RULES OF COURT _________

Pursuant to the provisions of Section 5(5) of Article !!! of the Constitution" the Supre#e Court here$% a&opts an& pro#ul'ates the follo(in' rules concernin' the protection an& enforce#ent of constitutional ri'hts" plea&in'" practice an& proce&ure in all courts" the a&#ission to the practice of la(" the !nte'rate& )ar" an& le'al assistance to the un&erprivile'e&*

RULE 1

GENERAL PROVISIONS
SECT!O+ ,- Title of the Rules-.These Rules shall $e /no(n an& cite& as the Rules of Court- (,) SEC- 0- In what courts applicable-.These rules shall appl% in all courts" e1cept as other(ise provi&e& $% the Supre#e Court- (n) SEC- 2- Cases governed-.These Rules shall 'overn the proce&ure to $e o$serve& in actions" civil or cri#inal" an& special procee&in's(a) A civil action is one $% (hich a part% sues another for the enforce#ent or protection of a ri'ht" or the prevention or re&ress of a (ron'- (,a" R0) A civil action #a% either $e or&inar% or special- )oth are 'overne& $% the rules for or&inar% civil actions" su$3ect to the specific rules prescri$e& for a special civil action- (n) ($) A cri#inal action is one $% (hich the State prosecutes a person for an act or o#ission punisha$le $% la(- (n) (c) A special procee&in' is a re#e&% $% (hich a part% see/s to esta$lish a status" a ri'ht" or a particular fact- (0a" R0) SEC- 4- In what cases not applicable-.These Rules shall not appl% to election cases" lan& re'istration" ca&astral" naturali5ation an& insolvenc% procee&in's" an& other cases not herein provi&e& for" e1cept $% analo'% or in a suppletor% character an& (henever practica$le an& convenient- (R,42a) SEC- 5- Commencement of action-.A civil action is co##ence& $% the filin' of the ori'inal co#plaint in court- !f an a&&itional &efen&ant is i#plea&e& in a later plea&in'" the action is co##ence& (ith re'ar& to hi# on the &ate of the filin' of such later plea&in'" irrespective of (hether the #otion for its a&#ission" if necessar%" is &enie& $% the court- (6a)

SEC- 6- Construction-.These Rules shall $e li$erall% construe& in or&er to pro#ote their o$3ective of securin' a 3ust" spee&% an& ine1pensive &isposition of ever% action an& procee&in'- (0a)

PART I C! !L ACT!O+S
ORDINARY CIVIL ACTIONS

RULE 2

CAUSE OF ACTION
SECT!O+ ,- Ordinary civil actions, basis of..Ever% or&inar% civil action #ust $e $ase& on a cause of action- (n) SEC- 0- Cause of action, defined -.A cause of action is the act or o#ission $% (hich a part% violates a ri'ht of another- (n) SEC- 2- One suit for a single cause of action -.A part% #a% not institute #ore than one suit for a sin'le cause of action- (2a) SEC- 4- Splitting a single cause of action; effect of. .!f t(o or #ore suits are institute& on the $asis of the sa#e cause of action" the filin' of one or a 3u&'#ent upon the #erits in an% one is availa$le as a 'roun& for the &is#issal of the others- (4a) SEC- 5- oinder of causes of action..A part% #a% in one plea&in' assert" in the alternative or other(ise" as #an% causes of action as he #a% have a'ainst an opposin' part%" su$3ect to the follo(in' con&itions* (a) The part% 3oinin' the causes of action shall co#pl% (ith the rules on 3oin&er of parties7 ($) The 3oin&er shall not inclu&e special civil actions or actions 'overne& $% special rules7 (c)8here the causes of action are $et(een the sa#e parties $ut pertain to &ifferent venues or 3uris&ictions" the 3oin&er #a% $e allo(e& in the Re'ional Trial Court provi&e& one of the causes of action falls (ithin the 3uris&iction of sai& court an& the venue lies therein7 an& (&) 8here the clai#s in all the causes of action are principall% for recover% of #one%" the a''re'ate a#ount clai#e& shall $e the test of 3uris&iction(5a)

SEC- 6- !is"oinder of causes of action -.9is3oin&er of causes of action is not a 'roun& for &is#issal of an action- A #is3oine& cause of action #a%" on #otion of a part% or on the initiative of the court" $e severe& an& procee&e& (ith separatel%- (n)

RULE 3

PARTIES TO CIVIL ACTIONS
SECT!O+ ,- #ho may be parties; plaintiff and defendant -.Onl% natural or 3uri&ical persons" or entities authori5e& $% la( #a% $e parties in a civil action- The ter# :plaintiff; #a% refer to the clai#in' part%" the counter<clai#ant" the cross<clai#ant" or the thir& (fourth etc-).part% plaintiff- The ter# :&efen&ant; #a% refer to the ori'inal &efen&in' part%" the &efen&ant in a counterclai#" the cross<&efen&ant" or the thir& (fourth" etc-).part% &efen&ant- (,a) SEC- 0- $arties in interest-.A real part% in interest is the part% (ho stan&s to $e $enefite& or in3ure& $% the 3u&'#ent in the suit" or the part% entitle& to the avails of the suit- Unless other(ise authori5e& $% la( or these Rules" ever% action #ust $e prosecute& or &efen&e& in the na#e of the real part% in interest- (0a)SEC- 2- Representatives as parties- .8here the action is allo(e& to $e prosecute& or &efen&e& $% a representative or so#eone actin' in a fi&uciar% capacit%" the $eneficiar% shall $e inclu&e& in the title of the case an& shall $e &ee#e& to $e the real part% in interest- A representative #a% $e a trustee of an e1press trust" a 'uar&ian" an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" or a part% authori5e& $% la( or these Rules- An a'ent actin' in his o(n na#e an& for the $enefit of an un&isclose& principal #a% sue or $e sue& (ithout 3oinin' the principal e1cept (hen the contract involves thin's $elon'in' to the principal- (2a) SEC- 4- Spouses as parties-.=us$an& an& (ife shall sue or $e sue& 3ointl%" e1cept as provi&e& $% la(- (4a) SEC- 5- !inor or incompetent persons-.A #inor or a person alle'e& to $e inco#petent" #a% sue or $e sue&" (ith the assistance of his father" #other" 'uar&ian" or if he has none" a 'uar&ian ad litem- (5a) SEC- 6- $ermissive "oinder of parties..All persons in (ho# or a'ainst (ho# an% ri'ht to relief in respect to or arisin' out of the sa#e transaction or series of transactions is alle'e& to e1ist" (hether 3ointl%" severall%" or in the alternative" #a% e1cept as other(ise provi&e& in these Rules" 3oin as plaintiffs or $e 3oine& as &efen&ants in one co#plaint" (here an% >uestion of la( or fact co##on to all such plaintiffs or to all such &efen&ants #a% arise in the action7 $ut the court #a% #a/e such or&ers as #a% $e 3ust to prevent an% plaintiff or &efen&ant fro# $ein' e#$arrasse& or put to e1pense in connection (ith an% procee&in's in (hich he #a% have no interest- (6) SEC- ?- Compulsory "oinder of indispensable parties -.Parties in interest (ithout

(ho# no final &eter#ination can $e ha& of an action shall $e 3oine& either s plaintiffs or &efen&ants- (?) SEC- @- %ecessary party-.A necessar% part% is one (ho is not in&ispensa$le $ut (ho ou'ht to $e 3oine& as a part% if co#plete relief is to $e accor&e& as to those alrea&% parties" or for a co#plete &eter#ination or settle#ent of the clai# su$3ect of the action(@a) SEC- A- %on&"oinder of necessary parties to be pleaded -.8henever in an% plea&in' in (hich a clai# is asserte& a necessar% part% is not 3oine&" the plea&er shall set forth his na#e" if /no(n" an& shall state (h% he is o#itte&- Shoul& the court fin& the reason for the o#ission un#eritorious" it #a% or&er the inclusion of the o#itte& necessar% part% if 3uris&iction over his person #a% $e o$taine&The failure to co#pl% (ith the or&er for his inclusion" (ithout 3ustifia$le cause" shall $e &ee#e& a (aiver of the clai# a'ainst such part%The non<inclusion of a necessar% part% &oes not prevent the court fro# procee&in' in the action" an& the 3u&'#ent ren&ere& therein shall $e (ithout pre3u&ice to the ri'hts of such necessar% part%- (@a" Aa) SEC- ,B- 'nwilling co&plaintiff-. !f the consent of an% part% (ho shoul& $e 3oine& as plaintiff can not $e o$taine& " he #a% $e #a&e a &efen&ant an& the reason therefor shall $e state& in the co#plaint- (,B) SEC- ,,- !is"oinder and non&"oinder of parties -.+either #is3oin&er nor non<3oin&er of parties is 'roun& for &is#issal of an action- Parties #a% $e &roppe& or a&&e& $% or&er of the court on #otion of an% part% or on its o(n initiative at an% sta'e of the action an& on such ter#s as are 3ust- An% clai# a'ainst a #is3oine& part% #a% $e severe& an& procee&e& (ith separatel%- (,,a) SEC- ,0- Class suit-.8hen the su$3ect #atter of the controvers% is one of the co##on or 'eneral interest to #an% persons so nu#erous that it is i#practica$le to 3oin all as parties" a nu#$er of the# (hich the court fin&s to $e sufficientl% nu#erous an& representative as to full% protect the interests of all concerne& #a% sue or &efen& for the $enefit of all- An% part% in interest shall have the ri'ht to intervene to protect his in&ivi&ual interest- (,0a) SEC- ,2- (lternative defendants-.8here the plaintiff is uncertain a'ainst (ho of several persons he is entitle& to relief" he #a% 3oin an% or all of the# as &efen&ants in the alternative" althou'h a ri'ht to relief a'ainst one #a% $e inconsistent (ith a ri'ht of relief a'ainst the other- (,2a) SEC- ,4- 'n)nown identity or name of defendant -.8henever the i&entit% or na#e of a &efen&ant is un/no(n" he #a% $e sue& as the un/no(n o(ner" heir" &evisee" or $% such other &esi'nation as the case #a% re>uire7 (hen his i&entit% or true na#e is &iscovere&" the plea&in' #ust $e a#en&e& accor&in'l%- (,4) SEC- ,5- *ntity without "uridical personality as defendant -.8hen t(o or #ore persons not or'ani5e& as an entit% (ith 3uri&ical personalit% enter into a transaction" the% #a% $e sue& un&er the na#e $% (hich the% are 'enerall% or co##onl% /no(n-

!n the ans(er of such &efen&ant the na#es an& a&&resses of the persons co#posin' sai& entit% #ust all $e reveale&- (,5a) SEC- ,6- +eath of party; duty of counsel-.8henever a part% to a pen&in' action &ies" an& the clai# is not there$% e1tin'uishe&" it shall $e the &ut% of his counsel to infor# the court (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after such &eath of the fact thereof" an& to 'ive the na#e an& a&&ress of his le'al representative or representatives- Failure of counsel to co#pl% (ith this &ut% shall $e a 'roun& for &isciplinar% actionThe heirs of the &ecease& #a% $e allo(e& to $e su$stitute& for the &ecease&" (ithout re>uirin' the appoint#ent of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator an& the court #a% appoint a 'uar&ian ad litem for the #inor heirsThe court shall forth(ith or&er sai& le'al representative or representatives to appear an& $e su$stitute& (ithin a perio& of thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# notice!f no le'al representative is na#e& $% the counsel for the &ecease& part% or if the one so na#e& shall fail to appear (ithin the specifie& perio&" the court #a% or&er the opposin' part%" (ithin a specifie& ti#e" to procure the appoint#ent of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator for the estate of the &ecease& an& the latter shall i##e&iatel% appear for an& on $ehalf of the &ecease&- The court char'es in procurin' such appoint#ent" if &efra%e& $% the opposin' part%" #a% $e recovere& as costs- (,6a" ,?a) SEC- ,?- +eath or separation of a party who is a public officer -.8hen a pu$lic officer is a part% in an action in his official capacit% an& &urin' its pen&enc% &ies" resi'ns" or other (ise ceases to hol& office" the action #a% $e continue& an& #aintaine& $% or a'ainst his successor if" (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after the successor ta/es office or such ti#e as #a% $e 'rante& $% the court" it is satisfactoril% sho(n to the court $% an% part% that there is a su$stantial nee& for continuin' or #aintainin' it an& that the successor a&opts or continues or threatens to a&opt or continue the action of his pre&ecessor- )efore a su$stitution is #a&e" the part% or officer to $e affecte&" unless e1pressl% assentin' thereto" shall $e 'iven reasona$le notice of the application therefor an& accor&e& an opportunit% to $e hear&- (,@a) SEC- ,@- Incompetency or incapacity-.!f a part% $eco#es inco#petent or incapacitate&" the court" upon #otion (ith notice" #a% allo( the action to $e continue& $% or a'ainst the inco#petent or incapacitate& person assiste& $% his le'al 'uar&ian or 'uar&ian ad litem- (,Aa) SEC- ,A- Transfer of interest-.!n case of an% transfer of interest" the action #a% $e continue& $% or a'ainst the ori'inal part%" unless the court upon #otion &irects the person to (ho# the interest is transferre& to $e su$stitute& in the action or 3oine& (ith the ori'inal part%- (0B) SEC- 0B- (ction on contractual money claims -.8hen the action is for recover% of #one% arisin' fro# contract" e1press or i#plie&" an& the &efen&ant &ies $efore entr% of final 3u&'#ent in the court in (hich the action (as pen&in' at the ti#e of such &eath" it shall not $e &is#isse& $ut shall instea& $e allo(e& to continue until entr% of final 3u&'#ent- A favora$le 3u&'#ent o$taine& $% the plaintiff therein shall $e enforce& in the #anner especiall% provi&e& in these Rules for prosecutin' clai#s a'ainst the estate of a

(0.2.Indigent party-.(00a)SEC.0.All other actions #a% $e co##ence& an& trie& (here the plaintiff or an% of the principal plaintiffs resi&es" or (here the &efen&ant or an% of the principal &efen&ants resi&es" or in the case of a non<resi&ent &efen&ant (here he #a% $e foun&" at the election of the plaintiff.00..%otice to the Solicitor -eneral-...(02a) RULE 4 VENUE OF ACTIONS SECT!O+ .A part% #a% $e authori5e& to liti'ate his action" clai# or &efense as an in&i'ent if the court" upon an e.!n an% action involvin' the vali&it% of an% treat%" la(" or&inance" e1ecutive or&er" presi&ential &ecree" rules or re'ulations" the court" in its &iscretion" #a% re>uire the appearance of the Solicitor Ceneral (ho #a% $e hear& in person or throu'h a representative &ul% &esi'nate& $% hi#.enue of real actions-.DaE" 0DaEa) SEC.enue of actions against nonresidents -..(0D$Ea) SEC.!f the pa%#ent is not #a&e (ithin the ti#e fi1e& $% the court" e1ecution shall issue or the pa%#ent thereof" (ithout pre3u&ice to such other sanctions as the court #a% i#pose.!f the court shoul& &eter#ine after hearin' that the part% &eclare& as an in&i'ent is in fact a person (ith sufficient inco#e or propert%" the proper &oc/et an& other la(ful fees shall $e assesse& an& collecte& $% the cler/ of court.0. parte application an& hearin'" is satisfie& that the part% is one (ho has no #one% or propert% sufficient an& availa$le for foo&" shelter an& $asic necessities for hi#self an& his fa#il%Such authorit% shall inclu&e an e1e#ption fro# pa%#ent of &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" an& of transcripts of steno'raphic notes (hich the court #a% or&er to $e furnishe& hi#.!f an% of the &efen&ants &oes not resi&e an& is not foun& in the Philippines" an& the action affects the personal status of the plaintiff" or an% propert% of sai& &efen&ant locate& in the Philippines" the action #a% ..a) SEC.Actions affectin' title to or possession of real propert%" or interest therein" shall $e co##ence& an& trie& in the proper court (hich has 3uris&iction over the area (herein the real propert% involve&" or a portion thereof" is situate&Forci$le entr% an& &etainer actions shall $e co##ence& an& trie& in the #unicipal trial court of the #unicipalit% or cit% (herein the real propert% involve&" or a portion thereof" is situate&.(.The a#ount of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees (hich the in&i'ent (as e1e#pte& fro# pa%in' shall $e a lien on an% 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in the case favora$le to the in&i'ent" unless the court other(ise provi&esAn% a&verse part% #a% contest the 'rant of such authorit% at an% ti#e $efore 3u&'#ent is ren&ere& $% the trial court.&ecease& person.enue of personal actions-.

2.#hen Rule not applicable-..This Rule shall not appl%.(2a) .a) SEC.The proce&ure in the 9unicipal Trial Courts shall $e the sa#e as in the Re'ional Trial Courts" e1cept (a) (here a particular provision e1pressl% or i#plie&l% applie& onl% to either of sai& courts" or ($) in civil cases 'overne& $% the Rule on Su##ar% proce&ure.part% co#plaint" or co#plaint<in< interventionThe &efenses of a part% are alle'e& in the ans(er to the plea&in' assertin' a clai# a'ainst hi#An ans(er #a% $e respon&e& to $% a repl%.4.The clai#s of a part% are asserte& in a co#plaint" counterclai#" cross<clai#" thir& (fourth" etc-).(n) SEC.(.(0DcEa) SEC.0. (a) !n those cases (here a specific rule or la( provi&es other(ise7 or ($) 8here the parties have vali&l% a'ree& in (ritin' $efore the filin' of the action on the e1clusive venue thereof.a) PROCEFURE !+ REC!O+AL TR!AL COURTS RULE 6 KINDS OF PLEADINGS SECT!O+ .$leadings allowed-.'niform procedure-.The co#plaint is the plea&in' alle'in' the plaintiffGs cause or causes of action.(2a" 5a) RULE 5 UNIFORM PROCEDURE IN TRIAL COURTS SECT!O+ .0.. as use& in these Rules shall inclu&e 9etropolitan Trial Courts" 9unicipal Trial Courts in Cities" 9unicipal Trial Courts" an& 9unicipal Circuit Trial Courts.Complaint-.$e co##ence& an& trie& in the court of the place (here the plaintiff resi&es" or (here the propert% or an% portion thereof is situate& or foun&.$leadings defined-.(.!eaning of terms-.The na#es an& resi&ences of the plaintiff an& &efen&ant #ust $e state& in the co#plaint.The ter# :9unicipal Trial Courts.(n) SEC.Plea&in's are the (ritten state#ents of the respective clai#s an& &efenses of the parties su$#itte& to the court for appropriate 3u&'#ent.

An ans(er is a plea&in' in (hich a &efen&in' part% sets fourth his &efenses.SEC.A co#pulsor% counterclai# is one (hich" $ein' co'ni5a$le $% the re'ular courts of 3ustice" arises out of or is connecte& (ith the transaction or occurrence constitutin' the su$3ect #atter of the opposin' part%Gs clai# an& &oes not re>uire for its a&3u&ication the presence of thir& parties of (ho# the court cannot ac>uire 3uris&iction.(n) SEC.(n) SEC..4.+efenses-.Such cross<clai# #a% inclu&e a clai# that the part% a'ainst (ho# it is asserte& is or #a% $e lia$le to the cross<clai#ant for all or part of a clai# asserte& in the action a'ainst the cross<clai#ant.The affir#ative &efenses inclu&e frau&" statute of li#itations" release pa%#ent" ille'alit%" statute of frau&s" estoppel" for#er recover%" &ischar'e in $an/ruptc%" an& an% other #atter $% (a% of confession an& avoi&ance.Cross&claim.) SEC. etc.Reply-.A thir& (fourth" etc-).A counterclai# #a% $e asserte& a'ainst an ori'inal counter<clai#antA cross<clai# #a% also $e file& a'ainst an ori'inal cross<clai#ant.Such a counterclai# #ust $e (ithin the 3uris&iction of the court $oth as to the a#ount an& the nature thereof" e1cept that in an ori'inal action $efore the Re'ional Trial Court" the counterclai# #a% $e consi&ere& co#pulsor% re'ar&less of the a#ount..(.Fefenses #a% either $e ne'ative or affir#ative(a) A ne'ative &efense is the specific &enial of the #aterial fact or facts alle'e& in the plea&in' of the clai#ant essential to his cause or causes of action($) An affir#ative &efense is an alle'ation of a ne( #atter (hich" (hile h%potheticall% a&#ittin' the #aterial alle'ations in the plea&in' of the clai#ant (oul& nevertheless prevent or $ar recover% $% hi#.(.A cross<clai# is an% clai# $% one part% a'ainst a co<part% arisin' out of the transaction or occurrence that is the su$3ect #atter either of the ori'inal action or of a counterclai# therein.(6a) SEC.Compulsory counterclaim-.B.6.part% &efen&ant" for contri$ution" in&e#nit%" su$ro'ation or an% other relief" in respect of his opponentGs clai#.Third.A counterclai# is an% clai# (hich a &efen&in' part% #a% have a'ainst an opposin' part%.0a) SEC. /fourth.0...A repl% is a plea&in'" the office or function of (hich is to &en%" or alle'e facts in &enial or avoi&ance of ne( #atters alle'e& $% (a% of &efense in the ans(er an& there$% 3oin or #a/e issue as to such ne( #atters.party complaint-..?.(?) SEC.8hen the presence of parties other than those to ..0.ACounterclaims and counter&cross&claims -.(4a) SEC.(nswer-.(5a) SEC.@.5.1ringing new parties-.part% co#plaint is a clai# that a &efen&in' part% #a%" (ith leave of court" file a'ainst a person not a part% to the action" calle& the thir& (fourth" etc-).!f a part% &oes not file such repl%" all the ne( #atters alle'e& in the ans(er are &ee#e& controverte&!f the plaintiff (hishes to interpose an% clai#s arisin' out of the ne( #atters so alle'e& such clai#s shall $e set forth in an a#en&e& or supple#ental co#plaint..Counterclaim-.

The caption sets forth the na#e of the court" the title of the action" an& the &oc/et nu#$er if assi'ne&The title of the action in&icates the na#es of the parties.02party complaint.The $o&% of the plea&in' sets forth its &esi'nation" the alle'ations of the part%Gs clai#s or &efenses" the relief pra%e& for" an& the &ate of the plea&in'. of the secon& $% :secon& cause of action"..(2a) ($) 3eadings2#hen t(o or #ore causes of action are 3oine&" the state#ent of the first shall $e preface& $% the (or&s :first cause of action".(nswer to third /fourth.The% shall all $e na#e& in the ori'inal co#plaint or petition7 $ut in su$se>uent plea&in's" it shall $e sufficient if the na#e of the first part% on each si&e $e state& (ith an appropriate in&ication (hen there are other partiesTheir respective participation in the case shall $e in&icate&.0.A para'raph #a% $e referre& to $% its nu#$er in all succee&in' plea&in's.2The plea&in' shall specif% the relief sou'ht" $ut it #a% a&& a 'eneral pra%er for such further or other relief as #a% $e &ee#e& 3ust or e>uita$le(2a" R6) .!n proper cases" he #a% also assert a counterclai# a'ainst the ori'inal plaintiff in respect of the latterGs clai# a'ainst the thir&<part% plaintiff.(.. .Caption-. an& so on7 an& (hen one or #ore para'raphs of the ans(er are a&&resse& to several causes of action" the% shall $e preface& $% (or&s to that effect.The alle'ations in the $o&% of a plea&in' shall $e &ivi&e& into para'raphs so nu#$ere& as to $e rea&il% i&entifie&" each of (hich shall contain a state#ent of a sin'le set of circu#stances so far as that can $e &one (ith convenience.(.4) SEC.A thir& (fourth" etc-). an& so on for the others8hen one or #ore para'raphs in the ans(er are a&&resse& to one of several causes of action in the co#plaint" the% shall $e preface& $% the (or&s :ans(er to the first cause of action. etc.2.the ori'inal action is re>uire& for the 'rantin' of co#plete relief in the &eter#ination of a counterclai# or cross<clai#" the court shall or&er the# to $e $rou'ht in as &efen&ants" if 3uris&iction over the# can $e o$taine&.a"0a) SEC.(n) (a) $aragraphs-. or :ans(er to the secon& cause of action.The body-.part% plaintiff #a% have a'ainst the ori'inal plaintiffGs clai#.(4) (c) Relief.(n) RULE 7 PARTS OF A PLEADING SECT!O+ . part% &efen&ant #a% alle'e in his ans(er his &efenses" counterclai#s or cross<clai#s" inclu&in' such &efenses that the thir& (fourth" etc-).

(4a) SEC.(n) SEC.The su$#ission" of a false certification or non<co#pliance (ith an% of the un&erta/in's therein shall constitute in&irect conte#pt of court" (ithout pre3u&ice to the correspon&in' a&#inistrative an& cri#inal actions. or lac/s a proper verification" shall $e treate& as an unsi'ne& plea&in'.2Ever% plea&in' #ust $e si'ne& $% the part% or counsel representin' hi#" statin' in either case his a&&ress (hich shoul& not $e a post office $o1The si'nature of counsel constitutes a certificate $% hi# that he has rea& the plea&in'7 that to the $est of his /no(le&'e" infor#ation" an& $elief there is 'oo& 'roun& to support it7 an& that it is not interpose& for &ela%An unsi'ne& plea&in' pro&uces no le'al effect.Counsel (ho &eli$eratel% files an unsi'ne& plea&in'" or si'ns a plea&in' in violation of this Rule" or alle'es scan&alous or in&ecent #atter therein" or fails to pro#ptl% report to the court a chan'e of his a&&ress" shall $e su$3ect to appropriate &isciplinar% action.4.Signature and address.5..2E1cept (hen other(ise specificall% re>uire& $% la( or rule" plea&in's nee& not $e un&er oath" verifie& or acco#panie& $% affi&avitA plea&in' is verifie& $% an affi&avit that the affiant has rea& the plea&in' an& that the alle'ations therein are true an& correct of his personal /no(le&'e or $ase& on authentic recor&sA plea&in' re>uire& to $e verifie& (hich contains a verification $ase& on :infor#ation an& $elief".Certification against forum shopping.=o(ever" the court #a%" in its &iscretion" allo( such &eficienc% to $e re#e&ie& if it shall appear that the sa#e (as &ue to #ere ina&vertence an& not inten&e& for &ela%.!f the acts of the part% or his counsel clearl% constitute (illful an& &eli$erate foru# shoppin'" the sa#e shall $e 'roun& for su##ar% &is#issal (ith pre3u&ice an& shall constitute &irect conte#pt" as (ell as a cause for a&#inistrative sanctions.(5a) SEC.The plaintiff or principal part% shall certif% un&er oath in the co#plaint or other initiator% plea&in' assertin' a clai# for relief" or in a s(orn certification anne1e& thereto an& si#ultaneousl% file& there(ith* (a) that he has not theretofore co##ence& an% action or file& an% clai# involvin' the sa#e issues in an% court" tri$unal or >uasi<3u&icial a'enc% an&" to the $est of his /no(le&'e" no such other action or clai# is pen&in' therein7 ($) if there is such other pen&in' action or clai#" a co#plete state#ent of the present status thereof7 an& (c) if he shoul& thereafter learn that the sa#e or si#ilar action or clai# has $een file& or is pen&in'" he shall report that fact (ithin five (5) &a%s therefro# to the court (herein his aforesai& co#plaint or initiator% plea&in' has $een file&Failure to co#pl% (ith the fore'oin' re>uire#ents shall not $e cura$le $% #ere a#en&#ent of the co#plaint or other initiator% plea&in' $ut shall $e cause for the &is#issal of the case (ithout pre3u&ice" unless other(ise provi&e&" upon #otion an& after hearin'.2.2Ever% plea&in' shall $e &ate&. or upon :/no(le&'e" infor#ation an& $elief".(&) +ate.(n) .erification. .

2 8henever an action or &efense is $ase& upon a (ritten instru#ent or &ocu#ent" the su$stance of such instru#ent or &ocu#ent shall $e set forth in the plea&in'" an& the ori'inal or a cop% thereof shall $e attache& to the plea&in' as an e1hi$it" (hich shall $e &ee#e& to $e a part of the plea&in'" or sai& cop% #a% (ith li/e effect $e set forth in the plea&in'.(ction or defense based on document.(?) SEC.@.0.2.udgment.6.A part% &esirin' to raise an issue as to the le'al e1istence of an% part% or the capacit% of an% part% to sue or $e sue& in a representative capacit%" shall &o so $% specific &enial" (hich shall inclu&e such supportin' particulars as are peculiarl% (ithin the plea&erGs /no(le&'e.Capacity.RULE 8 MANNER OF MAKING ALLEGATIONS IN PLEADINGS SECT!O+ .4raud.(0) SEC.2 !n all aver#ents of frau& or #ista/e" the circu#stances constitutin' frau& or #ista/e #ust $e state& (ith particularit%.(.8hen t(o or #ore state#ents are #a&e in the alternative an& one of the# if #a&e in&epen&entl% (oul& $e sufficient" the plea&in' is not #a&e insufficient $% the insufficienc% of one or #ore of the alternative state#ents..(2) SEC.4.2!n plea&in' a 3u&'#ent or &ecision of a &o#estic or forei'n court" 3u&icial or >uasi<3u&icial tri$unal" or of a $oar& or officer" it is sufficient to aver the 3u&'#ent or &ecision (ithout settin' forth #atter sho(in' 3uris&iction to ren&er it.2Facts sho(in' the capacit% of a part% to sue or $e sue& or the authorit% of a part% to sue or $e sue& in a representative capacit% or the le'al e1istence of an or'ani5e& association of persons that is #a&e a part%" #ust $e averre&. mista)e.5. condition of the mind.(lternative causes of action or defenses.In general -.2!n an% plea&in' a 'eneral aver#ent of the perfor#ance or occurrence of all con&itions prece&ent shall $e sufficient.?.(6) SEC.(5a) SEC.Ever% plea&in' shall contain in a #etho&ical an& lo'ical for#" a plain" concise an& &irect state#ent of the ulti#ate facts on (hich the part% plea&in' relies for his clai# or &efense" as the case #a% $e" o#ittin' the state#ent of #ere evi&entiar% facts.2 A part% #a% set forth t(o or #ore state#ents of a clai# or &efense alternativel% or h%potheticall%" either in one cause of action or &efense or in separate causes of action or &efenses.9alice" intent" /no(le&'e or other con&ition of the #in& of a person #a% $e averre& 'enerall%.(4) SEC.Conditions precedent.) !f a &efense relief on is $ase& on la(" the pertinent provisions thereof an& their applica$ilit% to hi# shall $e clearl% an& concisel% state&.3ow to contest such documents.(n) SEC.28hen an action or &efense is foun&e& upon a (ritten instru#ent" copie& in or attache& to the correspon&in' plea&in' as provi&e& in the prece&in' section" the 'enuineness an& &ue e1ecution of the instru#ent shall $e &ee#e& a&#itte& unless the a&verse part%" un&er oath" specificall% &enies .

2 Upon #otion #a&e $% a part% $efore respon&in' to a plea&in' or" if no responsive plea&in' is per#itte& by these Rules" upon #otion #a&e $% a part% (ithin t(ent% (0B) &a%s after the service of the plea&in' upon hi#" or upon the courtGs o(n initiative at an% ti#e" the court #a% or&er an% plea&in' to $e stric/en out or that an% sha# or false" re&un&ant" i##aterial" i#pertinent" or scan&alous #atter $e stric/en out therefro#.Alle'ations of usur% in a co#plaint to recover usurious interest are &ee#e& a&#itte& if not &enie& un&er oath. not set up barred.a" RA) SEC.2.(4a) SEC.=o(ever" (hen it appears fro# the plea&in's or the evi&ence on recor& that the court has no 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter" that there is another action pen&in' $et(een the sa#e parties for the sa#e cause" or that the action is $arre& $% a prior 3u&'#ent or $% statute of li#itations" the court shall &is#iss the clai#.B..+efault.A.0...2!f the &efen&in' part% fails to ans(er (ithin the ti#e allo(e& therefor" the court shall" upon #otion of the clai#in' part% (ith notice to the &efen&in' part%" an& proof of such failure" &eclare the &efen&in' part% in &efault- .8here a &efen&ant &esires to &en% onl% a part of an aver#ent" he shill specif% so #uch of it as is true an& #aterial an& shall &en% onl% the re#ain&er.2 9aterial aver#ent in the co#plaint" other than those as to the a#ount of unli>ui&ate& &a#a'es" shall $e -&ee#e& a&#itte& (hen not specificall% &enie&.Official document or act.+efenses and ob"ections not plea&e&-.Fefenses an& o$3ections not plea&e& either in a #otion to &is#iss or in the ans(er are &ee#e& (aive&. or cross&claim.Compulsory counterclaim.the#" an& sets forth (hat he clai#s to $e the facts7 $ut the re>uire#ent of an oath &oes not appl% (hen the a&verse part% &oes not appear to $e a part% to the instru#ent or (hen co#pliance (ith an or&er for an inspection of the ori'inal instru#ent is refuse&(@a) SEC.(A) SEC.8here a &efen&ant is (ithout /no(le&'e or infor#ation sufficient to for# a $elief as to the truth of a #aterial aver#ent #a&e in the co#plaint" he shall so state" an& this shall have the effect of a &enial..0.(llegations not specifically denied deemed admitted..Specific denial.!n plea&in' an official &ocu#ent or official act" it is sufficient to aver that the &ocu#ent (as issue& or the act &one in co#pliance (ith la(.(.Ba) SEC. declaration of.Stri)ing out of pleading or matter contained therein.(5" RA) RULE 9 EFFECT OF FAILURE TO PLEAD SECT!O+ .2 A co#pulsor% counterclai#" or a cross<clai#" not set up shall $e $arre&..(0a) SEC..(.2A &efen&ant #ust specif% each #aterial alle'ation of fact the truth of (hich he &oes not a&#it an&" (henever practica$le" shall set forth the su$stance of the #atters upon (hich he relies to support his &enial.

(4a" R.@) (c) *ffect of partial default.(0a) SEC.2 A 3u&'#ent ren&ere& a'ainst a part% in &efault shall not e1cee& the a#ount or $e &ifferent in /in& fro# that pra%e& for nor a(ar& unli>ui&ate& &a#a'es.@) ($) Relief from order of default.28hen a plea&in' assertin' a clai# states a co##on cause of action a'ainst several &efen&in' parties" so#e of (ho# ans(er an& the others fail to &o so" the court shall tr% the case a'ainst all upon the ans(ers thus file& an& ren&er 3u&'#ent upon the evi&ence presente&.A part% #a% a#en& his plea&in' once as a #atter of ri'ht at an% ti#e $efore a responsive plea&in' is serve& or" in the case of a repl%" at an% ti#e (ithin ten (.)ut such leave .Such reception of evi&ence #a% $e &ele'ate& to the cler/ of court(.Thereupon" the court shall procee& to ren&er 3u&'#ent 'rantin' the clai#ant such relief as his plea&in' #a% (arrant" unless the court in its &iscretion re>uires the clai#ant to su$#it evi&ence.2 A part% in &efault shall $e entitle& to notice of su$se>uent procee&in's $ut not to ta/e part in the trial.(mendments by leave of court-.2 A part% &eclare& in &efault #a% at an% ti#e after notice thereof an& $efore 3u&'#ent file a #otion un&er oath to set asi&e the or&er of &efault upon proper sho(in' that his failure to ans(er (as &ue to frau&" acci&ent" #ista/e or e1cusa$le ne'li'ence an& that he has a #eritorious &efense!n such case" the or&er of &efault #a% $e set asi&e on such ter#s an& con&itions as the 3u&'e #a% i#pose in the interest of 3ustice.B) &a%s after it is serve&.Plea&in's #a% $e a#en&e& $% a&&in' or stri/in' out an alle'ation or the na#e of an% part%" or $% correctin' a #ista/e in the na#e of a part% or a #ista/en or ina&e>uate alle'ation or &escription in an% other respect" so that the actual #erits of the controvers% #a% spee&il% $e &eter#ine&" (ithout re'ar& to technicalities" an& in the #ost e1pe&itious an& ine1pensive #anner(.(mendments in general-.@) RULE 10 AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADINGS SECT!O+ .) SEC.@) (&) *.(2a" R.0.2.tent of relief to be awarded.@) (a) *ffect of order of default.@) (e) #here no defaults allowed.E1cept as provi&e& in the ne1t prece&in' section" su$stantial a#en&#ents #a% $e #a&e onl% upon leave of court.(0a" R.2!f the &efen&in' part% in an action for annul#ent or &eclaration of nullit% of #arria'e or for le'al separation fails to ans(er" the court shall or&er the prosecutin' attorne% to investi'ate (hether or not a collusion $et(een the parties e1ists" an& if there is no collusion" to intervene for the State in or&er to see to it that the evi&ence su$#itte& is not fa$ricate&.(6a" R.(mendments as a matter of ri'ht-..a" R.(5a" R.

=o(ever" a&#issions in superse&e& plea&in's #a% $e receive& in evi&ence a'ainst the plea&er7 an& clai#s or &efenses alle'e& therein not incorporate& in the a#en&e& plea&in' shall $e &ee#e& (aive&.2 An a#en&e& plea&in' superse&es the plea&in' that it a#en&s.0.(mendment to conform to or authori5e presentation of evidence -.!f evi&ence is o$3ecte& to at the trial on the 'roun& that it is not (ithin the issues #a&e $% the plea&in's" the court #a% allo( the plea&in's to $e a#en&e& an& shall &o so (ith li$eralit% if the presentation of the #erits of the action an& the en&s of su$stantial 3ustice (ill $e su$serve& there$%.2 8hen an% plea&in' is a#en&e&" a ne( cop% of the entire plea&in'" incorporatin' the a#en&#ents" (hich shall $e in&icate& $% appropriate #ar/s" shall $e file&.?.8hen issues not raise& $% the plea&in's are trie& (ith the e1press or i#plie& consent of the parties" the% shall $e treate& in all respects as if the% ha& $een raise& in the plea&in'sSuch a#en&#ent of the plea&in's as #a% $e necessar% to cause the# to confor# to the evi&ence an& to raise these issues #a% $e #a&e upon #otion of an% part% at an% ti#e" even after 3u&'#ent7 $ut failure to a#en& &oes not affect the result of the trial of these issues.(?a) SEC.4iling of amended pleadings.The &efen&ant shall file his ans(er to the co#plaint (ithin fifteen (.4.5.6.a) SEC.*ffect of amended pleadings.#a% $e refuse& if it appears to the court that the #otion (as #a&e (ith intent to &ela%Or&ers of the court upon the #atters provi&e& in this section shall $e #a&e upon #otion file& in court" an& after notice to the a&verse part%" an& an opportunit% to $e hear&.(2a) SEC.(4a) SEC.@.8here the ..Supplemental pleadings.(6a) SEC.(nswer to the co#plaint-.5) &a%s after service of su##ons" unless a &ifferent perio& is fi1e& $% the court.(nswer of a defendant foreign private "uridical entit%-.The court #a% 'rant a continuance to ena$le the a#en&#ent to $e #a&e. 2 Upon #otion of a part% the court #a%" upon reasona$le notice an& upon such ter#s asG are 3ust" per#it hi# to serve a supple#ental plea&in' settin' forth transactions" occurrences or events (hich have happene& since the &ate of the plea&in' sou'ht to $e supple#ente&.(.B) &a%s fro# notice of the or&er a&#ittin' the supple#ental plea&in'.(n) RULE 11 W EN TO FILE RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS SECT!O+ .The a&verse part% #a% plea& thereto (ithin ten (.4ormal amendments.2 A &efect in the &esi'nation of the parties an& other clearl% clerical or t%po'raphical errors #a% $e su##aril% correcte& $% the court at an% sta'e of the action" at its initiative or on #otion" provi&e& so pre3u&ice is cause& there$% to the a&verse part%.(5a) SEC.

2.(5a) SEC.(nswer to amended complaint.(A" R6) SEC.(nswer to third /fourth.2 Upon #otion an& on such ter#s as #a% $e 3ust" the court #a% e1ten& the ti#e to plea& provi&e& in these RulesThe court #a% also" upon li/e ter#s" allo( an ans(er or other plea&in' to $e file& after the ti#e fi1e& $% these Rules.6.*.B) &a%s fro# notice of the or&er a&#ittin' the sa#e" unless a &ifferent perio& is fi1e& $% the court.A.B.(@a" R6) SEC..2.5.2 A counterclai# or a cross<clai# (hich either #ature& or (as ac>uire& $% a part% after servin' his plea&in' #a%" (ith the per#ission of the court" $e presente& as a counterclai# or a cross<clai# $% supple#ental plea&in' $efore 3u&'#ent.@. etc.B) &a%s fro# service..B) &a%s fro# service of the plea&in' respon&e& to.4.2 A counterclai# or cross<clai# #ust $e ans(ere& (ithin ten (.(nswer to supplemental complaint.(6) SEC.isting counterclaim or cross<clai#-<<A co#pulsor%" counterclai# or a cross<clai# that a &efen&in' part% has at the ti#e he files his ans(er shall $e containe& therein.Counterclaim or cross&claim arising after answer.(0a) SEC.(4) SEC.2A supple#ental co#plaint #a% $e ans(ere& (ithin ten (. part% co#plaint" an& a#en&e& co#plaint<in< intervention.5) &a%s after $ein' serve& (ith a cop% thereof8here its filin' is not a #atter of ri'ht" the &efen&ant shall ans(er the a#en&e& co#plaint (ithin ten (.tension of time to plead .An ans(er earlier file& #a% serve as the ans(er to the a#en&e& co#plaint" if no ne( ans(er is file&This Rule shall appl% to the ans(er to an a#en&e& counterclai# a#en&e& cross< clai#" a#en&e& thir& (fourth" etc-).(?) .(2a" RA) SEC.2A repl% #a% $e file& (ithin ten (.&efen&ant is a forei'n private 3uri&ical entit% an& service of su##ons is #a&e on the 'overn#ent official &esi'nate& $% la( to receive the sa#e" the ans(er shall $e file& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after receipt of su##ons $% such entit%.02party complaint ...Omitted counterclaim or cross&claim.28here the plaintiff files an a#en&e& co#plaint as a #atter of ri'ht" the &efen&ant shall ans(er the sa#e (ithin fifteen (. The ti#e to ans(er a thir& (fourth" etc-).(2a) SEC.28hen a plea&er fails to set up a counterclai# or a cross<clai# throu'h oversi'ht" ina&vertence" or e1cusa$le ne'lect" or (hen 3ustice re>uires" he #a%" $% leave of court" set up the counterclai# or cross<clai# $% a#en&#ent $efore 3u&'#ent.The ans(er to the co#plaint shall serve as the ans(er to the supple#ental co#plaint if no ne( or supple#ental ans(er is file&.(a) SEC.Reply.B) &a%s fro# notice of the Or&er a&#ittin' the sa#e.part% co#plaint shall $e 'overne& $% the sa#e rule as the ans(er to the co#plaint.(nswer to counterclaim or cross&claim.?.*.

2.DaEa) RULE 13 FILING AND SERVICE OF PLEADINGS# $UDGMENTS AND OT ER PAPERS SECT!O+ .Upon the filin' of the #otion" the cler/ of court #ust i##e&iatel% $rin' it to the attention of the court (hich #a% either &en% or 'rant it outri'ht" or allo( the parties the opportunit% to $e hear&.Compliance with order.D$Ea) SEC 6.4.The $ill of particulars or a #ore &efinite state#ent or&ere& $% the court #a% $e file& either in a separate or in an a#en&e& plea&in'" servin' a cop% thereof on the a&verse part%.2!f the or&er is not o$e%e&" or in case of insufficient co#pliance there(ith" the court #a% or&er the stri/in' out of the plea&in' or the portions thereof to (hich the or&er (as &irecte& or #a/e such other or&er as it &ee#s 3ust.(n) SEC." #hen applied for.)efore respon&in' to a plea&in'" a part% #a% #ove for a &efinite state#ent or for a $ill of particulars of an% #atter (hich is not averre& (ith sufficient &efiniteness or particularit% to ena$le hi# properl% to prepare his responsive plea&in'.This Rule shall 'overn the filin' of all plea&in's an& other papers" as (ell as the service thereof" e1cept those for (hich a &ifferent #o&e of service is prescri$e&.0.!f the plea&in' is a repl%" the #otion #ust $e file& (ithin ten (.DcEa) SEC.Filin' is the act of presentin' the plea&in' or .(. purpose-.B) &a%s fro# notice of the or&er" unless a &ifferent perio& is fi1e& $% the court.RULE 12 !ILL OF PARTICULARS SECT!O+ .(ction by the court-.(n) SEC.(.(.a) SEC.(n) SEC.Coverage -.1ill a part of pleading.4iling and service.Such #otion shall point out the &efects co#plaine& of" the para'raphs (herein the% are containe&" an& the &etails &esire&.Stay of period to file responsive pleading2 After service of the $ill of particulars or of a #ore &efinite plea&in'" or after notice of &enial of his #otion" the #ovin' part% #a% file his responsive plea&in' (ithin the perio& to (hich he (as entitle& at the ti#e of filin' his #otion" (hich shall not $e less than five (5) &a%s in an% event(.0.*ffect of non&compliance.2!f the #otion is 'rante&" either in (hole or in part" the co#pliance there(ith #ust $e effecte& (ithin ten (.5.B) &a%s fro# service thereof. &efine&-..2A $ill of particulars $eco#es part of the plea&in' for (hich it is inten&e&.

The envelope shall $e attache& to the recor& of the case.!f an% part% has appeare& $% counsel" service upon hi# shall $e #a&e upon his counsel or one of the#" unless service upon the part% hi#self is or&ere& $% the court.Service of "udgments.Service $% re'istere& #ail shall $e #a&e $% &epositin' the cop% in the office" in a seale& envelope" plainl% a&&resse& to the part% or his counsel at his office" if /no(n" other(ise at his resi&ence" if /no(n" (ith posta'e full% prepai&" an& (ith instructions to the post#aster to return the #ail to the sen&er after ten (.!n the secon& case" the &ate of the #ailin' of #otions" plea&in's" or an% other papers or pa%#ents or &eposits" as sho(n $% the post office sta#p on the envelope or the re'istr% receipt" shall $e consi&ere& as the &ate of their filin'" pa%#ent" or &eposit in court.8here one counsel appears for several parties" he shall onl% $e entitle& to one cop% of an% paper serve& upon hi# $% the opposite si&e.a) SEC.2.6.other paper to the cler/ of courtService is the act of provi&in' a part% (ith a cop% of the plea&in' or paper concerne&.(?a) .2 Hu&'#ents" final or&ers or resolutions shall $e serve& either personall% or $% re'istere& #ail.(5a) SEC.(0a) SEC.!odes of service-.!f service of plea&in's" #otions" notices" resolutions" or&ers an& other papers cannot $e #a&e un&er the t(o prece&in' sections" the office an& place of resi&ence of the part% or his counsel $ein' un/no(n" service #a% $e #a&e $% &eliverin' the cop% to the cler/ of court" (ith proof of failure of $oth personal service an& service $% #ail.(.@. Ever% 3u&'#ent" resolution" or&er" plea&in' su$se>uent to the co#plaint" (ritten #otion" notice" appearance" &e#an&" offer of 3u&'#ent or si#ilar papers shall $e file& (ith the court" an& serve& upon the parties affecte&.Service of plea&in's" #otions" notices" or&ers" 3u&'#ents an& other papers shall $e #a&e either personall% or $% #ail.!f no re'istr% service is availa$le in the localit% of either the sen&er or the a&&ressee" service #a% $e &one $% or&inar% #ail. final orders.(4a) SEC.(2a) SEC. or resolutions.$apers re6uired to be filed and serve&-.B) &a%s if un&elivere&.8hen a part% su##one& $% pu$lication has faile& to appear in the action" 3u&'#ents" final or&ers or resolutions a'ainst hi# shall $e serve& upon hi# also $% pu$lication at the e1pense of the prevailin' part%.!n the first case" the cler/ of court shall en&orse on the plea&in' the &ate an& hour of filin'.The service is co#plete at the ti#e of such &eliver%.!anner of filing -.2Service of the papers #a% $e #a&e $% &eliverin' personall% a cop% to the part% or his counsel" or $% leavin' it in his office (ith his cler/ or (ith a person havin' char'e thereof.(6a) SEC.!f no person is foun& in his office" or his office is not /no(n" or he has no office" then $% leavin' the cop%" $et(een the hours of ei'ht in the #ornin' an& si1 in the evenin'" at the part%Gs or counselGs resi&ence" if /no(n" (ith a person of sufficient a'e an& &iscretion then resi&in' therein.4.(0a) SEC.A.5.?.$ersonal service.Service by mail-.The filin' of plea&in's" appearances" #otions" notices" or&ers" 3u&'#ents an& all other papers shall $e #a&e $% presentin' the ori'inal copies thereof" plainl% in&icate& as such" personall% to the cler/ of court or $% sen&in' the# $% re'istere& #ail.Substituted service-.

.B) &a%s if not &elivere&.$riorities in modes of service and filin' .(@a) SEC..(.B.2!n an action affectin' the title or the ri'ht of possession of real propert%" the plaintiff an& the &efen&ant" (hen affir#ative relief is clai#e& in his ans(er" #a% recor& in the office of the re'istr% of &ee&s of the province in (hich the propert% is situate& a notice of the pen&enc% of the action.The re'istr% return car& shall $e file& i##e&iatel% upon its receipt $% the sen&er" or in lieu thereof of the unclai#e& letter to'ether (ith the certifie& or s(orn cop% of the notice 'iven $% the post#aster to the a&&ressee.Completeness of service-.(n) SEC.Service $% re'istere& #ail is co#plete upon actual receipt $% the a&&ressee" or after five (5) &a%s fro# the &ate he receive& the first notice of the post#aster" (hichever &ate is earlier.$roof of service.8henever practica$le" the service an& filin' of plea&in's an& other papers shall $e &one personall%.!f the service is $% or&inar% #ail" proof thereof shall consist of an affi&avit of the person #ailin' of facts sho(in' co#pliance (ith section ? of this Rule..SEC..Personal service is co#plete upon actual &eliver%.Sai& notice shall contain the na#es of the parties an& the o$3ect of the action or &efense" an& a &escription of the propert% in that province affecte& there$%..(04a" R.E1cept (ith respect to papers e#anatin' fro# the court" a resort to other #o&es #ust $e acco#panie& $% a (ritten e1planation (h% the service or filin' (as not &one personall%A violation of this Rule #a% $e cause to consi&er the paper as not file&. 2The filin' of a plea&in' or paper shall $e prove& $% its e1istence in the recor& of the case.Ba) SEC.2.4) RULE 14 .B) &a%s after #ailin'" unless the court other(ise provi&es.0.4.if it is not in the recor&" $ut is clai#e& to have $een file& personall%" the filin' shall $e prove& $% the (ritten or sta#pe& ac/no(le&'#ent of its filin' $% the cler/ of court on a cop% of the sa#e7 if file& $% re'istere& #ail" $% the re'istr% receipt an& $% the affi&avit of the person (ho &i& the #ailin'" containin' a full state#ent of the &ate an& place of &epositin' the #ail in the post office in a seale& envelope a&&resse& to the court" (ith posta'e full% prepai&" an& (ith instructions to the post#aster to return the #ail to the sen&er after ten (.!f service is #a&e $% re'istere& #ail" proof shall $e #a&e $% such affi&avit an& the re'istr% receipt issue& $% the #ailin' office.Onl% fro# the ti#e of filin' such notice for recor& shall a purchaser" or encu#$rancer of the propert% affecte& there$%" $e &ee#e& to have constructive notice of the pen&enc% of the action" an& onl% of its pen&enc% a'ainst the parties &esi'nate& $% their real na#esThe notice of lis pendens hereina$ove #entione& #a% $e cancelle& onl% upon or&er of the court" after proper sho(in' that the notice is for the purpose of #olestin' the a&verse part%" or that it is not necessar% to protect the ri'hts of the part% (ho cause& it to $e recor&e&.2Proof of personal service shall consist of a (ritten a&#ission of the part% serve&" or the official return of the server" or the affi&avit of the part% servin'" containin' a full state#ent of the &ate" place an& #anner of service.%otice of lis pendens.(n) SEC.Service $% or&inar% #ail is co#plete upon the e1piration of ten (..$roof of filing..

6.The su##ons #a% $e serve& $% the sheriff" his &eput%" or other proper court officer" or for 3ustifia$le reasons $% an% suita$le person authori5e& $% the court issuin' the su##ons.8hen the service has $een co#plete&" the server shall" (ithin five (5) &a%s therefro#" serve a cop% of the return" personall% or $% re'istere& #ail" to the plaintiffGs counsel" an& shall return the su##ons to the cler/ (ho issue& it" acco#panie& $% proof of service.2 !f a su##ons is returne& (ithout $ein' serve& on an% or all of the &efen&ants" the server shall also serve a cop% of the return on the plaintiffGs counsel" statin' the reasons for the failure of service" (ithin five (5) &a%s therefro#.(Aa) SEC.Contents.(4a) SEC.?.Issuance of alias summons.(.A.SUMMONS SECT!O+ .Service in person on defendant. Service upon prisoners.!n such a case" or if the su##ons has $een lost" the cler/" on &e#an& of the plaintiff" #a% issue an alias su##ons.5.)ut such service shall not $in& in&ivi&uall% an% person (hose connection (ith the entit% has" upon &ue notice" $een severe& $efore the action (as $rou'ht. for 3ustifia$le causes" the &efen&ant cannot $e serve& (ithin a reasona$le ti#e as provi&e& in the prece&in' section" service #a% $e effecte& (a) $% leavin' copies of the su##ons at the &efen&antGs resi&ence (ith so#e person of suita$le a'e an& &iscretion then resi&in' therein" or ($) $% leavin' the copies at &efen&antGs office or re'ular place of $usiness (ith so#e co#petent person in char'e thereof.2Upon the filin' of the co#plaint an& the pa%#ent of the re>uisite le'al fees" the cler/ of court shall forth(ith issue the correspon&in' su##ons to the &efen&ants. if an%" shall $e attache& to the ori'inal an& each cop% of the su##ons.1y whom served-.Return-.2The su##ons shall $e &irecte& to the &efen&ant" si'ne& $% the cler/ of court un&er seal" an& contain* (a) the na#e of the court an& the na#es of the parties to the action7 ($) a &irection that the &efen&ant ans(er (ithin the ti#e fi1e& $% these Rules7 (c) a notice that unless the &efen&ant so ans(ers" plaintiff (ill ta/e 3u&'#ent $% &efault an& #a% $e 'rante& the relief applie& forA cop% of the co#plaint an& or&er for appoint#ent of 'uar&ian ad litem." Cler) to issue summons.(?a) SEC.a) SEC" 0.(5a) SEC.2 !f.(6a) SEC.4.2.(2a) SEC. 2 8henever practica$le" the su##ons shall $e serve& han&in' a cop% thereof to the &efen&ant in person" or" if he refuses to receive an& si'n for it" $% ten&erin' it to hi#.(@a) SEC @.Substituted service.2 8hen persons associate& in an entit% (ithout 3uri&ical personalit% are sue& un&er the na#e $% (hich the% are 'enerall% or co##onl% /no(n" service #a% $e effecte& upon all the &efen&ants $% servin' upon an% one of the#" or upon the person in char'e of the office or place of $usiness #aintaine& in such na#e.Service upon entity without "uridical personality.2 8hen the &efen&ant is a prisoner confine& in a 3ail or institution" service shall $e effecte& upon hi# $% the officer havin' the .

(.28hen the &efen&ant &oes not resi&e an& is not foun& in the Philippines" an& the action affects the personal status of the plaintiff or relates to" or the su$3ect of (hich is" propert% (ithin the Philippines" in (hich the &efen&ant has or clai#s a lien or interest" actual or contin'ent7 or in (hich the relief &e#an&e& consists" (holl% or in part" in e1clu&in' the &efen&ant fro# an% interest therein" or the propert% of the &efen&ant has $een attache& (ithin the Philippines" service #a%" $% leave of court" $e effecte& out of the Philippines $% personal service as un&er section 67 or $% pu$lication in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in such places an& for such ti#e as the court #a% or&er" in (hich case a cop% of the su##ons an& or&er of the court shall $e sent $% re'istere& #ail to the last /no(n a&&ress of the &efen&ant" or in an% other #anner the court #a% &ee# sufficient.2a) SEC.(.2.2 8hen the &efen&ant is a forei'n private 3uri&ical entit% (hich has transacte& $usiness in the Philippines" service #a% $e #a&e on its resi&ent a'ent &esi'nate& in accor&ance (ith la( for that purpose" or" if there $e no such a'ent" on the 'overn#ent official &esi'nate& $% la( to that effect" or on an% of its officers or a'ents (ithin the Philippines.#ana'e#ent of such 3ail or institution (ho is &ee#e& &eputi5e& as a special sheriff for sai& purpose.a) SEC..0a) SEC.(.2 8hen the &efen&ant is a corporation" partnership or association or'ani5e& un&er the la(s of the Philippines (ith a 3uri&ical personalit%" service #a% $e #a&e on the presi&ent" #ana'in' partner" 'eneral #ana'er" corporate secretar%" treasurer" or in<house counsel.traterritorial service.5.@a) .4...Service upon foreign private "uridical entity..B.An% or&er 'rantin' such leave shall specif% a reasona$le ti#e" (hich shall not $e less than si1t% (6B) &a%s after notice" (ithin (hich the &efen&ant #ust ans(er.(.28hen an% action is co##ence& a'ainst a &efen&ant (ho or&inaril% resi&es (ithin the Philippines" $ut (ho is te#poraril% out of it" service #a%" $% leave of court" $e also effecte& out of the Philippines" as un&er the prece&in' section.2 !n an% action (here the &efen&ant is &esi'nate& as an un/no(n o(ner" or the li/e" or (henever his (herea$outs are un/no(n an& cannot $e ascertaine& $% &ili'ent in>uir%" service #a%" $% leave of court" $e effecte& upon hi# $% pu$lication in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation an& in such places an& for such ti#e as the court #a% or&er..Service upon public corporations-.(.Service upon defendant whose identity or whereabouts are un)nown.(.Service upon minors and incompetents 2 8hen the &efen&ant is a #inor" insane or other(ise an inco#petent" service shall $e #a&e upon hi# personall% an& on his le'al 'uar&ian if he has one" or if none" upon his 'uar&ian ad litem (hose appoint#ent shall $e applie& for $% the plaintiff.6a) SEC.!n the case of a #inor" service #a% also $e #a&e on his father or #other.(..?a) SEC.(.*.4a) SEC.Residents temporarily out of the $hilippines .Service upon domestic private "uridical entity...6.8hen the &efen&ant is the Repu$lic of the Philippines" service #a% $e effecte& on the Solicitor Ceneral7 in case of a province" cit% or #unicipalit%" or li/e pu$lic corporations" service #a% $e effecte& on its e1ecutive hea&" or on such other officer or officers as the la( or the court #a% &irect..Ba" .0.5) SEC..

2A #otion shall state the relief sou'ht to $e o$taine& an& the 'roun&s upon (hich it is $ase&" an& if re>uire& $% these Rules or necessar% to prove facts alle'e& therein" shall $e acco#panie& $% supportin' affi&avits an& other papers(2a) SEC.2.7eave of court.E1cept for #otions (hich the court #a% act upon (ithout pre3u&icin' the ri'hts of the a&verse part%" ever% (ritten #otion shall $e set for hearin' $% the applicantEver% (ritten #otion re>uire& to $e hear& an& the notice of the hearin' thereof shall $e serve& in such a #anner as to ensure its receipt $% the other part% at least three (2) &a%s $efore the &ate of hearin'" unless the court for 'oo& cause sets the hearin' on shorter notice.0B.@.3earing of motion-.2All #otions shall $e in (ritin' e1cept those #a&e in open court or in the course of a hearin' or trial.2An% application to the court un&er this Rule for leave to effect service in an% #anner for (hich leave of court is necessar% shall $e #a&e $% #otion in (ritin'" supporte& $% affi&avit of the plaintiff or so#e person on his $ehalf settin' forth the 'roun&s for the application.A) SEC.(.!otion defined.2A #otion is an application for relief other than $% a plea&in'.$roof of service.a) SEC..(02a) RULE 15 MOTIONS SECT!O+ .2The &efen&antGs voluntar% appearance in the action shall $e e>uivalent to service of su##ons.(.0.?..!otions must be in writing.A...(4a) .oluntary appearance.2The proof of service of a su##ons shall $e #a&e in (ritin' $% the server an& shall set forth the #anner" place" an& &ate of service7 shall specif% an% papers (hich have $een serve& (ith the process an& the na#e of the person (ho receive& the sa#e7 an& shall $e s(orn to (hen #a&e $% a person other than a sheriff or his &eput%.2 !f the service has $een #a&e $% pu$lication" service #a% $e prove& $% the affi&avit of the printer" his fore#an or principal cler/" or of the e&itor" $usiness or a&vertisin' #ana'er" to (hich affi&avit a cop% of the pu$lication shall $e attache&" an& $% an affi&avit sho(in' the &eposit of a cop% of the su##ons an& or&er for pu$lication in the post office" posta'e prepai&" &irecte& to the &efen&ant $% re'istere& #ail to his last /no(n a&&ress.(0B) SEC.Contents.The inclusion in a #otion to &is#iss of other 'roun&s asi&e fro# lac/ of 3uris&iction over the person of the &efen&ant shall not $e &ee#e& a voluntar% appearance..(0a) SEC.SEC.4.(0.$roof of service by publication.) SEC.

(5a) SEC.!otion &a%-.2The Rules applica$le to plea&in's shall appl% to (ritten #otions so far as concerns caption" &esi'nation" si'nature" an& other #atters of for#.6.4orm.2+o (ritten #otion set for hearin' shall $e acte& upon $% the court (ithout proof of service thereof.28ithin the ti#e for $ut $efore filin' the ans(er to the co#plaint or plea&in' assertin' a clai#" a #otion to &is#iss #a% $e #a&e on an% of the follo(in' 'roun&s* (a) That the court has no 3uris&iction over the person of the &efen&in' part%7 ($) That the court has no 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter of the clai#7 (c) That venue is i#properl% lai&7 (&) That the plaintiff has no le'al capacit% to sue7 (e) That there is another action pen&in' $et(een the sa#e parties for the sa#e cause7 (f) That the cause of action is $arre& $% a prior 3u&'#ent or $% the statute of li#itations7 (') That the plea&in' assertin' the clai# states no cause of action7 (h) That the clai# or &e#an& set forth in the plaintiffGs plea&in' has $een pai&" (aive&" a$an&one&" or other(ise e1tin'uishe&7 (i) That the clai# on (hich the action is foun&e& is unenforcea$le un&er the provisions of the statute of frau&s7 an& .@.2The notice of hearin' shall $e a&&resse& to all parties concerne&" an& shall specif% the ti#e an& &ate of the hearin' (hich #ust not $e later than ten (.SEC.B) &a%s after the filin' of the #otion.B.Omnibus motion.(n) SEC.E1cept for #otions re>uirin' i##e&iate action" all #otions shall $e sche&ule& for hearin' on Fri&a% afternoons" or if Fri&a% is a non<(or/in' &a%" in the afternoon of the ne1t (or/in' &a%.(6a) SEC.2A #otion for leave to file a plea&in' or #otion shall $e acco#panie& $% the plea&in' or #otion sou'ht to $e a&#itte&.(@a) SEC..%otice of hearing.$roof of service necessary..(Aa) RULE 16 MOTION TO DISMISS SECT!O+ .5.!otion for leave.2Su$3ect to the provisions of section .A.(?a) SEC. of Rule A" a #otion attac/in' a plea&in'" or&er" 3u&'#ent" or procee&in' shall inclu&e all o$3ections then availa$le" an& all o$3ections not so inclu&e& shall $e &ee#e& (aive&.?.-rounds.

hereof shall $ar the refilin' of the sa#e action or clai#.2After the hearin'" the court #a% &is#iss the action or clai#" &en% the #otion" or or&er the a#en&#ent of the plea&in'The court shall not &efer the resolution of the #otion for the reason that the 'roun& relie& upon is not in&u$ita$le!n ever% case" the resolution shall state clearl% an& &istinctl% the reasons therefor(2a) SEC.4.(4a) SEC.(n) RULE 17 DISMISSAL OF ACTIONS SECT!O+ .Shoul& the case 'o to trial" the evi&ence presente& &urin' the hearin' shall auto#aticall% $e part of the evi&ence of the part% presentin' the sa#e.3earing of motion.6.Su$3ect to the ri'ht of appeal" an or&er 'rantin' a #otion to &is#iss $ase& on para'raphs (f)" (h) an& (i) of section .a) SEC.*ffect of dismissal-..Resolution of motion. to (hich he (as entitle& at the ti#e of servin' his #otion" $ut not less than five (5) &a%s in an% event" co#pute& fro# his receipt of the notice of the &enial..2.!f the plea&in' is or&ere& to $e a#en&e&" he shall file his ans(er (ithin the perio& prescri$e& $% Rule .2!f the #otion is &enie&" the #ovant shall file his ans(er (ithin the $alance of the perio& prescri$e& $% Rule .0.5.(5a) The &is#issal of the co#plaint un&er this section shall $e (ithout pre3u&ice to the prosecution in the sa#e or separate action of a counterclai# plea&e& in the ans(er.$leading grounds as affirmative defenses.Unless other(ise state& in the notice" the &is#issal is (ithout pre3u&ice" e1cept that a notice operates as an a&3u&ication upon the #erits (hen file& $% a plaintiff (ho has once &is#isse& in a co#petent court an action $ase& ..2At the hearin' of the #otion" the parties shall su$#it their ar'u#ents on the >uestions of la( an& their evi&ence on the >uestions of fact involve& e1cept those not availa$le at that ti#e. counte& fro# service of the a#en&e& plea&in'" unless the court provi&es a lon'er perio&.2 !f no #otion to &is#iss has $een file&" an% of the 'roun&s for &is#issal provi&e& for in this Rule #a% $e plea&e& as an affir#ative &efense in the ans(er an&" in the &iscretion of the court" a preli#inar% hearin' #a% $e ha& thereon as if a #otion to &is#iss ha& $een file&.(3) That a con&ition prece&ent for filin' the clai# has not $een co#plie& (ith(.+ismissal upon notice by plaintiff-.Upon such notice $ein' file&" the court shall issue an or&er confir#in' the &is#issal.A co#plaint #a% $e &is#isse& $% the plaintiff $% filin' a notice of &is#issal at an% ti#e $efore service of the ans(er or of a #otion for su##ar% 3u&'#ent.Time to plead.(n) SEC.(n) SEC.

