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US.D.civilWarProject.donghyunKoo

US.D.civilWarProject.donghyunKoo

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TWO BROTHERS

November 5th 2011 Donghyun Koo Block D

Problems for the brothers.
CIVIL WAR QUOTES

"A rich man's war and a poor man's fight..." Southern opposition slogan, in The Civil War by Shelby Foote
2

"A chicken could not live on that field when we open on it." Porter Alexander, commander of Longstreet's artillery battalion, at Fredericksburg, Virginia, December, 1862
3

Continued on Page 5

TABLE OF CONTENT

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2

ORDER OF CONTENT
ORDER
1. Section 1 - Readying for War -Brief summery of the resources and preparation that the Union and Confederate side went through before the actual war occurred. 2. Section 2 - Commanders and Conflict - Generals, Robert E.Lee, Albert S. Johnston, Lewis A. Armistead - Battles of Gettysburg, Shiloh, and 1st Battle of Bull Run 3. Section 3 - Americans During the Civil War - Conditions in which the Soldiers had to endure during the war - Women, Africans during the War 4. Section 4 - The Aftermath of the Civil War - Effects of the War - Total cost of the War - Reconstruction and its failure 5. Section 5 - Biblography

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SECTION 1: READYING FOR WAR

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3

Exploration of the preparation and resources of Confederates
NORTH VS SOUTH
On paper, the union was superior in every single aspect(resource wise) to the confederates. There were approximately 21 million people living in the North, while only 9 million, including 3.5 million slaves, in the South. However despite, this “setback” the confederates had an equal or sometimes greater sized army in the first years of the war. This was because both sides of the army, were widely comprised of volunteers from the states. It was during the civil war, that the old lottery method of electing and forming an army proved ineffective because many of the rich people elected to fight the war, just paid poor people to avoid fighting.
UNION CONFEDERA TES

Total Population Free Population Soldiers Railroad length Industrial production Firearm production Shoe, Cloth production

22100000

9100000

217000000

5600000

2100000 35064km

1064000 14223km

Luckily for the confederates though, they were not completely scarce of resources. Although they were no match to the Union in any single aspect, the South were self-sufficient in their agriculture. They were also starting to build up factories, and mills to set the foundation for their own industrial productions. Apart from that the South possessed many experienced generals and military leaders that have already gone through other wars and led them, for example the Mexican War. Such generals including, Robert. E. Lee and Samuel Cooper, already possessed plenty of experience before the civil war occurred. On the other hand the Union army did not possess a noteworthy general or commander. The Union generals including General Sheridan, Grant, Sherman and Hooker were all relatively new to the theme of war. Perhaps the greatest advantage that the South possessed over the North was the fact that the South was fighting to defend their own territory while the North had to conquer new land. The South were fighting for their independence while the North was fighting to become a union. It was obviously a more difficult task to win, conquer and unite the country than to simply defend your own territory.

90%

10%

97%

3%

90-94%

6-10%

SECTION 2: COMMANDERS AND CONFLICTS

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4

COMPOSITION OF CONFEDERATE ARMY
ROBERT E. LEE

Robert E. Lee, was a confederate military officer that was debatably the most qualified generals of the entire war. Born in Stratford Hall, Virginia, Lee graduated from a military college. Before the American Civil War, he took part in the Mexican-American War and the Harpers Ferry Raid. During these wars and battles, he was an influential part of the army, as his leadership capabilities led him to snatch victories that were deemed to be impossible. Upon the outbreak of the civil war, Lee was hired to command Virginia’s force, but as the Confederate army formed, he was named one of the 5 generals to lead the nation into the battle. During the Civil War, Lee led and participated in many battles including the Battle of Gettysburg, Seven Days Battles, Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Battle of Chancellorsville, Battle of the Wilderness, Battle of antietam and the Second Battle of Bull Run.
ALBERT SIDNEY JOHNSTON

quickly moved up the rank of the army after joining the Texas Army as a private in 1834. Upon the outbreak of the civil war, Johnston resigned as the commander of the U.S army in California to join and aid Texas. Unlike Robert. E Lee, Johnston was not able to participate in many battles and help the confederates win because he was killed in one of the earliest battles that he led during the Civil War, the Battle of Shiloh. Confederate President Jefferson Davis described his loss, as the turning point of the war, as they soon found themselves engaged in a prolonged war that would better suit the Northern Union.
LEWIS ADDISON ARMISTEAD

