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Chapter 7 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS

Professor Hisham Z. Massoud

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Fitzpatrick Center, Room 3521 Duke University, Durham, NC 27708–0291

massoud@ee.duke.edu

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.1

Chapter 7 – BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS

7.1.

Introduction

7.2.

Integrated-Circuit Bipolar Junction Transistor Structures

7.3.

Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium

7.4.

BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation

7.5.

Basic BJT Operation in the Forward-Active Mode

7.6.

BJT Static I(V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

7.7.

BJT Capacitance-Voltage C(V ) Characteristics

7.8.

BJT Dynamic I(V ) Characteristics: Charge-Control Model

7.9.

BJT Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit

7.10.

Temperature Effects

7.11.

Frequency Effects

7.12.

Switching Analysis

7.13.

BJT Breakdown

7.14.

BJT SPICE Model

7.15.

Summary

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.2

7.1. Introduction

William Shockley at Bell Labs submitted his patent for the junction transistor on June 26, 1948, and the junction transistor Patent No. 2,569,347 was issued on September 25, 1951.

Semiconductor devices in which both electrons and holes participate in the con- duction are termed bipolar devices and for this reason the junction transistor is now more commonly called the bipolar-junction transistor (BJT), or, simply, the bipolar transistor.

Shockley’s junction transistor patent included heavy doping near the contacts even though no junction transistor had yet been fabricated and demonstrated. The “existence proof” for the junction transistor was made on April 7, 1949, at Bell Labs with a Ge structure fabricated by Bob Mikulyak.

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.3

7.1. Introduction

Representation of the junction (bipolar) transistor in Shockley’s patent (2,569,347).

junction (bipolar) transistor in Shockley’s patent (2,569,347). ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.4

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.4

7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

Junction Isolation

7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures Junction Isolation ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.5
7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures Junction Isolation ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.5

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.5

7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

Junction-Isolated Bipolar Junction Transistor

BJT Structures Junction-Isolated Bipolar Junction Transistor ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.6

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.6

7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

Trench-Isolated Bipolar Junction Transistor

BJT Structures Trench-Isolated Bipolar Junction Transistor ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.7

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.7

7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

Dopant Profiles in the Bipolar Junction Transistor

BJT Structures Dopant Profiles in the Bipolar Junction Transistor ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.8

7.2. Integrated-Circuit BJT Structures

Bipolar Junction Transistor Types and Their Symbols

N P N Bipolar Transistor
N P N Bipolar Transistor
P N P Bipolar Transistor
P N P Bipolar Transistor

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.9

7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium

Energy-Band Diagram in Thermal Equilibrium

in Thermal Equilibrium Energy-Band Diagram in Thermal Equilibrium ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.10

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.10

7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium

Depletion Widths in Thermal Equilibrium

in Thermal Equilibrium Depletion Widths in Thermal Equilibrium ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.11
in Thermal Equilibrium Depletion Widths in Thermal Equilibrium ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.11
in Thermal Equilibrium Depletion Widths in Thermal Equilibrium ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.11
in Thermal Equilibrium Depletion Widths in Thermal Equilibrium ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.11
in Thermal Equilibrium Depletion Widths in Thermal Equilibrium ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.11
in Thermal Equilibrium Depletion Widths in Thermal Equilibrium ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.11

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.11

7.3. Bipolar Junction Transistor in Thermal Equilibrium

Charge Concentration, Field, and Potential Distributions

(x)

E x (x)

ψ(x)

E B C p + n p + qN d,B x − −qN a,C −
E
B C
p +
n p
+
qN
d,B
x
−qN
a,C
−qN
a,E
x
x

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.12

7.4. BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation

Bias Region Base/Emitter Junction Reverse-biased Cut-off NPN: V BE < 0 PNP: V EB <
Bias Region
Base/Emitter Junction
Reverse-biased
Cut-off
NPN: V BE
< 0
PNP: V EB < 0
Forward-biased
Forward-Active
NPN: V BE
> 0
PNP: V EB > 0
Forward-biased
Saturation
NPN: V BE
> 0
PNP: V EB > 0
Reverse-biased
Reverse-Active
NPN: V BE
< 0
PNP: V EB < 0
Base/Collector Junction
Reverse-biased
NPN: V BC < 0
PNP: V CB < 0
Reverse-biased
NPN: V BC < 0
PNP: V CB < 0
Forward-biased
NPN: V BC > 0
PNP: V CB > 0
Forward-biased
NPN: V BC > 0
PNP: V CB > 0