0.. of this Rule" shall $e #a&e $efore a responsive plea&in' or a #otion for su##ar% 3u&'#ent is serve& or" if there is none" $efore the intro&uction of evi&ence at the trial or hearin'.to the &is#issal of an% counterclai#" cross<clai#" or thir&<part% co#plaint. cross&claim.A voluntar% &is#issal $% the clai#ant $% notice as in section .a) SEC.Unless other(ise specifie& in the or&er" a &is#issal un&er this para'raph shall $e (ithout pre3u&ice.#hen conducted -.The court shall consi&er* (a) The possi$ilit% of an a#ica$le settle#ent or of a su$#ission to alternative #o&es of &ispute resolution7 ($) The si#plification of the issues7 (c) The necessit% or &esira$ilit% of a#en&#ents to the plea&in's7 .A class suit shall not $e &is#isse& or co#pro#ise& (ithout the approval of the court.(.(0a) SEC.2.(4n) RULE 18 PRE%TRIAL SECT!O+ .+ismissal of counterclaim.4.cept as provi&e& in the prece&in' section" a co#plaint shall not $e &is#isse& at the plaintiffGs instance save upon approval of the court an& upon such ter#s an& con&itions as the court &ee#s proper. for no 3ustifia$le cause" the plaintiff fails to appear on the &ate of the presentation of his evi&ence in chief on the co#plaint" or to prosecute his action for an unreasona$le len'th of ti#e" or to co#pl% (ith these Rules or an% or&er of the court" the co#plaint #a% $e &is#isse& upon #otion of the &efen&ant or upon the courtGs o(n #otion" (ithout pre3u&ice to the ri'ht of the &efen&ant to prosecute his counterclai# in the sa#e or in a separate action.on or inclu&in' the sa#e clai#.2*.5) &a%s fro# notice of the #otion he #anifests his preference to have his counterclai# resolve& in the sa#e action.After the last plea&in' has $een serve& an& file&" it shall $e the &ut% of the plaintiff to pro#ptl% #ove e.(2a) SEC.!f a counterclai# has $een plea&e& $% a &efen&ant prior to the service upon hi# of the plaintiffGs #otion for &is#issal" the &is#issal shall $e li#ite& to the co#plaint.This &is#issal shall have the effect of an a&3u&ication upon the #erits" unless other(ise &eclare& $% the court.0. or third&party complaint.(5a" R0B) SEC.+ismissal upon motion of plaintiff. parte that the case $e set for pre< trial.%ature and purpose.+ismissal due to fault of plaintiff.The &is#issal shall $e (ithout pre3u&ice to the ri'ht of the &efen&ant to prosecute his counterclai# in a separate action unless (ithin fifteen (.2The pre<trial is #an&ator%.2 The provisions of this Rule shall appl%.2 !f.

The non<appearance of a part% #a% $e e1cuse& onl% if a vali& cause is sho(n therefor or if a representative shall appear in his $ehalf full% authori5e& in (ritin' to enter into an a#ica$le settle#ent" to su$#it to alternative #o&es of &ispute resolution" an& to enter into stipulations or a&#issions of facts an& of &ocu#ents.(ppearance of parties.5. parte an& the court to ren&er 3u&'#ent on the $asis thereof.4.The &is#issal shall $e (ith pre3u&ice" unless other(ise or&ere& $% the court.2The parties shall file (ith the court an& serve on the a&verse part%" in such #anner as shall ensure their receipt thereof at least three (2) &a%s $efore the &ate of the pre<trial" their respective pre<trial $riefs (hich shall contain" a#on' others* (a) A state#ent of their (illin'ness to enter into a#ica$le settle#ent or alternative #o&es of &ispute resolution" in&icatin' the &esire& ter#s thereof7 ($) A su##ar% of a&#itte& facts an& propose& stipulation of facts7 (c)The issues to $e trie& or resolve&7 (&) The &ocu#ents or e1hi$its to $e presente&" statin' the purpose thereof7 (e) A #anifestation of their havin' availe& or then intention to avail the#selves of &iscover% proce&ures or referral to co##issioners7 an& (f) The nu#$er an& na#es of the (itnesses" an& the su$stance of their respective testi#oniesFailure to file the pre<trial $rief shall have the sa#e effect as failure to appear at the pre<trial.A si#ilar failure on the part of the &efen&ant shall $e cause to allo( the plaintiff to present his evi&ence e.%otice of pre&trial.2The notice of pre<trial shall $e serve& on counsel" or on the part% (ho has no counsel.2.(n) SEC.(n) SEC.2!t shall $e the &ut% of the parties an& their counsel to appear at the pre<trial.(.6.*ffect of failure to appear.2 The failure of the plaintiff to appear (hen so re>uire& pursuant to the ne1t prece&in' section shall $e cause for &is#issal of the action.$re&trial brief.(0a" R0B) SEC.a" R0B) SEC.(n) .(&) The possi$ilit% of o$tainin' stipulations or a&#issions of facts an& of &ocu#ents to avoi& unnecessar% proof7 (e) The li#itation of the nu#$er of (itnesses7 (f) The a&visa$ilit% of a preli#inar% reference of issues to a co##issioner7 (') The propriet% of ren&erin' 3u&'#ent on the plea&in's" or su##ar% 3u&'#ent" or of &is#issin' the action shoul& a vali& 'roun& therefor $e foun& to e1ist7 (h) The a&visa$ilit% or necessit% of suspen&in' the procee&in's7 an& (i) Such other #atters as #a% ai& in the pro#pt &isposition of the action.The counsel serve& (ith such notice is char'e& (ith the &ut% of notif%in' the part% represente& $% hi#.

0) SEC.Calendar of cases-IThe cler/ of court" un&er the &irect supervision of the 3u&'e" shall /eep a calen&ar of cases for pre<trial" for trial" those (hose trials (ere a&3ourne& or postpone&" an& those (ith #otions to set for hearin'.2The procee&in's in the pretrial shall $e recor&e&Upon the ter#ination thereof" the court shall issue an or&er (hich shall recite in &etail the #atters ta/en up in the conference7 the action ta/en thereon" the a#en&#ents allo(e& to the plea&in's" an& the a'ree#ents or a&#issions #a&e $% the parties as to an% of the #atters consi&ere&.?.$leadings&in&intervention-IThe intervenor shall file a co#plaint<in< intervention if he asserts a clai# a'ainst either or all of the ori'inal parties" or an ans(er<in<intervention if he unites (ith the &efen&in' part% in resistin' a clai# a'ainst the latter.(nswer to complaint&in&intervention-IThe ans(er to the co#plaint<in< intervention shall $e file& (ithin fifteen (..2A person (ho has a le'al interest in the #atter in liti'ation" or in the success of either of the parties" or an interest a'ainst $oth" or is so situate& as to $e a&versel% affecte& $% a &istri$ution or other &isposition of propert% in the custo&% of the court or of an officer thereof #a%" (ith leave of court" $e allo(e& to intervene in the action.(0DcEa" R.The court shall consi&er (hether or not the intervention (ill un&ul% &ela% or pre3u&ice the a&3u&ication of the ri'hts of the ori'inal parties" an& (hether or not the intervenorGs ri'hts #a% $e full% protecte& in a separate procee&in'(0DaE" D$Ea" R.SEC.A cop% of the plea&in'<in<intervention shall $e attache& to the #otion an& serve& on the ori'inal parties.The contents of the or&er shall control the su$se>uent course of the action" unless #o&ifie& $efore trial to prevent #anifest in3ustice.(n) SEC.Time to intervene-IThe #otion to intervene #a% $e file& at an% ti#e $efore ren&ition of 3u&'#ent $% the trial court.4.(0D&Ea" R.#ho may intervene.0) RULE 20 CALENDAR OF CASES SECT!O+ .5) &a%s fro# notice of the or&er a&#ittin' the sa#e" unless a &ifferent perio& is fi1e& $% the court.0.Shoul& the action procee& to trial" the or&er shall e1plicitl% &efine an& li#it the issues to $e trie&.0) SEC.Preference shall $e .2.(5a" R0B) RULE 19 INTERVENTION SECT!O+ .Record of pre&trial..

2The su$poena #a% $e issue& $%. a) the court $efore (ho# the (itness is re>uire& to atten&7 $) the court of the place (here the &eposition is to $e ta/en7 c) the officer or $o&% authori5e& $% la( to &o so in connection (ith investi'ations con&ucte& $% sai& officer or $o&%7 or &) an% Hustice of the Supre#e Court or of the Court of Appeals in an% case or investi'ation pen&in' (ithin the Philippines8hen application for a su$poena to a prisoner is #a&e" the 3u&'e or officer shall e1a#ine an& stu&% carefull% such application to &eter#ine (hether the sa#e is #a&e for a vali& purpose+o prisoner sentence& to &eath" reclusion perpetua or life i#prison#ent an& (ho is confine& in an% penal institution shall $e $rou'ht outsi&e the sai& penal institution for appearance or atten&ance in an% court unless authori5e& $% the Supre#e Court.2A su$poena shall state the na#e of the court an& the title of the action or investi'ation" shall $e &irecte& to the person (hose atten&ance is re>uire&" an& in the case of a su$poena duces tecum.(0a" R02) SEC.4.2 Su$poena is a process &irecte& to a person re>uirin' hi# to atten& an& to testif% at the hearin' or the trial of an action" or at an% investi'ation con&ucte& $% co#petent authorit%" or for the ta/in' of his &eposition.a" R02) SEC.Subpoena and subpoena duces tecum.0.2. it shall also contain a reasona$le &escription of the $oo/s" &ocu#ents or thin's &e#an&e& (hich #ust appear to the court prima facie relevant..0.2The court #a% >uash a su$poena duces tecum upon #otion pro#ptl% #a&e an&" in an% event" at or $efore the ti#e specifie& therein if it is unreasona$le an& oppressive" or the relevanc% of the $oo/s" &ocu#ents or thin's .'iven to habeas corpus cases" election cases" special civil actions" an& those so re>uire& $% la(.The assi'n#ent shall $e &one in open session of (hich a&e>uate notice shall $e 'iven so as to affor& intereste& parties the opportunit% to $e present (?a" R00) RULE 21 SU!POENA SECT!O+ .(2a" R02) SEC.!t #a% also re>uire hi# to $rin' (ith hi# an% $oo/s" &ocu#ents" or other thin's un&er his control" in (hich case it is calle& a su$poena duces tecum.(ssignment of cases-IThe assi'n#ent of cases to the &ifferent $ranches of court shall $e &one e1clusivel% $% raffle.a" R00) SEC. (.1y whom issued.8uashing a subpoena.(.4orm and contents.

The cler/ shall not" ho(ever" issue a su$poena duces tecum to an% such person (ithout an or&er of the court..2!n case of failure of a (itness to atten&" the court or 3u&'e issuin' the su$poena" upon proof of the service thereof an& of the failure of the (itness" #a% issue a (arrant to the sheriff of the province" or his &eput%" to arrest the (itness an& $rin' hi# $efore the court or officer (here his atten&ance is re>uire&" an& the cost of such (arrant an& sei5ure of such (itness shall $e pai& $% the (itness if the court issuin' it shall &eter#ine that his failure to ans(er the su$poena (as (illful an& (ithout 3ust e1cuse.The service #ust $e #a&e so as to allo( the (itness a reasona$le ti#e for preparation an& travel of the place of atten&ance.$ersonal appearance in court-.Compelling attendance.@.Service of a su$poena shall $e #a&e in the sa#e #anner as personal or su$stitute& service of su##ons.!n either case" the su$poena #a% $e >uashe& on the 'roun& that the (itness fees an& /ilo#etra'e allo(e& $% these Rules (ere not ten&ere& (hen the su$poena (as serve&.Contempt2Failure $% an% person (ithout a&e>uate cause to o$e% a su$poena serve& upon hi# shall &ee#e& a conte#pt of the court fro# (hich the su$poena is issue&." R02) SEC.2The provisions of sections @ an& 9 this Rule shall not appl% to a (itness (ho resi&es #ore than one hun&re& (. the reasona$le cost of pro&ucin' the $oo/s" &ocu#ents or thin's &e#an&e& shall also $e ten&ere&.(6a" R02) SEC.(.(.*.The ori'inal shall $e e1hi$ite& an& a cop% thereof &elivere& to the person on (ho# it is serve&" ten&erin' to hi# the fees for one &a%Gs atten&ance an& the /ilo#etra'e allo(e& $% these Rules" e1cept that" (hen a su$poena is issue& $% or on $ehalf of the Repu$lic of the Philippines or an officer or a'enc% thereof" the ten&er nee& not $e #a&e.5.?.A.(4a" R02) SEC.&oes not appear" or if the person in (hose $ehalf the su$poena is issue& fails to a&vance the reasona$le cost of the pro&uction thereofThe court #a% >uash a su$poena ad testificandum on the 'roun& that the (itness is not $oun& there$%.A person present in court $efore a 3u&icial officer #a% $e re>uire& to testif% as if he (ere in atten&ance upon a su$poena issue& $% such court or officer.6.0a" R02) SEC.Subpoena for depositions..(5a" R02) SEC.5 an& 05 of Rule 02" shall constitute sufficient authori5ation for the issuance of su$poenas for the persons na#e& in sai& notice $% the cler/ of the court of the place in (hich the &eposition is to $e ta/en.BB) /ilo#eters fro# his resi&ence to the place (here he is to testif% $% the or&inar% course of travel" or to a &etention prisoner if no per#ission of the court in (hich his case is pen&in' (as o$taine&.(Aa" R02) .!f the su$poena is duces tecum.Service-.B" R02) SEC.!f the su$poena (as not issue& $% a court" the &iso$e&ience thereto shall $e punishe& in accor&ance (ith the applica$le la( or Rule (.B.ceptions.2Proof of service of a notice to ta/e a &eposition" as provi&e& in sections .

@ of this Rule" the &eponent #a% $e e1a#ine& re'ar&in' an% #atter" not privile'e&" (hich is relevant to the su$3ect of the pen&in' action" (hether relatin' to the clai# or &efense of an% other part%" inclu&in' the e1istence" &escription" nature" custo&%" con&ition" an& location of an% $oo/s" &ocu#ents" or other tan'i$le thin's an& the i&entit% an& location of persons havin' /no(le&'e of relevant facts..a" R04) SEC.2At the trial or upon the hearin' of a #otion or an interlocutor% procee&in'" an% part or all of a &eposition" so far as a&#issi$le un&er the .amination and cross&e.RULE 22 COMPUTATION OF TIME SECT!O+ .(. when may be ta)en -.!f the last &a% of the perio&" as thus co#pute&" falls on a Satur&a%" a Sun&a%" or a le'al holi&a% in the place (here the court sits" the ti#e shall not run until the ne1t (or/in' &a%.amination-.Fepositions shall $e ta/en onl% in accor&ance (ith these Rules.20(2a" R04) SEC.3ow to compute time.Unless other(ise or&ere& $% the court as provi&e& $% section .6 or .E1a#ination an& cross<e1a#ination of &eponents #a% procee& as per#itte& at the trial un&er sections 2 to .(n) SEC.Scope of e..(n) RULE 23 DEPOSITIONS PENDING ACTION SECT!O+ .The &eposition of a person confine& in prison #a% $e ta/en onl% $% leave of court on such ter#s as the court prescri$es.0.)% leave of court after 3uris&iction has $een o$taine& over an% &efen&ant or over propert% (hich is the su$3ect of the action" (ithout such leave after an ans(er has $een serve&" the testi#on% of an% person" (hether a part% or not" #a% $e ta/en" at the instance of an% part%" $% &eposition upon oral e1a#ination or (ritten interro'atories.2!n co#putin' an% perio& of ti#e prescri$e& or allo(e& $% these Rules" or $% or&er the court" or $% an% applica$le statute" the &a% of the act or event fro# (hich the &esi'nate& perio& of ti#e $e'ins to run is to e1clu&e& an& the &ate of perfor#ance inclu&e&.*.4.The atten&ance of (itnesses #a% $e co#pelle& $% the use of a su$poena as provi&e& in Rule 0.Shoul& an act $e &one (hich effectivel% interrupts the runnin' of the perio&" the allo(a$le perio& after such interruption shall start to run on the &a% aft notice of the cessation of the cause thereofThe &a% of the act that cause& the interruption shall $e e1clu&e& in the co#putation of the perio&.@ of Rule .0.'se of depositions.2.+epositions pending action.*ffect of interruption..amination -.(0" R04) SEC.

Ob"ections to admissibility.(4a" R04) SEC.6.*ffect of ta)ing depositions.BB) /ilo#eters fro# the place of trial or hearin'" or is out of the Philippines" unless it appears that his a$sence (as procure& $% the part% offerin' the &eposition7 or (2) that the (itness is una$le to atten& or testif% $ecause of a'e" sic/ness" infir#it%" or i#prison#ent7 or (4) that the part% offerin' the &eposition has $een una$le to procure the atten&ance of the (itness $% su$poena7 or (5) upon application an& notice" that such e1ceptional circu#stances e1ist as to #a/e it &esira$le" in the interest of 3ustice an& (ith &ue re'ar& to the i#portance of presentin' the testi#on% of (itnesses orall% in open court" to allo( the &eposition to $e use&7 an& (&) !f onl% part of a &eposition is offere& in evi&ence $% a part%7 the a&verse part% #a% re>uire hi# to intro&uce all of it (hich is relevant to the part intro&uce&" an& an% part% #a% intro&uce an% other parts.*ffect of substitution of parties-.*ffect of using depositions.5.2A part% shall not $e &ee#e& to #a/e a person his o(n (itness for an% purpose $% ta/in' his &eposition.) that the (itness is &ea&7 or (0) that the (itness resi&es at a &istance #ore than one hun&re& (.2At the trial or hearin'" an% part% #a% re$ut an% relevant evi&ence containe& in a &eposition (hether intro&uce& by hi# or $% an% other .?.(@" R04) SEC.A.Rebutting deposition.rules of evi&ence" #a% $e use& a'ainst an% part% (ho (as present or represente& at the ta/in' of the &eposition or (ho ha& &ue notice thereof" in accor&ance (ith an% one of the follo(in' provisions* (a) An% &eposition #a% $e use& $% an% part% for the purpose of contra&ictin' or i#peachin' the testi#on% of &eponent as a (itness7 ($) The &eposition of a part% or of an% one (ho at the ti#e of ta/in' the &eposition (as an officer" &irector" or #ana'in' a'ent of a pu$lic or private corporation" partnership" or association (hich is a part% #a% $e use& $% an a&verse part% for an% purpose7 (c)The &eposition of a (itness" (hether or not a part%" #a% $e use& $% an% part% for an% purpose if the court fin&s* (.(5" R04) SEC.2Su$3ect to the provisions of section 0A of this Rule" o$3ection #a% $e #a&e at the trial or hearin' to receivin' in evi&ence an% &eposition or part thereof for an% reason (hich (oul& re>uire the e1clusion of the evi&ence if the (itness (ere then present an& testif%in'.(?" R04) SEC.@.2The intro&uction in evi&ence of the &eposition or an% part thereof for an% purpose other than that of contra&ictin' or i#peachin' the &eponent #a/es the &eponent the (itness of the part% intro&ucin' the &eposition" $ut this shall not appl% to the use $% an a&verse part% of a &eposition as &escri$e& in para'raph ($) of section 4 of this Rule.Su$stitution of parties &oes not affect the ri'ht to use &epositions previousl% ta/en7 an&" (hen an action has $een &is#isse& an& another action involvin' the sa#e su$3ect is after(ar& $rou'ht $et(een the sa#e parties or their representatives or successors in interest" all &epositions la(full% ta/en an& &ul% file& in the for#er action #a% $e use& in the latter as if ori'inall% ta/en therefor.(6" R04) SEC.

Ba" R04) SEC.5.5" R04) SEC.2+o &eposition shall $e ta/en $efore a person (ho is a relative (ithin the si1th &e'ree of consan'uinit% or affinit%" or e#plo%ee or counsel of an% of the parties7 or (ho is a relative (ithin the sa#e &e'ree" or e#plo%ee of such counsel7 or (ho is financiall% intereste& in the action.B.(...A part% &esirin' to ta/e the &eposition of an% person upon oral e1a#ination shall 'ive reasona$le notice in (ritin' to ever% other part% to the action.amination..6.2A co##ission or letters ro'ator% shall $e issue& onl% (hen necessar% or convenient" on application an& notice" an& on such ter#s an& (ith such &irection as are 3ust appropriate.Officers #a% $e &esi'nate& in notices or co##issions either $% na#e or &escriptive title an& letters ro'ator% #a% $e a&&resse& to the appropriate 3u&icial authorit% in the forei'n countr%.(.(.0n" R04) SEC.4..+eposition upon oral e..2 8ithin the Philippines" &epositions #ust $e ta/en $efore an% 3u&'e" notar% pu$lic" on the person referre& to in section .On #otion of an% part% upon (ho# the notice is serve&" the court #a% for cause sho(n enlar'e or shorten the ti#e..2 !f the parties so stipulate in (ritin'" &epositions #a% $e ta/en $efore an% person authori5e& to a&#inister oaths" at an% ti#e or place" in accor&ance (ith these Rules" an& (hen so ta/en #a% $e use& li/e other &epositions.Commission or letters rogatory.. notice.2a" R04) SEC.+is6ualification by interest.part%.2 !n a forei'n state or countr%" &epositions #a% $e ta/en (a) on notice $efore a secretar% of e#$ass% or le'ation" consul 'eneral" consul" vice<consul" or consular a'ent of the Repu$lic of the Philippines7 ($) $efore such person or officer as #a% $e appointe& $% co##ission or un&er letters ro'ator%7 or (c) the person referre& to in section .4 hereof.$ersons before whom depositions may be ta)en within the $hilippines.2 After notice is serve& for ta/in' a &eposition $% oral e1a#ination" upon #otion seasona$l% #a&e $% an% part% or $% the person to $e e1a#ine& an& for 'oo& cause sho(n" the court in (hich the action is pen&in' #a% #a/e an or&er that the &eposition shall not $e ta/en" or that it #a% $e ta/en onl% at so#e &esi'nate& place other than that state& in the notice" or that it #a% $e ta/en onl% on (ritten interro'atories" or that certain #atters shall not $e in>uire& into" or that the scope of the e1a#ination shall $e hel& (ith no one present e1cept the parties to the action an& their officers or counsel" or that after $ein' seale& the &eposition shall $ opene& onl% $% or&er of the court" or that secret processes &evelop#ents" or research nee& not $e &isclose&" or that the parties shall si#ultaneousl% file& specifie& &ocu#ents or infor#ation enclose& in seale& envelope to $e opene& as &irecte& $% the court7 or the court #a% #a/e an% other or&er (hich 3ustice .4a" R04) SEC.a" R04) SEC..(.$ersons before whom depositions may be ta)en in foreign countries.. time and place-.0.4 hereof(.(.Stipulations regarding ta)ing of depositions.The notice shall state the ti#e an& place for ta/in' the &eposition an& the na#e an& a&&ress of each person to $e e1a#ine&" if /no(n" an& if the na#e is at /no(n" a 'eneral &escription sufficient to i&entif% hi# or the particular class or 'roup to (hich he $elon's.Orders for the protection of parties and deponents.(A" R04) SEC..2.

=e shall then securel% seal the &eposition in an envelope in&orse& (ith the title of the action an& #ar/e& :Feposition of (here .2The officer shall certif% on the &eposition that the (itness (as &ul% s(orn to $% hi# an& that the &eposition is a true recor& of the testi#on% 'iven $% the (itness.Certification and filing by officer.amination.Evi&ence o$3ecte& to shall $e ta/en su$3ect to the o$3ections.re>uires to protect the part% or (itness fro# anno%ance" e#$arrass#ent" or oppression(.!f the or&er #a&e ter#inates the e1a#ination" it shall $e resu#e& thereafter onl% upon the or&er of the court in (hich the action is pen&in'Upon &e#an& of the o$3ectin' part% or &eponent" the ta/in' of the &eposition shall $e suspen&e& for the ti#e necessar% to #a/e a notice for an or&er. oath..?.Record of e.!f the &eposition is not si'ne& $% the (itness" the officer shall si'n it an& state on the recor& the fact of the (aiver or of the illness or a$sence of the (itness or the fact of the refusal to si'n to'ether (ith the reason 'iven therefor" if an%" an& the &eposition #a% then $e use& as full% as thou'h si'ne&" unless on a #otion to suppress un&er section 0A (f) of this Rule" the court hol&s that the reasons 'iven for the refusal to si'n re>uire re3ection Of the &eposition in (hole or in part.Submission to witness.A.6 of this Rule.!n lieu of participatin' in the oral e1a#ination" parties serve& (ith notice of ta/in' a &eposition #a% trans#it (ritten interro'atories to the officers" (ho shall propoun& the# to the (itness an& recor& the ans(ers verbatim. ob"ections. changes.!otion to terminate or limit e. signing.@a" R04) SEC.6a" R04) SEC...!n 'rantin' or refusin' such or&er" the court #a% i#pose upon either part% or upon the (itness the re>uire#ent to pa% such costs or e1penses as the court #a% &ee# reasona$le.2 The officer $efore (ho# the &eposition is to $e ta/en shall put the (itness or oath an& shall personall%" or $% so#e one actin' un&er his &irection an& in his presence" recor& the testi#on% of the (itnessThe testi#on% shall $e ta/en steno'raphicall% unless the parties a'ree other(ise.28hen the testi#on% is full% transcri$e&" the &eposition shall $e su$#itte& to the (itness for e1a#ination an& shall $e rea& to or $% hi#" unless such e1a#ination an& rea&in' are (aive& $% the (itness an& $% the parties.All o$3ections #a&e at the ti#e of the e1a#ination to the >ualifications of the officer ta/in' the &eposition" or to the #anner of ta/in' it" or to the evi&ence presente&" or to the con&uct of an% part%" an& an% other o$3ection to the procee&in's" shall $e note& $% the officer upon the &eposition.An% chan'es in for# or su$stance (hich the (itness &esires to #a/e shall $e entere& upon the &eposition $% the officer (ith a state#ent of the reasons 'iven $% the (itness for #a/in' the#.0B.(.?" R04) SEC.Aa" R04) SEC. (.2 At an% ti#e &urin' the ta/in' of the &eposition" on #otion or petition of an% part% or of the &eponent an& upon a sho(in' that the e1a#ination is $ein' con&ucte& in $a& faith or in such #anner" as unreasona$l% to anno%" e#$arrass" or oppress the &eponent or part%" the court in (hich the action is pen&in' or the Re'ional Trial Court of the place (here the &eposition is $ein' ta/en #a% or&er the officer con&uctin' the e1a#ination to cease forth(ith fro# ta/in' the &eposition" or #a% li#it the scope an& #anner of the ta/in' of the &eposition" as provi&e& in section .amination.The &eposition shall then $e si'ne& $% the (itness" unless the parties $% stipulation (aive the si'nin' or the (itness is ill or cannot $e foun& or refuses to si'n.(.@.

+eposition upon written interrogatories.0@.(0.(05" R04) SEC.%otice of filing and furnishing copies.4urnishing copies.(0?" R04) SEC.8ithin five (5) &a%s thereafter" the latter #a% serve re<&irect interro'atories upon a part% (ho has serve& cross<interro'atories.(06" R04) SEC.(0B" R04) SEC.%otice of filing.0." R04) SEC.8ithin ten (.2 After the service of the interro'atories an& prior to the ta/in' of the testi#on% of the &eponent" the court in (hich the action is pen&in'" on #otion pro#ptl% #a&e $% a part% or a &eponent" an& for .?" .2 !f the part% 'ivin' the notice of the ta/in' of a &eposition of a (itness fails to serve a su$poena upon hi# an& the (itness $ecause of such failure &oes not atten&" an& if another part% atten&s in person or $% counsel $ecause he e1pects the &eposition of that (itness to $e ta/en" the court #a% or&er the part% 'ivin' the notice to pa% to such other part% the a#ount of the reasona$le e1penses incurre& $% hi# an& his counsel in so atten&in' inclu&in' reasona$le attorne%Gs fees.&&Upon pa%#ent of reasona$le char'es therefor" the officer shall furnish a cop% of the &eposition to an% part% or to the &eponent.2 8hen a &eposition upon interro'atories is file&" the officer ta/in' it shall pro#ptl% 'ive notice thereof to all the parties" an& #a% furnish copies to the# or to the &eponent upon pa%#ent of reasona$le char'es therefor.0?.Orders for the protection of parties and deponents.02.2 A cop% of the notice an& copies of all interro'atories serve& shall $e &elivere& $% the part% ta/in' the &eposition to the officer &esi'nate& in the notice" (ho shall procee& pro#ptl%" in the #anner provi&e& $% sections .4ailure of party giving notice to serve subpoena.2 !f the part% 'ivin' the notice of the ta/in' of a &eposition fails to atten& an& procee& there(ith an& another atten&s in person or $% counsel pursuant to the notice" the court #a% or&er the part% 'ivin' the notice to pa% such other part% the a#ount of the reasona$le e1penses incurre& $% hi# an& his counsel in so atten&in' inclu&in' reasona$le attorne%Gs fees.8ithin three (2) &a%s after $ein' serve& (ith re<&irect interro'atories" a part% #a% serve recross< interro'atories upon the part% proposin' to ta/e the &eposition.B) &a%s thereafter" a part% so serve& #a% serve cross<interro'atories upon the part% proposin' to ta/e the &eposition.insert the na#e of (itness).2The officer ta/in' the &eposition shall 'ive pro#pt notice of its filin' to all the parties.05.Officers to ta)e responses and prepare record.06.(02a" R04) SEC. an& shall pro#ptl% file it (ith the court in (hich the action is pen&in' or sen& it $% re'istere& #ail to the cler/ thereof for filin'.2A part% &esirin' to ta/e the &eposition of an% person upon (ritten interro'atories shall serve the# upon ever% other part% (ith a notice statin' the na#e an& a&&ress of the person (ho is to ans(er the# an& the na#e of &escriptive title an& a&&ress of the officer $efore (ho# the &eposition is to $e ta/en.(04a" R04) SEC.4ailure to attend of party giving notice..(00" R04) SEC.A an& 0B of this Rule" to ta/e the testi#on% of the (itness in response to the interro'atories an& to prepare" certif%" an& file& or #ail the &eposition" attachin' thereto the cop% of the notice an& the interro'atories receive& $% hi#.00. service of notice and of interrogatories.04.

O$3ections to the for# of (ritten interro'atories su$#itte& un&er sections 05 an& 06 of this Rule are (aive& unless serve& in (ritin' upon the part% propoun&in' the# (ithin the ti#e allo(e& for servin' succee&in' cross or other interro'atories an& (ithin three (2) &a%s after service of the last interro'atories authori5e&(f) (s to manner of preparation.0A.2( person (ho &esires to .*ffect of errors and irregularities in depositions.6 an& .@ of this Rule (hich is appropriate an& 3ust or an or&er that the &eposition shall not $e ta/en $efore the officer &esi'nate& in the notice or that it shall not $e ta/en e1cept upon oral e1a#ination.amination and other particulars.5" .?" .(0Aa" R04) RULE 24 DEPOSITIONS !EFORE ACTION OR PENDING APPEAL SECT!O+ .2 (a) (s to notice-.. .Errors an& irre'ularities occurrin' at the oral e1a#ination in the #anner of ta/in' the &eposition" in the for# of the >uestions or ans(ers" in the oath or affir#ation" or in the con&uct of the parties an& errors of an% /in& (hich #i'ht $e o$viate&" re#ove&" or cure& if pro#ptl% prosecute&" are (aive& unless reasona$le o$3ection thereto is #a&e at the ta/in' of the &eposition(e) (s to form of written interrogatories.O$3ection to ta/in' a &eposition $ecause of &is>ualification of the officer $efore (ho# it is to $e ta/en is (aive& unless #a&e $efore the ta/in' of the &eposition $e'ins or as soon thereafter as the &is>ualification $eco#es /no(n or coul& $e &iscovere& (ith reasona$le &ili'ence(c) (s to competency or relevancy of evidence..O$3ections to the co#petenc% of a (itness or the co#petenc%" relevanc%" or #aterialit% of testi#on% are not (aive& $% failure to #a/e the# $efore or &urin' the ta/in' of the &eposition" unless the 'roun& of the o$3ection is one (hich #i'ht have $een o$viate& or re#ove& if presente& at that ti#e(&) (s to oral e.A" 0B an& 06 of this Rule are (aive& unless a #otion to suppress the &eposition or so#e part thereof is #a&e (ith reasona$le pro#ptness after such &efect is" or (ith &ue &ili'ence #i'ht have $een" ascertaine&. . .Errors an& irre'ularities in the #anner in (hich the testi#on% is transcri$e& or the &eposition is prepare&" si'ne&" certifie&" seale&" in&orse&" trans#itte&" file&" or other(ise &ealt (ith $% the officer un&er sections .'oo& cause sho(n" #a% #a/e an% or&er specifie& in sections .All errors an& irre'ularities in the notice for ta/in' a &eposition are (aive& unless (ritten o$3ection is pro#ptl% serve& upon the part% 'ivin' the notice($) (s to dis6ualification of officer. petition.+epositions before action.(0@a" R04) SEC. .

(0" R.(6a" R.4.5.The &epositions #a% then $e ta/en in accor&ance (ith Rule 02 $efore the hearin'.2!f an appeal has $een ta/en fro# a 3u&'#ent of a court" inclu&in' the Court of Appeals in proper cases" or $efore the ta/in' of an appeal if the ti#e therefor has not e1pire&" the court in (hich the 3u&'#ent (as ren&ere& #a% allo( the ta/in' of &epositions of (itnesses to perpetuate their testi#on% for use in the event of further procee&in's in the sai& court.'se of deposition.24) SEC.(2a" R.24) SEC.For the purpose of appl%in' Rule 02 to &epositions for perpetuatin' testi#on%" each reference therein to the court in (hich the action is pen&in' shall $e &ee#e& to refer to the court in (hich the petition for such &eposition (as file&.0.(5a" R.Contents of petition-.amination.The #otion shall state (a) the na#es an& a&&resses of the persons to $e e1a#ine& an& the su$stance of the testi#on% (hich he e1pects to elicit fro# each7 .!n such case the part% (ho &esires to perpetuate the testi#on% #a% #a/e a #otion in the sai& court for leave to ta/e the &epositions" upon the sa#e notice an& service thereof as if the action (as pen&in' therein.Order and e.2.(.perpetuate his o(n testi#on% or that of another person re'ar&in' an% #atter that #a% $e co'ni5a$le in an% court of the Philippines" #a% file& a verifie& petition in the court of the place of the resi&ence of an% e1pecte& a&verse part%.a" R.?.24) SEC.6.The petition shall $e entitle& in the na#e of the petitioner an& shall sho(* (a) that the petitioner e1pects to $e a part% to an action in a court of the Philippines $ut is presentl% una$le to $rin' it or cause it to $e $rou'ht7 ($) the su$3ect #atter of the e1pecte& action an& his interest therein7 (c) the facts (hich he &esires to esta$lish $% the propose& testi#on% an& his reasons for &esirin' to perpetuate it7 (&) the na#es or a &escription of the persons he e1pects (ill $e a&verse parties an& their a&&resses so far as /no(n7 an& (e) the na#es an& a&&resses of the persons to $e e1a#ine& an& the su$stance of the testi#on% (hich he e1pects to elicit fro# each" an& shall as/ for an or&er authori5in' the petitioner to ta/e the &epositions of the persons to $e e1a#ine& na#e& in the petition for the purpose of perpetuatin' their testi#on%.2!f a &eposition to perpetuate testi#on% is ta/en un&er this Rule" or if" althou'h not so ta/en" it (oul& $e a&#issi$le in evi&ence" it #a% $e use& in an% action involvin' the sa#e su$3ect #atter su$se>uentl% $rou'ht in accor&ance (ith the provisions of sections 4 an& 5 of Rule 02.%otice and service-.+epositions pending appeal.24) SEC.At least t(ent% (0B) &a%s $efore the &ate of the hearin'" the court shall cause notice thereof to $e serve& on the parties an& prospective &eponents in the #anner provi&e& for service of su##ons.(4a" R.24) SEC.Reference to court-.24) SEC.2!f the court is satisfie& that the perpetuation of the testi#on% #a% prevent a failure or &ela% of 3ustice" it shall #a/e an or&er &esi'natin' or &escri$in' the persons (hose &eposition #a% $e ta/en an& specif%in' the su$3ect #atter of the e1a#ination an& (hether the &epositions shall $e ta/en upon oral e1a#ination or (ritten interro'atories.The petitioner shall serve a notice upon each person na#e& in the petition as an e1pecte& a&verse part%" to'ether (ith a cop% of the petition" statin' that the petitioner (ill appl% to the court" at a ti#e an& place na#e& therein" for the or&er &escri$e& in the petition.

5) &a%s after service thereof" unless the court" on #otion an& for 'oo& cause sho(n" e1ten&s or shortens the ti#e(0a) SEC.*ffect of failure to serve written interrogatories.24) RULE 25 INTERROGATORIES TO PARTIES SECT!O+ ..2+o part% #a%" (ithout leave of court" serve #ore than one set of interro'atories to $e ans(ere& $% the sa#e part%.Interrogatories to parties.2 Unless thereafter allo(e& $% the court for 'oo& cause sho(n an& to prevent a failure of 3ustice" a part% not serve& (ith (ritten interro'atories #a% not $e co#pelle& $% the a&verse part% to 'ive testi#on% in open court" or to 'ive a &eposition pen&in' appeal.%umber of interrogatories.Ob"ections to interrogatories.2O$3ections to an% interro'atories #a% $e presente& to the court (ithin ten (.2 !nterro'atories #a% relate to an% #atters that can $e in>uire& into un&er section 0 of Rule 02" an& the ans(ers #a% $e use& for the sa#e purposes provi&e& in section 4 of the sa#e Rule.B) &a%s after service thereof" (ith notice as in case of a #otion7 an& ans(ers shall $e &eferre& until the o$3ections are resolve&" (hich shall $e at as earl% a ti#e as is practica$le.a) SEC.0.(.(2a) SEC.The part% upon (ho# the interro'atories have $een serve& shall file an& serve a cop% of the ans(ers on the part% su$#ittin' the interro'atories (ithin fifteen (. service thereof.!f the court fin&s that the perpetuation of the testi#on% is proper to avoi& a failure or &ela% of 3ustice" it #a% #a/e an or&er allo(in' the &epositions to $e ta/en" an& thereupon the &epositions #a% $e ta/en an& use& in the sa#e #anner an& un&er the sa#e con&itions as are prescri$e& in these Rules for &epositions ta/en in pen&in' actions.(4) SEC.(n)- RULE 26 .an& ($) the reason for perpetuatin' their testi#on%.5.2The interro'atories shall $e ans(ere& full% in (ritin' an& shall $e si'ne& an& s(orn to $% the person #a/in' the#.(?a" R.4.Scope and use of interrogatories.2 Un&er the sa#e con&itions specifie& in section .(5a) SEC.6. of Rule 02" an% part% &esirin' to elicit #aterial an& relevant facts fro# an% a&verse parties shall file an& serve upon the latter (ritten interro'atories to $e ans(ere& $% the part% serve& or" if the part% serve& is a pu$lic or private corporation or a partnership or association" $% an% officer thereof co#petent to testif% in its $ehalf.(nswer to interrogatories.2.

#ithdrawal.2Each of the #atters of (hich an a&#ission is re>ueste& shall $e &ee#e& a&#itte& unless" (ithin a perio& &esi'nate& in the re>uest" (hich shall not $e less than fifteen (.*ffect of failure to file and serve re6uest for admission -.Copies of the &ocu#ents shall $e &elivere& (ith the re>uest unless copies have alrea&% $een furnishe&.2At an% ti#e after issues have $een 3oine&" a part% #a% file an& serve upon an% other part% a (ritten re>uest for the a&#ission $% the latter of the 'enuineness of an% #aterial an& relevant &ocu#ent &escri$e& in an& e1hi$ite& (ith the re>uest or of the truth of an% #aterial an& relevant #atter of fact set forth in the re>uest.2.4.(2) SEC.!otion for production or inspection.2An% a&#ission #a&e $% a part% pursuant to such re>uest is for the purpose of the pen&in' action onl% an& shall not constitute an a&#ission $% hi# for an% other purpose nor #a% the sa#e $e use& a'ainst hi# in an% other procee&in'. order.5.0.5) &a%s after service thereof" or (ithin such further ti#e as the court #a% allo( on #otion" the part% to (ho# the re>uest is &irecte& files an& serves upon the part% re>uestin' the a&#ission a s(orn state#ent either &en%in' specificall% the #atters of (hich an a&#ission is re>ueste& or settin' forth in &etail the reasons (h% he cannot truthfull% either a&#it or &en% those #attersO$3ections to an% re>uest for a&#ission shall $e su$#itte& to the court $% the part% re>ueste& (ithin the perio& for an& prior to the filin' of his s(orn state#ent as conte#plate& in the prece&in' para'raph an& his co#pliance there(ith shall $e &eferre& until such o$li'ations are resolve&" (hich resolution shall $e #a&e as earl% as practica$le.Re6uest for admission. : Upon #otion of an% part% sho(in' 'oo& cause therefor" the court in (hich an action is pen&in' #a% (a) or&er an% part% to pro&uce an& per#it the inspection an& cop%in' or photo'raphin'" $% or on $ehalf of the #ovin' part%" of an% &esi'nate& &ocu#ents" papers" $oo/s" accounts" ..Unless other(ise allo(e& $% the court for 'oo& cause sho(n an& to prevent a failure of 3ustice" a part% (ho fails to file an& serve a re>uest for a&#ission on the a&verse part% of #aterial an& relevant facts at issue (hich are" or ou'ht to $e" (ithin the personal /no(le&'e of the latter" shall not $e per#itte& to present evi&ence on such facts.Implied admission.a) SEC.(4) SEC.*ffect of admission.ADMISSION !Y ADVERSE PARTY SECT!O+ .2The court #a% allo( the part% #a/in' an a&#ission un&er this Rule" (hether e1press or i#plie&" to (ith&ra( or a#en& it upon such ter#s as #a% $e 3ust..(.(n) RULE 27 PRODUCTION OR INSPECTION OF DOCUMENTS OR T INGS SECT!O+ .(0a) SEC.

a) RULE 28 P YSICAL AND MENTAL E&AMINATION OF PERSONS SECT!O+ .amination.amination may be ordered.The or&er shall specif% the ti#e" place an& #anner of #a/in' the inspection an& ta/in' copies an& photo'raphs" an& #a% prescri$e such ter#s an& con&itions as are 3ust.(.Report of findings2!f re>ueste& $% the part% e1a#ine&" the part% causin' the e1a#ination to $e #a&e shall &eliver to hi# a cop% of a &etaile& (ritten report of the e1a#inin' ph%sician settin' out his fin&in's an& conclusions.2The or&er for e1a#ination #a% $e #a&e onl% on #otion for 'oo& cause sho(n an& upon notice to the part% to $e e1a#ine& an& to all other parties" an& shall specif% the ti#e" place" #anner" con&itions an& scope of the e1a#ination an& the person or persons $% (ho# it is to $e #a&e.#hen e.0.(4) RULE 29 REFUSAL TO COMPLY WIT MODES OF DISCOVERY .2.Order for e.!f the part% e1a#ine& refuses to &eliver such report" the court on #otion an& notice #a% #a/e an or&er re>uirin' &eliver% on such ter#s as are 3ust" an& if a ph%sician fails or refuses to #a/e such a report the court #a% e1clu&e his testi#on% if offere& at the trial..(2a) SEC.#aiver of privilege.2!n an action in (hich the #ental or ph%sical con&ition of a part% is in controvers%" the court in (hich the action is pen&in' #a% in its &iscretion or&er hi# to su$#it to a ph%sical or #ental e1a#ination $% a ph%sician.2)% re>uestin' an& o$tainin' a report of the e1a#ination so or&ere& or $% ta/in' the &eposition of the e1a#iner" the part% e1a#ine& (aives an% privile'e he #a% have in that action or an% other involvin' the sa#e controvers%" re'ar&in' the testi#on% of ever% other person (ho has e1a#ine& or #a% thereafter e1a#ine hi# in respect of the sa#e #ental or ph%sical e1a#ination.(.(0) SEC.After such re>uest an& &eliver%" the part% causin' the e1a#ination to $e #a&e shall $e entitle& upon re>uest to receive fro# the part% e1a#ine& a li/e report of an% e1a#ination" previousl% or thereafter #a&e" of the sa#e #ental or ph%sical con&ition.letters" photo'raphs" o$3ects or tan'i$le thin's not privile'e&" (hich constitute or contain evi&ence #aterial to an% #atter involve& in the action an& (hich are in his possession custo&% or control7 or ($) or&er an% part% or per#it entr% upon &esi'nate& lan& or other propert% in his possession or control for the purpose of inspectin'" #easurin'" surve%in'" or photo'raphin' the propert% or an% &esi'nate& relevant o$3ect or operation thereon.) SEC.4.

.2.The proponent #a% thereafter appl% to the proper court of the place (here the &eposition is $ein' ta/en" for an or&er to co#pel an ans(er.!f a part% or other (itness refuses to $e s(orn or refuses to ans(er an% >uestion after $ein' &irecte& to &o so $% the court of the place in (hich the &eposition is $ein' ta/en" the refusal #a% $e consi&ere& a conte#pt of that court.Other conse6uences.Refusal to answer.2!f an% part% or an officer or #ana'in' a'ent of a part% refuses to o$e% an or&er #a&e un&er section .0.Contempt of court-.2!f a part% or other &eponent refuses to ans(er an% >uestion upon oral e1a#ination" the e1a#ination #a% $e co#plete& on other #atters or a&3ourne& as the proponent of the >uestion #a% prefer.(0a) SEC.The sa#e proce&ure #a% $e availe& of (hen a part% or a (itness refuses to ans(er an% interro'ator% su$#itte& un&er Rules 02 or 05!f the application is 'rante&" the court shall re>uire the refusin' part% or &eponent to ans(er the >uestion or interro'ator% an& if it also fin&s that the refusal to ans(er (as (ithout su$stantial 3ustification" it #a% re>uire the refusin' part% or &eponent or the counsel a&visin' the refusal" or $oth of the#" to pa% the proponent the a#ount of the reasona$le e1penses incurre& in o$tainin' the or&er" inclu&in' attorne%Gs fees!f the application is &enie& an& the court fin&s that it (as file& (ithout su$stantial 3ustification" the court #a% re>uire the proponent or the counsel a&visin' the filin' of the application" or $oth of the#" to pa% to the refusin' part% or &eponent the a#ount of the reasona$le e1penses incurre& in opposin' the application" inclu&in' attorne%Gs fees(.a) SEC.(2a) .SECT!O+ . of this Rule re>uirin' hi# to ans(er &esi'nate& >uestions" or an or&er un&er Rule 0? to pro&uce an% &ocu#ent or other thin' for inspection cop%in' or photo'raphin' or to per#it it to $e &one" or to per#it entr% upon lan& or other propert%" or an or&er #a&e un&er Rule 0@ re>uirin' hi# to su$#it to a ph%sical or #ental e1a#ination" the court #a% #a/e such or&ers in re'ar& to the refusal as are 3ust" an& a#on' others the follo(in'* (a) An or&er that the #atters re'ar&in' (hich the >uestions (ere as/e&" or the character or &escription of the thin' or lan&" or the contents of the paper" or the ph%sical or #ental con&ition of the part% or an% other &esi'nate& facts shall $e ta/en to $e esta$lishe& for the purposes of the action in accor&ance (ith the clai# of the part% o$tainin' the or&er7 ($) An or&er refusin' to allo( the &iso$e&ient part% to support or oppose &esi'nate& clai#s or &efenses or prohi$itin' hi# fro# intro&ucin' in evi&ence &esi'nate& &ocu#ents or thin's or ite#s of testi#on%" or fro# intro&ucin' evi&ence of ph%sical or #ental con&ition7 (c) An or&er stri/in' out plea&in's or parts thereof" or sta%in' further procee&in's until the or&er is o$e%e&" or &is#issin' the action or procee&in' or an% part thereof or ren&erin' a 3u&'#ent $% &efault a'ainst the &iso$e&ient part%7 an& (&) !n lieu of an% of the fore'oin' or&ers or in a&&ition thereto" an or&er &irectin' the arrest of an% part% or a'ent of part% for &iso$e%in' an% of such or&ers e1cept an or&er to su$#it to a ph%sical or #ental e1a#ination.

(4a" R00) SEC.6.4ailure of party to attend or serve answers.(d"ournments and postponements.)ut if the a&verse part% a&#its the facts to $e 'iven in evi&ence" even if he o$3ects or reserves the ri'ht to their a&#issi$ilit%" the trial shall not $e postpone&.*.2 A #otion to postpone a trial on the 'roun& of illness of a part% or counsel #a% $e 'rante& if it appears upon affi&avit or s(orn certification that the presence of such part% or .5.penses against the Republic of the $hilippines.2 !f a part% or an officer or #ana'in' a'ent of a part% (ilfull% fails to appear $efore the officer (ho is to ta/e his &eposition" after $ein' serve& (ith a proper notice" or fails to serve ans(ers to interro'atories su$#itte& un&er Rule 05 after proper service of such interro'atories" the court on #otion an& notice" #a% stri/e out all or an% part of an% plea&in' of the part%" or &is#iss the action or procee&in' or an% part thereof" or enter a 3u&'#ent $% &efault a'ainst the part%" an& in its &iscretion" or&er hi# to pa% reasona$le e1penses incurre& $% the other" inclu&in' attorne%Gs fees.Re6uisites of motion to postpone trial for illness of party or counsel.2 A court #a% a&3ourn a trial fro# &a% to &a%" an& to an% state& ti#e" as the e1pe&itious an& convenient transaction of $usiness #a% re>uire" $ut shall have no po(er to a&3ourn a trial for a lon'er perio& than one #onth for each a&3ourn#ent" nor #ore than three #onths in all" e1cept (hen authori5e& in (ritin' $% the Court A&#inistrator" Supre#e Court.Upon entr% of a case in the trial calen&ar" the cler/ shall notif% the parties of the &ate of its trial in such #anner as shall ensure his receipt of that notice at least five (5) &a%s $efore such &ate.SEC.(2a" R00) SEC.penses on refusal to admit.Unless the court fin&s that there (ere 'oo& reasons for the &enial or that a&#issions sou'ht (ere of no su$stantial i#portance" such or&er shall $e issue&.*.2 E1penses an& attorne%Gs fees are not to $e i#pose& upon the Repu$lic of the Philippines un&er this Rule-(6) RULE 30 TRIAL SECT!O+ .4.2 !f a part% after $ein' serve& (ith a re>uest un&er Rule 06 to a&#it the 'enuineness of an% &ocu#ent or the truth of an% #atter of fact" serves a s(orn &enial thereof an& if the part% re>uestin' the a&#issions thereafter proves the 'enuineness of such &ocu#ent or the truth of an% such #atter of fact" he #a% appl% to the court for an or&er re>uirin' the other part% to pa% hi# the reasona$le e1penses incurre& in #a/in' such proof" inclu&in' attorne%Gs fees.0.2 A #otion to postpone a trial on the 'roun& of a$sence of evi&ence can $e 'rante& onl% upon affi&avit sho(in' the #aterialit% or relevanc% of such evi&ence" an& that &ue &ili'ence has $een use& to procure it.(0a" R00) SEC.(4a) SEC..%otice of trial-.Re6uisites of motion to postpone trial for absence of evidence.(5) SEC.4.2.

(n) SEC.@.The cler/ of court shall have no po(er to rule on o$3ections .=o(ever" in &efault or e .(0a" R2B) SEC.(5a" R00) SEC.6.2 The 3u&'e of the court (here the case is pen&in' shall personall% receive the evi&ence to $e a&&uce& $% the parties.counsel at the trial is in&ispensa$le an& that the character of his illness is such as to ren&er his non<atten&ance e1cusa$le.2The suspension of actions shall $e 'overne& $% the provisions of the Civil Co&e.Furin' the hearin' or trial of a case an% state#ent #a&e $% the 3u&'e (ith reference to the case" or to an% of the parties" (itnesses or counsel" shall $e #a&e of recor& in the steno'raphic notes." an& unless the court for special reasons other(ise &irects" the trial shall $e li#ite& to the issues state& in the pre<trial or&er an& shall procee& as follo(s* (a) The plaintiff shall a&&uce evi&ence in support of his co#plaint7 ($) The &efen&ant shall then a&&uce evi&ence in support of his &efense" counterclai#" cross<clai# an& thir&<part% co#plaint7 (c) The thir&<part% &efen&ant" if an%" shall a&&uce evi&ence of his &efense" counterclai#" cross<clai# an& fourth<part% co#plaint7 (&) The fourth<part%" an& so forth" if an%" shall a&&uce evi&ence of the #aterial facts plea&e& $% the#7 (e) The parties a'ainst (ho# an% counterclai# or cross<clai# has $een plea&e&" shall a&&uce evi&ence in support of their &efense" in the or&er to $e prescri$e& $% the court7 (f) The parties #a% then respectivel% a&&uce re$uttin' evi&ence onl%" unless the court" for 'oo& reasons an& in the furtherance of 3ustice" per#its the# to a&&uce evi&ence upon their ori'inal case7 an& (') Upon a&#ission of the evi&ence" the case shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for &ecision" unless the court &irects the parties to ar'ue or to su$#it their respective #e#oran&a or an% further plea&in's!f several &efen&ants or thir&<part% &efen&ants" an& so forth.A.havin' separate &efenses appear $% &ifferent counsel" the court shall &eter#ine the relative or&er of presentation of their evi&ence.(2a" R2B) SEC.?. delegation to cler) of court.Statement of 3u&'e-.a" R2B) SEC.Suspension of actions.(.udge to receive evidence.Order of trial-.5.(greed statement of facts2The parties to an% action #a% a'ree" in (ritin'" upon the facts involve& in the liti'ation" an& su$#it the case for 3u&'#ent on the facts a'ree& upon" (ithout the intro&uction of evi&ence!f the parties a'ree onl% on so#e of the facts in issue" the trial shall $e hel& as to the &ispute& facts in such or&er as the court shall prescri$e.Su$3ect to the provisions of section 0 of Rule 2. parte hearin's" an& in an% case (here the parties a'ree in (ritin'" the court #a% &ele'ate the reception of evi&ence to its cler/ of court (ho is a #e#$er of the $ar.

powers of the commissioner.to an% >uestion or to the a&#ission of e1hi$its" (hich o$3ections shall $e resolve& $% the court upon su$#ission of his report an& the transcripts (ithin ten (.2)% (ritten consent of $oth parties" the court #a% or&er an% or all of the issues in a case to $e referre& to a co##issioner to $e a'ree& upon $% the parties or to $e appointe& $% the court.0.Separate trials.(..Reference ordered on motion.Consolidation-.a" R22) SEC..8hen actions involvin' a co##on >uestion of la( or fact are pen&in' $efore the court" it #a% or&er a 3oint hearin' or trial of an% or all the #atters in issue in the actions7 it #a% or&er all the actions consoli&ate&7 an& it #a% #a/e such or&ers concernin' procee&in's therein as #a% ten& to avoi& unnecessar% costs or &ela%.(n) RULE 31 CONSOLIDATION OR SEVERANCE SECT!O+ .0.(.Reference by consent.) SEC.2The court" in furtherance of convenience or to avoi& pre3u&ice" #a% or&er a separate trial of an% clai#" cross<clai#" counterclai#" or thir&< part% co#plaint" or of an% separate issue or of an% nu#$er of clai#s" cross<clai#s" counterclai#s" thir&<part% co#plaint or issues.2 8hen a reference is .2 8hen the parties &o not consent" the court #a%" upon the application of either or of its o(n #otion) &irect a reference to a co##issioner in the follo(in' cases* (a) 8hen the trial of an issue of fact re>uires the e1a#ination of a lon' account on either si&e" in (hich case the co##issioner #a% $e &irecte& to hear an& report upon the (hole issue or an% specific >uestion involve& therein7 ($) 8hen the ta/in' of an account is necessar% for the infor#ation of the court $efore 3u&'#ent" or for carr%in' a 3u&'#ent or or&er into effect7 (c) 8hen a >uestion of fact" other than upon the plea&in's" arises upon #otion or other(ise" in an% sta'e of a case" or for carr%in' a 3u&'#ent or or&er into effect. inclu&es a referee" an au&itor an& an e1a#iner.(0a" R22) SEC.(0a) RULE 32 TRIAL !Y COMMISSIONER SECT!O+ .As use& in these Rules" the (or& :co##issioner.Order of reference.B) &a%s fro# ter#ination of the hearin'.2.

B" R22) .(@a" R22) SEC.B) &a%s (ithin (hich to si'nif% 'roun&s of o$3ections to the fin&in's of the report" if the% so &esireO$3ections to the report $ase& upon 'roun&s (hich (ere availa$le to the parties &urin' the procee&in's $efore the co##issioner" other than o$3ections to the fin&in's an& conclusions therein set forth" shall not $e consi&ere& $% the court unless the% (ere #a&e $efore the co##issioner.6.@.The or&er #a% specif% or li#it the po(ers of the co##issioner" an& #a% &irect hi# to report onl% upon particular issues" or to &o or perfor# particular acts" or to receive an& report evi&ence onl%" an& #a% fi1 the &ate for $e'innin' an& closin' the hearin's an& for the filin' of his report.Su$3ect to the specifications an& li#itations state& in the or&er" the co##issioner has an& shall e1ercise the po(er to re'ulate the procee&in's in ever% hearin' $efore hi# an& to &o all acts an& ta/e all #easures necessar% or proper for the efficient perfor#ance of his &uties un&er the or&er.$roceedings before commissioner. parte or" in his &iscretion" a&3ourn the procee&in's to a future &a%" 'ivin' notice to the a$sent part% or his counsel of the a&3ourn#ent.Report of commissioner.B.(?a" R22) SEC.Either part%" on notice to the parties an& co##issioner" #a% appl% to the court for an or&er re>uirin' the co##issioner to e1pe&ite the procee&in's an& to #a/e his report..2Upon the co#pletion of the trial or hearin' or procee&in' $efore the co##issioner" he shall file (ith the court his report in (ritin' upon the #atters su$#itte& to hi# $% the or&er of reference.e1hi$its" affi&avits" &epositions" papers an& the transcripts" if an%" of the testi#onial evi&ence presente& $efore hi#.<.(.A.2 !f a part% fails to appear at the ti#e an& place appointe&" the co##issioner #a% procee& e.(Aa" R22) SEC.B) &a%s after the &ate of the or&er of reference an& shall notif% the parties or their counsel.(6a" R22) SEC. s(ear (itnesses" an& unless other(ise provi&e& in the or&er of reference" he #a% rule upon the a&#issi$ilit% of evi&ence.5.2 Upon the filin' of the report" the parties shall $e notifie& $% the cler/" an& the% shall $e allo(e& ten (.2 !t is the &ut% of the co##issioner to procee& (ith all reasona$le &ili'ence.(5a" R22) SEC..4ailure of parties to appear before commissioner..2)efore enterin' upon his &uties the co##issioner shall $e s(orn to a faithful an& honest perfor#ance thereof.(2a" R22) SEC.=e shall attach thereto all.The trial or hearin' $efore hi# shall procee& in all respects as it (oul& if hel& $efore the court. Oath of commissioner.8hen his po(ers are not specifie& or li#ite&" he shall set forth his fin&in's of fact an& conclusions of la( in his report.Commissioner shall avoid delays.#a&e" the cler/ shall forth(ith furnish" the co##issioner (ith a cop% of the or&er of reference.2 Upon receipt of the or&er of reference an& unless other(ise provi&e& therein" the co##issioner shall forth(ith set a ti#e an& place for the first #eetin' of the parties or their counsel to $e hel& (ithin ten (. Refusal of witness.4" R22) SEC.=e #a% issue su$poenas an& su$poenas duces tecum.%otice to parties of the filing of report.(.2The refusal of a (itness to o$e% a su$poena issue& $% the co##issioner or to 'ive evi&ence $efore hi#" shall $e &ee#e& a conte#pt of the court (hich appointe& the co##issioner.

.a" R25) RULE 34 $UDGMENT ON T E PLEADINGS SECT!O+ .Upon the e1piration of the perio& of ten (.2" R22) RULE 33 DEMURRER TO EVIDENCE SECT!O+ ..28here an ans(er fails to ten&er an issue" or other(ise a&#its the #aterial alle'ations of the a&verse part%Gs plea&in'" the court #a%" on #otion of that part%" &irect 3u&'#ent on such plea&in'..2After the plaintiff has co#plete& the presentation of his evi&ence" the &efen&ant #a% #ove for &is#issal on the 'roun& that upon the facts an& the la( the plaintiff has sho(n no ri'ht to relief.(..SEC.28hen the parties stipulate that a co##issionerGs fin&in's of fact shall $e final" onl% >uestions of la( shall thereafter $e consi&ere&.0a" R22) SEC.3earing upon report-.(..a" R22) SEC.A) RULE 35 SUMMARY $UDGMENTS ..Stipulations as to findings.=o(ever" in actions for &eclaration of nullit% or annul#ent of #arria'e or for le'al separation" the #aterial facts alle'e& in the co#plaint shall al(a%s $e prove&.(.0.B) &a%s referre& to in the prece&in' section" the report shall $e set for hearin'" after (hich the court shall issue an or&er a&optin'" #o&if%in'" or re3ectin' the report in (hole or in part" or reco##ittin' it (ith instructions" or re>uirin' the parties to present further evi&ence $efore the co##issioner or the court..2.+emurrer to evidence.2 The court shall allo( the co##issioner such reasona$le co#pensation as the circu#stances of the case (arrant" to $e ta1e& as costs a'ainst the &efeate& part%" or apportione&" as 3ustice re>uires.!f the #otion is 'rante& $ut on appeal the or&er of &is#issal is reverse& he shall $e &ee#e& to have (aive& the ri'ht to present evi&ence.Compensation of commissioner.(.a" R.(..!f his #otion is &enie&" he shall have the ri'ht to present evi&ence.udgment on the pleadings.

