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# Principles of Heat Exchanger Design (iv)

## : Heat Transfer with Applications by Kirk D. Hagen

(1).
--- (i) (ii) Fouriers law (iii) Newtons law of cooling (iv) StefanBoltzmann law (v)
(2)
--- (i) - (ii) - (iii) (iv)

(3)
--- (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(v)
(4)
(5)
-- (i) (ii)(iii)(Cf,x) friction coefficient
(iv) (v) (vi)Reynolds Analogy and Chilton-Colburn
Analogy (vii) (viii) (ix) (Tube Bank)
(6)
-- (i) (ii) (iii) Darcy--friction factor (iv) (v)
(7)
(8) --- LMTD
(9) LMTD
(10) LMTD
(11) --- Ntu
(12) Ntu

(4)
(i)
(ii)

(i)

CASE 1
t = 0.3 mm, =12 mm, L =100 mm, kcopper= 390 W/m-K, h = 50 W/m2-K
T0 = 1000C, T = 300C
m = [(2h)/(kt)]0.5 = 29.2 m-1, 0.35, : = fin efficiency = 0.97

tanh(mb)
mb

Q = kA(T0 T )m tanh(mb)

## Q = (390 W/m-K) [(0.1 m)(3x10-4 m)] (100-30)(K) (29.2 m-1) tanh(0.35)

= 8.044 (W)

= c1e-mx + c2 emx

(T0 T ) e bm
0 e bm
= bm
= 0 .668 0
c1 = bm
e + e bm
e + e bm
(T0 T ) e bm
0 e bm
c2 =
= bm
= 0 .332 0
e bm + e bm
e + e bm

## At the tip, x = 0.012 m

= T(x) T
= 0.668 (100-30) e -(29.2)(0.012) + 0.332 (100-30) e (29.2)(0.012)
= 65.90C
Ttip = 65.9 + 30 = 95.90C

1000C

CASE 2
t = 0.2 mm, =12 mm, L =100 mm, kcopper=390 W/m-K, h = 50 W/m2-K
T0 = 500C, T = 5000C
m = [(2h)/(kt)]0.5 = 35.8 m-1, 0.43, : = fin efficiency = 0.95

(T0 T ) e bm
0 e bm
= bm
= 0 .702 0
c1 = bm
bm
bm
e +e
e +e
(T0 T ) e bm
0 e bm
= bm
= 0 .298 0
c2 =
bm
bm
bm
e +e
e +e

## At the tip, x = 0.012 m

= T(x) T
= [(0.702) e -(35.8)(0.012) + (0.298) e (35.8)(0.012)] (50-500)
= - 4110C
Ttip = - 411 + 500 = 890C

500C !

CASE 3
t = 0.2 mm, =12 mm, L =100 mm, kcopper=390 W/m-K, h = 200 W/m2-K
T0 = 500C, T = 5000C
m = [(2h)/(kt)]0.5 = 71.6 m-1, 0.86, : = fin efficiency = 0.83

(T0 T )e bm
0 ebm
c1 = bm bm = bm bm = 0.848 0
e +e
e +e
(T0 T )e bm
0 e bm
c2 = bm bm = bm bm = 0.152 0
e +e
e +e

## At the tip, x = 0.012 m

= T(x) T
= [(0.848) e -(71.6)(0.012) + (0.152) e (71.6)(0.012)] (50-500)
= - 3230C
Ttip = - 323 + 500 = 1770C

500C!

(ii)

Case 1:
t = 0.3 mm, Ro = 20 mm, Ri = 8 mm, kcopper= 390 W/m-K, h = 50 W/m2-K
m = [(2h)/(kt)]0.5 = 29.2 m-1,
:

= m(Ro-Ri) = 0.35,

## = fin efficiency = 0.93

Case 2:
, If h = 200 W/m2-K (increased by fourfold)
m = [(2h)/(kt)]0.5 = 58.5 m-1,
Ri/Ro = 0.4
:

= m(Ro-Ri) = 0.702,

## = Q/Qmax = fin efficiency = 0.82

Qmax !
!

h Qmax

Ri/Ro = 0.4

fin
!

h
h()
()

h
()

500C

1500C
500C

1500C

:
(i)
(ii)
fin
(iii)

1500C

(1) ()

(400C)

(copper, 0.4 mm )

40 mm

10000C

82 mm

Plate Fin

## (k = 390 W/m-K, t = 0.4 mm )

(T2 = 400C)
h2 = 10 W/m2-K
2L
=

40
m

500C

(T1 = 10000C)
h1 = 20 W/m2-K

(Tb)
800C ?

where T ,mean

T ( x) T ,mean
Tb T ,mean

cosh[m( L x)]
=
cosh(mL)

h1T1 + h2T2
= mean fluid temperature
= 6800 C
h1 + h2

h1 + h2
= 13.87 (m 1 ) , cosh(mL) = 1.0387
kt

## on the center line : x = L

cosh[m( L x)]
T ( L) = T ,mean + (Tb T ,mean )
cosh(mL)
= 1020 C

()

Q = (Ti-T1)/[1/(hiAi)] = (Ti-T1)/[1/(2r1Lhi)]
(Ti-T1) = Q [1/(2r1Lhi)] = Q Rth,conv1

Q
Ti

Tth,conv1 T1

2r2

Q = (T1-T2)/[ln(r2/r1)/2k1L]
(T1-T2) = Q [ln(r2/r1)/2k1L] = Q Rth,1

Q = 0 At ho (T2 To )

(T2 T0 ) = Q [1 /( 0 At ho )] Q R th , conv 2

Tth,1 T2 Tth,conv2 To

2r1
1
2
To (gas)

## Ti To = Q [Rth,conv1 + Rth,1 + Rth,conv2]

= Q Rth,total

Q = (Ti To)/Rth,total
Rth,total = Rth,conv1 + Rth,1 + Rth,conv2
Ti (liquid)

Ai = 2r1L

## Ui = Overall heat transfer coefficient based on Ai = 1/(Rth,totalAi)

= 1/[(Rth,conv1 + Rth,1 + Rth,conv2)Ai]
=

1 /[(

1 /[

## At = total external surface area (fin area+ base area)

1
ln( r2 / r1 )
1
+
+
) Ai ]
o ho At
hi Ai
2k1 L

A
1 Ai ln( r2 / r1 )
1
+
+
( i )]
2 k1 L
hi
o ho At

=
=

1
ln( r2 / r1 )
1
+
+
) At ]
hi Ai
o ho At
2 k 1 L
A ln( r2 / r1 )
1 A
1
1 /[ ( t ) + t
+
]
2 k 1 L
hi Ai
o ho

1 /[(

U !

hi ho

()

(
)hi ho

(h0)
T2 < 1000C
P2

T1 ,P1 m

1000C

1000C

## Q = () = ( m : ) x (cp: ) x (T2 - T1)

Qmax = = () x () x (1000C - T1)
Effectiveness () = Q / Qmax ,

## () Ntu = At U0/(m cp)min

U0 = Ntu ( m cp)min/At

h0

m m h0

U0 h0
:

At ln( r2 / r1 )
1 At
1
U o = 1 /[ ( ) +
+
]
hi Ai
2 k 1 L
o ho
1
1 /[
]
o ho
o ho
Note:

1 At
(
)
hi Ai

At ln( r2 / r1 )
2k1 L

8 fins / in

f/4

7.75 fins / in

f/4

St Pr

2/3

Nu
=(
)Pr 2/3
Re Pr
h
=
Pr 2/3
c p U

(U)

5/8