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The theory of projection

Projection Methods


Perspective or

Linear Aerial Oblique Orthographic

Perspectives Perspectives Projections Projections
Projection Method
Perspective or Central

Linear Perspectives Aerial Perspectives

Projection Methods
Parallel Projections

Oblique Orthographic Projections

Projections Axonometric
The attributes of each projection method
Projection theory

Line of Sight (LOS)

A LOS is an imaginary ray
of light between an
observer's eye and an
Projection theory
In perspective projection, all LOS
start at a single point
Projection theory
In parallel projection, all LOS
are parallel and no start point
(infinitive viewpoint)
Projection theory
• A plane of projection is an imaginary
flat plane upon which the image
created by LOS is projected.
Multiview projection planes
1. The frontal plane of projection is the plane onto which the
front view of multiview is projected.
Multiview projection planes
2. The top view is projected onto the horizontal plane of projection,
which is a plane suspended above and parallel to the top object.
Multiview projection planes
3. The right side is projected onto the right profile plane of
projection, which is a plane that is parallel to the right side of the
Advantage of multiview drawing
It produce the true dimensions !!!
Distorted angle

Distorted dimension Multiview drawing

The six principal of views

1. The front view

2. The top view

3. The right side view

4. The left side view

5. The rear view

6. The bottom view

The six perpendicular plane of views
Conventional view placement
Conventionally, the standard views used in a three-view
drawing are the top, front, and right side view. Because the
other three principal views are mirror image and do not add to
the knowledge about the object.
Projection dimensions
The width
dimension is
common to the front
and top views. The
height dimension is
common to the front
and side views.
The depth
dimension is
common to the top
and side views.
Projection arrangement

The arrangement of views may

vary as long as the dimension
alignment is correct.
First-Angle Projection
First angle projection is the
standard in Europe and Asia.
Third-Angle Projection
Third angle projection is the
standard projection for the
United States and Canada.
Profile plane

The difference
between first
and third angle
projection is
the placement
of the object
and the

The principal projection

planes and quadrants used to
create first- and third- angle
projection drawings
Pictorial comparison between first- third angle
projection techniques
First angle projection

The dihedral angles

First angles projection box

First angle projection
First angles projection box

Box unfolding
First angle projection Box unfolding

Box unfolded show

relative position of view
Placement of 1st
angle of view
Third angle projection

The dihedral angles

Third angles projection box

Third angle projection
3rd angles projection box

Box unfolding
Third angle projection

Box unfolding

Box unfolded
show relative
Placement of 3rd angle of view
position of
The rule of orthographic
projection principles
1. Alignment of features
2. Distances in related views
3. True length and size
4. Foreshortening
5. Configuration of planes
6. Parallel features
7. Edge views
Rule 1: Alignment of features
Every point or feature in
one view must be aligned
on a parallel projector

• For example, the hole in

the block is an example of
a feature shown in one
view and aligned on
parallel projectors in the
adjacent view
• Adjacent views are two
orthographic view placed
next to each other such that
the dimension they share
in common is aligned,
using parallel projectors.

hole feature
Rule 2: Distances in related views
Distances between any two
points of the feature in
related views must be equal

• For example, the distance

between surface 1 and
surface 2 is the same in
the top view as it is in the
right side view.
• Two views that are
adjacent to the same view
are called related views
Rule 3: True
length and size

Features are true

length or true size
when the lines of sight
(LOS) are
perpendicular to the
For example edge 1-2 in the top and right side feature
view is a normal edge (or true-length line)
An inclined line is parallel to a plane of
projection, but inclined to the adjacent
planes, it appears foreshortened in the
adjacent planes.

For example line 3-4 is inclined and foreshortened in the top and right side view, but
true length in the front view, because it is parallel to the frontal plane of projection
Rule 4: Foreshortening
Features are foreshortening
when the line of sight are not
perpendicular to the features

• For example oblique line 1-2 is

not parallel to any of the
principal planes of projection of
the glass box.

• An oblique line is not parallel to

any principal plane of projection
Rule 5: Configuration of planes Oblique
Areas that are the same feature will always
be similar in configuration from one view to
the next, unless viewed on edge


Surface B and C are an example of the Rule of Configuration of planes

Rule 6: Parallel features
Parallel features will always
appear parallel in all views

For example, at surface C, lines

3-4 and 5-6 are parallel in all
views (front, top and right).

Also, edge 3-6 and 4-5 are

parallel in both the top view and
the right view.
Rule 7: Edge view
Surfaces that are parallel to the
lines of sight will appear on edge
and be represented as lines.

For example, surface A, C, D

and F are parallel to the line
of sight and will appear as on
edges which represented as
lines at projected front view.
Example of normal face projection
A normal face projects on all three principle image planes.
(follow the rule of edges view)
Creating a
Example of representing filleted and rounded corners
Example of Runouts
Representing the intersection of two cylinders

Small cylinder Large cylinder

(same size)
Representing the intersection btw a
cylinder and a prism

Small prism Large prism

Representing the intersection btw a cylinder
and a hole
Representing the intersection btw a cylinder
and a slot
Center lines
Good & Poor Orientation

The major surface are parallel or The surface are not parallel to the sides
perpendicular to the sides of the box of the glass box produces views with
(projections planes) many hidden lines.