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A Generative

Grammar of the
Number Names
in Philippine
Languages
A Generative Grammar of the Number
Names in Philippine Languages
7. 1 The Phrase Structure Rules
[1] NP  B (LP(MP))
[2] MP  M (B(LP))
[3] LP  CP, XP
[4] CP  C(B(XP))
[5] XP  X(B)
[6] B  {1},…{9} (TAG.,isa, dalawa, tatlo, apat,
lima, anim, pito, walo, siyam
[7] X {ten} (TAG.,pu?)
[8] C {hundred} (TAG., daan)
[9] M {thousand} (TAG., libo)
A Generative Grammar of the Number
Names in Philippine Languages
7.2 The transformational Rules
7.2.1 [10a] B(X,C) + X,C,M  B(X,C) + {na} + X,C,M
[10b] X,C,M + B  X,C,M° + {at} + B

7.2.2 [11a] {1} + {na} + {X}  Abak amatung Sama


watung
[11b] {1} + {na} + X  X
[11c] {1} + {na} + X  a-, ma-, na- + X
7.2.3 [12] B + {na} + X + {at} + B  Z + B
7.2.4 [13] {2-9} + {na} + X  ka- + {2-9} + -an
A Generative Grammar of the Number
Names in Philippine Languages
7.3 Tag. Morphophonemic Rules
7.3.1 Loss of Stress on Word-Final Syllable
[14] …V (C)  …V(C)/ ___na
V = vowel, / = in the environment, / =stress

This rule is obligatory.Example


(1) isa + na + pu?  isa + na + pu?
(2) dalawa + na + daan  dalawa + na + daan
(3) pu? + na + libo  pu? + na + libo
(4) daan + na + libo  daan + na + libo
A Generative Grammar of the Number
Names in Philippine Languages
7.3.2 (a) Loss of Word-Final -?, -n
[15] (a) …V,V?,n …V,V/___ na,at

(b) Change of na, at to –ng,-t


[15] (b) na,at  -ng, -t/…V,V___

(c) Change of –ng to –m-


[15] (c) -ng  -m- / ___pu?

(d) Change of –ng to –n-


[15] (d) -ng  -n- /___daan,libo
A Generative Grammar of the Number
Names in Philippine Languages
• All the rules under [15] are optional,
except [15] (b) which is obligator to the
output of [15] (a), but optional in other
cases. Example:
(1) dalawa + na + pu? + at + isa  dalawa + na
+ pu + at + isa (by Rule [15] (a))  dalawa + -ng
+ pu + at + isa (by Rule [15] (b))  dalawa + -ng
+ pu + -t + isa (by Rule [15] (b))  dalawa + -m
+ pu + -t + isa (by Rule [15] (c)) == dalawamput
isa “21”
A Generative Grammar of the Number
Names in Philippine Languages
7.3.3 Change of isa to sa-
[16] isa  sa-/ ___-m-, -n-

This Rule is obligatory. Example:


(1) isa + na + pu?  isa + na + pu? (by Rule [14]) 
isa + -ng + pu? (by Rule [15] (b))  isa + -m- +
pu?(by Rule [15] (c))  sa- + -m- + pu?( by Rule
[16])  sampu? “ 10”