B despite intoxication was able to put up some fight against A but eventually. even only a token one. A clear example is a married woman being raped before the eyes of her husband. Distinction between ignominy and cruelty Ignominy shocks the moral conscience of man while cruelty is physical. So. Treachery is out when the attack was merely incidental or accidental because in the definition of treachery. while the victim after having been killed by the offender. Lapan. So. whether or not the victim is dead or alive. the crime is murder because there is already treachery. The reason why treachery cannot be considered as present here is because the offended party was able to put up a defense and that negates treachery. although Vena V. B was able to walk a few steps before he fell and died. the crime was homicide only. the accused was convicted only for homicide. But where children of tender years were killed. it is something which offends the moral of the offended woman. Although the qualifying circumstance is abuse of superior strength and not treachery. method or form employed by the offender. decided on April 30. Treachery not appreciated where quarrel and heated discussion preceded a killing. the crime is still murder if the victim is killed. In the example where A pretended to befriend B and invited him to celebrate their friendship. aggravated by dwelling and in disregard of age. Gahon. In a case of homicide. In the same manner. 1992. B pulled a knife as well and stabbed A also. the offender shoved the body inside a canal. One evening. Ilagan. Example: A had a gunshot wound at the back of his head. In the first situation. A thought of committing a crime at nighttime with the cover of darkness. Illustration: A and B quarreled. Instead some other aggravating circumstance may be present but not treachery anymore. the Supreme Court considered the crime as aggravated by ignominy. B died. method or form employed by the offender. if A and B casually met and there and then A stabbed B. /vvverga Page 68 of 100 . treachery cannot be considered present. ignominy is held aggravating. means and form used or employed by him. the offended party fought back. A waited for B and stabbed B. Hence. the accused was prosecuted for robbery with homicide. Ignominy refers to the moral effect of a crime and it pertains to the moral order. If the offended party was able to put up a defense. there is no treachery anymore. It must be shown that the victim was totally defenseless. decided on July 6. In plain language. they took advantage of superior strength but somehow. B was not able to put up a defense and A was able to flee while B died. then the attendant circumstance is no longer treachery but means employed to weaken the defense. the implication is that the offender had consciously and deliberately adopted the method. The crime committed is murder but then the correct circumstance is not treachery but means employed to weaken the defense. A positioned himself in the darkest part of the street where B passes on his way home. This is how animals do it. the nighttime is generic aggravating circumstance. the killing is murder even if the manner of attack was not shown (People v. this is also a qualifying circumstance. In treachery. What crime was committed? The crime is only homicide because the aggravating circumstance is only nocturnity and nocturnity is not a qualifying circumstance. It is not enough to show that the victim sustained treacherous wound. Accused held liable only for the killings. 1991). which is also a qualifying circumstance of murder under Article 248. Although one of the victims was barely six years old. If because of the cover of darkness. Robbery was not proven beyond reasonable doubt. Gupo). Cruelty pertains to physical suffering of the victim so the victim has to be alive. In a case where the crime committed is rape and the accused abused the victims from behind. the offended party. being one year old and 12 years old. raping a woman from behind is ignominous because this is not the usual intercourse. Toribio). ignominy is adding insult to injury.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) The essence of treachery is that by virtue of the means. However A had no chance to fight with B because A is much smaller than B. because the victim would be put on guard (People v. the offended party was denied the chance to defend himself. if the offender avails of the services of men and in the commission of the crime. In People v. However. There must be evidenced on how the crime was committed. Verga stabbing may be sudden since A was not shown to have the intention of killing B. 191 SCRA 643). But although a quarrel preceded the killing where the victim was atop a coconut tree.
Cruelty and ignominy are circumstances brought about which are not necessary in the commission of the crime. 181 SCRA 315). Alternative circumstances Four alternative circumstances Use only the term alternative circumstance for as long as the particular circumstance is not involved in any case or problem. do not use alternative circumstance. If mitigating. Vena V. however. In the absence of evidence to this effect. paragraphs were added which provide that the maximum penalty shall be imposed if the offense was committed by any person who belongs to an organized or syndicated crime group. motorized means of transportation or motorized watercraft. This circumstance is aggravating only when used in the commission of the offense. that there is an organized or syndicated group even when only two persons collaborated. the court cannot validly consider the circumstances because it is not among those enumerated under Article 14 of the Code as aggravating. even though proven during the trial. confederating or mutually helping one another for purposes of gain in the commission of a crime. It is noteworthy. Otherwise. Sixty stab wounds do not ipso facto make them aggravating circumstances of cruelty. if not alleged in the information. Unlawful entry Unlawful entry is inherent in the crime of robbery with force upon things but aggravating in the crime of robbery with violence against or intimidation of persons. conspiracy in the commission of the crime is alleged in the information. there must be evidence showing that the accused inflicted the alleged cruel wounds slowly and gradually and that he is delighted seeing the victim suffer in pain. that the crime is committed with the use of a motor vehicle. the said special aggravating circumstance can be appreciated if proven. Cruelty is aggravating in rape where the offender tied the victim to a bed and burnt her face with a lighted cigarette while raping her laughing all the way (People v. A upon seeing B pulled out a knife and stabbed B 60 times. refer to it as aggravating or mitigating depending on whether the same is considered as such or the other. motor vehicle becomes aggravating if the bicycle is motorized. If motor vehicle is used only in the escape of the offender. Aggravating when a motorized tricycle was used to commit the crime (1) (2) (3) (4) Relationship. The crime is murder if 60 wounds were inflicted gradually. The Supreme Court held that it added shame to the natural effects of the crime. Will that fact be considered as an aggravating circumstance of cruelty? No. Degree of instruction.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) After having been killed. or mutually helped one another in the commission of a crime. For cruelty to exist as an aggravating circumstance. ignominy is aggravating. Motor vehicle The Supreme Court considers strictly the use of the word “committed”. the allegation may be considered as procedurally sufficient to warrant receiving evidence on the matter during trial and consequently. there is cruelty only when there are evidence that the offender inflicted the stab wounds while enjoying or delighted to see the victim in pain. Where therefore. /vvverga Page 69 of 100 . there is no cruelty. absence of this evidence means the crime committed is only homicide. the body was thrown into pile of garbage. motor vehicle is not aggravating. then refer to it as such. which acts are inherent in a conspiracy. Intoxication. To be aggravating. Verga Organized or syndicated crime group In the same amendment to Article 62 of the Revised Penal Code. The moment it is given in a problem. it must have been used to facilitate the commission of the crime. The circumstance being special or qualifying. it must be alleged in the information and proved during the trial. Lucas. With this provision. refer to it as aggravating. Illustration: A and B are enemies. There is a decision by the Court of Appeals that a motorized bicycle is a motor vehicle even if the offender used only the foot pedal because he does not know how to operate the motor so if a bicycle is used in the commission of the crime. and Education. confederated. the circumstance of an organized or syndicated crime group having committed the crime has been added in the Code as a special aggravating circumstance. If relationship is aggravating. An organized or syndicated crime group means a group of two or more persons collaborating.
but if they do not influence the crime. It is only the circumstance of intoxication which if not mitigating. because of the intoxication is already acting under diminished self control. even if the woman is 60 years old or more. but after stabbing the victim he hailed a tricycle and even instructed the driver to the place where he is sleeping and the tricycle could not reach his house and so he has to alight and walk to his house. That is wrong. Rather it is the effect of the alcohol upon the offender which shall be the basis of the mitigating circumstance. Vena V. In such a case. This is the rational why intoxication is mitigating. It is not the quantity of drink that will determine whether the offender can legally invoke intoxication. even if they are present. the offended woman must be a virgin and less than 18 yrs old. So although the offender may have partaken of two cases of beer. the same will immediately aggravate. Among such circumstances are: (1) (2) In the case of an accessory who is related to the principal within the relationship prescribed in Article 20. There is diminished voluntariness insofar as his intelligence or freedom of action is concerned. The idea is the offender. the Supreme Court said. Otherwise intoxication cannot legally be considered. Verga This circumstance is ipso facto mitigating. There is no criminal liability but only civil liability if the offender is related to the offended party as spouse. When arraigned he invoked intoxication as a mitigating circumstance. then there is no diminished self control. In the crime of qualified seduction. aggravating. malicious mischief and swindling or estafa. The conduct of the offender. Example: A has been living with (3) Sometimes. regardless of the crime committed. When they drank two cases of beer they became more talkative until they engaged in an argument. the other circumstances in Article 15 may not be taken into account at all when the circumstance has no bearing on the crime committed. or descendant or if the offender is a brother or sister or brother in law or sister in law of the offended party and they are living together. The Supreme Court did not give the mitigating circumstance because of the number of wounds inflicted upon the victim. Do not think that because the article says that these circumstances are mitigating or aggravating. One may not have any degree of instruction but is nevertheless educated. Intoxication /vvverga Page 70 of 100 . There must be indication that because of the alcoholic intake of the offender. So the mere fact that the offender has taken one or more cases of beer of itself does not warrant a conclusion that intoxication is mitigating. he is suffering from diminished self control. they decided to have some good time and ordered beer. crime is qualified seduction. Exempting circumstance is the relationship. the court will have to take it as mitigating. The moment it is shown to be habitual or intentional to the commission of the crime. is incompatible with the idea that the offender is already suffering from diminished self control. requires that the offender has reached that degree of intoxication where he has no control of himself anymore. ascendant. There were 11 stab wounds and this. the manner of committing the crime. Degree of instruction also will not be considered if the crime is something which does not require an educated person to understand. So if this reason is not present. Illustration: In a case. intoxication will not be considered mitigating. The intoxication in law requires that because of the quality of the alcoholic drink taken. if not mitigating. there were two laborers who were the best of friends. But if the offender is a brother of the offended woman or an ascendant of the offended woman. One pulled out a knife and stabbed the other. Relationship Relationship is not simply mitigating or aggravating. So the court will not consider this as aggravating or mitigating simply because the circumstance has no relevance to the crime that was committed. It is not the quantity of alcoholic drink. relationship is qualifying. the offender had practically lost self control. There are specific circumstances where relationship is exempting. the court will not consider it at all. the indication is that the offender gained strength out of the drinks he had taken. a spouse does not incur criminal liability for a crime of less serious physical injuries or serious physical injuries if this was inflicted after having surprised the offended spouse or paramour or mistress committing actual sexual intercourse.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Except for the circumstance of intoxication. Also in Article 247. is automatically aggravating. Relationship may not be considered at all. that if the circumstance is present. his behavior after committing the crime must show the behavior of a man who has already lost control of himself. On the contrary. Intoxication to be considered mitigating. especially if it is not inherent in the commission of the crime. so that if the prosecution wants to deny the offender the benefit of this mitigation. Those commonly given in Article 332 when the crime of theft. they should prove that it is habitual and that it is intentional. Intoxication does not simply mean that the offender has partaken of so much alcoholic beverages. Degree of instruction and education These are two distinct circumstances. relationship is a qualifying and not only a generic aggravating circumstance. But the other circumstances. Since it was payday. This is an absolutory cause. regardless of whether the woman is of bad reputation.
and the nature of the wound shows that she was either standing up or sitting up at the time. Decision: When a sleeping woman is awakened at night by some one touching her or grasping her arm. Vena V. defense of one’s person or rights is treated as a justifying circumstance under Article 11 . LUAGUE Keyword: Woman about to be raped while her husband was at work. Appellant is therefore guilty beyond reasonable doubt of only two (2) homicides. the following requisite should be present: unlawful aggression. land dispute. The /vvverga Page 71 of 100 . only he is the black sheep because he did not want to go to school. although she actually believed it to be the beginning of an attempt against her. If the offender did not go higher than Grade 3 and he was involved in a felony. In the same manner. the offender may be a lawyer who committed rape. but in order for it to be appreciated. illiteracy will not mitigate because the low degree of instruction has no bearing on the crime. his resistance was disproportionate to the attack. because his knowledge has nothing to do with the commission of the crime. notwithstanding the woman's belief in the supposed attempt. she was not warranted in making such a deadly assault. couple coming from Nasugbu. “gaddemit!”. after admitting having shot the deceased from the window of his house with a shotgun under the foregoing circumstances claim that he did so in defense of his person and his rights and therefore he should be exempted from criminal liability. attacks the said person with a pocketknife. it is concluded that. So he understands what is right and wrong. where he used his special knowledge as a lawyer. that will aggravate his criminal liability. EVEN IF INTRUDER DID NOT REPLY WHEN ASKED WHO HE WAS PEOPLE vs. believing that some person is attempting to abuse her asks who the intruder is and receives no reply. The defendant’s act constitutes a justifying circumstance since: Aside from the right to life on which rests the legitimate defense of our person. Issue: W/N the defendant can plead complete self-defense. killing his two victims. husband stabbed at the vital organ by the sister with fan knife and TIN CANS. he was invoking lack of degree of education. However. and she. (1) WHEN KILLING FOR HONOR HELD JUSTIFIED. All the requisites of exempting circumstance are present and should be taken into consideration. jumping from the window fell on some stones. Revised Penal Code. It may happen also that the offender grew up in a family of professionals. But it does not follow that he is bereft of education. MERE TOUCHING OR GRASPING OF ARM. He may just be a maid in the house with no degree of instruction but he may still be educated.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) professionals for sometime. yet it cannot be said that he lacks education because he came from a family where brothers are all professionals. as the injured person did not insist CASES FOR JUSTIFYING. SELF-DEFENSE (PROPIA DEFENSA). NARVAEZ Keywords: fencing. Verga third element is also present. The fact that the offender did not have schooling and is illiterate does not mitigate his liability if the crime committed is one which he inherently understands as wrong such as parricide. There is no question that there was aggression on the part of the victims: one of the deceased ordering while the other actually participating in the fencing. (2) WHEN KILLING HELD UNJUSTIFIED. there was not sufficient provocation to justify her in using a deadly weapon. The fact that he has knowledge of the law will not aggravate his liability. PEOPLE vs. But if he committed falsification. (a) PICKING UP KNIFE OF RAPIST PREPARING TO LIE WITH ACCUSED AND STABBING HIM). MITGATING AND AGGRAVATING CIRCUMSTANCES I. Victim. Decision: No. PEOPLE vs. we have the right to property acquired by us. The Supreme Court held that although he did not receive schooling. If a child or son or daughter would kill a parent. When the appellant fired his shotgun from his window. Decision: Yes. and the right to honor which is not the least prized of our patrimony. reasonable necessity of the means employed to prevent or repel it and lack of sufficient provocation on the part of the person defending himself. reasonableness of the resistance is also a requirement of the justifying circumstance of self-defense or defense of one's rights under paragraph I of Article 11. self-defense Issue: Can the defendant. APEGO Keyword: Paranoid sister. paragraph 1 of the RPC. WITHOUT INSISTENCE OR REPETITION WHICH COULD BE CONSIDERED AN ATTEMPT AGAINST HONOR. mitigated by the privileged extenuating circumstance of incomplete self-defense. Issue: W/N the defendant is entitled on grounds of legitimate selfdefense.
The crime having been committed by the owner of the house against the person who had by mutual consent frequented the house. Verga “stand ground when in the right” rule. Guards. There was no provocation on the defendant’s part. A policeman in the performance of his duty must stand his ground and cannot take refuge in flight when attacked. There was no reasonable cause for striking a blow in the center of the body where the vital parts are located. PEOPLE vs. The law did not require the accused to retreat. Thus. there was present the circumstance of incomplete exemption from responsibility since the second requisite is missing. There was reasonable necessity for the means employed by X to repel the attack. upon the ground that the accused in committing the homicide acted in self-defense. Decision: Yes.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) or repeat any act which could be considered as an attempt against her honor. threatened by the constabulary. There were two stages in the fight. i. An accused was no longer acting in self-defense when he pursued and killed a fleeing adversary. striking with a “Japanese wood” and inflicting with a tuba knife causing the victim’s death. The accused exceeded her right of self-defense since there was really no need of wounding the victim. This doctrine make it the duty of a person assailed to retreat as far as he can before he is justified in meeting force with force. though originally the unlawful aggressor. defendant cheated the victim. The ancient common law rule in homicide was denominated “retreat to the wall”. there being then no more aggression to defend against. The resistance was not disappropriate to the assault thus the accused is exempted from criminal liability because he acted in legitimate defense of his person. the force employed by the defendant was reasonably necessary and that he acted in legitimate self-defense. Issue: W/N the woman can plead self-defense considering that the man seems to be asleep when he was killed. and therefore a statement alleging such violence is improbable and inadmissible as a basis for an exemption from liability. LAUREL Keywords: Stolen kiss. and at a time when they were both in bed. Decision: No. ALCONGA Keywords: Gambling. This principle has now given way in the US to Vena V. Victim became so angry and threatened to inflict harm on the defendant. His duty requires him to overcome his opponent and the force he may exert therefore differs somewhat from that which ordinarily may be offered in self-defense. SUPRA US vs. being accustomed to pass the night in her house. Issue: W/N the defendant is entitled to acquittal for having killed the victim in the exercise of his right of self-defense. Since one of the ingredients of self-defense is missing. Issue: W/N there is a reasonable necessity for the means employed to repel the attack. the same having ceased from the moment the deceased took to his heels. PEOPLE vs. LUAGUE. Defendant was a police Issue: W/N the defendant can maintain that he killed the victim in self-defense and that he is exempt from criminal liability. When the deceased retreated. KILLING OF PARAMOUR NOT ATTRIBUTABLE TO ATTEMPT TO RAPE ACCUSED WHO MAINTAINED ILLICIT RELATION WITH VICTIM FOR SOME TIME PEOPLE vs. it cannot be believed that it was necessary for him to resort to violence. Decision: Yes. POTESTAS Keywords: Woman kills her paramour who was not her live-in partner saying that the latter tried to rape her. In the initial stage. the circumstance of nocturnity cannot be considered because the nighttime was not purposely selected by the accused. MOJICA Keywords: Constabulary versus Police. Both men accused each other for starting the fight. Unlawful Aggression When present Attempt to rape a woman PEOPLE VS. the deceased assaulted the defendant but the latter was able to resist the aggression. The element of practicability made it impossible for him to determine during the heat of a sudden attack whether he would increase or diminish the risk to which exposed by standing his ground or stepping aside. complete self-defense cannot be invoked. in the commission of the crime. Accused did not provoke the assault. PEOPLE vs. there was no longer any danger to the life of the accused but the latter pursued him and inflicted many additional wounds. Under the circumstances. DOMEN Keyword: Fight over a carabao. Decision: When it is proven that the deceased had for some time maintained illicit relations with the accused. /vvverga Page 72 of 100 .