(.Certifie& true copies of all papers or parts thereof referre& to in the affi&avit shall $e attache& thereto or serve& there(ith.2 A part% see/in' to recover upon a clai#" counterclai#" or cross<clai# or to o$tain a &eclarator% relief #a%" at an% ti#e after the plea&in' in ans(er thereto has $een serve&" #ove (ith supportin' affi&avits" &epositions or a&#issions for a su##ar% 3u&'#ent in his favor upon all or an% part thereof.The #otion shall $e serve& at least ten (.!otion and proceedings thereon -.4.!t shall thereupon #a/e an or&er specif%in' the facts that appear (ithout su$stantial controvers%" inclu&in' the e1tent to (hich the a#ount of &a#a'es or other relief is not in controvers%" an& &irectin' such further procee&in's in the action as are 3ust.a" R24) SEC.B) &a%s $efore the ti#e specifie& for the hearin'.Shoul& it appear to its satisfaction at an% ti#e that an% of the affi&avits presente& pursuant to this Rule are presente& in $a& faith" or solel% for the purpose of &ela%" the court shall forth(ith or&er the offen&in' part% or counsel to pa% to the other part% the a#ount of the reasona$le e1penses (hich the filin' of the affi&avits cause& hi# to incur" inclu&in' attorne%Gs fees.4orm of affidavits and supporting papers.(5a" R24) SEC..!t #a%" after hearin'" further a&3u&'e the offen&in' part% or counsel 'uilt% of conte#pt.0.SECT!O+ .After the hearin'" the 3u&'#ent sou'ht shall $e ren&ere& forth(ith if the plea&in's" supportin' affi&avits" &epositions" an& a&#issions on file" sho( that" e1cept as to the a#ount of &a#a'es" there is no 'enuine issue as to an% #aterial fact an& that the #ovin' part% is entitle& to a 3u&'#ent as a #atter of la(.The facts so specifie& shall $e &ee#e& esta$lishe&" an& the trial shall $e con&ucte& on the controverte& facts accor&in'l%.Case not fully ad"udicated on motion.2.2 !f on #otion un&er this Rule" 3u&'#ent is not ren&ere& upon the (hole case or for all the reliefs sou'ht an& a trial is necessar%" the court at the hearin' of the #otion" $% e1a#inin' the plea&in's an& the evi&ence $efore it an& $% interro'atin' counsel shall ascertain (hat #aterial facts e1ist (ithout su$stantial controvers% an& (hat are actuall% an& in 'oo& faith controverte&.6.(4a" R24) SEC.(2a" R24) SEC.A part% a'ainst (ho# a clai#" counterclai# or cross<clai# is asserte& or a &eclarator% relief is sou'ht #a%" at an% ti#e" #ove (ith supportin' affi&avits" &epositions or a&#issions for a su##ar% 3u&'#ent in his favor as to all or an% part thereof.Summary "udgment for claimant.(6a" R24) RULE 36 .Summary "udgment for defending part%-.5.(ffidavits in bad faith-.The a&verse part% #a% serve opposin' affi&avits" &epositions" or a&#issions at least three (2) &a%s $efore the hearin'.2 Supportin' an& opposin' affi&avits shall $e #a&e on personal /no(le&'e" shall set forth such facts as (oul& $e a&#issi$le in evi&ence" an& shall sho( affir#ativel% that the affiant is co#petent to testif% to the #atters state& therein.(0a" R24) SEC.

The &ate of finalit% of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er shall $e &ee#e& to $e the &ate of its entr%The recor& shall contain the &ispositive part of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er an& shall $e si'ne& $% the cler/" (ith a certificate that such 3u&'#ent or final or&er has $eco#e final an& e1ecutor%.2 !f no appeal or #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration is file& (ithin the ti#e provi&e& in these Rules" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er shall forth(ith $e entere& $% the cler/ in the $oo/ of entries of 3u&'#ents.udgment against entity without "uridical personality.28hen #ore than one clai# for relief is presente& in an action" the court" at an% sta'e" upon a &eter#ination of the issues #aterial to a particular clai# an& all counterclai#s arisin' out of the transaction or occurrence (hich is the su$3ect #atter of the clai#" #a% ren&er a separate 3u&'#ent &isposin' of such clai#.2..0.2!n an action a'ainst several &efen&ants" the court #a%" (hen a several 3u&'#ent is proper" ren&er 3u&'#ent a'ainst one or #ore of the#" leavin' the action to procee& a'ainst the others.$UDGMENTS# FINAL ORDERS AND ENTRY T EREOF SECT!O+ .(4) SEC.B" R5.2 A 3u&'#ent or final or&er &eter#inin' the #erits of the case shall $e in (ritin' personall% an& &irectl% prepare& $% the 3u&'e" statin' clearl% an& &istinctl% the facts an& the la( on (hich it is $ase&" si'ne& $% hi#" an& file& (ith the cler/ of the court.)SEC.Several "udgments.(5a) SEC.udgment for or against one or more of several parties-.!n case a separate 3u&'#ent is ren&ere&" the court $% or&er #a% sta% its enforce#ent until the ren&ition of a su$se>uent 3u&'#ent or 3u&'#ents an& #a% prescri$e such con&itions as #a% $e necessar% to secure the $enefit thereof to the part% in (hose favor the 3u&'#ent is ren&ere&.(.(6a) RULE 37 NEW TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION SECT!O+ .-rounds of and period for filing motion for new trial or reconsideration.Hu&'#ent #a% $e 'iven for or a'ainst one or #ore several plaintiffs" an& for or a'ainst one or #ore of several &efen&ants.Rendition of "udgments and final orders.Separate "udgments.2 8hen 3u&'#ent is ren&ere& a'ainst t(o or #ore persons sue& as an entit% (ithout 3uri&ical personalit%" the 3u&'#ent shall set out their in&ivi&ual or proper na#es" if /no(n.(2) SEC.The 3u&'#ent shall ter#inate the action (ith respect to the clai# so &ispose& of an& the action shall procee& as to the re#ainin' clai#s.a) SEC.6.5.4.. 28ithin the perio& for ta/in' an appeal" the a''rieve& part% #a% #ove the trial court to .(0a" .8hen 3ustice so &e#an&s" the court #a% re>uire the parties on each si&e to file a&versar% plea&in's as $et(een the#selves an& &eter#ine their ulti#ate ri'hts an& o$li'ations.*ntry of "udgments and final orders.

2The trial court #a% set asi&e the 3u&'#ent or final or&er an& 'rant a ne( trial" upon such ter#s as #a% $e 3ust7 or #a% &en% the #otion.(n) SEC.Second motion for new trial.(0a) SEC.(2a) SEC.(ction upon motion for new trial or reconsideration.4.2.Resolution of motion2A #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration shall $e resolve& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the ti#e it is su$#itte& for resolution.!f the court fin&s that e1cessive &a#a'es have $een a(ar&e& or that the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is contrar% to the evi&ence or la(" it #a% a#en& such 3u&'#ent or final or&er accor&in'l%.5.set asi&e the 3u&'#ent or final or&er an& 'rant a ne( trial for one or #ore of the follo(in' causes #ateriall% affectin' the su$stantial ri'hts of sai& part%* (a) Frau&" acci&ent" #ista/e or e1cusa$le ne'li'ence (hich or&inar% pru&ence coul& not have 'uar&e& a'ainst an& $% reason of (hich such a''rieve& part% has pro$a$l% $een i#paire& in his ri'hts7 or ($) +e(l% &iscovere& evi&ence" (hich he coul& not" (ith reasona$le &ili'ence" have &iscovere& an& pro&uce& at the trial" an& (hich if presente& (oul& pro$a$l% alter the result8ithin the sa#e perio&" the a''rieve& part% #a% also #ove for reconsi&eration upon the 'roun&s that the &a#a'es a(ar&e& are e1cessive" that the evi&ence is insufficient to 3ustif% the &ecision or final or&er" or that the &ecision or final or&er is contrar% to la(.Contents of motion for new trial or reconsideration and notice thereof.A #otion for the cause #entione& in para'raph ($) shall $e supporte& $% affi&avits of the (itnesses $% (ho# such evi&ence is e1pecte& to $e 'iven" or $% &ul% authenticate& &ocu#ents (hich are propose& to $e intro&uce& in evi&enceA #otion for reconsi&eration shall point out specificall% the fin&in's or conclusions of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er (hich are not supporte& $% the evi&ence or (hich are contrar% to la(" #a/in' e1press reference to the testi#onial or &ocu#entar% evi&ence or to the provisions of la( alle'e& to $e contrar% to such fin&in's or conclusionsA pro forma #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration shall not toll the re'le#entar% perio& of appeal.(.(4a" 4" !RC) .0.A #otion for the cause #entione& in para'raph (a) of the prece&in' section shall $e supporte& $% affi&avits of #erits (hich #a% $e re$utte& $% affi&avits.2 A #otion for ne( trial shall inclu&e all 'roun&s then availa$le an& those not so inclu&e& shall $e &ee#e& (aive&.A secon& #otion for ne( trial" $ase& on a 'roun& not e1istin' nor availa$le (hen the first #otion (as #a&e" #a% $e file& (ithin the ti#e herein provi&e& e1clu&in' the ti#e &urin' (hich the first #otion ha& $een pen&in'+o part% shall $e allo(e& a secon& #otion for reconsi&eration of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er.a) SEC.2 The #otion shall $e #a&e in (ritin' statin' the 'roun& or 'roun&s therefor" a (ritten notice of (hich shall $e serve& $% the #ovant on the a&verse part%A #otion for ne( trial shall $e prove& in the #anner provi&e& for proof of #otions.

(n) RULE 38 RELIEF FROM $UDGMENTS# ORDERS OR OT ER PROCEEDINGS SECT!O+ .6.2.$etition for relief from "udgment.$etition for relief from denial of appeal2 8hen a 3u&'#ent or final or&er is ren&ere& $% an% court in a case" an& a part% thereto" $% frau&" acci&ent" #ista/e" or e1cusa$le ne'li'ence" has $een prevente& fro# ta/in' an appeal" he #a% file a petition in such court an& in the sa#e case pra%in' that the appeal $e 'iven &ue course.2 !f a ne( trial is 'rante& in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this Rule" the ori'inal 3u&'#ent or final or&er shall $e vacate&" an& the action shall stan& for trial de novo.Remedy against order denying a motion for new trial or reconsideration.Time for filing petition.2 A petition provi&e& for in either of the prece&in' sections of this Rule #ust $e verifie&" file& (ithin si1t% (6B) &a%s after the petitioner learns of the 3u&'#ent" final or&er" or other procee&in' to $e set asi&e" an& not #ore than si1 (6) #onths after such 3u&'#ent or final or&er (as entere&" or such procee&in' (as ta/en7 an& #ust $e acco#panie& (ith affi&avits sho(in' the frau&" acci&ent" #ista/e" or e1cusa$le ne'li'ence relie& upon" an& the facts constitutin' the petitionerGs 'oo& an& su$stantial cause of action or &efense" as the case #a% $e(2) SEC.?. $ut the recor&e& evi&ence ta/en upon the for#er trial" insofar as the sa#e is #aterial an& co#petent to esta$lish the issues" shall $e use& at the ne( trial (ithout reta/in' the sa#e.4.*ffect of granting of motion for new trial.2 An or&er &en%in' a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration is not appeala$le" the re#e&% $ein' an appeal fro# the 3u&'#ent or final or&er..(5) SEC. or other proceedings2 8hen a 3u&'#ent or final or&er is entere&" or an% other procee&in' is thereafter ta/en a'ainst a part% in an% court throu'h frau&" acci&ent" #ista/e" or e1cusa$le ne'li'ence" he #a% file a petition in such court an& in the sa#e case pra%in' that the 3u&'#ent" or&er or procee&in' $e set asi&e.(0a) SEC.2 !f the 'roun&s for a #otion un&er this Rule appear to the court to affect the issues as to onl% a part" or less than all of the #atter in controvers%" or onl% one" or less than all" of the parties to it" the court #a% or&er a ne( trial or 'rant reconsi&eration as to such issues if severa$le (ithout interferin' (ith the 3u&'#ent or final or&er upon the rest.@.a) SEC.*ffect of order for partial new trial.A.(6a) SEC.(?a) SEC.(. contents and verification.$artial new trial or reconsideration.0.Order to file an answer 2!f the petition is sufficient in for# an& su$stance to 3ustif% relief" the court in (hich it is file&" shall issue an or&er re>uirin' the a&verse . order.SEC.2 (hen less than all of the issues are or&ere& retrie&" the court #a% either enter a 3u&'#ent or final or&er as to the rest" or sta% the enforce#ent of such 3u&'#ent or final or&er until after the ne( trial.

ecution.6. $rocedure where the denial of an appeal is set aside -.Thereafter the case shall stan& as if such 3u&'#ent" final or&er or other procee&in' ha& never $een ren&ere&" issue& or ta/en.a) !f the appeal has $een &ul% perfecte& an& finall% resolve&" the e1ecution #a% forth(ith $e applie& for in the court of ori'in" on #otion of the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" su$#ittin' there(ith certifie& true copies of the 3u&'#ent or 3u&'#ents or final or&er or or&ers sou'ht to $e enforce& an& of the entr% thereof" (ith notice to the a&verse part%The appellate court #a%" on #otion in the sa#e case" (hen the interest of 3ustice so re>uires" &irect the court of ori'in to issue the (rit of e1ecution.*.+iscretionary e.(n) SEC.The court shall then procee& to hear an& &eter#ine the case as if a ti#el% #otion for a ne( trial or reconsi&eration ha& $een 'rante& $% it.(6a) SEC.$reliminary in"unction pending proceedings.2 .2 The court in (hich the petition is file&" #a% 'rant such preli#inar% in3unction as #a% $e necessar% for the preservation of the ri'hts of the parties" upon the filin' $% the petitioner of a $on& in favor of the a&verse part%" con&itione& that if the petition is &is#isse& or the petitioner fails on the trial of the case upon its #erits" he (ill pa% the a&verse part% all &a#a'es an& costs that #a% $e a(ar&e& to hi# $% reason of the issuance of such in3unction or the other procee&in's follo(in' the petition7 $ut such in3unction shall not operate to &ischar'e or e1tin'uish an% lien (hich the a&verse part% #a% have ac>uire& upon the propert% of the petitioner.(4a) SEC.(.(?a) RULE 39 E&ECUTION# SATISFACTION AND EFFECT OF $UDGMENTS SECT!O+ .5..$roceedings after answer is filed.0.?.The or&er shall $e serve& in such #anner as the court #a% &irect" to'ether (ith copies of the petition an& the acco#pan%in' affi&avits.2 E1ecution shall issue as a #atter of ri'ht" on #otion" upon a 3u&'#ent or or&er that &isposes of the action or procee&in' upon the e1piration of the perio& to appeal therefro# if no appeal has $een &ul% perfecte&.5) &a%s fro# the receipt thereof.parties to ans(er the sa#e (ithin fifteen (.8here the &enial of an appeal is set asi&e" the lo(er court shall $e re>uire& to 'ive &ue course to the appeal an& to elevate the recor& of the appeale& case as if a ti#el% an& proper appeal ha& $een #a&e.ecution upon "udgments or final orders.(5a) SEC.2 After the filin' of the ans(er or the e1piration of the perio& therefor" the court shall hear the petition an& if after such hearin'" it fin&s that the alle'ations thereof are not true" the petition shall $e &is#isse&7 $ut if it fin&s sai& alle'ations to $e true" it shall set asi&e the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or other procee&in' co#plaine& of upon such ter#s as #a% $e 3ust.

2 Hu&'#ents in actions for in3unction" receivership" accountin' an& support" an& such other 3u&'#ents as are no( or #a% hereafter $e &eclare& to $e i##e&iatel% e1ecutor%" shall $e enforcea$le after their ren&ition an& shall not $e sta%e& $% an appeal ta/en therefro#" unless other(ise or&ere& $% the trial court. *.Stay of discretionary e1ecution-.2 !n case of the &eath of a part%" e1ecution #a% issue or $e enforce& in the follo(in' #anner* (a) !n case of the &eath of the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" upon the application .The $on& thus 'iven #a% $e procee&e& a'ainst on #otion (ith notice to the suret%.On appeal therefro#" the appellate court in its &iscretion #a% #a/e an or&er suspen&in'" #o&if%in'" restorin' or 'rantin' the in3unction" receivership" accountin'" or a(ar& of supportThe sta% of e1ecution shall $e upon such ter#s as to $on& or other(ise as #a% $e consi&ere& proper for the securit% or protection of the ri'hts of the a&verse part%.*ffect of reversal of e. On #otion of the prevailin' part% (ith notice to the a&verse part% file& in the trial court (hile it has 3uris&iction over the case an& is in possession of either the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal" as the case #a% $e" at the ti#e of the filin' of such #otion" sai& court #a%" in its &iscretion" or&er e1ecution of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er even $efore the e1piration of the perio& to appealAfter the trial court has lost 3uris&iction" the #otion for e1ecution pen&in' appeal #a% $e file& in the appellate courtFiscretionar% e1ecution #a% onl% issue upon 'oo& reasons to $e state& in a special or&er after &ue hearin'($) E1ecution of several" separate or partial 3u&'#ents-.udgments not stayed by appeal.2 A final an& e1ecutor% 3u&'#ent or or&er #a% $e e1ecute& on #otion (ithin five (5) %ears fro# the &ate of its entr%. *.A several" separate or partial 3u&'#ent #a% $e e1ecute& un&er the sa#e ter#s an& con&itions as e1ecution of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er pen&in' appeal.4.After the lapse of such ti#e" an& $efore it is $arre& $% the statute of li#itations" a 3u&'#ent #a% $e enforce& $% action.8here the e1ecute& 3u&'#ent is reverse& totall% or partiall%" or annulle&" on appeal or other(ise" the trial court #a%" on #otion" issue such or&ers of restitution or reparation of &a#a'es as e>uit% an& 3ustice #a% (arrant un&er the circu#stances.<.The revive& 3u&'#ent #a% also $e enforce& $% #otion (ithin five (5) %ears fro# the &ate of its entr% an& thereafter $% action $efore it is $arre& $% the statute of li#itations.ecuted "udgment -.ecution by motion or by independent action.Fiscretionar% e1ecution issue& un&er the prece&in' section #a% $e sta%e& upon approval $% the proper court of a sufficient superse&eas $on& file& $% the part% a'ainst (ho# it is &irecte&" con&itione& upon the perfor#ance of the 3u&'#ent or or&er allo(e& to $e e1ecute& in case it shall $e finall% sustaine& in (hole or in part.(6a) SEC.(a) E1ecution of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er pen&in' appeal-.5.(4a) SEC.(2a) SEC.(5a) SEC.2.=.ecution in case of death of party.(0a) SEC.

For this purpose" the #otion for e1ecution shall specif% the a#ounts of the fore'oin' reliefs sou'ht $% the #ovant.of his e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" or successor in interest($) !n case of the &eath of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" a'ainst his e1ecutor or a&#inistrator or successor in interest" if the 3u&'#ent $e for the recover% of real or personal propert%" or the enforce#ent of a lien thereon7 (c) !n case of the &eath of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" after e1ecution is actuall% levie& upon an% of his propert%" the sa#e #a% $e sol& for the satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent o$li'ation" an& the officer #a/in' the sale shall account to the correspon&in' e1ecutor or a&#inistrator for an% surplus in his han&s.(@a) SEC.ecution of "udgments for money.(?a) SEC.ecution.The la(ful fees shall $e .@.o$li'or shall pa% in cash" certifie& $an/ chec/ pa%a$le to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" or an% other for# of pa%#ent accepta$le to the latter" the a#ount of the 3u&'#ent &e$t un&er proper receipt &irectl% to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee or his authori5e& representative if present at the ti#e of pa%#ent.) issue in the na#e of the Repu$lic of the Philippines fro# the court (hich 'rante& the #otion7 (0) state the na#e of the court" the case nu#$er an& title" the &ispositive part of the su$3ect 3u&'#ent or or&er7 an& (2) re>uire the sheriff or other proper officer to (ho# it is &irecte& to enforce the (rit accor&in' to its ter#s" in the #anner hereinafter provi&e&* (a) !f the e1ecution $e a'ainst the propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" to satisf% the 3u&'#ent" (ith interest" out of the real or personal propert% of such 3u&'#ent o$li'or7 ($) !f it $e a'ainst real or personal propert% in the han&s of personal representatives" heirs" &evisees" le'atees" tenants" or trustees of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" to satisf% the 3u&'#ent" (ith interest" out of such propert%7 (c)!f it $e for the sale of real or personal propert%" to sell such propert%" &escri$in' it" an& appl% the procee&s in confor#it% (ith the 3u&'#ent" the #aterial parts of (hich shall $e recite& in the (rit of e1ecution7 (&) !f it $e for the &eliver% of the possession of real or personal propert%" to &eliver the possession of the sa#e" &escri$in' it" to the part% entitle& thereto" an& to satisf% an% costs" &a#a'es" rents" or profits covere& $% the 3u&'#ent out of the personal propert% of the person a'ainst (ho# it (as ren&ere&" an& if sufficient personal propert% cannot $e foun&" then out of the real propert%7 an& (e) !n all cases" the (rit of e1ecution shall specificall% state the a#ount of the interest" costs" &a#a'es" rents" or profits &ue as of the &ate of the issuance of the (rit" asi&e fro# the principal o$li'ation un&er the 3u&'#ent. .2 The (rit of e1ecution shall* (.A.The 3u&'#ent.Issuance.The officer shall enforce an e1ecution of a 3u&'#ent for #one% $% &e#an&in' fro# the 3u&'#ent o$li'or the i##e&iate pa%#ent of the full a#ount state& in the (rit of e1ecution an& all la(ful fees. form and contents of a writ of e.*. how enforced2 (a) Immediate payment on demand.

.!n no case shall the e1ecutin' sheriff &e#an& that an% pa%#ent $% chec/ $e #a&e pa%a$le to hi#($) Satisfaction by levy.Re'ional Trial Court of the localit%The cler/ of sai& court shall thereafter arran'e for the re#ittance of the &eposit to the account of the court that issue& the (rit (hose cler/ of court shall then &eliver sai& pa%#ent to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee in satisfaction of the 3u&'#entThe e1cess" if an%" shall $e &elivere& to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or (hile the la(ful fees shall $e retaine& $% the cler/ of court for &isposition as provi&e& $% la(.!f the 3u&'#ent o$li'or cannot pa% all or part of the o$li'ation in cash" certifie& $an/ chec/ or other #o&e of pa%#ent accepta$le to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" the officer shall lev% upon the properties of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or of ever% /in& an& nature (hatsoever (hich #a% $e &ispose& of for value an& not other(ise e1e#pt fro# e1ecution 'ivin' the latter the option to i##e&iatel% choose (hich propert% or part thereof #a% $e levie& upon" sufficient to satisf% the 3u&'#ent.The latter shall turn over all the a#ounts co#in' into his possession (ithin the sa#e &a% to the cler/ of court of the court that issue& the (rit" or if the sa#e is not practica$le" &eposit sai& a#ounts to a fi&uciar% account in the nearest 'overn#ent &epositor% $an/ of the.!f not" .han&e& un&er proper receipt to the e1ecutin' sheriff (ho shall turn over the sai& a#ount (ithin the sa#e &a% to the cler/ of court of the court that issue& the (rit!f the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee or his authori5e& representative is not present to receive pa%#ent" the 3u&'#ent o$li'or shall &eliver the aforesai& pa%#ent to the e1ecutin' sheriff..Lev% shall $e #a&e $% servin' notice upon the person o(in' such &e$ts or havin' in his possession or control such cre&its to (hich the 3u&'#ent o$li'or is entitle&.The 'arnish#ent shall cover onl% such a#ount as (ill satisf% the 3u&'#ent an& all la(ful feesThe 'arnishee shall #a/e a (ritten report to the court (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# service of the notice of 'arnish#ent statin' (hether or n6t the 3u&'#ent o$li'or has sufficient fun&s or cre&its to satisf% the a#ount of the 3u&'#ent.The officer #a% lev% on &e$ts &ue the 3u&'#ent o$li'or an& other cre&its" inclu&in' $an/ &eposits" financial interests" ro%alties" co##issions an& other personal propert% not capa$le of #anual &eliver% in the possession or control of thir& parties.!f the 3u&'#ent o$li'or &oes not e1ercise the option" the officer shall first lev% on the personal properties" if an%" an& then on the real properties if the personal properties are insufficient to ans(er for the 3u&'#entThe sheriff shall sell onl% a sufficient portion of the personal or real propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or (hich has $een levie& upon8hen there is #ore propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or than is sufficient to satisf% the 3u&'#ent an& la(ful fees" he #ust sell onl% so #uch of the personal or real propert% as is sufficient to satisf% the 3u&'#ent an& la(ful feesReal propert%" stoc/s" shares" &e$ts" cre&its" an& other personal propert%" or an% interest in either real or personal propert%" #a% $e levie& upon in li/e #anner an& (ith li/e effect as un&er a (rit of attach#ent(c) -arnishment of debts and credits.

Ba) ($) Sale of real or personal property.8hen the propert% su$3ect of the e1ecution contains i#prove#ents constructe& or plante& $% the 3u&'#ent o$li'or or his a'ent" the officer shall not &estro%" &e#olish or re#ove sai& i#prove#ents e1cept upon special or&er of the court" issue& upon #otion of the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee after &ue hearin' an& after the for#er has faile& to re#ove the sa#e (ithin a reasona$le ti#e fi1e& $% the court.!f real or personal propert% is situate& (ithin the Philippines" the court in lieu of &irectin' a conve%ance thereof #a% $% an or&er &ivest the title of an% part% an& vest it in others" (hich shall have the force an& effect of a conve%ance e1ecute& in &ue for# of la(.B) (or/in' &a%s fro# service of notice on sai& 'arnishee re>uirin' such &eliver%" e1cept the la(ful fees (hich shall $e pai& &irectl% to the court!n the event there are t(o or #ore 'arnishees hol&in' &eposits or cre&its sufficient to satisf% the 3u&'#ent" the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" if availa$le" shall have the ri'ht to in&icate the 'arnishee or 'arnishees (ho shall $e re>uire& to &eliver the a#ount &ue7 other(ise" the choice shall $e #a&e $% the 3u&'#ent o$li'eeThe e1ecutin' sheriff shall o$serve the sa#e proce&ure un&er para'raph (a) (ith respect to &eliver% of pa%#ent to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee.ecution of "udgments for specific act -.ecution.(.The officer shall &e#an& of the person a'ainst (ho# the 3u&'#ent for the &eliver% or restitution of real propert% is ren&ere& an& all persons clai#in' ri'hts un&er hi# to peacea$l% vacate the propert% (ithin three (2) (or/in' &a%s" an& restore possession thereof to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee7 other(ise" the officer shall oust all such persons therefro# (ith the assistance" if necessar%" of appropriate peace officers" an& e#plo%in' such #eans as #a% $e reasona$l% necessar% to reta/e possession" an& place the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee in possession of such propert%. !f a 3u&'#ent &irects a part% to e1ecute a conve%ance of lan& or personal propert%" or to &eliver &ee&s or other &ocu#ents" or to perfor# an% other specific act in connection there(ith" an& the part% fails to co#pl% (ithin the ti#e specifie&" the court #a% &irect the act to $e &one at the cost of the &iso$e&ient part% $% so#e other person appointe& $% the court an& the act (hen so &one shall have li/e effect as if &one $% the part%.2a) (&) Removal of improvements on property sub"ect of e. delivery of deeds.!f the 3u&'#ent $e for the sale of real or personal propert%" to sell such propert%" &escri$in' it" an& appl% the procee&s in confor#it% (ith the 3u&'#ent.The 'arnishe& a#ount in cash" or certifie& $an/ chec/ issue& in the na#e of the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" shall $e &elivere& &irectl% to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee (ithin ten (.5a) SEC. or other specific acts.(@DcEa) (c) +elivery or restitution of real property.the report shall state ho( #uch fun&s or cre&its the 'arnishee hol&s for the 3u&'#ent o$li'or. .(. . . vesting title.(..(@a" .B. (a) Conveyance.4a) .An% costs" &a#a'es" rents or profits a(ar&e& $% the 3u&'#ent shall $e satisfie& in the sa#e #anner as a 3u&'#ent for #one%. .*.

2 The lev% on e1ecution shall create a lien in favor of the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee over the ri'ht" title an& interest of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or in such propert% at the ti#e of the lev%" su$3ect to liens an& encu#$rances then e1istin'.ecution as to third persons.empt from e.ecution of special "udgments.(e) +elivery of personal property...(.$roperty e..0..2.*.ecution.*ffect of levy on e.6a) SEC.2 8hen a 3u&'#ent re>uires the perfor#ance of an% act other than those #entione& in the t(o prece&in' sections" a certifie& cop% of the 3u&'#ent shall $e attache& to the (rit of e1ecution an& shall $e serve& $% the officer upon the part% a'ainst (ho# the sa#e is ren&ere&" or upon an% other person re>uire& there$%" or $% la(" to o$e% the sa#e" an& such part% or person #a% $e punishe& for conte#pt if he &iso$e%s such 3u&'#ent.(@a) SEC...(Aa) SEC.!n 3u&'#ents for the &eliver% of personal propert%" the officer shall ta/e possession of the sa#e an& forth(ith &eliver it to the part% entitle& thereto an& satisf% an% 3u&'#ent for #one% as therein provi&e&.2E1cept as other(ise e1pressl% provi&e& $% la(" the follo(in' propert%" an& no other" shall $e e1e#pt fro# e1ecution* (a) The 3u&'#ent o$li'orGs fa#il% ho#e as provi&e& $% la(" or the ho#estea& in (hich he resi&es" an& lan& necessaril% use& in connection there(ith7 ($) Or&inar% tools an& i#ple#ents personall% use& $% hi# in his tra&e" e#plo%#ent" or livelihoo&7 (c)Three horses" or three co(s" or three cara$aos" or other $easts of $ur&en" such as the 3u&'#ent o$li'or #a% select necessaril% use& $% hi# in his or&inar% occupation7 (&) =is necessar% clothin' an& articles for or&inar% personal use" e1clu&in' 3e(elr%7 (e) =ousehol& furniture an& utensils necessar% for house</eepin'" an& use& for that purpose $% the 3u&'#ent o$li'or an& his fa#il%" such as the 3u&'#ent o$li'or #a% select" of a value not e1cee&in' one hun&re& thousan& pesos7 (f) Provisions for in&ivi&ual or fa#il% use sufficient for four #onths7 (') The professional li$raries an& e>uip#ent of 3u&'es" la(%ers" ph%sicians" phar#acists" &entists" en'ineers" surve%ors" cler'%#en" teachers" an& other professionals" not e1cee&in' three hun&re& thousan& pesos in value7 (h) One fishin' $oat an& accessories not e1cee&in' the total value of one hun&re& thousan& pesos o(ne& $% a fisher#an an& $% the la(ful use of (hich he earns his livelihoo&7 (i) So #uch of the salaries" (a'es" or earnin's of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or for his personal services (ithin the four #onths prece&in' the lev% as are necessar% for the support of his fa#il%7 (3) Lettere& 'ravestones7 .

.0a) SEC.5.(/)9onies" $enefits" privile'es" or annuities accruin' or in an% #anner 'ro(in' out of an% life insurance7 (.!f the 3u&'#ent cannot $e satisfie& in full (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after his receipt of the (rit" the officer shall report to the court an& state the reason therefor.2 The (rit of e1ecution shall $e returna$le to the court issuin' it i##e&iatel% after the.)efore the sale of propert% on e1ecution" notice thereof #ust $e 'iven as follo(s* (a) !n case of perisha$le propert%" $% postin' (ritten notice of the ti#e an& place of the sale in three (2) pu$lic places" prefera$l% in conspicuous areas of the #unicipal or cit% hall" post office an& pu$lic #ar/et in the #unicipalit% or cit% (here the sale is to ta/e place" for such ti#e as #a% $e reasona$le" consi&erin' the character an& con&ition of the propert%7 ($) !n case of other personal propert%" $% postin' a si#ilar notice in the three (2) pu$lic places a$ove#entione& for not less than five (5) &a%s7 (c) !n case of real propert%" $% postin' for t(ent% (0B) &a%s in the three (2) pu$lic places a$ove#entione& a si#ilar notice particularl% &escri$in' the propert% an& statin' (here the propert% is to $e sol&" an& if the assesse& value of the propert% e1cee&s fift% thousan& (P5B"BBB-BB) pesos" $% pu$lishin' a cop% of the notice once a (ee/ for t(o (0) consecutive (ee/s in one ne(spaper selecte& $% raffle" (hether in En'lish" Filipino" or an% #a3or re'ional lan'ua'e pu$lishe&" e&ite& an& circulate& or" in the a$sence thereof" havin' 'eneral circulation in the province or cit%7 (&) !n all cases" (ritten notice of the sale shall $e 'iven to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" at least three (2) &a%s $efore the sale" e1cept as provi&e& in para'raph (a) hereof (here notice shall $e 'iven at an% ti#e $efore the sale" in the sa#e #anner as personal service of plea&in's an& other papers as provi&e& $% section 6 of Rule .a) SEC.) The ri'ht to receive le'al support" or #one% or propert% o$taine& as such support" or an% pension or 'ratuit% fro# the Covern#ent7 (#) Properties speciall% e1e#pte& $% la()ut no article or species of propert% #entione& in this section shall $e e1e#pt fro# e1ecution issue& upon a 3u&'#ent recovere& for its price or upon a 3u&'#ent of foreclosure of a #ort'a'e thereon.(.(.4.Return of writ of e.Such (rit shall continue in effect &urin' the perio& (ithin (hich the 3u&'#ent #a% $e enforce& $% #otion.The officer shall #a/e a report to the court ever% thirt% (2B) &a%s on the procee&in's ta/en thereon until the 3u&'#ent is satisfie& in full" or its effectivit% e1piresThe returns or perio&ic reports shall set forth the (hole of the procee&in's ta/en" an& shall $e file& (ith the court an& copies thereof pro#ptl% furnishe& the parties.3u&'#ent has $een satisfie& in part or in full..ecution..2The notice shall specif% the place" &ate an& e1act ti#e of the sale (hich shoul& not $e earlier than nine oGcloc/ in the #ornin' an& not later than t(o oGcloc/ .%otice of sale of property on e1ecution-.

+o clai# for &a#a'es for the ta/in' or /eepin' of the propert% #a% $e enforce& a'ainst the $on& unless the action therefor is file& (ithin one hun&re& t(ent% (.2 !f the propert% levie& on is clai#e& $% an% person other than the 3u&'#ent o$li'or or his a'ent" an& such person #a/es an affi&avit of his title thereto or ri'ht to the possession thereof" statin' the 'roun&s of such ri'ht or title" an& serves the sa#e upon the officer #a/in' the lev% an& a cop% thereof upon the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" the officer shall not $e $oun& to /eep the propert%" unless such 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" on &e#an& of the officer" files a $on& approve& $% the court to in&e#nif% the thir&<part% clai#ant in a su# not less than the value of the propert% levie& on..!n the case of personal propert% capa$le of #anual &eliver%" the sale shall $e hel& in the place (here the propert% is locate&(.%o sale if "udgment and costs paid.2 At an% ti#e $efore the sale of propert% on e1ecution" the 3u&'#ent o$li'or #a% prevent the sale $% pa%in' the a#ount re>uire& $% the e1ecution an& the costs that have $een incurre& therein.?.6.The place of the sale #a% $e a'ree& upon $% the parties..!n the a$sence of such a'ree#ent" the sale of real propert% or personal propert% not capa$le of #anual &eliver% shall $e hel& in the office of the cler/ of court of the Re'ional Trial Court or the 9unicipal Trial Court (hich issue& the (rit or (hich (as &esi'nate& $% the appellate court.(.in the afternoon.0B) &a%s fro# the &ate of the filin' of the $on&The officer shall not $e lia$le for &a#a'es for the ta/in' or /eepin' of the propert%" to an% thir&<part% clai#ant if such $on& is file&.2 An officer sellin' (ithout the notice prescri$e& $% section .?a) SEC.(0Ba) .@.$roceedings where property claimed by third person.+othin' herein containe& shall prevent such clai#ant or an% thir& person fro# vin&icatin' his clai# to the propert% in a separate action" or prevent the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee fro# clai#in' &a#a'es in the sa#e or a separate action a'ainst a thir&<part% clai#ant (ho file& a frivolous or plainl% spurious clai#8hen the (rit of e1ecution is issue& in favor of the Repu$lic of the Philippines" or an% officer &ul% representin' it" the filin' of such $on& shall not $e re>uire&" an& in case the sheriff or lev%in' officer is sue& for &a#a'es as a result of the lev%" he shall $e represente& $% the Solicitor Ceneral an& if hel& lia$le therefor" the actual &a#a'es a&3u&'e& $% the court shall $e pai& $% the +ational Treasurer out of such fun&s as #a% $e appropriate& for the purpose.(.@a) SEC..$enalty for selling without notice.!n case of &isa'ree#ent as to such value" the sa#e shall $e &eter#ine& $% the court issuin' the (rit of e1ecution.5 of this Rule shall $e lia$le to pa% punitive &a#a'es in the a#ount of five thousan& (P5"BBB-BB) pesos to an% person in3ure& there$%" in a&&ition to his actual &a#a'es" $oth to $e recovere& $% #otion in the sa#e action7 an& a person (illfull% re#ovin' or &efacin' the notice poste&" if &one $efore the sale" or $efore the satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent if it $e satisfie& $efore the sale" shall $e lia$le to pa% five thousan& (P5"BBB-BB) pesos to an% person in3ure& $% reason thereof" in a&&ition to his actual &a#a'es" to $e recovere& $% #otion in the sa#e action.Aa) SEC. or removing or defacing notice.

A.udgment obligee as purchaser.(d"ournment of sale.8hen the sale is of personal propert% capa$le of #anual &eliver%" it #ust $e sol& (ithin vie( of those atten&in' the sa#e an& in such parcels as are li/el% to $rin' the hi'hest price.The a#ount of such pa%#ent shall $e* for the $enefit of the person entitle& to the procee&s of the e1ecution" unless the e1ecution has $een full% satisfie&" in (hich event such procee&s shall $e for the $enefit of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or.(00a) SEC.a) SEC.Such certificate conve%s to the purchaser all the .04.2)% (ritten consent of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or an& o$li'ee" or their &ul% authori5e& representatives" the officer #a% a&3ourn the sale to an% &ate an& ti#e a'ree& upon $% the#.+either the officer con&uctin' the e1ecution sale" nor his &eputies" can $eco#e a purchaser" nor $e intereste& &irectl% or in&irectl% in an% purchase at such sale.SEC. who may direct manner and order of sale.0B.Conveyance to purchaser of personal property capable of manual delivery.(0.02.8hen the sale is of real propert%" consistin' of several /no(n lots" the% #ust $e sol& separatel%7 or" (hen a portion of such real propert% is clai#e& $% a thir& person" he #a% re>uire it to $e sol& separatel%.The officer #a% thereafter re3ect an% su$se>uent $i& of such purchaser (ho refuses to pa%.The 3u&'#ent o$li'or" if present at the sale" #a% &irect the or&er in (hich propert%" real or personal" shall $e sol&" (hen such propert% consists of several /no(n lots or parcels (hich can $e sol& to a&vanta'e separatel%.Conveyance to purchaser of personal property not capable of manual delivery.2 8hen the purchaser is the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" an& no thir&<part% clai# has $een file&" he nee& not pa% the a#ount of the $i& if it &oes not e1cee& the a#ount of his 3u&'#ent.!f it &oes" he shall pa% onl% the e1cess(02a) SEC.8ithout such a'ree#ent" he #a% a&3ourn the sale fro# &a% to &a% if it $eco#es necessar% to &o so for lac/ of ti#e to co#plete the sale on the &a% fi1e& in the notice or the &a% to (hich it (as a&3ourne&.2 !f a purchaser refuses to pa% the a#ount $i& $% hi# for propert% struc/ off to hi# at a sale un&er e1ecution" the officer #a% a'ain sell the propert% to the hi'hest $i&&er an& shall not $e responsi$le for an% loss occasione& there$%7 $ut the court #a% or&er the refusin' purchaser to pa% into the court the a#ount of such loss" (ith costs" an& #a% punish hi# for conte#pt if he &iso$e%s the or&er.00.The sale conve%s to the purchaser all the ri'hts (hich the 3u&'#ent o$li'or ha& in such propert% as of the &ate of the lev% on e1ecution or preli#inar% attach#ent.2All sales of propert% un&er e1ecution #ust $e #a&e at pu$lic auction" to the hi'hest $i&&er" to start at the e1act ti#e fi1e& in the notice..(04a) SEC.28hen the purchaser of an% personal propert%" not capa$le of #anual &eliver%" pa%s the purchase price" the officer #a/in' the sale #ust e1ecute an& &eliver to the purchaser a certificate of sale.ecution.3ow property sold on e.0.(05a) SEC.Refusal of purchaser to pay.28hen the purchaser of an% personal propert%" capa$le of #anual &eliver%" pa%s the purchase price" the officer #a/in' the sale #ust &eliver the propert% to the purchaser an&" if &esire&" e1ecute an& &eliver to hi# a certificate of sale..After sufficient propert% has $een sol& to satisf% the e1ecution" no #ore shall $e sol& an& an% e1cess propert% or procee&s of the sale shall $e pro#ptl% &elivere& to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or or his authori5e& representative" unless other(ise &irecte& $% the 3u&'#ent or or&er of the court.

certificate thereof given to purchaser and filed with registry of deeds -.Conveyance of real property.ri'hts (hich the 3u&'#ent o$li'or ha& in such propert% as of the &ate of the lev% on e1ecution or preli#inar% attach#ent.(0@a) SEC.2 The 3u&'#ent o$li'or" or re&e#ptioner" #a% re&ee# the propert% fro# the purchaser" at an% ti#e (ithin one (.0@.Time and manner of and amounts payable on.Such re&ee#in' cre&itor is ter#e& a re&e#ptioner.Certificate of sale where property claimed by third person. notice to be given and filed.06.) %ear fro# the &ate of the re'istration of the certificate of sale" $% pa%in' the purchaser the a#ount of his purchase" (ith one per centum per #onth interest thereon in a&&ition" up to the ti#e of re&e#ption" to'ether (ith the a#ount of an% assess#ents or ta1es (hich the purchaser #a% have pai& thereon after purchase" an& interest on such last na#e& a#ount at the sa#e rate7 an& if the purchaser $e also a cre&itor havin' a prior lien that of the re&e#ptioner" other than the 3u&'#ent un&er (hich such purchase (as #a&e" the a#ount of suchG other lien" (ith interestPropert% so re&ee#e& #a% a'ain $e re&ee#e& (ithin si1t% (6B) &a%s after the last re&e#ption upon pa%#ent of the su# pai& on the last re&e#ption" (ith t(o per centum thereon in a&&ition" an& the a#ount of an% assess#ents or ta1es (hich the last re&e#ptioner #a% have pai& thereon after re&e#ption $% hi#" (ith interest on such last< na#e& a#ount" an& in a&&ition" the a#ount of an% liens hel& $% sai& last re&e#ptioner .2 Real propert% sol& as provi&e& in the last prece&in' section" or an% part thereof sol& separatel%" #a% $e re&ee#e& in the #anner hereinafter provi&e&" $% the follo(in' persons* (a) The 3u&'#ent o$li'or" or his successor in interest in the (hole or an% part of the propert%7 ($) A cre&itor havin' a lien $% virtue of an attach#ent" 3u&'#ent or #ort'a'e on the propert% sol&" or on so#e part thereof" su$se>uent to the lien un&er (hich the propert% (as sol&.05.0?.#ho may redeem real property so sold.(0Aa) SEC.) %ear fro# the &ate of the re'istration of the certificate of saleSuch certificate #ust $e re'istere& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the place (here the propert% is situate&.(0?a) SEC. successive redemptions.2#hen a propert% sol& $% virtue of a (rit of e1ecution has $een clai#e& $% a thir& person" the certificate of sale to $e issue& $% the sheriff pursuant to sections 02" 04 an& 05 of this Rule shall #a/e e1press #ention of the e1istence of such thir&<part% clai#.(06a) SEC.Upon a sale of real propert%" the officer #ust 'ive to the purchaser a certificate of sale containin'* (a) ($) (c) A particular &escription of the real propert% sol&7 The price pai& for each &istinct lot or parcel7 The (hole price pai& $% hi#7 (&) A state#ent that the ri'ht of re&e#ption e1pires one (.

*ffect of redemption by "udgment obligor.Such certificate #ust $e file& an& recor&e& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the place in (hich the propert% is situate&" an& the re'istrar of &ee&s #ust note the recor& thereof on the #ar'in of the recor& of the certificate of sale. to whom payments on redemption made -.Rents.The propert% #a% $e a'ain" an& as often as a re&e#ptioner is so &ispose&" re&ee#e& fro# an% previous re&e#ptioner (ithin si1t% (6B) &a%s after the last re&e#ption" on pa%in' the su# pai& on the last previous re&e#ption" (ith t(o per centum thereon in a&&ition" an& the a#ounts of an% assess#ents or ta1es (hich the last previous re&e#ptioner pai& after the re&e#ption thereon" (ith interest thereon" an& the a#ount of an% liensG hel& $% the last re&e#ptioner prior to his o(n" (ith interest8ritten notice of an% re&e#ption #ust $e 'iven to the officer (ho #a&e the sale an& a &uplicate file& (ith the re'istr% of &ee&s of the place" an& if an% assess#ents or ta1es are pai& $% the re&e#ptioner or if he has or ac>uires an% lien other than that upon (hich the re&e#ption (as #a&e" notice thereof #ust in li/e #anner $e 'iven to the officer an& file& (ith the re'istr% of &ee&s7 if such notice $e not file&" the propert% #a% $e re&ee#e& (ithout pa%in' such assess#ents" ta1es" or liens.!anner of using premises pending redemption.The pa%#ents #entione& in this an& the last prece&in' sections #a% $e #a&e to the purchaser or re&e#ptioner" or for hi# to the officer (ho #a&e the sale (. waste restrained.(2Ba) SEC.!f the 3u&'#ent o$li'or re&ee#s" he #ust #a/e the sa#e pa%#ents as are re>uire& to effect a re&e#ption $% a re&e#ptioner" (hereupon" no further re&e#ption shall" $e allo(e& an& he is restore& to his estate.20.$roof re6uired of redemptioner.0A. and a certificate to be delivered and recorded thereupon. earnings and income of property pending redemption.2 The purchaser or a re&e#ptioner shall not $e entitle& to receive the rents" earnin's an& .(20a) SEC.prior to his o(n" (ith interest.2..2a) SEC.2 Until the e1piration of the ti#e allo(e& for re&e#ption" the court #a%" as in other proper cases" restrain the co##ission of (aste on the propert% $% in3unction" on the application of the purchaser or the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" (ith or (ithout notice7 $ut it is not (aste for a person in possession of the propert% at the ti#e of the sale" or entitle& to possession after(ar&s" &urin' the perio& allo(e& for re&e#ption" to continue to use it in the sa#e #anner in (hich it (as previousl% use&7 or to use it in the or&inar% course of hus$an&r%7 or to #a/e the necessar% repairs to $uil&in's thereon (hile he occupies the propert%(22a) SEC.The person to (ho# the re&e#ption pa%#ent is #a&e #ust e1ecute an& &eliver to hi# a certificate of re&e#ption ac/no(le&'e& $efore a notar% pu$lic or other officer authori5e& to ta/e ac/no(le&'#ents of conve%ances of real propert%.2B.2 A re&e#ptioner #ust pro&uce to the officer" or person fro# (ho# he see/s to re&ee#" an& serve (ith his notice to the officer a cop% of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er un&er (hich he clai#s the ri'ht to re&ee#" certifie& $% the cler/ of the court (herein the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is entere&7 or" if he re&ee#s upon a #ort'a'e or other lien" a #e#oran&u# of the recor& thereof" certifie& $% the re'istrar of &ee&s7 or an ori'inal or certifie& cop% of an% assi'n#ent necessar% to esta$lish his clai#7 an& an affi&avit e1ecute& $% hi# or his a'ent" sho(in' the a#ount then actuall% &ue on the lien.

The possession of the propert% shall $e 'iven to the purchaser or last re&e#ptioner $% the sa#e officer unless a thir& part% is actuall% hol&in' the propert% a&versel% to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or.(2?a) SEC.2 8hen the return of a (rit of e1ecution issue& a'ainst propert% of a 3u&'#ent o$li'or" or an% one of several o$li'ors in the sa#e 3u&'#ent" sho(s that the 3u&'#ent re#ains unsatisfie&" in (hole or in part" the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" at an% ti#e after such return is #a&e" shall $e entitle& to an or&er fro# the court (hich ren&ere& the sai& 3u&'#ent" re>uirin' such .(25a) SEC.inco#e of the propert% sol& on e1ecution" or the value of the use an& occupation thereof (hen such propert% is in the possession of a tenant.piration of redemption period.2 !f the purchaser of real propert% sol& on e1ecution" or his successor in interest" fails to recover the possession thereof" or is evicte& therefro#" in conse>uence of irre'ularities in the procee&in's concernin' the sale" or $ecause the 3u&'#ent has $een reserve& or set asi&e" or $ecause the propert% sol& (as e1e#pt fro# e1ecution" or $ecause a thir& person has vin&icate& his clai#" to the propert%" he #a% on #otion in the sa#e action or in a separate action recover fro# the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee the price pai&" (ith interest" or so #uch thereof as has not $een &elivere& to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or7 or he #a%" on #otion" have the ori'inal 3u&'#ent revive& in his na#e for the (hole price (ith interest" or so #uch thereof as has $een &elivere& to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or.25.All rents" earnin's an& inco#e &erive& fro# the propert% pen&in' re&e#ption shall $elon' to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or until the e1piration of his perio& of re&e#ption.(26a) SEC.ecuted or given.) %ear fro# the &ate of the re'istration of the certificate of sale" the purchaser is entitle& to a conve%ance an& possession of the propert%7 or" if so re&ee#e& (henever si1t% (6B) &a%s have elapse& an& no other re&e#ption has $een #a&e" an& notice thereof 'iven" an& the ti#e for re&e#ption has e1pire&" the last re&e#ptioner is entitle& to the conve%ance an& possession7 $ut in all cases the 3u&'#ent o$li'or shall have the entire perio& of one (. by whom e.*.Right to contribution or reimbursement.amination of "udgment obligor when "udgment unsatisfied.The &ee& shall $e e1ecute& $% the officer #a/in' the sale or $% his successor in office" an& in the latter case shall have the sa#e vali&it% as thou'h the officer #a/in' the sale ha& continue& in office an& e1ecute& itUn&er the e1piration of the ri'ht of re&e#ption" the purchaser or re&e#ptioner shall $e su$stitute& to an& ac>uire all the ri'hts" title" interest an& clai# of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or to the propert% as of the ti#e of the lev%.+eed and possession to be given at e.24.26.2!f no re&e#ption $e #a&e (ithin one (.Recovery of price if sale not effective.22.The 3u&'#ent so revive& shall have the sa#e force an& effect as an ori'inal 3u&'#ent (oul& have as of the &ate of the revival an& no #ore.(24a) SEC.2 8hen propert% lia$le to an e1ecution a'ainst several persons is sol& thereon" an& #ore than a &ue proportion of the 3u&'#ent is satisfie& out of the procee&s of the sale of the propert% of one of the#" or one of the# pa%s" (ithout a sale" #ore than his proportion" he #a% co#pel a contri$ution fro# the others7 an& (hen a 3u&'#ent is upon an o$li'ation of one of the#" as securit% for another" an& the suret% pa%s the a#ount" or an% part thereof" either $% sale of his propert% or $efore sale" he #a% co#pel repa%#ent fro# the principal. revival of "udgment.) %ear fro# the &ate of the re'istration of the sale to re&ee# the propert%.

*nforcement of attendance and conduct of e.)ut no 3u&'#ent o$li'or shall $e so re>uire& to appear $efore a court or co##issioner outsi&e the province or cit% in (hich such o$li'or resi&es or is foun&.2 A part% or other person #a% $e co#pelle&" $% an or&er or su$poena" to atten& $efore the court or co##issioner to testif% as provi&e& in the t(o prece&in' sections" an& upon failure to o$e% such or&er or su$poena or to $e s(orn" or to ans(er as a (itness or to su$scri$e his &eposition" #a% $e punishe& for conte#pt as in other cases.(4.2?.ecution against obligee.2 The court #a% or&er an% propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" or #one% &ue hi#" not e1e#pt fro# e1ecution" in the han&s of either hi#self or another person" or of a corporation or other 3uri&ical entit%" to $e applie& to the satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent" su$3ect to an% prior ri'hts over such propert%!f" upon investi'ation of his current inco#e an& e1penses" it appears that the earnin's of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or for his personal services are #ore than necessar% for the support of his fa#il%" the court #a% or&er that he pa% the 3u&'#ent in fi1e& #onthl% install#ents" an& upon his failure to pa% an% such install#ent (hen &ue (ithout 'oo& .All e1a#inations an& ans(ers $efore a court or co##issioner #ust $e un&er oath" an& (hen a corporation or other 3uri&ical entit% ans(ers" it #ust $e on the oath of an authori5e& officer or a'ent thereof.2@.The service of the or&er shall $in& all cre&its &ue the 3u&'#ent o$li'or an& all #one% an& propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or in the possession or in the control of such person" corporation" or 3uri&ical entit% fro# the ti#e of service7 an& the court #a% also re>uire notice of such procee&in's to $e 'iven to an% part% to the action in such #anner as it #a% &ee# proper.(2@a) SEC.2 8hen the return of a (rit of e1ecution a'ainst the propert% of a 3u&'#ent o$li'or sho(s that the 3u&'#ent re#ains unsatisfie&" in (hole or in part" an& upon proof to the satisfaction of the court (hich issue& the (rit" that a person" corporation" or other 3uri&ical entit% has propert% of such 3u&'#ent o$li'or or is in&e$te& to hi#" the court #a%" $% an or&er" re>uire such person" corporation" or other 3uri&ical entit%" or an% officer or #e#$er thereof" to appear $efore the court or a co##issioner appointe& $% it" at a ti#e an& place (ithin the province or cit% (here such &e$tor resi&es or is foun&" an& $e e1a#ine& concernin' the sa#e.3u&'#ent o$li'or to appear an& $e e1a#ine& concernin' his propert% an& inco#e $efore such court or $efore a co##issioner appointe& $% it" at a specifie& ti#e an& place7 an& procee&in's #a% thereupon $e ha& for the application of the propert% an& inco#e of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or to(ar&s the satisfactions of the 3u&'#ent.E1a#inations shall not $e un&ul% prolon'e&" $ut the procee&in's #a% $e a&3ourne& fro# ti#e to ti#e" until the% are co#plete&.4B.2A.amination of obligor of "udgment obligor.*.(4Ba) SEC.(2Aa) SEC.amination.!f the e1a#ination is $efore a co##issioner" he #ust ta/e it in (ritin' an& certif% it to the court.a) SEC.Obligor may pay e.2 After a (rit of e1ecution a'ainst propert% has $een issue&" a person in&e$te& to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or #a% pa% to the sheriff hol&in' the (rit of e1ecution the a#ount of his &e$t or so #uch thereof as #a% $e necessar% to satisf% the 3u&'#ent" in the #anner prescri$e& in section A of this Rule an& the sheriffs receipt shall $e a sufficient &ischar'e for the a#ount so pai& or &irecte& to $e cre&ite& $% the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee on the e1ecution.Order for application of property and income to satisfaction of "udgment.

.44.2 8hen a 3u&'#ent is ren&ere& a'ainst a part% (ho stan&s as suret% for another" the latter is also $oun& fro# the ti#e that he has notice of the action or procee&in'" an& an opportunit% at the suret%Gs re>uest to 3oin in the &efense.2 The effect of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er ren&ere& $% a court of the Philippines" havin' 3uris&iction to pronounce the .$roceedings when indebtedness denied or another person claims the property.(42a) SEC.2 8henever a 3u&'#ent is satisfie& in fact" or other(ise than upon an e1ecution" on &e#an& of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee or his counsel #ust e1ecute an& ac/no(le&'e" or in&orse" an a&#ission of the satisfaction as provi&e& in the last prece&in' section" an& after notice an& upon #otion the court #a% or&er either the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee or his counsel to &o so" or #a% or&er the entr% of satisfaction to $e #a&e (ithout such a&#ission(4?a) SEC.(4@a) SEC.Such or&er #a% $e #o&ifie& or vacate& at an% ti#e $% the court" (hich issue& it" or $% the court in (hich the action is $rou'ht" upon such ter#s as #a% $e 3ust.(45a) SEC. *ffect of "udgments or final orders .(40a) SEC.e1cuse" #a% punish hi# for in&irect conte#pt.4.42.*ntry of satisfaction of "udgment by cler) of court-.Satisfaction of a 3u&'#ent shall $e entere& $% the cler/ of court in the court &oc/et" an& in the e1ecution $oo/" upon the return of a (rit of e1ecution sho(in' the full satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent" or upon the filin' of an a&#ission to the satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent e1ecute& an& ac/no(le&'e& in the sa#e #anner as a conve%ance of real propert% $% the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee or $% his counsel unless a revocation of his authorit% is file&" or upon the en&orse#ent of such a&#ission $% the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee or his counsel on the face of the recor& of the 3u&'#ent.2!f it appears that a person or corporation" alle'e& to have propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or or to $e in&e$te& to hi#" clai#s an interest in the propert% a&verse to hi# or &enies the &e$t" the court #a% authori5e" $% an or&er #a&e to that effect" the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee to institute an action a'ainst such person or corporation for the recover% of such interest or &e$t" for$i& a transfer or other &isposition of such interest or &e$t (ithin one hun&re& t(ent% (.#hen principal bound by "udgment against surety.&The court #a% appoint a receiver of the propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or7 an& it #a% also for$i& a transfer or other &isposition of" or an% interference (ith" the propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or not e1e#pt fro# e1ecution.Sale of ascertainable interest of "udgment obligor in real estate.4?.40.(46a) SEC.(ppointment of receiver.0B) &a%s fro# notice of the or&er" an& #a% punish &iso$e&ience of such or&er as for conte#pt.46.45.*ntry of satisfaction with or without admission.2 !f it appears that the 3u&'#ent o$li'or has an interest in real estate in the place in (hich procee&in's are ha&" as #ort'a'or or #ort'a'ee or other(ise" an& his interest therein can $e ascertaine& (ithout controvers%" the receiver #a% $e or&ere& to sell an& conve% such real estate or the interest of the o$li'or therein7 an& such sale shall $e con&ucte& in all respects in the sa#e #anner as is provi&e& for the sale of real estate upon e1ecution" an& the procee&in's thereon shall $e approve& $% the court $efore the e1ecution of the &ee&.(44a) SEC.

#here to appeal.*ffect of foreign "udgments or final orders.(4Aa) SEC..2 The effect of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er of a tri$unal of a forei'n countr%" havin' 3uris&iction to ren&er the 3u&'#ent or final or&er" is as follo(s* (a) !n case of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er upon a specific thin'" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is conclusive upon the title of the thin'7 an& ($) !n case of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er a'ainst a person" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is presu#ptive evi&ence of a ri'ht as $et(een the parties an& their successors in interest $% a su$se>uent title!n either case" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er #a% $e repelle& $% evi&ence of a (ant of 3uris&iction" (ant of notice to the part%" collusion" frau&" or clear #ista/e of la( or fact(5Ba) APPEALS RULE 40 APPEAL FROM MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS TO T E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS SECT!O+ .3u&'#ent or final or&er" #a% $e as follo(s* (a) !n case of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er a'ainst a specific thin'" or in respect to the pro$ate of a (ill" or the a&#inistration of the estate of a &ecease& person" or in respect to the personal" political" or le'al con&ition or status of a particular person or his relationship to another" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is conclusive upon the title to the thin'" the (ill or a&#inistration" or the con&ition" status or relationship of the person7 ho(ever" the pro$ate of a (ill or 'rantin' of letters of a&#inistration shall onl% $e pri#a facie evi&ence of the &eath of the testator or intestate7 ($) !n other cases" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is" (ith respect to the #atter &irectl% a&3u&'e& or as to an% other #atter that coul& have $een raise& in relation thereto" conclusive $et(een the parties an& their successors in interest $% title su$se>uent to the co##ence#ent of the action or special procee&in'" liti'atin' for the sa#e thin' an& un&er the sa#e title an& in the sa#e capacit%7 an& (c)!n an% other liti'ation $et(een the sa#e parties of their successors in interest" that onl% is &ee#e& to have $een a&3u&'e& in a for#er 3u&'#ent or final or&er (hich appears upon its face to have $een so a&3u&'e&" or (hich (as actuall% an& necessaril% inclu&e& therein or necessar% thereto.4@.2An appeal fro# a 3u&'#ent or final or&er of a 9unicipal Trial Court #a% $e ta/en to the Re'ional Trial Court e1ercisin' 3uris&iction over the area to (hich the for#er pertains.The title of the case shall re#ain as it (as in .

$erfection of appeal.2An appeal #a% $e ta/en (ithin fifteen (.2.Copies of the notice of appeal" an& the recor& on appeal (here re>uire&" shall $e serve& on the a&verse part%.?.(n) SEC.6.the court of ori'in" $ut the part% appealin' the case shall $e further referre& to as the appellant an& the a&verse part% as the appellee.5) &a%s fro# such notice" it shall $e the &ut% of the appellant to su$#it a #e#oran&u# (hich shall $riefl% &iscuss the errors i#pute& to the lo(er court" a cop% of (hich shall $e furnishe& $% hi# to the a&verse part%8ithin fifteen (.(n) SEC.(ppellate court doc)et and other lawful fees. effect thereof.0.5) &a%s after notice to the appellant of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#.2 The perfection of the appeal an& the effect thereof shall $e 'overne& $% the provisions of section A" Rule 4.A cop% of his letter of trans#ittal of the recor&s to the appellate court shall $e furnishe& the parties(n) SEC.(n) SEC.8here a recor& on appeal is re>uire&" the appellant shall file a notice of appeal an& a recor& on appeal (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&erThe perio& of appeal shall $e interrupte& $% a ti#el% #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration.28ithin fifteen (.+uty of the cler) of court.Failure of the appellant to file a #e#oran&u# shall $e a .2 8ithin the perio& for ta/in' an appeal" the appellant shall pa% to the cler/ of the court (hich ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro# the full a#ount of the appellate court &oc/et an& other la(ful fees.(n) SEC..#hen to appeal.5) &a%s fro# receipt of the appellantGs #e#oran&u#" the appellee #a% file his #e#oran&u#.Proof of pa%#ent thereof shall $e trans#itte& to the appellate court to'ether (ith the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal" as the case #a% $e.The notice of appeal shall in&icate the parties to the appeal" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or part thereof appeale& fro#" an& state the #aterial &ates sho(in' the ti#eliness of the appealA recor& on appeal shall $e re>uire& onl% in special procee&in's an& in other cases of #ultiple or separate appealsThe for# an& contents of the recor& on appeal shall $e as provi&e& in section 6" Rule 4.+o #otion for e1tension of ti#e to file a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration shall $e allo(e&.4.5) &a%s fro# the perfection of the appeal" the cler/ of court or the $ranch cler/ of court of the lo(er court shall trans#it the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal" to'ether (ith the transcripts an& e1hi$its" (hich he shall certif% as co#plete" to the proper Re'ional Trial Court.(n) SEC.3ow to appeal2The appeal is ta/en $% filin' a notice of appeal (ith the court that ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#.5.$rocedure in the Regional Trial Court -. (a) Upon receipt of the co#plete recor& or the recor& on appeal" the cler/ of court of the Re'ional Trial Court shall notif% the parties of such fact($) 8ithin fifteen (.

shall appl% to appeals provi&e& for herein insofar as the% are not inconsistent (ith or #a% serve to supple#ent the provisions of this Rule.!n case of reversal" the case shall $e re#an&e& for further procee&in's!f the case (as trie& on the #erits $% the lo(er court (ithout 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter" the Re'ional Trial Court on appeal shall not &is#iss the case if it has ori'inal 3uris&iction thereof" $ut shall &eci&e the case in accor&ance (ith the prece&in' section" (ithout pre3u&ice to the a&#ission of a#en&e& plea&in's an& a&&itional evi&ence in the interest of 3ustice.2An appeal #a% $e ta/en fro# a 3u&'#ent or final or&er that co#pletel% &isposes of the case" or of a particular #atter therein (hen &eclare& $% these Rules to $e appeala$le+o appeal #a% $e ta/en fro#* (a) An or&er &en%in' a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration7 ($) An or&er &en%in' a petition for relief or an% si#ilar #otion see/in' relief fro# 3u&'#ent7 (c) (&) An interlocutor% or&er7 An or&er &isallo(in' or &is#issin' an appeal7 (e) An or&er &en%in' a #otion to set asi&e a 3u&'#ent $% consent" confession or co#pro#ise on the 'roun& of frau&" #ista/e or &uress" or an% other 'roun& vitiatin' consent(f) An or&er of e1ecution7 .>.'roun& for &is#issal of the appeal(c) Upon the filin' of the #e#oran&u# of the appellee" or the e1piration of the perio& to &o so" the case shall $e consi&ere& su$#itte& for &ecision.(n) RULE 41 APPEAL FROM T E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS SECT!O+ .(n) SEC.The Re'ional Trial Court shall &eci&e the case on the $asis of the entire recor& of the procee&in's ha& in the court of ori'in an& such #e#oran&a as are file&.(pplicability of Rule .!f an appeal is ta/en fro# an or&er of the lo(er court &is#issin' the case (ithout a trial on the #erits" the Re'ional Trial Court #a% affir# or reverse it" as the case #a% $e.Appeal fro# or&ers &is#issin' case (ithout trial7 lac/ of 3uris&iction-.(n) SEC.A.@.Sub"ect of appeal..!n case of affir#ance an& the 'roun& of &is#issal is lac/ of 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter" the Re'ional Trial Court" if it has 3uris&iction thereover" shall tr% the case on the #erits as if the case (as ori'inall% file& (ith it.2The other provisions of Rule 4.