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.13

7.4. BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation

7.4. BJT Bias Conditions and Modes of Operation ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.14

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.14

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

v IN

E B C I I E C + p n p R L I B
E
B
C
I
I
E
C
+
p
n
p
R
L
I
B
V
V
EB
CB
IN E B C I I E C + p n p R L I B

v OUT

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.15

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

V EB

E B C I E I C p + n p I B
E B
C
I E
I C
p +
n
p
I B

V CB

Forward-Active Region V EB E B C I E I C p + n p I

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.16

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Variable Region Type E vac (x) E c (x) E i (x) E v (x)
Variable
Region Type
E vac (x)
E c (x)
E i (x)
E v (x)
E Fn (x)
E Fp (x)
E x (x)
ψ(x)
Built-in Voltages
Emitter Region
p +
Base Region
n
Collector Region
p
E vac,E (x)
E vac,B (x)
E vac,C (x)
E c,E (x)
E i,E (x)
E v,E (x)
E c,B (x)
E i,B (x)
E v,B (x)
E c,C (x)
E i,C (x)
E v,C (x)
E F n,E (x)
E F p,E (x)
E x,E (x)
ψ E (x)
E F n,B (x)
E F p,B (x)
E x,B (x)
ψ B (x)
E F n,C (x)
E F p,C (x)
E x,C (x)
ψ C (x)
V bi,E/B
V bi,C/B

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7.17

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Variable n(x) p(x) Dopant Concentration Emitter Region n E (x) p E (x) N Base
Variable
n(x)
p(x)
Dopant Concentration
Emitter Region
n E (x)
p E (x)
N
Base Region
n B (x)
p B (x)
Collector Region
n C (x)
p C (x)
+
a,E
N d,B
N a,C
+
Equi. Maj. Carrier Conc.
p E = N
n E = n
n
B ◦ = N
p
C ◦ = N
a,E
d,B
a,C
2
2
+
2
Equi. Min. Carrier
Conc.
/N
p
B = n /N
n
C = n /N
i
a,E
i
d,B
i
a,C
Depletion Width W d
W d,E (V EB )
W d,B/E (V EB )
W d,C (V CB )
W d,B/C (V CB )
Minority Carrier Mobility
Minority Carrier Diffusivity
Minority Diffusion Length
Minority Carrier Lifetime
µ n,E
µ p,B
µ n,C
D n,E
D p,B
D n,C
L n,E
L p,B
L n,C
τ n,E
τ p,B
τ n,C

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.18

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Energy-Band Diagram
Energy-Band Diagram

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.19

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Depletion Widths

BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region Depletion Widths ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors
BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region Depletion Widths ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors
BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region Depletion Widths ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors
BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region Depletion Widths ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors
BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region Depletion Widths ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors
BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region Depletion Widths ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.20

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-Carrier Distributions

E B C p + n p n E (x) p B (x) ◦ n
E
B
C
p +
n
p
n E (x)
p B (x)
n C
p B
n C (x)
n E
−W
0
W B +W C
E
W B

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.21

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Terminal Currents E B C + p n p → I C → I E
Terminal Currents
E
B
C
+
p
n
p
→ I C
→ I E
↓ I B

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.22

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Electron and Hole Transport, Generation, and Recombination

E B C + I n,C p n p I scg,C/B I rec,B I scr,E/B
E
B
C
+
I n,C
p
n
p
I
scg,C/B
I rec,B
I
scr,E/B
I n,E
I
p,C
I
rec,B
I
scr,E/B
I
n,E

I p,C

I scg,C/B

I n,C

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7.23

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Detailed Current Components

E B C + I n,C p n p I scg,C/B I rec,B I scr,E/B
E
B
C
+
I n,C
p
n
p
I
scg,C/B
I rec,B
I
scr,E/B
I n,E
I
I
p,C
p,C
I
p,E
I
I
scg,C/B
rec,B
I
n,C
I scr,E/B
I n,E