Issue: W/N the person who aided the old man by furnishing a weapon to the latter makes the former liable for homicide. Issue: W/N the policeman should be held liable Decision: No. In the case at bar. while it was at the cost of the life of the deceased. the obligation of proving that affirmative allegation rests on the defense. The deceased was under the obligation to surrender and had no right after evading service of his sentence. BONOAN Keywords: barbershop. Decision: Yes. CABUNGCAL Keywords: ROCK THE BOAT! Issue: W/N the defendant is completely exempted from all criminal liability. PEOPLE vs. who furnished the legitimate weapon used in his defense should be also acquitted and declared exempt from any responsibility. he is completely exempt from criminal liability. there would be halfhearted and dispirited efforts on their part to comply with such official duty. was justified by the circumstance. Decision: No. PEOPLE Keywords: Detention prisoner charged of stealing chickens. US vs. insanity “I’ll kill you”. If one who defends a third person under the conditions and with the requisites the penal law lays down for exempting him from responsibility should be acquitted of the charge in a case prosecuted against him. to be sure. it is illogical and unjust to deny to said assistant the same exemption from responsibility and the exoneration granted the slayer on the grounds of self-defense. who used the weapon. PEOPLE vs. PEOPLE VS. “I’ll pay you” Issue: W/N the prosecution have the burden of proving that the accused was sane at the time he committed the crime. Verga Issue: W/N it was the defendant who was the assailant. Decision: No. Poultry area. Policeman committed no crime. when not satisfied with the explanation offered. DELIMA Keywords: Escapee who was killed by a policeman while ordering the latter to surrender. with the result that thereafter. the burden of establishing that fact rests upon him. as was held in the same judgment to be lawful and right. would be the aggressor. the defense interposed being that the defendant was insane at the time he killed the deceased. Decision: The act performed was committed in the performance of official duty and was more or less necessary to prevent the escaping prisoner from successfully eluding the officers of the law.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. which although the policeman to resort to such an extreme means which. the logical consequence of that declaration of exemption from responsibility is that the other. The victim then can invoke self-defense. Police only tried to hit the victim on the leg but unfortunately hit him on the back. so that when they meet it is to be presumed that such offended party. SUBINGSUBING Keywords: 78 year old man aided by another man to parry the blows of X who made unchaste proposals to the old man’s wife. The killing was done in the performance f a duty. then when a person who did nothing more than furnish a weapon to one whom he saw in peril and in great need of defending himself and repelling a serious assault. In the Philippines. was declared to be exempt from responsibility in repelling the attack of which he was the victim and in wounding his assailant therewith. although it proved to be fatal. The appellant having acted in defense of his wife and child and the other passengers in the boat in striking the deceased with an oar in order to make him desist from trying to upset the boat. but sanity is presumed. it is the offended party who was directly or indirectly affected and who would naturally be interested in demanding an explanation and therefore in seeking the interview. and this presumption is confirmed by the evidence. Where the one. Issue: W/N the action of the defendant can be justified. to commit assault and disobedience with a weapon in the hand. VALCORZA vs. To hold the accused guilty of homicide may have the effect of demoralizing police officers discharging official functions identical or similar to those in the performance of which petitioner was engaged at the time he fired at the deceased. is on the prosecution to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant committed the crime. and the means employed having been reasonably necessary in this defense. and when a defendant in a criminal case interposes the defense of mental incapacity. the burden. Decision: Considering the preceding relations between the contending parties. HOW INSANITY IS PROVED /vvverga Page 73 of 100 . This would be a great detriment to public interest. The deceased did not head several warning shots.
Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. Bonoan). viz. To prove insanity. ordinary man would have succeeded to it. defense fails. Issue: W/N the defendant can be acquitted with the argument that he should be exempted from criminal liability on account of insanity. or must produce such an effect upon the individual that in spite of all resistance. The traveler may pass to the front when he has good and sufficient grounds to believe that he can do so in safety. vs. US vs. Decision: No. he cannot be held liable either civilly or criminally. Decision: No. Mind can only be known by outward acts. if it cannot be attributed to the misconduct or the negligence of the operator in the management of his machine. For purposes of disposing of appellant's defense it becomes necessary to restate certain basic principles in criminal law. if clear and convincing. Slave-driver teacher who asked the guard to type test questionnaires. notwithstanding the fact that three days were expended in doing so. that is. that a person is criminally liable for a felony committed by him. brought him before a justice of the peace as soon as "practicable" thereafter. it is permissible to receive evidence of the condition of his mind a reasonable period both before and after that time. Issue: W/N the defendant can invoke that he was acting under the impulse if an uncontrollable fear of a greater injury. of the Revised Penal Code. it must appear that the threat which caused the fear was of an evil greater that. paragraph 1. Decision: No. In the eyes of the law. that a felonious or criminal act (delito doloso) is presumed to have been done with deliberate intent. Under all the circumstances of this case. suffice (People vs. Thereby. VICENTILLO Keywords: illegal detention. Impulse of uncontrollable fear of a greater injury should the defendant refuse. that is. or that there is a total deprivation of freedom of the will. unfortunate circumstances than prolonged the detention. that one of the causes which will overthrow this presumption of voluntariness and intelligence is insanity in which even the actor is exempt from criminal liability as provided for in Article 12. US vs. The case of U. insanity exist when there is a complete deprivation of intelligence in committing the act. and malice because the moral and legal presumption is that freedom and intelligence constitute the normal condition of a person in the absence of evidence to the contrary. the motives and emotions of a person and come to determine whether his sets conform to the practice of people of sound mind. Applying these principles. with freedom intelligence. he acts without the least discernment because there is a complete absence of the power to discern. mere abnormality of the mental faculties will not exclude imputability. Issue: W/N the defendant should be charged for reason of reckless negligence. in a particular case of defiance of local authority by the unlawful violation of a local ordinance even where the offense thus committed /vvverga Page 74 of 100 . as set forth in the opinion. or at least equal to that which he was required to commit and that it promised an evil of such gravity and imminence that it might be said. trivial crime committed by X to a municipal president. circumstantial evidence. Decision: Chief mate did not exercise influence over the accused. RENEGADO Keywords: Insane security guard. this court will not presume that. after having arrested the complaining witness without a warrant. therefore. Issue: W/N the municipal president can be found guilty of “illegal and arbitrary detention” of the accused for a period of three days. the accused is deprived of reason. KNIGHT Keyword: chauffer of US Army. S. we read the thoughts. that the. Fortaleza followed as to the authority of a municipal president to make an arrest without a warrant for an offense committed in his presence. Before a force can be considered to be an irresistible one. the municipal president being held to have all the usual powers of a public officer for the making of arrests without warrant. and one has not the exclusive right to precede another. Child was run over while the defendant was trying to overtake. PEOPLE vs. In the absence of all evidence to the contrary. ELICANAL Keyword: Captain killed by shipmates. US vs. The onus probandi rest upon him who invokes insanity as an exempting circumstances and he must prove it by clear and positive evidence. Whatever may have been the cause of an automobile accident. The defense in a criminal action that the defendant in committing the crime acted under the impulse of an uncontrollable fear produced by a threat of an equal or greater injury to himself can be held to be sustained. One person is not compelled to travel behind another on the highway. it reduces him to a mere instrument. the defendant. Verga In order to ascertain a person's mental condition at the time of the act. Direct testimony is not required nor are specific acts of derangement essential to establish insanity as a defense.
not because of imprudence or any other cause than that she was overcome by severe dizziness and extreme debility. motives and emotions of a person. such as evidence of the alleged deranged person's general conduct and appearance. an insane person believes in a state of things. and through which we determine whether his acts conform to the practice of people of sound mind. However. he has lost the power to choose between right and wrong. Under the delusion test. or a more or less permanently diseased or disordered condition of the mentality. his insanity admitted of lucid intervals. abandonment Issue: W/N the mother can be held liable for infanticide and or abandonment of a minor. Insane delusion is manifested by a false belief for which there is no reasonable basis and which would be incredible under the given circumstances to the same person if he is of compos mentis. Even in cases where said crimes are committed through mere imprudence. In order that insanity may relieve a person from criminal responsibility. the existence of which no rational person would believe. Direct testimony is not required nor the specific acts of derangement essential to establish insanity as a defense. The law exempts from criminal liability any person who acts under the circumstances in which the appellant acted in this case. that is. Hiding a deadly weapon and embarking to evade arrest are conscious adoption of the pattern to kill. in itself. to avoid the act in question. under our jurisdiction. inhibition. Thus. Decision: Infanticide and abandonment of a minor. The vagaries of the mind can only be known by outward acts: thereby we read the thoughts. Puno). Under the right and wrong test. An insane person has no full and clear understanding of the nature and consequence of his act. We can apply as test or criterion the definition of insanity under Section 1039 of the Revised Administrative Code. Evidence of insanity must have reference to the mental condition of the person whose sanity is in issue. A person acts under an irresistible impulse when. it is permissible to receive of his mental condition for a reasonable period both before and after the time of the act in question. which states that insanity is "a manifestation in language or conduct. and the right and wrong test. and his improvident bargains. there are three major criteria in determining the existence of insanity. She has in her favor the fourth and seventh exempting circumstances. His unlawful act is the product of a mental disease or a mental defect. and characterized by perversion. his free agency being at the time destroyed. DAR employee killed. HOW COURTS SHOULD CONSIDER BURDEN OF PROOF IN CASES INVOLVING PLEA OF INSANITY /vvverga Page 75 of 100 . trivial and unimportant. or by disordered function of the sensory or of the intellective faculties. Under foreign jurisdiction. namely: delusion test. or at least it must be the result of a voluntary. by giving birth to a child in a thicket and later abandoning it. in order that he may be held liable. his irrational acts and beliefs. by reason of duress or mental disease. Verga It is difficult to distinguish from insanity. with no fault or intention on her part. irresistible impulse test. or must be conscious of his acts. a person is insane when he suffers from such perverted condition of the mental and moral faculties as to render him incapable of distinguishing between right and wrong. his acts and conduct inconsistent with his previous character and habits. PEOPLE vs. must be in the full enjoyment of his mental faculties. Issue: W/N the defendant can be acquitted on the grounds of insanity. to be punishable. under said circumstance. baby killed by animal bites. at the very time of doing the act. must be committed willfully or consciously. DUNGO Keywords: confined in a mental hospital for insanity but found sane while perpetuating the crime. The fact that the defendant remembered his acts proves that he was not insane or if insane. functional or organic." Insanity as defined above is evinced by a deranged and perverted condition of the mental faculties. DISTINGUISH INSANITY FROM SANITY Vena V. of disease or defect of the brain. There no definite defined border between sanity and insanity. conscious and. BANDIAN Keywords: infanticide. it may not have been necessary or at least expedient to make an arrest and bring the offender forthwith before the proper judicial officer. Insanity in law exists when there is a complete deprivation of intelligence. it is necessary that there be a complete deprivation of intelligence in committing the act. PEOPLE vs. that there be complete absence or deprivation of the freedom of the will (People vs. there has been no case that lays down a definite test or criterion for insanity. free act or omission. which is the subject of inquiry. So far.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) is. However. which is manifested in language or conduct. or by impaired or disordered volition. that the accused be deprived of cognition. Decision: One who suffers from insanity at the time of the commission of the offense charged cannot in a legal sense entertain a criminal intent and cannot be held criminally responsible for his acts. that he acts without the least discernment. insanity may be shown by surrounding circumstances fairly throwing light on the subject. the person who commits them.
the starting premise is that the law presumes all persons to be of sound mind. deliberately and after due reflection had resolved to kill the woman who had left him for another man. The woman found another man. Without positive evidence that the defendant had previously lost his reason or was demented. The quantum of evidence required to overthrow the presumption of sanity is proof beyond reasonable doubt. The burden of proving the affirmative allegation of insanity rests on the defense." i. which he described as “parang ibon. and as such must be proved beyond reasonable doubt. and it is improper to conclude that a person acted unconsciously. the Court has recognized at most a mitigating. not an exempting. was doubtless unable to flee from the place where she was standing. Otherwise stated. between her aggressor and a third person. Insanity is a defense in a confession and avoidance. Evident premeditation. In any case. without an accompanying "complete deprivation of intelligence. RAFANAN Keywords: Schizophrenic person pleading not guilty for the crime of rape. (People vs. The standard set out in Formigones were commonly adopted in subsequent case." The law presumes every man to be sane.. doubt as to the fact of insanity should be resolved in favor of sanity. manners. Thus: In considering the plea of insanity as a defense in a prosecution for crime. the State should guard against sane murderer escaping punishment through a general plea of insanity. Verga only towards that which is presented as desirable by his intelligence. in criminal cases. Appellant has not successfully discharged the burden of overcoming the presumption that he committed the crime as charged freely. therefore. tinig ng ibon”. manifest and evident by reason of the open acts executed by the accused. and in order to accomplish his perverse intention with safety. Issue No. on the basis of his mental condition. A person accused of a crime has the burden of proving his affirmative allegation of insanity. constitute the crime of murder. defined and punished by article 403 of the Penal Code. 2: W/N Evident premeditation can be appreciated. Dungo). and intelligently. and forms were employed in the attack that directly and specially insured the consummation of the crime without such risk to the author thereof as might have been offered by the victim who. "Such illness of the offender as would diminish the exercise of the willpower of the offender without however depriving him of the consciousness of his Acts. in which she was concerned. rather than on the test relating to "freedom of the will. it will be presumed that he was in normal condition. Accused confined in the mental hospital after the incident. however.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Generally. Insanity must be clearly and satisfactorily proved in order to acquit an accused on the ground of insanity. Decision: The above-stated facts. owing to the suddenness of the attack. and at a time when she was listening to a conversation. Decision: Yes. The allegation of insanity or imbecility must be clearly proved. at close." and (b) the test of violation-"or that there be a total deprivation of freedom of the will. which have been fully proven in the present case. a few moments prior to or during the perpetration of the crime. unless his insanity and absence of will are proved. Premeditation is. Whoever. in that the woman Agustina Sola met a violent death. namely: (a) the tests of cognition-"complete deprivation of intelligence in committing the [criminal] act. Seclusive who allege that he hears sounds. Issue No 1: W/N murder was committed." But our case law shows common reliance on the test of cognition. if not point blank range. where the accused failed to show complete impairment or loss of intelligence. Acts penalized by law are always refuted to be voluntary. Jealousy. in the defense of insanity. with the qualifying circumstance of treachery (alevosia)." examination of the case law has failed to turn up any case where this Court has exempted an accused on the sole ground that he was totally deprived of "freedom of the will. whether that intelligence be diseased be healthy. PEOPLE vs. invokes insanity as a defense has the burden of proving its existence. notwithstanding the fact that he was already provided with a clean and well-prepared weapon /vvverga Page 76 of 100 . circumstance in accord with Article 13(9) of the Revised Penal Code. Issue: W/N the defendant can be acquitted of the charge of rape on the ground that he was suffering from a mental disorder called schizophrenia at the time he committed the crime. HICKS Keyword: Afro-American soldier and Moro woman having an illicit affair. AGGARVATING AND MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES US vs. the law presumes all acts to be voluntary. she being suddenly and roughly attacked and unexpectedly fired upon with a 45-caliber revolver. Decision: No. However. and that it is improper to presume that acts were done unconsciously. or even escape or divert the weapon. Lastly. while the injured woman was unarmed and unprepared. From all of the foregoing it is logically inferred that means." This is perhaps to be expected since person's volition naturally reaches out Vena V.e. All the foregoing circumstances conclusively prove that the accused. in order to relieve him from liability. knowingly. every doubt is resolved in favor of the accused. and after usual and customary words had passed between her and her aggressor. The circumstance of premeditation can be appreciated but should only be considered as merely a generic one.
“that woman”. a man kills his concubine upon discovering that she had carnal communication with another man. 1: W/N the woman committed a crime. In the former case the cause of the alleged "passion and obfuscation" of the aggressor was the convict's vexation. Verga PEOPLE vs. Issue No. . his reason for killing her being merely that she had elected to leave him and with his full knowledge to go and live with another. Issue No 3: W/N the accused can invoke loss of reason and selfcontrol produced by jealousy. to a mitigating Decision: Yes. This marked obstinacy of the accused in her aggression clearly reveals her intention to cause to its full extent the injury she has committed. and his discovery of her in flagrante in the arms of another. who had theretofore been his querida (concubine or lover). The stab-wound inflicted upon the deceased by the accused was not only mortal. 4: W/N the defendant is entitled circumstance that she acted under obfuscation. Decision: Yes. when the author of the same does not persist in his purpose or when he desists therefrom to the extent that the person attacked is no longer in peril. unworthy. Her act of mortally wounding her lover had not been precede by aggression on the part of the latter. As said by the supreme court of Spain in the above cited decision. Issue No. nor is it necessary to inquire whether or not there was "sufficient provocation" on the part of the one invoking legitimate self-defense because both circumstances presuppose unlawful aggression. Issue No 2: W/N this case can be decided based on Hick’s case." was not that the woman declined to have illicit relations with him. Decision: Yes. 2: W/N a slight pushing of the head which hurt the woman can be considered a mitigating circumstance: Decision: No. doubtless in order to successfully accomplish his criminal design.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) and carried other loaded cartridges besides those already in his revolver. such act does not constitute the unlawful aggression mentioned by the Code. 1: W/N the circumstances can be considered an extenuation of his criminal liability. Issue No. In the case at bar the impulse upon which the defendant acted. disappointment and anger engendered by the refusal of the woman to continue to live in illicit relations with him. behaving himself properly as he had planned to do beforehand. to repel which it is lawful to employ a means of defense which may be reasonably necessary. and which naturally produced "passion and obfuscation. Decision: No. in what appeared to be a proper manner. this was a "sufficient impulse" in the ordinary and natural course of things to produce the passion and obfuscation which the law declares to be one of the extenuating circumstances to be taken into consideration by the court. The only causes which mitigate the criminal responsibility for the loss of self-control are such as originate from legitimate feelings. 3: W/N she is entitled to a mitigating circumstance of lack of intention to cause grave injury. There is no occasion to speak her of the “reasonable necessity of the means employed to prevent or repel it". US vs. in that defendant "acted upon an impulse so powerful as naturally to have produced passion and obfuscation. especially the fact that the accused had been abandoned by the deceased after living together for three or four years. we repeat. upon discovering her in flagrante in carnal communication with a mutual acquaintance. Decision: No.the latter would perhaps have inflicted upon him other wounds had it not been for the timely arrival of policeman who calmed her bellicose attitude and placed her under arrest. in view of the peculiar circumstances of the case. Issue No. The commission of the offense of which defendant was convicted was marked with the extenuating circumstance defined in subsection 7 of article 9. according to her was the cause that led her to stab him. and the harsh treatment which the deceased gave the accused /vvverga Page 77 of 100 ." the evidence disclosing that in the heat of passion he killed the deceased. and. as a fundamental requisite of self-defense is not necessarily implied in any act of aggression against a particular person. DELA CRUZ Keywords: Due to heat of passion. "Considering that an unlawful aggression. YUMAN Keyword: Man refused to go back to his live-in partner. which. and immoral passions. A slight push of the head with the hand-which. not those which arise from vicious. This mitigating circumstance should be taken into consideration in favor of the accused. greeting everyone courteously and conversed with his victim. he entered the house. penknife Issue No. was not present in the instant case. but the sudden revelation that she was untrue to him. Vena V. disguising his intention and calming her by his apparent repose and tranquility. but the victim thus wounded and running away was also pursued by the accused. which she had a perfect right to do. Decision: No. knife in hand.