2The notice of appeal shall in&icate the parties to the appeal" specif% the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or part thereof appeale& fro#" specif% the court to (hich the appeal is $ein' ta/en" an& state the #aterial &ates sho(in' the ti#eliness of the appeal.+o recor& on appeal shall $e re>uire& e1cept in special procee&in's an& other cases of #ultiple or separate appeals (here the la( or these Rules so re>uire.!n all cases (here onl% >uestions of la( are raise& or involve&" the appeal shall $e to the Supre#e Court $% petition for revie( on certiorari in accor&ance (ith Rule 45.(ppellate court doc)et and other lawful fees.=o(ever" an appeal in habeas corpus cases shall $e ta/en (ithin fort%<ei'ht (4@) hours fro# notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#The perio& of appeal shall $e interrupte& $% a ti#el% #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration.The appeal to the Court of Appeals in cases &eci&e& $% the Re'ional Trial Court in the e1ercise of its appellate 3uris&iction shall $e $% petition for revie( in accor&ance (ith Rule 40(c) (ppeal by certiorari.$eriod of ordinary appeal.0.5.6.5) &a%s fro# notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#.(n) SEC.!n such cases" the recor& <on appeal shall $e file& an& serve& in li/e #anner($) $etition for review. form and contents thereof2 The full na#es of all the parties to the procee&in's shall $e state& in the caption of the recor& on appeal an& it ..2.2 8ithin the perio& for ta/in' an appeal" the appellant shall pa% to the cler/ of the court (hich ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#" the full a#ount of the appellate court &oc/et an& other la(ful fees.2 (a) Ordinary appeal.(') A 3u&'#ent or final or&er for or a'ainst one or #ore of several parties or in separate clai#s" counterclai#s" cross<clai#s an& thir&<part% co#plaints" (hile the #ain case is pen&in'" unless the court allo(s an appeal therefro#7 an& (h) An or&er &is#issin' an action (ithout pre3u&ice!n all the a$ove instances (here the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is not appeala$le" the a''rieve& part% #a% file an appropriate special civil action un&er Rule 65.4.(4a) SEC.(n) SEC.Proof of pa%#ent of sai& fees shall $e trans#itte& to the appellate court to'ether (ith the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal.+o #otion for e1tension of ti#e to file a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration shall $e allo(e&..The appeal to the Court of Appeals in cases &eci&e& $% the Re'ional Trial Court in the e1ercise of its ori'inal 3uris&iction shall $e ta/en $% filin' a notice of appeal (ith the court (hich ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro# an& servin' a cop% thereof upon the a&verse part%..(n) SEC.Record on appeal.8here a recor& on appeal is re>uire&" the appellant shall file a notice of appeal an& a recor& on appeal (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er.2 The appeal shall $e ta/en (ithin fifteen (.!odes of appeal.(n) SEC.%otice of appeal. appeal in habeas corpus cases.

!f the trial court or&ers the a#en&#ent of the recor&" the appellant" (ithin the ti#e li#ite& in the or&er" or such e1tension thereof as #a% $e 'rante&" or if no ti#e is fi1e& $% the or&er (ithin ten (.B) &a%s fro# receipt thereof" shall re&raft the recor& $% inclu&in' therein" in their proper chronolo'ical se>uence" such a&&itional #atters as the court #a% have &irecte& hi# to incorporate" an& shall thereupon su$#it the re&rafte& recor& for approval" upon notice to the appellee" in li/e #anner as the ori'inal &raft.!f the (hole testi#onial an& &ocu#entar% evi&ence in the case is to $e inclu&e&" a state#ent to that effect (ill $e sufficient (ithout #entionin' the na#es of the (itnesses or the nu#$ers or letters of e1hi$its.@. $erfection of appeal.oint record on appeal.28here $oth parties are appellants" the% #a% file a 3oint recor& on appeal (ithin the ti#e fi1e& $% section 2 of this Rule" or that fi1e& $% the court.(pproval of record on appeal 2 Upon the filin' of the recor& on appeal for approval an& if no o$3ection is file& $% the appellee (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# receipt of a cop% thereof" the trial court #a% approve it as presente& or upon its o(n #otion or at the instance of the appellee" #a% &irect its a#en&#ent $% the inclusion of an% o#itte& #atters (hich are &ee#e& essential to the &eter#ination of the issue of la( or fact involve& in the appeal.(@a) SEC.shall inclu&e the 3u&'#ent or final or&er fro# (hich the appeal is ta/en an&" in chronolo'ical or&er" copies of onl% such plea&in's" petitions" #otions an& all interlocutor% or&ers as are relate& to the appeale& 3u&'#ent or final or&er for the proper un&erstan&in' of the issue involve&" to'ether (ith such &ata as (ill sho( that the appeal (as perfecte& on ti#e.!f an issue of fact is to $e raise& on appeal" the recor& on appeal shall inclu&e $% reference all the evi&ence" testi#onial an& &ocu#entar%" ta/en upon the issue involve&. effect thereof2 A part%Gs appeal $% notice of appeal is &ee#e& perfecte& as to hi# upon the filin' of the notice of appeal in &ue ti#eA part%Gs appeal $% recor& on appeal is &ee#e& perfecte& as to hi# (ith respect to the su$3ect #atter thereof upon the approval of the recor& on appeal file& in &ue ti#e!n appeals $% notice of appeal" the court loses 3uris&iction over the case upon the perfection of the appeals file& in &ue ti#e an& the e1piration of the ti#e to appeal of the other parties!n appeals $% recor& on appeal" the court loses 3uris&iction onl% over the su$3ect #atter thereof upon the approval of the recor&s on appeal file& in &ue ti#e an& the e1piration of the ti#e to appeal of the other parties!n either case" prior to the trans#ittal of the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal" the court #a% issue or&ers for the protection an& preservation of the ri'hts of the parties (hich &o not involve an% #atter liti'ate& $% the appeal" approve co#pro#ises" per#it appeals of in&i'ent liti'ants" or&er e1ecution pen&in' appeal in accor&ance (ith section 0 of Rule 2A" an& allo( (ith&ra(al of the appeal.The reference shall specif% the &ocu#entar% evi&ence $% the e1hi$it nu#$ers or letters $% (hich it (as i&entifie& (hen a&#itte& or offere& at the hearin'" an& the testi#onial evi&ence $% the na#es of the correspon&in' (itnesses.(Aa) .9.Ever% recor& on appeal e1cee&in' t(ent% (0B) pa'es #ust contain a su$3ect in&e1.(6a) SEC.(?a) SEC.?.

B.Transmittal.(.(..2Prior to the trans#ittal of the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal to the appellate court" the trial court #a% motu proprio or on #otion &is#iss the appeal for havin' $een ta/en out of ti#e" or for non<pa%#ent of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees (ithin the re'le#entar% perio&..Copies of the transcripts an& certifie& true copies of the &ocu#entar% evi&ence shall re#ain in the lo(er court for the e1a#ination of the parties.2.2Upon the perfection of the appeal" the cler/ shall i##e&iatel% &irect the steno'raphers concerne& to attach to the recor& of the case five (5) copies of the transcripts of the testi#onial evi&ence referre& to in the recor& on appeal.0a) SEC..a) SEC.list of the e1hi$its an& the pa'es (herein each of the# appears to have $een offere& an& a&#itte& or re3ecte& $% the trial court..Transcript.+uty of cler) of court of the lower court upon perfection of appeal.The transcripts shall $e trans#itte& to the cler/ of the trial court (ho shall thereupon arran'e the sa#e in the or&er in (hich the (itnesses testifie& at the trial" an& shall cause the pa'es to $e nu#$ere& consecutivel%.(.2The cler/ of the trial court shall trans#it to the appellate court the ori'inal recor& or the approve& recor& on appeal (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the perfection of the appeal" to'ether (ith the proof of pa%#ent of the appellate court &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" a certifie& true cop% of the #inutes of the procee&in's" the or&er of approval" the certificate of correctness" the ori'inal &ocu#entar% evi&ence referre& to therein" an& the ori'inal an& three (2) copies of the transcripts.SEC.The steno'raphers concerne& shall transcri$e such testi#onial evi&ence an& shall prepare an& affi1 to their transcripts an in&e1 containin' the na#es of the (itnesses an& the pa'es (herein their testi#onies are foun&" an& a.Ba) SEC.+ismissal of appeal.(.2a) .0..2 8ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after perfection of all the appeals in accor&ance (ith the prece&in' section" it shall $e the &ut% of the cler/ of court of the lo(er court* (a) To verif% the correctness of the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal" as the case #a% $e" an& to #a/e a certification of its correctness7 ($) To verif% the co#pleteness of the recor&s that (ill $e trans#itte& to the appellate court7 (c) !f foun& to $e inco#plete" to ta/e such #easures as #a% $e re>uire& to co#plete the recor&s" availin' of the authorit% that he or the court #a% e1ercise for this purpose7 an& (&) To trans#it the recor&s to the appellate court!f the efforts to co#plete the recor&s fail" he shall in&icate in his letter of trans#ittal the e1hi$its or transcripts not inclu&e& in the recor&s $ein' trans#itte& to the appellate court" the reasons for their non<trans#ittal" an& the steps ta/en or that coul& $e ta/en to have the# availa$leThe cler/ of court shall furnish the parties (ith copies of his letter of trans#ittal of the recor&s to the appellate court...

5) &a%s.(n) SEC.3ow appeal ta)en.RULE 42 PETITION FOR REVIEW FROM T E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS TO T E COURT OF APPEALS SECT!O+ .+o further e1tension shall $e 'rante& e1cept for the #ost co#pellin' reason an& in no case to e1cee& fifteen (.5) &a%s fro# notice of the &ecision sou'ht to $e revie(e& or of the &enial of petitionerGs #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration file& in &ue ti#e after 3u&'#ent.2 A part% &esirin' to appeal fro# a &ecision of the Re'ional Trial Court ren&ere& in the e1ercise of its appellate 3uris&iction #a% file a verifie& petition for revie( (ith the Court of Appeals" pa%in' at the sa#e ti#e to the cler/ of sai& court the correspon&in' &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" &epositin' the a#ount of P5BB-BB for costs" an& furnishin' the Re'ional Trial Court an& the a&verse part% (ith a cop% of the petition.(n) SEC. time for filing..4orm and contents.2 The failure of the petitioner to co#pl% (ith an% of the fore'oin' re>uire#ents re'ar&in' the pa%#ent of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" the &eposit for costs" proof of service of the petition" an& the contents of an& the &ocu#ents (hich shoul& acco#pan% the petition shall $e sufficient 'roun& for the &is#issal thereof.The petition shall $e file& an& serve& (ithin fifteen (.(n) .0.5) &a%s onl% (ithin (hich to file the petition for revie(.2The petition shall $e file& in seven (?) le'i$le copies" (ith the ori'inal cop% inten&e& for the court $ein' in&icate& as such $% the petitioner" an& shall (a) state the full na#es of the parties to the case" (ithout i#plea&in' the lo(er courts or 3u&'es thereof either as petitioners or respon&ents7 ($) in&icate the specific #aterial &ates sho(in' that it (as file& on ti#e7 (c) set forth concisel% a state#ent of the #aters involve&" the issues raise&" the specification of errors of fact or la(" or $oth" alle'e&l% co##itte& $% the Re'ional Trial Court" an& the reasons or ar'u#ents relie& upon for the allo(ance of the appeal7 (&) $e acco#panie& $% clearl% le'i$le &uplicate ori'inals or true copies of the 3u&'#ents or final or&ers of $oth lo(er courts" certifie& correct $% the cler/ of court of the Re'ional Trial Court" the re>uisite nu#$er of plain copies thereof an& of the plea&in's an& other #aterial portions of the recor& as (oul& support the alle'ations of the petitionThe petitioner shall also su$#it to'ether (ith the petition a certification un&er oath that he has not theretofore co##ence& an% other action involvin' the sa#e issues in the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals or &ifferent &ivisions thereof" or an% other tri$unal or a'enc%7 if there is such other action or procee&in'" he #ust state the status of the sa#e7 an& if he shoul& thereafter learn that a si#ilar action or procee&in' has $een file& or is pen&in' $efore the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals" or &ifferent &ivisions thereof" or an% other tri$unal or a'enc%" he un&erta/es to pro#ptl% infor# the aforesai& courts an& other tri$unal or a'enc% thereof (ithin five (5) &a%s therefro#.*ffect of failure to comply with re6uirements.Upon proper #otion an& the pa%#ent of the full a#ount of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees an& the &eposit for costs $efore the e1piration of the re'le#entar% perio&" the Court of Appeals #a% 'rant an a&&itional perio& of fifteen (.2.

A cop% thereof shall $e serve& on the petitioner.$erfection of appeal.6.) ($) E1cept in civil cases &eci&e& un&er the Rule on Su##ar% Proce&ure" the appeal shall sta% the 3u&'#ent or final or&er unless the Court of Appeals" the la(" or these Rules shall provi&e other(ise.(ction on the petition.(n) SEC.B) &a%s fro# notice" or &is#iss the petition if it fin&s the sa#e to $e patentl% (ithout #erit" prosecute& #anifestl% for &ela%" or that the >uestions raise& therein are too unsu$stantial to re>uire consi&eration.5.(n) SEC.(Aa" R4.*levation of record-.?.A.(n) SEC.2 The co##ent of the respon&ent shall $e file& in seven (?) le'i$le copies" acco#panie& $% certifie& true copies of such #aterial portions of the recor& referre& to therein to'ether (ith other supportin' papers an& shall (a) state (hether or not he accepts the state#ent of #atters involve& in the petition7 ($) point out such insufficiencies or inaccuracies as he $elieves e1ist in petitionerGs state#ent of #atters involve& $ut (ithout repetition7 an& (c) state the reasons (h% the petition shoul& not $e 'iven &ue course. Submission for decision.5) &a%s fro# notice-(n) SEC.The case shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for &ecision upon the filin' of the last plea&in' or #e#oran&u# re>uire& $% these Rules or .2The Court of Appeals #a% re>uire the respon&ent to file a co##ent on the petition" not a #otion to &is#iss" (ithin ten (.8henever the Court of Appeals &ee#s it necessar%" it #a% or&er the cler/ of court of the Re'ional Trial Court to elevate the ori'inal recor& of the case inclu&in' the oral an& &ocu#entar% evi&ence (ithin fifteen (.@.Contents of comment.SEC.2!f the petition is 'iven &ue course" the Court of Appeals #a% set the case for oral ar'u#ent or re>uire the parties to su$#it #e#oran&a (ithin a perio& of fifteen (.2!f upon the filin' of the co##ent or such other plea&in's as the court #a% allo( or re>uire" or after the e1piration of the perio& for the filin' thereof (ithout such co##ent or plea&in' havin' $een su$#itte&" the Court of Appeals fin&s prima facie that the lo(er court has co##itte& an error of fact or la( that (ill (arrant a reversal or #o&ification of the appeale& &ecision" it #a% accor&in'l% 'ive &ue course to the petition. effect thereof 2 (a) Upon the ti#el% filin' of a petition for revie( an& the pa%#ent of the correspon&in' &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" the appeal is &ee#e& perfecte& as to the petitionerThe Re'ional Trial Court loses 3uris&iction over the case upon the perfection of the appeals file& in &ue ti#e an& the e1piration of the ti#e to appeal of the other parties=o(ever" $efore the Court of Appeals 'ives &ue course to the petition" the Re'ional Trial Court #a% issue or&ers for the protection an& preservation of the ri'hts of the parties (hich &o not involve an% #atter liti'ate& $% the appeal" approve corn<pro#ises" per#it appeals of in&i'ent liti'ants" or&er e1ecution pen&in' appeal in accor&ance (ith section 0 of Rule 2A" an& allo( (ith&ra(al of the appeal.4.+ue course.5) &a%s fro# notice.(n) SEC.

. Onl% one (.5) &a%s.) #otion for reconsi&eration shall $e allo(e&.2An appeal un&er this Rule #a% $e ta/en to the Court of Appeals (ithin the perio& an& in the #anner herein provi&e&" (hether the appeal involves >uestions of fact" of la(" or #i1e& >uestions of fact an& la(.2This Rule shall appl% to appeals fro# 3u&'#ents or final or&ers of the Court of Ta1 Appeals an& fro# a(ar&s" 3u&'#ents" final or&ers or resolutions of or authori5e& $% an% >uasi<3u&icial a'enc% in the e1ercise of its >uasi< 3u&icial functions.Cases not covered-.(n) SEC.3ow appeal ta)en. The ori'inal cop% of the petition inten&e& for the Court of Appeals shall $e in&icate& as such $% the petitionerUpon the filin' of the petition" the petitioner shall pa% to the cler/ of court of the .$% the court itself.2Appeal shall $e ta/en $% filin' a verifie& petition for revie( in seven (?) le'i$le copies (ith the Court of Appeals" (ith proof of service of a cop% thereof on the a&verse part% an& on the court or a'enc% a 6uo.665?" Covern#ent Service !nsurance S%ste#" E#plo%ees Co#pensation Co##ission" A'ricultural !nventions )oar&" !nsurance Co##ission" Philippine Ato#ic Ener'% Co##ission" )oar& of !nvest#ents" Construction !n&ustr% Ar$itration Co##ission" an& voluntar% ar$itrators authori5e& $% la(.This Rule shall not appl% to 3u&'#ents or final or&ers issue& un&er the La$or Co&e of the Philippines.A#on' these a'encies are the Civil Service Co##ission" Central )oar& of Assess#ent Appeals" Securities an& E1chan'e Co##ission" Office of the Presi&ent" Lan& Re'istration Authorit%" Social Securit% Co##ission" Civil Aeronautics )oar&" )ureau of Patents" Tra&e#ar/s an& Technolo'% Transfer" +ational Electrification A&#inistration" Ener'% Re'ulator% )oar&" +ational Teleco##unications Co##ission" Fepart#ent of A'rarian Refor# un&er Repu$lic Act +o.5) &a%s fro# notice of the a(ar&" 3u&'#ent" final or&er or resolution" or fro# the &ate of its last pu$lication" if pu$lication is re>uire& $% la( for its effectivit%" or of the &enial of petitionerGs #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration &ul% file& in accor&ance (ith the 'overnin' la( of the court or a'enc% a 6uo.5.(n) RULE 43 APPEALS FROM T E COURT OF TA& APPEALS AND 'UASI% $UDICIAL AGENCIES TO T E COURT OF APPEALS SECT!O+ .(n) SEC.(n) SEC.(n) SEC.2The appeal shall $e ta/en (ithin fifteen (.Upon proper #otion an& the pa%#ent of the full a#ount of the &oc/et fee $efore the e1piration of the re'le#entar% perio&" the Court of Appeals #a% 'rant an a&&itional perio& of fifteen (.Scope.0.#here to appeal. $eriod of appeal.2..+o further e1tension shall $e 'rante& e1cept for the #ost co#pellin' reason an& in no case to e1cee& fifteen (.5) &a%s onl% (ithin (hich to file the petition for revie(.4.

A cop% thereof shall $e serve& on the petitioner" an& proof of such service shall $e file& (ith the Court of Appeals.Contents of the petition.(6a) SEC.?.(0a) SEC.E1e#ption fro# pa%#ent of &oc/etin' an& other la(ful fees an& the &eposit for costs #a% $e 'rante& $% the Court of Appeals upon a verifie& #otion settin' forth vali& 'roun&s therefor.(Aa) SEC.The fin&in's of fact of the court or a'enc% concerne&" (hen supporte& $% su$stantial evi&ence" shall $e $in&in' on the Court of Appeals.The petition shall state the specific #aterial &ates sho(in' that it (as file& (ithin the perio& fi1e& herein.+ue course.!f the Court of Appeals &enies the #otion" the petitioner shall pa% the &oc/etin' an& other la(ful fees an& &eposit for costs (ithin fifteen (.5) &a%s fro# notice of the &enial..(n) SEC...@.B.Transmittal of recor&-.Court of Appeals the &oc/etin' an& other la(ful fees an& &eposit the su# of P5BB-BB for costs.2The petition for revie( shall (a) state the full na#es of the parties to the case" (ithout i#plea&in' the court or a'encies either as petitioners or respon&ents7 ($) contain a concise state#ent of the facts an& issues involve& an& the 'roun&s relie& upon for the revie(7 (c) $e acco#panie& $% a clearl% le'i$le &uplicate ori'inal or a certifie& true cop% of the a(ar&" 3u&'#ent" final or&er or resolution appeale& fro#" to'ether (ith certifie& true copies of such #aterial portions of the recor& referre& to therein an& other supportin' papers7 an& (&) contain a s(orn certification a'ainst foru# shoppin' as provi&e& in the last para'raph of section 0" Rule 40.(ction on the petition.(n) SEC.Contents of comment.2The Court of Appeals #a% re>uire the respon&ent to file a co##ent on the petition" not a #otion to &is#iss" (ithin ten (.5) &a%s fro# notice that the .*ffect of failure to comply with re6uirements.8ithin fifteen (.(n) SEC.B) &a%s fro# notice" or &is#iss the petition if it fin&s the sa#e to $e patentl% (ithout #erit" prosecute& #anifestl% for &ela%" or that the >uestions raise& therein are too unsu$stantial to re>uire consi&eration.2!f upon the filin' of the co##ent or such other plea&in's or &ocu#ents as #a% $e re>uire& or allo(e& $% the Court of Appeals or upon the e1piration of the perio& for the filin' thereof" an& on the $asis of the petition or the recor&s the Court of Appeals fin&s prima facie that the court or a'enc% concerne& has co##itte& errors of fact or la( that (oul& (arrant reversal or #o&ification of the a(ar&" 3u&'#ent" final or&er or resolution sou'ht to $e revie(e&" it #a% 'ive &ue course to the petition7 other(ise" it shall &is#iss the sa#e.The co##ent shall (a) point out insufficiencies or inaccuracies in petitionerGs state#ent of facts an& issues7 an& ($) state the reasons (h% the petition shoul& $e &enie& or &is#isse&.6.B) &a%s fro# notice in seven (?) le'i$le copies an& acco#panie& $% clearl% le'i$le certifie& true copies of such #aterial portions of the recor& referre& to therein to'ether (ith other supportin' papers.2 The failure of the petitioner to co#pl% (ith an% of the fore'oin' re>uire#ents re'ar&in' the pa%#ent of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" the &eposit for costs" proof of service of the petition" an& the contents of an& the &ocu#ents (hich shoul& acco#pan% the petition shall $e sufficient 'roun& for the &is#issal thereof.A..2 The co##ent shall $e file& (ithin ten (.

a" R46) SEC.Submission for decision..4.(.Order of transmittal of record.5) &a%s fro# notice.2!n all cases appeale& to the Court of Appeals un&er Rule 4.2.B) &a%s fro# receipt of sai& notice" the appellant" in appeals $% recor& on appeal" shall file (ith the cler/ of court seven (?) clearl% le'i$le copies of the approve& recor& on appeal" to'ether (ith the proof of service of t(o (0) copies thereof upon the appellee- .Counsel and guardians.Ba) SEC.0.The recor& to $e trans#itte& #a% $e a$ri&'e& $% a'ree#ent of all parties to the procee&in'..*ffect of appeal2The appeal shall not sta% the a(ar&" 3u&'#ent" final or&er of resolution sou'ht to $e revie(e& unless the Court of Appeals shall &irect other(ise upon such ter#s as it #a% &ee# 3ust.(2a" R46) SEC.8hen others appear or are appointe&" notice thereof shall $e serve& i##e&iatel% on the a&verse part% an& file& (ith the court(0a" R46) SEC.(4a" R46) 8ithin ten (.petition has $een 'iven &ue course" the Court of Appeals #a% re>uire the court or a'enc% concerne& to trans#it the ori'inal or a le'i$le certifie& true cop% of the entire recor& of the procee&in' un&er revie(.+oc)eting of case-.0..2The counsel an& 'uar&ians ad litem of the parties in the court of ori'in shall $e respectivel% consi&ere& as their counsel an& 'uar&ians ad litem in the Court of Appeals.Title of cases.Upon receivin' the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal an& the acco#pan%in' &ocu#ents an& e1hi$its trans#itte& $% the lo(er court" as (ell as the proof of pa%#ent of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" the cler/ of court of the Court of Appeals shall &oc/et the case an& notif% the parties thereof.2!f the petition is 'iven &ue course" the Court of Appeals #a% set the case for oral ar'u#ent or re>uire the parties to su$#it #e#oran&a (ithin a perio& of fifteen (.The Court of Appeals #a% re>uire or per#it su$se>uent correction of or a&&ition to the recor&.The case shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for &ecision upon the filin' of the last plea&in' or #e#oran&u# re>uire& $% these Rules or $% the Court of Appeals.2 !f the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal is not trans#itte& to the Court of Appeals (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after the perfection of the appeal" either part% #a% file a #otion (ith the trial court" (ith notice to the other" for the trans#ittal of such recor& or recor& on appeal.(n) PROCEDURE IN T E COURT OF APPEALS RULE 44 ORDINARY APPEALED CASES SECT!O+ .(@a) SEC.2." the title of the case shall re#ain as it (as in the court of ori'in" $ut the part% appealin' the case shall $e further referre& to as the appellant an& the a&verse part% as the appellee.(.

2 The appellantGs $rief shall contain" in the .tension of time for filing briefs..(ppellant?s $rief-..28here the recor& of the &oc/ete& case is inco#plete" the cler/ of court of the Court of Appeals shall so infor# sai& court an& reco##en&e& to it #easures necessar% to co#plete the recor&.Several appellants or appellees or several counsel for each party.(n) SEC..0.!t shall $e the &ut% of sai& court to ta/e appropriate action to(ar&s the co#pletion of the recor& (ithin the shortest possi$le ti#e..2 !n certiorari" prohi$ition" #an&a#us" 6uo warranto an& habeas corpus cases" the parties shall file" in lieu of $riefs" their respective #e#oran&a (ithin a non<e1ten&i$le perio& of thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# receipt of the notice issue& $% the cler/ that all the evi&ence" oral an& &ocu#entar%" is alrea&% attache& to the recor&.tension of ti#e for the filin' of $riefs (ill not $e allo(e&" e1cept for 'oo& an& sufficient cause" an& onl% if the #otion for e1tension is file& $efore the e1piration of the ti#e sou'ht to $e e1ten&e&.8hen several counsel represent one appellant or appellee" copies of the $rief #a% $e serve& upon an% of the#.(.B.2.Ba" R46) SEC.(ppellant?s reply $rief-.a" R46) SEC.(.Time of filing memoranda in special cases.2*.8ithin fort%<five (45) &a%s fro# receipt of the appellantGs $rief" the appellee shall file (ith the court seven (?) copies of his le'i$l% t%pe(ritten" #i#eo'raphe& or printe& $rief" (ith proof of service of t(o (0) copies thereof upon the appellant.@.A.Completion of record.2 #here there are several appellants or appellees" each counsel representin' one or #ore $ut not all of the# shall $e serve& (ith onl% one cop% of the $riefs..6.(ppellee?s $rief.An% unauthori5e& alteration" o#ission or a&&ition in the approve& recor& on appeal shall $e a 'roun& for &is#issal of the appeal.+ispensing with complete record.?.0" R46) SEC.2a" R46) The failure of the appellant to file his #e#oran&u# (ithin the perio& therefor #a% $e a 'roun& for &is#issal of the appeal.2 8here the co#pletion of the recor& coul& not $e acco#plishe& (ithin a sufficient perio& allotte& for sai& purpose &ue to insupera$le or e1tre#el% &ifficult causes" the court" on its o(n #otion or on #otion of an% of the parties" #a% &eclare that the recor& an& its acco#pan%in' transcripts an& e1hi$its so far availa$le are sufficient to &eci&e the issues raise& in the appeal" an& shall issue an or&er e1plainin' the reasons for such &eclaration.8ithin t(ent% (0B) &a%s fro# receipt of the appelleeGs $rief" the appellant #a% file a repl% $rief ans(erin' points in the appelleeGs $rief not covere& in his #ain $rief..5" R46) SEC.Contents of appellant?s brief.(n) SEC.*.(.(..5.(.4a" R46) SEC.!t shall $e the &ut% of the appellant to file (ith the court" (ithin fort%<five (45) &a%s fro# receipt of the notice of the cler/ that all the evi&ence" oral an& &ocu#entar%" are attache& to the recor&" seven (?) copies of his le'i$l% t%pe(ritten" #i#eo'raphe& or printe& $rief" (ith proof of service of t(o (0) copies thereof upon the appellee.(.(n) SEC.(n) SEC.

a clear an& concise state#ent of the nature of the action" a su##ar% of the procee&in's" the appeale& rulin's an& or&ers of the court" the nature of the 3u&'#ent an& an% other #atters necessar% to an un&erstan&in' of the nature of the controvers%" (ith pa'e references to the recor&7 (&) Un&er the hea&in' :State#ent of Facts".6a" R46) SEC.The authorities relie& upon shall $e cite& $% the pa'e of the report at (hich the case $e'ins an& the pa'e of the report on (hich the citation is foun&* (') Un&er the hea&in' :Relief"..4. a clear an& concise state#ent in a narrative for# of the facts a&#itte& $% $oth parties an& of those in controvers%" to'ether (ith the su$stance of the proof relatin' thereto in sufficient &etail to #a/e it clearl% intelli'i$le" (ith pa'e references to the recor&7 (e) A clear an& concise state#ent of the issues of fact or la( to $e su$#itte& to the court for its 3u&'#ent7 (f) Un&er the hea&in' :Ar'u#ent". the appellee shall state that he accepts the state#ent of facts in the appellantGs $rief" or un&er the hea&in' :Counter<State#ent of Facts". he shall point out such insufficiencies or inaccuracies as he $elieves e1ist in the appellantGs state#ent of facts (ith references to the pa'es of the recor& in support thereof" $ut (ithout repetition of #atters in the appellantGs state#ent of facts7 an& (c) Un&er the hea&in' :Ar'u#ent".Contents of appellee?s brief. the appellee shall set forth his ar'u#ents in the case on each assi'n#ent of error (ith pa'e references to the . a specification of the or&er or 3u&'#ent (hich the appellant see/s7 an& (h) !n cases not $rou'ht up $% recor& on appeal" the appellantGs $rief shall contain" as an appen&i1" a cop% of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#(.2 The appelleeGs $rief shall contain" in the or&er herein in&icate&" the follo(in'* (a) A su$3ect in&e1 of the #atter in the $rief (ith a &i'est of the ar'u#ents an& pa'e references" an& a ta$le of cases alpha$eticall% arran'e&" te1t$oo/s an& statutes cite& (ith references to the pa'es (here the% are cite&7 ($) Un&er the hea&in' :State#ent of Facts".or&er herein in&icate&" the follo(in'* (a) A su$3ect in&e1 of the #atter in the $rief (ith a &i'est of the ar'u#ents an& pa'e references" an& a ta$le of cases alpha$eticall% arran'e&" te1t$oo/s an& statutes cite& (ith references to the pa'es (here the% are cite&7 ($) An assi'n#ent of errors inten&e& to $e ur'e&" (hich errors shall $e separatel%" &istinctl% an& concisel% state& (ithout repetition an& nu#$ere& consecutivel%7 (c) Un&er the hea&in' :State#ent of the Case". the appellantGs ar'u#ents on each assi'n#ent of error (ith pa'e references to the recor&.

On #otion &ul% file& an& serve&" (ith full pa%#ent of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees an& the &eposit for costs $efore the e1piration of the re'le#entar% perio&" the Supre#e Court #a% for 3ustifia$le reasons 'rant an e1tension of thirt% (2B) &a%s onl% (ithin (hich to file the petition.The petition shall raise onl% >uestions of la( (hich #ust $e &istinctl% set forth.tension. proof of service of petition.2 Unless he has theretofore &one so" the petitioner shall pa% the correspon&in' &oc/et an& other la(ful fees to the cler/ of court of the Supre#e Court an& &eposit the a#ount of P5BB-BB for costs at the ti#e of the filin' of the petition.@" R46) RULE 45 APPEAL !Y CERTIORARI TO T E SUPREME COURT SECT!O+ .(.?a" R46) SEC.8uestions that may be raised on appeal.& 8hether or not the appellant has file& a #otion for ne( trial in the court $elo(" he #a% inclu&e in his assi'n#ent of errors an% >uestion of la( or fact that has $een raise& in the court $elo( an& (hich is (ithin the issues fra#e& $% the parties.@) copies" (ith the ori'inal cop% inten&e& for the court $ein' in&icate& as such $% the petitioner" an& shall (a) state the full na#e of the appealin' part% as the petitioner an& the a&verse part% as respon&ent" (ithout i#plea&in' the lo(er courts or 3u&'es thereof either as petitioners or respon&ents7 ($) in&icate the #aterial &ates sho(in' (hen notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution su$3ect thereof (as receive&" (hen a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration" if an%" (as file& an& (hen notice of the &enial thereof (as receive&7 (c) set forth concisel% a state#ent of the #atters involve&" an& the reasons or ar'u#ents relie& on for the allo(ance of the petition7 (&) $e acco#panie& $% a clearl% le'i$le &uplicate ori'inal" or a certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution certifie& $% the cler/ of court of the court a 6uo an& the re>uisite nu#$er of plain copies thereof" an& such #aterial portions of the recor& as (oul& support the .Contents of petition2The petition shall $e file& in ei'hteen (.4iling of petition with Supreme Court.(.Time for filing..5) &a%s fro# notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution appeale& fro#" or of the &enial of the petitionerGs #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration file& in &ue ti#e after notice of the 3u&'#ent. e.(.2.+oc)et and other lawful fees.The authorities relie& on shall $e cite& $% the pa'e of the report at (hich the case $e'ins an& the pa'e of the report on (hich the citation is foun&.(.a" 0a) SEC..Proof of service of a cop% thereof on the lo(er court concerne& an& on the a&verse part% shall $e su$#itte& to'ether (ith the petition.0.a" 5a) SEC.recor&.a) SEC.2 A part% &esirin' to appeal $% certiorari fro# a 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution of the Court of Appeals" the San&i'an$a%an" the Re'ional Trial Court or other courts (henever authori5e& $% la(" #a% file (ith the Supre#e Court a verifie& petition for revie( on certiorari.(.4.5.2The petition shall $e file& (ithin fifteen (.

petition7 an& (e) contain a s(orn certification a'ainst foru# shoppin' as provi&e& in the last para'raph of section 0" Rule 40- (0a) SEC- 5- +ismissal or denial of petition.2 The failure of the petitioner to co#pl% (ith an% of the fore'oin' re>uire#ents re'ar&in' the pa%#ent of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" &eposit for costs" proof of service of the petition" an& the contents of an& the &ocu#ents (hich shoul& acco#pan% the petition shall $e sufficient 'roun& for the &is#issal thereofThe Supre#e Court #a% on its o(n initiative &en% the petition on the 'roun& that the appeal is (ithout #erit" or is prosecute& #anifestl% for &ela%" or that the >uestions raise& therein are too unsu$stantial to re>uire consi&eration- (2a) SEC- 6- Review discretionary.2A revie( is not a #atter of ri'ht" $ut of soun& 3u&icial &iscretion" an& (ill $e 'rante& onl% (hen there are special an& i#portant reasons therefor- The follo(in'" (hile neither controllin' nor full% #easurin' the courtGs &iscretion" in&icate the character of the reasons (hich (ill $e consi&ere&* (a) 8hen the court a >uo has &eci&e& a >uestion of su$stance" not theretofore &eter#ine& $% the Supre#e Court" or has &eci&e& it in a (a% pro$a$l% not in accor& (ith la( or (ith the applica$le &ecisions of the Supre#e Court7 or ($) 8hen the court a >uo has so far &eparte& fro# the accepte& an& usual course of 3u&icial procee&in's" or so far sanctione& such &eparture $% a lo(er court" as to call for an e1ercise of the po(er of supervision- (4a) SEC- ?- $leadings and documents that may be re6uired; sanctions.2 For purposes of &eter#inin' (hether the petition shoul& $e &is#isse& or &enie& pursuant to section 5 of this Rule" or (here the petition is 'iven &ue course un&er section @ hereof" the Supre#e Court #a% re>uire or allo( the filin' of such plea&in's" $riefs" #e#oran&a or &ocu#ents as it #a% &ee# necessar% (ithin such perio&s an& un&er such con&itions as it #a% consi&er appropriate" an& i#pose the correspon&in' sanctions in case of non< filin' or unauthori5e& filin' of such plea&in's an& &ocu#ents or nonco#pliance (ith the con&itions thereof- (n) SEC- @- +ue course; elevation of records.2 !f the petition is 'iven &ue course" the Supre#e Court #a% re>uire the elevation of the co#plete recor& of the case or specifie& parts thereof (ithin fifteen (,5) &a%s fro# notice- (0a) SEC- A- Rule applicable to both civil and criminal cases.2 The #o&e of appeal prescri$e& in this Rule shall $e applica$le to $oth civil an& cri#inal cases" e1cept in cri#inal cases (here the penalt% i#pose& is &eath" reclusion perpetua or life i#prison#ent- (n)

RULE 46

ORIGINAL CASES

SECT!O+ ,- Title of cases.2!n all cases ori'inall% file& in the Court of Appeals" the part% institutin' the action shall $e calle& the petitioner an& the opposin' part% the respon&ent- (,a) SEC- 0- To what actions applicable.2This Rule shall appl% to ori'inal actions for certiorari" prohi$ition" mandamus an& 6uo warrantoE1cept as other(ise provi&e&" the actions for annul#ent of 3u&'#ent shall $e 'overne& $% Rule 4?" for certiorari" prohi$ition an& #an&a#us $% Rule 65" an& for 6uo warranto $% Rule 66- (n) SEC- 2- Contents and filing of petition; effect of non&compliance with re6uirements. 2The petition shall contain the full na#es an& actual a&&resses of all the petitioners an& respon&ents" a concise state#ent of the #atters involve&" the factual $ac/'roun& of the case" an& the 'roun&s relie& upon for the relief pra%e& for!n actions file& un&er Rule 65" the petition shall further in&icate the #aterial &ates sho(in' (hen notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution su$3ect thereof (as receive&" (hen a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration" if an%" (as file& an& (hen notice of the &enial thereof (as receive&!t shall $e file& in seven (?) clearl% le'i$le copies to'ether (ith proof of service thereof on the respon&ent (ith the ori'inal cop% inten&e& for the court in&icate& as such $% the petitioner" an& shall $e acco#panie& $% a clearl% le'i$le &uplicate ori'inal or certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent" or&er" resolution" or rulin' su$3ect thereof" such #aterial portions of the recor& as are referre& to therein" an& other &ocu#ents relevant or pertinent thereto- The certification shall $e acco#plishe& $% the proper cler/ of court or $% his &ul% authori5e& representative" or $% the proper officer of the court" tri$unal" a'enc% or office involve& or $% his &ul% authori5e& representative- The other re>uisite nu#$er of copies of the petition shall $e acco#panie& $% clearl% le'i$le plain copies of all &ocu#ents attache& to the ori'inalThe petitioner shall also su$#it to'ether (ith the petition a s(orn certification that he has not theretofore co##ence& an% other action involvin' the sa#e issues in the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals or &ifferent &ivisions thereof" or an% other tri$unal or a'enc%7 if there is such other action or procee&in'" he #ust state the status of the sa#e7 an& if he shoul& thereafter learn that a si#ilar action or procee&in' has $een file& or is pen&in' $efore the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals" or &ifferent &ivisions thereof" or an% other tri$unal or a'enc%" he un&erta/es to pro#ptl% infor# the aforesai& courts an& other tri$unal or a'enc% thereof (ithin five (5) &a%s therefro#The petitioner shall pa% the correspon&in' &oc/et an& other la(ful fees to the cler/ of court an& &eposit the a#ount of P5BB-BB for costs at the ti#e of the filin' of the petitionThe failure of the petitioner to co#pl% (ith an% of the fore'oin' re>uire#ents shall $e sufficient 'roun& for the &is#issal of the petition- (n) SEC- 4. urisdiction over person of respondent, how ac6uired.2 The court shall ac>uire 3uris&iction over the person of the respon&ent $% the service on hi# of its or&er or resolution in&icatin' its initial action on the petition or $% his voluntar% su$#ission to

such 3uris&iction- (n) SEC- 5- (ction by the court.2The court #a% &is#iss the petition outri'ht (ith specific reasons for such &is#issal or re>uire the respon&ent to file a co##ent on the sa#e (ithin ten (,B) &a%s fro# notice- Onl% plea&in's re>uire& $% the court shall $e allo(e&- All other plea&in's an& papers" #a% $e file& onl% (ith leave of court- (n) SEC- 6- +etermination of factual issues.8henever necessar% to resolve factual issues" the court itself #a% con&uct hearin's thereon or &ele'ate the reception of the evi&ence on such issues to an% of its #e#$ers or to an appropriate court" a'enc% or office- (n) SEC- <. *ffect of failure to file comment.2 8hen no co##ent is file& $% an% of the respon&ents" the case #a% $e &eci&e& on the $asis of the recor&" (ithout pre3u&ice to an% &isciplinar% action (hich the court #a% ta/e a'ainst the &iso$e&ient part%- (n)

RULE 47

ANNULMENT OF $UDGMENTS OR FINAL ORDERS AND RESOLUTIONS
SECT!O+ ,- Coverage.2This Rule shall 'overn the annul#ent $% the Court of Appeals of 3u&'#ents or final or&ers an& resolutions in civil actions of Re'ional Trial Courts for (hich the or&inar% re#e&ies of ne( trial" appeal" petition for relief or other appropriate re#e&ies are no lon'er availa$le throu'h no fault of the petitioner- (n) SEC- 0- -rounds for annulment.2The annul#ent #a% $e $ase& onl% on the 'roun&s of e1trinsic frau& an& lac/ of 3uris&ictionE1trinsic frau& shall not $e a vali& 'roun& if it (as availe& of" or coul& have $een availe& of" in a #otion for ne( trial or petition for relief- (n) SEC- 2. $eriod for filing action.2!f $ase& on e1trinsic frau&" the action #ust $e file& (ithin four (4) %ears fro# its &iscover%7 an& if $ase& on lac/ of 3uris&iction" $efore it is $arre& $% laches or estoppel- (n) SEC- 4. 4iling and contents of petition.2The action shall $e co##ence& $% filin' a verifie& petition alle'in' therein (ith particularit% the facts an& the la( relie& upon for annul#ent" as (ell as those supportin' the petitionerGs 'oo& an& su$stantial cause of action or &efense" as the case #a% $eThe petition shall $e file& in seven (?) clearl% le'i$le copies" to'ether (ith sufficient copies correspon&in' to the nu#$er of respon&ents- A certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution shall $e attache& to the ori'inal cop% of the petition inten&e& for the court an& in&icate& as such $% the petitionerThe petitioner shall also su$#it to'ether (ith the petition affi&avits of (itnesses or &ocu#ents supportin' the cause of action or &efense an& a s(orn certification that he

has not theretofore co##ence& an% other action involvin' the sa#e issues in the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals or &ifferent &ivisions thereof" or an% other tri$unal or a'enc%7 if there is such other action or procee&in'" he #ust state the status of the sa#e" an& if he shoul& thereafter learn that a si#ilar action or procee&in' has $een file& or is pen&in' $efore the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals" or &ifferent &ivisions thereof" or an% other tri$unal or a'enc%" he un&erta/es to pro#ptl% infor# the aforesai& courts an& other tri$unal or a'enc% thereof (ithin five (5B &a%s therefro#- (n) SEC- 5- (ction by the court-.Shoul& the court fin& no su$stantial #erit in the petition" the sa#e #a% $e &is#isse& outri'ht (ith specific reasons for such &is#issalShoul& prima facie #erit $e foun& in the petition" the sa#e shall $e 'iven &ue course an& su##ons shall $e serve& on the respon&ent- (n) SEC- 6- $rocedure.2The proce&ure in or&inar% civil cases shall $e o$serve&Shoul& a trial $e necessar%" the reception of the evi&ence #a% $e referre& to a #e#$er of the court or a 3u&'e of a Re'ional Trial Court- (n) SEC- ?- *ffect of "udgment& A 3u&'#ent of annul#ent shall set asi&e the >uestione& 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution an& ren&er the sa#e null an& voi&" (ithout pre3u&ice to the ori'inal action $ein' refile& in the proper court- =o(ever" (here the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution is set asi&e on the 'roun& of e1trinsic frau&" the court #a% on #otion or&er the trial court to tr% the case as if a ti#el% #otion for ne( trial ha& $een 'rante& therein- (n) SEC- @- Suspension of prescriptive period.2 The prescriptive perio& for the refilin' of the aforesai& ori'inal action shall $e &ee#e& suspen&e& fro# the filin' of sai& ori'inal action until the finalit% of the 3u&'#ent of annul#ent- =o(ever" the prescriptive perio& shall not $e suspen&e& (here the e1trinsic frau& is attri$uta$le to the plaintiff in the ori'inal action- (n) SEC- A- Relief available.2The 3u&'#ent of annul#ent #a% inclu&e the a(ar& of &a#a'es" attorne%Gs fees an& other relief!f the >uestione& 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution ha& alrea&% $een e1ecute&" the court #a% issue such or&ers of restitution or other relief as 3ustice an& e>uit% #a% (arrant un&er the circu#stances- (n) SEC- ,B- (nnulment of "udgments or final orders of !unicipal Trial Courts.2 An action to annul a 3u&'#ent or final or&er of a 9unicipal Trial Court shall $e file& in the Re'ional Trial Court havin' 3uris&iction over the for#er- !t shall $e treate& as an or&inar% civil action an& sections 0" 2" 4" ?" @ an& A of this Rule shall $e applica$le thereto- (n)

RULE 48

PRELIMINARY CONFERENCE

SECT!O+ ,- $reliminary conference.2At an% ti#e &urin' the pen&enc% of a case" the court #a% call the parties an& their counsel to a preli#inar% conference(a) To consi&er the possi$ilit% of an a#ica$le settle#ent" e1cept (hen the case is not allo(e& $% la( to $e co#pro#ise&7 ($) To &efine" si#plif% an& clarif% the issues for &eter#ination7 (c) To for#ulate stipulations of facts an& a&#issions of &ocu#entar% e1hi$its" li#it the nu#$er of (itnesses to $e presente& in cases fallin' (ithin the ori'inal 3uris&iction of the court" or those (ithin its appellate 3uris&iction (here a #otion for ne( trial is 'rante& on the 'roun& of ne(l% &iscovere& evi&ence7 an& (&) To ta/e up such other #atters (hich #a% ai& the court in the pro#pt &isposition of the case- (Rule ?" CA !nternal Rules) (n) SEC- 0- Record of the conference.2The procee&in's at such conference shall $e recor&e& an&" upon the conclusion thereof" a resolution shall $e issue& e#$o&%in' all the actions ta/en therein" the stipulations an& a&#issions #a&e" an& the issues &efine&(n) SEC- 2- 1inding effect of the results of the conference.2 Su$3ect to such #o&ifications (hich #a% $e #a&e to prevent #anifest in3ustice" the resolution in the prece&in' section shall control the su$se>uent procee&in's in the case unless" (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# notice thereof" an% part% shall satisfactoril% sho( vali& cause (h% the sa#e shoul& not $e follo(e&- (n)

RULE 49

ORAL ARGUMENT
SECT!O+ ,- #hen allowed.2At its o(n instance or upon #otion of a part%" the court #a% hear the parties in oral ar'u#ent on the #erits of a case" or on an% #aterial inci&ent in connection there(ith- (n) The oral ar'u#ent shall $e li#ite& to such #atters as the court #a% specif% in its or&er of resolution- (,a" R4@) SEC- 0- Conduct of oral argument2 Unless authori5e& $% the court" onl% one counsel #a% ar'ue for a part%- The &uration allo(e& for each part%" the se>uence of the ar'u#entation" an& all other relate& #atters shall $e as &irecte& $% the court- (n) SEC- 2- %o hearing or oral argument for motions.2 9otions shall not $e set for hearin' an&" unless the court other(ise &irects" no hearin' or oral ar'u#ent shall $e allo(e& in support thereof- The a&verse part% #a% file o$3ections to the #otion (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# service" upon the e1piration of (hich such #otion shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for resolution- (0a" R4A)

RULE 50

DISMISSAL OF APPEAL
SECT!O+ ,- -rounds for dismissal of appeal2 An appeal #a% $e &is#isse& $% the Court of Appeals" on its o(n #otion or on that of the appellee" on the follo(in' 'roun&s* (a) Failure of the recor& on appeal to sho( on its face that the appeal (as ta/en (ithin the perio& fi1e& $% these Rules7 ($) Failure to file the notice of appeal or the recor& on appeal (ithin the perio& prescri$e& $% these Rules7 (c) Failure of the appellant to pa% the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees as provi&e& in section 4 of Rule 4,7 (&) Unauthori5e& alterations" o#issions or a&&itions in the approve& recor& on appeal as provi&e& in section 4 of Rule 447 (e) Failure of the appellant to serve an& file the re>uire& nu#$er of copies of his $rief or #e#oran&u# (ithin the ti#e provi&e& $% these Rules7 (f) A$sence of specific assi'n#ent of errors in the appellantGs $rief" or of pa'e references to the recor& as re>uire& in section ,2" para'raphs (a)" (c)" (&) an& (f) of Rule 447 (') Failure of the appellant to ta/e the necessar% steps for the correction or co#pletion of the recor& (ithin the ti#e li#ite& $% the court in its or&er7 (h) Failure of the appellant to appear at the preli#inar% conference un&er Rule 4@ or to co#pl% (ith or&ers" circulars" or &irectives of the court (ithout 3ustifia$le cause7 an& (i) (,a) SEC- 0- +ismissal of improper appeal to the Court of (ppeals.2 An appeal un&er Rule 4, ta/en fro# the Re'ional Trial Court to the Court of Appeals raisin' onl% >uestions of la( shall $e &is#isse&" issues purel% of la( not $ein' revie(a$le $% sai& court- Si#ilarl%" an appeal $% notice of appeal instea& of $% petition for revie( fro# the appellate 3u&'#ent of a Re'ional Trial Court shall $e &is#isse&- (n) An appeal erroneousl% ta/en to the Court of Appeals shall not $e transferre& to the appropriate court $ut shall $e &is#isse& outri'ht- (2a) SEC- 2- #ithdrawal of appeal.2An appeal #a% $e (ith&ra(n as of ri'ht at an% ti#e $efore the filin' of the appelleeGs $rief- Thereafter" the (ith&ra(al #a% $e allo(e& in the &iscretion of the court- (4a) The fact that or&er or 3u&'#ent appeale& fro# is not appeala$le-

RULE 51

$UDGMENT
SECT!O+ ,- #hen case deemed submitted for "udgment.2 A case shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for 3u&'#ent* A- !n or&inar% appeals-. ,) 8here no hearin' on the #erits of the #ain case is hel&" upon the filin' of the last plea&in'" $rief" or #e#oran&u# re>uire& $% the Rules or $% the court itself" or the e1piration of the perio& for its filin'0) 8here such a hearin' is hel&" upon its ter#ination or upon the filin' of the last plea&in' or #e#oran&u# as #a% $e re>uire& or per#itte& to $e file& $% the court" or the e1piration of the perio& for its filin')- !n ori'inal actions an& petitions for revie(-. ,) 8here no co##ent is file&" upon the e1piration of the perio& to co##ent0) 8here no hearin' is hel&" upon the filin' of the last plea&in' re>uire& or per#itte& to $e file& $% the court" or the e1piration of the perio& for its filin'2) 8here a hearin' on the #erits of the #ain case is hel&" upon its ter#ination or upon the filin' of the last plea&in' or #e#oran&u# as #a% $e re>uire& or per#itte& to $e file& $% the court" or the e1piration of the perio& for its filin'- (n) SEC- 0- 1y whom rendered.2The 3u&'#ent shall $e ren&ere& $% the #e#$ers of the court (ho participate& in the &eli$eration on the #erits of the case $efore its assi'n#ent to a #e#$er for the (ritin' of the &ecision- (n) SEC- 2- 8uorum and voting in the court2 The participation of all three Hustices of a &ivision shall $e necessar% at the &eli$eration an& the unani#ous vote of the three Hustices shall $e re>uire& for the pronounce#ent of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution- !f the three Hustices &o not reach a unani#ous vote" the cler/ shall enter the votes of the &issentin' Hustices in the recor&- Thereafter" the Chair#an of the &ivision shall refer the case" to'ether (ith the #inutes of the &eli$eration" to the Presi&in' Hustice (ho shall &esi'nate t(o Hustices chosen $% raffle fro# a#on' all the other #e#$ers of the court to sit te#poraril% (ith the#" for#in' a special &ivision of five Hustices- The participation of all the five #e#$ers of the special &ivision shall $e necessar% for the &eli$eration re>uire& in section 0 of this Rule an& the concurrence of a #a3orit% of such &ivision shall $e re>uire& for the pronounce#ent of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution- (0a) SEC- ;. +isposition of a case.2The Court of Appeals" in the e1ercise of its appellate 3uris&iction" #a% affir#" reverse" or #o&if% the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#" an& #a% &irect a ne( trial or further procee&in's to $e ha&- (2a) SEC- 5- 4orm of decision.2Ever% &ecision or final resolution of the court in

A.(0a" R26) SEC.@.appeale& cases shall clearl% an& &istinctl% state the fin&in's of fact an& the conclusions of la( on (hich it is $ase&" (hich #a% $e containe& in the &ecision or final resolution itself" or a&opte& fro# those set forth in the &ecision" or&er" or resolution appeale& fro#(Sec..B.ecution of 3u&'#ent-.3armless error.2+o error (hich &oes not affect the 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter or the vali&it% of the 3u&'#ent appeale& fro# or the procee&in's therein (ill $e consi&ere& unless state& in the assi'n#ent of errors" or closel% relate& to or &epen&ent on an assi'ne& error an& properl% ar'ue& in the $rief" save as the court #a% pass upon plain errors an& clerical errors.(5a) SEC.$romulgation and notice of "udgment..6.(6) SEC.The court at ever% sta'e of the procee&in' #ust &isre'ar& an% error or &efect (hich &oes not affect the su$stantial ri'hts of the parties. E1cept (here the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution" or a portion thereof" is or&ere& to $e i##e&iatel% e1ecutor%" the #otion for its e1ecution #a% onl% $e file& in the proper court after its entr%!n ori'inal actions in the Court of Appeals" its (rit of e1ecution shall $e acco#panie& $% a certifie& true cop% of the entr% of 3u&'#ent or final resolution an& a&&resse& to an% appropriate officer for its enforce#ent!n appeale& cases" (here the #otion for e1ecution pen&in' appeal is file& in the Court of Appeals at a ti#e that it is in possession of the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on .2 !n all actions or procee&in's" an appeale& 3u&'#ent #a% $e affir#e& as to so#e of the appellants" an& reverse& as to others" an& the case shall thereafter $e procee&e& (ith" so far as necessar%" as if separate actions ha& $een $e'un an& prosecute&7 an& e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent of affir#ance #a% $e ha& accor&in'l%" an& costs #a% $e a&3u&'e& in such cases" as the court shall &ee# proper.2+o error in either the a&#ission or the e1clusion of evi&ence an& no error or &efect in an% rulin' or or&er or in an%thin' &one or o#itte& $% the trial court or $% an% of the parties is 'roun& for 'rantin' a ne( trial or for settin' asi&e" #o&if%in'" or other(ise &istur$in' a 3u&'#ent or or&er" unless refusal to ta/e such action appears to the court inconsistent (ith su$stantial 3ustice.8uestions that may be decided.*...The recor& shall contain the &ispositive part of the 3u&'#ent or final resolution an& shall $e si'ne& $% the cler/" (ith a certificate that such 3u&'#ent or final resolution has $eco#e final an& e1ecutor%.(?a) SEC.*ntry of "udgments and final resolutions.0A) (n) SEC.2 !f no appeal or #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration is file& (ithin the ti#e provi&e& in these Rules" the 3u&'#ent or final resolution shall forth(ith $e entere& $% the cler/ in the $oo/ of entries of 3u&'#ents.udgment where there are several parties.The &ate (hen the 3u&'#ent or final resolution $eco#es e1ecutor% shall $e &ee#e& as the &ate of its entr%.(n) SEC.?.2 After the 3u&'#ent or final resolution an& &issentin' or separate opinions" if an%" are si'ne& $% the Hustices ta/in' part" the% shall $e &elivere& for filin' to the cler/ (ho shall in&icate thereon the &ate of pro#ul'ation an& cause true copies thereof to $e serve& upon the parties or their counsel.4B" )P )l'..

ground.3earing and order.2.ecution.appeal" the resolution 'rantin' such #otion shall $e trans#itte& to the lo(er court fro# (hich the case ori'inate&" to'ether (ith a certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er to $e e1ecute&" (ith a &irective for such court of ori'in to issue the proper (rit for its enforce#ent.2The pen&enc% of a #otion for reconsi&eration file& on ti#e an& $% the proper part% shall sta% the e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent or final resolution sou'ht to $e reconsi&ere& unless the court" for 'oo& reasons" shall other(ise &irect.Second motion for reconsideration.5) &a%s fro# notice thereof" (ith proof of service on the a&verse part%.4.2A part% #a% file a #otion for reconsi&eration of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution (ithin fifteen (.2.(n) SEC.2!n the Court of Appeals" a #otion for reconsi&eration shall $e resolve& (ithin ninet% (AB) &a%s fro#" the &ate (hen the court &eclares it su$#itte& for resolution.0.2+o secon& #otion for reconsi&eration of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution $% the sa#e part% shall $e entertaine&.(n) RULE 53 NEW TRIAL SECT!O+ .$eriod for filing.(n) SEC.(n) RULE 52 MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION SECT!O+ .2The Court of Appeals shall consi&er the ne( evi&ence to'ether (ith that a&&uce& at the trial $elo(" an& #a% 'rant or refuse a ne( trial" or #a% #a/e such or&er" (ith notice to $oth parties" as to the ta/in' of further testi#on%" either orall% in court" or $% &epositions" or ren&er such other 3u&'#ent as ou'ht to $e ren&ere& upon such ter#s as it #a% &ee# 3ust.2 At an% ti#e after the appeal fro# the lo(er court has $een perfecte& an& $efore the Court of Appeals loses 3uris&iction over the case" a part% #a% file a #otion for a ne( trial on the 'roun& of ne(l% &iscovere& evi&ence (hich coul& not have $een &iscovere& prior to the trial in the court $elo( $% the e1ercise of &ue &ili'ence an& (hich is of such a character as (oul& pro$a$l% chan'e the result.0.a) SEC.(0a) SEC.Stay of e.The #otion shall $e acco#panie& $% affi&avits sho(in' the facts constitutin' the 'roun&s therefor an& the ne(l% &iscovere& evi&ence.Resolution of motion.(n) SEC.Resolution of motion2In the Court of Appeals" a #otion for ne( trial shall ....$eriod for filing.(.

.(2a) RULE 55 PU!LICATION OF $UDGMENTS AND FINAL RESOLUTIONS SECT!O+ .of )P )l'.The affir#ative votes of the #a3orit% of the #e#$ers present shall $e necessar% to pass a resolution of the court en banc.$ublication.0A" as a#en&e& $% Sec.(n) SEC.9e#oran&a of all other 3u&'#ents an& final resolutions not so pu$lishe& shall $e #a&e $% the reporter an& pu$lishe& in the Official Ca5ette an& the authori5e& reports.Unless the court other(ise &irects" the proce&ure in the ne( trial shall $e the sa#e as that 'rante& $% a Re'ional Trial Court.8uorum of the court. Three #e#$ers shall constitute a >uoru# for the sessions of a &ivision.(.$reparation of opinions for publication.0.$rocedure in new trial.a) SEC.. The affir#ative votes of three #e#$ers of a &ivision shall $e necessar% for the pronounce#ent of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution" (hich shall $e reache& in consultation $efore the (ritin' of the opinion $% an% #e#$er of the &ivision." first par.(Sec.2A #a3orit% of the actual #e#$ers of the court shall constitute a >uoru# for its sessions en banc.2 The reporter shall prepare an& pu$lish (ith each reporte& 3u&'#ent an& final resolution a concise s%nopsis of the facts necessar% for a clear un&erstan&in' of the case" the na#es of counsel" the #aterial an& controverte& points involve&" the authorities cite& therein" an& a s%lla$us (hich shall $e ..2All the cases of the Court of Appeals shall $e allotte& a#on' the &ifferent &ivisions thereof for hearin' an& &ecisionThe Court of Appeals" sittin' en banc.(2a) RULE 54 INTERNAL !USINESS SECT!O+ .(.4. shall #a/e proper or&ers or rules to 'overn the allot#ent of cases a#on' the &ifferent &ivisions" the constitution of such &ivisions" the re'ular rotation of Hustices a#on' the#" the filin' of vacancies occurrin' therein" an& other #atters relatin' to the $usiness of the court7 an& such rules shall continue in force until repeale& or altere& $% it or $% the Supre#e Court.2The 3u&'#ents an& final resolutions of the court shall $e pu$lishe& in the Official Ca5ette an& in the Reports officiall% authori5e& $% the court in the lan'ua'e in (hich the% have $een ori'inall% (ritten" to'ether (ith the s%lla$i therefor prepare& $% the reporter in consultation (ith the (riters thereof.6 of EO 22)..0.$e resolve& (ithin ninet% (AB) &a%s fro# the &ate (hen the court &eclares it su$#itte& for resolution.+istribution of cases among divisions.a) SEC..