Albert Sidney Johnston, was a confederate officer that was most influential to the confederate army before the emergence of Robert.E Lee. Born in Washington, Kentucky, Johnston spent most of his life in Texas, where he considered to be home. He was also a West Point graduate that participated in the Black Hawk War, Texas Revolution, MexicanAmerican War and the Utah War before the Civil War. With his charismatic looks, he

Lewis Addison Armistead was a confederate officer during the civil war that was instrumental in capturing a number of victories over the North. Born in New Bern, North Carolina, Armistead attended the United States Military Academy but soon left as a result of conflicts with other students and academic difficulties. Before the Civil War, Armistead participated in many wars and battles, including the Mexican-American War and the Mohave War. Upon the outbreak of the civil war, he left his town army to join the confederate army. During this War, he participated and led many battles including the Battle of Seven Pines, Seven Days Battles, Battle of Fredericksburg and Battle of Gettysburg where he was fatally wounded and eventually killed.

SECTION 2 CONTINUATION

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THE ENGAGEMENTS
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG The Battle of Gettysburg, is probably the most remembered battle during the American Civil War. Result : Union victory Statistics
UNION CONFEDER ATES

Where

Adams County, Pennsylvania July, 1863.

Date

Comman der Strength Killed Wounded Missing Total Casulties

George G. Meade 93,921 3155 14531 5369 23055

Robert. E Lee 71,699 4708 12693 5830 23231

Information
TITLE EXPLANATION

Cause of battle

After victory at Chancellorsville, the confederate army had high spirits and expectations and therefore thought that they could finish off the war by invading the North.

What Happened? The Battle of Gettysburg was a 3 day battle that produced the highest number of casualties during the civil war. At first, the South seemed to be winning as the North retreated, but with the greater numbers, the North held their defense, despite countless amounts of casualties. On the last day of the Battle, there was a dramatic infantry assault by the confederates where 12500 men engaged in the Pickett’s Charge where they practically sprinted to the union army. This caused many deaths and the South was eventually forced to retreat back to Virginia. Effects: After this battle, the Southerners were exhausted in the amount of resources they could use for the rest of the war. In a sense, this was the turning point of the war, as the South could not keep up with the rapid army replacement of the North.

VS

SECTION 2 CONTINUATION

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ENGAGEMENTS
BATTLE OF SHILOH Numbers
UNION CONFEDER ATES

their troops. So using this timing, Grant launched a surprise attack up the Tennessee River.

Strength Killed Wounded Missing Total Casulties Facts

66812 1754 8408 2885 13047

44699 1728 8012 959 10699

What Happened? The Battle of Shiloh, was a 2 day battle that initially brought some success to the Confederates who attacked, but eventually the Union army were able to hold their defense and successfully achieve a victory. In this battle influential Confederate commander and general Albert Sidney Johnston died.

UNION

CONFEDER ATES

Visualization of the battle

Comman der

1. Ulysses S. Grant 2. Don Carlos Buell

1. Albert Sidney Johnsto n 2. P.G.T Beaure gard

Date

April 6, 1862- April 7, 1862 Union Victory Hardin County, Tennessee Effects: As a result of this victory, the Union army was able to secure their position on the fronts of the Western boarder, which in return gave them an advantage for the rest of the war, thus allowing them to win the war.