2: W/N there is evident premeditation. We can not see how the accused's insistence that she live with him again. he could not take advantage of it. The four (4) stab wounds were inflicted indiscriminately. but he was old and baldado (invalid). White slave trade. the wound was but a part and continuation of the aggression. and his rage at her rejection of the proposal. induced his young bride to work as a public hostess. For this reason. can be properly qualified as arising from immoral and unworthy passions. and. Issue No. but the accuse did no seek or take advantage of it to better accomplish his purpose. Issue No. Decision: Evident premeditation was. The facts are not sufficient to draw a comparison of their relative strength. BELLO Keyword: Old man. and without any present plan or intent to use it against his commonlaw wife. hence the circumstance did not aggravate the crime. Verga formidable advantage over the unarmed victim. 6: W/N the accused can claim a mitigating circumstance of having acted on provocation strong to cause passion and obfuscation.. 5: W/N the can be aggravating circumstance of abuse of confidence and obvious ungratefulness. The crime was committed at nighttime. None is inferable from the fact that the accused was much older than his victim. Under the circumstance. In fact. but showed her determination to pursue a lucrative profession that permitted her to distribute her favors indiscriminately. not established. The trial court itself found that the stab in the back was inflicted as the victim was running away. without regard as to which portion of her body was the subject of attack. The evidence does not show. There is nothing to show that the assailant and his common-law wife reposed in one another any special confidence that could be abused. At any rate. was not motivated by any desire to lead a chaste life henceforth. True that he was armed with a balisong. either. or that he was penniless while she was able to earn a living and occasionally gave him money. The defendant is a mere wage-earner and could not even sign her statement before the police and had to affix her thumb mark. Issue No. Decision: While it cannot be denied that Alicia was stabbed at the back. and not infirm. or any gratitude owed by one to the other that ought to be respected. Decision: Yes. Issue No 5: W/N she entitled to the mitigating circumstance of voluntary surrender to the authorities.. Issue No. That he watched her movements daily manifested his jealous character. Issue no. 4: W/N nighttime maybe appreciated as aggravating circumstance. PEOPLE vs. or connection. kaingero. Decision: Yes. Decision: No. Possession of a balisong gives an aggressor a Vena V. likewise. Even without benefit of wedlock. 6: W/N she is entitled to a mitigating circumstance of lack of instruction. while Alicia was in the prime of her youth. deliberate intent to take advantage of superior strength. Decision: No. and which would bear any relation. Decision: No. Her loose conduct was forcibly driven home to the accused by a remark he heard on the very day of the crime that the accused was the husband "whose wife was being used by Maring for purposes of prostitution". Woman refused to give support and was seeing another man. not possessing it. Issue No. treachery cannot be imputed Issue No. any superior strength on the part of the accused.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) on the afternoon of the day in question. Alicia's insulting refusal to renew her liaison with the accused. with the crime committed. therefore. PEOPLE vs. but there is no evidence that from this jealousy sprouted a plan to snuff out her life. both lived together as husband and wife. a monogamous liaison appears morally of a higher level than gainful promiscuity. taking into account the emotional excitement of the accused. The accused had been carrying a balisong with him for a long time as a precaution against drunkards. it would be an error to take into consideration this circumstance. a remark that so deeply wounded the appellant's feelings that he was driven to consume a large amount of wine (tuba) before visiting the deceased to plead with her to leave her work. It will be recalled that the lower court found that the accused had previously reproved the deceased for allowing herself to be caressed by a stranger. but the physique of the aggressor ought also to be considered. it is not clearly shown that there was "intención deliberada de prevalerse de la superioridad aprovecharse intencionadamente de la misma" i. Neither is it shown that the accused took advantage of any such special confidence in order to carry out the crime. the place was bright and well lighted. since. 5 glasses of tuba. a short time before the aggression. MACBUL /vvverga Page 78 of 100 .1: W/N treachery can be appreciated in order to qualify the crime to murder. Decision: No.e. 3: W/N the crime can be qualified by abuse of superior strength.
PEOPLE vs. appellant's first conviction.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) section 10 and consideration. Victim even made a proposal of love to the wife of the accused in lieu the latter’s gambling debt. It may not be amiss to state that an accused is entitled to acquittal unless his guilt is shown by proof beyond reasonable doubt. Hence within the purview of habitual delinquents. Issue: W/N the court erred in considering the defendant a habitual delinquent. 2: W/N the accused can invoke the fact that no irreparable material damage was caused to the offended part in the commission of the crime. W/N extreme poverty can be appreciated as a mitigating PEOPLE vs. Decision: No. reduction of penalty due to mitigating circumstance of plea of guilty and lack of irreparable material damage. namely. Mitigating circumstance of plea of guilt and extreme poverty. stabbed to death and buried. Decision: No. or falsificación. This court approves it. On the basis of the foregoing evidence. The necessary result is that the accused can he held liable only for the killing of the victim. Decision: Yes. Decision: Yes. cannot be taken into account because his second conviction took place fourteen years later. Issue No. which is that the crime committed by the accused has caused no irreparable material damage to the offended party. Kidnapped. The mitigating circumstance so invoked. stealing two sacks of papers which belong to the Provincial Government of Sulu. Undisputed facts show that the victim’s hands were tied and his mouth was gagged with a flannel cloth before he was stabbed twice with an icepick and buried in a shallow grave near a creek. Revised Rules of Court). one previous conviction against him. estafa. Treachery (alevosia) qualified the killing to murder. The four participated in the planning and execution of the crime and were at the scene in all its stages. therefore it cannot correctly Vena V. if within a period of ten years from the date of his release or last conviction of the crimes of robo. Decision: Conspiracy. Verga be taken into Keywords: habitual delinquent. That is not to encourage or even countenance theft but merely to dull somewhat the keen and pain-producing edges of the stark realities of life. There was no illegal detention and victim was killed and promptly buried. The crime was murder only. hurto. The plea of guilty spontaneously entered by the accused prior to the presentation of the evidence for the prosecution constitutes mitigating circumstance. Thus. (Rule 133. Issue No. that last one. 2: circumstance. Decision: Yes. Issue No 2: W/N treachery can be appreciated in qualifying the crime to murder. Section 1. DY POL Keyword: falsification of public document. he is found guilty of any of said crimes a third time or oftener. These facts portray well that the tied hands of the victim rendered him defenseless and helpless thereby allowing the accused to commit the crime without risk at all to their person. the time interval when the deceased was actually deprived of his liberty was short and the same was only incidental to the main objective of murdering him. treachery should be considered against all persons participating or cooperating in the perpetration of the crime. Decision: Yes. They cannot escape the consequence of any of their acts even if they deviated in some detail from what they originally thought of. connivance and unity of purpose and intention among the accused were present throughout in the execution of this crime. The evidence at hand hardly satisfied the requirement of proof beyond reasonable doubt as to the charge of kidnapping. In other words. is not recognized by the RPC. the accused can hardly be held liable for kidnapping as well. Neither is it among those which may be considered as similar nature and analogous to those expressly recognized in accordance with Article 13 /vvverga Page 79 of 100 . Issue: W/N treachery can be appreciated as regards the two other accused who did not do the actual stabbing. Issue: W/N the accused be held liable for the crimes of kidnapping and murder. Conspiracy implies concert of design and not participation in every detail of execution. A person shall be deemed to be habitually delinquent. recognizing the immanent principle that the right to life is more sacred than a mere property right." Therefore. ONG Keyword: Debt. Issue: W/N the accused is entitled to a mitigating circumstance of plea of guilt.
Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. The purposive selection of an uninhabited place is thus clear from the evidence. Decision: No. Inducement by the uncle. as it appears from the record. cannot be considered here. Issue: W/N the plead of guilt can be used as a mitigating circumstance. 13. Decision: The accused Benjamin Ong is likewise is entitled to the mitigating circumstance that is analogous to passion and obfuscation (Art. The record does not show beyond a reasonable doubt that the accused was forced or induced to commit this crime. and to secure themselves against detection and punishment. but can be perceived distinctly therefrom. nephew refused the money but nonetheless carried on with the crime. Verga Issue No. 10. A special case therefore is present to which the rule that nighttime is absorbed in treachery does not apply. This aggravating circumstance was correctly appreciated by the lower court regardless of whether or not the same was purposely and deliberately sought by the accused for it is clear that the darkness of the night facilitated the commission of the crime and was taken advantage of by them. it would appear that the plead of guilty to this information naturally would be most unfair to the accused since the penalty would be that of capital punishment. It has been held that the use of a motor vehicle is aggravating in murder where the said vehicle was used in transporting the victim and the accused. 3: W/N the aggravating circumstance of nighttime can be absorbed in treachery. The motor vehicle facilitated the stark happening. 6: W/N the use of motor vehicle be appreciated as aggravating circumstance. Decision: In order for this circumstance to obtain. Decision: No. the culprit taking advantage of the offended party's belief that the former would not abuse said confidence. The accused meditated and tenaciously persisted in the accomplishment of the crime and were not prompted merely by the impulse of the moment. it is necessary that there be a relation of trust and confidence between the accused and the one against whom the crime was committed. It is essential too that the confidence be a means of facilitating the commission of the crime. It is true that he owed his uncle a sum of money and the latter could have used these obligations in order to force his nephew to commit the crime but it has not been shown beyond reasonable doubt that the uncle actually hired his nephew to kill the deceased since the nephew rejected the offer. Issue: W/N the accused can be credited with any mitigating circumstance. Issue No. since the treachery rests upon an independent factual basis. Issue: W/N the purposive selection of uninhabited place be appreciated. 5: W/N the aggravating circumstance of abuse of confidence can be appreciated. GAMAO Keywords: Priest killed in exchange of a sum of money. For cruelty to exist. Decision: Yes. causing him unnecessary physical or moral pain in the consummation of the criminal act. Decision: Yes. Issue: W/N the aggravating circumstance that the accused forced or induced his nephew to murder the priest by hire or reward be appreciated. the circumstance of nighttime is not absorbed in treachery. it appears that the victim's burial was not meant to make him suffer any longer but simply to conceal his body and the crime itself. 7: W/N cruelty can be appreciated as an aggravating circumstance. The accused showed signs of remorsefulness upon his arrest when he cooperated with the police authorities in the solution of the crime. 8: W/N there is evident premeditation. Issue No. and flee from the locale of the fearful crime. Revised Penal Code). Indeed. Cruelty (ensañamiento). The accused and the victim were together that night in the nightclub as well as in the car not because of said confidence. Issue No. Issue No. It was merely because the accused had some accounts to settle with him. it must be shown that the accused enjoyed and delighted in making their victim suffer slowly and gradually. Since the kidnapping portion of the crime cannot be appreciated beyond reasonable doubt. the group intended merely to kill the victim. and that the accused made use of such relation to commit the crime. Decision: Yes. Decision: It is clear that appellants took advantage of nighttime in committing the felonies charged. The accused sought the solitude of the place in order to better attain their purpose without interference. Decision: The place was ideal not merely for burying the victim but also for killing him for it was a place where the possibility of the victim receiving some help from third persons was completely absent. US vs. the qualifying circumstance of evident premeditation (premeditacion conocida) attended the commission of the crime. bury him. /vvverga Page 80 of 100 . par. The brief of the Acting Solicitor General agrees with that of the accused in denying the attendance of cruelty as an aggravating circumstance. Even granting that the victim died because of asphyxiation when he was buried and not hemorrhage from stab wounds. is an aggravating circumstance. Inasmuch as the treachery consisted in the fact that the victims' hands were tied at the time they were beaten.
arising from the defense which the priest might make. thereby employing means or methods in the execution of this crime which tended directly and specially to insure its execution without risk to himself. 1: W/N the act of the accused can be characterized as murder and multiple attempted murder Decision: Yes. 2: W/N the aggravating circumstance of treachery be appreciated as well. I. the SC was compelled to give him the benefits of the mitigating circumstance of lack of discretion since it was shown the nephew was a poor ignorant fisherman and only depends on his uncle for subsistence. FEATI. INTOXICATION WHEN MITIGATING. No other mitigating circumstance can be appreciated in his favor for one who attacks another with a deadly weapon as a revolver must know that the most probable result of such an aggression is the death of the person attacked. Owing to his extreme ignorance. Marsh died soon after. He hated the Roman Catholic Church and called a meeting in his house where the question of murdering the priest was discussed. Decision: Yes. DEFINING HABITUAL DRUNKARD AS ONE GIVEN TO INTOXICATION BY EXCESSIVE USE OF INTOXICATING DRINKS U. Fitzgerald immediately arose. The nephew merely depends on his uncle for his subsistence while the latter was found to be a man of great influence. he saw Marsh and fired at him. i) (a) NOT HABITUAL PRESUMPTION IN FAVOR OF NON-HABITUAL CHARACTER OF INTOXICATION A. security guard threw a pillbox hitting one of the demonstrators in the head. Accused is only entitled to a mitigating defense of intoxication. Issue No. Decision: Yes. The influence exercised by the uncle over his nephew was so great and powerful that the latter could not resist it. Also. and the fact that the accused was drunk at the time of the commission of the crime must then be considered as a mitigating circumstance. Decision: No. He was unable to see by whom the blow was struck. The deceased received the fatal blow while he was in the dark space between the door and the stairs leading to the upper portion of the convent. Nor can the fact that the homicide was immediately preceded by an affray between the deceased and the defendant may be considered as a mitigating circumstance. vs. Provocation on the part of Marsh cannot be considered as a mitigating circumstance since there was no evidence how the quarrel arose. Decision: In the presence of proof to the contrary. which knocked the latter down. ii) II. Decision: Yes. 3: W/N extreme ignorance can be used as a mitigating circumstance. FITZGERALD Facts: The accused and the victim had a dispute in a distillery. DE LA ROSA Keywords: demonstration. He had no opportunity to offer any resistance whatever. The crime committed is murder with multiple attempted murder qualified by the use of explosive. After which.S. 4: W/N the uncle should be considered as a principal by induction. Issue No.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. and he is not entitled to the benefit of the mitigating circumstance established by the Penal Code. The victim (Marsh) struck Fitzgerald. These facts clearly establish the qualifying circumstance of alevosia in so far as the accused is concerned. PEOPLE vs. The murderer taking advantage of the darkness was lying in wait for his victim. McMann and McKay went to the house of a Moro to get some /vvverga Page 81 of 100 . Issue: W/N a mitigating circumstance can be considered. MCMANN Facts: McMann and on McKay (one the victims) were packers at Camp Vicars in Mindanao. Issue No 3: W/N the accused be credited with aggravating circumstance of lack of intention to commit so grave a wong as that actually done. US vs. it will be presumed that intoxication is not habitual. He selected his nephew to commit the crime and dominated all who were present. Issue No. Issue No. where it appears that the accused fired a loaded revolver at the deceased and killed him.” ran toward the ice plant in search of a revolver and returned. 2: Was the crime properly classified as murder? Decision: Yes. It can be deduced that both are intoxicated. it must be presumed that he intended the natural consequences of his act. There can be no question that the latter was directly induced by his uncle to kill the priest. and saying “I will show you sons of b—s. Verga Issue No.
If there is. It is probable that McMann was actually going to shoot the Moro but because he was drunk at that time. Since the accused was charged of having killed the deceased for more than three years ago. Issue No. Verga Issue No.” or the “accused. accomplice. 6: W/N there are any mitigating circumstance that can be appreciated in favor of the accused. So. McMann snatched the bolo cutting the latter’s fingers. The alternative circumstance of relationship shall be taken into consideration only when the offended party is the spouse. Do not use the term principal when the crime committed is a violation of special law. McMann and McKay found themselves waiting in a room (not clear if they were waiting to be investigated. the law looks into their participation because in punishing offenders. Decision: Yes. the owners of the house would not allow them to enter. The facts and circumstances narrated by the accused in those different statements tally in important details. 2: W/N the accused used superior strength. it is not possible now to ascertain the mental condition of the defendant as of the time when he committed the crime of which he is charged. the first thing to find out is if there is a conspiracy. do not use principal. Issue No. Decision: It is unlikely that the shooting was accidental since he witnesses testified that they say McMann aiming the gun at Mac Kay’s head. The court also held that the defendant was drunk at the time the crime was committed. ascendant. But intoxication in this case cannot be considered as a mitigating circumstance since the defendant is a habitual drunkard.” When a problem is encountered where there are several participants in the crime. Mcmann also fired at him. McMann then saw another Moro who was carving the head of a bolo. When the Moro tried to run. the Moro. This classification is true only under the Revised Penal Code and is not used under special laws. Decision. killed Mac Kay instead. defendant cannot claim lack of intention. as a /vvverga Page 82 of 100 . the Revised Penal Code classifies them as: (1) (2) (3) principal. No. Issue No. Thereafter. Issue No. Only use the term “offender. but they were all together during that time). because the penalties under the latter are never graduated. The circumstance of his having made a voluntary plea of guilt before the court of evidence by the prosecution. Cannibal. The attendant circumstance qualifies the crime committed as murder. or accessory. Use the “offenders. Uncle killed his niece to taste human flesh.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) matches with which to light their cigarettes however. descendant. PERSONS WHO ARE CRIMINALLY LIABLE Under the Revised Penal Code. when more than one person participated in the commission of the crime. legitimate.” Also only classify offenders when more than one took part in the commission of the crime to determine the proper penalty to be imposed. 4: W/N Ignominy can be added to the natural effects of the act. Decision: Yes. 5: W/N the fact that the victim was the niece of the accused aggravate the crime. Clearly. natural or adopted brother or sister or relative by affinity in the same degree of the offended. The accused had made several statements which were reduced into writing and signed by him. McMann suddenly fired at McKay hitting the latter. Habitual drunkard is defined as one who habituated to intemperance whenever the opportunity offered ACCUSED SEEN DRUNK TWELVE TIMES OR MORE PEOPLE vs. The accused voluntarily admitted his guilt. The moro then reported McMann to the authorities. Issue: W/N intoxication may be considered a mitigating circumstance. The commission of the crime was attended by aggravating circumstance of disregard of the respect due the offended party on account of her sex. Decision: No. Nothing in the record shows that before the deceased died. Decision: No. that the court should have subjected the accused to some psychiatric test to determine his sanity. banana Vena V. 1: W/N it can be contended that three years after the commission of the crime. Decision: Yes. 3: W/N sex can be appreciated as an aggravating circumstance against the accused. Issue No. if only one person committed a crime.” “culprits. BALONDO Keywords: leaves. she was subjected to such indignities as would cause her shame or moral suffering. The record constitutes sufficient justification for the conclusion that the accused was not insane at the time of the commission of the crime.