0A6) (n) SEC. (hile those of the Court of Appeals shall $e /no(n as the :Court of Appeals Reports-.0A6) (n) PROCEDURE IN T E SUPREME COURT RULE 56 ORIGINAL AND APPEALED CASES A" O()*)+..(Sec." 50 an& this Rule" su$3ect to the follo(in' provisions* a) All references in sai& Rules to the Court of Appeals shall $e un&erstoo& to also appl% to the Supre#e Court7 $) The portions of sai& Rules &ealin' strictl% (ith an& specificall% inten&e& for appeale& cases in the Court of Appeals shall not $e applica$le7 an& c) Ei'hteen (.confine& to points of la(.2.+o.-/1 C.(Sec.Rules applicable.02a" R-A./. Each volu#e thereof shall contain a ta$le of the cases reporte& an& the cases cite& in the opinions" (ith a co#plete alpha$etical in&e1 of the su$3ect #atters of the volu#e.C.(n) SEC.2. SEC..(n) !" A00/.!ode of appeal2An appeal to the Supre#e Court #a% $e ta/en onl% $% a petition for revie( on certiorari" e1cept in cri#inal cases (here the penalt% i#pose& is &eath" reclusion perpetua or life i#prison#ent.2Onl% petitions for certiorari" prohi$ition" #an&a#us" >uo (arranto" ha$eas corpus" &isciplinar% procee&in's a'ainst #e#$ers of the 3u&iciar% an& attorne%s" an& cases affectin' a#$assa&ors" other pu$lic #inisters an& consuls #a% $e file& ori'inall% in the Supre#e Court.0.2 The pu$lishe& &ecisions an& final resolutions of the Supre#e Court shall $e calle& :Philippine Reports"../.-eneral ma)e&up of volumes.!t shall consist of not less than seven hun&re&" pa'es printe& upon 'oo& paper" (ell $oun& an& nu#$ere& consecutivel% in the or&er of the volu#es pu$lishe&.2The proce&ure in ori'inal cases for certiorari" prohi$ition" #an&a#us" >uo (arranto an& ha$eas corpus shall $e in accor&ance (ith the applica$le provisions of the Constitution" la(s" an& Rules 46" 4@" 4A" 5.2A<)" as a#en&e&. SECT!O+ .@) clearl% le'i$le copies of the petition shall $e file&" to'ether (ith proof of service on all a&verse partiesThe procee&in's for &isciplinar% action a'ainst #e#$ers of the 3u&iciar% shall $e 'overne& $% the la(s an& Rules prescri$e& therefor" an& those a'ainst attorne%s $% Rule .Original cases cogni5able.00a" R-A..+o.(n) .

(n) SEC.a) PROVISIONAL REMEDIES RULE 57 PRELIMINARY ATTAC MENT SECT!O+ .SEC.6.00 re'ar&in' appeals in cri#inal cases (here the penalt% i#pose& is &eath" reclusion perpetua or life i#prison#ent" an appeal ta/en to the Supre#e Court $% notice of appeal shall $e &is#isse&An appeal $% certiorari ta/en to the Supre#e Court fro# the Re'ional Trial Court su$#ittin' issues of fact #a% $e referre& to the Court of Appeals for &ecision or appropriate action.(.2 The appeal #a% $e &is#isse& motu proprio or on #otion of the respon&ent on the follo(in' 'roun&s* (a) Failure to ta/e the appeal (ithin the re'le#entar% perio&7 ($) Lac/ of #erit in the petition7 (c) Failure to pa% the re>uisite &oc/et fee an& other la(ful fees or to #a/e a &eposit for costs7 (&) Failure to co#pl% (ith the re>uire#ents re'ar&in' proof of service an& contents of an& the &ocu#ents (hich shoul& acco#pan% the petition7 (e) Failure to co#pl% (ith an% circular" &irective or or&er of the Supre#e Court (ithout 3ustifia$le cause7 (f) Error in the choice or #o&e of appeal7 an& (') The fact that the case is not appeala$le to the Supre#e Court.$rocedure if opinion is e6ually divided.28here the court en banc is e>uall% &ivi&e& in opinion" or the necessar% #a3orit% cannot $e ha&" the case shall a'ain $e &eli$erate& on" an& if after such &eli$eration no &ecision is reache&" the ori'inal action co##ence& in the court shall $e &is#isse&7 in appeale& cases" the 3u&'#ent or or&er appeale& fro# shall stan& affir#e&7 an& on all inci&ental #atters" the petition or #otion shall $e &enie&.(n) SEC.+isposition of improper appeal-.-rounds upon which attachment may issue. of Rule 5.4.5.$rocedure.(n) SEC." 50 an& this Rule..2 At the co##ence#ent of the action or at an% ti#e $efore entr% of 3u&'#ent" a plaintiff or an% proper part% #a% .?.-rounds for dismissal of appeal.2The appeal shall $e 'overne& $% an& &ispose& of in accor&ance (ith the applica$le provisions of the Constitution" la(s" Rules 45" 4@" sections .The &eter#ination of the Supre#e Court on (hether or not issues of fact are involve& shall $e final..E1cept as provi&e& in section 2" Rule .." 0" an& 5 to .

(. parte or upon #otion (ith notice an& hearin' $% the court in (hich the action is pen&in'" or $% the Court of Appeals or the Supre#e Court" an& #ust re>uire the sheriff of the court to attach so #uch of the propert% in the Philippines of the part% a'ainst (ho# it is issue&" not e1e#pt fro# e1ecution" as #a% $e sufficient to satisf% the applicantGs &e#an&" unless such part% #a/es &eposit or 'ives a $on& as hereinafter provi&e& in an a#ount e>ual to that fi1e& in the or&er" (hich #a% $e the a#ount sufficient to satisf% the applicantGs &e#an& or the value of the propert% to $e attache& as state& $% the applicant" e1clusive of costs.Several (rits #a% $e issue& at the sa#e ti#e to the sheriffs of the courts of &ifferent 3u&icial re'ions.have the propert% of the a&verse part% attache& as securit% for the satisfaction of an% 3u&'#ent that #a% $e recovere& in the follo(in' cases* (a) !n an action for the recover% of a specifie& a#ount of #one% or &a#a'es" other than #oral an& e1e#plar%" on a cause of action arisin' fro# la(" contract" >uasi<contract" &elict or >uasi<&elict a'ainst a part% (ho is a$out to &epart fro# the Philippines (ith intent to &efrau& his cre&itors7 ($) !n an action for #one% or propert% e#$e55le& or frau&ulentl% #isapplie& or converte& to his o(n use $% a pu$lic officer" or an officer of a corporation" or an attorne%" factor" $ro/er" a'ent" or cler/" in the course of his e#plo%#ent as such" or $% an% other person in a fi&uciar% capacit%" or for a (illful violation of &ut%7 (c) !n an action to recover the possession of propert% un3ustl% or frau&ulentl% ta/en" &etaine& or converte&" (hen the propert%" or an% part thereof" has $een conceale&" re#ove&" or &ispose& of to prevent its $ein' foun& or ta/en $% the applicant or an authori5e& person7 (&) !n an action a'ainst a part% (ho has $een 'uilt% of a frau& in contractin' the &e$t or incurrin' the o$li'ation upon (hich the action is $rou'ht" or in the perfor#ance thereof7 (e) !n an action a'ainst a part% (ho has re#ove& or &ispose& of his propert%" or is a$out to &o so" (ith intent to &efrau& his cre&itors7 or (f) !n an action a'ainst a part% (ho &oes not resi&e an& is not foun& in the Philippines" or on (ho# su##ons #a% $e serve& $% pu$lication.(2a) SEC. hereof that there is no other sufficient securit% for the clai# sou'ht to $e enforce& $% the action" an& that the a#ount &ue to the applicant" or the value of the propert% the possession of (hich he is entitle& to recover" is as #uch as the su# for (hich the or&er is 'rante& a$ove all le'al counterclai#s.(0a) SEC.4.(ffidavit and bond re6uired. Condition of applicant?s bond2 The part% appl%in' for the or&er #ust thereafter 'ive a $on& e1ecute& to the a&verse part% in the a#ount fi1e& $% the court in .a) SEC.Issuance and contents of order.0.2An or&er of attach#ent shall $e 'rante& onl% (hen it appears $% the affi&avit of the applicant" or of so#e other person (ho personall% /no(s the facts" that a sufficient cause of action e1ists" that the case is one of those #entione& in section .The affi&avit" an& the $on& re>uire& $% the ne1t succee&in' section" #ust $e &ul% file& (ith the court $efore the or&er issues.2.2 An or&er of attach#ent #a% $e issue& either e.

?.+o lev% on attach#ent pursuant to the (rit issue& un&er section 0 hereof shall $e enforce& unless it is prece&e&" or conte#poraneousl% acco#panie&" $% service of su##ons" to'ether (ith a cop% of the co#plaint" the application for attach#ent" the applicantGs affi&avit an& $on&" an& the or&er an& (rit of attach#ent" on the &efen&ant (ithin the PhilippinesThe re>uire#ent of prior or conte#poraneous service of su##ons shall not appl% (here the su##ons coul& not $e serve& personall% or $% su$stitute& service &espite &ili'ent efforts" or the &efen&ant is a resi&ent of the Philippines te#poraril% a$sent therefro#" or the &efen&ant is a non<resi&ent of the Philippines" or the action is one in rem or 6uasi in rem.!anner of attaching property.5. recording thereof.(4a) SEC.(ttachment of real and personal property.8here the propert% has $een $rou'ht un&er the operation of either the Lan& Re'istration Act or the Propert% Re'istration Fecree" the notice shall contain a reference to the nu#$er of the certificate of title" the volu#e an& pa'e in the re'istration $oo/ (here the certificate is re'istere&" an& the re'istere& o(ner or o(ners thereof- . (5a) SEC.its or&er 'rantin' the issuance of the (rit" con&itione& that the latter (ill pa% all the costs (hich #a% $e a&3u&'e& to the a&verse part% an& all &a#a'es (hich he #a% sustain $% reason of the attach#ent" if the court shall finall% a&3u&'e that the applicant (as not entitle& thereto.Sheriff?s return.6.(6a) SEC.Real an& personal propert% shall $e attache& $% the sheriff e1ecutin' the (rit in the follo(in' #anner* (a) Real propert%" or 'ro(in' crops thereon" or an% interest therein" stan&in' upon the recor& of the re'istr% of &ee&s of the province in the na#e of the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent is issue&" or not appearin' at all upon such recor&s" or $elon'in' to the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent is issue& an& hel& $% an% other person" or stan&in' on the recor&s of the re'istr% of &ee&s in the na#e of an% other person" $% filin' (ith the re'istr% of &ee&s a cop% of the or&er" to'ether (ith a &escription of the propert% attache&" an& a notice that it is attache&" or that such real propert% an& an% interest therein hel& $% or stan&in' in the na#e of such other person are attache&" an& $% leavin' a cop% of such or&er" &escription" an& notice (ith the occupant of the propert%" if an%" or (ith such other person or his a'ent if foun& (ithin the province.2 The sheriff enforcin' the (rit shall (ithout &ela% an& (ith all reasona$le &ili'ence attach" to a(ait 3u&'#ent an& e1ecution in the action" onl% so #uch of the propert% in the Philippines of the part% a'ainst (ho# the (rit is issue&" not e1e#pt fro# e1ecution" as #a% $e sufficient to satisf% the applicantGs &e#an&" unless the for#er #a/es a &eposit (ith the court fro# (hich the (rit is issue&" or 'ives a counter<$on& e1ecute& to the applicant" in an a#ount e>ual to the $on& fi1e& $% the court in the or&er of attach#ent or to the value of the propert% to $e attache&" e1clusive of costs.After enforcin' the (rit" the sheriff #ust li/e(ise (ithout &ela% #a/e a return thereon to the court fro# (hich the (rit issue&" (ith a full state#ent of his procee&in's un&er the (rit an& a co#plete inventor% of the propert% attache&" to'ether (ith an% counter<$on& 'iven $% the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent is issue&" an& serve copies thereof on the applicant.

The re'istrar of &ee&s #ust in&e1 attach#ents file& un&er this section in the na#es of the applicant" the a&verse part%" or the person $% (ho# the propert% is hel& or in (hose na#e it stan&s in the recor&s.(@a) SEC.2All persons havin' in their possession or un&er their control an% cre&its or other si#ilar personal propert% $elon'in' to the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent is issue&" or o(in' an% &e$ts to hi#" at the ti#e of service upon the# of the cop% of the (rit of attach#ent an& notice as provi&e& in the last prece&in' section" shall $e lia$le to the applicant for the a#ount of such cre&its" &e$ts or other si#ilar personal propert%" until the attach#ent is &ischar'e&" or an% 3u&'#ent recovere& $% hi# is satisfie&" unless such propert% is &elivere& or transferre&" or such &e$ts are pai&" to the cler/" sheriff" or other proper officer of the court issuin' the attach#ent.A.(?a) SEC.*ffect of attachment of interest in property belonging to the estate of a &ece&ent. credits and all other similar personal property.!f the attach#ent is not clai#e& on the entire area of the lan& covere& $% the certificate of title" a &escription sufficientl% accurate for the i&entification of the lan& or interest to $e affecte& shall $e inclu&e& in the re'istration of such attach#ent7 ($) Personal propert% capa$le of #anual &eliver%" $% ta/in' an& safel% /eepin' it in his custo&%" after issuin' the correspon&in' receipt therefor7 (c)Stoc/s or shares" or an interest in stoc/s or shares" of an% corporation or co#pan%" $% leavin' (ith the presi&ent or #ana'in' a'ent thereof" a cop% of the (rit" an& a notice statin' that the stoc/ or interest of the part% a'ainst (ho# the attach#ent is issue& is attache& in pursuance of such (rit7 (&) Fe$ts an& cre&its" inclu&in' $an/ &eposits" financial interest" ro%alties" co##issions an& other personal propert% not capa$le of #anual &eliver%" $% leavin' (ith the person o(in' such &e$ts" or havin' in his possession or un&er his control" such cre&its or other personal propert%" or (ith his a'ent" a cop% of the (rit" an& notice that the &e$ts o(in' $% hi# to the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent is issue&" an& the cre&its an& other personal propert% in his possession" or un&er his control" $elon'in' to sai& part%" are attache& in pursuance of such (rit7 (e) The interest of the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent is issue& in propert% $elon'in' to the estate of the &ece&ent" (hether as heir" le'atee" or &evisee" $% servin' the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator or other personal representative of the &ece&ent (ith a cop% of the (rit an& notice that sai& interest is attache&.The attach#ent of the interest of an heir" le'atee" or &evisee in the propert% $elon'in' to the estate of a &ece&ent shall not i#pair the po(ers of the e1ecutor" a&#inistrator" or other personal representative of the &ece&ent over such propert% for the purpose of a&#inistration.A cop% of sai& (rit of attach#ent an& of sai& notice shall also $e file& in the office of the cler/ of the court in (hich sai& estate is $ein' settle& an& serve& upon the heir" le'atee or &evisee concerne&!f the propert% sou'ht to $e attache& is in custo&ia le'is" a cop% of the (rit of attach#ent shall $e file& (ith the proper court or >uasi<3u&icial a'enc%" an& notice of the attach#ent serve& upon the custo&ian of such propert%.*ffect of attachment of debts.Such personal representative" ho(ever" shall report the .@.

.B.Ba) SEC.(Aa) SEC.(..)ut if the attach#ent is sou'ht to $e &ischar'e& (ith respect to a particular propert%" the counter<$on& shall $e e>ual to the value of that propert% as &eter#ine& $% the court..*.+ischarge of attachment on other grounds.2 The part% (hose propert% has $een or&ere& attache& #a% file a #otion (ith the court in (hich the action is ..#hen attached property may be sold after levy on attachment and before entry of "udgment28henever it shall $e #a&e to appear to the court in (hich the action is pen&in'" upon hearin' (ith notice to $oth parties" that the propert% attache& is perisha$le" or that the interests of all the parties to the action (ill $e su$serve& $% the sale thereof" the court #a% or&er such propert% to $e sol& at pu$lic auction in such #anner as it #a% &irect" an& the procee&s of such sale to $e &eposite& in court to a$i&e the 3u&'#ent in the action.amination of party whose property is attached and persons indebted to him or controlling his property.A notice of the &eposit shall forth(ith $e serve& on the attachin' part%.The court shall" after &ue notice an& hearin'" or&er the &ischar'e of the attach#ent if the #ovant #a/es a cash &eposit" or files a counter<$on& e1ecute& to the attachin' part% (ith the cler/ of the court (here the application is #a&e" in an a#ount e>ual to that fi1e& $% the court in the or&er of attach#ent" e1clusive of costs.0.0a) SEC..!n either case" the cash &eposit or the counter<$on& shall secure the pa%#ent of an% 3u&'#ent that the attachin' part% #a% recover in the action.2.a) SEC..An% person o(in' &e$ts to the part% (hose propert% is attache& or havin' in his possession or un&er his control an% cre&it or other personal propert% $elon'in' to such part%" #a% $e re>uire& to atten& $efore the court in (hich the action is pen&in'" or $efore a co##issioner appointe& $% the court" an& $e e1a#ine& on oath respectin' the sa#e.(. delivery of property to sheriff -.The court #a%" after such e1a#ination" or&er personal propert% capa$le of #anual &eliver% $elon'in' to hi#" in the possession of the person so re>uire& to atten& $efore the court" to $e &elivere& to the cler/ of the court or sheriff on such ter#s as #a% $e 3ust" havin' reference to an% lien thereon or clai# a'ainst the sa#e" to a(ait the 3u&'#ent in the action.attach#ent to the court (hen an% petition for &istri$ution is file&" an& in the or&er #a&e upon such petition" &istri$ution #a% $e a(ar&e& to such heir" le'atee" or &evisee" $ut the propert% attache& shall $e or&ere& &elivere& to the sheriff #a/in' the lev%" su$3ect to the clai# of such heir" le'atee" or &evisee" or an% person clai#in' un&er hi#.2 After a (rit of attach#ent has $een enforce&" the part% (hose propert% has $een attache&" or the person appearin' on his $ehalf" #a% #ove for the &ischar'e of the attach#ent (holl% or in part on the securit% 'iven.(.+ischarge of attachment upon giving counter&bond.Shoul& such counter<$on& for an% reason $e foun& to $e or $eco#e insufficient" an& the part% furnishin' the sa#e fail to file an a&&itional counter<$on&" the attachin' part% #a% appl% for a ne( or&er of attach#ent..The part% (hose propert% is attache& #a% also $e re>uire& to atten& for the purpose of 'ivin' infor#ation respectin' his propert%" an& #a% $e e1a#ine& on oath.Upon the &ischar'e of an attach#ent in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this section" the propert% attache&" or the procee&s of an% sale thereof" shall $e &elivere& to the part% #a/in' the &eposit or 'ivin' the counter<$on&" or to the person appearin' on his $ehalf" the &eposit or counter<$on& aforesai& stan&in' in place of the propert% so release&.

!f the attach#ent is e1cessive" the &ischar'e shall $e li#ite& to the e1cess.2a) SEC.4. return of sheriff ..4a) SEC.!n case of &isa'ree#ent as to such value" the sa#e shall $e &eci&e& $% the court issuin' the (rit of attach#ent.!f 3u&'#ent $e recovere& $% the attachin' part% an& e1ecution issue thereon" the sheriff #a% cause the 3u&'#ent to $e satisfie& out of the propert% attache&" if it $e sufficient for that purpose in the follo(in' #anner* (a) )% pa%in' to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee the procee&s of all sales of perisha$le or other propert% sol& in pursuance of the or&er of the court" or so #uch as shall $e necessar% to satisf% the 3u&'#ent7 ($) !f an% $alance re#ains &ue" $% sellin' so #uch of the propert%" real or personal" as #a% $e necessar% to satisf% the $alance" if enou'h for that purpose ..5.!f the #otion $e #a&e on affi&avits on the part of the #ovant $ut not other(ise" the attachin' part% #a% oppose the #otion $% counter<affi&avits or other evi&ence in a&&ition to that on (hich the attach#ent (as #a&e.pen&in'" $efore or after lev% or even after the release of the attache& propert%" for an or&er to set asi&e or &ischar'e the attach#ent on the 'roun& that the sa#e (as i#properl% or irre'ularl% issue& or enforce&" or that the $on& is insufficient.2 !f the propert% attache& is clai#e& $% an% person other than the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent ha& $een issue& or his a'ent" an& such person #a/es an affi&avit of his title thereto" or ri'ht to the possession thereof" statin' the 'roun&s of such ri'ht or title" an& serves such affi&avit upon the sheriff (hile the latter has possession of the attache& propert%" an& a cop% thereof upon the attachin' part%" the sheriff shall not $e $oun& to /eep the propert% un&er attach#ent" unless the attachin' part% or his a'ent" on &e#an& of the sheriff" shall file a $on& approve& $% the court to in&e#nif% the thir&<part% clai#ant in a su# not less than the value of the propert% levie& upon.+o clai# for &a#a'es for the ta/in' or /eepin' of the propert% #a% $e enforce& a'ainst the $on& unless the action therefor is file& (ithin one hun&re& t(ent% (.After &ue notice an& hearin'" the court shall or&er the settin' asi&e or the correspon&in' &ischar'e of the attach#ent if it appears that it (as i#properl% or irre'ularl% issue& or enforce&" or that the $on& is insufficient" or that the attach#ent is e1cessive" an& the &efect is not cure& forth(ith.+othin' herein containe& shall prevent such clai#ant or an% thir& person fro# vin&icatin' his clai# to the propert%" or prevent the attachin' part% fro# clai#in' &a#a'es a'ainst a thir&<part% clai#ant (ho file& a frivolous or plainl% spurious clai#" in the sa#e or a separate action8hen the (rit of attach#ent is issue& in favor of the Repu$lic of the Philippines" or an% officer &ul% representin' it" the filin' of such $on& shall not $e re>uire&" an& in case the sheriff is sue& for &a#a'es as a result of the attach#ent" he shall $e represente& $% the Solicitor Ceneral" an& if hel& lia$le therefor" the actual &a#a'es a&3u&'e& $% the court shall $e pai& $% the +ational Treasurer out of the fun&s to $e appropriate& for the purpose.Satisfaction of "udgment out of property attached.(.0B) &a%s fro# the &ate of the filin' of the $on&The sheriff shall not $e lia$le for &a#a'es for the ta/in' or /eepin' of such propert%" to an% such thir&<part% clai#ant" if such $on& shall $e file&.$roceedings (here property claimed by third person.(.

.(.Aa) SEC.2!f after reali5in' upon all the propert% attache&" inclu&in' the procee&s of an% &e$ts or cre&its collecte&" an& appl%in' the procee&s to the satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent" less the e1penses of procee&in's upon the 3u&'#ent" an% $alance shall re#ain &ue" the sheriff #ust procee& to collect such $alance as upon or&inar% e1ecution.(. e.8henever the 3u&'#ent shall have $een pai&" the sheriff" upon reasona$le &e#an&" #ust return to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or the attache& propert% re#ainin' in his han&s" an& an% procee&s of the sale of the propert% attache& not applie& to the 3u&'#ent.6a) SEC.+isposition of attached property where "udgment is for party against whom attachment was issued.?.(.ecution.(.@a) SEC.5a) SEC...!f the 3u&'#ent is in favor of the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent (as issue&" the (hole su# &eposite& #ust $e refun&e& to hi# or his assi'nee.?a) SEC.+isposition of money deposited.A.re#ain in the sheriffGs han&s" or in those of the cler/ of the court7 (c) )% collectin' fro# all persons havin' in their possession cre&its $elon'in' to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" or o(in' &e$ts to the latter at the ti#e of the attach#ent of such cre&its or &e$ts" the a#ount of such cre&its an& &e$ts as &eter#ine& $% the court in the action" an& state& in the 3u&'#ent" an& pa%in' the procee&s of such collection over to the 3u&'#ent o$li'eeThe sheriff shall forth(ith #a/e a return in (ritin' to the court of his procee&in's un&er this section an& furnish the parties (ith copies thereof.6.2!f 3u&'#ent $e ren&ere& a'ainst the attachin' part%" all the procee&s of sales an& #one% collecte& or receive& $% the sheriff" un&er the or&er of attach#ent" an& all propert% attache& re#ainin' in an% such officerGs han&s" shall $e &elivere& to the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent (as issue&" an& the or&er of attach#ent &ischar'e&.1alance due collected upon an e.2 8hen the 3u&'#ent has $eco#e e1ecutor%" the suret% or sureties on an% counter<$on& 'iven pursuant to the provisions of this Rule to secure the pa%#ent of the 3u&'#ent shall $eco#e char'e& on such counter<$on& an& $oun& to pa% the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee upon &e#an& the a#ount &ue un&er the 3u&'#ent" (hich a#ount #a% $e recovere& fro# such suret% or sureties after notice an& su##ar% hearin' in the sa#e action. irregular or e.2 8here the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent ha& $een issue& has &eposite& #one% instea& of 'ivin' counter<$on&" it shall $e applie& un&er the &irection of the court to the satisfaction of an% 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in favor of the attachin' part%" an& after satisf%in' the 3u&'#ent the $alance shall $e refun&e& to the &epositor or his assi'nee.@.Claim for damages on account of improper.cessive attachment.2An application for &a#a'es on account of i#proper" irre'ular or e1cessive attach#ent #ust $e file& $efore the trial or $efore appeal is perfecte& or $efore the 3u&'#ent $eco#es e1ecutor%" (ith &ue notice to the attachin' part% an& his suret% or sureties" settin' forth the facts sho(in' his ri'ht to &a#a'es an& the a#ount thereofSuch &a#a'es #a% $e a(ar&e& onl% after proper hearin' an& shall $e inclu&e& in the 3u&'#ent on the #ain case- .(..cess delivered to "udgment obligor.Recovery upon the counter&bond.0B.

(.!t #a% also re>uire the perfor#ance of a particular act or acts" in (hich case it shall $e /no(n as a preli#inar% #an&ator% in3unction.2 A preli#inar% in3unction #a% $e 'rante& $% the court (here the action or procee&in' is pen&in'.2 A preli#inar% in3unction is an or&er 'rante& at an% sta'e of an action or procee&in' prior to the 3u&'#ent or final or&er" re>uirin' a part% or a court" a'enc% or a person to refrain fro# a particular act or acts.!f the 3u&'#ent of the appellate court $e favora$le to the part% a'ainst (ho# the attach#ent (as issue&" he #ust clai# &a#a'es sustaine& &urin' the pen&enc% of the appeal $% filin' an application in the appellate court" (ith notice to the part% in (hose favor the attach#ent (as issue& or his suret% or sureties" $efore the 3u&'#ent of the appellate court $eco#es e1ecutor%.2 A preli#inar% in3unction #a% $e 'rante& (hen it is esta$lishe&(a) That the applicant is entitle& to the relief &e#an&e&" an& the (hole or part of such relief consists in restrainin' the co##ission or continuance of the act or acts co#plaine& of" or in re>uirin' the perfor#ance of an act or acts" either for a li#ite& perio& or perpetuall%7 ($) That the co##ission" continuance or non<perfor#ance of the act or acts co#plaine& of &urin' the liti'ation (oul& pro$a$l% (or/ in3ustice to the applicant7 or (c) That a part%" court" a'enc% or a person is &oin'" threatenin'" or is atte#ptin' to &o" or is procurin' or sufferin' to $e &one" so#e act or acts pro$a$l% in violation of the ri'hts of the applicant respectin' the su$3ect of the action or procee&in'" an& ten&in' to ren&er the 3u&'#ent ineffectual.$reliminary in"unction defined.2A preli#inar% in3unction or te#porar% restrainin' or&er #a% $e 'rante& onl% (hen7 .#ho may grant preliminary in"unction.0.The appellate court #a% allo( the application to $e hear& an& &eci&e& $% the trial court+othin' herein containe& shall prevent the part% a'ainst (ho# the attach#ent (as issue& fro# recoverin' in the sa#e action the &a#a'es a(ar&e& to hi# fro# an% propert% of the attachin' part% not e1e#pt fro# e1ecution shoul& the $on& or &eposit 'iven $% the latter $e insufficient or fail to full% satisf% the a(ar&.(2a) SEC.!f the action or procee&in' is pen&in' in the Court of Appeals or in the Supre#e Court" it #a% $e issue& $% sai& court or an% #e#$er thereof.4..-rounds for issuance of preliminary in"unction.2..a) SEC.erified application and bond for preliminary in"unction or temporary restraining order.(0a) SEC.(0Ba) RULE 58 PRELIMINARY IN$UNCTION SECT!O+ . classes.

Upon approval of the re>uisite $on&" a (rit of preli#inar% in3unction shall $e issue&.8ithin the sai& t(ent%<&a% perio&" the court #ust or&er sai& part% or person to sho( cause" at a specifie& ti#e an& place" (h% the in3unction shoul& not $e 'rante&" &eter#ine (ithin the sa#e perio& (hether or not the preli#inar% in3unction shall $e 'rante&" an& accor&in'l% issue the correspon&in' or&er=o(ever" an& su$3ect to the provisions of the prece&in' sections" if the #atter is of e1tre#e ur'enc% an& the applicant (ill suffer 'rave in3ustice an& irrepara$le in3ur%" the e1ecutive 3u&'e of a #ultiple<sala court or the presi&in' 3u&'e of a sin'le<sala court #a% issue e1 parte a te#porar% restrainin' or&er effective for onl% sevent%<t(o (?0) hours fro# issuance $ut he shall i##e&iatel% co#pl% (ith the provisions of the ne1t prece&in' section as to service of su##ons an& the &ocu#ents to $e serve& there(ithThereafter" (ithin the aforesai& sevent%<t(o (?0) hours" the 3u&'e $efore (ho# the .5. e.2 +o preli#inar% in3unction shall $e 'rante& (ithout hearin' an& prior notice to the part% or person sou'ht to $e en3oine&. parte a te#porar% restrainin' or&er to $e effective onl% for a perio& of t(ent% (0B) &a%s fro# service on the part% or person sou'ht to $e en3oine&" e1cept as herein provi&e&.(a) The application in the action or procee&in' is verifie&" an& sho(s facts entitlin' the applicant to the relief &e#an&e&7 an& ($) Unless e1e#pte& $% the court" the applicant files (ith the court (here the action or procee&in' is pen&in'" a $on& e1ecute& to the part% or person en3oine&" in an a#ount to $e fi1e& $% the court" to the effect that the applicant (ill pa% to such part% or person all &a#a'es (hich he #a% sustain $% reason of the in3unction or te#porar% restrainin' or&er if the court shoul& finall% &eci&e that the applicant (as not entitle& thereto.(4a) (c) 8hen an application for a (rit of preli#inar% in3unction or a te#porar% restrainin' or&er is inclu&e& in a co#plaint or an% initiator% plea&in'" the case" if file& in a #ultiple<sala court" shall $e raffle& onl% after notice to an& in the presence of the a&verse part% or the person to $e en3oine&.!n an% event" such notice shall $e prece&e&" or conte#poraneousl% acco#panie& $% service of su##ons" to'ether (ith a cop% of the co#plaint or initiator% plea&in' an& the applicantGs affi&avit an& $on&" upon the a&verse part% in the Philippines=o(ever" (here the su##ons coul& not $e serve& personall% or $% su$stitute& service &espite &ili'ent efforts" or the a&verse part% is a resi&ent of the Philippines te#poraril% a$sent therefro# or is a nonresi&ent thereof" the re>uire#ent of prior or conte#poraneous service of su##ons shall not appl%(&) The application for a te#porar% restrainin' or&er shall thereafter $e acte& upon onl% after all parties are hear& in a su##ar% hearin' (hich shall $e con&ucte& (ithin t(ent%<four (04) hours after the sheriffGs return of service an&Jor the recor&s are receive& $% the $ranch selecte& $% raffle an& to (hich the recor&s shall $e trans#itte& i##e&iatel%SEC.!f it shall appear fro# facts sho(n $% affi&avits or $% the verifie& application that 'reat or irrepara$le in3ur% (oul& result to the applicant $efore the #atter can $e hear& on notice" the court to (hich the application for preli#inar% in3unction (as #a&e" #a% issue e.ception.$reliminary in"unction not granted without notice.

udgment to include damages against party and sureties.!f the applicantGs $on& is foun& to $e insufficient in a#ount" or if the suret% or sureties thereon fail to 3ustif%" an& a $on& sufficient in a#ount (ith sufficient sureties approve& after 3ustification is not file& forth(ith" the in3unction shall $e &issolve&.2 The part% filin' a $on& in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this Rule shall forth(ith serve a cop% of such $on& on the other part%" (ho #a% e1cept to the sufficienc% of the $on&" or of the suret% or sureties thereon.(6a) SEC. or for motion of dissolution of.!n no case shall the total perio& of effectivit% of the te#porar% restrainin' or&er e1cee& t(ent% (0B) &a%s" inclu&in' the ori'inal sevent%<t(o hours provi&e& herein!n the event that the application for preli#inar% in3unction is &enie& or not resolve& (ithin the sai& perio&" the te#porar% restrainin' or&er is &ee#e& auto#aticall% vacate&The effectivit% of a te#porar% restrainin' or&er is not e1ten&i$le (ithout nee& of an% 3u&icial &eclaration to that effect an& no court shall have authorit% to e1ten& or rene( the sa#e on the sa#e 'roun& for (hich it (as issue&=o(ever" if issue& $% the Court of Appeals or a #e#$er thereof" the te#porar% restrainin' or&er shall $e effective for si1t% (6B) &a%s fro# service on the part% or person sou'ht to $e en3oine&.6.2 At the trial" the a#ount of &a#a'es to $e a(ar&e& to either part%" upon the $on& of the a&verse part%" shall $e clai#e&" ascertaine&" an& a(ar&e& un&er the sa#e proce&ure prescri$e& in section 0B of Rule 5?.#hen final in"unction granted.!t #a% further $e &enie&" or" if 'rante&" #a% $e &issolve&" if it appears after hearin' that althou'h the applicant is entitle& to the in3unction or restrainin' or&er" the issuance or continuance thereof" as the case #a% $e" (oul& cause irrepara$le &a#a'e to the part% or person en3oine& (hile the applicant can $e full% co#pensate& for such &a#a'es as he #a% suffer" an& the for#er files a $on& in an a#ount fi1e& $% the court con&itione& that he (ill pa% all &a#a'es (hich the applicant #a% suffer $% the &enial or the &issolution of the in3unction or restrainin' or&er.Service of copies of bonds. in"unction or restraining or&er.A restrainin' or&er issue& $% the Supre#e Court or a #e#$er thereof shall $e effective until further or&ers.!f it appears that the e1tent of the preli#inar% in3unction or restrainin' or&er 'rante& is too 'reat" it #a% $e #o&ifie&.A.The application for in3unction or restrainin' or&er #a% $e &enie&" upon a sho(in' of its insufficienc%.(5a) SEC.(Aa) SEC.-rounds for ob"ection to.case is pen&in' shall con&uct a su##ar% hearin' to &eter#ine (hether the te#porar% restrainin' or&er shall $e e1ten&e& until the application for preli#inar% in3unction can $e hear&.!f the $on& of the a&verse part% is foun& to $e insufficient in a#ount" or the suret% or sureties thereon fail to 3ustif% a $on& sufficient in a#ount (ith sufficient sureties approve& after 3ustification is not file& forth(ith" the in3unction shall $e 'rante& or restore&" as the case #a% $e. effect of disapproval of same.?.(@a) SEC.The in3unction or restrainin' or&er #a% also $e &enie&" or" if 'rante&" #a% $e &issolve&" on other 'roun&s upon affi&avits of the part% or person en3oine&" (hich #a% $e oppose& $% the applicant also $% affi&avits.@.2 !f after the trial of the action it appears that the applicant is entitle& to have the act or acts co#plaine& of per#anentl% en3oine&" the court shall 'rant a final in3unction perpetuall% restrainin' the part% or person en3oine& .

.Ba) RULE 59 RECEIVERS IP SECT!O+ .)efore issuin' the or&er appointin' a receiver the court shall re>uire the applicant to file a $on& e1ecute& to the part% a'ainst (ho# the application is presente&" in an a#ount to $e fi1e& $% the court" to the effect that the applicant (ill pa% such part% all &a#a'es he #a% sustain $% reason of the appoint#ent of such receiver in case the applicant shall have procure& such appoint#ent (ithout sufficient cause7 an& the court #a%" in its &iscretion" at an% ti#e after the appoint#ent" re>uire an a&&itional $on& as further securit% for such &a#a'es(2a) SEC.0.2.a) SEC.+enial of application or discharge of receiver.(ppointment of receiver-.(.Upon a verifie& application" one or #ore receivers of the propert% su$3ect of the action or procee&in' #a% $e appointe& $% the court (here the action is pen&in'" or $% the Court of Appeals or $% the Supre#e Court" or a #e#$er thereof" in the follo(in' cases* (a) 8hen it appears fro# the verifie& application" an& such other proof as the court #a% re>uire" that the part% appl%in' for the appoint#ent of a receiver has an interest in the propert% or fun& (hich is the su$3ect of the action or procee&in'" an& that such propert% or fun& is in &an'er of $ein' lost" re#ove&" or #ateriall% in3ure& unless a receiver $e appointe& to a&#inister an& preserve it7 ($) 8hen it appears in an action $% the #ort'a'ee for the foreclosure of a #ort'a'e that the propert% is in &an'er of $ein' (aste& or &issipate& or #ateriall% in3ure&" an& that its value is pro$a$l% insufficient to &ischar'e the #ort'a'e &e$t" or that the parties have so stipulate& in the contract of #ort'a'e7 (c) After 3u&'#ent" to preserve the propert% &urin' the pen&enc% of an appeal" or to &ispose of it accor&in' to the 3u&'#ent" or to ai& e1ecution (hen the e1ecution has $een returne& unsatisfie& or the 3u&'#ent o$li'or refuses to appl% his propert% in satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent" or other(ise to carr% the 3u&'#ent into effect7 (&) 8henever in other cases it appears that the appoint#ent of a receiver is the #ost convenient an& feasi$le #eans of preservin'" a&#inisterin'" or &isposin' of the propert% in liti'ationFurin' the pen&enc% of an appeal" the appellate court #a% allo( an application for the appoint#ent of a receiver to $e file& in an& &eci&e& $% the court of ori'in an& the receiver appointe& to $e su$3ect to the control of sai& court.fro# the co##ission or continuance of the act or acts or confir#in' the preli#inar% #an&ator% in3unction.(.1ond on appointment of receiver-.2 The application #a% $e .

(n) SEC.(5a) SEC.?.6.Service of copies of bonds.The person filin' a $on& in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this Rule shall forth(ith serve a cop% thereof on each intereste& part%" (ho #a% e1cept to its sufficienc% or of the suret% or sureties thereon.)efore enterin' upon his &uties" the receiver shall $e s(orn to perfor# the# faithfull%" an& shall file a $on&" e1ecute& to such person an& in such su# as the court #a% &irect" to the effect that he (ill faithfull% &ischar'e his &uties in the action or procee&in' an& o$e% the or&ers of the court.-eneral powers of receiver.(?a) +o action #a% $e file& $% or a'ainst a receiver (ithout leave of the court (hich appointe& hi#.&enie&" or the receiver &ischar'e&" (hen the a&verse part% files a $on& e1ecute& to the applicant" in an a#ount to $e fi1e& $% the court" to the effect that such part% (ill pa% the applicant all &a#a'es he #a% suffer $% reason of the acts" o#issions" or other #atters specifie& in the application as 'roun& for such appoint#ent.. effect of disapproval of same-.Termination of receivership.@. compensation of receiver.(6a) SEC.The receiver #a% also $e &ischar'e& if it is sho(n that his appoint#ent (as o$taine& (ithout sufficient cause(4a) SEC.!f the $on& of the a&verse part% is foun& to $e insufficient in a#ount or the suret% or sureties thereon fail to 3ustif%" an& a $on& sufficient in a#ount (ith sufficient sureties approve& after 3ustification is not file& forth(ith" the receiver shall $e appointe& or re< appointe&" as the case #a% $e.=o(ever.2 8henever the court" motu proprio or on #otion of either part%" shall &eter#ine that the necessit% for a .2 Su$3ect to the control of the court in (hich the action or procee&in' is pen&in'" a receiver shall have the po(er to $rin' an& &efen&" in such capacit%" actions in his o(n na#e7 to ta/e an& /eep possession of the propert% in controvers%7 to receive rents7 to collect &e$ts &ue to hi#self as receiver or to the fun&" propert%" estate" person" or corporation of (hich he is the receiver7 to co#poun& for an& co#pro#ise the sa#e7 to #a/e transfers7 to pa% outstan&in' &e$ts7 to &ivi&e the #one% an& other propert% that shall re#ain a#on' the persons le'all% entitle& to receive the sa#e7 an& 'enerall% to &o such acts respectin' the propert% as the court #a% authori5e.fun&s in the han&s of a receiver #a% $e investe& onl% $% or&er of the court upon the (ritten consent of all the parties to the action.(n) SEC.2 A person (ho refuses or ne'lects" upon reasona$le &e#an&" to &eliver to the receiver all the propert%" #one%" $oo/s" &ee&s" notes" $ills" &ocu#ents an& papers (ithin his po(er or control su$3ect of or involve& in the action or procee&in'" or in case of &isa'ree#ent" as &eter#ine& an& or&ere& $% the court" #a% $e punishe& for conte#pt an& shall $e lia$le to the receiver for the #one% or the value of the propert% an& other thin's so refuse& or ne'lecte& to $e surren&ere&" to'ether (ith all &a#a'es that #a% have $een sustaine& $% the part% or parties entitle& thereto as a conse>uence of such refusal or ne'lect. Oath and bond of receiver-.!f either the applicantGs or the receiverGs $on& is foun& to $e insufficient in a#ount" or if the suret% or sureties thereon fail to 3ustif%" an& a $on& sufficient in a#ount (ith sufficient sureties approve& after 3ustification is not file& forth(ith" the application shall $e &enie& or the receiver &ischar'e&" as the case #a% $e.7iability for refusal or neglect to deliver property to receiver.5..

(.2A part% pra%in' for the recover% of possession of personal propert% #a%" at the co##ence#ent of the action or at an% ti#e $efore ans(er" appl% for an or&er for the &eliver% of such propert% to hi#" in the #anner hereinafter provi&e&.0.(2a) .(0a) SEC.(Aa) RULE 60 REPLEVIN SECT!O+ ..(pplication.Upon the filin' of such affi&avit an& approval of the $on&" the court shall issue an or&er an& the correspon&in' (rit of replevin &escri$in' the personal propert% alle'e& to $e (ron'full% &etaine& an& re>uirin' the sheriff forth(ith to ta/e such propert% into his custo&%.receiver no lon'er e1ists" it shall" after &ue notice to all intereste& parties an& hearin'" settle the accounts of the receiver" &irect the &eliver% of the fun&s an& other propert% in his possession to the person a&3u&'e& to $e entitle& to receive the#" an& or&er the &ischar'e of the receiver fro# further &ut% as such.2.The court shall allo( the receiver such reasona$le co#pensation as the circu#stances of the case (arrant" to $e ta1e& as costs a'ainst the &efeate& part%" or apportione&" as 3ustice re>uires.A.a) SEC.(@a) SEC.Or&er-.2 The a#ount" if an%" to $e a(ar&e& to an% part% upon an% $on& file& in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this Rule" shall $e clai#e&" ascertaine&" an& 'rante& un&er the sa#e proce&ure prescri$e& in section 0B of Rule 5?.(ffidavit and bond2The applicant #ust sho( $% his o(n affi&avit or that of so#e other person (ho personall% /no(s the facts* (a) That the applicant is the o(ner of the propert% clai#e&" particularl% &escri$in' it" or is entitle& to the possession thereof7 ($) That the propert% is (ron'full% &etaine& $% the a&verse part%" alle'in' the cause of &etention thereof accor&in' to the $est of his /no(le&'e" infor#ation" an& $elief7 (c)That the propert% has not $een &istraine& or ta/en for a ta1 assess#ent or a fine pursuant to la(" or sei5e& un&er a (rit of e1ecution or preli#inar% attach#ent" or other(ise place& un&er custo&ia le'is" or if so sei5e&" that it is e1e#pt fro# such sei5ure or custo&%7 an& (&) The actual #ar/et value of the propert%The applicant #ust also 'ive a $on&" e1ecute& to the a&verse part% in &ou$le the value of the propert% as state& in the affi&avit afore#entione&" for the return of the propert% to the a&verse part% if such return $e a&3u&'e&" an& for the pa%#ent to the a&verse part% of such su# as he #a% recover fro# the applicant in the action.udgment to include recovery against sureties.

(5a) SEC.6.+isposition of property by sheriff.+othin' herein containe& shall prevent such clai#ant or an% thir& person fro# vin&icatin' his clai# to the propert%" or prevent the applicant fro# clai#in' &a#a'es a'ainst a thir&<part% .2!f the a&verse part% o$3ects to the sufficienc% of the applicantGs $on&" or of the suret% or sureties thereon" he cannot i##e&iatel% re>uire the return of the propert%" $ut if he &oes not so o$3ect" he #a%" at an% ti#e $efore the &eliver% of the propert% to the applicant" re>uire the return thereof" $% filin' (ith the court (here the action is pen&in' a $on& e1ecute& to the applicant" in &ou$le the value of the propert% as state& in the applicantGs affi&avit for the &eliver% thereof to the applicant" if such &eliver% $e a&3u&'e&" an& for the pa%#ent of such su# to hi# as #a% $e recovere& a'ainst the a&verse part%" an& $% servin' a cop% of such $on& on the applicant.SEC.5.& !f (ithin five (5) &a%s after the ta/in' of the propert% $% the sheriff" the a&verse part% &oes not o$3ect to the sufficienc% of the $on&" or of the suret% or sureties thereon7 or if the a&verse part% so o$3ects an& the court affir#s its approval of the applicantGs $on& or approves a ne( $on&" or if the a&verse part% re>uires the return of the propert% $ut his $on& is o$3ecte& to an& foun& insufficient an& he &oes not forth(ith file an approve& $on&" the propert% shall $e &elivere& to the applicant..!f the propert% or an% part thereof $e conceale& in a $uil&in' or enclosure" the sheriff #ust &e#an& its &eliver%" an& if it $e not &elivere&" he #ust cause the $uil&in' or enclosure to $e $ro/en open an& ta/e the propert% into his possession.2 !f the propert% ta/en is clai#e& $% an% person other than the part% a'ainst (ho# the (rit of replevin ha& $een issue& or his a'ent" an& such person #a/es an affi&avit of his title thereto" or ri'ht to the possession thereof" statin' the 'roun&s therefor" an& serves such affi&avit upon the sheriff (hile the latter has possession of the propert% an& a cop% thereof upon the applicant" the sheriff shall not $e $oun& to /eep the propert% un&er replevin or &eliver it to the applicant unless the applicant or his a'ent" on &e#an& of sai& sheriff" shall file a $on& approve& $% the court to in&e#nif% the thir&<part% clai#ant in a su# not less than the value of the propert% un&er replevin as provi&e& in section 0 hereof.?.!n case of &isa'ree#ent as to such value" the court shall &eter#ine the sa#e.(4a) SEC.0B) &a%s fro# the &ate of the filin' of the $on&The sheriff shall not $e lia$le for &a#a'es" for the ta/in' or /eepin' of such propert%" to an% such thir&<part% clai#ant if such $on& shall $e file&.$roceedings where property claimed by third person.2Upon receivin' such or&er" the sheriff #ust serve a cop% thereof on the a&verse part%" to'ether (ith a cop% of the application" affi&avit an& $on&" an& #ust forth(ith ta/e the propert%" if it $e in the possession of the a&verse part%" or his a'ent" an& retain it in his custo&%..Return of property.+o clai# for &a#a'es for the ta/in' or /eepin' of the propert% #a% $e enforce& a'ainst the $on& unless the action therefor is file& (ithin one hun&re& t(ent% (.(6a) SEC.After the sheriff has ta/en possession of the propert% as herein provi&e&" he #ust /eep it in a secure place an& shall $e responsi$le for its &eliver% to the part% entitle& thereto upon receivin' his fees an& necessar% e1penses for ta/in' an& /eepin' the sa#e.!f for an% reason the propert% is not &elivere& to the applicant" the sheriff #ust return it to the a&verse part%. +uty of the sheriff.

2The sheriff #ust file the or&er" (ith his procee&in's in&orse& thereon" (ith the court (ithin ten (.2A cop% of the application an& all supportin' &ocu#ents shall $e serve& upon the a&verse part%" (ho shall have five (5) &a%s to co##ent thereon unless a &ifferent perio& is fi1e& $% the court upon his #otion.The co##ent shall $e verifie& an& shall $e acco#panie& $% affi&avits" &epositions or other authentic &ocu#ents in support thereof.Ba) RULE 61 SUPPORT PENDENTE LITE SECT!O+ .2The court shall &eter#ine provisionall% the pertinent facts" an& shall ren&er such or&ers as 3ustice an& e>uit% #a% re>uire" havin' &ue re'ar& to the .(Aa) SEC..(?a) SEC.0.(4a) SEC.A.(@a) SEC.(0a" 2a) SEC.(.2.After trial of the issues" the court shall &eter#ine (ho has the ri'ht of possession to an& the value of the propert% an& shall ren&er 3u&'#ent in the alternative for the &eliver% thereof to the part% entitle& to the sa#e" or for its value in case &eliver% cannot $e #a&e" an& also for such &a#a'es as either part% #a% prove" (ith costs.Return of papers.4.Comment.(.B.3earing.udgment to include recovery against sureties.B) &a%s after ta/in' the propert% #entione& therein.Order.(pplication.2After the co##ent is file&" or after the e1piration of the perio& for its filin'" the application shall $e set for hearin' not #ore than three (2) &a%s thereafterThe facts in issue shall $e prove& in the sa#e #anner as is provi&e& for evi&ence on #otions.2At the co##ence#ent of the proper action or procee&in'" or at an% ti#e prior to the 3u&'#ent or final or&er" a verifie& application for support pendente lite #a% $e file& $% an% part% statin' the 'roun&s for the clai# an& the financial con&itions of $oth parties" an& acco#panie& $% affi&avits" &epositions or other authentic &ocu#ents in support thereof.udgment-.@.clai#ant (ho file& a frivolous or plainl% spurious clai#" in the sa#e or a separate action8hen the (rit of replevin is issue& in favor of the Repu$lic of the Philippines" or an% officer &ul% representin' it" the filin' of such $on& shall not $e re>uire&" an& in case the sheriff is sue& for &a#a'es as a result of the replevin" he shall $e represente& $% the Solicitor Ceneral" an& if hel& lia$le therefor" the actual &a#a'es a&3u&'e& $% the court shall $e pai& $% the +ational Treasurer out of the fun&s to $e appropriate& for the purpose.2 The a#ount" if an%" to $e a(ar&e& to an% part% upon an% $on& file& in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this Rule" shall $e clai#e&" ascertaine&" an& 'rante& un&er the sa#e proce&ure as prescri$e& in section 0B of Rule 5?.a) SEC..

6.!f the application is &enie&" the principal case shall $e trie& an& &eci&e& as earl% as possi$le.5.!f the application is 'rante&" the court shall fi1 the a#ount of #one% to $e provisionall% pai& or such other for#s of support as shoul& $e provi&e&" ta/in' into account the necessities of the applicant an& the resources or #eans of the a&verse part%" an& the ter#s of pa%#ent or #o&e for provi&in' the support..The application therefor #a% $e file& successivel% $% the offen&e& part%" her parents" 'ran&parents or 'uar&ian an& the State in the correspon&in' cri#inal case &urin' its pen&enc%" in accor&ance (ith the proce&ure esta$lishe& un&er this Rule.2!f the a&verse part% fails to co#pl% (ith an or&er 'rantin' support pendente lite.(n) SEC.(6a) 8hen the person or&ere& to 'ive support pendente lite refuses or fails to &o so" an% thir& person (ho furnishe& that support to the applicant #a%" after &ue notice an& hearin' in the sa#e case" o$tain a (rit of e1ecution to enforce his ri'ht of rei#$urse#ent a'ainst the person or&ere& to provi&e such support.pro$a$le outco#e of the case an& such other circu#stances as #a% ai& in the proper resolution of the >uestion involve&.!n cri#inal actions (here the civil lia$ilit% inclu&es support for the offsprin' as a conse>uence of the cri#e an& the civil aspect thereof has not $een (aive&" reserve& or institute& prior to its filin'" the accuse& #a% $e or&ere& to provi&e support pendente lite to the chil& $orn to the offen&e& part% alle'e&l% $ecause of the cri#e.(n) SEC.(n) SPECIAL CIVIL ACTIONS RULE 62 INTERPLEADER SECT!O+ .8hen the 3u&'#ent or final or&er of the court fin&s that the person (ho has $een provi&in' support pendente lite is not lia$le therefor" it shall or&er the recipient thereof to return to the for#er the a#ounts alrea&% pai& (ith le'al interest fro# the &ates of actual pa%#ent" (ithout pre3u&ice to the ri'ht of the recipient to o$tain rei#$urse#ent in a separate action fro# the person le'all% o$li'e& to 'ive the supportShoul& the recipient fail to rei#$urse sai& a#ounts" the person (ho provi&e& the sa#e #a% li/e(ise see/ rei#$urse#ent thereof in a separate action fro# the person le'all% o$li'e& to 'ive such support.a" R62) .*nforcement of order.?.28henever conflictin' clai#s upon the sa#e su$3ect #atter are or #a% $e #a&e a'ainst a person (ho clai#s no interest (hatever in the su$3ect #atter" or an interest (hich in (hole or in part is not &ispute& $% the clai#ants" he #a% $rin' an action a'ainst the conflictin' clai#ants to co#pel the# to interplea& an& liti'ate their several clai#s a#on' the#selves.Restitution-. the court shall" motu proprio or upon #otion" issue an or&er of e1ecution a'ainst hi#" (ithout pre3u&ice to his lia$ilit% for conte#pt.Support in criminal cases-.#hen interpleader proper.(5a) SEC.(.

(0a" R62) SEC.(nswer and other pleadings.+oc)et and other lawful fees.Su##ons shall $e serve& upon the conflictin' clai#ants" to'ether (ith a cop% of the co#plaint an& or&er.Order. !otion to dismiss.Summons.28ithin the ti#e for filin' an ans(er" each clai#ant #a% file a #otion to &is#iss on the 'roun& of i#propriet% of the interplea&er action or on other appropriate 'roun&s specifie& in Rule .The perio& to file the ans(er shall $e tolle& an& if the #otion is &enie&" the #ovant #a% file his ans(er (ithin the re#ainin' perio&" $ut (hich shall not $e less than five (5) &a%s in an% event" rec/one& fro# notice of &enial.SEC..0..!f the interests of 3ustice so re>uire" the court #a% &irect in such or&er that the su$3ect #atter $e pai& or &elivere& to the court.2After the plea&in's of the conflictin' clai#ants have $een file&" an& pre<trial has $een con&ucte& in accor&ance (ith the Rules" the court shall procee& to &eter#ine their respective ri'hts an& a&3u&icate their several clai#s-(5a" R62) SEC.2.2 The &oc/et an& other la(ful fees pai& $% the part% (ho file& a co#plaint un&er this Rule" as (ell as the costs an& liti'ation e1penses" shall constitute a lien or char'e upon the su$3ect #atter of the action" unless the court shall or&er other(ise..+etermination.(4a" R62) SEC. costs and litigation e.(2" R62) SEC.5.!f an% clai#ant fails to plea& (ithin the ti#e herein fi1e&" the court #a%" on #otion" &eclare hi# in &efault an& thereafter ren&er 3u&'#ent $arrin' hi# fro# an% clai# in respect to the su$3ect #atterThe parties in an interplea&er action #a% file counterclai#s" cross<clai#s" thir&< part% co#plaints an& responsive plea&in's thereto" as provi&e& $% these Rules.(n) SEC.#ho may file petition.6.2Upon the filin' of the co#plaint" the court shall issue an or&er re>uirin' the conflictin' clai#ants to interplea& (ith one another.2An% person intereste& un&er a &ee&" (ill" contract or other (ritten instru#ent" (hose ri'hts are affecte& $% a statute" e1ecutive or&er or re'ulation" or&inance" or an% other 'overn#ental re'ulation #a%" $efore $reach or violation thereof" $rin' an action in the appropriate Re'ional Trial Court to &eter#ine an% >uestion of construction or vali&it% arisin'" an& for a &eclaration of his ri'hts or &uties" thereun&er- .?.6.2Each clai#ant shall file his ans(er settin' forth his clai# (ithin fifteen (..5) &a%s fro# service of the su##ons upon hi#" servin' a cop% thereof upon each of the other conflictin' clai#ants (ho #a% file their repl% thereto as provi&e& $% these Rules.penses as liens.(6a" R62) RULE 63 DECLARATORY RELIEF AND SIMILAR REMEDIES SECT!O+ .

4.2!n an% action (hich involves the vali&it% of a statute" e1ecutive or&er or re'ulation" or an% other 'overn#ental re'ulation" the Solicitor Ceneral shall $e notifie& $% the part% assailin' the sa#e an& shall $e entitle& to $e hear& upon such >uestion. of this Rule" the court" motu proprio or upon #otion" #a% refuse to e1ercise the po(er to &eclare ri'hts an& to construe instru#ents in an% case (here a &ecision (oul& not ter#inate the uncertaint% or controvers% (hich 'ave rise to the action" or in an% case (here the &eclaration or construction is not necessar% an& proper un&er the circu#stances.2A 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution of the Co##ission on Elections an& the Co##ission on Au&it #a% $e $rou'ht $% the a''rieve& part% to the Supre#e Court on certiorari un&er Rule 65" e1cept as hereinafter provi&e&.!ode of review.(n) SEC.6.(0a" R64) SEC.(4a" R64) SEC.(.2The petition shall $e file& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution sou'ht to $e revie(e&.$arties-.(6a" R64) RULE 64 REVIEW OF $UDGMENTS AND FINAL ORDERS OR RESOLUTIONS OF T E COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS AND T E COMMISSION ON AUDIT SECT!O+ .5.(n) SEC.(2a" R64) SEC.0.%otice on Solicitor -eneral.2.a" R64) SEC.6B? of the Civil Co&e" #a% $e $rou'ht un&er this Rule.7ocal government ordinances2!n an% action involvin' the vali&it% of a local 'overn#ent or&inance" the correspon&in' prosecutor or attorne% of the local 'overn#ental unit involve& shall $e si#ilarl% notifie& an& entitle& to $e hear&.(5a" R64) SEC.2!f $efore the final ter#ination of the case" a $reach or violation of an instru#ent or a statute" e1ecutive or&er or re'ulation" or&inance" or an% other 'overn#ental re'ulation shoul& ta/e place" the action #a% thereupon $e converte& into an or&inar% action" an& the parties shall $e allo(e& to file such plea&in's as #a% $e necessar% or proper.An action for the refor#ation of an instru#ent" to >uiet title to real propert% or re#ove clou&s therefro#" or to consoli&ate o(nership un&er Article .All persons (ho have or clai# an% interest (hich (oul& $e affecte& $% the &eclaration shall $e #a&e parties7 an& no &eclaration shall" e1cept as other(ise provi&e& in these Rules" pre3u&ice the ri'hts of persons not parties to the action.Court action discretionary -.0.Conversion into ordinary action.E1cept in actions fallin' un&er the secon& para'raph of section .Time to file petition..2This Rule shall 'overn the revie( of 3u&'#ents an& final or&ers or resolutions of the Co##ission on Elections an& the Co##ission on Au&it.The filin' of a .Scope.2.!f such or&inance is alle'e& to $e unconstitutional" the Solicitor Ceneral shall also $e notifie& an& entitle& to $e hear&.

2 The petition shall $e verifie& an& file& in ei'hteen (.@) le'i$le copies.4.+oc)et and other lawful fees-. The petition shall state the facts (ith certaint%" present clearl% the issues involve&" set forth the 'roun&s an& $rief ar'u#ents relie& upon for revie(" an& pra% for 3u&'#ent annullin' or #o&if%in' the >uestione& 3u&'#ent" final or&er or resolution.The Court #a% also &is#iss the petition if it (as file& #anifestl% for &ela%" or the >uestions raise& are too unsu$stantial to (arrant further procee&in's.The re>uisite nu#$er of copies of the petition shall contain plain copies of all &ocu#ents attache& to the ori'inal cop% of sai& petitionThe petition shall state the specific #aterial &ates sho(in' that it (as file& (ithin the perio& fi1e& herein" an& shall contain a s(orn certification a'ainst foru# shoppin' as provi&e& in the thir& para'raph of section 2" Rule 46The petition shall further $e acco#panie& $% proof of service of a cop% thereof on the Co##ission concerne& an& on the a&verse part%" an& of the ti#el% pa%#ent of &oc/et an& other la(ful feesThe failure of petitioner to co#pl% (ith an% of the fore'oin' re>uire#ents shall $e sufficient 'roun& for the &is#issal of the petition.@) le'i$le copies.(n) SEC.(n) SEC.The ori'inal shall $e acco#panie& $% certifie& true copies of such #aterial portions of the recor& as are referre& to therein to'ether (ith other supportin' papers.!f the #otion is &enie&" the a''rieve& part% #a% file the petition (ithin the re#ainin' perio&" $ut (hich shall not $e less than five (5) &a%s in an% event" rec/one& fro# notice of &enial.6.The petition shall na#e the a''rieve& part% as petitioner an& shall 3oin as respon&ents the Co##ission concerne& an& the person or persons intereste& in sustainin' the 3u&'#ent" final or&er or resolution a 6uo.Comments of respondents-.Upon the filin' of the petition" the petitioner shall pa% to the cler/ of court the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees an& &eposit the a#ount of P5BB-BB for costs.(n) SEC.?.The re>uisite nu#$er of copies of the co##ents shall contain plain copies of all &ocu#ents attache& to the ori'inal an& a cop% thereof shall $e serve& on the petitioner+o other plea&in' #a% $e file& $% an% part% unless re>uire& or allo(e& $% the .2!f the Supre#e Court fin&s the petition sufficient in for# an& su$stance" it shall or&er the respon&ents to file their co##ents on the petition (ithin ten (.#otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration of sai& 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution" if allo(e& un&er the proce&ural rules of the Co##ission concerne&" shall interrupt the perio& herein fi1e&.The co##ents of the respon&ents shall $e file& in ei'hteen (.(n) SEC.5.Order to comment.4orm and contents of petition.Fin&in's of fact of the Co##ission supporte& $% su$stantial evi&ence shall $e final an& non<revie(a$leThe petition shall $e acco#panie& $% a clearl% le'i$le &uplicate ori'inal or certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent" final or&er or resolution su$3ect thereof" to'ether (ith certifie& true copies of such #aterial portions of the recor& as are referre& to therein an& other &ocu#ents relevant an& pertinent thereto.B) &a%s fro# notice thereof" other(ise" the Court #a% &is#iss the petition outri'ht.

28hen the procee&in's of an% tri$unal" corporation" $oar&" officer or person" (hether e1ercisin' 3u&icial" >uasi<3u&icial or #inisterial functions" are (ithout or in e1cess of its or his 3uris&iction" or (ith 'rave a$use of &iscretion a#ountin' to lac/ or e1cess of 3uris&iction" an& there is no appeal or an% other plain" spee&%" an& a&e>uate re#e&% in the or&inar% course of la(" a person a''rieve& there$% #a% file a verifie& petition in the proper court" alle'in' the facts (ith certaint% an& pra%in' that 3u&'#ent $e ren&ere& co##an&in' the respon&ent to &esist fro# further procee&in's in the action or #atter specifie& therein" or other(ise 'rantin' such inci&ental reliefs as la( an& 3ustice #a% re>uireThe petition shall li/e(ise $e acco#panie& $% a certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent" or&er or resolution su$3ect thereof" copies of all plea&in's an& &ocu#ents relevant an& pertinent thereto" an& a s(orn certification of non<foru# shoppin' as provi&e& in the thir& para'raph of section 2" Rule 46.2..(n) SEC.(n) RULE 65 CERTIORARI# PRO I!ITION AND MANDAMUS SECT!O+ .*ffect of filing.2 8hen an% tri$unal" corporation" $oar&" officer or . Submission for decision.A.2The filin' of a petition for certiorari shall not sta% the e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution sou'ht to $e revie(e&" unless the Supre#e Court shall &irect other(ise upon such ter#s as it #a% &ee# 3ust.0.$etition for mandamus.2Unless the Court sets the case for oral ar'u#ent" or re>uires the parties to su$#it #e#oran&a" the case shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for &ecision upon the filin' of the co##ents on the petition" or of such other plea&in's or papers as #a% $e re>uire& or allo(e&" or the e1piration of the perio& to &o so.$etition for certiorari-.8hen an% tri$unal" $oar& or officer e1ercisin' 3u&icial or >uasi<3u&icial functions has acte& (ithout or in e1cess of its or his 3uris&iction" or (ith 'rave a$use of &iscretion a#ountin' to lac/ or e1cess of 3uris&iction" an& there is no appeal" or an% plain" spee&%" an& a&e>uate re#e&% in the or&inar% course of la(" a person a''rieve& there$% #a% file a verifie& petition in the proper court" alle'in' the facts (ith certaint% an& pra%in' that 3u&'#ent $e ren&ere& annullin' or #o&if%in' the procee&in's of such tri$unal" $oar& or officer" an& 'rantin' such inci&ental reliefs as la( an& 3ustice #a% re>uireThe petition shall $e acco#panie& $% a certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent" or&er or resolution su$3ect thereof" copies of all plea&in's an& &ocu#ents relevant an& pertinent thereto" an& a s(orn certification of non<foru# shoppin' as provi&e& in the thir& para'raph of section 2" Rule 46.Court.(0a) SEC.(.@.a) SEC.(n) SEC.$etition for prohibition.

