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NHPC - Faridabad

A
Training Report
On
Study of Hydro Power Plants and Detailed
Design of Large Hydro
Generators
Contents
 Overview of NHPC
 Design E & M Division
 Hydro Power Plants
 Hydro Turbines
 Power House
 Hydro Generators
 Design Study
 About the Software
About NHPC
 NHPC (National Hydro Power Corporation)
 A Govt. of India Enterprise
 Established in 1975
 Started with an authorized capital of Rs. 2000
million, today has an asset value of Rs. 200000
million
 One of the largest organization for Hydro-Power
development in India
 Has constructed 13 hydro-power projects in
India and abroad
 Total Installed Capacity of 3694.35 MW
Projects completed
 Baira Siul (MP) 3 X 60

 Salal (J&K) 3 X 115

 Chamera (Himachal Pradesh) 3 X 180

 Dhauliganga (Uttaranchal ) 4 X 70

 Indira Sagar (MP) 8 X 125


Projects under Construction
 Teesta– V (Sikkim) 510 MW

 Parbati–II (Himachal Pradesh) 800 MW

 Subansiri (Arunachal Pradesh) 2000 MW

 Chamera-III (Himachal Pradesh) 231 MW


DESIGN ( E & M) DIVISION

 One of many divisions of NHPC


 Deals with the design Electrical &
Mechanical components of power plant
Functions of Design E&M
 Planning and preparation of Electrical and
Mechanical design for DPR
 Power Potential Studies & Power System
Studies
 Preparation of Technical specification of
E & M equipments
 Standardization of Technical specification
 Assistance in evaluation of all tenders
Hydro Power Plants
 Reservoir : Holds the water from the river
 Dam : Civil construction
 Penstock : Large pipes through which water
flows from the reservoir to the turbine
 Turbine :Turned by the force of water on their
blades
 Power Plant : Power generation and
transmission
 Generator : Converts mechanical energy of
turbine into electrical energy
 Control Gates : Control the flow of water
Types of Hydro Power Plants

 Storage Plants
 Pumped Storage Plants
 Run-of-River Plants
Storage Plants
 Impound and store water in a reservoir formed
behind a dam.
 During peak demands, enough water can be
released to meet the additional demand.
 Water flow rate may change greatly
 May involve dramatic environmental
consequences including soil erosion, degrading
shorelines, crop damage, disrupting fisheries
and other wildlife, and even flooding
Pumped Storage Plants

 Reuse water after it is initially used to


generate electricity.
 Water is pumped back to the reservoir
during peak-off hours
 During peak hours this water is used again
for generating electricity
Run-of-River Plants

 Amount of water running through the


turbine varies with the flow rate of water in
the river
 Amount of electricity generated changes
with seasons and weather conditions
 Since these plants do not block water in a
reservoir, their environmental impact is
minimal
Hydro Turbines
Hydro turbines can be classified on the
basis of force exerted by water on the
turbine
A) Reaction Turbines
 Francis
 Kaplan
 Propeller
 Bulb
B) Impulse Turbines
 Pelton
Hydro Turbines
Type of turbine to be used in a plant is
decided on the basis of available head

Head Range
  2m   to      70  m                    Kaplan
 30m to    450  m                    Francis
 above 300 m                     Pelton

Also a turbine is characterized by its


specific speed.
Power House
POWER HOUSE BUILDING CONSISTS OF
THREE MAIN AREAS NAMELY

 1. Machine Hall/Unit Bay


 2. Erection/Service Bay
 3. Control Room/Auxiliary Bay
HEAD CALCULATION

 • Avg. Gross Head = MDDL + 2/3(FRL - MDDL) -TWL(4 Units Running)


= 203 + 2/3(208 - 203) -184.24
= 22.09 m.
 • Rated/Net Head = Avg. Gross Head - Head Loss
= 22.09 - 0.75
= 21.34 m.
 • Max. Gross Head = FRL - min TWL
= 208.00 - 181.78
= 26.22 m
 • Max. Net Head = Max. Gross Head-Head Loss
= 26.22-0.75
= 25.47 m
 • Min. Gross Head = MDDL - TWL(4 Units Running)
= 203.00 - 184.24
= 18.76m
 • Min. Net Head = Min. Gross Head - Head Loss
=18.76 - 0.75
=18.01 m.