The act of the father in holding the legs of the victim merely facilitated the penetration but even without it the son would have penetrated. It is not just a matter of cooperation. Ill advised language is not enough unless he who made such remark or advice is a co-conspirator in the crime committed. even the principal and the accomplice are not liable. one was on top of the woman. The father told his son that the only way to convince the victim to marry him is to resort to rape. But even the principal and the accomplice will not be liable if the felony committed is only light and the same is not consummated unless such felony is against persons or property. In a case where the offender was running after the victim with a knife. but accessories are not liable for liable for light felonies. Understandably he did not cooperate in the mauling. the offender could not have caught up with the latter. it is more than if the crime could hardly be committed. all participants are criminally liable. the facts indicate that if the fellow who held the legs of the victim and spread them did not do so. threw her on the ground and placed himself on top of her while the father held both legs of the woman and spread them. It was held that the fellow who blocked the victim is a principal by indispensable cooperation because if he did not block the way of the victim. If the crime could hardly be committed without such cooperation. Principal by accomplice indispensable cooperation distinguished from an Vena V. One of the sons of family A came out with a shotgun. a friend of B tried to approach but D stopped C so that A was able to continuously maul B. if the participation of one is so insignificant. He shot and killed someone. Is that inducement? No.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) general rule. or less grave. But where the felony is only light only the principal and the accomplice are liable. Those who held the legs and arms are principals by indispensable cooperation. It must be strong as irresistible force. In the case of rape. such that even without his cooperation. a person shouted to A. There was a quarrel between two families. Is the person who shouted criminally liable. he only stopped to other fellow from stopping the mauling. this would make the cooperator merely an accomplice. In the second situation. one held the hands. the Supreme Court ruled that all participants are principals. favor the lesser penalty or liability. While in the course of a quarrel.” A killed the other fellow. the Code takes into consideration whether the felony committed is grave. /vvverga Page 83 of 100 . even though the felony is only attempted or frustrated. less grave. penetration is possible even without the assistance of the father. As to the liability of the participants in a felony. then notwithstanding the existence of a conspiracy. A was mauling B. The accused are father and son. or light. In case of doubt. But if the cooperation merely facilitated or hastened the consummation of the crime. Verga The point is not just on participation but on the importance of participation in committing the crime. This is tantamount to an irresistible force compelling the person induced to carry out the execution of the crime. The liability of the fellow who stopped the friend from approaching is as an accomplice. In another case. the son was much bigger than the woman so considering the strength of the son and the victim. His mother then shouted. The son was a robust farm boy and the victim undernourished. However. The Supreme Court ruled that the father is liable only as an accomplice. In the first situation. Is the mother liable? No. Principal by inducement Concept of the inducement – one strong enough that the person induced could hardly resist. If they are not and the same is not consummated. Therefore it is only when the light felony is against person or property that criminal liability attaches to the principal or accomplice. because the act of one is the act of all. such offender will be regarded only as an accomplice. the offender on top could hardly penetrate because the woman was strong enough to move or resist. “Kill him! Kill him. one held the legs. where three men were accused. C. When the felony is grave. the one chasing the victim caught up and stabbed the latter at the back. The basis is the importance of the cooperation to the consummation of the crime. then such cooperation would bring about a principal. the crime would be committed just as well. Apply the doctrine of pro reo. “Shoot!”. It is not that the crime would not be committed because if that is what you would imply it becomes an ingredient of the crime and that is not what the law contemplates. The reason for this ruling is that the law favors a milder form of criminal liability if the act of the participant does not demonstrate a clear perversity. The accessory is not. Another fellow came and blocked the way of the victim and because of this. So when they saw the opportunity the young man grabbed the woman. the criminal liability of all will be the same.
acquires and/or sell. Neither is the wife’s act of beaming the victim with a flashlight indispensable to the commission of the killing. therefore. Considering that it was not so dark and the husband could have accomplished the deed without his wife’s help. but principally liable for fencing under Presidential Decree No. he went home to get a rifle. Accessory as a fence The Revised Penal Code defines what manners of participation shall render an offender liable as an accessory. Ernesto is principal by inducement. Utterance was said in the excitement of the hour. birahin mo na. Therefore you do not look into the One cannot be an accessory unless he knew of the commission of the crime. 1612 has. Among the enumeration is “by profiting themselves or by assisting the offender to profit by the effects of the crime”. keeps or in any manner deals with any article of value which he knows or should be known to him to be the proceeds of robbery or theft is considered a “fence” and incurs criminal liability for “fencing” under said decree. They practically become co-conspirators. who was 18 yrs old. the one who uttered “Kill him. Accessories Two situations where accessories are not criminally liable: (1) (2) When the felony committed is a light felony. degree of inducement anymore. the participation of one who conceals the effects of robbery or theft gives rise to criminal liability for “fencing”. Any person who. Likewise. he cannot be an accessory any further even though he performs acts pertaining to an accessory. Ernesto shouted to his younger brother Oscar. Joint or simultaneous action per se is not indicia of conspiracy without showing of common design. It is not the determining cause of the crime in the absence of proof that the words had great dominance and influence over the husband. where the crime committed by the principal was robbery or theft. 186 SCRA 812. Balderrama. Examples of inducement: “I will give you a large amount of money. “Birahin mo na. It was held that there was no conspiracy.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. When an offender has already involved himself as a principal or accomplice. Questions & Answers 1. One must not have participated in the commission of the crime. So the accessory shall be liable for the same felony committed by the principal. 35 years old. When the accessory is related to the principal as spouse. clothing as well as food and shelter. modified Article 19 of the Revised Penal Code. 1612 (Anti-Fencing Law). such participation of an accessory brings about criminal liability under Presidential Decree No. He cannot be an accessory. not simply of an accessory under paragraph 2 of Article 19 of the Code. but such assistance merely facilitated the felonious act of shooting. unless the accessory himself profited from the /vvverga Page 84 of 100 . Anyone who participated before the consummation of the crime is either a principal or an accomplice. 1612. May one who profited out of the proceeds of estafa or malversation be prosecuted under the Anti-Fencing Law? In People v. the liability of the wife is only that of an accomplice. Presidential Decree No. Mere possession of any article of value which has been the subject of robbery or theft brings about the presumption of “fencing”. shoot him” cannot make the wife the principal by inducement. The penalty is higher than that of a mere accessory to the crime of robbery or theft. In People v. or descendant or as brother or sister whether legitimate. The accessory comes into the picture when the crime is already consummated. Father challenged everybody and when neighbors approached. and considering further that doubts must be resolved in favor of the accused. Madali.” “I will not marry you if you do not kill B”(let us say he really loves the inducer). Considering that Ernesto had great moral ascendancy and influence over Oscar being much older. Oscar has no rancor with the victim for him to kill the latter. not a command to be obeyed. than the latter.” while the felonious aggression was taking place cannot be held liable as principal by inducement. Verga effects or proceeds of the crime or assisted the offender to profit therefrom. Agapinay. One who knowingly profits or assists the principal to profit by the effects of robbery or theft is not just an accessory to the crime. the son was mauled. possesses. She assisted her husband in taking good aim. natural or adopted or where the accessory is a relative by affinity within the same degree. or as an ascendant. In People v. 188 SCRA 69.” Oscar stabbed the victim. we will bury him. However. The family was not in good graces of the neighborhood. with intent to gain. and it was Ernesto who provided his allowance. The shouts of his wife “Here comes another.
She will no longer be liable as an accessory to the crime of robbery. or murder or parricide or attempt on the life of the Chief Executive. If principal committed robbery by snatching a wristwatch and gave it to his wife to sell. 1612 and the Revised Penal Code. although the penalty is that for an accomplice. Otherwise the effect would be that the accessory merely harbored or assisted in the escape of an innocent man. parricide. incorporated therein the crime of piracy in Philippine territorial waters and thus correspondingly superseding Presidential Decree No.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) No. Principal was being chased by soldiers. in amending Article 122 of the Revised Penal Code. 532 provides that any person who knowingly and in any manner… acquires or receives property taken by such pirates or brigands or in any manner derives benefit therefrom… shall be considered as an accomplice of the principal offenders and be punished in accordance with the Rules prescribed by the Revised Penal Code. murder or attempt on the life of the Chief Executive. The reason is because one who is not a public officer and who assists an offender to escape or otherwise harbors. parricide murder or attempt on the life of the Chief executive or the principal is known to be habitually guilty of some other crime. It shall be presumed that any person who does any of the acts provided in this Section has performed them knowingly. with respect to the second involvement of an accessory. the liability of persons acquiring property subject of piracy or brigandage. Verga When the crime is robbery or theft. this is not the reason. take note that the law distinguishes between a public officer harboring. Acquiring the effects of piracy or brigandage It is relevant to consider in connection with the criminal liability of accessories under the Revised Penal Code. There is only a fence when the crime is theft or robbery. Destroying the corpus delicti Vena V. the mere fact that he harbored concealed or assisted the principal to escape does not ipso facto make him an accessory. conceals knowing that the crime is committed. Illustration: Crime committed is kidnapping for ransom. The act of knowingly acquiring or receiving property which is the effect or the proceeds of a crime generally brings about criminal liability of an accessory under Article 19. the accessory cannot be held criminally liable without the principal being found guilty of any such crime. Although Republic Act No. Such officer becomes an accessory by the mere fact that he helped the principal to escape by harboring or concealing. he becomes an accessory. or conceals such offender. The crime committed by the principal is determinative of the liability of the accessory who harbors. concealing or assisting the principal to escape and a private citizen or civilian harboring concealing or assisting the principal to escape. making use of his public function and thus abusing the same. On the other hand. paragraph 1 of the Revised Penal Code. Section 4 of the Decree which punishes said acts as a crime of abetting piracy or brigandage. the civilian does not become an accessory unless the principal is known to be habitually guilty of some other crime. However. the same act is the basis of liability and you cannot punish a person twice for the same act as that would go against double jeopardy. Article 20 does not include an auntie. His aunt hid him in the ceiling of her house and aunt denied to soldiers that her nephew had ever gone there. still an accessory to the crime of estafa. To this end. Even if the crime committed by the principal is treason. and is not inconsistent with any provision of Republic Act No. not a fence. do not overlook the purpose which must be to prevent discovery of the crime. not just an accessory. said act constitutes the crime of abetting piracy or abetting brigandage as the case may be. unless the contrary is proven. The law requires that the principal must have committed the crime of treason. even if the corpse is not recovered. 532. If the crime is embezzlement or estafa. Section 4 of Presidential Decree No. still stands as it has not been repealed nor modified. is the wife criminally liable? Can she be prosecuted as an accessory and as a fence? The liability of the wife is based on her assisting the principal to profit and that act is punishable as fencing. criminal liability will arise and if there is someone who destroys the corpus delicti to prevent discovery. 7659. 7659. In the case of a public officer. But if the crime was piracy of brigandage under Presidential Decree No. the crime committed by the principal must be either treason. Harboring or concealing an offender In the third form or manner of becoming an accessory. If this is not the crime. in case of a civilian. The corpus delicti is not the body of the person who is killed. In both laws. the aunt even gave money to her nephew to go to the province. 2. 533 (Anti-piracy and AntiHighway Robbery Law of 1974). as long as that killing is established beyond reasonable doubt. Presidential Decree No. If the /vvverga Page 85 of 100 . the crime committed by the principal is immaterial. if the principal is acquitted of the charges. When the soldiers left. Is aunt criminally liable? No. to the piracy or brigandage.
Amin. effective January 16. All will be accused and whether a certain accused will be principal or accomplice or accessory will depend on what the evidence would show as to his involvement in the crime. This special law does not require that there be prior conviction. then said accused will be acquitted. inter alia. the law does not distinguish between principal. the aunt is criminally liable but not as an accessory. a person charged with rebellion should not be separately charged under Presidential Decree No. because there is no crime committed. And in filing an information against the person involved in the commission of the crime. although under paragraph 3 of Article 19 when it comes to a civilian. It is a malum prohibitum. accomplice and accessory. parricide. the civilian who harbored. (2) /vvverga Page 86 of 100 . 80 for the purposes specified therein. conceals. So this means that before the civilian can be held liable as an accessory. The theory of absorption must not confine itself to common crimes but also to offenses punished under special laws which are perpetrated in furtherance of the political offense. The paragraph uses the particular word “guilty”. or knowledge of the crime.] In Enrile v. has committed any offense under existing penal laws in order to prevent his arrest. there is no specification of the crime to be committed by the offender for criminal liability to be incurred for harboring. There is an earlier Supreme Court ruling that the accessory and accomplice must be charged together with the principal and that if the latter be acquitted. Taer was held liable as an accessory in the crime of cattle rustling under Presidential Decree No. unless the acquittal is based on a defense which is personal only to the principal. 1829. Although this ruling may be correct if the facts charged do not make the principal criminally liable at all. punishes acts commonly referred to as “obstructions of justice”. Under paragraph 3. In Taer v. or facilitating the escape of any person he knows or has reasonable ground to believe or suspect. the principal must first be found guilty of the crime charged. the law requires that the principal be found guilty of any of the specified crimes: treason. or attempt to take the life of the Chief Executive. 1981. if the evidence presented against a supposed accomplice or a supposed accessory does not meet the required proof beyond reasonable doubt. of “(c) Harboring or concealing. accomplice. but under Presidential Decree No. either treason. If there is no crime. or facilitating the escape of the offender. 19. PENALTIES Measures of prevention not considered as penalty The following are the measures of prevention or safety which are not considered penalties under Article 24: (1) The arrest and temporary detention of accused persons as well as their detention by reason of insanity or imbecility or illness requiring their confinement in a hospital. that means he is not guilty and therefore. 1829. This Decree penalizes under Section 1(c) thereof. prosecution and conviction. He is simply an offender without regard to the crime committed by the person assisted to escape. In other words. concealed or assisted in the escape did not violate art. Such an offender if violating Presidential Decree No. 1829. Conspiracy was not proven. accused received from his co-accused two stolen male carabaos. then the supposed accomplice and accessory should also be acquitted. except that he was not charged with fencing. 533. Under Rule 110 of the Revised Rules on Criminal Procedure. 1829. Even if the principal is convicted. murder. So in the problem. The commitment of a minor to any of the institutions mentioned in art.” Here. or assists the escape of the principal. the nature of the crime is immaterial. and the offender need not be the principal – unlike paragraph 3. yet there is a special law which punishes the same act and it does not specify a particular crime. CA. So the criminal liability of an accomplice or accessory does not depend on the criminal liability of the principal but depends on the quantum of evidence. but under this decree. take note in the case of a civilian who harbors. concealing. 1829 is no longer an accessory. the standard of the Revised Penal Code. no need for guilt. That is as far as the Revised Penal Code is concerned. or accessory. [Taer should have been liable for violation of the Anti-fencing law since cattle rustling is a form of theft or robbery of large cattle. But the prosecutor must initiate proceedings versus the principal. it is required that all those involved in the commission of the crime must be included in the information that may be filed. Verga However. the law specifies the crimes that should be committed. then there is no criminal liability. the liability of the accused will depend on the quantum of evidence adduced by the prosecution against the particular accused. material is that he used his public function in assisting escape. the accomplice and the accessory shall not be criminally liable also.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) person is a public officer. Article 19. Yet it is not always true that the accomplice and accessory cannot be criminally liable without the principal first being convicted. But if the evidence shows that the act done does not constitute a crime and the principal is acquitted. parricide. Presidential Decree No. whether principal. aunt is not criminally liable because crime is kidnapping. the act. If the principal is acquitted. Whether the accomplice and the accessory may be tried and convicted even before the principal is found guilty. The subject acts may not bring about criminal liability under the Code. Article 19 of the Code. which penalizes obstruction of apprehension and prosecution of criminal offenders. But not Presidential Decree No. etc. What is Vena V.
So. This amendment is found in the Rules of Court. And also. 1980.15 years old and acted with discernment. but if he has been convicted for two or more crimes whether he is a recidivist or not. Detention prisoner has more freedom within the detention institution rather than those already convicted. preventive imprisonment of an accused who is not yet convicted. even though the proceedings against him are not yet terminated? (5) Why does the Revised Penal Code specify that such detention shall not be a penalty but merely a preventive measure? This article gives justification for detaining the accused. Yet Article 29. superior officials may impose upon their subordinates. Not all who have undergone preventive imprisonment shall be given a credit Under Article 24. he cannot be subjected to the treatment applicable to convicts unless he signs and agrees to be subjected to such disciplinary measures applicable to convicts. if the accused has actually undergone preventive imprisonment. Otherwise. He is availing of the benefit of suspension for the first time. that is why the credit is full. then he will only be subjected to the rules and regulations governing detention prisoners. he is suffering like a convict. In the amendment. When will this credit apply? If the penalty imposed consists of a deprivation of liberty. unless he is one of those disqualified under the law.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. the same treatment exactly is applied there. If he signed an undertaking to abide by the same rules and regulations governing convicts. Fines and other corrective measures which. But if the offender did not sign an undertaking. If the offender is not disqualified from the credit or deduction provided for in Article 29 of the Revised Penal Code. then it means that while he is suffering from preventive imprisonment. The discharge of the offender from preventive imprisonment or detention is predicated on the fact that even if he would be found guilty of the crime charged. deprivation of liberty. in the exercise of their administrative disciplinary powers. Repeal of Article 80 When may a minor be committed to a reformatory? If the minor is between 9 . then the next thing to determine is whether he signed an undertaking to abide by the same rules and regulations governing convicts. Deprivation of rights and reparations which the civil laws may establish in penal form. liberty and property without due process of law. The convicted prisoner suffers more restraints and hardship than detention prisoners. Under what circumstances may a detention prisoner be released. provides that the period during which he had undergone preventive detention will be deducted from the sentence. Whether the person is entitled to credit is immaterial. while he is under preventive imprisonment. From this provision. he has practically served the sentence already. if ultimately the accused is convicted and the penalty imposed involves Article 29 of the Revised Penal Code has been amended by a Batas Pambansa effective that tool effect on September 20. the detention of a person accused of a crime while the case against him is being tried does not amount to a penalty. He must still be a minor at the time of promulgation of the sentence. the constitutional right of an accused to be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved. Correlating Article 24 with Article 29 Although under Article 24. yet the law considers this as part of the imprisonment and generally deductible from the sentence. he will only be given 80% or 4/5 of the period of his preventive detention. the law does not speak of credit. one can see that the detention of the offender may subject him only to the treatment applicable to a detention prisoner or to the treatment applicable to convicts. but by express provision of Article24 is not a penalty. whatever credit he is entitled to shall be forfeited. Verga (3) (4) Suspension from the employment or public office during the trial or in order to institute proceedings. but since he is not convicted yet. or when he has been previously summoned but failed to surrender and so the court has to issue a warrant for his arrest. /vvverga Page 87 of 100 . under the rules on bail in Rule 114 of the Rules on Criminal Procedure. the detention would violate the constitutional provision that no person shall be deprived of life. sentence must first be suspended under the following conditions: (1) (2) (3) Crime committed is not punishable by death or reclusion perpetua. As such. because he has been detained for a period already equal to if not greater than the maximum penalty that would be possibly be imposed on him if found guilty.
unless such person. But if the convict himself would go further from which he is vanished by the court. it shall be the one imposed. (3) (4) Civil Interdiction Civil interdiction is an accessory penalty. Under Article 70. by reason of his conduct or some other serious cause. Questions & Answers If the offender has already been released. with more reason. there is no evasion of sentence because the 240-Km. If a convict who is to serve several sentences could only be made to serve 40 years. Destierro is a principal penalty. one who is sentenced to a singly penalty of reclusion perpetua should not be held for more than 40 years. The proper answer would be that reclusion perpetua has no duration because this is an indivisible penalty and indivisible penalties have no durations. the most the offender may be held under preventive imprisonment is 30 days. it follows that he is also civilly liable. offender during the time of his sentence: (1) (2) Civil interdiction shall deprive the The rights of parental authority. Proper petition for habeas corpus must be filed to challenge the legality of the detention of the prisoner. Duration of penalties Reclusion perpetua What is the duration of reclusion perpetua? Do not answer Article 27 to this question. the penalty one degree lower is destierro. but the offender is entitled privileged mitigating circumstance and lowering the prescribed penalty by one degree. which is the Three-Fold Rule. not less than 25 Kms. when the offender is required to put up a bond for good behavior but failed or refused to do so under Article 284. he commits the crime of evasion of service of sentence under Article 157. which is the same as that of prision correcional and suspension. If he was criminally liable. Marital authority. The civil liability must be determined. The duration of 40 years is not a matter of provision of law. Understand the amendment made to Article 29. this is only by analogy. or guardianship either as to the person or property of any ward. If the convict should enter the prohibited places. and/or the paramour or mistress. (2) Destierro What is the duration of destierro? Vena V. Verga The duration of destierro is from six months and one day. Where the penalty prescribed by law is arresto mayor. In the crime of grave threat or light threat. shall be considered by the Chief Executive as unworthy of pardon. Under the Revised Penal Code. There is no provision of the Revised Penal Code that one sentenced to reclusion perpetua cannot be held in jail for 40 years and neither is there a decision to this effect. limit is upon the authority of the court in vanishing the convict. those sentenced to reclusion perpetua shall be pardoned after undergoing the penalty for 30 years. /vvverga Page 88 of 100 .. This is found in Article 247. destierro is the penalty imposed in the following situations: (1) When a legally married person who had surprised his or her spouse in the act of sexual intercourse with another and while in that act or immediately thereafter should kill or inflict serious physical injuries upon the other spouse. However. such detention prisoner shall be discharged. the court cannot extend beyond 250 Kms. to six year. This amendment has been incorporated under Rule 114 precisely to do away with arbitrary detention. the maximum period shall in no case exceed 40 years.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) If the crime committed is punishable only by destierro. and whether the proceedings are terminated or not. the penalty prescribed for the concubine is destierro under Article 334. such convict shall be sentenced to destierro so that he would not be able to carry out his threat. That is why the trial must go on. Under Article 27. In the crime of concubinage. what is the use of continuing the proceedings? The proceedings will determine whether the accused is liable or not. It is a punishment whereby a convict is vanished to a certan place and is prohibited form entering or coming near that place designated in the sentence. Thus.