Result Location

Cause : The Battle of Shiloh was caused because after continued losses at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, both sides of the war needed to reorganize

SECTION 2 CONTINUATION

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ENGAGEMENTS
1ST BATTLE OF BULLRUN Numbers
UNION CONFEDER ATES

Strength

2800035000 460 1124 1312

3200034000 387 1582 13

Killed Wounded Missing Facts

UNION

CONFEDER ATES

Comman der

Irvin Mcdowell

1. Joseph E. Johnsto n 2. P.G.T Beaure gard

Result Location

Confederate Victory Fairfax county, Prince William county, Virginia

Effects: Because of the fact that it was one of the first battles fought in the war, this war reflected to both sides how bloody this war was going to be. This battle showed the North that the war was not going to be an easy war that they could sleep their way through.

Cause: The First Battle of Bull1861 was caused when the Date July 21, Run union army became offensive and tried to attack the confederates. They were out-massed and eventually they lost.

SECTION 2 CONTINUATION

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Minority Groups
AFRICAN AMERICANS

"Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letters, U.S., let him get an eagle on his button, and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pockets, and there is no power on earth which can deny that he has earned the right to citizenship in the United States." - Frederick Douglass
The African Americans took a vital role in aiding each respective “nation” into victory and losses. Despite racism and prejudices that existed, African Americans in most cases, in the union, were promised an opportunity for freedom if they participated in the war. In the confederate states however, they were often just forced to fight because of the numerical disadvantage that they had. They often did the most dangerous or unpleasant jobs because of racism and prejudice that the white men possessed, but nevertheless, their role was vital in providing a great bulk to the nation’s force.

workplace and fight the war, women began to fill in those kinds of positions and became a dominant force in society. Although it was mostly upper class educated men that god jobs, it nevertheless still showed that women were becoming more and more dominant as a result of the war.

WOMEN Although it may not seem like it women played a vital role during the civil war. Some women secretly disguised their gender and enlisted themselves in the army to fight for their country. Apart from that an estimated 3000 women held positions as nurses. At first, men were reluctant to have women nursing. One famous women during the civil war was Clara Barton. She later on became the founder of the Red-Cross organization. During the war however, she nursed wounded soldiers and assisted soldiers medical operation’s on the battlefield. In addition to that, because many men were forced to leave their In conclusion, it was becoming more and more clear that America as a whole was becoming more and more tolerant to their minorities. Immigrants, slaves, and women were beginning to show that they are capable of being just like white-men.

SECTION 3: AMERICANS DURING THE CIVIL WAR

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9

Maecenas pulvinar sagittis enim.

Rhoncus tempor placerat.

WAR CONDITIONS

The camp life for the confederate army was horrible. As a result of the poor transportation and communication system installed by the government, many soldiers had to endure days without any food or water. Even when they were victorious, they did not receive any benefits from the government. Consequently their survival rate was very low. At the end of the war, it is estimated that 20% of the Southern White men died as a direct result of the Civil War. Boredom arose as a direct result of prolonged hours of “nothingness” and starvation. They began to gamble, drink and visit prostitutes to alleviate their stress. In addition to that most men became homesick after years on the battlefield. Especially for the confederate army that lacked man power, many men were forced to stay until their death or the end of the war. Soldiers spent the majority of their time writing letters and waiting to receive a reply.

AT HOME

As for the people left behind, mainly women, African-Americans and other immigrants, they were forced to work and supply the need for the battlefields. The confederate army recruited about 1250000 men, while the union army recruited around 2500000 men. Because this was such a vital part of the population, mothers, daughters, wives and slaves were forced to do work that they would not necessarily do. Many women took up jobs as factory workers, clerks and school teachers.

The pictures illustrated above shows that men were not present in most family gatherings or at home. Most jobs were done by the female head of the family.

SECTION 4: THE AFTERMATH OF THE CIVIL WAR

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10

EFFECTS + RECONSTRUCTIONS
EFFECTS There were so many immediate and longterm consequences of the American Civil War, that it would practically be impossible to list out all of them. But here are some of the major ones. 1. Numbers
UNION CONFEDERA TES

3. Economy
(IN MILLION DOLLARS IN 1860 MONEY) UNION CONFEDERATE S

Killed(in battle) Killed(disea se, starvation,e tc) Wounded 2.