#hen and where petition filed.Respondents and costs in certain cases28hen the petition file& relates to the acts or o#issions of a 3u&'e" court" >uasi<3u&icial a'enc%" tri$unal" corporation" $oar&" officer or person" the petitioner shall 3oin" as private respon&ent or respon&ents (ith such pu$lic respon&ent or respon&ents" the person or persons intereste& in sustainin' the procee&in's in the court7 an& it shall $e the &ut% of such private respon&ents to appear an& &efen&" $oth in his or their o(n $ehalf an& in $ehalf of the pu$lic respon&ent or respon&ents affecte& $% the procee&in's" an& the costs a(ar&e& in such procee&in's in favor of the petitioner shall $e a'ainst the private respon&ents onl%" an& not a'ainst the 3u&'e" court" >uasi<3u&icial a'enc%" tri$unal" corporation" $oar&" officer or person i#plea&e& as pu$lic respon&ent or respon&entsUnless other(ise specificall% &irecte& $% the court (here the petition is pen&in'" the pu$lic respon&ents shall not appear in or file an ans(er or co##ent to the petition or an% plea&in' therein.& !f the petition is sufficient in for# an& su$stance to 3ustif% such process" the court shall issue an or&er re>uirin' the respon&ent or .5.!n case a #otion for reconsi&eration or ne( trial is ti#el% file&" (hether such #otion is re>uire& or not" the si1t% (6B) &a% perio& shall $e counte& fro# notice of the &enial of sai& #otionThe petition shall $e file& in the Supre#e Court or" if it relates to the acts or o#issions of a lo(er court or of a corporation" $oar&" officer or person" in the Re'ional Trial Court e1ercisin' 3uris&iction over the territorial area as &efine& $% the Supre#e Court.Order to comment.=o(ever" unless other(ise specificall% &irecte& $% the court" the% shall not appear or participate in the procee&in's therein.2The petition #a% $e file& not later than si1t% (6B) &a%s fro# notice of the 3u&'#ent" or&er or resolution.person unla(full% ne'lects the perfor#ance of an act (hich the la( specificall% en3oins as a &ut% resultin' fro# an office" trust" or station" or unla(full% e1clu&es another fro# the use an& en3o%#ent of a ri'ht or office to (hich such other is entitle&" an& there is no other plain" spee&% an& a&e>uate re#e&% in the or&inar% course of la(" the person a''rieve& there$% #a% file a verifie& petition in the proper court" alle'in' the facts (ith certaint% an& pra%in' that 3u&'#ent $e ren&ere& co##an&in' the respon&ent" i##e&iatel% or at so#e other ti#e to $e specifie& $% the court" to &o the act re>uire& to $e &one to protect the ri'hts of the petitioner" an& to pa% the &a#a'es sustaine& $% the petitioner $% reason of the (ron'ful acts of the respon&entThe petition shall also contain a s(orn certification of non<foru# shoppin' as provi&e& in the thir& para'raph of section 2" Rule 46.!t #a% also $e file& in the Court of Appeals (hether or not the sa#e is in ai& of its appellate 3uris&iction" or in the San&i'an$a%an if it is in ai& of its appellate 3uris&iction!f it involves the acts or o#issions of a >uasi<3u&icial a'enc%" an& unless other(ise provi&e& $% la( or these rules" the petition shall $e file& in an& co'ni5a$le onl% $% the Court of Appeals+o e1tension of ti#e to file the petition shall $e 'rante& e1cept for co#pellin' reason an& in no case e1cee&in' fifteen (.6.!f the case is elevate& to a hi'her court $% either part%" the pu$lic respon&ents shall $e inclu&e& therein as no#inal parties.(5a) SEC.4.5) &a%sSEC.(2a) SEC.

Thereafter" the court #a% re>uire the filin' of a repl% an& such other responsive or other plea&in's as it #a% &ee# necessar% an& proper.(ction by -overnment against individuals. in"unctive relief.The petition shall not interrupt the course of the principal case unless a te#porar% restrainin' or&er or a (rit of preli#inar% in3unction has $een issue& a'ainst the pu$lic respon&ent fro# further procee&in' in the case.$roceedings after comment is filed.(6a) SEC.(Aa) RULE 66 'UO WARRANTO SECT!O+ .An e1ecution #a% issue for an% &a#a'es or costs a(ar&e& in accor&ance (ith section .(@a) SEC. of Rule 2A.(?a) SEC.Such or&er shall $e serve& on the respon&ents in such #anner as the court #a% &irect" to'ether (ith a cop% of the petition an& an% anne1es thereto!n petitions for certiorari $efore the Supre#e Court an& the Court of Appeals" the provisions of section 0" Rule 56" shall $e o$serve&.respon&ents to co##ent on the petition (ithin ten (.2 After the co##ent or other plea&in's re>uire& $% the court are file&" or the ti#e for the filin' thereof has e1pire&" the court #a% hear the case or re>uire the parties to su$#it #e#oran&a.2A certifie& cop% of the 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in accor&ance (ith the last prece&in' section shall $e serve& upon the court" >uasi<3u&icial a'enc%" tri$unal" corporation" $oar&" officer or person concerne& in such #anner as the court #a% &irect" an& &iso$e&ience thereto shall $e punishe& as conte#pt.Service and enforcement of order or "udgment.2The court in (hich the petition is file& #a% issue or&ers e1pe&itin' the procee&in's" an& it #a% also 'rant a te#porar% restrainin' or&er or a (rit of preli#inar% in3unction for the preservation of the ri'hts of the parties pen&in' such procee&in's.pediting proceedings.@.)efore 'ivin' &ue course thereto" the court #a% re>uire the respon&ents to file their co##ent to" an& not a #otion to &is#iss" the petition.*.?.B) &a%s fro# receipt of a cop% thereof.A.!f after such hearin' or su$#ission of #e#oran&a or the e1piration of the perio& for the filin' thereof the court fin&s that the alle'ations of the petition are true" it shall ren&er 3u&'#ent for the relief pra%e& for or to (hich the petitioner is entitle&The court" ho(ever" #a% &is#iss the petition if it fin&s the sa#e to $e patentl% (ithout #erit" prosecute& #anifestl% for &ela%" or that the >uestions raise& therein are too unsu$stantial to re>uire consi&eration..2An action for the usurpation of a pu$lic office" position or franchise #a% $e co##ence& $% a verifie& petition $rou'ht in the na#e of the Repu$lic of the Philippines a'ainst* (a) A person (ho usurps" intru&es into" or unla(full% hol&s or e1ercises a pu$lic office" position or franchise7 ($) A pu$lic officer (ho &oes or suffers an act (hich" $% the provision of la(" .

(?a) SEC.6.(6) SEC.The Solicitor Ceneral or a pu$lic prosecutor" (hen &irecte& $% the Presi&ent of the Philippines" or (hen upon co#plaint or other(ise he has 'oo& reason to $elieve that an% case specifie& in the prece&in' section can $e esta$lishe& $% proof" #ust co##ence such action.(4a) SEC.(@a) SEC.#hen an individual may commence such an action -.2The Solicitor Ceneral or a pu$lic prosecutor #a%" (ith the per#ission of the court in (hich the action is to $e co##ence&" $rin' such an action at the re>uest an& upon the relation of another person7 $ut in such case the officer $rin'in' it #a% first re>uire an in&e#nit% for the e1penses an& costs of the action in an a#ount approve& $% an& to $e &eposite& in the court $% the person at (hose re>uest an& upon (hose relation the sa#e is $rou'ht.@.2The court #a% re&uce the perio& provi&e& $% these Rules for filin' plea&in's an& for all other procee&in's in the action in or&er to secure the #ost e1pe&itious &eter#ination of the #atters involve& therein consistent (ith the ri'hts of the parties.#hen hearing had on application for permission to commence action.2 Upon application for per#ission to co##ence such action in accor&ance (ith the ne1t prece&in' section" the court shall &irect that notice $e 'iven to the respon&ent so that he #a% $e hear& in opposition thereto7 an& if per#ission is 'rante&" the court shall issue an or&er to that effect" copies of (hich shall $e serve& on all intereste& parties" an& the petition shall then $e file& (ithin the perio& or&ere& $% the court.All persons (ho clai# to $e entitle& to the pu$lic office" position or franchise #a% $e #a&e parties" an& their respective ri'hts to such pu$lic office" position or franchise &eter#ine&" in the sa#e action.(5a) SEC.4.(2a) SEC.$arties and contents of petition against usurpation.?.#hen Solicitor -eneral or public prosecutor may commence action with permission of court.#hen Solicitor -eneral or public prosecutor must commence action -.a) SEC.constitutes a 'roun& for the forfeiture of his office7 or (c) An association (hich acts as a corporation (ithin the Philippines (ithout $ein' le'all% incorporate& or (ithout la(ful authorit% so to act.2.A person clai#in' to $e entitle& to a pu$lic office or position usurpe& or unla(full% hel& or e1ercise& $% another #a% $rin' an action therefor in his o(n na#e..2An action un&er the prece&in' si1 sections can $e $rou'ht onl% in the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals" or in the Re'ional Trial Court e1ercisin' 3uris&iction over the territorial area (here the respon&ent or an% of the respon&ents resi&es" $ut (hen the Solicitor Ceneral co##ences the action" it #a% $e $rou'ht in a Re'ional Trial Court in the Cit% of 9anila" in the Court of Appeals" or in the Supre#e Court.28hen the action is a'ainst a person for usurpin' a pu$lic office" position or franchise" the petition shall set forth the na#e of the person (ho clai#s to $e entitle& thereto" if an%" (ith an aver#ent of his ri'ht to the sa#e an& that the respon&ent is unla(full% in possession thereof. action given precedence .(.0.$eriod for pleadings and proceedings may be reduced.Such action #a% $e 'iven prece&ence over an% other civil #atter pen&in' .enue.5.

B.) %ear after the cause of such ouster" or the ri'ht of the petitioner to hol& such office or position" arose7 nor to authori5e an action for &a#a'es in accor&ance (ith the provisions of the ne1t prece&in' section unless the sa#e $e co##ence& (ithin one (.(.The person a&3u&'e& entitle& to the office #a% also $rin' action a'ainst the respon&ent to recover the &a#a'es sustaine& $% such person $% reason of the usurpation.Such further 3u&'#ent #a% $e ren&ere& &eter#inin' the respective ri'hts in an& to the pu$lic office" position or franchise of all the parties to the action as 3ustice re>uires.6a) SEC.7imitations.9.The complaint...8hen the respon&ent is foun& 'uilt% of usurpin'" intru&in' into" or unla(full% hol&in' or e1ercisin' a pu$lic office" position or franchise" 3u&'#ent shall $e ren&ere& that such respon&ent $e ouste& an& alto'ether e1clu&e& therefro#" an& that the petitioner or relator" as the case #a% $e" recover his costs..(. damages.in the court.2The ri'ht of e#inent &o#ain shall $e e1ercise& $% the filin' of a verifie& co#plaint (hich shall state (ith certaint% the ri'ht an& purpose of e1propriation" &escri$e the real or personal propert% sou'ht to $e e1propriate&" an& 3oin as &efen&ants all persons o(nin' or clai#in' to o(n" or occup%in'" an% part thereof or interest therein" sho(in'" so far as practica$le" the separate interest of each &efen&ant!f the title to an% propert% sou'ht to $e e1propriate& appears to $e in the Repu$lic of the ... udgment where usurpation found-.Rights of persons ad"udged entitled to public office.2!n an action $rou'ht in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this Rule" the court #a% ren&er 3u&'#ent for costs a'ainst either the petitioner" the relator" or the respon&ent" or the person or persons clai#in' to $e a corporation" or #a% apportion the costs" as 3ustice re>uires.(.5a) SEC.2+othin' containe& in this Rule shall $e construe& to authori5e an action a'ainst a pu$lic officer or e#plo%ee for his ouster fro# office unless the sa#e $e co##ence& (ithin one (.?a) RULE 67 E&PROPRIATION SECT!O+ . delivery of boo)s and papers..!f the respon&ent refuses or ne'lects to &eliver an% $oo/ or paper pursuant to such &e#an&" he #a% $e punishe& for conte#pt as havin' &iso$e%e& a la(ful or&er of the court.udgment for costs.) %ear after the entr% of the 3u&'#ent esta$lishin' the petitionerGs ri'ht to the office in >uestion.Ba) SEC.0.2!f 3u&'#ent $e ren&ere& in favor of the person averre& in the co#plaint to $e entitle& to the pu$lic office he #a%" after ta/in' the oath of office an& e1ecutin' an% official $on& re>uire& $% la(" ta/e upon hi#self the e1ecution of the office" an& #a% i##e&iatel% thereafter &e#an& of the respon&ent all the $oo/s an& papers in the respon&entGs custo&% or control appertainin' to the office to (hich the 3u&'#ent relates.(.(Aa) SEC.

(.=o(ever" at the trial of the issue of 3ust co#pensation" (hether or not a &efen&ant has previousl% appeare& or ans(ere&" he #a% present evi&ence as to the a#ount of the co#pensation to $e pai& for his propert%" an& he #a% share in the &istri$ution of the a(ar&SEC.2!f a &efen&ant has no o$3ection or &efense to the action or the ta/in' of his propert%" he #a% file an& serve a notice of appearance an& a #anifestation to that effect" specificall% &esi'natin' or i&entif%in' the propert% in (hich he clai#s to $e intereste&" (ithin the ti#e state& in the su##ons.Such &eposit shall $e in #one%" unless in lieu thereof the court authori5es the &eposit of a certificate of &eposit of a 'overn#ent $an/ of the Repu$lic of the Philippines pa%a$le on &e#an& to the authori5e& 'overn#ent &epositar%!f personal propert% is involve&" its value shall $e provisionall% ascertaine& an& the a#ount to $e &eposite& shall $e pro#ptl% fi1e& $% the courtAfter such &eposit is #a&e the court shall or&er the sheriff or other proper officer to forth(ith place the plaintiff in possession of the propert% involve& an& pro#ptl% su$#it a report thereof to the court (ith service of copies to the parties.The ans(er shall specificall% &esi'nate or i&entif% the propert% in (hich he clai#s to have an interest" state the nature an& e1tent of the interest clai#e&" an& a&&uce all his o$3ections an& &efenses to the ta/in' of his propert%.+o counterclai#" cross<clai# or thir&<part% co#plaint shall $e alle'e& or allo(e& in the ans(er or an% su$se>uent plea&in'A &efen&ant (aives all &efenses an& o$3ections not so alle'e& $ut the court" in the interest of 3ustice" #a% per#it a#en&#ents to the ans(er to $e #a&e not later than ten (.Order of e.4.Thereafter" he shall $e entitle& to notice of all procee&in's affectin' the sa#e!f a &efen&ant has an% o$3ection to the filin' of or the alle'ations in the co#plaint" or an% o$3ection or &efense to the ta/in' of his propert%" he shall serve his ans(er (ithin the ti#e state& in the su##ons.+efenses and ob"ections.(0a) SEC.*ntry of plaintiff upon depositing value with authori5ed government depository.2!f the o$3ections to an& the &efenses a'ainst the ri'ht of the plaintiff to e1propriate the propert% are overrule&" or (hen no part% appears to &efen& as re>uire& $% this Rule" the court #a% issue an or&er ofK e1propriation &eclarin' that the plaintiff has a la(ful ri'ht to ta/e the propert% sou'ht to $e e1propriate&" for the pu$lic use or purpose &escri$e& in the co#plaint" upon the pa%#ent of 3ust co#pensation to $e &eter#ine& as of the &ate of the ta/in' of the propert% or the filin' of the co#plaint" (hichever ca#e first- .Philippines" althou'h occupie& $% private in&ivi&uals" or if the title is other(ise o$scure or &ou$tful so that the plaintiff cannot (ith accurac% or certaint% specif% (ho are the real o(ners" aver#ent to that effect shall $e #a&e in the co#plaint.B) &a%s fro# the filin' thereof.2.a) SEC.propriation.0.2Upon the filin' of the co#plaint or at an% ti#e thereafter an& after &ue notice to the &efen&ant" the plaintiff shall have the ri'ht to ta/e or enter upon the possession of the real propert% involve& if he &eposits (ith the authori5e& 'overn#ent &epositar% an a#ount e>uivalent to the assesse& value of the propert% for purposes of ta1ation to $e hel& $% such $an/ su$3ect to the or&ers of the court.

(scertainment of compensation-.A final or&er sustainin' the ri'ht to e1propriate the propert% #a% $e appeale& $% an% part% a''rieve& there$%.(5a) SEC.2 The court #a% or&er the co##issioners to report (hen an% particular portion of the real estate shall have $een passe& upon $% the#" an& #a% ren&er 3u&'#ent upon such partial report" an& &irect the co##issioners to procee& (ith their (or/ as to su$se>uent portions of the propert% sou'ht to $e e1propriate&" an& #a% fro# ti#e to ti#e so &eal (ith such propert%.O$3ections to the appoint#ent of an% of the co##issioners shall $e file& (ith the court (ithin ten (.Evi&ence #a% $e intro&uce& $% either part% $efore the co##issioners (ho are authori5e& to a&#inister oaths on hearin's $efore the#" an& the co##issioners shall" unless the parties consent to the contrar%" after &ue notice to the parties to atten&" vie( an& e1a#ine the propert% sou'ht to $e e1propriate& an& its surroun&in's" an& #a% #easure the sa#e" after (hich either part% #a%" $% hi#self or counsel" ar'ue the case.Upon the filin' of such report" the cler/ of the court shall serve copies thereof on all intereste& .?.The or&er of appoint#ent shall &esi'nate the ti#e an& place of the first session of the hearin' to $e hel& $% the co##issioners an& specif% the ti#e (ithin (hich their report shall $e su$#itte& to the courtCopies of the or&er shall $e serve& on the parties.$roceedings by commissioners-.The co##issioners shall #a/e a full an& accurate report to the court of all their procee&in's" an& such procee&in's shall not $e effectual until the court shall have accepte& their report an& ren&ere& 3u&'#ent in accor&ance (ith their reco##en&ations.E1cept as other(ise e1pressl% or&ere& $% the court" such report shall $e file& (ithin si1t% (6B) &a%s fro# the &ate the co##issioners (ere notifie& of their appoint#ent" (hich ti#e #a% $e e1ten&e& in the &iscretion of the court.6.Report by commissioners and "udgment thereupon.5.Upon the ren&ition of the or&er of e1propriation" the court shall appoint not #ore than three (2) co#petent an& &isintereste& persons as co##issioners to ascertain an& report to the court the 3ust co#pensation for the propert% sou'ht to $e ta/en.)ut in no case shall the conse>uential $enefits assesse& e1cee& the conse>uential &a#a'es assesse&" or the o(ner $e &eprive& of the actual value of his propert% so ta/en-(6a) SEC.The co##issioners shall assess the conse>uential &a#a'es to the propert% not ta/en an& &e&uct fro# such conse>uential &a#a'es the conse>uential $enefits to $e &erive& $% the o(ner fro# the pu$lic use or purpose of the propert% ta/en" the operation of its franchise $% the corporation or the carr%in' on of the $usiness of the corporation or person ta/in' the propert%.B) &a%s fro# service" an& shall $e resolve& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after all the co##issioners shall have receive& copies of the o$3ections.)efore enterin' upon the perfor#ance of their &uties" the co##issioners shall ta/e an& su$scri$e an oath that the% (ill faithfull% perfor# their &uties as co##issioners" (hich oath shall $e file& in court (ith the other procee&in's in the case.Such appeal" ho(ever" shall not prevent the court fro# &eter#inin' the 3ust co#pensation to $e pai&After the ren&ition of such an or&er" the plaintiff shall not $e per#itte& to &is#iss or &iscontinue the procee&in' e1cept on such ter#s as the court &ee#s 3ust an& e>uita$le(4a) SEC.

0a) SEC.B) &a%s referre& to in the prece&in' section" or even $efore the e1piration of such perio& $ut after all the intereste& parties have file& their o$3ections to the report or their state#ent of a'ree#ent there(ith" the court #a%" after hearin'" accept the report an& ren&er 3u&'#ent in accor&ance there(ith7 or" for cause sho(n" it #a% reco##it the sa#e to the co##issioners for further report of facts7 or it #a% set asi&e the report an& appoint ne( co##issioners7 or it #a% accept the report in part an& re3ect it in part7 an& it #a% #a/e such or&er or ren&er such 3u&'#ent as shall secure to the plaintiff the propert% essential to the e1ercise of his ri'ht of e1propriation" an& to the &efen&ant 3ust co#pensation for the propert% so ta/en.(ction upon commissioners? report.2 The ri'ht of the plaintiff to enter upon the propert% of the &efen&ant an& appropriate the sa#e for pu$lic use or purpose shall not $e &ela%e& $% an appeal fro# the 3u&'#ent. conflicting claims..2The fees of the co##issioners shall $e ta1e& as a part of the costs of the procee&in's.@.B) &a%s (ithin (hich to file o$3ections to the fin&in's of the report" if the% so &esire.B..(@a) SEC.(Aa) SEC..All costs" e1cept those of rival clai#ants liti'atin' their clai#s" shall $e pai& $% the plaintiff" unless an appeal is ta/en $% the o(ner of the propert% an& the 3u&'#ent is affir#e&" in (hich event the costs of the appeal shall $e pai& $% the o(ner.)ut if the appellate court &eter#ines that plaintiff has no ri'ht of e1propriation" 3u&'#ent shall $e ren&ere& or&erin' the Re'ional Trial Court to forth(ith enforce the restoration to the &efen&ant of the possession of the propert%" an& to &eter#ine the &a#a'es (hich the &efen&ant sustaine& an& #a% recover $% reason of the possession ta/en $% the plaintiff.parties" (ith notice that the% are allo(e& ten (.)ut the 3u&'#ent shall re>uire the pa%#ent of the su# or su#s a(ar&e& to either the &efen&ant or the court $efore the plaintiff can enter upon the propert%" or retain it for the pu$lic use or purpose if entr% has alrea&% $een #a&e..(.(?a) SEC..2 Upon the e1piration of the perio& of ten (..(.9.2.Costs.Ba) SEC.a) SEC.The 3u&'#ent entere& in e1propriation procee&in's shall state &efinitel%" $% an a&e>uate &escription" the .. effect of reversal.0.!f the &efen&ant an& his counsel a$sent the#selves fro# the court" or &ecline to receive the a#ount ten&ere&" the sa#e shall $e or&ere& to $e &eposite& in court an& such &eposit shall have the sa#e effect as actual pa%#ent thereof to the &efen&ant or the person ulti#atel% a&3u&'e& entitle& thereto.(. and its effect-.Rights of plaintiff after "udgment and payment. by whom paid.*ntry not delayed by appeal.Recording "udgment. 'ncertain ownership.2 Upon pa%#ent $% the plaintiff to the &efen&ant of the co#pensation fi1e& $% the 3u&'#ent" (ith le'al interest thereon fro# the ta/in' of the possession of the propert%" or after ten&er to hi# of the a#ount so fi1e& an& pa%#ent of the costs" the plaintiff shall have the ri'ht to enter upon the propert% e1propriate& an& to appropriate it for the pu$lic use or purpose &efine& in the 3u&'#ent" or to retain it shoul& he have ta/en i##e&iate possession thereof un&er the provisions of section 0 hereof.2 !f the o(nership of the propert% ta/en is uncertain" or there are conflictin' clai#s to an% part thereof" the court #a% or&er an% su# or su#s a(ar&e& as co#pensation for the propert% to $e pai& to the court for the $enefit of the person a&3u&'e& in the sa#e procee&in' to $e entitle& thereto.

effect.Complaint in action for foreclosure.$ower of guardian in such proceedings -..The 'uar&ian or 'uar&ian ad litem of a #inor or of a person 3u&iciall% &eclare& to $e inco#petent #a%" (ith the approval of the court first ha&" &o an& perfor# on $ehalf of his (ar& an% act" #atter" or thin' respectin' the e1propriation for pu$lic use or purpose of propert% $elon'in' to such #inor or person 3u&iciall% &eclare& to $e inco#petent" (hich such #inor or person 3u&iciall% &eclare& to $e inco#petent coul& &o in such procee&in's if he (ere of a'e or co#petent.2 !n an action for the foreclosure of a #ort'a'e or other encu#$rance upon real estate" the co#plaint shall set forth the &ate an& &ue e1ecution of the #ort'a'e7 its assi'n#ents" if an%7 the na#es an& resi&ences of the #ort'a'or an& the #ort'a'ee7 a &escription of the #ort'a'e& propert%7 a state#ent of the &ate of the note or other &ocu#entar% evi&ence of the o$li'ation secure& $% the #ort'a'e" the a#ount clai#e& to $e unpai& thereon7 an& the na#es an& resi&ences of all persons havin' or clai#in' an interest in the propert% su$or&inate in ri'ht to that of the hol&er of the #ort'a'e" all of (ho# shall $e #a&e &efen&ants in the action.2a) SEC..2 8hen the &efen&ant" after $ein' &irecte& to &o so as provi&e& in the ne1t prece&in' section" fails to pa% the a#ount of the 3u&'#ent (ithin the perio& specifie& therein" the court" upon #otion" shall or&er the propert% to $e sol& in the #anner an& un&er the provisions of Rule 2A an& other re'ulations 'overnin' sales of real estate un&er e1ecution.udgment on foreclosure for payment or sale.4.(.(0a) SEC.particular propert% or interest therein e1propriate&" an& the nature of the pu$lic use or purpose for (hich it is e1propriate&.Sale of mortgaged property.Such sale shall not affect the ri'hts of persons hol&in' prior encu#$rances upon the propert% or a part thereof" an& (hen confir#e& $% an or&er of the court" also upon #otion" it shall operate to &ivest the ri'hts in the propert% of all the parties to the action an& to vest their ri'hts in the .2.2!f upon the trial in such action the court shall fin& the facts set forth in the co#plaint to $e true" it shall ascertain the a#ount &ue to the plaintiff upon the #ort'a'e &e$t or o$li'ation" inclu&in' interest an& other char'es as approve& $% the court" an& costs" an& shall ren&er 3u&'#ent for the su# so foun& &ue an& or&er that the sa#e $e pai& to the court or to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee (ithin a perio& of not less than ninet% (AB) &a%s nor #ore than one hun&re& t(ent% (.(.8hen real estate is e1propriate&" a certifie& cop% of such 3u&'#ent shall $e recor&e& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the place in (hich the propert% is situate&" an& its effect shall $e to vest in the plaintiff the title to the real estate so &escri$e& for such pu$lic use or purpose.a) SEC.4a) RULE 68 FORECLOSURE OF REAL ESTATE MORTGAGE SECT!O+ .0.(.0B) &a%s fro# the entr% of 3u&'#ent" an& that in &efault of such pa%#ent the propert% shall $e sol& at pu$lic auction to satisf% the 3u&'#ent.

!f no ri'ht of re&e#ption e1ists" the certificate of title in the na#e of the #ort'a'or shall $e cancelle&" an& a ne( one issue& in the na#e of the purchaser8here a ri'ht of re&e#ption e1ists" the certificate of title in the na#e of the #ort'a'or shall not $e cancelle&" $ut the certificate of sale an& the or&er confir#in' the sale shall $e re'istere& an& a $rief #e#oran&u# thereof #a&e $% the re'istrar of &ee&s upon the certificate of title.+eficiency "udgment.2A certifie& cop% of the final or&er of the court confir#in' the sale shall $e re'istere& in the re'istr% of &ee&s.!n the event the propert% is re&ee#e&" the &ee& of re&e#ption shall $e re'istere& (ith the re'istr% of &ee&s" an& a $rief #e#oran&u# thereof shall $e #a&e $% the re'istrar of &ee&s on sai& certificate of title!f the propert% is not re&ee#e&" the final &ee& of sale e1ecute& $% the sheriff in favor of the purchaser at the foreclosure sale shall $e re'istere& (ith the re'istr% of .2 !f the &e$t for (hich the #ort'a'e or encu#$rance (as hel& is not all &ue as provi&e& in the 3u&'#ent" as soon as a sufficient portion of the propert% has $een sol& to pa% the total a#ount an& the costs &ue" the sale shall ter#inate7 an& after(ar&s" as often as #ore $eco#es &ue for principal or interest an& other vali& char'es" the court #a%" on #otion" or&er #ore to $e sol&.4.(2a) SEC.(5a) SEC.5.The sai& purchaser or last re&e#ptioner #a% secure a (rit of possession" upon #otion" fro# the court (hich or&ere& the foreclosure.2The a#ount reali5e& fro# the foreclosure sale of the #ort'a'e& propert% shall" after &e&uctin' the costs of the sale" $e pai& to the person foreclosin' the #ort'a'e" an& (hen there shall $e an% $alance or resi&ue" after pa%in' off the #ort'a'e &e$t &ue" the sa#e shall $e pai& to 3unior encu#$rancers in the or&er of their priorit%" to $e ascertaine& $% the court" or if there $e no such encu#$rancers or there $e a $alance or resi&ue after pa%#ent to the#" then to the #ort'a'or or his &ul% authori5e& a'ent" or to the person entitle& to it.?.6.+isposition of proceeds of sale.purchaser" su$3ect to such ri'hts of re&e#ption as #a% $e allo(e& $% la(Upon the finalit% of the or&er of confir#ation or upon the e1piration of the perio& of re&e#ption (hen allo(e& $% la(" the purchaser at the auction sale or last re&e#ptioner" if an%" shall $e entitle& to the possession of the propert% unless a thir& part% is actuall% hol&in' the sa#e a&versel% to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or.(4a) SEC.Registration.3ow sale to proceed in case the debt is not all due.(6a) SEC.)ut if the propert% cannot $e sol& in portions (ithout pre3u&ice to the parties" the (hole shall $e or&ere& to $e sol& in the first instance" an& the entire &e$t an& costs shall $e pai&" if the procee&s of the sale $e sufficient therefor" there $ein' a re$ate of interest (here such re$ate is proper.2!f upon the sale of an% real propert% as provi&e& in the ne1t prece&in' section there $e a $alance &ue to the plaintiff after appl%in' the procee&s of the sale" the court" upon #otion" shall ren&er 3u&'#ent a'ainst the &efen&ant for an% such $alance for (hich" $% the recor& of the case" he #a% $e personall% lia$le to the plaintiff" upon (hich e1ecution #a% issue i##e&iatel% if the $alance is all &ue at the ti#e of the ren&ition of the 3u&'#ent7 other(ise" the plaintiff shall $e entitle& to e1ecution at such ti#e as the $alance re#ainin' $eco#es &ue un&er the ter#s of the ori'inal contract" (hich ti#e shall $e state& in the 3u&'#ent.

(pplicability of other provisions.(..2 A person havin' the ri'ht to co#pel the partition of real estate #a% &o so as provi&e& in this Rule" settin' forth in his co#plaint the nature an& e1tent of his title an& an ade6uate &escription of the real estate of (hich partition is &e#an&e& an& 3oinin' as &efen&ants all other persons intereste& in the propert%.!n #a/in' the partition" the co##issioners shall vie( an& e1a#ine the real estate" after &ue notice to the parties to atten& at such vie( an& e1a#ination" an& shall hear the parties as to their preference in the portion of the propert% to $e set apart to the# an& the co#parative value thereof" an& shall set apart the sa#e to the parties in lots or parcels as (ill $e #ost a&vanta'eous an& e>uita$le" havin' &ue re'ar& to the i#prove#ents" situation an& >ualit% of the &ifferent parts thereof.Complaint in action for partition of real estate.Oath and duties of commissioners.Thereupon the parties #a%" if the% are a$le to a'ree" #a/e the partition a#on' the#selves $% proper instru#ents of conve%ance" an& the court shall confir# the partition so a'ree& upon $% all the parties" an& such partition" to'ether (ith the or&er of the court confir#in' the sa#e" shall $e recor&e& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the place in (hich the propert% is situate&.2 !f the parties are una$le to a'ree upon the partition" the court shall appoint not #ore than three (2) co#petent an& &isintereste& persons as co##issioners to #a/e the partition" co##an&in' the# to set off to the plaintiff an& to each part% in interest such part an& proportion of the propert% as the court shall &irect.4.(@a) RULE 69 PARTITION SECT!O+ .a) SEC.(0a) A final or&er &ecreein' partition an& accountin' #a% $e appeale& $% an% part% a''rieve& there$%.2The provisions of sections 2.(2a) SEC.5.(4a) SEC.2)efore #a/in' such partition" the co##issioners shall ta/e an& su$scri$e an oath that the% (ill faithfull% perfor# their &uties as co##issioners" (hich oath shall $e file& in court (ith the other procee&in's in the case.0." 20 an& 24 of Rule 2A shall $e applica$le to the 3u&icial foreclosure of real estate #ort'a'es un&er this Rule insofar as the for#er are not inconsistent (ith or #a% serve to supple#ent the provisions of the latter.2.(n) SEC.(ssignment or sale of real estate by commissioners.@. by agreement thereunder.(n) SEC.2 !f after the trial the court fin&s that the plaintiff has the ri'ht thereto" it shall or&er the partition of the real estate a#on' all the parties in interest.2 8hen it is #a&e to . and partition.Order for partition.Commissioners to ma)e partition when parties fail to agree.&ee&s7 (hereupon the certificate of title in the na#e of the #ort'a'or shall $e cancelle& an& a ne( one issue& in the na#e of the purchaser.

?.2 The co##issioners shall #a/e a full an& accurate report to the court of all their procee&in's as to the partition" or the assi'n#ent of real estate to one of the parties" or the sale of the sa#e.The court shall e>uita$l% ta1 an& apportion $et(een or a#on' the parties the costs an& e1penses (hich accrue in the action" inclu&in' the co#pensation of the co##issioners" havin' re'ar& to the interests of the parties" an& e1ecution #a% issue therefor as in other cases.Costs and e..The 'uar&ian or 'uar&ian ad litem of a #inor or person 3u&iciall% &eclare& to $e inco#petent #a%" (ith the approval of the court first ha&" &o an& perfor# on $ehalf of his (ar& an% act" #atter" or thin' respectin' the partition of real estate" (hich the #inor or person 3u&iciall% &eclare& to $e inco#petent coul& &o in partition procee&in's if he (ere of a'e or co#petent.2 !f actual partition of propert% is #a&e" the 3u&'#ent shall state &efinitel%" $% #etes an& $oun&s an& a&e>uate &escription" the particular portion of the real estate assi'ne& to each part%" an& the effect of the 3u&'#ent shall $e to vest in each part% to the action in .Ba) SEC.B) &a%s (ithin (hich to file o$3ections to the fin&in's of the report" if the% so &esire.Report of commissioners.A.2 !n an action for partition in accor&ance (ith this Rule" a part% shall recover fro# another his 3ust share of rents an& profits receive& $% such other part% fro# the real estate in >uestion" an& the 3u&'#ent shall inclu&e an allo(ance for such rents an& profits.(ccounting for rent and profits in action for partition.(Aa) SEC.(?) SEC.B. proceedings not binding until confirmed..(.(5a) SEC..@.Upon the filin' of such report" the cler/ of court shall serve copies thereof on all the intereste& parties (ith notice that the% are allo(e& ten (.$ower of guardian in such proceedings -.ed and collected-.penses to be ta.6.B) &a%s referre& to in the prece&in' section" or even $efore the e1piration of such perio& $ut after the intereste& parties have file& their o$3ections to the report or their state#ent of a'ree#ent there(ith" the court #a%" upon hearin'" accept the report an& ren&er 3u&'#ent in accor&ance there(ith7 or" for cause sho(n" reco##it the sa#e to the co##issioners for further report of facts7 or set asi&e the report an& appoint ne( co##issioners7 or accept the report in part an& re3ect it in part7 an& #a% #a/e such or&er an& ren&er such 3u&'#ent as shall effectuate a fair an& 3ust partition of the real estate" or of its value" if assi'ne& or sol& as a$ove provi&e&" $et(een the several o(ners thereof.(ction of the court upon commissioners? report. copy to be recorded in registry of deeds..The "udgment and its effect.(@a) SEC.2 Upon the e1piration of the perio& of ten (.appear to the co##issioners that the real estate" or a portion thereof" cannot $e &ivi&e& (ithout pre3u&ice to the interests of the parties" the court #a% or&er it assi'ne& to one of the parties (illin' to ta/e the sa#e" provi&e& he pa%s to the other parties such a#ounts as the co##issioners &ee# e>uita$le" unless one of the intereste& parties as/s that the propert% $e sol& instea& of $ein' so assi'ne&" in (hich case the court shall or&er the co##issioners to sell the real estate at pu$lic sale un&er such con&itions an& (ithin such ti#e as the court #a% &eter#ine.(6a) SEC.+o procee&in' ha& $efore or con&ucte& $% the co##issioners shall pass the title to the propert% or $in& the parties until the court shall have accepte& the report of the co##issioners an& ren&ere& 3u&'#ent thereon.

..0a) SEC.) %ear after such unla(ful &eprivation or (ithhol&in' of possession" $rin' an action in the proper 9unicipal Trial Court a'ainst the person or persons unla(full% (ithhol&in' or &eprivin' of possession" or an% person or persons clai#in' un&er the#" for the restitution of such possession" to'ether (ith &a#a'es an& costs.$artition of personal property.(.(.2Unless other(ise stipulate&" such action $% the lessor shall $e co##ence& onl% after &e#an& to pa% or co#pl% (ith the con&itions of the lease an& to vacate is #a&e upon the lessee" or $% .(..!f the (hole propert% is assi'ne& to one of the parties upon his pa%in' to the others the su# or su#s or&ere& $% the court" the 3u&'#ent shall state the fact of such pa%#ent an& of the assi'n#ent of the real estate to the part% #a/in' the pa%#ent" an& the effect of the 3u&'#ent shall $e to vest in the part% #a/in' the pa%#ent the (hole of the real estate free fro# an% interest on the part of the other parties to the action.A certifie& cop% of the 3u&'#ent shall in either case $e recor&e& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the place in (hich the real estate is situate&" an& the e1penses of such recor&in' shall $e ta1e& as part of the costs of the action.7essor to proceed against lessee only after demand.2) RULE 70 FORCI!LE ENTRY AND UNLAWFUL DETAINER SECT!O+ .#ho may institute proceedings.2 Su$3ect to the provisions of the ne1t succee&in' section" a person &eprive& of the possession of an% lan& or $uil&in' $% force" inti#i&ation" threat" strate'%" or stealth" or a lessor" ven&or" ven&ee" or other person a'ainst (ho# the possession of an% lan& or $uil&in' is unla(full% (ithhel& after the e1piration or ter#ination of the ri'ht to hol& possession" $% virtue of an% contract" e1press or i#plie&" or the le'al representatives or assi'ns of an% such lessor" ven&or" ven&ee" or other person #a% at an% ti#e (ithin one (. and when.0.0.!f the propert% is sol& an& the sale confir#e& $% the court" the 3u&'#ent shall state the na#e of the purchaser or purchasers an& a &efinite &escription of the parcels of real estate sol& to each purchaser" an& the effect of the 3u&'#ent shall $e to vest the real estate in the purchaser or purchasers #a/in' the pa%#ent or pa%#ents" free fro# the clai#s of an% of the parties to the action..a) SEC. +othin' in this Rule containe& shall $e construe& so as to pre3u&ice" &efeat" or &estro% the ri'ht or title of an% person clai#in' the real estate involve& $% title un&er an% other person" or $% title para#ount to the title of the parties a#on' (ho# the partition #a% have $een #a&e7 nor so as to restrict or prevent persons hol&in' real estate 3ointl% or in co##on fro# #a/in' an a#ica$le partition thereof $% a'ree#ent an& suita$le instru#ents of conve%ance (ithout recourse to an action.(.2.severalt% the portion of the real estate assi'ne& to hi#.%either paramount rights nor amicable partition affected by this Rule-.a) SEC.2The provisions of this Rule shall appl% to partitions of estates co#pose& of personal propert%" or of $oth real an& personal propert%" in so far as the sa#e #a% $e applica$le.

(ction on complaint.Ans(er-.*ffect of failure to answer.(0a) SEC.(2a" RSP) SEC.Summary procedure.2Shoul& the &efen&ant fail to ans(er the co#plaint (ithin the perio& a$ove provi&e&" the court" motu proprio or on #otion of the plaintiff" shall ren&er 3u&'#ent as #a% $e (arrante& $% the facts alle'e& in the co#plaint an& li#ite& to (hat is pra%e& for therein.(?" RSP) !f a sole &efen&ant shall fail to appear" the plaintiff shall li/e(ise $e entitle& to 3u&'#ent in accor&ance (ith the ne1t prece&in' section.The ans(er to counterclai#s or cross<clai#s shall $e serve& an& file& (ithin ten (.@.6.servin' (ritten notice of such &e#an& upon the person foun& on the pre#ises" or $% postin' such notice on the pre#ises if no person $e foun& thereon" an& the lessee fails to co#pl% there(ith after fifteen (.The court #a% in its &iscretion re&uce the a#ount of &a#a'es an& attorne%Gs fees clai#e& for $ein' e1cessive or other(ise unconsciona$le" (ithout pre3u&ice to the applica$ilit% of section 2(c)" Rule A if there are t(o or #ore &efen&ants. appearance of parties-.This proce&ure shall not appl% (here one Of t(o or #ore &efen&ants sue& un&er a co##on cause of action (ho ha& plea&e& a co##on &efense shall appear at the preli#inar% conference+o postpone#ent of the preli#inar% conference shall $e 'rante& e1cept for hi'hl% .?.!f no 'roun& for &is#issal is foun&" it shall forth(ith issue su##ons.All plea&in's shall $e verifie&.+ot later than thirt% (2B) &a%s after the last ans(er is file&" a preli#inar% conference shall $e hel&..2The court #a%" fro# an e1a#ination of the alle'ations in the co#plaint an& such evi&ence as #a% $e attache& thereto" &is#iss the case outri'ht on an% of the 'roun&s for the &is#issal of a civil action (hich are apparent therein.$reliminary conference.The &efen&ant (ho appears in the a$sence of the plaintiff shall $e entitle& to 3u&'#ent on his counterclai# in accor&ance (ith the ne1t prece&in' section.(n) SEC.2The onl% plea&in's allo(e& to $e file& are the co#plaint" co#pulsor% counterclai# an& cross<clai# plea&e& in the ans(er" an& the ans(ers thereto.All cross<clai#s shall $e &is#isse&.Cross<clai#s an& co#pulsor% counterclai#s not asserte& in the ans(er shall $e consi&ere& $arre&.4.E1cept in cases covere& $% the a'ricultural tenanc% la(s or (hen the la( other(ise e1pressl% provi&es" all actions for forci$le entr% an& unla(ful &etainer" irrespective of the a#ount of &a#a'es or unpai& rentals sou'ht to $e recovere&" shall $e 'overne& $% the su##ar% proce&ure hereun&er provi&e&.B) &a%s fro# service of su##ons" the &efen&ant shall file his ans(er to the co#plaint an& serve a cop% thereof on the plaintiffAffir#ative an& ne'ative &efenses not plea&e& therein shall $e &ee#e& (aive&" e1cept lac/ of 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter.@ on pre<trial shall $e applica$le to the preli#inar% conference unless inconsistent (ith the provisions of this RuleThe failure of the plaintiff to appear in the preli#inar% conference shall $e cause for the &is#issal of his co#plaint.5) &a%s in the case of lan& or five (5) &a%s in the case of $uil&in's.$leadings allowed.(6" RSP) SEC.B) &a%s fro# service of the ans(er in (hich the% are plea&e&.(5" RSP) SEC.(n) SEC.The provisions of Rule .8ithin ten (.2.5.

A.2 The follo(in' petitions" #otions" or plea&in's shall not $e allo(e&* ..$eriod for rendition of "udgment...#eritorious 'roun&s an& (ithout pre3u&ice to such sanctions as the court in the e1ercise of soun& &iscretion #a% i#pose on the #ovant.A clear specification of #aterial facts (hich re#ain controverte&7 an& 5.Record of preliminary conference-.8ithin five (5) &a%s after the ter#ination of the preli#inar% conference" the court shall issue an or&er statin' the #atters ta/en up therein" inclu&in' $ut not li#ite& to* .Such other #atters inten&e& to e1pe&ite the &isposition of the case...2.2 8ithin ten (.B) &a%s fro# receipt of the or&er #entione& in the ne1t prece&in' section" the parties shall su$#it the affi&avits of their (itnesses an& other evi&ence on the factual issues &efine& in the or&er" to'ether (ith their position papers settin' forth the la( an& the facts relie& upon $% the#.(n) SEC.0.(.07 09otion for a $ill of particulars7 .Referral for conciliation.$rohibited pleadings and motions.5) &a%s after the receipt of the last affi&avit or the e1piration of the perio& for filin' the sa#eThe court shall not resort to the fore'oin' proce&ure 3ust to 'ain ti#e for the ren&ition of the 3u&'#ent.@a" RSP) SEC.9otion to &is#iss the co#plaint e1cept on the 'roun& of lac/ of 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter" or failure to co#pl% (ith section .B.8hether the parties have arrive& at an a#ica$le settle#ent" an& if so" the ter#s thereof7 0.(A" RSP) SEC.(@" RSP) SEC.Submission of affidavits and position papers.The stipulations or a&#issions entere& into $% the parties7 2..Hu&'#ent shall $e ren&ere& (ithin fifteen (.2Cases re>uirin' referral for conciliation" (here there is no sho(in' of co#pliance (ith such re>uire#ent" shall $e &is#isse& (ithout pre3u&ice" an& #a% $e revive& onl% after that re>uire#ent shall have $een co#plie& (ith..B) &a%s fro# receipt of sai& or&er.(n) SEC.2 8ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after receipt of the affi&avits an& position papers" or the e1piration of the perio& for filin' the sa#e" the court shall ren&er 3u&'#ent=o(ever" shoul& the court fin& it necessar% to clarif% certain #aterial facts" it #a%" &urin' the sai& perio&" issue an or&er specif%in' the #atters to $e clarifie&" an& re>uire the parties to su$#it affi&avits or other evi&ence on the sai& #atters (ithin ten (.8hether" on the $asis of the plea&in's an& the stipulations an& a&#issions #a&e $% the parties" 3u&'#ent #a% $e ren&ere& (ithout the nee& of further procee&in's" in (hich event the 3u&'#ent shall $e ren&ere& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# issuance of the or&er7 4.

29otion for ne( trial" or for reconsi&eration of a 3u&'#ent" or for reopenin' of trial7 45paper7 69e#oran&a7 ?.?.$reliminary in"unction.5..8hen the &efen&ant raises the &efense of o(nership in his plea&in's an& the >uestion of possession cannot $e resolve& (ithout &eci&in' the issue of o(nership" the issue of o(nership shall $e resolve& onl% to &eter#ine the issue of possession.The court shall &eci&e the #otion (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the filin' thereof.(0B" RS$0 SEC.2!f after trial the court fin&s that the alle'ations of the co#plaint are true" it shall ren&er 3u&'#ent in favor of the plaintiff for the restitution of the pre#ises" the su# 3ustl% &ue as arrears of rent or as reasona$le co#pensation for the use an& occupation of the pre#ises" attorne%Gs fees an& costs..Thir&<part% co#plaints7 .B.!nterventions.(ffidavits.4..(4a) SEC.!f a counterclai# is esta$lishe&" the court shall ren&er 3u&'#ent for the su# foun& in arrears fro# either part% an& a(ar& costs as 3ustice re>uires.(.2The court #a% 'rant preli#inar% in3unction" in accor&ance (ith the provisions of Rule 5@ hereof" to prevent the &efen&ant fro# co##ittin' further acts of &ispossession a'ainst the plaintiffA possessor &eprive& of his possession throu'h forci$le entr% or unla(ful &etainer #a%" (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# the filin' of the co#plaint" present a #otion in the action for forci$le entr% or unla(ful &etainer for the issuance of a (rit of preli#inar% #an&ator% in3unction to restore hi# in his possession.6.0.(6a) .!f it fin&s that sai& alle'ations are not true" it shall ren&er 3u&'#ent for the &efen&ant to recover his costs..Aa" RSP) SEC..Repl%7 .Resolving defense of ownership-.Petition for certiorari" #an&a#us" or prohi$ition a'ainst an% interlocutor% or&er issue& $% the court7 @A9otion to &eclare the &efen&ant in &efault7 Filator% #otions for postpone#ent7 Petition for relief fro# 3u&'#ent7 9otion for e1tension of ti#e to file plea&in's" affi&avits or an% other .2The affi&avits re>uire& to $e su$#itte& un&er this Rule shall state onl% facts of &irect personal /no(le&'e of the affiants (hich are a&#issi$le in evi&ence" an& shall sho( their co#petence to testif% to the #atters state& thereinA violation of this re>uire#ent #a% su$3ect the part% or the counsel (ho su$#its the sa#e to &isciplinar% action" an& shall $e cause to e1pun'e the ina&#issi$le affi&avit or portion thereof fro# the recor&.udgment.(2a) SEC..

$reliminary mandatory in"unction in case of appeal-. not conclusive in actions involving title or ownership.B) &a%s fro# the perfection of the appeal to the Re'ional Trial Court" the latter #a% issue a (rit of preli#inar% #an&ator% in3unction to restore the plaintiff in possession if the court is satisfie& that the &efen&antGs appeal is frivolous or .A.SEC.The superse&eas $on& shall $e trans#itte& $% the 9unicipal Trial Court" (ith the other papers" to the cler/ of the Re'ional Trial Court to (hich the action is appeale&All a#ounts so pai& to the appellate court shall $e &eposite& (ith sai& court or authori5e& 'overn#ent &epositar% $an/" an& shall $e hel& there until the final &isposition of the appeal" unless the court" $% a'ree#ent of the intereste& parties" or in the a$sence of reasona$le 'roun&s of opposition to a #otion to (ith&ra(" or for 3ustifia$le reasons" shall &ecree other(ise..2The 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in an action for forci$le entr% or &etainer shall $e conclusive (ith respect to the possession onl% an& shall in no (ise $in& the title or affect the o(nership of the lan& or $uil&in'. how to stay same.0B.Such 3u&'#ent shall not $ar an action $et(een the sa#e parties respectin' title to the lan& or $uil&in'The 3u&'#ent or final or&er shall $e appeala$le to the appropriate Re'ional Trial Court (hich shall &eci&e the sa#e on the $asis of the entire recor& of the procee&in's ha& in the court of ori'in an& such #e#oran&a an&Jor $riefs as #a% $e su$#itte& $% the parties or re>uire& $% the Re'ional Trial Court.!n an% case (herein it appears that the &efen&ant has $een &eprive& of the la(ful possession of lan& or $uil&in' pen&in' the appeal by virtue of the e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent of the 9unicipal Trial Court" &a#a'es for such &eprivation of possession an& restoration of possession #a% $e allo(e& the &efen&ant in the 3u&'#ent of the Re'ional Trial Court &isposin' of the appeal.(@a) SEC.2 !f 3u&'#ent is ren&ere& a'ainst the &efen&ant" e1ecution shall issue i##e&iatel% upon #otion" unless an appeal has $een perfecte& an& the &efen&ant to sta% e1ecution files a sufficient superse&eas $on&" approve& $% the 9unicipal Trial Court an& e1ecute& in favor of the plaintiff to pa% the rents" &a#a'es" an& costs accruin' &o(n to the ti#e of the 3u&'#ent appeale& fro#" an& unless" &urin' the pen&enc% of the appeal" he &eposits (ith the appellate court the a#ount of rent &ue fro# ti#e to ti#e un&er the contract" if an%" as &eter#ine& $% the 3u&'#ent of the 9unicipal Trial Court.Immediate e.@..Upon #otion of the plaintiff" (ithin ten (.ecution of "udgment.(?a) SEC.Shoul& the &efen&ant fail to #a/e the pa%#ents a$ove prescri$e& fro# ti#e to ti#e &urin' the pen&enc% of the appeal" the appellate court" upon #otion of the plaintiff" an& upon proof of such failure" shall or&er the e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent appeale& fro# (ith respect to the restoration of possession" $ut such e1ecution shall not $e a $ar to the appeal ta/in' its course until the final &isposition thereof on the #eritsAfter the case is &eci&e& $% the Re'ional Trial Court" an% #one% pai& to the court $% the &efen&ant for purposes of the sta% of e1ecution shall $e &ispose& of in accor&ance (ith the provisions of the 3u&'#ent of the Re'ional Trial Court.udgment conclusive only on possession.!n the a$sence of a contract" he shall &eposit (ith the Re'ional Trial Court the reasona$le value of the use an& occupation of the pre#ises for the prece&in' #onth or perio& at the rate &eter#ine& $% the 3u&'#ent of the lo(er court on or $efore the tenth &a% of each succee&in' #onth or perio&.

(.0.The e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent shall $e suspen&e& pen&in' resolution of such petition" provi&e& such person flea a $on& fi1e& $% the court (hich ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent an& con&itione& that he (ill a$i&e $% an& perfor# the 3u&'#ent shoul& the petition $e &eci&e& a'ainst hi#.Ba) RULE 71 CONTEMPT SECT!O+ .0.a) SEC..2 The 3u&'#ent of the Re'ional Trial Court a'ainst the &efen&ant shall $e i##e&iatel% e1ecutor%" (ithout pre3u&ice to a further appeal that #a% $e ta/en therefro#.(Aa) SEC. of this Rule7 (&) An% i#proper con&uct ten&in'" &irectl% or in&irectl%" to i#pe&e" o$struct" .(0a) SEC.2.A person 'uilt% of #is$ehavior in the presence of or so near a court as to o$struct or interrupt the procee&in's $efore the sa#e" inclu&in' &isrespect to(ar& the court" offensive personalities to(ar& others" or refusal to $e s(orn or to ans(er as a (itness" or to su$scri$e an affi&avit or &eposition (hen la(full% re>uire& to &o so" #a% $e su##aril% a&3u&'e& in conte#pt $% such court an& punishe& $% a fine not e1cee&in' t(o thousan& pesos or i#prison#ent not e1cee&in' ten (.Remedy therefrom.2 After a char'e in (ritin' has $een file&" an& an opportunit% 'iven to the respon&ent to comment thereon (ithin such perio& as #a% $e fi1e& $% the court an& to $e hear& $% hi#self or counsel" a person 'uilt% of an% of the follo(in' acts #a% $e punishe& for in&irect conte#pt* (a) 9is$ehavior of an officer of a court in the perfor#ance of his official &uties or in his official transactions7 ($) Fiso$e&ience of or resistance to a la(ful (rit" process" or&er" or 3u&'#ent of a court" inclu&in' the act of a person (ho" after $ein' &ispossesse& or e3ecte& fro# an% real propert% $% the 3u&'#ent or process of an% court of co#petent 3uris&iction" enters or atte#pts or in&uces another to enter into or upon such real propert%" for the purpose of e1ecutin' acts of o(nership or possession" or in an% #anner &istur$s the possession 'iven to the person a&3u&'e& to $e entitle& thereto7 (c) An% a$use of or an% unla(ful interference (ith the processes or procee&in's of a court not constitutin' &irect conte#pt un&er section .Indirect contempt to be punished after charge and hearing.&ilator%" or that the appeal of the plaintiff is prima facie #eritorious.) &a%" or $oth" if it $e a lo(er court..Immediate e.ecution on appeal to Court of (ppeals or Supreme Court .(.2The person a&3u&'e& in &irect conte#pt $% an% court #a% not appeal therefro#" $ut #a% avail hi#self of the re#e&ies of certiorari or prohi$ition.B) &a%s" or $oth" if it $e a Re'ional Trial Court or a court of e>uivalent or hi'her ran/" or $% a fine not e1cee&in' t(o hun&re& pesos or i#prison#ent net e1cee&in' (.+irect contempt punished summarily-.

5. 3earing.(4a) SEC.28here the char'e for in&irect conte#pt has $een co##itte& a'ainst a Re'ional Trial Court or a court of e>uivalent or hi'her ran/" or a'ainst an officer appointe& $% it" the char'e #a% $e file& (ith such court.Procee&in's for in&irect conte#pt #a% $e initiate& motu proprio $% the court a'ainst (hich the conte#pt (as co##itte& $% an or&er or an% other for#al char'e re>uirin' the respon&ent to sho( cause (h% he shoul& not $e punishe& for conte#pt!n all other cases" char'es for in&irect conte#pt shall $e co##ence& $% a verifie& petition (ith supportin' particulars an& certifie& true copies of &ocu#ents or papers involve& therein" an& upon full co#pliance (ith the re>uire#ents for filin' initiator% plea&in's for civil actions in the court concerne&.) #onth" or $oth. release on bail.4.$unishment for indirect contempt.#here charge to be filed.2 !f the hearin' is not or&ere& to $e ha& forth(ith" the respon&ent #a% $e release& fro# custo&% upon filin' a $on&" in an a#ount fi1e& $% the court" for his appearance at the hearin' of the char'e.!f the conte#pt consists in the violation of a (rit of in3unction" te#porar% restrainin' or&er or status 6uo or&er" he #a% also $e or&ere& to #a/e co#plete restitution to the part% in3ure& $% such violation of the propert% involve& or such a#ount as #a% $e alle'e& an& .?.!f he is a&3u&'e& 'uilt% of conte#pt co##itte& a'ainst a lo(er court" he #a% $e punishe& $% a fine not e1cee&in' five thousan& pesos or i#prison#ent not e1cee&in' one (.!f the conte#pt char'es arose out of or are relate& to a principal action pen&in' in the court" the petition for conte#pt shall alle'e that fact $ut sai& petition shall $e &oc/ete&" hear& an& &eci&e& separatel%" unless the court in its &iscretion or&ers the consoli&ation of the conte#pt char'e an& the principal action for 3oint hearin' an& &ecision.=.(n) SEC.or &e'ra&e the a&#inistration of 3ustice7 (e) Assu#in' to $e an attorne% or an officer of a court" an& actin' as such (ithout authorit%7 (f) Failure to o$e% a su$poena &ul% serve&7 (') The rescue" or atte#pte& rescue" of a person or propert% in the custo&% of an officer $% virtue of an or&er or process of a court hel& $% hi#)ut nothin' in this section shall $e so construe& as to prevent the court fro# issuin' process to $rin' the respon&ent into court" or fro# hol&in' hi# in custo&% pen&in' such procee&in's.On the &a% set therefor" the court shall procee& to investi'ate the char'e an& consi&er such co##ent" testi#on% or &efense as the respon&ent #a% #a/e or offer.8here such conte#pt has $een co##itte& a'ainst a lo(er court" the char'e #a% $e file& (ith the Re'ional Trial Court of the place in (hich the lo(er court is sittin'7 $ut the procee&in's #a% also $e institute& in such lo(er court su$3ect to appeal to the Re'ional Trial Court of such place in the sa#e #anner as provi&e& in section 0 of this Rule.2 !f the respon&ent is a&3u&'e& 'uilt% of in&irect conte#pt co##itte& a'ainst a Re'ional Trial Court or a court of e>uivalent or hi'her ran/" he #a% $e punishe& $% a fine not e1cee&in' thirt% thousan& pesos or i#prison#ent not e1cee&in' si1 (6) #onths" or $oth.3ow proceedings commenced-.(2a) SEC.(5a) SEC.

..)ut e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er shall not $e suspen&e& until a $on& is file& $% the person a&3u&'e& in conte#pt" in an a#ount fi1e& $% the court front (hich the appeal is ta/en" con&itione& that if the appeal $e &eci&e& a'ainst hi# he (ill a$i&e $% an& perfor# the 3u&'#ent or final or&er.Review of "udgment or final order.(6a) SEC.Unless other(ise provi&e& $% la(" this Rule shall appl% to conte#pt co##itte& a'ainst persons" entities" $o&ies or a'encies e1ercisin' >uasi<3u&icial functions" or shall have suppletor% effect to such rules as the% #a% have a&opte& pursuant to authorit% 'rante& to the# $% la( to punish for conte#pt...Imprisonment until order o$e%e&-.Court may release respondent.2The 3u&'#ent or final or&er of a court in a case of in&irect conte#pt #a% $e appeale& to the proper court as in cri#inal cases.prove&The (rit of e1ecution" as in or&inar% civil actions" shall issue for the enforce#ent of a 3u&'#ent i#posin' a fine unless the court other(ise provi&es.Contempt against 6uasi&"udicial entities.8hen the conte#pt consists in the refusal or o#ission to &o an act (hich is %et in the po(er of the respon&ent to perfor#" he #a% $e i#prisone& $% or&er of the court concerne& until he perfor#s it.Ba) SEC.(n) PART II SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS GENERAL PROVISIONS RULE 72 SU!$ECT MATTER AND APPLICA!ILITY OF GENERAL RULES .(.(@a) SEC..The Re'ional Trial Court of the place (herein the conte#pt has $een co##itte& shall have 3uris&iction over such char'es as #a% $e file& therefor.!f there is no a''rieve& part%" the $on& shall $e lia$le an& &ispose& of as in cri#inal cases. bond for stay. $roceeding when party released on bail fails to answer.(Aa) SEC.B.9.28hen a respon&ent release& on $ail fails to appear on the &a% fi1e& for the hearin'" the court #a% issue another or&er of arrest or #a% or&er the $on& for his appearance to $e forfeite& an& confiscate&" or $oth7 an&" if the $on& $e procee&e& a'ainst" the #easure of &a#a'es shall $e the e1tent of the loss or in3ur% sustaine& $% the a''rieve& part% $% reason of the #iscon&uct for (hich the conte#pt char'e (as prosecute&" (ith the costs of the procee&in's" an& such recover% shall $e for the $enefit of the part% in3ure&.2 The court (hich issue& the or&er i#prisonin' a person for conte#pt #a% &ischar'e hi# fro# i#prison#ent (hen it appears that pu$lic interest (ill not $e pre3u&ice& $% his release.@..0.(?a) SEC.

#here estate of deceased persons settled.2 Rules of special procee&in's are provi&e& for in the follo(in' cases* (a) Settle#ent of estate of &ecease& persons7 ($) Escheat7 (c) Cuar&ianship an& custo&% of chil&ren7 (&) Trustees7 (e) A&option7 (f) Rescission an& revocation of a&option7 (') =ospitali5ation of insane persons7 (h) =a$eas corpus7 (i) Chan'e of na#e7 (3) oluntar% &issolution of corporations7 (/) Hu&icial approval of voluntar% reco'nition of #inor natural chil&ren7 (l) Constitution of fa#il% ho#e7 (#) Feclaration of a$sence an& &eath (n) Cancellation or correction of entries in the civil re'istr%SEC.SECT!O+ .(pplicability of rules of civil actions -..The 3uris&iction assu#e& $% a court" so far as it &epen&s on the place of resi&ence of the ..0.Sub"ect matter of special proceedings.!n the a$sence of special provisions" the rules provi&e& for in or&inar% actions shall $e" as far as practica$le" applica$le in special procee&in's- SETTLEMENT OF ESTATE OF DECEASED PERSONS RULE 73 VENUE AND PROCESS SECT!O+ .2 !f the &ece&ent is an inha$itant of the Philippines at the ti#e of his &eath" (hether a citi5en or an alien" his (ill shall $e prove&" or letters of a&#inistration 'rante&" an& his estate settle&" in the Re'ional Trial Court in the province in (hich he resi&es at the ti#e of his &eath" an& if he is an inha$itant of a forei'n countr%" the Re'ional Trial Court of an% province in (hich he ha& estate.The court first ta/in' co'ni5ance of the settle#ent of the estate of a &ece&ent" shall e1ercise 3uris&iction to the e1clusion of all other courts.