 # calculations has been done for PARBATI H.E. PROJECT, STAGE-II


Selection of Machine Speed
 Economically should have highest
practicable speed
 Deciding parameters :
• Variation of head
• Silt content
• Cavitation
• Vibrations
• Drop in peak efficiency
HYDRO GENERATORS
 Hydro Generators are low speed salient pole type
machines.
 Rotor is characterized by large diameter and short axial
length.
 Capacity of such generator varies from 500 KW to 700
MW.
 Power factor are usually 0.90 to 0.95 lagging.
 Available head is a limitation in the choice of speed of
hydro generator.
 Standard generation voltage in our country is 3.3KV,
6.6KV, 11 KV ,13.8 KV, & 16KV at 50 Hz.
 Short Circuit Ratio varies from 1 to 1.4.
A typical Hydro Generator
CLASSIFICATION

Classification of Hydro Generators can be


done with respect to the position of rotor

(i) Horizontal
(ii) Vertical (two types)
a) Suspension Type
b) Umbrella Type
Suspended Type Vertical Generator
Umbrella Type Vertical Generator
COMPONENTS OF GENERATOR
1. STATOR

 Stator Sole Plates


 Stator Frame
 Stator Magnetic Core
 Stator Windings
2. ROTOR

 Rotor Shaft
 Rotor Spider
 Rotor Rim
 Rotor Poles
 Ring Collectors
Rotor Spider Rotor Rim
3. BRACKETS

 Upper Bracket
 Lower Bracket

4. GENERATOR AUXILIARIES

 Excitation System
 Air Cooling System
 Braking And Jacking System
 Bearings
 Fire Protection
 Heaters
Design Study
 Output equation can be derived by the basic emf equation of a
hydro generator.
This has been taken from Electric Machine Design ,AK Sawhney.

 Output Equation: Q = C0 * D2 * L * Ns

Where, output coefficient, C0 = 11 * Bav * ac * Kw * 10-3

Q = kVA rating of machine


Bav = specific magnetic loading
ac = specific electrical loading
Kw = winding factor

Source: (derived from output equation of AC machines) (Pg-


456,Electric Machine Design, AK Sawhney)
Design Study
 Calculation of Output Coefficient
Is calculated from a graph obtained by analyzing the
published data of 40 generators in manufacture in USA,
Canada, UK, Japan a Europe.

 Calculation of Number of Poles


using P=120f/N
Frequency f is 50 Hz as per Indian Standards

 Air Gap Diameter


Di= (60 * Vr) / (pi * N)
Vr is the Maximum peripheral velocity obtained from a
graph between Vr and Number of poles
Design Study
 Calculation of Stator core length
 Stator core length is the gross length of the stator and
can be calculated by using the formula for output
coefficient
 L t= W/ (C0* Di 2 * N)
Where,
W = Rated KVA of machine
C0 = Output coefficient obtained from curve
N = Rated RPM of the machine

Source : (Fig 1-1, Page 4, Large AC Machines by J.H. Walker.)


Design Study
 STATOR DESIGNING
 Pole pitch is defined as the peripheral distance between two
consecutive poles. It may be expressed as number of slots, degrees
.(electrical or mechanical)
Calculated as : ψ= pi x Di/P
Where Pi (constant) =22/7
Di = Air gap diameter in meters
P = No. of poles
 Flux per pole
Flux per pole (φ) =Mean flux density * Pole pitch (ψ)* Length of core

Mean Flux density is assumed to be 0.6-0.7 Wb/m2

 Turns per phase = = (1.1 * Vph)/4.44fφ


Design Study
 Calculation of number of parallel paths

 Total current per slot should not exceed 5000 A.

 If I be the rated current per phase and there be p parallel paths


then current per conductor is I/p , and current per slot is 2*I/p
This should not exceed the limit of 5000 A.
5000 > 2 * I / p

 The value of p greater than or equal to this value, that satisfies other
designing constraints is chosen as the appropriate number of
parallel paths.

 After the calculation of turns per phase we can calculate the


approximate no. of stator slots.
Design Study
 No. of slots is given by,
Ns = (no. of phases) * T ph * (no. of parallel paths) /
(turns per coil)
Note: Turns per coil = 1 for bar winding
 Number of conductor per slots = 2 ( for bar winding)
Design Study
 Short Circuit Ratio
 Defined as the ratio of field current
required to produce rated voltage under
open circuit conditions to the field current
required to circulate rated current at short
circuit.
 Short circuit ratio is the reciprocal of
synchronous reactance Xd
 For salient pole hydro electric generators
SCR varies from 1.0 to 1.1.
Design Study
 Effect of SCR on machine performance
 Stability : Low value implies lower stability limit, as the
maximum power output is inversely proportional to Xd
 Parallel Operation : Low SCR leads to high Xd, that is
small synchronising power.Machines become more
sensitive to voltage and torque disturbances.
 Cost : A high SCR adds to the size of the machine
making it costlier.
 Present trend is to make a machine with low SCR.
 This is due to the recent advancement in fast acting
control and excitation systems.