A creditor moved to annul the sale on the ground that the convict is not qualified to execute a deed of conveyance inter vivos. and perpetual absolute disqualification. what is meant by this is that those penalties classified as accessory penalties need not be stated in the sentence. 4. what is the duration? The duration is six years and one day to 12 years. Penalties which the law considers as accessory to the prescribed penalty are automatically imposed even though they are not stated in the judgment. and perpetual special disqualification from the rights of suffrage if the duration of said imprisonment shall exceed 18 months. Prision mayor . (1) (2) Article 40. Articles 40 to 45 of the Revised Penal Code shall govern. We refer to the nature of the disqualification.perpetual absolute disqualification. do not just state the accessory penalties. This is an accessory penalty and. One of the disqualifications is that of making a conveyance of his property inter vivos.suspension of the right to hold office and the right of suffrage during the term of the sentence. Article 42. Article 43. Penalties in which other accessory penalties are inherent: Can a convict execute a last will and testament? Yes. Arresto . 3. While serving sentence. As to the particular penalties that follow a particular principal penalty. State the principal penalty and the corresponding accessory penalties. If asked what are the accessory penalties. from the right to follow a profession or calling. The classification of principal and accessory is found in Article 25. The convict can convey his property. as provided in Article 34. 2. Reclusion perpetua and reclusion temporal .civil interdiction for life or during the period of the sentence as the case may be. If the penalty of temporary disqualification is imposed as principal penalty. Primary classification of penalties Principal penalties and accessory penalties The penalties which are both principal and accessory penalties are the following: (1) (2) Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification. a convict sentenced to civil interdiction suffers certain disqualification during the term of the sentence. how would you resolve the move of the creditor to annul the sale? Civil interdiction is not an accessory penalty in prision mayor. and The right to dispose of such property by any act or any conveyance inter vivos.suspension from public office. So in the imposition of the sentence. is the duration? If the penalty of suspension is imposed as an accessory. and civil interdiction during 30 years following date of sentence. the court will /vvverga Page 89 of 100 . An example is the penalty of civil interdiction. Article 41. what (4) Its duration shall be that of the principal penalty. What do we refer to if it is special or absolute disqualification? (5) There are accessory penalties which are true to other principal penalties. Prision correccional . Death . What do we refer to if it is perpetual or temporary disqualification? We refer to the duration of the disqualification. If you were the judge. Perpetual or temporary special disqualification. Verga specify only the principal penalty but that is not the only penalty which the offender will suffer. he executed a deed of sale over his only parcel of land.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) (3) (4) The right to manage his property. (3) Questions & Answers 1. In classifying the penalties as principal and accessory. The accessory penalties follow the principal penalty imposed for the crime as a matter of course.temporary absolute disqualification perpetual special disqualification from the right of suffrage. Illustration: A has been convicted and is serving the penalty of prision mayor. Vena V. Article 44.
If it is indivisible. There is no crime under the Revised Penal Code which carries this penalty. the Supreme Court. applied Article 65 of the Code in imposing the penalty for rape in People v. The legal effect of failure to post a bond for good behavior is not imprisonment but destierro under Article 284. The legal effect of each is entirely different. In other words. Designation of penalty Since the principal penalties carry with them certain accessory penalties. Understand that you are not taking the examination in Theology. 7659. Thus. 1994. The capital punishment Reclusion perpetua as modified Vena V. As amended by Section 21 of Republic Act No. because the moment they deviate from this designation. depending on whether the felony committed is grave or less grave on one hand. Illustration: When the judge sentenced the accused to the penalty of reclusion perpetua. Otherwise. because when you talk of period. Remember that no felony shall be punished by any penalty not prescribed by law prior to its commission pursuant to Article 21. it is error for the court to use the term “life imprisonment”. after being given a problem. you were asked to state the period in which the penalty of reclusion perpetua is to be imposed.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Questions & Answers What accessory penalty is common to all principal penalties? Confiscation or forfeiture on the instruments or proceeds of the crime. If. So it was held that when the penalty should be reclusion perpetua. should be divided into three equal portions to form one period of each of the three portions. 108172-73. or it is light only on the other hand. it is said to be divisible and. but instead of saying reclusion perpetua. consistent with the rule mentioned. speculations arose as to whether it made reclusion perpetua a divisible penalty. GR No. it is an indivisible penalty. Thus. Conrado Lucas. It divided the time included in the penalty of reclusion perpetua into three equal portions. the courts are not correct when they deviate from the technical designation of the principal penalty. Bond to keep the peace One of the principal penalties common to the others is bond to keep the peace. he is not deserving of pardon. If bond to keep the peace is not the same as bond for good behavior. it is implying that the penalty is divisible. when a penalty has a fixed duration. Verga You were asked to state whether you are in favor or against capital punishment. Divisible and indivisible penalties When we talk of period. and the maximum. by its First Division. Questions & Answers 1. the same article now provides that the penalty of reclusion perpetua shall be from 20 years to 40 years. Is it beneficial in deterring crimes or not? This should be the premise of your reasoning. the penalty of reclusion perpetua had no fixed duration. the medium. are they one and the same bond that differ only in name? No. 7659. unless by reason of his conduct or some other serious cause. you are implying that the penalty is divisible because the period referred to is the minimum. The nature of the penalty as divisible or indivisible is decisive of the proper penalty to be imposed under the Revised Penal Code inasmuch as it determines whether the rules in Article 63 or the rules in Article 64 should be observed in fixing the penalty. with each portion composing a period as follows: /vvverga Page 90 of 100 . it is clear that the two bonds are not the same considering that the legal effect or the failure to put up the bond is not the same. Because of this. it sentenced the accused to life imprisonment. there is no period. which made amendments to the Revised Penal Code. Bond for good behavior Bond for good behavior is prescribed by the Revised Penal Code for the crimes of grave threats and light threats under Article 234. the designation is wrong. medium and maximum. there is no such thing as minimum. the courts are not at liberty to use any designation of the principal penalty. Explain the issue on the basis of social utility of the penalty. if the penalty has no fixed duration. The Revised Penal Code provides in Article 27 that the convict shall be pardoned after undergoing the penalty for thirty years. The legal effect of a failure to post a bond to keep the peace is imprisonment either for six months or 30 days. May 25. Do not talk of period. in accordance with the provisions of Articles 65 and 76. Before the enactment of Republic Act No. remember that when the penalty is indivisible. there will be no corresponding accessory penalties that will go with them. You cannot find this penalty in Article 25 because Article 25 only provides for bond to keep the peace. As we know.
is only to serve as the basis for determining the convict’s eligibility for pardon or for the application of the three-fold rule in the service of penalties. four months and one day of reclusion perpetua. the Court sentenced the accused to imprisonment of 34 years. four months and one day. because instead of beginning with 33 years. It would be legally absurd and violative of the scales of penalties in the Code to reckon the minimum of Reclusion Perpetua at thirty (30) years since there would thereby be a resultant lacuna whenever the penalty exceeds the maximum twenty (20) years of Reclusion Temporal but is less than thirty (30) years. Now then. the Supreme Court en banc held that reclusion perpetua shall remain as an indivisible penalty. as well. there was no clear legislative intent to alter its original classification as an indivisible penalty. then Article 63 of the Revised Penal Code would lose its reason and basis for existence. thus: The imputed duration of thirty (30) years for reclusion perpetua. Article 81 has been amended and. Lucas by quoting pertinent portion of the decision in People v. then there would be no statutory rules for determining when either reclusion perpetua or death should be the imposable penalty. there would be no occasion for imposing reclusion perpetua as the penalty in drug cases. the first paragraph of Section 20 of the amended RA No. Verga under the Code and what should be the duration of the periods thereof. the question arises: “What then may be the reason for the amendment fixing the duration of reclusion perpetua?” This question was answered in the same case of People v. four months and one day. But even without this amendment. directs that the manner of putting the convict to (2) /vvverga Page 91 of 100 .Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. In fine.34 years. 1995. Considering the aggravating circumstance of relationship. 7659 made innovations on the provisions of the Revised Penal Code regarding the imposition of the death penalty: (1) Article 47 has been reworded to expressly include among the instances where the death penalty shall not be imposed. 70 and 21. the resolution states: After deliberating on the motion and re-examining the legislation history of RA 7659. Maximum . thereof. If Article 63 of the Code were no longer applicable because reclusion perpetua is supposed to be a divisible penalty.26 years. pursuant to Article 70. The latter is the law on what are considered divisible penalties Ultimately. it follows by necessary implication that the minimum of reclusion perpetua is twenty (20) years and one (1) day with a maximum duration thereafter to last for the rest of the convict’s natural life. regardless of the attendant modifying circumstances. eight months and one day. 212 SCRA 402. which have not been touched by a corresponding amendment. The issue of whether the amendment of Article 27 made reclusion perpetua a divisible penalty was raised. instead of the straight penalty of reclusion perpetua imposed by the trial court. it was stated as 34 years. to 40 years. Innovations on the imposition of the death penalty Aside form restoring the death penalty for certain heinous crimes. as set out in Article 25. and because the issue is one of first impression and momentous importance. although. it appears that the maximum period for the service of penalties shall not exceed forty (40) years. such as Article 41 on the accessory penalties thereof and paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 61. The appellee seasonably filed a motion for clarification to correct the duration of the sentence.20 years and one day. Minimum . four months and one day. Verily. It shall then remain as an indivisible penalty. if Congress had intended to reclassify reclusion perpetua as divisible penalty. There are. to 26 years and eight months. 6425 provides for the penalty of reclusion perpetua to death whenever the dangerous drugs involved are of any of the quantities stated herein. In a resolution promulgated on January 9. Since. the First Division referred the motion to the Court en banc. the Court concludes that although Section 17 of RA 7659 has fixed the duration of Reclusion Perpetua from twenty years (20) and one (1) to forty 40 years. Reyes. the death penalty may not be meted out on an offender who was below 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the crime because Article 68 the lowers the imposable penalty upon such offenders by at least one degree than that prescribed for the crime. if reclusion perpetua was classified as a divisible penalty. the case of an offender who is below 18 years old at the time of the commission of the offense. in all the graduated scales of penalties in the Code. In the matter of executing the death penalty. reclusion perpetua is the penalty immediately next higher to reclusion temporal. then it should have amended Article 63 and Article 76 of the Revised Penal Code. Medium . thus. other provisions of the Revised Penal Code involving reclusion perpetua. To this end. Republic Act No. to 33 years and four months. To illustrate. however.
has been deleted and instead. If the convict does not want to pay fine and has so many friends and wants to prolong his stay in jail. can he be made to pay? Yes. there is no subsidiary penalty. Subido. The sheriff then tried to levy the property of the defendant after it has become final and executory. if any. This is tantamount to double jeopardy. But this will only be true if the one year period is higher than 1/3 of the principal penalty. This particular legal point is a bar problem. (3) The original provision of Article 83. It is not within the control of the convict to pay the fine or not and once the sentence becomes final and executory and a writ of If the subsidiary penalty prescribed for the non-payment of fine which goes with the principal penalty. whether he likes it or not. (1) When is subsidiary penalty applied Therefore.whichever is lower. which is a single penalty. This subsidiary penalty is one of important matter under the title of penalty. he cannot suffer any subsidiary penalty. and the sentence shall be carried out not later that one year after the finality of judgment. the judgment of the court must state this. So even if subsidiary penalty is proper in a case. Otherwise. if the judge failed to state in the sentence that the convict shall be required to suffer subsidiary penalty in case of insolvency to pay the fine. A subsidiary penalty is not an accessory penalty. it tried to modify the sentence to include subsidiary penalty after period to appeal had already elapsed. Vena V. There are two situations there: (1) (2) When there is a principal penalty of imprisonment or any other principal penalty and it carries with it a fine. The sentence will merely provide that in case of non-payment of the fine. but the sentence does not specify the period of subsidiary penalty because it will only be known if the convict cannot pay the fine. for the full amount with deduction.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) death by electrocution shall be changed to gas poisoning as soon as the facilities are provided. Article 39 deals with subsidiary penalty.get 1/3 of the principal penalty . it must be expressly stated in the sentence. ii. If the court overlooked to provide for subsidiary penalty in the sentence and its attention was later called to that effect. the maximum duration of the subsidiary penalty is one year. so that even if the convict has no money or property to satisfy the fine. or not to pay the fine and instead serve the subsidiary penalty. it was held that the convict cannot choose not to serve. limits such suspension to last while the woman was pregnant and within one year after delivery. The court then issued an order for said convict to suffer subsidiary penalty. and When penalty is only a fine. the most (2) /vvverga Page 92 of 100 . if convict has property to levy upon. The convict was detained. In People v. If the judgment is silent. the addition of subsidiary penalty will be null and void. the convict shall be required to save subsidiary penalty. there shall be no subsidiary penalty for the non-payment of damages to the offended party. After undergoing subsidiary penalty and the convict is already released from jail and his financial circumstances improve. that means it does not go with another principal penalty. for which reason he filed a petition for habeas corpus contending that his detention is illegal. Verga execution is issued to collect the fine. the convict cannot be made to undergo subsidiary penalty more than 1/3 of the duration of the principal penalty and in no case will it be more than 1 year . Questions & Answers The penalty imposed by the judge is fine only. Since it is not an accessory penalty. It will then be the prison authority who will compute this. can he stay there and not pay fine? No. but it was returned unsatisfied. It must be that the convict is insolvent to pay the fine. If the subsidiary penalty is to be imposed for non payment of fine and the principal penalty imposed be fine only. is returned unsatisfied. so there is no subsidiary penalty that goes beyond one year. If the fine is prescribed with the penalty of imprisonment or any deprivation of liberty. anent the suspension of the execution of the death penalty for three years if the convict was a woman. Subsidiary penalty Is subsidiary penalty an accessory penalty? No. thereafter. Will the petition prosper? Yes. The subsidiary penalty is not an accessory penalty that follows the principal penalty as a matter of course. Therefore. that convict cannot be required to suffer the accessory penalty. A subsidiary penalty will only be served if the sheriff should return the execution for the fine on the property of the convict and he does not have the properties to satisfy the writ. That means that the writ of execution issued against the property of the convict. the same shall answer for the fine. such imprisonment should not be higher than six years or prision correccional. he cannot suffer subsidiary penalty because the latter is not an accessory and so it must be expressly stated. The judgment became final without statement as to subsidiary penalty.
When there are two or more mitigating circumstances and there is no aggravating circumstance. But the subsidiary penalty will be served not by imprisonment but by continued suspension. Illustration: A convict was sentenced to suspension and fine. /vvverga Page 93 of 100 .00. Under Article 27. Arresto mayor + P200. the convict will be required to undergo subsidiary penalty and it will also be in the form of destierro. If the penalty is public censure and fine even if the public censure is a light penalty. It is the prison authority who will apply the Three-Fold Rule. when there is a subsidiary penalty. Court offsets the aggravating circumstance against the mitigating circumstance and there still remains three mitigating circumstances. he entered into the performance of public office even before he has complied with the required formalities.payment of the fine of P10. because it is an indivisible penalty. what penalty would you impose? May the convict be required to undergo subsidiary penalty in case he is insolvent to pay the fine? The Three-Fold Rule should not applied by the court. Verga and a fine of P200. if the felony committed is slight. the penalty does not go beyond six years. may he be required to undergo subsidiary penalty? Yes. Arresto Mayor is six months x 50 = 25 years.” For the purposes of subsidiary penalty. because the penalty of suspension has a fixed duration. What penalty would you impose? Reclusion perpetua. the Three-Fold Rule will apply. the convict cannot be required to pay the fine for subsidiary penalty for the non-payment of the fine because public censure is a penalty that has no fixed duration.00 in each count. If you were the judge. It was also established that he was intoxicated. The collector appropriated the amount collected and so was charged with estafa. Suppose the convict cannot pay the fine. even if the totality of all the sentences without applying the Three-Fold Rule will go beyond six years. As far as the court is concerned. that will be the penalty to be imposed. This is a penalty where a public officer anticipates public duties. Illustration: There are about four mitigating circumstances and one aggravating circumstance. If the principal penalty is destierro. this being a divisible penalty. If the totality of the imprisonment under this rule does not exceed six years. the convict shall be required to undergo subsidiary penalty. Since it is a penalty with a fixed duration under Article 39. Illustration: A collector of NAWASA collected from 50 houses within a certain locality. suspension and destierro have the same duration as prision correccional. if the felony committed is grave or less grave. The subsidiary penalty follows the nature of the principal penalty.000.00 multiplied by 50 counts and state further that “as a judge.00 x 50 = P10. This being a restriction of liberty with a fixed duration under Article 39 for the nonpayment of fine that goes with the destierro. P200. he shall still be required to pay the fine and there is no deduction for that amount which the convict has already served by way of subsidiary penalty. since in the service of the sentence. Do not consider the totality of the imprisonment the convict is sentenced to but consider the totality or the duration of the imprisonment that the convict will be required to serve under the Three-Fold Rule. The term is wrong because the penalty is not only served by imprisonment.Fold Rule. apply the Three-Fold Rule if the penalty is arresto mayor and a fine of P200. Penalty imposed was arresto mayor Vena V. for the non. penalty is reclusion perpetua. When he was collecting NAWASA bills.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) that the convict will be required to undergo subsidiary imprisonment is six months. This means one year and six months only. voluntarily surrendered and pleaded guilty of the crime charged upon arraignment.00. such shall be 1/3 of the period of suspension which in no case beyond one year. He was convicted. There are some who use the term subsidiary imprisonment. In this case of 50 counts of estafa. Hence. and a penalty with a fixed duration. applying the Three.00. It is clearly provided under Article 39 that if the means of the convict should improve.000. the non-payment of the fine will bring about subsidiary penalty. and no aggravating circumstances were present. It will only be one year and six months. the charges of all these consumers was a minimum of 10. then. even if he has already served subsidiary penalty. the maximum duration of the subsidiary penalty is only 15 days.00 x 50. Articles 63 and 64 If crime committed is parricide. otherwise. So. This is because the imprisonment that will be served will not go beyond six years. The accused. So the duration does not exceed six years. I would impose a penalty of arresto mayor and a fine of P200. Thus. the penalty imposed was arresto mayor and a fine of P200. the convict shall be required to undergo subsidiary penalty if he could not pay the fine. I am not in the position to apply the Three-Fold Rule because the ThreeFold Rule is to be given effect when the convict is already serving sentence in the penitentiiary. Do not apply this when there is one aggravating circumstance. after committing parricide.00 multiplied by 3. penalty to be imposed shall be one degree lower to be imposed in the proper period.
because if it is a light felony and punishable by fine. Article 66 When there are mitigating circumstance and aggravating circumstance and the penalty is only fine. This is so because the penalty prescribed by law for a given crime refers to the consummated stage. no matter how many mitigating circumstances there are. whether absolute or special. it is not a crime at all unless it is consummated. But be this as it is. the range of arresto menor follows arresto mayor. But if the penalty would be lowered by degree. like prision correccional medium. penalty is two degrees lower than that prescribed by law. Cannot go below the minimum period when there is an aggravating circumstance.one degree or 2 degrees lower will also be punished as a whole. by way of destierro or disqualification. the reference is Article 71. In homicide under Article 249. But generally. This is so because the penalty prescribed by law for a crime refers to the consummated stage. correct? Is the judge (3) Vena V. provided it is not a light felony against persons or property. Memorize the scale in Article 71. if it is attempted or frustrated. when it is only ordinary mitigating circumstance and aggravating circumstance. Verga No. The penalty prescribed by law will be the penalty to be imposed. arresto mayor is higher than destierro. with respect to the range of each penalty. the penalty next lower in degree shall be the one imposed. or there is an accomplice participating in homicide. If it is attempted. One degree lower. but destierro. there is a privileged mitigating circumstance or the felony committed is attempted or frustrated. So do not apply the rule in paragraph 5 of Article 64 to a case where the penalty is divisible. is prision mayor. Go into the lowering of the penalty by one degree if the penalty is divisible. do not go down any degree lower. and two degrees lower is prision correccional. When there is a privilege mitigating circumstance in favor of the offender. it will lower the penalty by one or two degrees than that prescribed by law depending on what the particular provision of the Revised Penal Code states. penalty is one degree lower than that prescribed by law. It is necessary to know the chronology under Article 71 by simply knowing the scale. do not go one degree lower because it is not punishable unless it is a light felony against person or property where the imposable penalty will be lowered by one degree or two degrees. but in the minimum period.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Because of that. or prision correcional minimum to medium. after offsetting. Because you determine the imposable fine on the basis of the financial resources or means of the offender. So. In such a case when there are aggravating circumstances. (2) When the offender is an accomplice or accessory only Penalty is one degree lower in the case of an accomplice. Penalty is two degrees lower in the case of an accessory. to a limited extent. When the penalty prescribed for the crime committed is a divisible penalty and there are two or more ordinary mitigating circumstances and no aggravating circumstances whatsoever. such penalty should be understood as a degree in itself and the following rules shall govern: (1) When the penalty prescribed by the Revised Code is made up of a period. since arresto menor is one to 30 days or one month. Take note that destierro comes after arresto mayor so the penalty one degree lower than arresto mayor is not arresto menor. On the other hand. while arresto mayor is one month and one day to six months. if homicide is frustrated. like prision correcional minimum. In the matter of lowering the penalty by degree. the penalty is reclusion temporal. under Article 71. the duration of destierro is the same as prision correccional which is six months and one day to six years. in the scale of penalties graduated according to degrees. apply Article 66. In Article 27. the judge lowered the penalty by one degree. the penalty one degree lower /vvverga Page 94 of 100 . (4) (5) Penalty commonly imposed by the Revised Penal Code may be by way of imprisonment or by way of fine or. Whenever the provision of the Revised Penal Code specifically lowers the penalty by one or two degrees than what is ordinarily prescribed for the crime committed. This is true if the penalty prescribed by the Revised Penal Code is a whole divisible penalty -. Penalty prescribed to a crime is lowered by degrees in the following cases: (1) When the crime is only attempted or frustrated If it is frustrated. Although the penalty is prescribed by the Revised Penal Code as a period. the penalties prescribed by the Revised Penal Code are only in periods.
