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Gas, vapour and mist explosions

Gases are devided into the groups of explosibility according the the MESG (maximal experimental safety gap) which is defined as maximal width of the gap, 25 mm long, between two chambers which is not sufficient for the explosion to spread from one chamber to the other one (for all concentrations of the gas) This value is the key for deviding the gases and flammable liquids into the groups of explosibility and it has direct effect on the design of the protection systems - flame arresters. According to MESG, the gases and flammable liquids are devided into these groups:

group of

MESG

testing

typical representatives

explosibility

(mm)

atmosphere

IIA

>0.9

propane

chloromethane, cyclopentane

IIB1

>0.85

 

nitroethane, 1-propanol

IIB2

>0.75

ethylene

dymethylether, methyl acrylate

IIB3

>0.65

furan, 1-butyne, akrylaldehyde

IIB

>0.50

ethylene oxid, methanal

IIC

<0.5

hydrogen

hydrogen, carbon disulphide, acetylene

For protecting of the industrial technologies against gas and vapours explosions, protection system flame arrester is being used. It is a safety device which allows gas (and very often also liquid) go through it but must stop the flame of the explosion. The flame arresters are devided into various group according to their design, place of installation, type and the time of the flame presence.

According to the arrester's principle the flame arresters are devided into static, dynamic, liquid and hydraulic. arrester's principle the flame arresters are devided into static, dynamic, liquid and hydraulic.

Usage of the flame arrester is limited by the group of explosibility for which the system is designed (IIA1, IIA, IIB1, IIB2, IIB3, IIB group of explosibility for which the system is designed (IIA1, IIA, IIB1, IIB2, IIB3, IIB a IIC)

Flame arresters can be also used only for the type of the explosion for which they are certified. There are flame arresters for deflagration type of the explosion for which they are certified. There are flame arresters for deflagration (sub-sonic explosion spreading), stable detonation (super-sonic explosion spreading with constatnt speed and pressure) and for unstable detonation, which is the state of matter between deflagration and stable detonation.

According to the possible direction of the flame spreading the flame arresters can be one-side only or both-side. direction of the flame spreading the flame arresters can be one-side only or both-side.

The flame arresters are also designed for special purposes . There are pipeline flame arresters, end-of-the-line arresters (which can be equipped by special purposes. There are pipeline flame arresters, end-of-the-line arresters (which can be equipped by the pressure valve for the tank's venting) and volume arresters for deviding big volumes (tanks) from the pipelines.

According to the time of the possible presence of the flame , the arresters are devided for short-term time of the possible presence of the flame, the arresters are devided for short-term burning and for long-term burning.