The Union’s Side

Eunkyeong Hwang


Nov 8, 2011

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Preparation for War
Joining Up: After Fort Sumter fell to the South, Lincoln looked for volunteers because he knew that it would be an unavoidable fight. In the north, there were many volunteers. Later, however, there would even be a draft where any man of 25-40 years of age must be ready to go to war. Training: The army mostly consisted of unexperienced farmers or immature young people. It would take a lot to train them, and their lack of training will bring them

trouble later on. (Ex: First Battle of Bull Run) Equipment: The North, which was more advanced and had better technology, were better equipped with weapons and any other goods. Their soldiers were well fed, and they had a good supply of ammunition. This could also be better transported by their more developed railroad system.

The Union was
very industrialized and had many factories, which meant that they could manufacture good more efficiently and had a bigger supply of things like weapons. Also, they had a very good railroad system, which meant that they not only had good communication, but also had a good source of transportation to transport their goods. The North also held a bigger part of the population, causing them to have more manpower for the

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Who exactly were the leaders?

Ulysses S. Grant
Qualifications: Went to West Point, was a very good leader, good at his job Major Engagements: Fought alongside General Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War, battles the Civil War (Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Vicksburg, Shiloh) Interesting Facts: Became the 18th president, real name is actually Hiram Ulysses Grant

Interesting Facts: Was a good officer but not a good general, had risen to higher positions due to connections with politically powerful friends


Joshua Chamberlain
Qualifications: Was a college professor Major Engagements: Battles in the Civil War(Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg) Interesting Facts: Got wounded many times

Irvin McDowell
Qualifications: Went to West Point, was very good with tactics Major Engagements: Served in the Mexican War (Buena Vista), battles in the Civil War (First battle of Bull Run)

Who were some major leaders in the War?

The Union Leaders
! First Picture: Ulysses S. Grant Second Picture: Irvin McDowell Third Picture: Joshua Chamberlain



Why did it happen?
Robert E. Lee and his army had crossed the Potomac River, which meant that there was a possibility that some major cities in the North would be threatened. Meade and his army went to stop them.

Events of the Battle
The Battle of Gettysburg lasted around three days. Overall, the battle was generally on high ground, which made it much easier to kill people, increasing the number of casualties. For example, the North were on Cemetery RIdge, which was an advantage for them. On the first and second day, there was a lot of fighting. During this time, General Lee had a plan to take over the high ground, which would be unsuccessful. The third day was the south’s last chance to avoid defeat. On this day, much more fighting happened and then there was the famous event, Pickett’s Charge, which would be a devastating defeat for the South. This event is known as the greatest battle on American soil because not only did it end with over 51,000 casualties, but it also ended up being a turning point in the war because the South could not recover from this, giving the North the upper hand.

What happened?

There were so more deaths in this battle then any other one in American history. It was also the turning point where the advantage moved to lean heavily onto the North’s side, making it obvious who the victor would be.

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Adams County

July 1 - July 3, 1863

Union: George G. Meade Confederacy: Robert E. Lee

Victory for the Union



Why did it happen?
Grant was waiting in TN for the additional troops Buell led. He was planning on seizing a railroad junction in the South, but Johnston surprise attacked him before Bluell’s troops arrived.

Events of the Battle
After the surprise attack on Johnston on Grant, there was a whole lot of fighting. The South had eventually pushed the Union army against the Tennessee river and could almost taste victory, but the Confederates were exhausted. They also lost their leader, Johnston, during the fight, which discouraged the soldiers even more. Later, Buell’s reinforcements, along with with General William H. Wallace’s troops, came to aid the Union soldiers and the South was defeated. In the end, it was obvious that it was a very bloody battle. It had resulted in almost 24,000 casualties from the 100,000 troops that were involved in the battle.

What happened?

This battle proved to everyone that it would not be a short war.

Shiloh, Tennessee Hardin County

April 6-7, 1862

Union: Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Confederacy: Albert Sidney Johnston, P.G.T Beauregard

Victory for the Union



Why did it happen?
The First Battle of Bull Run was the first major conflict in the War. When it occurred, both sides were hoping for a “short glorious war” to get the whole conflict out of the way.

Events in the Battle
In the First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the Battle of Manassas, everyone had expected the North to win. People thought it would be a “short, glorious war”, but instead, they were surprised. People had even gone to the battlefield to watch the southern defeat, but the South fought fiercely, eventually earning a victory. McDowell’s troops had not been fully trained and had even taken too long to even get to the battle. It proved that the South would not give up easily.

What happened?

It was the first major conflict in the Civil War. It would also prove that the South were serious about their cause, and the war would not be as it was predicted.

Manassas, Virginia Fairfax County and Prince William County

July 27, 1861

Union: Irvin McDowell Confederacy: Joseph E. Johnston, P.G.T Beauregard

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Minority Groups were a Big Influence in the War
African Americans: African Americans contributed greatly to the fighting in America. They

wounded, becoming nurses for the injured soldiers. A famous example of a woman that did this is Clara Barton, who is shown in the photo on the side.


volunteered to fight in the army, a brave and bold move. Immigrants: Like the African Americans, Despite the racial discrimination they would experience, they still decided to fight. They added to the North’s numbers. Women: During the war, women volunteered to treat the the immigrants would fight alongside the Americans in the war. They added onto the numbers of the armies.