Illustration: If the penalty prescribed for the crime is prision correccional medium to maximum. Article 64 governs when the penalty prescribed by the Revised Penal Code is divisible. if the fine has to be lowered by degree either because the felony committed is only attempted or frustrated or because there is an accomplice or an accessory participation. However. 1/4 of P500. Illustration: The penalty prescribed by the Revised Penal Code is prision mayor maximum to reclusion temporal medium. Instead. it is not only the mitigating and/or aggravating circumstances that the court shall take into consideration. when the penalty prescribed by the Revised Penal Code is divisible. These rules refer to the lowering of penalty by one or two degrees.00 to P250. In other words. Hence. leaving a difference of P375.00. To go another degree lower. Every degree will be composed of two periods. When the penalty is indivisible.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) is prision correccional minimum. when there are two or more ordinary mitigating circumstance and there is no aggravating circumstance whatsoever. the fine is lowered by Vena V. the most severe of penalties imposed on him shall be multiplied by three and the period will be only term of the penalty to be served by him. he will actually serve the penalties imposed by law. you will only apply this provided the sum total of all the penalties imposed would be greater than /vvverga Page 95 of 100 . Illustration: If the penalty prescribed is a fine ranging from P200. in no case should penalty exceed 40 years. Article 66 In so far as ordinary mitigating or aggravating circumstance would affect the penalty which is in the form of a fine. every time you go down one degree lower. This penalty made up of three periods.00.00.00 shall again be deducted from P375. it cannot go lower than P200. when a convict is to serve successive penalties. If at all. the penalty another degree lower is a fine ranging from P200. As to how mitigating or aggravating circumstances may affect the penalty.00 and that would leave a difference of P250.00. (3) When the penalty prescribed by the Revised Penal Code is made up of three periods of different penalties. such penalty shall be lowered by one degree only but imposed in the proper period. each degree will be made up of only one period because the penalty prescribed is also made up only of one period.00 shall be deducted therefrom. P125. but the felony is frustrated so that the penalty should be imposed one degree lower.00 to P500. Penalty for murder under the Revised Penal Code is reclusion temporal maximum to death. it is discretionary upon the court to apply the fine taking into consideration the financial means of the offender to pay the same. when there are two offenders who are co-conspirators to a crime. On the other hand.00. the penalty one degree lower will be arresto mayor maximum to prision correccional minimum.00. Article 75 – Fines With respect to the penalty of fine. and the penalty two degrees lower is arresto mayor maximum. no matter how many ordinary mitigating circumstances there are. but primarily.00. not the the the (2) This rule is intended for the benefit of the convict and so. the court may impose a higher penalty upon the wealthy person and a lower fine for the pauper. and the penalty another degree lower will be arresto mayor minimum to medium. the penalty upon an accused who is poor may be less than the penalty upon an accused committing the same crime but who is wealthy . Verga deducting 1/4 of the maximum amount of the fine from such maximum without changing the minimum amount prescribed by law. and their penalty consists of a fine only. These rules have nothing to do with mitigating or aggravating circumstances. Another degree lower will be arresto mayor maximum to prision correccional medium. every time such penalty is lowered by one degree you have to go down also by two periods. So. For the same crime. It takes a privileged mitigating circumstance to lower such penalty by degree. Under this article.00 from P500. For instance. The penalty one degree lower is P375. the financial capability of the offender to pay the fine. Article 63 governs when the penalty prescribed by the Revised Penal Code is indivisible. the rules are found in Articles 63 and 64. So. the penalty would be reclusion temporal maximum – reclusion perpetua – death. In other words. The Three-Fold Rule Under this rule. the prescribed penalty is never lowered by degree. When the penalty prescribed by the Code is made up of two periods of a given penalty. This rule applies when the fine has to be lowered by degree. you have to go down by three periods. the penalty one degree lower is prision correccional maximum to prision mayor medium. the fine will be imposed at P200. Article 66 of the Revised Penal Code shall govern.00. and one of them is wealthy while the other is a pauper. the fine has to be lowered further. This is done by deducting P125.
Even if you add the penalties. whatever the sum total of penalty for each crime committed. it will be given and equivalent duration of 30 years.6 years and 1 day to 12 years Indeterminate Sentence Law governs whether the crime is punishable under the Revised Penal Code or a special Law. the two remaining penalties must still be executed. the court will impose a sentence that has a minimum and maximum. The maximum of the indeterminate sentence will be arrived at by taking into account the attendant mitigating and/or aggravating circumstances according to Article 64 of the Do not commit the mistake of applying the Three. Never apply the Three-Fold rule when there are only three sentences. Although this rule is known as the Three-Fold rule. you cannot actually apply this if the convict is to serve only three successive penalties. under the Three-Fold rule. if the valuable human resources were allowed prolonged confinement in jail. the the the are the Vena V. saving the government expenses of maintaining the convicts on a prolonged confinement in jail. you take the most severe and multiply it by three. they would deteriorate. The common mistake is. This rule will apply only if sentences are to be served successively. Verga serving sentence that the prison authorities should determine how long he should stay in jail. It is not limited to violations of the Revised Penal Code. So. the court is not at liberty to apply the Three-Fold Rule. so that if he will have to suffer several perpetual disqualification. if given a situation. imprisonment. What is material is that convict shall serve more than three successive sentences. In other words. For purposes of the Three-Fold rule. The chronology of the penalties as provided in Article 70 of the Revised Penal Code shall be followed.1 month and 1 day to 6 months . It is in the service of the penalty. you can never arrive at a sum higher than the product of the most severe multiplied by three. not in the imposition of the penalty. If not by Purpose The purpose of the Indeterminate Sentence law is to avoid prolonged imprisonment. Act No. the purpose of the Indeterminate Sentence Law in shortening the possible detention of the convict in jail is to save valuable human resources.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) the product of the most severe penalty multiplied by three but in no case will the penalties to be served by the convict be more than 40 years. indivisible penalties are given equivalent of 30 years. It is only when the convict is /vvverga Page 96 of 100 . If the crime is a violation of the Revised Penal Code. It applies only when the penalty served is imprisonment. then it does not apply.000 years or more. as amended Three things to know about the Indeterminate Sentence Law: (1) (2) (3) Its purpose. The Three-Fold rule does not apply to the penalty prescribed but to the penalty imposed as determined by the court. The three-Fold rule will apply whether sentences are the product of one information in one court. Illustration: Penalties imposed are – One prision correcional – minimum – 2 years and 4 months One arresto mayor One prision mayor . If the penalty is perpetual disqualification. So not only penalties with fixed duration. If asked.Fold Rule in this case. even if it would amount to 1. and How it operates For purposes of the Three-Fold Rule. if you were the judge. at the same time. 4013 (Indeterminate Sentence Law). even penalties without any fixed duration or indivisible penalties are taken into account.to reform them rather than to deteriorate them and. Illustration: A district engineer was sentenced by the court to a term of 914 years in prison. what penalty would you impose. whether the Three-Fold Rule could be applied. The Three-Fold Rule can only be applied if the convict is to serve four or more sentences successively. that Three-Fold rule is to be applied. Purpose is to preserve economic usefulness for these people for having committed a crime -. If the sentences would be served simultaneously. Significance: If ever granted pardon for 1 crime. Instances when it does not apply. because it is proven to be more destructive than constructive to the offender. A person was sentenced to three death sentences. even perpetual penalties are taken into account. for purposes of imposing the penalty. the Three-Fold rule does not govern. whether sentences are promulgated in one day or whether the sentences promulgated by different courts on different days.
the rule is. No mitigating and aggravating circumstances are taken into account. Moreover. crimes under special law do not consider mitigating or aggravating circumstance present in the commission of the crime. Under the law. If there is aggravating circumstance. the court will fix the minimum for the indeterminate sentence. and to set a maximum as the limit of that sentence. In determining the applicable penalty according to the Indeterminate Sentence Law. the court will impose the penalty within the range of the penalty prescribed by the special law. no mitigating. use the term minimum to refer to the duration of the sentence which the convict shall serve as a minimum. If there are two or more mitigating circumstance and no aggravating circumstance. no aggravating. In arriving at the minimum of the indeterminate sentence.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Revised Penal Code. This ruling. the court will take into account the penalty prescribed for the crime and go one degree lower. courts are given discretion to fix a minimum (2) (3) /vvverga Page 97 of 100 . Courts are required to fix a minimum and a maximum of the sentence that they are to impose upon an offender when found guilty of the crime charged. We are not referring to any period of the penalty as enumerated in Article 71. it is enough that the name of the penalty is mentioned while the Indeterminate Sentence Law is applied. you cannot follow the law in so far as fixing the minimum of the indeterminate sentence is concerned. there is always a minimum and maximum of the sentence that the convict shall serve. they shall offset against each other. penalty next lower in degree shall be the one imposed. penalty shall be in the minimum. This means – (1) Penalties prescribed by the law for the crime committed shall be imposed in the medium period if no mitigating or aggravating circumstance. The minimum and the maximum referred to in the Indeterminate Sentence Law are not periods. courts are required in imposing the penalty upon the offender to fix a minimum that the convict should serve. the court may fix any penalty as the maximum without exceeding the penalty prescribed by special law for the crime committed. consider the mitigating and aggravating circumstances according to the rules found in Article 64. which provides that the penal laws should always be construed an applied in a manner liberal or lenient to the offender. whenever the Indeterminate Sentence Law is applicable. the minimum shall be based on the penalty as reduced by the privilege mitigating circumstance within the range of the penalty next lower in degree. it is that penalty arrived at by the court after applying the mitigating and aggravating circumstances that should be the basis. So. The attendant mitigating and/or aggravating circumstances in the commission of the crime are taken into consideration only when the maximum of the penalty is to be fixed. Within the range of one degree lower. (4) (5) Vena V. as long as it will not exceed the limit of the penalty. the basis of the penalty prescribed by the Revised Penal Code. Crimes punished under special law carry only one penalty. there is no need to mention the number of years. But penalty one degree lower shall be applied in the same manner that the maximum is also fixed based only on ordinary mitigating circumstances. do not say. is obviously erroneous. To fix the minimum and the maximum of the sentence. penalty shall be imposed in the maximum. the penalty prescribed by the Revised Penal Code and not that which may be imposed by court. For the purposes of the indeterminate Sentence Law. In one Supreme Court ruling. To fix the maximum. when the crime is punished under a special law. apply the rules. and go one degree lower than that. in fixing the maximum of the indeterminate sentence. there are no degree or periods. Whatever remains. If the crime is a violation of a special law. So in the case of statutory offense. maximum or minimum period. If there is a privilege mitigating circumstance which has been taken in consideration in fixing the maximum of the indeterminate sentence. If the mitigating circumstance is privileged. it was held that for purposes of applying the Indeterminate Sentence Law. This is true only if the mitigating circumstance taken into account is only an ordinary mitigating circumstance. months and days. In fixing the minimum. If there is mitigating circumstance. the court can fix a penalty anywhere within the range of penalty prescribed by the special law. penalty under the Revised Penal Code is not the penalty to be imposed by court because the court must apply the Indeterminate Sentence Law. the court will fix the maximum of the sentence. for purposes of ISLAW. otherwise. This is so because such an interpretation runs contrary to the rule of pro reo. the law provides that the maximum shall be arrived at by considering the mitigating and aggravating circumstances in the commission of the crime according to the proper rules of the Revised Penal Code. however. So. in applying the Indetermiante Sentence Law. But in so far as the minimum is concerned. and when we say maximum. no mitigating and no aggravating circumstances will be taken into account. it may happen that the maximum of the indeterminate sentence is lower than its minimum. as long as it will not be less than the minimum limit of the penalty under said law. If the crime is punished by the Revised Penal Code. Rule under Art 64 shall apply in determining the maximum but not in determining the minimum. we refer to the maximum limit of the duration that the convict may be held in jail. Just the same. and within the range of the penalty arrived at as the maximum in the indeterminate sentence. Verga If there are several mitigating and aggravating circumstances. Therefore. In the same manner.
968 (Probation Law) Among the different grounds of partial extinction of criminal liability. national security or subversion. If the penalty is six years plus one day. he is no longer qualified for probation. 187 SCRA 278). Persons convicted espionage. So even if the prison term would sum up to more than six years. such convict is not disqualified of the benefit of probation. May a recidivist be given the benefit of Probation Law? As a general rule. Vena V. The idea is that probation has to be invoked at the earliest opportunity. Among these crimes is Alarms and Scandals. he cannot avail of probation anymore. He should not wait up to the time when he interposes an appeal or the sentence has become final and executory. shall have escaped from confinement or evaded Those who have been granted conditional pardon by the Chief Executive and shall have violated the term thereto. Those whose maximum term of imprisonment does not exceed one year. if none of the individual penalties exceeds six years. but not to those already sentenced by final judgment at the time of the approval of Indeterminate Sentence Law. Verga may be availed of before the convict begins serving sentence by final judgment and provided that he did not appeal anymore from conviction. no. the penalty of which is only arresto menor or a fine. rebellion. those convicted of a crime against public order regardless of the penalty are not qualified for probation. the imposable penalty is reclusion temporal or less. under such terms and conditions that the court may fix. So even if he would be convicted subsequently of a crime embraced in the same title of the Revised Penal Code as that of the earlier conviction. Without regard to the nature of the crime. Persons convicted of treason. sedition. If the offender was convicted of several offenses which were tried jointly and one decision was rendered where multiple sentences imposed several prison terms as penalty. Disqualification may be divided into three. he is not disqualified from probation provided that the penalty of the current crime committed does not go beyond six years and the nature of the crime committed by him is not against public order. of misprision of treason. Presidential Decree No. Although a person may be eligible for probation. Although the penalty prescribed for the felony committed is death or reclusion perpetua. The Indeterminate Sentence Law shall not apply to: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Persons convicted of offense punishable with death penalty or life imprisonment. Exception: If the earlier conviction refers to a crime the penalty of which does not exceed 30 days imprisonment or a fine of not more than P200. the offender is not disqualified by such penalty from applying for probation. the most important is probation. Persons who sentence. On the other hand. This /vvverga Page 98 of 100 . the Indeterminate Sentence Law applies (People v. according to – (1) (2) (3) The time committed. So the benefit of probation must be invoked at the earliest instance after conviction. Probation is a manner of disposing of an accused who have been convicted by a trial court by placing him under supervision of a probation officer. Book 2 of the Revised Penal Code. those who are convicted of subversion or any crime against the public order are not qualified for probation. if after considering the attendant circumstances.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) anywhere within the range of the penalty prescribed by special law. as long as it will not be lower than the penalty prescribed. For the offender to apply in such court. the basis for determining whether the penalty disqualifies the offender from probation or not is the term of the individual imprisonment and not the totality of all the prison terms imposed in the decision. Persons convicted of piracy. the moment he perfects an appeal from the judgment of conviction. only those whose penalty does not exceed six years of imprisonment are those qualified for probation. So know the crimes under Title III. without regard to the penalty. An application for probation is exclusively within the jurisdiction of the trial court that renders the judgment. he should not appeal such judgment. and The offender involved. Under the amendment to the Probation Law. Persons who are habitual delinquents. Cempron. conspiracy or proposal to commit treason. The penalty imposed.00.
the penalty will already be final and exeuctory. So it is not along the purpose of probation to grant the convict the benefit thereof. because the earliest opportunity for him to avail of probation came only after judgment by the appellate court. must report to the PO at least once a month during the period of probation unless sooner required by the PO. then regardless of the penalty. The probation law imposes two kinds of conditions: (1) (2) Mandatory conditions. and to save the government much needed finance for maintaining convicts in jail Probation is only a privilege. unless the convict has waived expressly his right to appeal or otherwise. In such a case. even though he may thereafter withdraw his appeal. because it is an act of the court in excess of jurisdiction or without jurisdiction. That there is undue risk that during the period of probation the offender will commit another crime. he will be disqualified from applying for Probation. As far as offenders who are under preventive imprisonment. but also the probationable penalty. Probation shall be denied if the court finds: (1) (2) (3) That the offender is in need of correctional treatment that can be provided most effectively by his commitment to an institution. To allow him loose may bring about a lack of respect of the members of the community to the enforcement of penal law. provided the same would not violate the constitutional rights of the offender and subject /vvverga Page 99 of 100 . the courts do not grant an application for probation for violation of the Dangerous Drugs Law. Verga only where the convict starts serving sentence and provided he has not perfected an appeal. where as the applicant is not disqualified under the provision of the Probation Law. to provide an opportunity for the reformation of a penitent offender which might be less probable if he were to serve a prison sentence. Offenses which are not probationable are those against natural security. or Probation will depreciate the seriousness of the crime. to prevent the commission of offenses. Whether a convict who is otherwise qualified for probation may be give the benefit of probation or not. the convict cannot avail of probation. they cannot afford to put up a bail. those against public order and those with reference to subversion. just the individual rehabilitation of the offender but also the best interest of the society and the community where the convict would be staying. sentence will only become final and executory after the lapse of the 15-day period. that does not mean that they already start serving the sentence even after promulgation of the sentence. the order denying the application therefore is null and void. the penalty which is not probationable is any penalty exceeding six years of imprisonment. the courts are always required to conduct a hearing. less than six years. no right to probation can be applied for. he has partly started serving sentence and in that case. Consider not only the probationable crime. regardless of the purpose of the appeal. So even if the offender may not be disqualified of probation. Generally. If the court denied the application for probation without the benefit of the hearing. yet the court believes that because of the crime committed it was not advisable to give probation because it would depreciate the effect of the crime. the court even if the crime is probationable may still deny the benefit of probation. upon promulgation of the sentence. the moment any of these is violate. Probation is intended to promote the correction and rehabilitation of an offender by providing him with individualized treatment. the probation is cancelled. although bailable. Mandatory conditions: (1) The convict must report to the Probation Officer (PO) designated in the court order approving his application for Probation within 72 hours from receipt of Notice of such order approving his application. because of the prevalence of the crime. the court may refuse or deny an application for probation. the denial is correctible by certiorari. that because a crime committed is not bailable or the crime committed. and Discretionary conditions. If the convict perfected an appeal. Persons who have been granted of the benefit of probation cannot avail thereof for the second time. (2) These conditions being mandatory. to decongest our jails. Generally. he forfeits his right to apply for probation. if he would be released on probation. iii. Discretionary conditions: The trial court which approved the application for probation may impose any condition which may be constructive to the correction of the offender. If it were the non-probationable crime. that convict can still file an application for probation. Probation is only available once and this may be availed Vena V. and The convict. If the offender would appeal the conviction of the trial court and the appellate court reduced the penalty to say.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Once he appeals. as a probationer. naturally he goes back to detention. but only based on the report of the probation officer.