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7.24

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Detailed Current Components

Current Voltage Dependence exp(qV EB /k B T) I p,E Description of Current Component Hole
Current
Voltage Dependence
exp(qV EB /k B T)
I p,E
Description of Current Component
Hole diffusion current injected from emitter into
base
Electron diffusion current injected from base into
emitter
exp(qV EB /k B T)
I n,E
Emitter-base space-charge recombination current exp(qV EB /2k B T)
I scr,E/B
I rec,B Current due to recombination of injected minority-
carrier holes with majority-carrier electrons in the
neutral base region
exp(qV EB /k B T)
I p,C Portion of I p,E injected from the emitter into the
base which diffuses across the base and flows in the
collector and is given by I p,C = I p,E − I rec,B
exp(qV EB /k B T)
Collector-base space-charge generation current exp(qV CB /2k B T)
I scg,C/B
exp(qV CB /k B T)
I n,C
Current in the C/B junction due to the diffusion
of electrons from collector to base and due to the
diffusion of holes form collector to base

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7.25

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

and

I E = I p,E + I n,E + I scr,E/B ,

I C = I p,C + I n,C + I scg,C/B ,

I B

= I E I C ,

= I p,E + I n,E + I scr,E/B I p,C + I n,C + I scg,C/B ,

= I p,C + I rec,B + I n,E + I scr,E/B I p,C + I n,C + I scg,C/B ,

= I n,E + I scr,E/B + I rec,B I scg,C/B I n,C .

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.26

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Current Gain

The base transport factor α T is defined as the ratio of the hole current that reaches the collector to the hole current that enters the base region from the emitter. It is defined as

α T I p,C

I

p,E

= I p,E I rec,B

I

p,E

= 1 I rec,B

I

p,E

.

The emitter efficiency γ E is defined as the ratio of the emitter current injected into the base region to the total emitter current. It is given by

γ E I p,E

I

E

=

I p,E

.

I p,E + I n,E + I scr,E/B

The common-base current gain α F is defined as the ratio of the hole collector current to the total emitter current. It is given by

α F I p,C

I

E

=

I p,C

=

I p,E + I n,E + I scr,E/B

I p,E I p,E + I n,E + I scr,E/B

· I p,C

I p,E = γ E α T .

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.27

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

The common-base current gain is less than one and is generally found to be near 0.998. Although the current gain in the common-base configuration is less than unity, the output voltage is very large compared to the input voltage.

In good transistor design, all base-current components are made as small as possible. Since the electron diffusion current injected into the emitter I n,E does not give any collector current, it will be seen to be minimized by doping the emitter with a very large acceptor concentration for the pnp BJT. Space-charge recombination current I scr,E/B is emitter-base current which does not contribute to the collector current so that steps are taken to minize space-charge recombination in the emitter-base junction. Also, the base-region recombination current I rec,B represents the loss of holes which are injected into the base by the emitter, and the base region is made thin to minimize this current. Therefore, bipolar transistors are designed to make these currents, which flow in the base lead, small as compared to I p,E , the hole diffusion current injected from the emitter into the base.

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.28

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

The collector current I C is given by

I C = I p,C + I n,C + I scg,C/B ,

= α F I E + I n,C + I scg,C/B ,

= α F I E + I CBO ,

where I CBO is the collector-base reverse saturation current when the emitter is open (so that I E = 0).

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.29

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-Carrier Distribution in the Base Region

W
W
Region Minority-Carrier Distribution in the Base Region W E p + B n C p W

E

p

+

B

n

C

p

W

d,B/E

d,B/C

0

W B

x

in the Base Region W E p + B n C p W d,B/E d,B/C 0

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.30

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-Carrier Distribution in the Base Region

We assume that the base width W B is smaller than the minority-carrier diffusion length L p,B of holes in the base region of a pnp transistor, (W B < 0.1L p,B ). The minority- carrier concentration goes to zero at the edge of the depletion region at the base- collector junction because this junction is reverse-biased. We assume that

or that

that

and

W d,B/E < W B ,

W d,B/C < W B ,

W d,B/E 0 ,

W B W d,B/C W B ,

p B (0)

p B exp qV k B EB T ,

p B (W B ) 0 .

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7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-Carrier Distribution in the Base Region

We can then write that for a linear distribution of minority carriers in the base region going from p B exp(qV EB /k B T ) at x 0 to p B exp(qV CB /k B T ) at x W B in the form

p B (x) = p B exp qV EB p B exp qV CB

k B T

k B T

1

W B + p B exp qV CB ,

x

k B T

=

p B exp qV k B EB T 1

p B exp qV k B EB T 1

W B + p B exp qV CB

x

k B T

W B .

x

x

W B ,

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7.32

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Minority-Carrier Charge Stored in the Base Region

The net charge stored in the base region Q n,B (C) is given by

Q p,B (V EB , V CB ) = q

A W B [p B (x) p B ] dx ,

0

=

q A W B p B exp qV k B EB T 1

0

W B dx

x

+ q A W B p B exp qV k B CB T

0

W B dx q A W B p B dx ,

x

0

=

+

q A p

B W B

p B exp qV k B EB T

q A p

2

B

W B

2

p B exp qV k B CB T q A p B W B .

and for V CB < 0, we can write that

Q p,B (V EB ) q A p

2

B

W B

exp qV k B EB T

q A W B n

2 N

+

d,B

2 i exp qV k B EB T .