0.*.)ut if such person proves to $e alive" he shall $e entitle& to the $alance of his estate after pa%#ent of all his &e$ts.2 8hen the #arria'e is &issolve& $% the &eath of the hus$an& or (ife" the co##unit% propert% shall $e inventorie&" a&#inistere&" an& li>ui&ate&" an& the &e$ts thereof pai&" in the testate or intestate procee&in's of the &ecease& spouse.$rocess.tra"udicial settlement by agreement between heirs.!f a person &oes not perfor# an or&er or 3u&'#ent ren&ere& $% a court in the e1ercise of its pro$ate 3uris&iction" it #a% issue a (arrant for the apprehension an& i#prison#ent of such person until he perfor#s such or&er or 3u&'#ent" or is release&SEC.2!n the e1ercise of pro$ate 3uris&iction" Re'ional Trial Court #a% issue (arrants an& process necessar% to co#pel the atten&ance of (itnesses or to carr% into effect their or&ers an& 3u&'#ents" an& all other po(ers 'rante& the# $% la(.!f there is onl% one heir" he #a% a&3u&icate to hi#self the entire estate $% #eans of an affi&avit file& in the office of the re'ister of &ee&s.The parties to an e1tra3u&icial settle#ent" (hether $% pu$lic instru#ent or $% stipulation in a pen&in' action for partition" or the sole heir (ho a&3u&icates the entire estate to hi#self $% #eans of an affi&avit shall file" si#ultaneousl% (ith an& as a con&ition prece&ent to the filin' of the pu$lic instru#ent" or stipulation in the action for partition" or of the affi&avit in the office of the re'ister of &ee&s" a $on& (ith the sai& re'ister of &ee&s" in an a#ount e>uivalent to the value of the personal propert% involve& as certifie& to un&er oath $% the parties concerne& an& con&itione& upon the pa%#ent of an% 3ust clai# that #a% $e file& un&er section 4 of this rule.#here estate settled upon dissolution of marriage. $resumption of &eath-..The $alance #a% $e recovere& $% #otion in the sa#e procee&in'- RULE 74 SUMMARY SETTLEMENT OF ESTATES SECT!O+ .2.&ece&ent" or of the location of his estate" shall not $e conteste& in a suit or procee&in'" e1cept in an appeal fro# that court" in the ori'inal case" or (hen the (ant of 3uris&iction appears on the recor&SEC.!f $oth spouses have &ie&" the con3u'al partnership shall $e li>ui&ate& in the testate or intestate procee&in's of eitherSEC.!t shall $e presu#e& that the &ece&ent left no &e$ts if no cre&itor files a petition for letters of a&#inistration (ithin t(o (0) %ears after the &eath of the &ece&ent- .4.-For purposes of settle#ent of his estate" a person shall $e presu#e& &ea& if a$sent an& unhear& fro# for the perio&s fi1e& in the Civil Co&e.2 !f the &ece&ent left no (ill an& no &e$ts an& the heirs are all of a'e" or the #inors are represente& $% their 3u&icial or le'al representatives &ul% authori5e& for the purpose" the parties #a%" (ithout securin' letters of a&#inistration" &ivi&e the estate a#on' the#selves as the% see fit $% #eans of a pu$lic instru#ent file& in the office of the re'ister of &ee&s" an& shoul& the% &isa'ree" the% #a% &o so in an or&inar% action of partition.

2 8henever the 'ross value of the estate of a &ecease& person" (hether he &ie& testate or intestate" &oes not e1cee& ten thousan& pesos" an& that fact if #a&e to appear to the Re'ional Trial Court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate $% the petition of an intereste& person an& upon hearin'" (hich shall $e hel& not less than one (.The court shall #a/e such or&er as #a% $e 3ust respectin' the costs of the procee&in's" an& all or&ers an& 3u&'#ents #a&e or ren&ere& in the course thereof shall $e recor&e& in the office of the cler/" an& the or&er of partition or a(ar&" if it involves real estate" shall $e recor&e& in the proper re'isterGs officeSEC.) #onth nor #ore than three (2) #onths fro# the &ate of the last pu$lication of a notice (hich shall $e pu$lishe& once a (ee/ for three (2) consecutive (ee/s in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the province" an& after such other notice to intereste& persons as the court #a% &irect" the court #a% procee& su##aril%" (ithout the appoint#ent of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" an& (ithout &ela%" to 'rant" if proper" allo(ance of the (ill" if an% there $e" to &eter#ine (ho are the persons le'all% entitle& to participate in the estate an& to apportion an& &ivi&e it a#on' the# after the pa%#ent of such &e$ts of the estate as the court shall then fin& to $e &ue7 an& such persons" in their o(n ri'ht" if the% are la(ful a'e an& le'al capacit%" or $% their 'uar&ians or trustees le'all% appointe& an& >ualifie&" if other(ise" shall thereupon $e entitle& to receive an& enter into the possession of the portions of the estate so a(ar&e& to the# respectivel%.Summary settlement of estates of small value.7iability of distributees and estate.0.The fact of the e1tra3u&icial settle#ent or a&#inistration shall $e pu$lishe& in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the #anner provi&e& in the ne1t succee&in' section7 $ut no e1tra3u&icial settle#ent shall $e $in&in' upon an% person (ho has not participate& therein or ha& no notice thereofSEC.Such $on& an& such real estate shall re#ain char'e& (ith a lia$ilit% to cre&itors" heirs" or other persons for the full perio& of t(o (0) %ears after such &istri$ution" not(ithstan&in' an% transfers of real estate that #a% have $een #a&e- .An& if (ithin the sa#e ti#e of t(o (0) %ears" it shall appear that there are &e$ts outstan&in' a'ainst the estate (hich have not $een pai&" or that an heir or other person has $een un&ul% &eprive& of his la(ful participation pa%a$le in #one%" the court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate #a%" $% or&er for that purpose" after hearin'" settle the a#ount of such &e$ts or la(ful participation an& or&er ho( #uch an& in (hat #anner each &istri$utee shall contri$ute in the pa%#ent thereof" an& #a% issue e1ecution" if circu#stances re>uire" a'ainst the $on& provi&e& in the prece&in' section or a'ainst the real estate $elon'in' to the &ecease&" or $oth.2 The court" $efore allo(in' a partition in accor&ance (ith the provisions of the prece&in' section" #a% re>uire the &istri$utees" if propert% other than real is to $e &istri$ute&" to file a $on& in an a#ount to $e fi1e& $% court" con&itione& for the pa%#ent of an% 3ust clai# (hich #a% $e file& un&er the ne1t succee&in' sectionSEC.1ond to be filed by distributees.2.4.2 !f it shall appear at an% ti#e (ithin t(o (0) %ears after the settle#ent an& &istri$ution of an estate in accor&ance (ith the provisions of either of the first t(o sections of this rule" that an heir or other person has $een un&ul% &eprive& of his la(ful participation in the estate" such heir or such other person #a% co#pel the settle#ent of the estate in the courts in the #anner hereinafter provi&e& for the purpose of satisf%in' such la(ful participation.

2 A person (ho ne'lects an% of the &uties re>uire& in the t(o last prece&in' sections (ithout e1cuse satisfactor% to the court shall $e fine& not e1cee&in' t(o thousan& pesosSEC.8ho may petition for the allowance of will.Su$3ect to the ri'ht of appeal" such allo(ance of the (ill shall $e conclusive as to its &ue e1ecutionSEC.Custodian of will to deliver.2 +o (ill shall pass either real or personal estate unless it is prove& an& allo(e& in the proper court.5.$erson retaining will may be co##itte&-.4.ecutor sub"ect to fine for neglect.ecution.A person havin' custo&% of a (ill after the &eath of the testator (ho ne'lects (ithout reasona$le cause to &eliver the sa#e" (hen or&ere& so to &o" to the court havin' 3uris&iction" #a% $e co##itte& to prison an& there /ept until he &elivers the (ill- RULE 76 ALLOWANCE OR DISALLOWANCE OF WILL SECT!O+ .(llowance necessary.$eriod for claim of minor or incapacitated person.*.2 The person (ho has custo&% of a (ill shall" (ithin t(ent% (0B) &a%s after he /no(s of the &eath of the testator" &eliver the (ill to the court havin' 3uris&iction" or to the e1ecutor na#e& !n the (illSEC.ecutor to present will and accept or refuse trust.2.2 A person na#e& as e1ecutor in a (ill shall" (ithin t(ent% (0B) &a%s after he /no(s of the &eath of the testator" or (ithin t(ent% (0B) &a%s after he /no(s that $e is na#e& e1ecutor if he o$taine& such /no(le&'e after the &eath of the testator" present such (ill to the court havin' 3uris&iction" unless the (ill has reache& the court in an% other #anner" an& shall" (ithin such perio&" si'nif% to the court in (ritin' his acceptance of the trust or his refusal to accept itSEC.2 !f on the &ate of the e1piration of the perio& of t(o (0) %ears prescri$e& in the prece&in' section the person authori5e& to file a clai# is a #inor or #entall% incapacitate&" or is in prison or outsi&e the Philippines" he #a% present his clai# (ithin one (.5..0.2 An% e1ecutor" &evisee" or le'atee na#e& in a (ill" or an% other person intereste& in the estate" #a%" at an% ti#e .) %ear after such &isa$ilit% is re#ove&- RULE 75 PRODUCTION OF WILL" ALLOWANCE OF WILL NECESSARY SECT!O+ . Conclusive as to e.Custodian and e..SEC.

Court to appoint time for proving will.2The court shall also cause copies of the notice of the ti#e an& place fi1e& for provin' the (ill to $e a&&resse& to the &esi'nate& or other /no(n heirs" le'atees" an& &evisees of the testator resi&ent in the Philippines at their places of resi&ence" an& &eposite& in the post office (ith the posta'e thereon prepai& at least t(ent% (0B) &a%s $efore the hearin'" if such places of resi&ence $e /no(n.2 8hen a (ill is &elivere& to" or a petition for the allo(ance of a (ill is file& in" the court havin' 3uris&iction" such court shall fi1 a ti#e an& place for provin' the (ill (hen all concerne& #a% appear to contest the allo(ance thereof" an& shall cause notice of such ti#e an& place to $e pu$lishe& three (2) (ee/s successivel%" previous to the ti#e appointe&" in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the province)ut no ne(spaper pu$lication shall $e #a&e (here the petition for pro$ate has $een file& $% the testator hi#selfSEC.0.At the hearin' co#pliance (ith the provisions of the last t(o prece&in' sections #ust $e sho(n $efore the intro&uction of testi#on% in support of the (ill. %otice thereof to be published.ecutors to be notified by mail or personally.Contents of petition.2. and e.A cop% of the notice #ust in li/e #anner $e #aile& to the person na#e& as e1ecutor" if he $e not the petitioner" also" to an% person na#e& as co<e1ecutor not petitionin'" if their places of resi&ence $e /no(n.!f no person appears to contest the allo(ance of the .after the &eath of the testator" petition the court havin' 3uris&iction to have the (ill allo(e&" (hether the sa#e $e in his possession or not" or is lost or &estro%e&The testator hi#self #a%" &urin' his lifeti#e" petition the court for the allo(ance of his (illSEC. devisees.Personal service of copies of the notice at least ten (.B) &a%s $efore the &a% of hearin' shall $e e>uivalent to #ailin'!f the testator as/s for the allo(ance of his o(n (ill" notice shall $e sent onl% to his co#pulsor% heirsSEC. legatees.3eirs.4.All such testi#on% shall $e ta/en un&er oath an& re&uce& to (ritin'.$roof at hearing.5.2A petition for the allo(ance of a (ill #ust sho(" so far as /no(n to the petitioner* (a) The 3uris&ictional facts7 ($) The na#es" a'es" an& resi&ences of the heirs" le'atees" an& &evisees of the testator or &ece&ent7 (c) The pro$a$le value an& character of the propert% of the estate7 (&) The na#e of the person for (ho# letters are pra%e&7 (e) !f the (ill has not $een &elivere& to the court" the na#e of the person havin' custo&% of it)ut no &efect in the petition shall ren&er voi& the allo(ance of the (ill" or the issuance of letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration (ith the (ill anne1e&SEC. #hat sufficient in absence of contest -.

-rounds for disallowing will.6.(ill" the court #a% 'rant allo(ance thereof on the testi#on% of one of the su$scri$in' (itnesses onl%" if such (itness testif% that the (ill (as e1ecute& as is re>uire& $% la(!n the case of a holo'raphic (ill" it shall $e necessar% that at least one (itness (ho /no(s the han&(ritin' an& si'nature of the testator e1plicitl% &eclare that the (ill an& the si'nature are in the han&(ritin' of the testator.8hen a lost (ill is prove&" the provisions thereof #ust $e &istinctl% state& an& certifie& $% the 3u&'e" un&er the seal of the court" an& the certificate #ust $e file& an& recor&e& as other (ills are file& an& recor&e&SEC.@.!n the a$sence of an% such co#petent (itness" an& if the court &ee# it necessar%" e1pert testi#on% #a% $e resorte& toSEC.+o (ill shall $e prove& as a lost or &estro%e& (ill unless the e1ecution an& vali&it% of the sa#e $e esta$lishe& an& the (ill is prove& to have $een in e1istence at the ti#e of the &eath of the testator" or is sho(n to have $een frau&ulentl% or acci&entall% &estro%e& in the lifeti#e of the testator (ithout his /no(le&'e" nor unless its provisions are clearl% an& &istinctl% prove& $% at least t(o (0) cre&i$le (itnesses.$roof when witnesses do not reside in province. .$roof when witnesses dead or insane or do not reside in the $hilippines.A.$roof of lost or destroyed will.2 !f it appears at the ti#e fi1e& for the hearin' that the su$scri$in' (itnesses are &ea& or insane" or that none of the# resi&es in the Philippines" the court #a% a&#it the testi#on% of other (itnesses to prove the sanit% of the testator" an& the &ue e1ecution of the (ill7 an& as evi&ence of the e1ecution of the (ill" it #a% a&#it proof of the han&(ritin' of the testator an& of the su$scri$in' (itnesses" or of an% of the#SEC.2The (ill shall $e &isallo(e& in an% of the follo(in' cases* (a) !f not e1ecute& an& atteste& as re>uire& $% la(7 ($) !f the testator (as insane" or other(ise #entall% incapa$le to #a/e a (ill" at the ti#e of its e1ecution7 (c) !f it (as e1ecute& un&er &uress" or the influence of fear" or threats7 (&) !f it (as procure& $% un&ue an& i#proper pressure an& influence" on the part of the $eneficiar%" or of so#e other person for his $enefit7 (e) !f the si'nature of the testator (as procure& $% frau& or tric/" an& he &i& not inten& that the instru#ent shoul& $e his (ill at the ti#e of fi1in' his si'nature thereto- .2 !f it appears at the ti#e fi1e& for the hearin' that none of the su$scri$in' (itnesses resi&es in the province" $ut that the &eposition of one or #ore of the# can $e ta/en else(here" the court #a%" on #otion" &irect !t to $e ta/en" an& #a% authori5e a photo'raphic cop% of the (ill to $e #a&e an& to $e presente& to the (itness on his e1a#ination" (ho #a% $e as/e& the sa#e >uestions (ith respect to it an& to the han&(ritin' of the testator an& others" as (oul& $e pertinent an& co#petent if the ori'inal (ill (ere presentSEC. Certificate thereupon.?.

2 An%one appearin' to contest the (ill #ust state in (ritin' his 'roun&s for opposin' its allo(ance" an& serve a cop% thereof on the petitioner an& other parties intereste& in the estateSEC.Subscribing witnesses produced or accounted for where will contested.2..Certificate of allowance attached to proved will.$roof where testator petitions for allowance of holographic will..Atteste& copies of the (ill &evisin' real estate an& of certificate of allo(ance thereof" shall $e recor&e& in the re'ister of &ee&s of the province in (hich the lan&s lie- RULE 77 ALLOWANCE OF WILL PROVED OUTSIDE OF P ILIPPINES AND ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATE T EREUNDER ... To be recorded in the Office of Register of +eeds-.!f all or so#e of such (itnesses are present in the Philippines $ut outsi&e the province (here the (ill has $een file&" their &eposition #ust $e ta/en.B.!f the court is satisfie&" upon proof ta/en an& file&" that the (ill (as &ul% e1ecute&" an& that the testator at the ti#e of its e1ecution (as of soun& an& &isposin' #in&" an& not actin' un&er &uress" #enace" an& un&ue influence" or frau&" a certificate of its allo(ance" si'ne& $% the 3u&'e" an& atteste& $% the seal of the court shall $e attache& to the (ill an& the (ill an& certificate file& an& recor&e& $% the cler/.2 8here the testator hi#self petitions for the pro$ate of his holo'raphic (ill an& no contest is file&" the fact that he affir#s that the holo'raphic (ill an& the si'nature are in his o(n han&(ritin'" shall $e sufficient evi&ence of the 'enuineness an& &ue e1ecution thereof!f the holo'raphic (ill is conteste&" the $ur&en of &isprovin' the 'enuineness an& &ue e1ecution thereof shall $e on the contestant The testator #a%" in his turn" present such a&&itional proof as #a% $e necessar% to re$ut the evi&ence for the contestantSEC.2 !f the (ill is conteste&" all the su$scri$in' (itnesses" an& the notar% in the case of (ills e1ecute& un&er the Civil Co&e of the Philippines" if present in the Philippines" an& not insane" #ust $e pro&uce& an& e1a#ine&" an& the &eath" a$sence" or insanit% of an% of the# #ust $e satisfactoril% sho(n to the court.SEC..Contestant to file grounds of contest.0..!f an% or all of the# testif% a'ainst the &ue e1ecution of the (ill" or &o not re#e#$er havin' atteste& to it" or are other(ise of &ou$tful cre&i$ilit%" the (ill #a%" nevertheless" $e allo(e& if the court is satisfie& fro# the testi#on% of other (itnesses an& fro# all the evi&ence presente& that the (ill (as e1ecute& an& atteste& in the #anner re>uire& $% la(!f a holo'raphic (ill is conteste&" the sa#e shall $e allo(e& if at least three (2) (itnesses (ho /no( the han&(ritin' of the testator e1plicitl% &eclare that the (ill an& the si'nature are in the han&(ritin' of the testator7 in the a$sence of an% co#petent (itness" an& if the court &ee# it necessar%" e1pert testi#on% #a% $e resorte& toSEC.

2 8hen a cop% of such (ill an& of the or&er or &ecree of the allo(ance thereof" $oth &ul% authenticate&" are file& (ith a petition for allo(ance in the Philippines" $% the e1ecutor or other person intereste& in the court havin' 3uris&iction" such court shall fi1 a ti#e an& place for the hearin'" an& cause notice thereof to $e 'iven as in case of an ori'inal (ill presente& for allo(anceSEC.2 !f it appears at the hearin' that the (ill shoul& $e allo(e& in the Philippines" the court shall so allo( it" an& a certificate of its allo(ance" si'ne& $% the 3u&'e" an& atteste& $% the seal of the court" to (hich shall $e attache& a cop% of the (ill" shall $e file& an& recor&e& $% the cler/" an& the (ill shall have the sa#e effect as if ori'inall% prove& an& allo(e& in such courtSEC.Such estate" after the pa%#ent of 3ust &e$ts an& e1penses of a&#inistration" shall $e &ispose& of accor&in' to such (ill" so far as such (ill #a% operate upon it7 an& the resi&ue" if an%" shall $e &ispose& of as is provi&e& $% la( in cases of estates in the Philippines $elon'in' to persons (ho are inha$itants of another state or countr%- RULE 78 LETTERS TESTAMENTARY AND OF ADMINISTRATION# W EN AND TO W OM ISSUED SECT!O+ ....#ho are incompetent to serve as a e.2 +o person is co#petent to serve as e1ecutor or a&#inistrator (ho* (a) !s a #inor7 ($) !s not a resi&ent of the Philippines7 an& (c) !s in the opinion of the court unfit to e1ecute the &uties of the trust $% reason of &run/enness" i#provi&ence" or (ant of un&erstan&in' or inte'rit%" or $% reason of conviction of an offense involvin' #oral turpitu&eSEC.*. how administered -.SECT!O+ .The e1ecutor of an e1ecutor shall not" as such" a&#inister the estate of the first testatorSEC.ecutors or administrators. *state.%otice of hearing for allowance.2 A #arrie& (o#an #a% serve as e1ecutri1 or a&#inistratri1" an& the #arria'e of a sin'le (o#an shall not affect her authorit% so to serve un&er a previous appoint#ent .ecutor not to administer estate -.#ill proved outside $hilippines may be allowed here -. and effect thereof.!arried women may serve.ecutor of e.2.2..0.#hen will allowed.8ills prove& an& allo(e& in a forei'n countr%" accor&in' to the la(s of such countr%" #a% $e allo(e&" file&" an& recor&e& $% the proper Re'ional Trial Court in the PhilippinesSEC 0.8hen a (ill is thus allo(e&" the court shall 'rant letters testa#entar%" or letters of a&#inistration (ith the (ill anne1e&" an& such letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration" shall e1ten& to all the estate of the testator in the Philippines.

0.An% person intereste& in a (ill #a% state in (ritin' the 'roun&s (h% letters testa#entar% shoul& not issue to the persons na#e& therein as e1ecutors" or an% of the#" an& the court" after hearin' upon notice" shall pass upon the sufficienc% of such 'roun&s.A petition #a%" at the sa#e ti#e" $e file& for letters of a&#inistration (ith the (ill anne1e&SEC.SEC 4 7etters testamentary issued when will allowed.5.8hen all of the e1ecutors na#e& in a (ill can not act $ecause of inco#petenc%" refusal to accept the trust" or failure to 'ive $on&" on the part of one or #ore of the#" letters testa#entar% #a% issue to such of the# as are co#petent" accept an& 'ive $on&" an& the% #a% perfor# the &uties an& &ischar'e the trust re>uire& $% the (illSEC.28hen a (ill has $een prove& an& allo(e&" the court shall issue letters testa#entar% thereon to the person na#e& as e1ecutor therein" if he is co#petent" accepts the trust" an& 'ives $on& as re>uire& $% these rules SEC.2 !f no e1ecutor is na#e& in the (ill" or the e1ecutor or e1ecutors are inco#petent" refuse the trust" or fail to 'ive $on&" or a person &ies intestate" a&#inistration shall $e 'rante&* (a) To the survivin' hus$an& or (ife" as the case #a% $e" or ne1t of /in" or $oth" in the &iscretion of the court" or to such person as such survivin' hus$an& or (ife" or ne1t of /in" re>uests to have appointe&" if co#petent an& (illin' to serve7 ($) !f such survivin' hus$an& or (ife" as the case #a% $e" or ne1t of /in" or the person selecte& $% the#" $e inco#petent or un(illin'" or if the hus$an& or (i&o(" or ne1t of /in" ne'lects for thirt% (2B) &a%s after the &eath of the person to appl% for a&#inistration or to re>uest that a&#inistration $e 'rante& to so#e other person" it #a% $e 'rante& to one or #ore of the principal cre&itors" if co#petent an& (illin' to serve7 (c) !f there is no such cre&itor co#petent an& (illin' to serve" it #a% $e 'rante& to such other person as the court #a% select- RULE 79 OPPOSING ISSUANCE OF LETTERS TESTAMENTARY" PETITION AND CONTEST FOR LETTERS OF ADMINISTRATION SECT!O+ .#hen and to whom letters of administration granted.6. Simultaneous petition for administration-.ecutors dis6ualified others may act -.Contents of petition for letters of administration.2 A petition for letters of a&#inistration #ust $e file& $% an intereste& person an& #ust sho(" so far as /no(n to the petitioner(a) The 3uris&ictional facts7 .#here some coe..Opposition to issuance of letters testamentary.

(ppointment of special administrator.2 8hen there is &ela% in 'rantin' letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration $% an% cause inclu&in' an appeal fro# the allo(ance or &isallo(ance of a (ill" the court #a% appoint a special a&#inistrator to ta/e possession an& char'e of the estate of the &ecease& until the >uestions causin' the &ela% are &eci&e& an& e1ecutors or a&#inistrators appointe&SEC.6..$owers and duties of special administrator.3earing and order for letters to issue-.($) The na#es" a'es" an& resi&ences of the heirs" an& the na#es an& resi&ences of the cre&itors" of the &ece&ent7 (c) The pro$a$le value an& character of the propert% of the estate7 (&) The na#e of the person for (ho# letters of a&#inistration are pra%e&)ut no &efect in the petition shall ren&er voi& the issuance of letters of a&#inistrationSEC.#hen letters of administration granted to any applicant.0.2 8hen a petition for letters of a&#inistration is file& in the court havin' 3uris&iction" such court shall fi1 a ti#e an& place for hearin' the petition" an& shall cause notice thereof to $e 'iven to the /no(n heirs an& cre&itors of the &ece&ent" an& to an% other persons $elieve& to have an interest in the estate" in the 9anner provi&e& in sections 2 an& .2 Such special a&#inistrator shall ta/e possession an& char'e of the 'oo&s" chattels" ri'hts" cre&its" an& estate of the &ecease& an& preserve the sa#e for the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator after(ar&s .5. Opposition to petition for administration. ILetters of a&#inistration #a% $e 'rante& to an% >ualifie& applicant" thou'h it appears that there are other co#petent persons havin' $etter ri'ht to the a&#inistration" if such persons fail to appear (hen notifie& an& clai# the issuance of letters to the#selves- RULE 80 SPECIAL ADMINISTRATOR SECT!O+ .4.2. of Rule ?6SEC.2 An% !ntereste& person #a%" $% filin' a (ritten opposition" contest the petition on the 'roun& of the inco#petenc% of the person for (hose letters are pra%e& therein" or on the 'roun& of the contestantGs o(n ri'ht to the a&#inistration" an& #a% pra% that letter issue to hi#self" or to an% co#petent person or persons na#e& !n the oppositionSEC. %otice thereof.Court to set time for hearing.At the hearin' of the petition" it #ust first $e sho(n that notice has $een 'iven as hereina$ove re>uire&" an& thereafter the court shall hear the proofs of the parties in support of their respective alle'ations" an& if satisfie& that the &ece&ent left no (ill " or that there is no co#petent an& (illin' e1ecutor" it shall or&er the issuance of letters of a&#inistration to the part% $est entitle& theretoSEC.

=e #a% sell onl% such perisha$le an& other propert% as the court or&ers sol&.appointe&" an& for that purpose #a% co##ence an& #aintain suits as a&#inistrator.The e1ecutor or a&#inistrator #a% prosecute to final 3u&'#ent suits co##ence& $% such special a&#inistrator- RULE 81 !ONDS OF E&ECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS SECT!O+ .1ond to be given before issuance of letters.ecutors and administrators.2 !f the testator in his (ill &irects that the e1ecutor serve (ithout $on&" or (ith onl% his !n&ivi&ual $on&" he #a% $e allo(e& $% the court to 'ive $on& in such su# an& (ith such suret% as the court approves con&itione& onl% to pa% the &e$ts of the testator7 $ut the court #a% re>uire of the e1ecutor a further $on& in case of a chan'e in his circu#stances" or for other sufficient cause" (ith the con&itions na#e& in the last prece&in' sectionSEC.28hen letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration are 'rante& on the estate of the &ecease&" the po(ers of the special a&#inistrator shall cease" an& he shall forth(ith &eliver to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator the 'oo&s" chattels" #one%" an& estate of the &ecease& in his han&s..ecutor where directed in will.#hen powers of special administrator cease.1onds of "oint e. (mount. )efore an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator enters upon the e1ecution of his trust" an& letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration issue" he shall 'ive a $on&" in such su# as the court &irects" con&itione& as follo(s* (a) To #a/e an& return to the court" (ithin three (2) #onths" a true an& co#plete inventor% of all 'oo&s" chattels" ri'hts" cre&its" an& estate of the &ecease& (hich shall co#e to his possession or /no(le&'e or to the possession of an% other person for hi#7 ($) To a&#inister accor&in' to these rules" an&" if an e1ecutor" accor&in' to the (ill of the testator" all 'oo&s" chattels" ri'hts" cre&its" an& estate (hich shall at an% ti#e co#e to his possession or to the possession of an% other person for hi#" an& fro# the procee&s to pa% an& &ischar'e all &e$ts" le'acies" an& char'es on the sa#e" or such &ivi&en&s thereon as shall $e &ecree& $% the court7 (c) To ren&er a true an& 3ust account of his a&#inistration to the court (ithin one (.) %ear" an& at an% other ti#e (hen re>uire& $% the court7 (&) To perfor# all or&ers of the court $% hi# to $e perfor#e&SEC. $ending suits. #hen further bond re6uired.A special a&#inistrator shall not $e lia$le to pa% an% &e$ts of the &ecease& unless so or&ere& $% the courtSEC. Conditions.2 8hen t(o or #ore persons are appointe& e1ecutors or a&#inistrators the court #a% ta/e a separate $on& fro# each" or a 3oint $on& fro# all- .0.1ond of e. Transfer of effects.2. .2.

Procee&in's for the issuance of letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration un&er the (ill shall $e as herein$efore provi&e&SEC. resignation.Court may remove or accept resignation of e..1ond of special administrator.IThe person to (ho# letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration are 'rante& after the revocation of for#er letters" or the &eath" resi'nation" or re#oval of a for#er e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" shall have the li/e po(ers to collect an& settle the estate not a&#inistere& that the for#er e1ecutor or a&#inistrator ha&" an& #a% prosecute of &efen& actions co##ence& $% or a'ainst the for#er e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" an& have e1ecution on 3u&'#ents recovere& in the na#e of such for#er e1ecutor or a&#inistrator. Renewal of license to sell real estate.(dministration revo)ed if will discovered.8hen an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator &ies" resi'ns" or is re#ove&" the re#ainin' e1ecutor.or a&#inistrator #a% a&#inister the trust alone" unless the court 'rants letters to so#eone to act (ith hi#. resignation.4.2. $roceedings thereupon.!f there is no re#ainin' e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" a&#inistration #a% $e 'rante& to an% suita$le personSEC.2 !f an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator ne'lects to ren&er his account an& settle the estate accor&in' to la(" or to perfor# an or&er or 3u&'#ent of the court" or a &ut% e1pressl% provi&e& $% these rule-" or a$scon&s" or $eco#es insane" or other(ise incapa$le or unsuita$le to &ischar'e the trust" the court #a% re#ove hi#" or" in its &iscretion" #a% per#it hi# to resi'n.0.2 !f after letters of a&#inistration have $een 'rante& on the estate of a &ece&ent as if he ha& &ie& intestate" his (ill is prove& an& allo(e& $% the court" the letters of a&#inistration shall $e revo/e& an& all po(ers thereun&er cease an& the a&#inistrator shall forth(ith surren&er the letters to the court" an& ren&er his account (ithin such ti#e as the court &irects.(cts before revocation. or removal to be valid -.ecutor or administrator.An authorit% 'rante& $% the court to the for#er e1ecutor a&#inistrator for .ecutor or administrator. or removal.$owers of new e.4.2A special a&#inistrator $efore enterin' upon the &uties of his trust shall 'ive a $on&" in such su# as the court &irects" con&itione& that he (ill #a/e an& return a true inventor% of the 'oo&s" chattels" ri'hts" cre&its" an& estate of the &ecease& (hich co#e to his possession or /no(le&'e" an& that he (ill trul% account for such as are receive& $% hi# (hen re>uire& $% the court" an& (ill &eliver the sa#e to the person appointe& e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" or to such other person as #a% $e authori5e& to receive the#- RULE 82 REVOCATION OF ADMINISTRATION# DEAT # RESIGNATION# AND REMOVAL OF E&ECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS SECT!O+ . $roceedings upon death.The la(ful acts of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator $efore the revocation of his letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration" or $efore his resi'nation or re#oval" shall have the li/e vali&it% if there has $een no such revocation resi'nation" or re#ovalSEC.SEC.

.Certain articles not to be inventoried -.2 8ithin three (2) #onths after his appoint#ent ever% e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall return to the court a true inventor% an& appraisal of all the real an& personal estate of the &ecease& (hich has co#e into his possession or /no(le&'e.2.(llowance to widow and family.!n the appraise#ent of such estate" the court #a% or&er one or #ore of the inheritance ta1 appraisers to 'ive his or their assistanceSEC.Inventory and appraisal to be returned within three months.*.2The e1ecutor or a&#inistrator of the estate of a &ecease& partner shall at all ti#es have access to" an& #a% e1a#ine an& ta/e copies of" $oo/s an& papers relatin' to the partnership $usiness" an& #a% e1a#ine an& #a/e invoices of the propert% $elon'in' to such partnership7 an& the survivin' partner or partners" on re>uest" shall e1hi$it to hi# all such $oo/s" papers" an& propert% in their han&s or control.the sale or #ort'a'e of real estate #a% $e rene(e& in favor of such person (ithout further notice or hearin'- RULE 83 INVENTORY AND APPRAISAL" PROVISION FOR SUPPORT OF FAMILY SECT!O+ . 3ow right enforced.0..On the (ritten application of such e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" the Court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate #a% or&er an% such survivin' partner or partners to freel% per#it the e1ercise of the ri'hts" an& to e1hi$it the $oo/s" papers" an& propert%" as in this section provi&e&" an& #a% punish an% partner failin' to &o so for conte#pt- .2The (i&o( an& #inor or incapacitate& chil&ren of a &ecease& person" &urin' the settle#ent of the estate" shall receive therefro#" un&er the &irection of the court" such allo(ance as are provi&e& $% la(- RULE 84 GENERAL POWERS AND DUTIES OF E&ECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS SECT!O+ .ecutor or administrator to have access to partnership boo)s and property.The (earin' apparel of the survivin' hus$an& or (ife an& #inor chil&ren" the #arria'e $e& an& $e&&in'" an& such provisions an& other articles as (ill necessaril% $e consu#e& in the su$sistence of the fa#il% of the &ecease&" un&er the &irection of the court" shall not $e consi&ere& as assets" nor a&#inistere& as such" an& shall not $e inclu&e& in the inventor%SEC.

0.=e #ust account for the e1cess (hen he sells an% part of the estate for #ore than the appraise#ent" an& if an% is sol& for less than the appraise#ent" he is not responsi$le for the loss" if the sale has $een 3ustl% #a&e.SEC.#hen not accountable for debts due estate.*.2.2 !f the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator uses or occupies an% part of the real estate hi#self" he shall account for it as #a% $e a'ree& upon $et(een hi# an& the parties intereste&" or a&3uste& $% the court (ith their assent7 an& if the parties &o not a'ree upon the su# to $e allo(e&" the sa#e #a% $e ascertaine& $% the court" (hose &eter#ination in this respect shall $e finalSEC.*.2An e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall have the ri'ht to the possession an& #ana'e#ent of the real as (ell as the personal estate of the &ecease& so lon' as it is necessar% for the pa%#ent of the &e$ts an& the e1penses of a&#inistration- RULE 85 ACCOUNTA!ILITY AND COMPENSATION OF E&ECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS SECT!O+ .2 +o e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall $e accounta$le for &e$ts &ue the &ecease& (hich re#ain uncollecte& (ithout his faultSEC.5.2 8hen an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator ne'lects or unreasona$l% &ela%s to raise #one%" $% collectin' the &e$ts or sellin' the real or personal estate of the &ecease&" or ne'lects to pa% over the #one% he has in his han&s" an& the value of the estate is there$% lessene& or .4. and to administer estate not willed.(ccountable for income from realty used by him.ecutor or administrator to )eep buildings in repair.ecutor or administrator chargeable with all estate and income -.2 +o e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall profit $% the increase" or suffer loss $% the &ecrease or &estruction" (ithout his fault" of an% part of the estate.2 An e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall #aintain in tenanta$le repair the houses an& other structures an& fences $elon'in' to the estate" an& &eliver the sa#e in such repair to the heirs or &evisees (hen &irecte& so to &o $% the courtSEC.%ot to profit by increase or lose by decrease in value.*..(ccountable if he neglects or delays to raise or pay money.0.!f he settles an% clai# a'ainst the estate for less than its no#inal value" he is entitle& to char'e in his account onl% the a#ount he actuall% pai& on the settle#entSEC. E1cept as other(ise e1pressl% provi&e& in the follo(in' sections" ever% e1ecutor or a&#inistrator is char'ea$le in his account (ith the (hole of the estate of the &ecease& (hich has co#e into his possession" at the value of the appraise#ent containe& in the inventor%7 (ith all the interest" profit" an& inco#e of such estate7 an& (ith the procee&s of so #uch of the estate as is sol& $% hi#" at the price at (hich it (as sol&SEC.2.ecutor or administrator to retain whole estate to pay debts.

A.ecutor or administrator to render account.ecutor or administrator.The heirs" .The court #a% e1a#ine the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator upon oath (ith respect to ever% #atter relatin' to an% account ren&ere& $% hi#" an& shall so e1a#ine hi# as to the correctness of his account $efore the sa#e is allo(e&" e1cept (hen no o$3ection is #a&e to the allo(ance of the account an& its correctness is satisfactoril% esta$lishe& $% co#petent proof.2 Ever% e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall ren&er an account of his a&#inistration (ithin one (.)ut in an% special case" (here the estate is lar'e" an& the settle#ent has $een atten&e& (ith 'reat &ifficult%" an& has re>uire& a hi'h &e'ree of capacit% on the part of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" a 'reater su# #a% $e allo(e&.#hen allowed money paid as costs.) %ear fro# the ti#e of receivin' letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration" unless the court other(ise &irects $ecause of e1tensions of ti#e for presentin' clai#s a'ainst" or pa%in' the &e$ts of" the estate" or for &isposin' of the estate7 an& he shall ren&er such further accounts as the court #a% re>uire until the estate is (holl% settle&SEC.?.unnecessar% cost or interest accrues" or the persons intereste& suffer loss" the sa#e shall $e &ee#e& (aste an& the &a#a'e sustaine& #a% $e char'e& an& allo(e& a'ainst hi# in his account" an& he shall $e lia$le therefor on his $on&SEC. %ot to charge for services as attorney.penses and fees allowed e.!f o$3ection to the fees allo(e& $e ta/en" the allo(ance #a% $e re<e1a#ine& on appeal!f there are t(o or #ore e1ecutors or a&#inistrators" the co#pensation shall $e apportione& a#on' the# $% the court accor&in' to the services actuall% ren&ere& $% the# respectivel%8hen the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator is an attorne%" he shall not char'e a'ainst the estate an% professional fees for le'al services ren&ere& $% hi#8hen the &ecease& $% (ill #a/es so#e other provision for the co#pensation of his e1ecutor" that provision shall $e a full satisfaction for his services unless $% a (ritten instru#ent file& in the court he renounces all clai# to the co#pensation provi&e& $% the (illSEC.*.@.6.#hen e.aminations on oath with respect to account -.#hat e. Compensation provided by will controls unless renounced.2 An e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall $e allo(e& the necessar% e1penses in the case" #ana'e#ent" an& settle#ent of the estate" an& for his services" four pesos per &a% for the ti#e actuall% an& necessaril% e#plo%e&" or a co##ission upon the value of so #uch of the estate as co#es into his possession an& is finall% &ispose& of $% hi# in the pa%#ent of &e$ts" e1penses" le'acies" or &istri$utive shares" or $% &eliver% to heirs or &evisees" of t(o per centum of the first five thousan& pesos of such value" one per centum of so #uch of such value as e1cee&s five thousan& pesos an& &oes not e1cee& thirt% thousan& pesos" one<half per centum of so #uch of such value as e1cee&s thirt% thousan& pesos an& &oes not e1cee& one hun&re& thousan& pesos" an& one<>uarter per centum of so #uch of such value as e1cee&s one hun&re& thousan& pesos.2 The a#ount pai& $% an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator for costs a(ar&e& a'ainst hi# shall $e allo(e& in his a&#inistration account" unless it appears that the action or procee&in' in (hich the costs are ta1e& (as prosecute& or resiste& (ithout 3ust cause" an& not in 'oo& faithSEC.

4iling copy of printed notice.B) &a%s after the notice has $een pu$lishe& an& poste& n accor&ance (ith the prece&in' section" the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall file or cause to $e file& in the court a printe& cop% of the notice acco#panie& (ith an affi&avit settin' forth the &ates of the first an& last pu$lication thereof an& the na#e of the ne(spaper in (hich the sa#e is printe&SEC..%otice to creditors to be issued by court.Surety on bond may be party to accounting.2 !##e&iatel% after 'rantin' letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration" the court shall issue a notice re>uirin' all persona havin' #one% clai#s a'ainst the &ece&ent to file the# in the office of the cler/ of sai& courtSEC.4.Claims which must be filed under the notice.settle#ent of the account of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" a person lia$le as suret% in respect to such account #a%" upon application" $e a&#itte& as part% to such accountin'- RULE 86 CLAIMS AGAINST ESTATE SECT!O+ ..@. barred.. If not filed.5.8ithin ten (.2 Ever% e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall" i##e&iatel% alter the notice to cre&itors is issue&" cause the sa#e to $e pu$lishe& three (2) (ee/s successivel% in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the province" an& to $e poste& for the sa#e perio& in four pu$lic places in the province" an& in t(o pu$lic places in the #unicipalit% (here the &ece&ent last resi&e& SEC.(ccount to be settled on notice-.2 !n the notice provi&e& in the prece&in' section" the court shall state the ti#e for the filin' of clai#s a'ainst the estate" (hich shall not $e #ore than t(elve (..ceptions.) #onthSEC.le'atees" &istri$utees" an& cre&itors of the estate shall have the sa#e privile'e as the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator of $ein' e1a#ine& on oath on an% #atter relatin' to an a&#inistration accountSEC.$ublication of notice to creditors..=o(ever" at an% ti#e $efore an or&er of &istri$ution is entere&" on application of a cre&itor (ho has faile& to file his clai# (ithin the ti#e previousl% li#ite&" the court #a%" for cause sho(n an& on such ter#s as are e>uita$le" allo( such clai# to $e file& (ithin a ti#e not e1cee&in' one (.2.0) nor less than si1 (6) #onths after the &ate of the first pu$lication of the notice.)efore the account of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator is allo(e&" notice shall $e 'iven to persons intereste& of the ti#e an& place of e1a#inin' an& allo(in' the sa#e7 an& such notice #a% $e 'iven personall% to such persons intereste& or $% a&vertise#ent in a ne(spaper or ne(spapers" or $oth" as the court &irectsSEC. e..B.2 Upon the. 2All clai#s for #one% a'ainst the &ece&ent" arisin' fro# contract" e1press or i#plie&" (hether the sa#e $e &ue" not &ue" or contin'ent" all clai#s for funeral e1penses an& . Time within which claims shall be filed.

@.ecutor or administrator against an estate.3ow to file a claim.Solidary obligation of decedent -.The court #a% or&er the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to pa% to the special a&#inistrator necessar% fun&s to &efen& such clai#SEC.8here the o$li'ation of the &ece&ent is soli&ar% (ith another &e$tor" the clai# shall $e file& a'ainst the &ece&ent as if he (ere the onl% &e$tor" (ithout pre3u&ice to the ri'ht of the estate to recover contri$ution fro# the other &e$tor. !ortgage debt due from estate. Contents thereof %otice to e.<.A.Claim of e.6.Clai#s not %et &ue" or contin'ent" #a% $e approve& at their present valueSEC.!n a 3oint o$li'ation of the &ece&ent" the clai# shall $e confine& to the portion $elon'in' to hi#SEC.2 A clai# #a% $e file& $% &eliverin' the sa#e (ith the necessar% vouchers to the cler/ of court an& $% servin' a cop% thereof on the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator.!f the clai# $e foun&e& on a $on&" $ill" note" or an% other instru#ent" the ori'inal nee& not $e file&" $ut a cop% thereof (ith all in&orse#ents shall $e attache& to the clai# an& file& there(ith- .8here an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator co##ences an action" or prosecutes an action alrea&% co##ence& $% the &ecease& in his lifeti#e" the &e$tor #a% set forth $% ans(er the clai#s he has a'ainst the &ece&ent" instea& of presentin' the# in&epen&entl% to the court as herein provi&e&" an& #utual clai#s #a% $e set off a'ainst each other in such action7 an& if final 3u&'#ent is ren&ere& in favor of the &efen&ant" the a#ount so &eter#ine& shall $e consi&ere& the true $alance a'ainst the estate" as thou'h the clai# ha& $een presente& &irectl% $efore the court in the a&#inistration procee&in's.2 A cre&itor hol&in' a clai# a'ainst the &ecease& secure& $% #ort'a'e or other collateral securit%" #a% a$an&on the securit% an& prosecute his clai# in the #anner provi&e& in this rule" an& share in the 'eneral &istri$ution of the assets of the estate7 or he #a% foreclose his #ort'a'e or reali5e upon his securit%" $% action in court" #a/in' the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator a part% &efen&ant" an& if there is a 3u&'#ent for a &eficienc%" after the sale of the #ort'a'e& pre#ises" or the propert% ple&'e&" in the foreclosure or other procee&in's to reali5e upon the securit%" he #a% clai# his &eficienc% 3u&'#ent in the #anner provi&e& in the prece&in' section7 or he #a% rel% upon his #ort'a'e or other securit% alone" an& foreclose the sa#e at an% ti#e (ithin the perio& of the statute of li#itations" an& in that event he shall not $e a&#itte& as a cre&itor" an& shall receive no share in the &istri$ution of the other assets of the estate7 $ut nothin' herein containe& shall prohi$it the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator fro# re&ee#in' the propert% #ort'a'e& or ple&'e&" $% pa%in' the &e$t for (hich it is hel& as securit%" un&er the &irection of the court" if the court shall a&3u&'e it to $e for the $est interest of the estate that such re&e#ption shall $e #a&eSEC.2If the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator has a clai# a'ainst the estate he represents" he shall 'ive notice thereof" in (ritin'" to the court" an& the court shall appoint a special a&#inistrator" (ho shall" in the a&3ust#ent of such clai#" have the sa#e po(er an& $e su$3ect to the sa#e lia$ilit% as the 'eneral a&#inistrator or e1ecutor in the settle#ent of other clai#s.ecutor or administrator.e1penses for the last sic/ness of the &ece&ent" an& 3u&'#ent for #one% a'ainst the &ece&ent" #ust $e file& (ithin the ti#e li#ite& in the notice7 other(ise the% are $arre& forever" e1cept that the% #a% $e set forth as counterclai#s in an% action that the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator #a% $rin' a'ainst the clai#ants.

.2Upon the filin' of an ans(er to a clai#" or upon the e1piration of the ti#e for such filin'" the cler/ of court shall set the clai# for trial (ith notice to $oth parties.!f the clai# is not &ue" or is contin'ent" (hen file&" it #ust also $e supporte& $% affi&avit statin' the particulars thereof.8hen the clai# is &ue" it #ust $e supporte& $% affi&avit statin' the a#ount 3ustl% &ue" that no pa%#ents have $een #a&e thereon (hich are not cre&ite&" an& that there are no offsets to the sa#e" to the /no(le&'e of the affiant.Costs.(nswer of e.5) &a%s after service of a cop% of the clai# on the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" he shall file his ans(er a&#ittin' or &en%in' the clai# specificall%" an& settin' forth the su$stance of the #atters (hich are relie& upon to support the a&#ission or &enial..On &e#an&" ho(ever" of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" or $% or&er of the court or 3u&'e" the ori'inal shall $e e1hi$ite&" unless it $e lost or &estro%e&" in (hich case the clai#ant #ust acco#pan% his clai# (ith affi&avit or affi&avits containin' a cop% or particular &escription of the instru#ent an& statin' its loss or &estruction.The e1ecutor or a&#inistrator in his ans(er shall alle'e in offset an% clai# (hich the &ece&ent $efore &eath ha& a'ainst the clai#ant" an& his failure to &o so shall $ar the clai# forever.!f upon hearin'" an heir" le'atee" or &evisee opposes the clai#" the court #a%" in its &iscretion" allo( hi# fifteen (.A cop% of the ans(er shall $e serve& $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator on the clai#ant.A 3u&'#ent a'ainst the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall $e that he pa%" in &ue course of a&#inistration" the a#ount ascertaine& to $e &ue" an& it shall not create an% lien upon the propert% of the estate" or 'ive to the 3u&'#ent cre&itor an% priorit% of pa%#entSEC.2(ny clai# a&#itte& entirel% $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall i##e&iatel% $e su$#itte& $% the cler/ to the court (ho #a% approve the sa#e (ithout hearin'7 $ut the court" in its &iscretion" $efore approvin' the clai#" #a% or&er that /no(n heirs" le'atees" or &evisees $e notifie& an& hear&.8here an action co##ence& a'ainst the &ecease& for #one% has $een .4..28hen the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" in his ans(er" a&#its an& offers to pa% part of a clai#" an& the clai#ant refuses to accept the a#ount offere& in satisfaction of his clai#" if he fails to o$tain a #ore favora$le 3u&'#ent" he cannot recover costs" $ut #ust pa% to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator costs fro# the ti#e of the offer.The court #a% refer the clai# to a co##issionerSEC.0.2...B.The court in its &iscretion #a% e1ten& the ti#e for filin' such ans(erSEC.Trial of contested claim.!f he has no /no(le&'e sufficient to ena$le hi# to a&#it or &en% specificall%" he shall state such (ant of /no(le&'e.2The 3u&'#ent of the court approvin' or &isapprovin' a clai#" shall $e file& (ith the recor& of the a&#inistration procee&in's (ith notice to $oth parties" an& is appeala$le as in or&inar% cases.8hen the affi&avit is #a&e $% a person other than the clai#ant" he #ust set forth therein the reason (h% it is not #a&e $% the clai#ant. Offsets.ecutor or administrator..+isposition of admitted claim.The clai# once file& shall $e attache& to the recor& of the case in (hich the letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration (ere issue&" althou'h the court" in its &iscretion" an& as a #atter of convenience" #a% or&er all the clai#s to $e collecte& in a separate fol&erSEC..5) &a%s to file an ans(er to the clai# in the #anner prescri$e& in the prece&in' sectionSEC.udgment appealable.2 8ithin fifteen (.

5.$roceedings when property concealed.0.4.!ortgage due estate may be foreclosed. embe55led.2.ecutor or administrator may bring or defend actions which survive -..2+o action upon a clai# for the recover% of #one% or &e$t or interest thereon shall $e co##ence& a'ainst the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator7 $ut actions to recover real or personal propert%" or an interest therein" fro# the estate" or to enforce a lien thereon" an& actions to recover &a#a'es for an in3ur% to person or propert%" real or personal" #a% $e co##ence& a'ainst hi#SEC.&iscontinue& an& the clai# e#$race& therein presente& as in this rule provi&e&" the prevailin' part% shall $e allo(e& the costs of his action up to the ti#e of its &iscontinuance- RULE 87 ACTIONS !Y AND AGAINST E&ECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS SECT!O+ .2 8hen an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator is appointe& an& assu#es the trust" no action to recover the title or possession of lan&s or for &a#a'es &one to such lan&s shall $e #aintaine& a'ainst hi# $% an heir or &evisee until there is an or&er of the court assi'nin' such lan&s to such heir or &evisee or until the ti#e allo(e& for pa%in' &e$ts has e1pire&SEC.*.6. or fraudulently conveyed.(ctions which may and which may not be brought against e.ecutor or administrator.ecutor or administrator may compound with debtor.For the recover% or protection of the propert% or ri'hts of the &ecease&" an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator #a% $rin' or &efen&" in the ri'ht of the &ecease&" actions for causes (hich surviveSEC.2 A #ort'a'e $elon'in' to the estate of a &ecease& person" as #ort'a'ee or assi'nee of the ri'ht of a #ort'a'ee" #a% $e foreclose& $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistratorSEC.*.3eir may not sue until share assigned.2!f an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" heir" le'atee" cre&itor" or other in&ivi&ual intereste& in the estate of the &ecease&" co#plains to the court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate that a person is suspecte& of havin' conceale&" e#$e55le&" or conve%e& a(a% an% of the #one%" 'oo&s" or chattels of the &ecease&" or that such person has in his possession or has /no(le&'e of an% &ee&" conve%ance" $on&" contracts" or other (ritin' (hich contains evi&ence of or ten&s to &isclose the ri'ht" title" interest" or clai# of the &ecease& to real or personal estate" or the last (ill an& testa#ent of the &ecease&" the court #a% cite such suspecte& person to appear $efore it an& #a% e1a#ine hi# on oath on the #atter of such co#plaint7 an& if the person so cite& refuses to appear" or to ans(er on such e1a#ination such interro'atories as are put to .2 8ith the approval of the court" an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator #a% co#poun& (ith the &e$tor of the &ecease& for a &e$t &ue" an& #a% 'ive a &ischar'e of such &e$t on receivin' a 3ust &ivi&en& of the estate of the &e$torSEC.

Such cre&itor shall have a lien upon an% 3u&'#ent recovere& $% hi# in the action for such costs an& other e1penses incurre& therein as the court &ee#s e>uita$le.#hen creditor may bring action.2 The court" on co#plaint of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" #a% cite a person entruste& $% an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator (ith an% part of the estate of the &ecease& to appear $efore it" an& #a% re>uire such person to ren&er a full account" on oath" of the #one%" 'oo&s" chattels" $on&s" accounts" or other papers $elon'in' to such estate as ca#e to his possession in trust for such e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" an& of his procee&in's thereon7 an& if the person so cite& refuses to appear to ren&er such account" the court #a% punish hi# for conte#pt as havin' &iso$e%e& a la(ful or&er of the courtSEC.8here the conve%ance or atte#pte& conve%ance has $een #a&e $% the &ecease& in his lifeti#e in favor of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" the action .*mbe55lement before letters issued.The interro'atories put to an% such person" an& his ans(ers thereto" shall $e in (ritin' an& shall $e file& in the cler/Gs officeSEC.@.2 8hen there is such a &eficienc% of assets" an& the &ecease& in his lifeti#e ha& #a&e or atte#pte& such a conve%ance" as is state& in the last prece&in' section" an& the e1ecutor an& a&#inistrator has not co##ence& the action therein provi&e& for" an% cre&itor of the estate #a%" (ith the per#ission of the court" co##ence an& prosecute to final 3u&'#ent" in the na#e of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" a li/e action for the recover% of the su$3ect of the conve%ance or atte#pte& conve%ance for the $enefit of the cre&itors)ut the action shall not $e co##ence& until the cre&itor has file& in a court a $on& e1ecute& to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" in an a#ount approve& $% the 3u&'e" con&itione& to in&e#nif% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator a'ainst the costs an& e1penses incurre& $% reason of such action.$roperty fraudulent conveyed by deceased may be recovered.$erson entrusted with estate compelled to render account.A..hi#" the court #a% punish hi# for conte#pt" an& #a% co##it hi# to prison until he su$#its to the or&er of the court. #hen e. 7ien for cost.ecutor or administrator must bring action.?.2 8hen there is a &eficienc% of assets in the han&s of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator for the pa%#ent of &e$ts an& e1penses of a&#inistration" an& the &ecease& in his lifeti#e ha& conve%e& real or personal propert%" or a ri'ht or interest therein" or &e$t or cre&it" (ith intent to &efrau& his cre&itors or to avoi& an% ri'ht &e$t" or &ut%7 or ha& so conve%e& such propert%" ri'ht" interest" &e$t" or cre&itors" an& the su$3ect of the atte#pte& conve%ance (oul& $e lia$le to attach#ent $% an% of the# in his lifeti#e" the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator #a% co##ence an& prosecute to final 3u&'#ent an action for the recover% of such propert%" ri'ht" interest" &e$ts" or cre&it for the $enefit of the cre&itors7 $ut he shall not $e $oun& to co##ence the action unless the cre&itors #a/in' the application pa% such part of the costs an& e1penses" or 'ive securit% therefor to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" as the court &ee#s e>uita$leSEC.B.2 !f a person" $efore the 'rantin' of letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration on the estate of the &ecease&" e#$e55les or alienates an% of the #one%" 'oo&s" chattels" or effect of such &ecease&" such person shall $e lia$le to an action in favor of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator of the estate for &ou$le the value of the propert% sol&" e#$e55le&" or alienate&" to $e recovere& for the $enefit of such estateSEC.

5.2.)ut if the clai# is not so presente&" after havin' $eco#e a$solute" (ithin sai& t(o (0) %ears" an& allo(e&" the assets retaine& in the han&s of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" not e1hauste& in the .!f the contin'ent clai# is allo(e&" the cre&itor shall receive pa%#ent to the sa#e e1tent as the other cre&itors if the estate retaine& $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator is sufficient. then realty.(hich a cre&itor #a% $rin' shall $e in the na#e of all the cre&itors" an& per#ission of the court an& filin' of $on& as a$ove prescri$e&" are not necessar%- RULE 88 PAYMENT OF T E DE!TS OF T E STATE SECT!O+ .2 !f such contin'ent clai# $eco#es a$solute an& is presente& to the court" or to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" (ithin t(o (0) %ears fro# the ti#e li#ite& for other cre&itors to present their clai#s" it #a% $e allo(e& $% the court if not &ispute& $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" an&" if &ispute&" it #a% $e prove& an& allo(e& or &isallo(e& $% the court as facts #a% (arrant.An% &eficienc% shall $e #et $% contri$utions in accor&ance (ith the provisions of section 6 of this ruleSEC..2!f" after hearin' all the #one% clai#s a'ainst the estate" an& after ascertainin' the a#ount of such clai#s" it appears that there are sufficient assets to pa% the &e$ts" the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall pa% the sa#e (ithin the ti#e li#ite& for that purposeSEC.0.*state to be retained to meet contingent claims.$art of estate from which debt paid when provision made by will.2 !f the court is satisfie& that a contin'ent clai# &ul% file& is vali&" it #a% or&er the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to retain in his han&s sufficient estate to pa% such contin'ent clai# (hen the sa#e $eco#es a$solute" or" if the estate is insolvent" sufficient to pa% a portion e>ual to the &ivi&en& of the other cre&itorsSEC.2 !f the testator #a/es provision $% his (ill" or &esi'nates the estate to $e appropriate& for the pa%#ent of his &e$ts" the e1penses of a&#inistration" or the fa#il% e1penses" the% shall pai& accor&in' to the provisions of the (ill7 $ut if the provision #a&e $% the (ill or the state appropriate&" is not sufficient for that purpose" such part of the state of the testator" real or personal" as is not &ispose& of $% (ill" if an%" shall $e appropriate& for that purposeSEC.3ow contingent claim becoming absolute in two years allowed and paid. (ction against distributes later.2 The personal estate of the &ecease& not &ispose& of $% (ill shall $e first char'ea$le (ith the pa%#ent of &e$ts an& e1penses7 an& if sai& personal estate is not sufficient for that purpose" or its sale (oul& re&oun& to the &etri#ent of the participants of the estate" the (hole of the real estate not &ispose& of $% (ill" or so #uch thereof as is necessar%" #a% $e sol&" #ort'a'e&" or other(ise encu#$ere& for that purpose $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" after o$tainin' the authorit% of the court thereof.$ersonalty first chargeable for debts.4.+ebts paid in full if estate sufficient.

. !f it appears to the court havin' 3uris&iction that clai#s have $een &ul% proven in another countr% a'ainst the estate of an insolvent (ho (as at the ti#e of his &eath an inha$itant of the Philippines" an& that the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator in the Philippines ha& /no(le&'e of the presentation of such clai#s in such countr% an& an opportunit% to contest their allo(ance" the court shall receive a certifie& list of such clai#s" (hen perfecte& in such countr%" an& a&& the sa#e to the list of clai#s prove& a'ainst the &ecease& person in the Philippines so that a 3ust &istri$ution of the (hole estate #a% $e #a&e e>uall% a#on' all its cre&itors accor&in' to their respective clai#s7 $ut the $enefit of this an& the prece&in' sections shall not $e e1ten&e& to the cre&itors in another countr% if the propert% of such &ecease& person there foun& is not e>uall% apportione& to the cre&itors resi&in' in the Philippines an& the other cre&itors" accor&in' to their respective clai#sSEC. .Order for payment of debts..Court to fi. . 8here &evisees" le'atees" or heirs have entere& into possession of portions of the estate $efore the &e$ts an& e1penses have $een settle& an& pai&" an& have $eco#e lia$le to contri$ute for the pa%#ent of such &e$ts an& e1penses" the court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate #a%" $% or&er for that purpose" after hearin'" settle the a#ount of their several lia$ilities" an& or&er ho( #uch an& in (hat #anner each person shall contri$ute" an& #a% issue e1ecution as circu#stances re>uireSEC.B5A an& 002A to 005. how disposed of.#hen and how claim proved outside the $hilippines against insolvent residentAs estate paid. . . legatees..B.pa%#ent of clai#s" shall $e &istri$ute& $% the or&er of the court to the persons entitle& to the sa#e7 $ut the assets so &istri$ute& #a% still $e applie& to the pa%#ent of the clai# (hen esta$lishe&" an& the cre&itor #a% #aintain an action a'ainst the &istri$utees to recover the &e$t" an& such &istri$utees an& their estates shall $e lia$le for the &e$t in proportion to the estate the% have respectivel% receive& for# the propert% of the &ecease&SEC. contributive shares where devisees.@.. of the Civil Co&eSEC. !n case a&#inistration is ta/en in the Philippines of the estate of a person (ho (as at the ti#e of his &eath an inha$itant of another countr%" an& (ho &ie& insolvent" his estate foun& in the Philippines shall" as far as practica$le" $e so &ispose& of that his cre&itors here an& else(here #a% receive each an e>ual share" in proportion to their respective cre&itsSEC. or heirs have been in possession.*state of insolvent nonresident.Order of payment if estate insolvent.?.+o cre&itor of an% one class shall receive an% pa%#ent until those of the prece&in' class are pai&SEC.+ividends to be paid in proportion to claims.6. !f there are no assets sufficient to pa% the cre&its of an% one class of cre&itors after pa%in' the cre&its entitle& to preference over it" each cre&itor (ithin such class shall $e pai& a &ivi&en& in propor< tion to his clai#. !f the assets (hich can $e appropriate& for the pa%#ent of &e$ts are not sufficient for that purpose" the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall pa% the &e$ts a'ainst the estate" o$servin' the provisions of Articles . . .A. )efore the e1piration of the ti#e li#ite& for the pa%#ent of the &e$ts" the court shall or&er the pa%#ent thereof" an& the &istri$ution .

!f the (hole of the &e$ts are not pai& on the first &istri$ution" an& if the (hole assets are not &istri$ute&" or other assets after(ar&s co#e to the han&s of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" the court #a% fro# ti#e to ti#e #a/e further or&ers for the &istri$ution of assetsSEC.Time for paying debts and legacies fi.tended on notice within certain period. On 'rantin' letters testa#entar% or a&#inistration the court shall allo( to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator a ti#e for &isposin' of the estate an& pa%in' the &e$ts an& le'acies of the &ecease&" (hich shall not" in the first instance" e1cee& one (.Creditors to be paid in accordance with terms of order. 8hen an or&er is #a&e for the &istri$ution of assets a#on' the cre&itors" the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall" as soon as the ti#e of pa%#ent arrives" pa% the cre&itors the a#ounts of their clai#s" or the &ivi&en& thereon" in accor&ance (ith the ter#s of such or&erSEC. .2.of the assets receive& $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator for that purpose a#on' the cre&itors" as the circu#stances of the estate re>uire an& in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this ruleSEC... . ..Orders relating to payment of debts where appeal is ta)en. .6.) %ear7 $ut the court #a%" on application of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator an& after hearin' on such notice of the ti#e an& place therefor 'iven to all persons intereste& as it shall &irect" e1ten& the ti#e as the circu#stances of the estate re>uire not e1cee&in' si1 (6) #onths for a sin'le e1tension nor so that the (hole perio& allo(e& to the ori'inal e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall e1cee& t(o (0) %earsSEC.5. 8hen an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator &ies" an& a ne( a&#inistrator of the sa#e estate is appointe&" the court #a% e1ten& the ti#e allo(e& for the pa%#ent of the &e$ts or le'acies $e%on& the ti#e allo(e& to the ori'inal e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" not e1cee&in' si1 (6) #onths at a ti#e an& not e1cee&in' si1 (6) #onths )e%on& the ti#e (hich the court #i'ht have allo(e& to such ori'inal e1ecutor or a&#inistrator7 an& notice shall $e 'iven of the ti#e an& place for hearin' such applica < tion" as re>uire& in the last prece&in' section- RULE 89 SALES# MORTGAGES# AND OT ER ENCUM!RANCES OF PROPERTY .Successor of dead e.ed.#hen subse6uent distribution of assets ordered. .ecutor or administrator may have time e.4.8hen a &ispute& clai# is finall% settle& the court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate shall or&er the sa#e to $e pai& out of the assets retaine& to the sa#e e1tent an& in the sa#e proportion (ith the clai#s of other cre&itorsSEC.tended after notice...0. or e. within what periods. !f an appeal has $een ta/en fro# a &ecision of the court concernin' a clai#" the court #a% suspen& the or&er for the pa%#ent of the &e$ts or #a% or&er the &istri$ution a#on' the cre&itors (hose clai#s are &efinitel% allo(e&" leavin' in the han&s of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator sufficient assets to pa% the clai# &ispute& an& appeale&.