Pardon only excuses the convict from serving the sentence. and Probation. abduction. By commutation of sentence. Where the offender dies before final judgment. During the ensuing election. By prescription of the penalty. Bayotas. Amnesty and pardon Death of the offender Vena V. In one case. the offender dies. Because the amnesty granted to him erased not only the conviction but also the effects of the conviction itself. unless the language of the pardon absolutely relieve the offender of all the effects thereof. and as to pecuniary penalties. the offended was again captured and charged for rebellion. he was convicted. is he a recidivist? Yes. So if the convict has already served the sentence and in spite of that he was given a pardon that pardon will cover the effects of the crime and therefore.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) to this two restrictions: (1) the conditions imposed should not be unduly restrictive of the probationer. (People v. and so he was given an amnesty. Amnesty erases not only the conviction but also the crime itself. There is an exception to this and that is when the pardon was granted when the convict had already served the sentence such that there is no more service of sentence to be executed then the pardon shall be understood as intended to erase the effects of the conviction. This is only true to administrative cases but not criminal cases. the case on appeal will be dismissed. The offended party may file a separate civil action under the Civil Code if any other basis for recovery of civil liability exists as provided under Art 1157 Civil Code. is he a recidivist? No. instead of amnesty. if he will be subsequently convicted for a felony embracing the same title as that crime. no matter how long ago was the first conviction. Criminal liability is totally extinguished as follows: (1) By the death of the convict as to personal penalties. allowances which the culprit may earn while he is serving sentence. Verga elected by the constituents. then years later. seduction and acts of lasciviousness. although absolute does not erase the effects of conviction. By amnesty which completely extinguished the penalty and all its effects. one of the defenses raised was that of condonation of the crime by his constituents. But if he was serving sentence when he was pardoned. what was given was absolute pardon. By absolute pardon. a public official was charged before the Sandiganbayan for violation of Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act. you cannot find among them the election to public office. Pardon. Parole. Considering that recidivism does not prescribe. Suppose. 1994) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) The effects of amnesty as well as absolute pardon are not the same. he shall still be a recidivist. For good conduct. because the pardon wipes out the effects of the crime. Total extinction of criminal liability Among the grounds for total extinction as well as those for partial extinction. The Supreme Court ruled that the re-election to public office is not one of the grounds by which criminal liability is extinguished. By the marriage of the offended women as in the crimes of rape. liability therefore is extinguished only when the death of the offender occurs before final judgment By service of sentence. and (2) such condition should not be incompatible with the freedom of conscience of the probationer EXTINCTION OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY Always provide two classifications when answering this question. By prescription of the crime. his death extinguishes both his criminal and civil liabilities. he was nevertheless re- /vvverga Page 100 of 100 . that his constituents have pardoned him. that pardon will not wipe out the effects of the crime. Illustrations: Criminal liability is partially extinguished as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) By conditional pardon. So that if an offender was convicted for rebellion and he qualified for amnesty. So while a case is on appeal. then years later he rebelled again and convicted. he cannot be considered a recidivist. decided on September 2.
the owner of the land came to know of the falsified transaction only after 10 years. The prescription of the crime is interrupted or suspended – (1) When a complaint is filed in a proper barangay for conciliation or mediation as required by Chapter 7. and therefore even if he commits theft again. this time he shall be a recidivist. prescription of the crime is not waivable. In Monsanto v. The rules on Criminal Procedure for purposes of prescription is that the filing of the complaint even at the public prosecutor’s office suspends the running of the prescriptive period. Actually. The Supreme Court ruled that the crime has already prescribed. but the suspension of the prescriptive period is good only for 60 days. if he has served all six years of the first sentence. the earlier jurisprudence to the contrary had already been abrogated or overruled. So the earlier rulings to the contrary are already abrogated by express provision of the Revised Rules on Criminal Procedure. because it does not require a final judgment. After serving sentence for three years. but after conviction and during the appeal he learned that at the time the case was filed. the crime has already prescribed. such accused can raise the question of prescription even for the first time on appeal. hence. The prevailing rule now is. for purposes of prescription. he shall not be considered a recidivist. unless the crime was concealed. Factoran. the prescription of the crime will be suspended only when the information is already filed with the trial court. in which case. If the 60th day falls on a Sunday. So /vvverga Page 101 of 100 . Pedro was again prosecuted and convicted of the crime of theft. Local Government Code. and his name was included in the list of all those granted absolute pardon. pardon shall relieve him of the effects of the crime. the penalty will prescribe from the moment the convict evades the service of the sentence. Verga When the crime carries with it moral turpitude. so he brought the criminal action only then. Prescription of crime and prescription of the penalty Prescription of the crime begins. as a general rule on the day the crime was committed. On the other hand. the prescriptive period already commenced to run. There is no such thing as a premature amnesty. Moreover. it was held that absolute pardon does not ipso facto entitle the convict to reinstatement to the public office forfeited by reason of his conviction. the prescription thereof would only commence from the time the offended party or the government learns of the commission of the crime. (2) But where the crime is subject to Summary Procedure. From the moment the falsified document is registered in the Registry of Property. the State loses the right to prosecute the offender. For instance. the prescriptive period of the crime shall already run from the moment the falsified document was recorded in the public registry. the prescription of the crime is suspended until the accused is convicted or the proceeding is terminated for a cause not attributable to the accused. After which the prescription will resume to run. the filing of the complaint on the succeeding Monday is already fatal to the prosecution of the crime because the crime has already prescribed. Pedro was prosecuted and convicted of the crime of robbery and was sentenced to six years imprisonment or prision correccional. but the filing of the information in the trial which will suspend the prescription of the crime. the falsification is deemed public from the time the falsified document was registered or recorded in such public office so even though.This does not mean alone that the crime was within public knowledge or committed in public. but not the filing with the barangay. Ten years later. if legally. the period for filing a complaint or information may not be extended at all. light felony prescribes in 60 days or two months. it is premature and hence void. Jr. the offended party may not really know of the falsification. Pardon becomes valid only when there is a final judgment. whether the conciliation or mediation is terminated for not. It is not the filing of the complaint. Illustration: In the crime of falsification of a document that was registered in the proper registry of the government like the Registry of Property or the Registry of Deeds of the Civil registry. not public.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Vena V. “Commission of the crime is public” -. 170 SCRA 191. So in the case where a deed of sale of a parcel of land which was falsified was recorded in the corresponding Registry of Property. Although pardon restores his eligibility for appointment to that office. the period will only commence to run when the convict has begun to serve the sentence. When criminal case is filed in the prosecutor’s office. the pardoned convict must reapply for the new appointment . and the appellate court shall have no jurisdiction to continue. it may be given before final judgment or after it. even though the last day such prescriptive period falls on a holiday or a Sunday. the crime has indeed prescribed. he was granted absolute pardon. a crime embraced in the same title. If given before this. the offender even if granted pardon shall still remain disqualified from those falling in cases where moral turpitude is a bar.. When a crime prescribes. On the prescription of the penalty. even though the offender may not have filed a motion to quash on this ground the trial court.
the prescriptive period still continues to run. thus enabling the prisoner to escape. Whether it is prescription of crime or prescription of penalty. Marriages in these cases may even compound the crime of adultery or concubinage. in relation to Article 158. Marriage as a ground for extinguishing civil liability must have been contracted in good faith. Article 158 refers only to those who leave and return. The crime committed does not include the initial evasion of service of sentence that the convict must perform before the penalty shall begin to prescribe. no partial extinction. Marriage In the case of marriage. the penalty imposed by the trial court will never prescribe because he has not yet commenced the service of his sentence. such convict shall be given credit of 1/5 of the original sentence from that allowance for his loyalty of coming back. Australia. A convict who escapes the place of confinement on the occasion of disorder resulting from a conflagration. Canada. he must be brought to Muntinlupa. earthquake or similar catastrophe or during a mutiny in which he has not participated and he returned within 48 hours after the proclamation that the calamity had already passed. do not say that it is applicable for the crimes under Article 344. the moment the convict commits another crime while he is fugitive from justice. and the conviction becomes final and executory. seduction and acts of lasciviousness that the marriage by the offender with the offended woman shall extinguish civil liability. will also benefit from such marriage. booked there. so that if the convict was never given parole. It is only in the crimes of rape. not only criminal liability of the principal who marries the offended woman.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) if an accused was convicted in the trial court. abduction. Those who did not leave the penitentiary under such circumstances do not get such allowance for loyalty. Indonesia. abduction. It is only true in the crimes of rape. the offended woman. after the convict has evaded the service of penalty that will suspend such period. Presently the Philippines has an extradition treaty with Taiwan. In the case of the prescription of the penalty. CIVIL LIABILITY OF THE OFFENDER Civil liability of the offender falls under three categories: (1) (2) (3) Restitution and restoration. and Indemnification of consequential damages. but not when such co-principal himself took direct part in the execution of the crime. although already his wife can still prosecute him again. Do not say that it is applicable to private crimes because the term includes adultery and concubinage. The offender who marries the offended woman must be sincere Vena V. seduction and acts of lasciviousness. Restitution or restoration /vvverga Page 102 of 100 . but also that of the accomplice and accessory. Parole This correspondingly extinguishes service of sentence up to the maximum of the indeterminate sentence. if the subject could leave the Philippines and go to a country with whom the Philippines has no extradition treaty. USA and Switzerland. This is the partial extinction referred to. Reparation of the damage caused. the running of the prescriptive period will go on even if the offender leaves Philippine territory for that country. no matter how long such convict has been a fugitive from justice. so that the initial crime of evasion of service of sentence does not suspend the prescription of penalty. Do not think that the marriage is avoided or annulled. Co-principals who did not themselves directly participate in the execution of the crime but who only cooperated. So if the offender goes to any of these countries. placed inside the cell and thereafter he escapes. Partial extinction of criminal liability Good conduct allowance This includes the allowance for loyalty under Article 98. it is the commission of other crime. Verga in the marriage and therefore must actually perform the duties of a husband after the marriage. The marriage still subsists although the offended woman may refile the complaint. notwithstanding such marriage. When the offender leaves for a country to which the Philippines has an extradition treaty. prescriptive period of the penalty shall be suspended and shall not run in the meantime. the vehicle carrying him collided with another vehicle and overturned. if there are any. otherwise. so this fellow was arrested to serve the sentence. the prescriptive period of the crime or penalty shall remain suspended whenever he is out of the country. For the penalty to prescribe. The Supreme Court ruled that marriage contemplated must be a real marriage and not one entered to and not just to evade punishment for the crime committed because the offender will be compounding the wrong he has committed. although the marriage remains a valid marriage. on the way to the penitentiary.
Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes)
Restitution or restoration presupposes that the offended party was divested of property, and such property must be returned. If the property is in the hands of a third party, the same shall nevertheless be taken away from him and restored to the offended party, even though such third party may be a holder for value and a buyer in good faith of the property, except when such third party buys the property from a public sale where the law protects the buyer. For example, if a third party bought a property in a public auction conducted by the sheriff levied on the property of a judgment creditor for an obligation, the buyer of the property at such execution sale is protected by law. The offended party cannot divest him thereof. So the offended party may only resort to reparation of the damage done from the offender. Some believed that this civil liability is true only in crimes against property, this is not correct. Regardless of the crime committed, if the property is illegally taken from the offended party during the commission of the crime, the court may direct the offender to restore or restitute such property to the offended party. It can only be done if the property is brought within the jurisdiction of that court. For example, in a case where the offender committed rape, during the rape, the offender got on of the earrings of the victim. When apprehended, the offender was prosecuted for rape and theft. When the offender was asked why he got on of the earrings of the victim, the offender disclosed that he took one of the earrings in order to have a souvenir of the sexual intercourse. Supreme Court ruled that the crime committed is not theft and rape but rape and unjust vexation for the taking of the earring. The latter crime is not a crime against property, this is a crime against personal security and liberty under Title IX of Book II of the RPC. And yet, the offender was required to restore or restitute the earring to the offended woman. Property will have to be restored to the offended party even this would require the taking of the property from a third person. Where personal property was divested from the offended party pursuant to the commission of the crime, the one who took the same or accepted the same would be doing so without the benefit of the just title. So even if the property may have been bought by the third person, the same may be taken from him and restored to the offended party without an obligation on the part of the offended party to pay him whatever he paid. The right to recover what he has paid will be against the offender who sold it to him. On the other hand, if the crime was theft or robbery, the one who received the personal property becomes a fence, he is not only required to restitute the personal property but he incurs criminal liability in violation of the Anti-Fencing Law. If the property cannot be restituted anymore, then the damage must be repaired, requiring the offender to pay the value thereof, as determined by the court. That value includes the sentimental value to the offended party, not only
Vena V. Verga
the replacement cost. In most cases, the sentimental value is higher than the replacement value. But if what would be restored is brand new, then there will be an allowance for depreciation, otherwise, the offended party is allowed to enrich himself at the expense of the offender. So there will be a corresponding depreciation and the offended party may even be required to pay something just to cover the difference of the value of what was restored to him. The obligation of the offender transcends to his heirs, even if the offender dies, provided he died after judgment became final, the heirs shall assume the burden of the civil liability, but this is only to the extent that they inherit property from the deceased, if they do not inherit, they cannot inherit the obligations. The right of the offended party transcends to heirs upon death. The heirs of the offended party step into the shoes of the latter to demand civil liability from the offender. Reparation of the damage caused In case of human life, reparation of the damage cause is basically P50,000.00 value of human life, exclusive of other forms of damages. This P50,000.00 may also increase whether such life was lost through intentional felony or criminal negligence, whether the result of dolo or culpa. Also in the crime of rape, the damages awarded to the offended woman is generally P30,000.00 for the damage to her honor. In earlier rulings, the amount varied, whether the offended woman is younger or a married woman. Supreme Court ruled that even if the offended woman does not adduce evidence or such damage, court can take judicial notice of the fact that if a woman was raped, she inevitably suffers damages. Under the Revised Rules on Criminal Procedure, a private prosecutor can recover all kinds of damages including attorney’s fee. The only limitation is that the amount and the nature of the damages should be specified. The present procedural law does not allow a blanket recovery of damages. Each kind of damages must be specified and the amount duly proven. Indemnification of consequential damages Indemnification of consequential damages refers to the loss of earnings, loss of profits. This does not refer only to consequential damages suffered by the offended party; this also includes consequential damages to third party who also suffer because of the commission of the crime. The offender carnapped a bridal car while the newly-weds were inside the church. Since the car was only rented, consequential damage not only to the newly-weds but also to the entity which rented the car to them.
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Most importantly, refer to the persons who are civilly liable under Articles 102 and 103. This pertains to the owner, proprietor of hotels, inns, taverns and similar establishments, an obligation to answer civilly for the loss or property of their guests. Under Articloe 102, two conditions must be present before liability attaches to the inkeepers, tavernkeepers and proprietors: (1) The guest must have informed the management in advance of his having brought to the premises certain valuables aside from the usual personal belongings of the guest; and The guest must have followed the rules and regulations prescribed by the management of such inn, tavern, or similar establishment regarding the safekeeping of said valuables.
Vena V. Verga
When these requisites concur, the employer will be subsidiarily civilly liable for the full amount that his employee was adjudged civilly liable. It is already settled in jurisprudence that there is no need to file a civil action against the employer in order to enforce the subsidiary civil liability for the crime committed by his employee, it is enough that the writ of execution is returned unsatisfied. There is no denial of due process of law because the liability of the employer is subsidiary and not primary. He will only be liable if his employee does not have the property to pay his civil liability, since it is the law itself that provides that such subsidiary liability exists and ignorance of the law is not an excuse. Civil liability of the offender is extinguished in the same manner as civil obligation is extinguished but this is not absolutely true. Under civil law, a civil obligation is extinguished upon loss of the thing due when the thing involved is specific. This is not a ground applicable to extinction of civil liability in criminal case if the thing due is lost, the offender shall repair the damages caused. When there are several offenders, the court in the exercise of its discretion shall determine what shall be the share of each offender depending upon the degree of participation – as principal, accomplice or accessory. If within each class of offender, there are more of them, such as more than one principal or more than one accomplice or accessory, the liability in each class of offender shall be subsidiary. Anyone of the may be required to pay the civil liability pertaining to such offender without prejudice to recovery from those whose share have been paid by another. If all the principals are insolvent, the obligation shall devolve upon the accomplice(s) or accessory(s). But whoever pays shall have the right of covering the share of the obligation from those who did not pay but are civilly liable. To relate with Article 38, when there is an order or preference of pecuniary (monetary) liability, therefore, restitution is not included here. There is not subsidiary penalty for non-payment of civil liability. Subsidiary civil liability is imposed in the following: (1) In case of a felony committed under the compulsion of an irresistible force. The person who employed the irresistible force is subsidiarily liable; In case of a felony committed under an impulse of an equal or greater injury. The person who generated such an impulse is subsidiarily liable.
The Supreme Court ruled that even though the guest did not obey the rules and regulations prescribed by the management for safekeeping of the valuables, this does not absolve management from the subsidiary civil liability. Noncompliance with such rules and regulations but the guests will only be regarded as contributory negligence, but it won’t absolve the management from civil liability. Liability specially attaches when the management is found to have violated any law or ordinance, rule or regulation governing such establishment. Even if the crime is robbery with violence against or intimidation of persons or committed by the inkeeper’s employees, management will be liable, otherwise, not liable because there is duress from the offender, liable only for theft and force upon things. Under Article 103, the subsidiary liability of an employer or master for the crime committed by his employee or servant may attach only when the following requisites concur: (1) (2) (3) (4) The employer must be engaged in business or in trade or industry while the accused was his employee; At the time the crime was committed, the employee-employerr relationship must be existing between the two; The employee must have been found guilty of the crime charged and accordingly held civilly liable; The writ of execution for the satisfaction of the civil liability was returned unsatisfied because the accused-employee does not have enough property to pay the civil liability.
The owners of taverns, inns, motels, hotels, where the crime is committed within their establishment due to noncompliance with general police
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regulations, if the offender who is primarily liable cannot pay, the proprietor, or owner is subsidiarily liable. Felonies committed by employees, pupils, servants in the course of their employment, schooling or household chores. The employer, master, teacher is subsidiarily liable civilly, while the offender is primarily liable. In case the accomplice and the principal cannot pay, the liability of those subsidiarily liable is absolute. COMPLEX CRIME Philosophy behind plural crimes: The treatment of plural crimes as one is to be lenient to the offender, who, instead of being made to suffer distinct penalties for every resulting crime is made to suffer one penalty only, although it is the penalty for the most serious one and is in the maximum period. Purpose is in the pursuance of the rule of pro reo. If be complexing the crime, the penalty would turn out to be higher, do not complex anymore. Example: Murder and theft (killed with treachery, then stole the right). Penalty: If complex – Reclusion temporal maximum to death. If treated individually – Reclusion temporal to Reclusion Perpetua. Complex crime is not just a matter of penalty, but of substance under the Revised Penal Code. Plurality of crimes may be in the form of: (1) (2) (3) Compound crime; Complex crime; and Composite crime.