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7.33

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Emitter-Base Current

The emitter-base hole diffusion current is found from the expression for p B (x) as

I p,E = q A D p,B dp B (x)

dx

x=W d,B/E

,

=

=

q A D p,B p B exp qV k B EB T

q A D p,B n

W B N

+

d,B

2 i exp qV k B EB T .

W B ,

1

The emitter-base electron diffusion current is found from the expression for

I n,E = q A D n,E dn E (x)

dx

x=W d,E

,

= q A D n,E n E exp qV k B EB T

1

= q A D n,E n W E N

a,E

2 i exp qV k B EB T 1 .

W E ,

1

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7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Base Recombination Current

The recombination of the injected minority carriers in the base region is obtained from the continuity equation of holes which is written as

∂p B (x) ∂t

=

1

∂J p,B (x)

q ∂x

+ (G p,B R p,B ) = 0 ,

in steady state. With no external source of generation, we can write that G p,B = 0 and the continuity equation becomes

dJ p,B (x)

dx

Integration of this equation yields

= q R p,B = q [p B (x) p

B ]

τ p,B

.

J p,B (W B )


J p,B (0)

dJ p,B (x) =

τ p,B W B

q

0

[p B (x) p B ] dx .

The integral on the left-hand side gives I rec,B which is then given by

I rec,B = A[J p,B (W B )

J

p,C

J p,B (0) ] =

J

p,E

τ p,B W B

q A

0

p B exp qV k B EB T 1

W B dx .

x

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.35

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Base Recombination Current

Integration gives

I rec,B = I p,E I p,C ,

=

=

=

τ p,B p

q A

B

exp qV k B EB T x

q A W B n

d,B exp qV EB

i

+

k B T

2

2 τ p,B N

Q p,B

.

τ p,B

,

2

2W B

x

W B

0

,

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.36

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Collector Current

The collector hole current is the difference between the hole current injected into the base and the base recombination current, or

I p,C = I p,E I rec,B ,

=

q A D p,B n

2

i

W B N

+

d,B

exp qV k B EB T

q A W B n

d,B exp qV EB

i

+

k B T

2

2 τ p,B N

.

The collector current for the emitter open and the collector-base junction reverse-biased is the reverse saturation current given by

2

i

I n,C = q A D n,C n W C N

a,C

.

The total collector current is the sum of I p,C and I n,C given by

I C I p,C + I n,C = I p,E I rec,B + I n,C I p,E ,

for I p,E > I rec,B > I n,C . The collector current I C may be written as

I C I p,E = q A D p,B n

W B N

+

d,B

2 i exp qV k B EB T .

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7.37

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Collector Current

or that

2

i

I C q A W B n

2 N

+

d,B

exp qV k B EB T

Q p,B

which permits writing I C as

2 D p,B

2

B

W

I C Q p,B 2 D p,B

2

B

W

Q p,B

τ t,B

,

,

where τ t,B is the base transit time. This equation emphasizes that the collector current is directly proportional to the charge stored in the base region.

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7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Base Transit Time

The velocity of holes in the base region is given by v p,B (x). The hole flux in the base F p,B is written as

F p,B (x) = v p,B (x) p B (x) = v p,B (x) p B exp qV k B EB T 1

The flux is multiplied by A and q to give

I p,B = q A v p,B (x) p B exp qV k B EB T 1

W B ,

x

W B .

x

which is also given by the expression for the diffusion current

I p,B = q A D p,B dp B (x)

dx

=

q A D p,B p

B

W B

exp qV k B EB T .

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Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.39

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

By equating these two expressions for I p,B we find that the hole velocity can then be expressed as

v p,B (x) =

D

p,B

W B 1

W B =

x

The base transit time is given by

D

p,B

(W B x) .

τ t,B = W B

0

dx

(x) = W B

0

v

p,B

(W B x)

D

p,B

dx =

2

B

W

2 D p,B

.