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The Minory Groups
African Americans Women Immigrants


Soldiers’ Lives
Recreational Activities? A lot of the soldiers were suffering from boredom when not fighting, doing drills, or standing guard. Around the camps, they would try to find anything to take up their time. They would play games, like cards, baseball, etc. They would even read. Another thing that they would often do was
Camp/War Life

Most of the

soldiers’ diet was filled

write letters to their loved ones. Many of with salt pork, beans, corn bread, and them were homesick and wouldn’t be able to biscuits. They especially seemed to think of go home for long periods of time. coffee highly, which was more available in the North than the South. Threatened Lives? Soldiers had a very big risk of dying while on duty (25%). Not only did many die during battles, but they also would die of disease. This disease happened because they’re water could be contaminated or because they lacked fresh fruit and vegetables in their diet. Their Resources/Food? If They Deserted? If soldiers deserted the army, they would usually be offered a pardon as long as they returned, and if they did not return, they were threatened with big consequences. On the rare occasion, they were even threatened with a death penalty.

Chances of Survival from battles, disease, etc?

Who Serves?
The Draft Act of 1863 was the act signed by Lincoln that required that all male citizens and aliens planning on becoming citizens between 25-40 years of age be prepared to be drafted. They could, however, be exempt by being in a particular job, having a physical disability, hiring

someone else to go instead, and just paying $300.



Other people other than soldiers were effected by the war.

What did the people left behind do?

How did the war effect everyone?
Women: Because the men left for the war, they would be left with all the work. They would have to do all the household chores and try Economy: to support their family without their husbands. The single women of the particular generation that went off to war, however, had a hard time finding husbands. Families: The Civil War was not just a war between places that had different opinions. It was a war between families. They could have been fighting with their literal families, who were separated by the bitter conflict. Also, it was a war inside a country that had once People Near the Battlefield: People who lived in homes near locations where battles were fought were very unlucky. Their houses were at a risk of being destroyed because the generals in the war wanted to practice the idea of total war, which was to basically destroy everything until the other people surrendered. The economy was actually increasing, especially in military goods, but still, the soldier’s were first priority for goods. been united, making it a war between “families”.



The Effects of the Civil War on the Union
Negative: Many people died. Lincoln was assassinated. There was confusion as to how the country should be reconstructed/rejoined and how the Southerners should be treated. Lots of work ahead.

Positive: The Union was reestablished Economy went up Military goods Supplies for soldiers Slavery was abolished Also, the Civil War showed the North and everyone involved that the North and South were both equally passionate about their beliefs. It showed that they were very different, making it a big job to put them together as a country.

The Civil War
made a really big impact on the North. It affected it economically, socially, etc.

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Opinion on Reconstruction
Purpose: To get the South to have full loyalty to the Union To have a unified nation To build up the South’s value/ economy To give rights to the now free African Americans Benefits: Unity Equality Helping other people (Southerners and African Americans) Mistakes: People keep disagreeing Too lenient/strict on the South?

Could have enforced it more for the rights of African Americans An Idea of a Good Reconstruction Solution: Only after more than 50% of the population pledges allegiance to the Union can a state send representatives to government. Delegates must be new. Only after voiding secession can the people be pardoned. The enforcement of all the rights allowed to white males being allowed for African Americans.

After the war,
Reconstruction was a big thing. It was something that needed to occur because the South’s economy and worth had decreased incredibly, and reconstructing the nation was required in order for them to once again be a strong, united nation.

The Reconstruction of the United States


Works Cited
"Battle of Shiloh." The Civil War. Son of the South. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http:// www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/battle-of-shiloh.htm>. "Battle Summary Manassas, First, VA." National Park Service. U.S. Department of the Interior. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http://www.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/ va005.htm>. "Battle Summary Shiloh." National Park Service. U.S. Department of the Interior. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http://www.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/tn003.htm>. "Black Soldiers in the Civil War." U.S. Archives and Records Administration. U.S. Archives and Records Administration. Web. 08 Nov. 2011. <http://www.archives.gov/education/ lessons/blacks-civil-war/>. Danzer, Gerald A., J. Jorge Klor De Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, and Nancy Woloch. The Americans. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, 2009. Print. "Desertion In The Civil War Armies." The Home of the American Civil War. 10 Feb. 2002. Web. 08 Nov. 2011. <http://www.civilwarhome.com/desertion.htm>. "First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)." History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http://www.history.com/topics/battle-of-first-bull-run>. "Irvin McDowell." EHistory at OSU. Ohio State University. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http:// ehistory.osu.edu/uscw/features/people/bio.cfm?PID=51>. "Life In A Civil War Army Camp." The Home of the American Civil War. 10 Feb. 2002. Web. 08 Nov. 2011. <http://www.civilwarhome.com/camplife.htm>. Ryan, Joe. "Gettysburg Battle American Civil War July 1863." American Civil War. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http://americancivilwar.com/getty.html>. Stifakis, Steward. "Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain Biography." The Home of the American Civil War. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http://www.civilwarhome.com/jlchamberlainbio.htm>. "The Battle of Shiloh, 1862" EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com (2004). "The Draft in the Civil War." United States American History. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http:// www.u-s-history.com/pages/h249.html>. "The First Battle of Bull Run, 1861", EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com (2004). "Ulysses S. Grant." The White House. The White House. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http:// www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ulyssessgrant>.