140414

72524

Government expenditures Physical destruction Loss of human capital

2302

1032

-

1487

365000

260000

1064

767

275200

137000

Emancipation Proclamation Although the Emancipation Proclamation was declared prior to the end of the war, it was only after the war that the border states and those located in previous confederate territory became free-states by law. Despite efforts to promote equality by the Northern states, the Southern states still resented the African Americans, and openly blamed the entire civil war on them. They passed laws such as the black codes and organized clans to go against the blacks such as the KKK.

Decline in consumption Emancipation effects Cotton price effects Total Cost of Civil War

1149

6190

1960

1670

5846

4515

SECTION 4 CONTINUATION

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RECONSTRUCTION
PURPOSE & FAILURE The purpose of the Reconstruction Era after the American Civil War, was to unite the country and put down a solid foundation for the Nation’s economic and social well-being. Most, if not practically all of the Reconstruction efforts were towards the South, because the South did not have a very strong industrial or manufacturing foundation. Unfortunately, despite many hopes and beliefs, the Reconstruction Era for the Confederates was difficult and bitter and in return only caused more animosity and resentment towards the North. In addition to that the Radical Republicans of the North, wanted to punish the South more than aid them so, to sum up, the Reconstruction failed. CHRONOLOGICAL TIMELINE 1865 13th Amendment approved. Abolished slavery in country Mississippi enacts Black Codes 1866 - 14th Amendment to the constitution approved by congress 1867 - 1st, 2nd and 3rd Reconstruction Act passed over by Johnston’s veto 1868 - John W. Menard becomes first Black representative to speak in the house 1870 - 15th Amendment ratified. Gave vote to all male citizens regardless of color or previous servitude.

BETTER SOLUTION 1871 - 2 black members in House A perhaps better solution that of Representative would not have caused more hatred and animosity between the North and the South would have been to temporarily suggest to the Southerners to migrate to the North in search for factory or industrial jobs. This in return could have benefited the South because these people could learn and imitate it in the South.

SECTION 5: BIBLIOGRAPHY
Quotes of the Civil War. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://cwquotes.blogspot.com/>. "Strengths and Weaknesses: North vs. South [ushistory.org]." Ushistory.org. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://www.ushistory.org/us/33b.asp>.

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1865, April. "American Civil War History - Cost Of The American Civil War | What It Costs." Historical | What It Costs. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://historical.whatitcosts.com/facts-us-civil-war-pg2.htm>. "Robert Edward Lee Biography." The American Civil War Home Page. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://www.civilwarhome.com/leebio.htm>. "General Lewis A. Armistead." Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://pw1.netcom.com/~buck1755/lewarm.htm>. "Albert S. Johnston Biography." The American Civil War Home Page. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://www.civilwarhome.com/ASJohnston.htm>. "Battle of Gettysburg." The History Place. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://www.historyplace.com/civilwar/battle.htm>. "Description of the Battle of Shiloh." The American Civil War Home Page. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://www.civilwarhome.com/shilohdescription.htm>. "The First Battle of Bull Run, 1861." EyeWitness to History - History through the Eyes of Those Who Lived It. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/bullrun.htm>. "Black Soldiers in the Civil War." National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/blacks-civil-war/>. "Women of the American Civil War Era." American Civil War History Timelines Battle Map Pictures. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://americancivilwar.com/women/women.html>. The Collector, 1234 Main Street, Any Town, State ZIP | 123-456-7890 | www.apple.com/iwork

SECTION 5: BIBLIOGRAPHY

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"U.S. Civil War Effects on People: Primary Sources." Kentucky Educational Television: Explore Kentucky. Explore the World. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://www.ket.org/civilwar/primary.html>. "Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)." National Museum of American History. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/timeline/pres_era/3_656.html>. "Civil War and Reconstruction." Mr. Burnett's Classroom. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <http://www.mrburnett.net/civilwar.html>. All Images were licensed for usage thus will not include in this section.

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