If W B is 1 µm and D p,B is 1 cm 2 /s, then τ t,B is 5 × 10 9 s.

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7.40

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Gummel Number

The Gummel number G N is defined as

G N W B

0

+

N d,B (x) .dx

It accounts for position-dependent dopant profiles in the base region. In the case of a

+

uniformly doped base region, then G N = N d,B W B . The collector current is rewritten as

I C q A D p,B n

W B N +

d,B

2 i exp qV k B EB T

q A D p,B n

G

N

2 i exp qV k B EB T .

In the absence of recombination in the base region, the collector current is inversely proportional to the integrated base doping, and the smaller the Gummel number, the higher the collector current for a given V EB . Typical values of G N in high-performance bipolar junction transistors range from 10 12 to 10 13 cm 3 .

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.41

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Evaluation of the Common-Base Current Gain α F

We derive an expression to evaluate the common-base current gain. For V EB > 3k B T /q, the 1 term in the diffusion current expressions may be neglected. By cancellation of common terms qA, the emitter efficiency for the bipolar transistor becomes

γ E

=

=

=

I p,E

I p,E + I n,E + I scr,E/B ,

1

1 + I n,E

I

p,E

+ I scr,E/B

I

p,E

,

1

1 + D n,E N

d,B W B

+

D p,B N a,E W E

N +

W B W d,EB exp(qV EB /2k B T)

+ d,B

2

n i D p,B τ p,B exp(qV EB /k B T)

1

1 + D n,E N

d,B W B

+

D p,B N a,E W E

N +

+ d,B W B W d,EB

2 n i L

2

p,B

exp 2k qV B EB T ,

where W d,EB = W d,E + W d,B/E .

,

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.42

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Evaluation of the Common-Base Current Gain α F

The expression for γ E shows that increasing the ratio of emitter doping to base doping,

i.e. making N

d,B + , decreases the electron current from the base into the emitter

a,E N

so that γ E approaches unity. The term due to space-charge recombination has a voltage

dependence as exp(qV EB /2k B T ) in the denominator. As V EB increases, the effect of space-charge recombination on γ E will be reduced. The base transport factor α T is given by

α T

= 1 I rec,B

I p,E

,

= 1

= 1

q A W B n

2 N

i

+ d,B W B

2 τ p,B N

+

d,B

q A D p,B n

2

i

2

B

W

2 L

2

p,B

.

,

It is clear that the base transport factor approaches unity for W B L p,B .

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.43

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )

Minority-carrier hole concentration p B (x) in the base region of a pnp transistor for

an open emitter to give I CBO

a shorted emitter-base junction to give V EB = 0.

B O • a shorted emitter-base junction to give V E B = 0. ECE216 Chapter

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.44

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region in the base region of a pnp transistor
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region in the base region of a pnp transistor
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region in the base region of a pnp transistor

in

the base region of a pnp transistor biased in the forward-active region with increasing val- ues of V EB and a reverse-biased collector-base junction.

Minority-carrier hole concentration p B (x)

junction. Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x ) ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.45

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )

Minority-carrier hole concentration p B (x)

the base region of a pnp transistor biased in the forward-active region showing the effects of increasing the reverse bias of the collector-

in

base junction on the width of the base region, while V EB is kept constant.

the width of the base region, while V E B is kept constant. ECE216 Chapter 7

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.46

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )

Minority-carrier hole concentration p B (x)

the base region of a pnp transistor biased in the forward-active region showing the effects

of changing V EB when V CB = 0.

in

the effects of changing V E B when V C B = 0. in ECE216 Chapter

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.47

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )

Minority-carrier hole concentration p B (x)

the base region of a pnp transistor biased in the saturation region with both junctions

forward-biased.

in

in the saturation region with both junctions forward-biased. in ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.48

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region

Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )
Bias-Dependence of Carrier Distributions in the Base Region Minority-carrier hole concentration p B ( x )

Minority-carrier hole concentration p B (x)

the base region of a pnp transistor biased in the cut-off region with both the emitter-base

and collector-base junctions reverse-biased.

in

the emitter-base and collector-base junctions reverse-biased. in ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors 7.49

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.49

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Common-Emitter Current Gain β F in a P N P Transistor

In a common-emitter configuration, the input current is the base current I B and the output current is the collector current I C and their ratio is of interest.

is the collector current I C and their ratio is of interest. ECE216 Chapter 7 –
is the collector current I C and their ratio is of interest. ECE216 Chapter 7 –

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.50

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Common-Emitter Current Gain β F in a P N P Transistor

We can write that

I B = I E I C = (I p,E + I n,E + I scr,E/B ) (I p,C + I n,C ) .

