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Audel Complete Building Construction

Audel Complete Building Construction

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Published by: silvershumi on Nov 01, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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Slate is an ideal roofing material and is used on permanent build-
ings with pitched roofs. The process of manufacture is to split the
quarried slate blocks horizontally to a suitable thickness, and to
cut vertically to the approximate sizes required. The slates are then
passed through planers. After the operation, the slates are ready to


GB093A-13 GB093-Miller August 31, 2004 19:47 Char Count= 0

Roofing 347



Figure13-20 Forneatness,shinglecoursesshouldmeetinalineabove

be reduced to the exact dimensions on rubbing beds or by the use
of air tools and other special machinery.
be covered with slate, asphalt-saturated rag felt of certain specified
thickness is required. This felt should be laid in a horizontal layer
A well-secured lap at the end is necessary to hold the felt in place
properly and to protect the structure until covered by the slate. In
be covered with slate in a proper and watertight manner.
The slate should project 2 inches at the eaves and 1 inch at all
gable ends and must be laid in horizontal courses with the standard
3-inch head lap. Each course breaks joints with the preceding one.
Slates at the eaves or cornice line are doubled and canted 1


4 inch
by a wooden cant strip. Slates overlapping sheet metal work should
have the nails so placed as to avoid puncturing the sheet metal.
Exposed nails are permissible only in courses where unavoidable.
Neatly fit the slate around any pipes, ventilators, or other rooftop

Nails should not be driven in so far as to produce a strain on the
slate. Be sure to cover all exposed nail heads with elastic cement.
Hip slates and ridge slates are to be laid in elastic cement spread
furnished by the sheeting contractor. Cooperate with the contractor
to do the work of flashing. On completion, all slate must be sound,
whole, and clean, and the roof left in every respect tight and a neat
example of workmanship.
The most frequently needed repair of slate roofs is the replace-
ment of broken slates. When such replacements are necessary,


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348 Chapter 13

the roof to distribute the weight of the roofers while they are work-
ing. Broken slates should be removed by cutting or drawing out the
nails with a ripper tool. A new slate shingle of the same color and
size as the old should be inserted and fastened by nailing through
the vertical joint of the slates in the overlying course approximately
2 inches below the butt of the slate in the second course, as shown
in Figure 13-22.



Figure 13-21 Two types of supports used in repairs of roof.



Figure 13-22 Method of inserting
new pieces of slate shingles.

A piece of sheet copper about 3 inches×8 inches should be in-
serted over the nail head to extend about 2 inches under the second
course above the replaced shingle. The metal strip should be bent
slightly before being inserted so that it will stay securely in place.
Very old slate roofs sometimes fail because the nails used to fasten
the slates have rusted. In such cases, the entire roof covering should
be removed and replaced, including the felt underlay materials. The
sheathing and rafters should be examined and any broken boards


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Roofing 349

replaced with new material. All loose boards should be nailed in
place and, before laying the felt, the sheathing should be swept
clean, protruding nails driven in, and any rough edges trimmed

If the former roof was slate, all slates that are still in good con-
dition may be salvaged and relaid. New slates should be the same
size as the old ones and should match the original slates as nearly
as possible in color and texture. The area to be covered should gov-
ern the size of slates to be used. Whatever the size, the slates may
be of random widths, but they should be of uniform length and
punched for a head lap of not less than 3 inches. The roof slates
should be laid with a 3-inch head lap and fastened with two large-
head slating nails. Nails should not be driven too tightly. Heads
should barely touch the slate. All slates within 1 foot of the top
and along the gable rakes of the roof should be bedded in flashing

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