Vena V. Verga
robbery with rape, rape with homicide. These are crimes which in the eyes of the law are regarded only as a single indivisible offense. iv. Composite Crime/Special Complex Crime This is one which in substance is made up of more than one crime but which in the eyes of the law is only a single indivisible offense. This is also known as a special complex crime. Examples are robbery with homicide, robbery with rape, and rape with homicide. The compound crime and the complex crime are treated in Article 48 of the Revised Penal Code. But in such article, a compound crime is also designated as a complex crime, but “complex crimes” are limited only to a situation where the resulting felonies are grave and/or less grave. Whereas in a compound crime, there is no limit as to the gravity of the resulting crimes as long as a single act brings about two or more crimes. Strictly speaking, compound crimes are not limited to grave or less grave felonies but covers all single act that results in two or more crimes. Illustration: A person threw a hand grenade and the people started scampering. When the hand grenade exploded, no on was seriously wounded all were mere wounded. It was held that this is a compound crime, although the resulting felonies are only slight. Illustration of a situation where the term “necessary” in complex crime should not be understood as indispensable: Abetting committed during the encounter between rebels and government troops such that the homicide committed cannot be complexed with rebellion. This is because they are indispensable part of rebellion. (Caveat: Ortega says rebellion can be complexed with common crimes in discussion on Rebellion) The complex crime lies actually in the first form under Article 148. The first form of the complex crime is actually a compound crime, is one where a single act constitutes two or more grave and/or less grave felonies. The basis in complexing or compounding the crime is the act. So that when an offender performed more than one act, although similar, if they result in separate crimes, there is no complex crime at all, instead, the offender shall be prosecuted for as many crimes as are committed under separate information. When the single act brings about two or more crimes, the offender is punished with only one penalty, although in the maximum period, because he acted only with single criminal impulse. The presumption is that, since there is only one
A compound crime is one where a single act produces two or more crimes. A complex crime strictly speaking is one where the offender has to commit an offense as a means for the commission of another offense. It is said that the offense is committed as a necessary means to commit the other offense. “Necessary” should not be understood as indispensable, otherwise, it shall be considered absorbed and not giving rise to a complex crime. A composite crime is one in which substance is made up of more than one crime, but which in the eyes of the law is only a single indivisible offense. This is also known as special complex crime. Examples are robbery with homicide,
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but the decision in the Lawas case is correct. where the accused took five roosters from one and the same chicken coop. In this case it is not the singleness of the act but the singleness of the impulse that has been considered. the ruling is that a complex crime is committed. some killed the others in another place within the same penitentiary. not because of Article 48 but because this is a continued crime. There is a complex crime not only when there is a single act but a series of /vvverga Page 106 of 100 . In another case. The Supreme Court ruled that the accused should be prosecuted only in one information. The confusion lies in this. Vena V. When the hands of the Muslims were tied. however. it is regarded in law as one. The definition in Article 48 is not honored because the accused did not perform a single act. Not because there were several quarters robbed. even those cases when the act is not a single but a series of acts resulting to two or more grave and less grave felonies. The Supreme Court ruled that all accused should be punished under one information because they acted in conspiracy. the accused were convicts who were members of a certain gang and they conspired to kill the other gang. Because there were several victims killed and some were mortally wounded. they were moved by a single criminal intent. There were a series of acts. However.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) act formed. they are not really used with the same import. the accused constabulary soldiers were ordered to march with several muslims from one barrio to another place. The only reason is that the series of acts are impelled by a single criminal impulse. Lawas. There are cases where the Supreme Court held that the crime committed is complex even though the offender performed not a single act but a series of acts. This becomes a complex crime. Lawas ordered his men to fire. a separate penalty. Garcia. Conversely. The term “continuing crimes” as sometimes used in lieu of the term “continued crimes”. the offender should be penalized only once. the term “continuing crime” is used in criminal procedure when any of the material ingredients of the crime was committed in different places. only one penalty should be imposed. Such situation is also brought under the operation of Article 48. a band of robbers came across a compound where a sugar mill is located. In criminal procedure for purposes of venue. de Leon. regardless of a series of acts done. These soldiers feared that on the way. Verga In People v. the accused should be held for the complex crime of multiple homicide with multiple frustrated homicide. The act of one is the act of all. You cannot find an article in the Revised Penal Code with respect to the continued crime or continuing crime. When the robbers entered the compound. The band of robbers ransacked the different quarters therein. The Supreme Court has extended this class of complex crime to those cases when the offender performed not a single act but a series of acts as long as it is the product of a single criminal impulse. when there are several acts performed. one of them protested. so the Hajji remonstrated and there was commotion. A “continued crime” is one where the offender performs a series of acts violating one and the same penal provision committed at the same place and about the same time for the same criminal purpose. because the accused acted out of a single criminal impulse only. In People v. although both terms are analogous. However performing a series of acts but this is one and the same intent Supreme Court ruled that only one crime is committed under one information. some of the Muslims may escape. when a series of acts are perpetrated in pursuance of a single criminal impulse. it may happen that the offender is impelled only by a single criminal impulse in committing a series of acts that brought about more than one crime. the assumption is that each act is impelled by a distinct criminal impulse and for ever criminal impulse. So Lawas ordered the men to tie the Muslims by the hand connecting one with the other. If confronted with a problem. The workers of said mill have their quarters within the compound. The question of whether the constabulary soldiers should be prosecuted for the killing of each under a separate information has reached the Supreme Court. At the height of the commotion. the roosters were owned by different persons. Hence. CONTINUED AND CONTINUING CRIMES In criminal law. While Article 48 speaks of a complex crime where a single act constitutes two or more grave or less grave offenses. but also before the court of the place where the crime was continued. use the standard or condition that it refers not only to the singleness of the act which brought two or more grave and/less grave felonies. In People v. Some of the accused killed their victims in one place within the same penitentiary. it was held that there is only one crime of theft committed. It was held that there is only one crime committed – multiple robbery. it follows that there is only one criminal impulse and correctly. there is what is called a continued crime. so no one would run away. because a complex crime of multiple homicide was committed by them. considering that Criminal Law. although. and the soldiers mechanically fired. Eleven were killed and several others were wounded. the Supreme Court considered this as a complex crime when the act is the product of one single criminal impulse. if there is only one criminal impulse which brought about the commission of the crime. he did not want to be included among those who were tied becase he was a Hajji. There are in fact cases decided by the Supreme Court where the offender has performed a series of acts but the acts appeared to be impelled by one and the same impulse. The nearest article is Article 48. “Continuing crime” is the term used in criminal procedure to denote that a certain crime may be prosecuted and tried not only before the court of the place where it was originally committed or began. this is referred to as a continuing crime.
Duplicity of offenses. the Supreme Court adopted the dissenting opinion of Justice Aquino in People v. Each intercourse brings with it the danger of bringing one stranger in the family of the husband. Pabasa. In adultery. Apparently. because they acted in conspiracy or under the same criminal impulse. together with other grave or less grave felonies resulting therefrom and the Supreme Court held that all felonies resulting from criminal negligence should be made subject of one information only. The second part of Article 48 does not apply. Note: This is a dangerous view because the abductors will commit as much rape as they can. regardless of the number of rapes committed. Supreme Court considered this as complex. it is necessary to embody these crimes under one single information. However. Bojas. the Supreme Court followed the ruling in People v. instead the Supreme Court stated that an additional penalty should be imposed for the light felony. Pabasa. In the eyes of the law. only one complex crime of rape would arise. The forcible abduction must be complexed therewith. after all. after which. It was held that each one of the four became liable not only for his own rape but also for those committed by the others. if several offenders abducted the woman and abused her. Although in this case. They abducted the woman. two or more grave or less grave felonies resulted. regardless of the number of rapes committed because all the rapes are but committed out of one and the same lewd design which impelled the offender to abduct the victim.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) acts. the Supreme Court through Justice Aquino ruled that there is only one count of forcible abduction with rape committed by the offenders who abducted the two women and abused them several times. The rapes committed were in the nature of a continued crime characterized by the same lewd design which is an essential element in the crime of forcible abduction. The offenders are to be convicted of one count of rape and separately charged of the other rapes. So while the Supreme Court ruled that the light felony resulting from the same criminal negligence should be complexed with the other felonies because that would be a blatant violation of Article 48. Verga In People v. It is necessary to consider them as complex crimes even if the essence of the crime does not fit the definition of Art 48. each committed four crimes of rape. The reason being that. the singleness of the act is not considered a single crime. there were four participants here. Applying the concept of the “continued crime”. a light felony may result from criminal negligence or imprudence. In criminal procedure. yet by virtue of this ruling of the Supreme Court. in order not to violate this rule. that there could be only one complex crimeof abduction with rape. One of the four rapes committed by one of them was complexed with the crime of abduction. The three rapes are not necessary to commit the other rapes. In People v. it would be tantamount to splitting the criminal negligence similar to splitting a cause of action which is prohibited in civil cases. This would mean two penalties to be imposed. because there is no other provision in the RPC. separate complaints/information. another act out of this is done simultaneously. Each of the four offenders was convicted of four rapes. the offenders did not only kill one person but killed different persons. So whenever the Supreme Court concludes that the criminal should be punished only once. Jose. It is correct that when the offender acted in conspiracy. Therefore. each intercourse constitutes one crime. Jose that the four men who abducted and abused the offended women were held liable for one crime – one count or forcible abudction with rape and distinct charges for rape for the other rapes committed by them. The abuse amounting to rape is complexed with forcible abduction because the abduction was already consummated when the victim was raped. the four took turns in abusing her. In People v. Article 48 also applies in cases when out of a single act of negligence or imprudence. so it is clear that in killing of one victim or the killing of another victim. Bulaong. This was only a dissenting opinion of Justice Aquino. The other three rapes are distinct counts of rape. this crime is considered as one and prosecuted under one information. Although under Article 48. Although the killings did not result from one single act. In People v. one for the complex crime and one for the light felony. although only the first part thereof (compound crime). a light felony should not be included in a complex crime. In earlier rulings on abduction with rape. But the multiple rapes should be considered only as one because they are in the nature of a continued crime. Otherwise. there is only one information and prosecution only. there should only be one complex crime of forcible abduction with rape. It cannot separate the light felony because it appears that the culpa is crime itself and you cannot split the crime. it must be called a complex crime. there is multiple rape. the light felony shall be included in the same information charging the offender with grave and/or less grave felonies resulting from the negligence of reckless imprudence and this runs counter to the provision of Article 48. Vena V. that when several persons abducted a woman and abused her. it is prohibited to charge more than one offense in an information. referring to the complex crime proper because this applies or refers only to a deliberate commission of one offense to commit another offense. except when the crimes in one information constitute a complex crime or a special complex crime. the following cases have been treated as constituting one crime only: /vvverga Page 107 of 100 .
Tumlos. one which was committed during the period from January 19 to December. The prosecution manifested that they would only file one information. registration of public document Issue: W/N the act charged has already prescribed. whether belonging to the same or different owners. that the criminal act never existed. Dismissal of the case will not be without prejudice to the right of the widow to enforce the civil liability of the accused. PEOPLE vs. 67 Phil. amnesty. under which there was distinct larceny as to the property of each victim. the Revised Penal Code shall be supplementary to special laws. and (3) they were done in the same day. The authorities. Verga the government. The concept of delito continuado has been applied to crimes under special laws since in Article 10. constitutes one larceny only. Here. Decision: No. (2) (3) EXTINCTION OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY • • • • • • Death of the convict as to the personal penalties before final judgment By service of the sentence By amnesty which completely extinguishes the penalty and all its effects BY prescription of the crime By prescription of the penalty By the marriage of the offended party (rape) On the other hand. MADLANGBAYAN Keyword: spy. Justice Garchitorena. CIV. Upon filing in the court. The Supreme Court directed the prosecution to consolidate the cases into one offense because (1) they were in violation of the same law – Executive Order No. the Supreme Court declined to apply the concept in the following cases: (1) US vs. the oath. 1993). (2) (3) In the theft cases. 32 amended informations were filed. 13 Phil 306). for the purpose of depriving a person of a legal civil right to which he was entitled. Several malversations committed in May. at the same time and place. 1955 and the other from January 1956 to July 1956 (People v. Seventy-five estafa cases committed by the conversion by the agents of collections from the customers of the employer made on different dates. 1936. that of collecting fees for services rendered. SANDIGANBAYAN Keyword: Torrens. unless the latter provides the contrary. that is taking of several things. Many courts have abandoned the separate larceny doctrine. 324. Prescription shall not run when offender is not in the Philippines. Issue: Should the case be dismissed and accused acquitted since the crime was politically motivated. The theft of six roosters belonging to two different owners from the same coop and at the same period of time (People v. 320). ARTICLE 91 (PRESCRIPTION) Period of prescription shall run from the day on which the crime is discovered by the offended party. Two Estafa cases. Decision: No. Said acts were committed on two different occasions. The idea of amnesty wipes out the crime cannot not be carried to the extent of saying. Jaranillo). Subsequently. The malversations and falsifications were not the result of one resolution to embezzle and falsify (People v. Dichupa. Vena V. The collections of legal fees were impelled by the same motive.. the case will be dismissed. the trend is to follow the single larceny doctrine. 10 SCAR 156). (2) caused injury to one party only – /vvverga Page 108 of 100 . The accused must first show compliance with the requirements for availing himself of the benefits like taking the required oath. June and July 1936 and falsifications to conceal said offenses committed in August and October. 351).Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) (1) The theft of 13 cows belonging to two different persons committed by the accused at the same place and period of time (People v. crime politically motivated Issue: W/N the civil aspect is extinguished too on account of amnesty. 66 Phil. Sabbun. or their agents and shall be interrupted by the filling of the complaint or information and shall commence to run again when such proceedings terminate without the accused being convicted or acquitted. The illegal charging of fees for service rendered by a lawyer every time he collects veteran’s benefits on behalf of a client who agreed that attorney’s fees shall be paid out of such benefits (People v. The dismissal of the criminal action does not extinguish the civil responsibility. the accused was charged with performing a single act – that of approving the legalization of aliens not qualified under the law. Also abandoned is the doctrine that the government has the discretion to prosecute the accused for one offense or for as many distinct offenses as there are victims (Santiago v. decided on December 2. and all acts of collection were made under the same criminal impulse.
the crimes charges already prescribed. the employer cannot be civilly liable. victim died. in accordance with the judgment entered in the aforesaid cause for estafa. victim cannot collect from the driver. it does no erase the crime and the conviction thereof. RUIZ Keyword: Defraud. PEOPLE vs. The criminal offense of falsification of public document has already prescribed. MC the employer did not know his car was used. CASTILLO Keyword: Chauffer. VALDEZ Vena V. Although caution should be observed in applying the rule of construction in civil cases. Issue: Can the employer be held liable. Issue: W/N the driver’s employer can be civilly liable. filling in the register of deeds Issue: W/N the crime prescribed Decision: Yes. Every person criminally liable for a crime or misdemeanor is also civilly liable. the prescriptive period would lapse on 1986 or 5 months before the filing of the complaint. The criminal action has been extinguished by prescription. it removes penalties and disabilities and restores him to all his civil rights. Absolute pardon dies not blot out the crime committed. subordinate or employee commits a punishable criminal act while in the actual performance of his own ordinary duties and he was innocent thereby rendering incapable of satisfying by himself his own liability. they may repatriate for the injury or indemnify the owner. Issue: W/N the jewels can be recovered. consequent upon condition. MARQUEZ vs. VARELA vs. the employer is not engaged in business or industry and merely uses automobile for private ends. The very essence of pardon is forgiveness and remission of guilt. Among the civil responsibilities incurred by a person committing estafa is that of restoring the thing taken. FACTORAN Keywords: Estafa. Verga Keyword: 2 vehicles collided in intersection. Pardon if granted before conviction. This is the reason why the employee is not entitled to backpay when pardoned. ARTICLE 100 Every person criminally liable for a felony in also civilly liable. Considering the lapse of more than 20 years. thus. FINNICK Keyword: Estafa of jewels. The /vvverga Page 109 of 100 . The subsidiary liability of the master only takes place when the servant. The jewels were pawned without the knowledge of the owner thus must be restored by the pawnshop owners. the employer can not be held liable. STEIMETZ vs.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) Decision: Yes. Decision: Yes. If restitution is impossible. The date of the violation of the law becomes the operative date for the commencement of the period of prescription. MONSANTO vs. the pardoning power cannot be restricted or controlled by the legislative action. REYES Keyword: prescription of crime. from attaching. Where it admitted that the employer did not know that his chauffer was using the car that day and the he exercised due diligence in hiring the chauffer. The date of computing the period of prescription would be from the date of the filing of the application. The owner has an absolute right to the jewels from the possession of whoever holds them. If granted after conviction. The employer was also no in the automobile when the accident happened and when it exercised due diligence in choosing a driver. All persons must take notice. once registered is a notice to the world. the court will not hesitate to do so if the factual and legal circumstance so warrant. it prevents any penalties and disabilities. FULL and ABSOLUTE FREEDOM: Subject to the limitations imposed by the constitution. Decision: No. registration being a constructive notice to the whole word. 91 cannot be construed in such manner as to admit application of the rule on construction. Even if the ten year period commenced to run from the registration and issuance of the free patent title by the register of deed. Pardon implies guilt. Decision: No. falsification of public documents. The application of the rule on constructive notice in the construction of Article 92 of the RPC would most certainly be favorable to the accused since the prescriptive period of the crime shall have to be reckoned with earlier. Decision: No. Decision: Yes. The title. jewels Issue: W/N the owner of the jewels direct four pawnshops to restore the jewels without indemnity on the party of the petitioner. Issue: Does Art. REYES vs. pawned instead of selling them.
The said principle does not apply in instant case wherein the civil liability springs neither solely nor originally from the crime itself but from a civil contract of purchase and sale. a few days prior to their recovery. before delivery. Finally. the extinction of the latter by death. depending an the source of obligation upon which the same is based as explained above. an action for recovery therefore may be pursued but only by way of filing a separate civil action and subject to Section 1. Thus. only when the civil liability arises from the criminal act as its only basis. poses a problem. them is no question. He is principal to the crime. however. PEOPLE vs. the claim for civil liability survives notwithstanding the death of accused. he must be presumed to be the author of the theft and not merely an accessory. in cases where -during the prosecution of the criminal action and prior to its extinction. of course. 4. if the same may also be predicated on a source of obligation other than delict. altered the brands on the animals. provided. the privateoffended party instituted together therewith the civil action. Another person aided in procuring registration certificate. This separate civil action may be enforced either against the executor/administrator or the estate of the accused. Rule 111 of the 1985 Rules on Criminal Procedure as amended. Death of the accused pending appeal of his conviction extinguishes his criminal liability as well as the civil liability based solely thereon. VILLALOBOS Keyword: Theft of carabao. A number of stolen carabao were found in the possession of a person who kept them hidden for a time and. It should be stressed that the extinction of civil liability follows the extinction of Vena V. Such liability is extinguished only when the death of the offender occurs before final judgment. 3. The civil liability. In such case. BAYOTAS Keyword: Rape. Stated differently. ipso facto extinguishes the former. 1. the private offended party need not fear a forfeiture of his right to file this separate civil action by prescription. Although stolen property is acquired in good faith by a third party. His participation as an accessory cannot be admitted. Verga the criminal liability under Article 89. the statute of limitations on the civil liability is deemed interrupted during the pendency of the criminal case. With reference to Castillo's criminal liability. Where the civil liability survives. Castillo. Said liability is extinguished.Criminal Law 1 Reviewer (Padilla cases and notes combined with Ortega Notes) US vs. this issue was settled in the affirmative. conformably with provisions of the Civil Code. that should thereby avoid any apprehension on a possible privation of right by prescription. he can not lawfully withhold the possession thereof from the true owner and insist upon reimbursement. unless it be satisfactorily shown that the property was stolen by some other person. 2. The case of People v. Statutory construction is unnecessary. Decision: Yes. Issue: W/N that person is mere accessory to the theft or principal. Decision: Yes. /vvverga Page 110 of 100 . that death supervenes before final judgment. Corollarily. The law is plain. as explained in Number 2 above. where the civil liability does not exist independently of the criminal responsibility. SC dismissed the criminal aspect Issue: Does death of the accused pending appeal of his conviction extinguish his civil liability.
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