Neglecting the collector-base reverse-bias saturation current I n,C which is very small for Si transistors, we can write that

I B = (I p,E + I n,E + I scr,E/B ) (I p,E I rec,B ) = I n,E + I scr,E/B + I rec,B .

By arraning the bipolar junction transistor in the common-emitter configuration, the output current I C is much larger than the input current I B . The collector current is written as

I C = I p,C + I n,C = α T I p,E + I n,C = α F I E + I CBO .

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.51

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Common-Emitter Current Gain β F in a P N P Transistor

The emitter current is given by

We can then write that

I E = I B + I C .

I C = α F (I B + I C ) + I CBO ,

or that

I C (1 α F ) = α F I B + I CBO ,

and

I C =

α

F

(1 α F ) I B +

I

CBO

(1 α F ) ,

where I CBO I B for Si transistors. The ratio of I C to I B is known as the common- emitter current gain β F defined as

β F I C =

I

B

α F

(1 α F ) .

The collector-emitter leakage current for I B = 0 is represented by the second term as

I CEO

I CBO

(1 α F ) .

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.52

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Common-Emitter Current Gain β F in a P N P Transistor

In most bipolar transistors, α F approaches unity, which means that β F can be much greater than 1, and I CEO will be much larger than I CBO . For example, when α F = 0.98, then β F = 49.0. The usefulness of the bipolar transistor in the common-emitter configuration is that a small base current can control a much larger collector current.

The variation of β F with V EB or the collector current indicates that at small values of I C , β F does not become relatively constant until the space-charge recombination current I scr,E/B is much smaller than the diffusion current I p,E . At larger values of I C , β F decreases due to high-level-injection effects which give a diffusion current variation as exp(qV EB /2k B T ).

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.53

7.5. P N P BJT Basic Operation in the Forward-Active Region

Common-Emitter Configuration and Bias with an N P N Transistor

Common-Emitter Configuration and Bias with an N P N Transistor ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction
Common-Emitter Configuration and Bias with an N P N Transistor ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.54

7.6. BJT Static I(V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

Basic Model

The Ebers-Moll model is the most commonly used static model for the bipolar junction transistor. It is the basis for the model used in SPICE. Space-charge generation and recombination currents are not included in this model but these currents can be readily added. Carrier recombination in the base region is included.

We consider an NPN transistor in this analysis. The terminal currents I C , I E , and I B are expressed in terms of the terminal voltages V BE and V BC . We divide this problem in two parts by applying each voltage at a time, solve for the resulting currents, and then use superposition to combine the two solutions into the total solution. The currents obtained are labeled forward when V BE is applied and V BC = 0, and reverse when V BC is applied and V BE = 0.

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.55

7.6. BJT Static I(V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

The forward current I F is given for the base-emitter junction as

I F = I n,E + I p,E = I BE·S exp qV k B BE T

1 ,

where I BE·S is the base-emitter junction saturation current, and V BE is the base-to- emitter voltage.

The reverse current I R is given for the base-collector junction as

I R = I n,C + I p,C = I BC·S exp qV k B BC T

1 ,

where I BC·S is the base-collector junction saturation current, and V BC is the base-to- collector voltage.

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.56

7.6. BJT Static I(V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

The interaction of the two junctions in a bipolar junction transistor results from the thin-base region which results in a fraction of the emitter current reaching the collector and vice versa.

The collector current I C is expressed in terms of I F and I R as

I C = α F I F I R ,

where α F I F is the part of the collector current due to the base-emitter junction and I R the part due to the base-collector junction. The emitter current I E expressed in terms of I F and I R as

I E = I F α R I R ,

where I F is the part of the emitter current due to the base-emitter junction and α R I R that duet to the base-collector junction.

The base current is given by

I B = I E I C = (1 α F )I F + (1 α R )I R .

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.57

7.6. BJT Static I(V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model

7.6. BJT Static I ( V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction
7.6. BJT Static I ( V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction
7.6. BJT Static I ( V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction
7.6. BJT Static I ( V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction
7.6. BJT Static I ( V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model ECE216 Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction

ECE216

Chapter 7 – Bipolar Junction Transistors

7.58

7.6. BJT Static I(V ) Characteristics: Ebers-Moll Model