+o such authorit% to sell" #ort'a'e" or other(ise encu#$er real or personal estate shall $e 'rante& if an% person intereste& in the estate 'ives a $on&" in a su# to $e fi1e& $% the court" con&itione& to pa% the &e$ts" e1penses of a&#inistration" an& le'acies (ithin such ti#e as the court &irects7 an& such $on& shall $e for the securit% of the cre&itors" as (ell as of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" an& #a% $e prosecute& for the $enefit of eitherSEC.!n case of such sale" the procee&s shall $e assi'ne& to the persons entitle& to the estate in the proper proportionsSEC.5. . .#hen court may authori5e sale.Order of sale of personalty.OF DECEDENT SECT!O+ .0.$ersons interested may prevent such sale.8hen it appears that the sale of the (hole or a part of the real or personal estate" (ill $e $eneficial to the heirs" &evisees" le'atees" an& other intereste& persons" the court #a%" upon application of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator an& on (ritten notice to the heirs" &evisees" an& le'atees (ho are intereste& in the estate to $e sol&" authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to sell the (hole or a part of sai& estate" althou'h not necessar% to pa% &e$ts" le'acies" or e1penses of a&#inistration7 $ut such authorit% shall not $e 'rante& if inconsistent (ith the provisions of a (ill.Upon the application of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" an& on (ritten notice to the heirs an& other persons intereste&" the court #a% or&er the (hole or a part of the personal estate to $e sol&" if it appears necessar% for the purpose of pa%in' &e$ts" e1penses of a&#inistration" or le'acies" or for the preservation of the propert%SEC.. or other encumbrance of realty to pay debts and legacies through personalty not e...#hen court may authori5e sale of estate as beneficial to interested persons. . mortgage. etc. mortgage.. by giving bond. +isposal of proceeds.hausted. 8hen the sale of personal estate" or the sale" #ort'a'e" or other encu#$rance of real estate is not necessar% to pa% the &e$ts" e1penses of a&#inistration" or le'acies in the Philippines" $ut it appears fro# recor&s of procee&in's of a pro$ate court in another countr% that the estate of the &ecease& in such other countr% is not sufficient to pa% the &e$ts" e1penses an& a&#inistration" an& .2. or other encumbrance of estate to pay debts and legacies in other countries.#hen court may authori5e sale.8hen the personal estate of the &ecease& is not sufficient to pa% the &e$ts" e1penses of a&#inistration" an& le'acies" or (here the sale of such personal estate #a% in3ure the $usiness or other interests of those intereste& in the estate" an& (here a testator has not other(ise #a&e sufficient provision for the pa%#ent of such &e$ts" e1penses an& le'acies" the court" on the application of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator an& on (ritten notice to the heirs" &evisees" an& le'atees resi&in' in the Philippines" #a% authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to sell" #ort'a'e" or other(ise encu#$er so #uch as #a% $e necessar% of the real estate" in lieu of personal estate" for the purpose of pa%in' such &e$ts" e1penses" an& le'acies" if it clearl% appears that such sale" #ort'a'e" or encu#$rance (oul& $e $eneficial to the persons intereste&7 an& if a part cannot $e sol&" #ort'a'e&" or other(ise encu#$ere& (ithout in3ur% to those intereste& in the re#ain&er" the authorit% #a% $e for the sale" #ort'a'e" or other encu#$rance of the (hole of such real estate" or so #uch thereof as is necessar% or $eneficial un&er the circu#stancesSEC.4.

mortgage.6. or other encumbrance of realty ac6uired on e. mortgage..?.Regulations for granting authority to sell. or otherwise encumber estates.ecution or foreclosure.le'acies there" the court here #a% authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to sell the personal estate or to sell" #ort'a'e" or other(ise encu#$er the real estate for the pa%#ent of &e$ts or le'acies in the other countr%" in the sa#e #anner as for the pa%#ent of &e$ts or le'acies in the PhilippinesSEC..#hen court may authori5e sale.The e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall $e furnishe& (ith a certifie& cop% of such or&er7 (e) !f the estate is to $e sol& at auction" the #o&e of 'ivin' notice of the ti#e an& place of the sale shall $e 'overne& $% the provisions concernin' notice of e1ecution sale7 (f) There shall $e recor&e& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the province in (hich the real estate thus sol&" #ort'a'e&" or other(ise encu#$ere& is situate&" a certifie& cop% of the or&er of the court" to'ether (ith the &ee& of the .The court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate of the &ecease& #a% authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to sell personal estate" or to sell" #ort'a'e" or other(ise encu#$er real estate" in cases provi&e& $% these rules an& (hen it appears necessar% or $eneficial" un&er the follo(in' re'ulations* (a) The e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall file a (ritten petition settin' forth the &e$ts &ue fro# the &ecease&" the e1penses of a&#inistration" the le'acies" the value of the personal estate" the situation of the estate to $e sol&" #ort'a'e&" or other(ise encu#$ere&" an& such other facts as sho( that the sale" #ort'a'e" or other encu#$rance is necessar% or $eneficial7 ($) The court shall thereupon fi1 a ti#e an& place for hearin' such petition" an& cause notice statin' the nature of the petition" the reason for the sa#e" an& the ti#e an& place of hearin'" to $e 'iven personall% or $% #ail to the persons intereste&" an& #a% cause such further notice to $e 'iven" $% pu$lication or other(ise" as it shall &ee# proper7 (c) !f the court re>uires it" the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall 'ive an a&&itional $on&" in such su# as the court &irects" con&itione& that such e1ecutor or a&#inistrator (ill account for the procee&s of the sale" #ort'a'e" or other encu#$rance7 (&) !f the re>uire#ents in the prece&in' su$&ivisions of this section have $een co#plie& (ith" the court" $% or&er statin' such co#pliance" #a% authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to sell" #ort'a'e" or other(ise encu#$er" in proper cases" such part of the estate as is &ee#e& necessar%" an& in case of sale the court #a% authori5e it to $e pu$lic or private" as (oul& $e #ost $eneficial to all parties concerne&.The court #a% authori5e an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to sell" #ort'a'e" or other(ise encu#$er real estate ac>uire& $% hi# on e1ecution or foreclosure sale" un&er the sa#e circu#stances an& un&er the sa#e re'ulations as prescri$e& in this rule for the sale" #ort'a'e" or other encu#$rance of other real estateSEC.

#hen court may authori5e conveyance of realty which deceased contracted to convey.!f there is a controvers% $efore the court as to (ho are the la(ful heirs of the &ecease& person or as to the &istri$utive shares to (hich each person is entitle& un&er the la(" the controvers% shall $e hear& an& &eci&e& as in or&inar% cases+o &istri$ution shall $e allo(e& until the pa%#ent of the o$li'ations a$ove #entione& has $een #a&e or provi&e& for" unless the &istri$utees" or an% of the#" 'ive .#hen order for distribution of residue made..8hen the &e$ts" funeral char'es" an& e1penses of a&#inistration" the allo(ance to the (i&o(" an& inheritance ta1" if an%" char'ea$le to the estate in accor&ance (ith la(" have $een pai&" the court" on the application of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" or of a person intereste& in the estate" an& after hearin' upon notice" shall assi'n the resi&ue of the estate to the persons entitle& to the sa#e" na#in' the# an& the proportions" or parts" to (hich each is entitle&" an& such persons #a% &e#an& an& recover their respective shares fro# the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" or an% other person havin' the sa#e in his possession.#hen court may authori5e conveyance of lands which deceased held in trust.A.8here the &ecease& (as in his lifeti#e un&er contract" $in&in' in la(" to &ee& real propert%" or an interest therein" the court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate #a%" on application for that purpose" authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to conve% such propert% accor&in' to such contract" or (ith such #o&ifications as are a'ree& upon $% the parties an& approve& $% the court7 an& if the contract is to conve% real propert% to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" the cler/ of the court shall e1ecute the &ee&.8here the &ecease& in his lifeti#e hel& real propert% in trust for another person" the court #a%" after notice 'iven as re>uire& in the last prece&in' section" authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to &ee& such propert% to the person" or his e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" for (hose use an& $enefit it (as so hel&7 an& the court #a% or&er the e1ecution of such trust" (hether create& $% &ee& or $% la(- RULE 90 DISTRI!UTION AND PARTITION OF T E ESTATE SECT!O+ . %otice.@.e1ecutor or a&#inistrator for such real estate" (hich shall $e as vali& as if the &ee& ha& $een e1ecute& $% the &ecease& in his lifeti#eSEC. .The &ee& e1ecute& $% such e1ecutor" a&#inistrator" or cler/ of court shall $e as effectual to conve% the propert% as if e1ecute& $% the &ecease& in his lifeti#e7 $ut no such conve%ance shall $e authori5e& until notice of the application for that purpose has $een 'iven personall% or $% #ail to all persons intereste&" an& such further notice has $een 'iven" $% pu$lication or other(ise" as the court &ee#s proper7 nor if the assets in the han&s of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator (ill there$% $e re&uce& so as to prevent a cre&itor fro# receivin' his full &e$t or &i#inish his &ivi&en&SEC.. . *ffect of deed.

Luestions as to a&vance#ent #a&e" or alle'e& to have $een #a&e" $% the &ecease& to an% heir #a% $e hear& an& &eter#ine& $% the court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate procee&in's7 an& the final or&er of the court thereon shall $e $in&in' on the person raisin' the >uestions an& on the heirSEC..Certifie& copies of final or&ers an& 3u&'#ents of the court relatin' to the real estate or the partition thereof shall $e recor&e& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the province (here the propert% is situate&- RULE 91 ESC EATS SECT!O+ .#hen and by whom petition filed.2. .penses of partition paid.!f at the ti#e of the &istri$ution the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator has retaine& sufficient effects in his han&s (hich #a% la(full% $e applie& for the e1penses of partition of the properties &istri$ute&" such e1penses of partition #a% $e pai& $% such e1ecutor or a&#inistrator (hen it appears e>uita$le to the court an& not inconsistent (ith the intention of the testator7 other(ise" the% shall $e pai& $% the parties in proportion to their respective shares or interest in the pre#ises" an& the apportion#ent shall $e settle& an& allo(e& $% the court" an&" if an% person intereste& in the partition &oes not pa% his proportion or share" the court #a% issue an e1ecution in the na#e of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator a'ainst the part% not pa%in' for the su# assesse&SEC.Recording the order of partition of estate. .!f the petition is sufficient in for# an& su$stance" the court" $% an or&er recitin' the purpose of the petition" shall fi1 a &ate an& place for the hearin' thereof" (hich &ate shall $e not #ore than si1 (6) #onths after the entr% of the or&er" an& shall &irect that a cop% of the or&er $e pu$lishe& $efore the hearin' at least once a (ee/ for si1 (6) successive (ee/s in so#e ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation pu$lishe& in the province" as the court shall &ee# $estSEC.)% whom e.2.Order for hearing.Upon satisfactor% proof in open court on the &ate fi1e& in the or&er that such or&er has $een pu$lishe& as &irecte& an& that the person &ie& intestate" sei5e& of real or personal propert% in the Philippines" leavin' no heir or ..a $on&" in a su# to $e fi1e& $% the court" con&itione& for the pa%#ent of sai& o$li'ations (ithin such ti#e as the court &irectsSEC.2 8hen a person &ies intestate" sei5e& of real or personal propert% in the Philippines" leavin' no heir or person $% la( entitle& to the sa#e" the Solicitor Ceneral or his representative in $ehalf of the Repu$lic of the Philippines" #a% file a petition in the Re'ional Trial Court of the province (here the &ecease& last resi&e& or !n (hich he ha& estate" if he resi&e& out of the Philippines" settin' forth the facts" an& pra%in' that the estate of the &ecease& $e &eclare& escheate&SEC.4. .0. .8uestions as to advancement to be determined.3earing and "udgment.0.

!eaning of word Bincompetent.Cuar&ianship of the person or estate of a #inor or inco#petent #a% $e institute& in the Re'ional Trial Court of the province" or in the 3ustice of the peace court of the #unicipalit%" or in the #unicipal court of the chartere& cit% (here the #inor or inco#petent person resi&es" an& if he resi&es in a forei'n countr%" in the Re'ional Trial Court of the province (herein his propert% or part thereof is situate&7 provi&e&" ho(ever" that (here the value of the propert% of such #inor or inco#petent e1cee&s the 3uris&iction of the 3ustice of the peace or #unicipal court" the procee&in's shall $e institute& in the Re'ional Trial Court!n the Cit% of 9anila the procee&in's shall $e institute& in the Huvenile an& Fo#estic Relations CourtSEC.Un&er this rule" the (or& Minco#petentM inclu&es persons sufferin' the penalt% of civil inter&iction or (ho are hospitali5e& lepers" . .Such estate shall $e for the $enefit of pu$lic schools" an& pu$lic charita$le institutions an& centers in sai& #unicipalities or citiesThe court" at the instance of an intereste& part%" or on its o(n #otion" #a% or&er the esta$lish#ent of a per#anent trust" so that onl% the inco#e fro# the propert% shall $e use&SEC.#here to institute proceedings.person entitle& to the sa#e" an& no sufficient cause $ein' sho(n to the contrar%" the court shall a&3u&'e that the estate of the &ecease& in the Philippines" after the pa%#ent of 3ust &e$ts an& char'es" shall escheat7 an& shall" pursuant to la(" assi'n the personal estate to the #unicipalit% or cit% (here he last resi&e& in the Philippines" an& the real estate to the #unicipalities or cities" respectivel%" in (hich the sa#e is situate&.!f a &evisee" le'atee" heir" (i&o(" (i&o(er" or other person entitle& to such estate appears an& files a clai# thereto (ith the court (ithin five (5) %ears fro# the &ate of such 3u&'#ent such person shall have possession of an& title to the sa#e" or if sol&" the #unicipalit% or cit% shall $e accounta$le to" hi# for the procee&s" after &e&uctin' reasona$le char'es for the care of the estate7 $ut a clai# not #a&e (ithin sai& ti#e shall $e forever $arre&SEC.0.5..Other actions for escheat.2Until other(ise provi&e& $% la(" actions for reversion or escheat of properties alienate& in violation of the Constitution or of an% statute shall $e 'overne& $% this rule" e1cept that the action shall $e institute& in the province (here the lan& lies in (hole or in part- GENERAL GUARDIANS AND GUARDIANS IP RULE 92 VENUE SECT!O+ .B .#hen and by whom claim to estate filed.!f the &ecease& never resi&e& in the Philippines" the (hole estate #a% $e assi'ne& to the respective #unicipalities or cities (here the sa#e is locate&.4..

.An officer of the Fe&eral A&#inistration of the Unite& States in the Philippines #a% also file a Mpetition in favor of a (ar& thereof" an& the Firector of =ealth" in favor of an insane person (ho shoul& $e hospitali5e&" or in favor of an isolate& leperSEC.pro&i'als" &eaf an& &u#$ (ho are una$le to rea& an& (rite" those (ho are of unsoun& #in&" even thou'h the% have luci& intervals" an& persons not $ein' of unsoun& #in&" $ut $% reason of a'e" &isease" (ea/ #in&" an& other si#ilar causes" cannot" (ithout outsi&e ai&" ta/e care of the#selves an& #ana'e their propert%" $eco#in' there$% an eas% pre% for &eceit an& e1ploitationSEC.Contents of petition.Court to set time for hearing.#ho may petition for appointment of guardian for resident.An% relative" frien&" or other person on $ehalf of a resi&ent #inor or inco#petent (ho has no parent or la(ful 'uar&ian" or the #inor hi#self if fourteen %ears of a'e or over" #a% petition the court havin' 3uris&iction for the appoint#ent of a 'eneral 'uar&ian for the person or estate" or $oth" of such #inor or inco#petent..Transfer of venue.4 %ears . %otice thereof.2.2 8hen a petition for the appoint#ent of a 'eneral 'uar&ian is file&" the court shall fi1 a ti#e an& place for hearin' the sa#e" an& shall cause reasona$le notice thereof to $e 'iven to the persons #entione& in the petition resi&in' in the province" inclu&in' the #inor if a$ove .2..2( petition for the appoint#ent of a 'eneral 'uar&ian #ust sho(" so far as /no(n to the petitioner* (a) The 3uris&ictional facts7 ($) The #inorit% or inco#petenc% ren&erin' the appoint#ent necessar% or convenient7 (c) The na#es" a'es" an& resi&ences of the relatives of the #inor or inco#petent" an& of the persons havin' hi# in their care7 (&) (e) The pro$a$le value an& character of his estate7 The na#e of the person for (ho# letters of 'uar&ianship are pra%e&- The petition shall $e verifie&7 $ut no &efect in the petition or verification shall ren&er voi& the issuance of letters of 'uar&ianshipSEC.The court ta/in' co'ni5ance of a 'uar&ianship procee&in'" #a% transfer the sa#e to the court of another province or #unicipalit% (herein the (ar& has ac>uire& real propert%" if he has transferre& thereto his bona fide resi&ence" an& the latter court shall have full 3uris&iction to continue the procee&in's" (ithout re>uirin' pa%#ent of a&&itional court fees- RULE 93 APPOINTMENT OF GUARDIANS SECT!O+ .0.

4. (mount.6.of a'e or the inco#petent hi#self" an& #a% &irect other 'eneral or special notice thereof to $e 'ivenSEC..Thereupon the court shall hear the evi&ence of the parties in support of their respective alle'ations" an&" if the person in >uestion is a #inor or inco#petent it shall appoint a suita$le 'uar&ian of his person or estate" or $oth" (ith the po(ers an& &uties hereinafter specifie&SEC..#hen and how guardian for nonresident appointed.5.Opposition to petition.For 'oo& reasons the court #a%" ho(ever" appoint another suita$le personSEC.1ond to be given before issuance of letters.?.8hen a person lia$le to $e put un&er 'uar&ianship resi&es (ithout the Philippines $ut has estate therein" an% relative or frien& of such person" or an% one intereste& in his estate" in e1pectanc% or other(ise" #a% petition a court havin' 3uris&iction for the appoint#ent of a 'uar&ian for the estate" an& if" after notice 'iven to such person an& in such #anner as the court &ee#s proper" $% pu$lication or other(ise" an& hearin' the court is satisfie& that such nonresi&ent is a #inor or inco#petent ren&erin' a 'uar&ian necessar% or convenient" it #a% appoint a 'uar&ian for such estateSEC. )efore a 'uar&ian appointe& enters upon the e1ecution of his trust" or letters of 'uar&ianship issue" he shall 'ive a $on&" in such su# as the court &irects" con&itione& as follo(s* .. . .@..Final or&ers or 3u&'#ents un&er this rule shall $e serve& upon the civil re'istrar of the #unicipalit% or cit% (here the #inor or inco#petent person resi&es7 or (here his propert% or part thereof is situate&- RULE 94 !ONDS OF GUARDIANS SECT!O+ . .8hen the propert% of the chil& is (orth #ore than t(o thousan& pesos" the father or the #other shall $e consi&ere& 'uar&ian of the chil&Ns propert%" (ith the &uties an& o$li'ation of 'uar&ians un&er these rules" an& shall file the petition re>uire& $% section 0 hereof.3earing and order for letters to issue.$arents as guardians.At the hearin' of the petition the alle'e& inco#petent #ust $e present if a$le to atten&" an& it #ust $e sho(n that the re>uire& notice has $een 'iven. Conditions.8hen the propert% of the chil& un&er parental authorit% is (orth t(o thousan& pesos or less" the father or the #other" (ithout the necessit% of court appoint#ent" shall $e his le'al 'uar&ian.Service of "udgment. %otice.An% intereste& person #a%" $% filin' a (ritten opposition" contest the petition on the 'roun& of #a3orit% of the alle'e& #inor" co#petenc%" of the alle'e& inco#petent" or the unsuita$ilit% of the person for (ho# letters are pra%e&" an& #a% pra% that the petition $e &is#isse&" or that letters of 'uar&ianship issue to hi#self" or to an% suita$le person na#e& in the oppositionSEC.

2. .. (ctions thereon. .8henever it is &ee#e& necessar%" the court #a% re>uire a ne( $on& to $e 'iven $% the 'uar&ian" an& #a% &ischar'e the sureties on the ol& $on& fro# further lia$ilit%" after &ue notice to intereste& persons" (hen no in3ur% can result therefro# to those intereste& in the estateSEC.0.Ever% $on& 'iven $% a 'uar&ian shall $e file& in the office of the cler/ of the court" an&" in case of the $reach of a con&ition thereof" #a% $e prosecute& in the sa#e procee&in' or in a separate action for the use an& $enefit of the (ar& or of an% other person le'all% intereste& in the estate- RULE 95 SELLING AND ENCUM!ERING PROPERTY OF WARD SECT!O+ .1onds to be filed. .0.!f it see#s pro$a$le that such sale or encu#$rance is necessar%" or (oul& $e $eneficial to the (ar&" the court shall #a/e an or&er &irectin' the ne1t of /in of the (ar&" an& all persons intereste& in the estate" to ..#hen new bond may be re6uired and old sureties discharged.(a) To #a/e an& return to the court" (ithin three (2) #onths" a true an& co#plete inventor% of all the estate" real an& personal" of his (ar& (hich shall co#e to his possession or /no(le&'e or to the possession or /no(le&'e of an% other person for hi#7 ($) To faithfull% e1ecute the &uties of his trust" to #ana'e an& &ispose of the estate accor&in' to these rules for the $est interests of the (ar&" an& to provi&e for the proper care" custo&%" an& e&ucation of the (ar&7 (c) To ren&er a true an& 3ust account of all the estate of the (ar& in his han&s" an& of all procee&s or interest &erive& therefro#" an& of the #ana'e#ent an& &isposition of the sa#e" at the ti#e &esi'nate& $% these rules an& such other ti#es as the court &irects" an& at the e1piration of his trust to settle his accounts (ith the court an& &eliver an& pa% over all the estate" effects" an& #one%s re#ainin' in his han&s" or &ue fro# hi# on such settle#ent" to the person la(full% entitle& thereto7 (&) To perfor# all or&ers of the court $% hi# to $e perfor#e&SEC.Order to show cause thereupon.8hen the inco#e of an estate un&er 'uar&ianship is insufficient to #aintain the (ar& an& his fa#il%" or to #aintain an& e&ucate the (ar& (hen a #inor" or (hen it appears that it is for the $enefit of the (ar& that is real estate or so#e part thereof $e sol&" or #ort'a'e& or other(ise encu#$ere&" an& the procee&s thereof put out at interest" or investe& in so#e pro&uctive securit%" or in the i#prove#ent or securit% of other real estate of the (ar&" the 'uar&ian #a% present a verifie& petition to the court $% (hich he (as appointe& settin' forth such facts" an& pra%in' that an or&er issue authori5in' the sale or encu#$ranceSEC.$etition of guardian for leave to sell or encumber estate.

3earing on return of order.Contents of order for sale or encumbrance.appear at a reasona$le ti#e an& place therein specifie& to sho( cause (h% the pra%er of the petition shoul& not $e 'rante&SEC.) %ear after 'rantin' the sa#e" (ithout a sale $ein' ha&SEC. . and how long effective.The court shall #a/e such or&er as to costs of the hearin' as #a% $e 3ustSEC.2. !f" after full e1a#ination" it appears that it is necessar%" or (oul& $e $eneficial to the (ar&" to sell or encu#$er the estate" or so#e portion of it" the court shall or&er such sale or encu#$rance an& that the procee&s thereof $e e1pen&e& for the #aintenance of the (ar& an& his fa#il%" or the e&ucation of the (ar&" if a #inor" or for the puttin' of the sa#e out at interest" or the invest#ent of the sa#e as the circu#stances #a% re>uireThe or&er shall specif% the causes (h% the sale.4.The court #a% authori5e an& re>uire the 'uar&ian to invest the procee&s of sales or encu#$rances" an& an% other of his (ar&Ns #one% in his han&s" in real estate or other(ise" as shall $e for the $est interest of all concerne&" an& #a% #a/e such other or&ers for the #ana'e#ent" invest#ent" an& &isposition of the estate an& effects" as circu#stances #a% re>uire- RULE 96 GENERAL POWERS AND DUTIES OF GUARDIANS SECT!O+ .2 A 'uar&ian appointe& shall have the care an& custo&% of the person of his (ar&" an& the #ana'e#ent of his estate" or the #ana'e#ent of his estate onl% as the case #a% $e.5.or encu#$rance is necessar% or $eneficial" an& #a% &irect that estate or&ere& sol& $e &ispose& of at either pu$lic or private sale" su$3ect to such con&itions as to the ti#e an& #anner of pa%#ent" an& securit% (here a part of the pa%#ent is &eferre&" as in the &iscretion of the court are &ee#e& #ost $eneficial to the (ar&.+o or&er of sale 'rante& in pursuance of this section shall continue in force #ore than one (.The ori'inal $on& of the 'uar&ian shall stan& as securit% for the proper appropriation of the procee&s of the sale" $ut the 3u&'e #a%" if &ee#e& e1pe&ient" re>uire an a&&itional $on& as a con&ition for the 'rantin' of the or&er of sale.To what guardianship shall e.tend.Court may order investment of proceeds and direct management of estate. 1ond. Costs. .The 'uar&ian of the estate of a nonresi&ent shall have the #ana'e#ent of all the estate of the (ar& (ithin the Philippines" an& no court other than that in (hich such 'uar&ian (as appointe& shall have 3uris&iction over the 'uar&ianship- . .At the ti#e an& place &esi'nate& in the or&er to sho( cause" the court shall hear the proofs an& alle'ations of the petitioner an& ne1t of /in" an& other persons intereste&" to'ether (ith their (itnesses" an& 'rant or refuse the pra%er of the petition as the $est interests of the (ar& re>uire..

#hen guardianAs accounts presented for settlement.4.Such inventories an& accounts shall $e s(orn to $% the 'uar&ian... . The court #a% authori5e the 'uar&ian to 3oin in an assent to a partition of real or personal estate hel& $% the (ar& 3ointl% or in co##on (ith others" $ut such authorit% shall onl% $e 'rante& after hearin'" upon such notice to relatives of the (ar& as the court #a% &irect" an& a careful investi'ation as to the necessit% an& propriet% of the propose& actionSEC...0.penses and compensation allowed. . and proceeds applied to maintenance of ward.Inventories and accounts of guardians.@.SEC..An& (henever an% propert% of the (ar& not inclu&e& in an inventor% alrea&% ren&ere& is &iscovere&" or succee&e& to" or ac>uire& $% the (ar&" li/e procee&in's shall $e ha& for securin' an inventor% an& appraise#ent thereof (ithin three (2) #onths after such &iscover%" succession" or ac>uisitionSEC.All the estate of the (ar& &escri$e& in the first inventor% shall $e appraise&.-uardian to pay debts of ward.?.2.Upon the e1piration of a %ear fro# the ti#e of his appoint#ent" .5.Ever% 'uar&ian #ust pa% the (ar&Ns 3ust &e$ts out of his personal estate an& the inco#e of his real estate" if sufficient7 if not" then out of his real estate upon o$tainin' an or&er for the sale or encu#$rance thereofSEC.*state to be managed frugally. collect debts.A 'uar&ian #ust ren&er to the court an inventor% of the estate of his (ar& (ithin three (2) #onths after his appoint#ent" an& annuall% after such appoint#ent an inventor% an& account" the ren&ition of an% of (hich #a% $e co#pelle& upon the application of an intereste& person. and appraisement of estates. *.A 'uar&ian #ust #ana'e the estate of his (ar& fru'all% an& (ithout (aste" an& appl% the inco#e an& profits thereof" so far as #a% $e necessar%" to the co#forta$le an& suita$le #aintenance of the (ar& an& his fa#il%" if there $e an%7 an& if such inco#e an& profits $e insufficient for that purpose" the 'uar&ian #a% sell or encu#$er the real estate" upon $ein' authori5e& $% or&er so to &o" an& appl% so #uch of the procee&s as #a% $e necessar% to such #aintenanceSEC. and appear in actions for ward.Upon co#plaint of the 'uar&ian or (ar&" or of an% person havin' actual or prospective interest in the estate of the (ar& as cre&itor" heir" or other(ise" that an%one is suspecte& of havin' e#$e55le&" conceale&" or conve%e& a(a% an% #one%" 'oo&s" or interest" or a (ritten instru#ent" $elon'in' to the (ar& or his estate" the court #a% cite the suspecte& person to appear for e1a#ination touchin' such #one%" 'oo&s" interest" or instru#ent" an& #a/e such or&ers as (ill secure the estate a'ainst such e#$e55le#ent" conceal#ent or conve%anceSEC.-uardian may be authori5ed to "oin in partition proceedings after hearing.-uardian to settle accounts.6" $roceedings when person suspected of embe55ling or concealing property of ward.!n the appraise#ent the court #a% re>uest the assistance of one or #ore of the inheritance ta1 appraisers.A 'uar&ian #ust settle all accounts of his (ar&" an& &e#an&" sue for" the receive all &e$ts &ue hi#" or #a%" (ith the approval of the court" co#poun& for the sa#e an& 'ive &ischar'es to the &e$tor" on receivin' a fair an& 3ust &ivi&en& of the estate an& effects7 an& he shall appear for an& represent his (ar& in all actions an& special procee&in's" unless another person $e appointe& for that purposeSEC.

.4. %ew appointment.The 'uar&ian of an% person #a% $e &ischar'e& $% the court (hen it appears" upon the application of the (ar& or other(ise" that the 'uar&ianship is no lon'er necessar%SEC.!n the settle#ent of the account" the 'uar&ian" other than a parent" shall $e allo(e& the a#ount of his reasona$le e1penses incurre& in the e1ecution of his trust an& also such co#pensation for his services as the court &ee#s 3ust" not e1cee&in' fifteen per centum of the net inco#e of the (ar&- RULE 97 TERMINATION OF GUARDIANS IP SECT!O+ .A person (ho has $een &eclare& inco#petent for an% reason" or his 'uar&ian" relative" or frien&" #a% petition the court to have his present co#petenc% 3u&iciall% &eter#ine&. .A 'uar&ian #a% resi'n (hen it appears proper to allo( the sa#e7 an& upon his resi'nation or re#oval the court #a% appoint another in his placeSEC.Upon receivin' the petition" the court shall fi1 a ti#e for hearin' the >uestions raise& there$%" an& cause reasona$le notice thereof to $e 'iven to the 'uar&ian of the person so &eclare& inco#petent" an& to the (ar&.=e can sue an& $e sue& in court onl% (ith the assistance of his father" #other or 'uar&ian.Record to be )ept by the "ustice of the peace or municipal or city "udge.The #arria'e or voluntar% e#ancipation of a #inor (ar& ter#inates the 'uar&ianship of the person of the (ar&" an& shall ena$le the #inor to a&#inister his propert% as thou'h he (ere of a'e" $ut he cannot $orro( #one% or alienate or encu#$er real propert% (ithout the consent of his father or #other" or 'uar&ian.an& as often thereafter as #a% $e re>uire&" a 'uar&ian #ust present his account to the court for settle#ent an& allo(ance.0. .On the trial" the 'uar&ian or relatives of the (ar&" an&" in the &iscretion of the court" an% other person" #a% contest the ri'ht to the relief &e#an&e&" an& (itnesses #a% $e calle& an& e1a#ine& $% the parties or $% the court on its o(n #otion.#hen guardian removed or allowed to resign. 8hen a 3ustice of the peace or #unicipal court ta/es co'ni5ance of the procee&in's in pursuance of the provisions of these rules" the recor& of the procee&in's shall $e /ept as in the Re'ional Trial Court- .2..The petition shall $e verifie& $% oath" an& shall state that such person is then co#petent.!f it $e foun& that the person is no lon'er inco#petent" his co#petenc% shall $e a&3u&'e& an& the 'uar&ianship shall ceaseSEC.8hen a 'uar&ian $eco#es insane or other(ise incapa$le of &ischar'in' his trust or unsuita$le therefor" or has (aste& or #is#ana'e& the estate" or faile& for thirt% (2B) &a%s after it is &ue to ren&er an account or #a/e a return" the court #a%" upon reasona$le notice to the 'uar&ian" re#ove hi#" an& co#pel hi# to surren&er the estate of the (ar& to the person foun& to $e la(full% entitle& thereto. and proceedings thereupon..$etition that competency of ward be ad"udged.Other termination of guardianship.

A trustee necessar% to carr% into effect the provisions of a (ill or (ritten instru#ent shall $e appointe& $% the Re'ional Trial Court in (hich the (ill (as allo(e&" if it $e a (ill allo(e& in the Philippines" other(ise $% the Re'ional Trial Court of the province in (hich the propert%" or so#e portion thereof" affecte& $% the trust is situate&SEC.Service of "udgment.8hen a trustee un&er a (ritten instru#ent &eclines" resi'ns" &ies" or is re#ove& $efore the o$3ects of the trust are acco#plishe&" an& no a&e>uate provision is #a&e in such instru#ent for suppl%in' the vacanc%" the proper Re'ional Trial Court #a%" after &ue notice to all persons intereste&" appoint a ne( trustee to act alone or 3ointl% (ith the others" as the case #a% $e.2. *.0.$roceedings where trustee& appointed abroad.+o person succee&in' to a trust as e1ecutor or a&#inistrator of a for#er trustee shall $e re>uire& to accept such trustSEC.#here trustee appointed. 8hen lan& in the Philippines is hel& in trust for persons resi&ent here $% a trustee (ho &erives his authorit% fro# (ithout the Philippines" such trustee shall" on petition file& in the Re'ional Trial Court of the province (here the lan& is situate&" an& after &ue notice to all persons intereste&" $e or&ere& to appl% to the court for appoint#ent as trustee7 an& upon his ne'lect or refusal to co#pl% (ith such or&er" the court shall &eclare such trust vacant" an& shall appoint a ne( trustee in (ho# the trust estate shall vest in li/e #anner as if he ha& $een ori'inall% appointe& $% such court- .ecutor of former trustee need not administer trust..5.(ppointment and powers of trustee under will. .Such ne( trustee shall have an& e1ercise the sa#e po(ers" ri'hts" an& &uties as if he ha& $een ori'inall% appointe&" an& the trust estate shall vest in hi# in li/e #anner as it ha& veste& or (oul& have veste&" in the trustee in (hose place he is su$stitute&7 an& the court #a% or&er such conve%ance to $e #a&e $% the for#er trustee or his representatives" or $% the other re#ainin' trustees" as #a% $e necessar% or proper to vest the trust estate in the ne( trustee" either alone or 3ointl% (ith the othersSEC.. .SEC.Final or&ers or 3u&'#ents un&er this rule shall $e serve& upon the civil re'istrar of the #unicipalit% or cit% (here the #inor or inco#petent person resi&es or (here his propert% or part thereof is situate&- RULE 98 TRUSTEES SECT!O+ .!f a testator has o#itte& in his (ill to appoint a trustee in the Philippines" an& if such appoint#ent is necessar% to carr% into effect the provisions of the (ill" the proper Re'ional Trial Court #a%" after notice to all persons intereste&" appoint a trustee (ho shall have the sa#e ri'hts" po(ers" an& &uties" an& in (ho# the estate shall vest" as if he ha& $een appointe& $% the testator.(ppointment and powers of new trustee under written instrument..4..

The court #a% also" after &ue notice to all persons intereste&" re#ove a trustee (ho is insane or other(ise incapa$le of &ischar'in' his trust or evi&entl% unsuita$le therefor. Compensation of trustee.8hen an inventor% is re>uire& to $e returne& $% a trustee" the estate an& effects $elon'in' to the trust shall $e appraise& an& the court #a% or&er one or #ore inheritance ta1 appraisers to assist in the appraise#ent.@.The proper Re'ional Trial Court #a%" upon petition of the parties $eneficiall% intereste& an& after &ue notice to the trustee an& hearin'" re#ove a trustee if such re#oval appears essential in the interests of the petitioners. .Conditions included in bond.The follo(in' con&itions shall $e &ee#e& to $e a part of the $on& (hether (ritten therein or not* (a) That the trustee (ill #a/e an& return to the court" at such ti#e as it #a% or&er" a true inventor% of all the real an& personal estate $elon'in' to hi# as trustee" (hich at the ti#e of the #a/in' of such inventor% shall have co#e to his possession or /no(le&'e7 ($) That he (ill #ana'e an& &ispose of all such estate" an& faithfull% &ischar'e his trust in relation thereto" accor&in' to la( an& the (ill of the testator or the provisions of the instru#ent or or&er un&er (hich he is appointe&7 (c) That he (ill ren&er upon oath at least once a %ear until his trust is fulfille&" unless he is e1cuse& therefro# in an% %ear $% the court" a true account of the propert% in his han&s an& of the #ana'e#ent an& &isposition thereof" an& (ill ren&er such other accounts as the court #a% or&er7 (&) That at the e1piration of his trust he (ill settle his accounts in court an& pa% over an& &eliver all the estate re#ainin' in his han&s" or &ue fro# hi# on such settle#ent" to the person or persons entitle& thereto)ut (hen the trustee is appointe& as a successor to a prior trustee" the court #a% &ispense (ith the #a/in' an& return of an inventor%" if one has alrea&% $een file&" an& in such case the con&ition of the $on& shall $e &ee#e& to $e altere& accor&in'l%SEC.SEC.A trustee" (hether appointe& $% the court or un&er a (ritten instru#ent" #a% resi'n his trust if it appears to the court proper to allo( such resi'nation- .(ppraisal.5.Such e1e#ption #a% $e cancelle& $% the court at an% ti#e" an& the trustee re>uire& to forth(ith file a $on&SEC. .Trustee must file bond.Removal or resignation of trustee..The co#pensation of the trustee shall $e fi1e& $% the court" if it $e not &eter#ine& in the instru#ent creatin' the trustSEC.6.2)efore enterin' on the &uties of his trust" a trustee shall file (ith the cler/ of the court havin' 3uris&iction of the trust a $on& in the a#ount fi1e& $% the 3u&'e of sai& court" pa%a$le to the Covern#ent of the Philippines an& sufficient an& availa$le for the protection of an% part% in interest" an& a trustee (ho ne'lects to file such $on& shall $e consi&ere& to have &ecline& or resi'ne& the trust7 $ut the court #a%" until further or&er e1e#pt a trustee un&er a (ill fro# 'ivin' a $on& (hen the testator has &irecte& or re>ueste& such e1e#ption" an& #a% so e1e#pt an% trustee (hen all persons $eneficiall% intereste& in the trust" $ein' of full a'e" re>uest the e1e#ption.?.

Contents of petition.2 ( person &esirin' to a&opt another or have the custo&% of a #inor shall present his petition to the Re'ional Trial Court of the province" or the cit% or #unicipal court of the cit% or #unicipalit% in (hich he resi&es!n the Cit% of 9anila" the procee&in's shall $e institute& in the Huvenile an& Fo#estic Relations CourtSEC..A.Consent to adoption..The petition" notice" hearin'" or&er of sale or encu#$rance" an& recor& of procee&in's" shall confor# as nearl% as #a% $e to the provisions concernin' the sale or encu#$rance $% 'uar&ians of the propert% of #inors or other (ar&s- RULE 99 ADOPTION AND CUSTODY OF MINORS SECT!O+ .$roceedings for sale or encumbrance of trust estate.SEC.2..enue.2The petition for a&option shall contain the sa#e alle'ations re>uire& in a petition for 'uar&ianship" to (it* (a) The 3uris&ictional facts7 ($) The >ualifications of the a&opter7 (c) That the a&opter is not &is>ualifie& $% la(7 (&) The na#e" a'e" an& resi&ence of the person to $e a&opte& an& of his relatives or of the persons (ho have hi# un&er their care7 (e) a&opte&The pro$a$le value an& character of the estate of the person to $e SEC.0.2 8hen the sale or encu#$rance of an% real or personal estate hel& in trust is necessar% or e1pe&ient" the court havin' 3uris&iction of the trust #a%" on petition an& after &ue notice an& hearin'" or&er such sale or encu#$rance to $e #a&e" an& the reinvest#ent an& application of the procee&s thereof in such #anner as (ill $est effect the o$3ects of the trust.There shall $e file& (ith the petition a (ritten consent to the a&option si'ne& $% the chil&" if fourteen %ears of a'e or over an& not inco#petent" an& $% the chil&Ns spouse" if an%" an& $% each of its /no(n livin' parents (ho is not insane or hopelessl% inte#perate or has not a$an&one& such chil&" or if there are no such parents $% the 'eneral 'uar&ian or 'uar&ian ad litem of the chil&" or if the chil& is in the custo&% of an orphan as%lu#" chil&renNs ho#e" or $enevolent societ% or person" $% the proper officer or officers of such as%lu#" ho#e" or societ%" or $% such person7 $ut if the chil& is ille'iti#ate an& has not $een reco'ni5e&" the consent of its father to the a&option shall not $e re>uire&!f the person to $e a&opte& is of a'e" onl% his or her consent an& that of the spouse" if an%" shall $e re>uire&- .

!n case of the &eath of the a&opte& person or chil&" his parents an& relatives $% nature" an& not $% a&option" shall $e his le'al heirsSEC.8hen the parents of an% #inor chil& are &ea&" or $% reason of lon' a$sence or le'al or ph%sical &isa$ilit% have a$an&one& it" or cannot support it throu'h va'ranc%" ne'li'ence" or #iscon&uct" or ne'lect or refuse to support it" or treat it (ith e1cessive harshness or 'ive it corruptin' or&ers" counsels" or e1a#ples" or cause or allo( it to en'a'e in $e''in'" or to Co##it offenses a'ainst the la(" the proper Re'ional Trial Court" upon petition file& $% so#e reputa$le resi&ent of the province settin' forth the facts" #a% issue an or&er re>uirin' . .$roceedings as to child whose parents are separated. . .3earing and "udgment.Either parent #a% appeal fro# an or&er #a&e in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this section.!f" upon such hearin'" it appears that $oth parents are i#proper persons to have the care" custo&%" an& control of the chil&" the court #a% either &esi'nate the paternal or #aternal 'ran&parent of the chil&" or his ol&est $rother or sister" or so#e reputa$le an& &iscreet person to ta/e char'e of such chil&" or co##it it to an% suita$le as%lu#" chil&renNs ho#e" or $enevolent societ%.$roceedings as to vagrant or abused child.?.5.8hen hus$an& an& (ife are &ivorce& or livin' separatel% an& apart fro# each other" an& the >uestion as to the care" custo&%" an& control of a chil& or chil&ren of their #arria'e is $rou'ht $efore a Re'ional Trial Court $% petition or as an inci&ent to an% other procee&in'" the court" upon hearin' the testi#on% as #a% $e pertinent" shall a(ar& the care" custo&%" an& control of each such chil& as (ill $e for its $est interest" per#ittin' the chil& to choose (hich parent it prefers to live (ith it $e over ten %ears of a'e" unless the parent so chosen $e unfit to ta/e char'e of the chil& $% reason of #oral &epravit%" ha$itual &run/enness" incapacit%" or povert%.4.The court #a% in confor#it% (ith the provisions of the Civil Co&e or&er either or $oth parents to support or help support sai& chil&" irrespective of (ho #a% $e its custo&ian" an& #a% #a/e an% or&er that is 3ust an& reasona$le per#ittin' the parent (ho is &eprive& of its care an& custo&% to visit the chil& or have te#porar% custo&% thereof.Upon satisfactor% proof in open court on the &ate fi1e& in the or&er that such or&er has $een pu$lishe& as &irecte&" that the alle'ations of the petition are true" an& that it is a proper case for a&option an& the petitioner or petitioners are a$le to $rin' up an& e&ucate the chil& properl%" the court shall a&3u&'e that thenceforth the chil& is free& fro# all le'al o$li'ations of o$e&ience an& #aintenance (ith respect to its natural parents" e1cept the #other (hen the chil& is a&opte& $% her hus$an&" an& is" to all le'al intents an& purposes" the chil& of the petitioner or petitioners" an& that its surna#e is chan'e& to that of the petitioner or petitioners.The a&opte& person or chil& shall thereupon $eco#e the le'al heir of his parents $% a&option an& shall also re#ain the le'al heir of his natural parents.+o chil& un&er seven %ears of a'e shall $e separate& fro# its #other" unless the court fin&s there are co#pellin' reasons thereforSEC.SEC.6.!f the petition an& consent file& are sufficient in for# an& su$stance" the court" $% an or&er recitin' the purpose of the petition" shall fi1 a &ate an& place for the hearin' thereof" (hich &ate shall not $e #ore than si1 (6) #onths after the entr% of the or&er" an& shall &irect that a cop% of the or&er $e pu$lishe& $efore the hearin' at least once a (ee/ for three (2) successive (ee/s in so#e ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation pu$lishe& in the province" as the court shall &ee# $estSEC..Order for hearing. (ppeal.

grounds.#ho may file petition.Order to answer.udgment.such parents for sho( cause" or" if the parents are &ea& or cannot $e foun&" re>uirin' the fiscal of the province to sho( cause" at a ti#e an& place fi1e& in the or&er" (h% the chil& shoul& not $e ta/en fro# its parents" if livin'7 an& if upon the hearin' it appears that the alle'ations of the petition are true" an& that it is for the $est interest of the chil&" the court #a% #a/e an or&er ta/in' it fro# its parents" if livin'7 an& co##ittin' it to an% suita$le orphan as%lu#" chil&renNs ho#e" or $enevolent societ% or person to $e ulti#atel% place&" $% a&option or other(ise" in a ho#e foun& for it $% such as%lu#" chil&renNs ho#e" societ%" or personSEC.5..!f upon trial" on the &a% set therefor" the court fin&s that the alle'ations of the petition are true" it shall ren&er 3u&'#ent or&erin' the rescission or revocation of the a&option" (ith or (ithout costs" as 3ustice re>uiresSEC.5) &a%s fro# receipt of a cop% thereof.0.4..Final or&ers or 3u&'#ents un&er this rule shall $e serve& $% the cler/ upon the civil re'istrar of the cit% or #unicipalit% (herein the court issuin' the sa#e is situate&- RULE 100 RESCISSION AND REVOCATION OF ADOPTION SECT!O+ .Service of "udgment..@.A #inor or other incapacitate& person #ust file the petition for rescission or revocation of a&option (ithin the five (5) %ears .Service of "udgment.The or&er an& a cop% of the petition shall $e serve& on the a&verse part% in such #anner as the court #a% &irectSEC...2...The court in (hich the petition is file& shall issue an& or&er re>uirin' the a&verse part% to ans(er the petition (ithin fifteen (.A #inor or other incapacitate& person #a%" throu'h a 'uar&ian or 'uar&ian ad litem.Time within which to file petition. petition for the rescission or revocation of his or her a&option for the sa#e causes that authori5e the &eprivation of parental authorit%The a&opter #a%" li/e(ise petition the court for the rescission or revocation of the a&option in an% of these cases* (a) !f the a&opte& person has atte#pte& a'ainst the life of the a&opter7 ($) 8hen the a&opte& #inor has a$an&one& the ho#e of the a&opter for #ore than three (2) %ears7 (c) 8hen $% other acts the a&opte& person has repu&iate& the a&optionSEC.A certifie& cop% of the 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in accor&ance (ith the ne1t prece&in' section shall $e serve& upon the civil re'istrar concerne&7 (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# ren&ition thereof" (ho shall forth(ith enter the action ta/en $% the court in the re'isterSEC.

2.The petition shall $e file& $% the Firector of =ealth in all cases (here" in his opinion" such co##it#ent is for the pu$lic (elfare" or for the (elfare of sai& person (ho" in his 3u&'#ent" is insane" an& such person or the one havin' char'e of hi# is oppose& to his $ein' ta/en to a hospital or other place for the insaneSEC. .+ischarge of insane. .!f the petition file& is sufficient in for# an& su$stance" the court" $% an or&er recitin' the purpose of the petition" shall fi1 a &ate for the hearin' thereof" an& cop% of such or&er shall $e serve& on the person alle'e& to $e insane" an& to the one havin' char'e of hi#" or on such of his relatives resi&in' in the province or cit% as the 3u&'e #a% &ee# proper..Order for hearing.The court shall further#ore or&er the sheriff to pro&uce the alle'e& insane person" if possi$le" on the &ate of the hearin'SEC.enue... $etition for commitment.3earing and "udgment.5.A petition for the co##it#ent of a person to a hospital or other place for the insane #a% $e file& (ith the Re'ional Trial Court of the province (here the person alle'e& to $e insane is foun&.follo(in' his #a3orit%" or if he (as inco#petent at the ti#e of the a&option" (ithin the five (5) %ears follo(in' the recover% fro# such inco#petenc%The a&opter #ust also file the petition to set asi&e the a&option (ithin five (5) %ears fro# the ti#e the cause or causes 'ivin' rise to the rescission or revocation of the sa#e too/ place- RULE 101 PROCEEDINGS FOR OSPITALI2ATION OF INSANE PERSONS SECT!O+ .Upon satisfactor% proof" in open court on the &ate fi1e& in the or&er" that the co##it#ent applie& for is for the pu$lic (elfare or for the (elfare of the insane person" an& that his relatives are una$le for an% reason to ta/e proper custo&% an& care of hi#" the court shall or&er his co##it#ent to such hospital or other place for the insane as #a% $e reco##en&e& $% the Firector of =ealth.0..4.8hen" in the opinion of the Firector of =ealth" the person or&ere& to $e co##itte& to a hospital or other place for the insane is te#poraril% or per#anentl% cure&" or #a% $e release& (ithout &an'er he #a% file the proper petition (ith the Re'ional Trial Court (hich or&ere& the co##it#entSEC.(ssistance of fiscal in the proceeding.!t shall $e the &ut% of the provincial fiscal or in the Cit% of 9anila the fiscal of the cit%" to prepare the petition for the Firector of =ealth an& represent hi# in court in all procee&in's arisin' un&er the provisions of this rule- .The court shall #a/e proper provisions for the custo&% of propert% or #one% $elon'in' to the insane until a 'uar&ian $e properl% appointe&SEC. .

E1cept as other(ise e1pressl% provi&e& $% la(" the (rit of habeas corpus shall e1ten& to all cases of ille'al confine#ent or &etention $% (hich an% person is &eprive& of his li$ert%" or $% (hich the ri'htful custo&% of an% person is (ithhel& fro# the person entitle& theretoSEC.To what habeas corpus e.5.Re6uisites of application therefor.The (rit of habeas corpus #a% $e 'rante& $% the Supre#e Court" or an% #e#$er thereof" on an% &a% an& at an% ti#e" or $% the Court of Appeals or an% #e#$er thereof in the instances authori5e& $% la(" an& if so 'rante& it shall $e enforcea$le an%(here in the Philippines7 an& #a% $e #a&e returna$le $efore the court or an% #e#$er thereof" or $efore a Re'ional Trial Court" or an% 3u&'e thereof for hearin' an& &ecision on the #erits.4.tends. .!f it appears that the person alle'e& to $e restraine& of his li$ert% is in the custo&% of an officer un&er process issue& $% a court or 3u&'e or $% virtue of a 3u&'#ent or or&er of a court of recor&" an& that the court or 3u&'e ha& 3uris&iction to issue the process" ren&er the 3u&'#ent" or #a/e the or&er" the (rit shall not $e allo(e&7 or if the 3uris&iction appears after the (rit is allo(e&" the person shall not $e &ischar'e& $% reason of an% infor#alit% or &efect in the process" 3u&'#ent" or or&er..0.#hen writ not allowed or discharge authori5ed.#ho may grant the writ.+or shall an%thin' in this rule $e hel& to authori5e the &ischar'e of a person char'e& (ith or convicte& of an offense in the Philippines" or of a person sufferin' i#prison#ent un&er la(ful 3u&'#entSEC.RULE 102 A!EAS CORPUS SECT!O+ . . .!t #a% also $e 'rante& $% a Re'ional Trial Court" or a 3u&'e thereof" on an% &a% an& at an% ti#e" an& returna$le $efore hi#self" enforcea$le onl% (ithin his 3u&icial &istrictSEC.2 A court or 3u&'e authori5e& to 'rant the (rit #ust" (hen a petition therefor is presente& an& it appears that the (rit ou'ht to issue" 'rant the sa#e forth(ith" an& i##e&iatel% thereupon the cler/ of the . .#hen the writ must be granted and issued.Application for the (rit shall $e $% petition si'ne& an& verifie& either $% the part% for (hose relief it is inten&e&" or $% so#e person on his $ehalf" an& shall set forth* (a) That the person in (hose $ehalf the application is #a&e is i#prisone& or restraine& of his li$ert%7 ($) The officer or na#e of the person $% (ho# he is so i#prisone& or restraine&7 or" if $oth are un/no(n or uncertain" such officer or person #a% $e &escri$e& $% an assu#e& appellation" an& the person (ho is serve& (ith the (rit shall $e &ee#e& the person inten&e&7 (c) The place (here he is so i#prisone& or restraine&" if /no(n7 (&) A cop% of the co##it#ent or cause of &etention of such person" if it can $e procure& (ithout i#pairin' the efficienc% of the re#e&%7 or" if the i#prison#ent or restraint is (ithout an% le'al authorit%" such fact shall appearSEC.2.

3ow prisoner designated and writ served.court shall issue the (rit un&er the seal of the court7 or in case of e#er'enc%" the 3u&'e #a% issue the (rit un&er his o(n han&" an& #a% &epute an% officer or person to serve itSEC.A. ..The officer to (ho# the (rit is &irecte& shall conve% the person so i#prisone& or restraine&" an& na#e& in the (rit" $efore the 3u&'e allo(in' the (rit" or" in case of his a$sence or &isa$ilit%" $efore so#e other 3u&'e of the sa#e court" on the &a% specifie& in the (rit" unless" fro# sic/ness or infir#it% of the person &irecte& to $e pro&uce&" such person cannot" (ithout &an'er" $e $rou'ht $efore the court or 3u&'e7 an& the officer shall #a/e &ue return of the (rit" to'ether (ith the &a% an& the cause of the caption an& restraint of such person accor&in' to the co##an& thereofSEC.!n case of i#prison#ent or restraint $% an officer" the (rit shall $e &irecte& to hi#" an& shall co##an& hi# to have the $o&% of the person restraine& of his li$ert% $efore the court or 3u&'e &esi'nate& in the (rit at the ti#e an& place therein specifie&.8hen the person to $e pro&uce& is i#prisone& or restraine& $% an officer" the person (ho #a/es the return shall state therein" an& in other cases the person in (hose custo&% the prisoner is foun& shall state" in (ritin' to the court or 3u&'e $efore (ho# the (rit is returna$le" plainl% an& une>uivoca$l%* (a) 8hether he has or has not the part% in his custo&% or po(er" or un&er restraint7 ($) !f he has the part% in his< custo&% or po(er" or un&er restraint" the authorit% an& the true an& (hole cause thereof" set forth at lar'e" (ith a cop% of the (rit" or&er" e1ecution" or other process" if an%" upon (hich the part% is hel&7 (c) !f the part% is in his custo&% or po(er or is restraine& $% hi#" an& is not .To whom writ directed.Service of the (rit shall $e #a&e $% leavin' the ori'inal (ith the person to (ho# it is &irecte& an& preservin' a cop% on (hich to #a/e return of service.?.6.. and what to re6uire.@.The person to $e pro&uce& shoul& $e &esi'nate& in the (rit $% his na#e" if /no(n" $ut if his na#e is not /no(n he #a% $e other(ise &escri$e& or i&entifie&.ecuted and returned..3ow writ e. .B Contents of return.+efect of form.!n case of i#prison#ent or restraint $% a person not an officer" the (rit shall $e &irecte& to an officer" an& shall co##an& hi# to ta/e an& have the $o&% of the person restraine& of his li$ert% $efore the court or 3u&'e &esi'nate& in the (rit at the ti#e an& place therein specifie&" an& to su##on the person $% (ho# he is restraine& then an& there to appear $efore sai& court or 3u&'e to sho( the cause of the i#prison#ent or restraintSEC.+o (rit of habeas corpus can $e &iso$e%e& for &efect of for#" if it sufficientl% appears therefro# in (hose custo&% or un&er (hose restraint the part% i#prisone& or restraine& is hel& an& the court or 3u&'e $efore (ho# he is to $e $rou'htSEC.!f that person cannot $e foun&" or has not the prisoner in his custo&%" then the service shall $e #a&e on an% other person havin' or e1ercisin' such custo&%SEC.The (rit #a% $e serve& in an% province $% the sheriff or other proper officer" or $% a person &epute& $% the court or 3u&'e..

!f he is la(full% i#prisone& or restraine& on a char'e of havin' co##itte& an offense not so punisha$le" he #a% $e reco##itte& to i#prison#ent or a&#itte& to $ail in the &iscretion of the court or 3u&'e..The return or state#ent shall $e si'ne& $% the person (ho #a/es it7 an& shall also $e s(orn to $% hi# if the prisoner is not pro&uce&" an& in all other cases unless the return is #a&e an& si'ne& $% a s(orn pu$lic officer in his official capacit%SEC..8hen the court or 3u&'e has e1a#ine& into the cause of caption an& restraint of the prisoner" an& is satisfie& that he . .0. .!f he $e a&#itte& to $ail" he shall forth(ith file a $on& in such su# as the court or 3u&'e &ee#s reasona$le" consi&erin' the circu#stances of the prisoner an& the nature of the offense char'e&" con&itione& for his appearance $efore the court (here the offense is properl% co'ni5a$le to a$i&e its or&er or 3u&'#ent7 an& the court or 3u&'e shall certif% the procee&in's" to'ether (ith the $on&" forth(ith to the proper court.3earing on return.#hen prisoner discharged if no appeal. (d"ournments.#hen the return evidence..!f such $on& is not so file&" the prisoner shall $e reco##itte& to confine#entSEC.pro&uce&" particularl% the nature an& 'ravit% of the sic/ness or infir#it% of such part% $% reason of (hich he cannot" (ithout &an'er" $e $rou'ht $efore the court or 3u&'e7 (&) !f he has ha& the part% in his custo&% or po(er" or un&er restraint" an& has transferre& such custo&% or restraint to another" particularl% to (ho#" at (hat ti#e" for (hat cause" an& $% (hat authorit% such transfer (as #a&eSEC...8hen the (rit is returne& $efore one 3u&'e" at a ti#e (hen the court is in session" he #a% forth(ith a&3ourn the case into the court" there to $e hear& an& &eter#ine&..2. and when let to bail.4. . . . and when only a plea..On the hearin' the court or 3u&'e shall &isre'ar& #atters of for# an& technicalities in respect to an% (arrant or or&er of co##it#ent of a court or officer authori5e& to co##it $% la(SEC.5.Return to be signed and sworn to. !f it appears that the prisoner is in custo&% un&er a (arrant of co##it#ent in pursuance of la(" the return shall $e consi&ere& prima facie evi&ence of the cause of restraint7 $ut if he is restraine& of his li$ert% $% an% alle'e& private authorit%" the return shall $e consi&ere& onl% as a plea of the facts therein set forth" an& the part% clai#in' the custo&% #ust prove such factsSEC.!f the person i#prisone& or restraine& is not pro&uce& $ecause of his alle'e& sic/ness or infir#it%" the court or 3u&'e #ust $e satisfie& that it is so 'rave that such person cannot $e pro&uce& (ithout &an'er" $efore procee&in' to hear an& &ispose of the #atter.#hen person lawfully imprisoned recommitted.The court or 3u&'e $efore (ho# the (rit is returne& or a&3ourne& #ust i##e&iatel% procee& to hear an& e1a#ine the return" an& such other #atters as are properl% su$#itte& for consi&eration" unless for 'oo& cause sho(n the hearin' is a&3ourne&" in (hich event the court or 3u&'e shall #a/e such or&er for the safe/eepin' of the person i#prisone& or restraine& as the nature of the case re>uires.!f it appears that the prisoner (as la(full% co##itte&" an& is plainl% an& specificall% char'e& in the (arrant of co##it#ent (ith an offense punisha$le $% &eath" he shall not $e release&" &ischar'e&" or $aile&.

..is unla(full% i#prisone& or restraine&" he shall forth(ith or&er his &ischar'e fro# confine#ent" $ut such &ischar'e shall not $e effective until a cop% of the or&er has $een serve& on the officer or person &etainin' the prisoner..A person co##itte& to prison" or in custo&% of an officer" for an% cri#inal #atter" shall not $e re#ove& therefro# into the custo&% of another officer unless $% le'al process" or the prisoner $e &elivere& to an inferior officer to carr% to 3ail or $% or&er of the proper court or 3u&'e" $e re#ove& fro# one place to another (ithin the Philippines for trial" or in case of fire" epi&e#ic" insurrection" or other necessit% or pu$lic cala#it%7 an& a person (ho" after such co##it#ent" #a/es" si'ns" or countersi'ns an% or&er for such re#oval contrar% to this section" shall forfeit to the part% a''rieve& the su# of one thousan& pesos" to $e recovere& in a proper actionSEC.A person (ho is set at li$ert% upon a (rit of habeas corpus shall not $e a'ain i#prisone& for the sa#e offense unless $% the la(ful or&er or process of a court havin' 3uris&iction of the cause or offense7 an& a person (ho /no(in'l%" contrar% to the provisions of this rule" reco##its or i#prisons" or causes to $e co##itte& or i#prisone&" for the sa#e offense" or preten&e& offense" an% person so set at li$ert%" or /no(in'l% ai&s or assists therein" shall forfeit to the part% a''rieve& the su# of one thousan& pesos" to $e recovere& in a proper action" not(ithstan&in' an% colora$le pretense or variation in the (arrant of co##it#ent" an& #a% also $e punishe& $% the court or 3u&'e 'rantin' the (rit as for conte#ptSEC.?.8hen a person confine& un&er color of procee&in's in a cri#inal case is &ischar'e&" the costs shall $e ta1e& a'ainst the Repu$lic of the Philippines" an& pai& out of its Treasur%7 (hen a person in custo&% $% virtue or un&er color of procee&in's in a civil case is &ischar'e&" the costs shall $e ta1e& a'ainst hi#" or a'ainst the person (ho si'ne& the application for the (rit" or $oth" as the court shall &irect- . .Record of writ.A.!f the officer or person &etainin' the prisoner &oes not &esire to appeal" the prisoner shall $e forth(ith release&SEC.6.A cler/ of a court (ho refuses to issue the (rit after allo(ance thereof an& &e#an& therefor" or a person to (ho# a (rit is &irecte&" (ho ne'lects or refuses to o$e% or #a/e return of the sa#e accor&in' to the co##an& thereof" or #a/es false return thereof" or (ho" upon &e#an& #a&e $% or on $ehalf of the prisoner" refuses to &eliver to the person &e#an&in'" (ithin si1 (6) hours after the &e#an& therefor" a true cop% of the (arrant or or&er of co##it#ent" shall forfeit to the part% a''rieve& the su# of one thousan& pesos" to $e recovere& in a proper action" an& #a% also $e punishe& $% the court or 3u&'e as for conte#ptSEC.The procee&in's upon a (rit of habeas corpus shall $e recor&e& $% the cler/ of the court" an& upon the final &isposition of such procee&in's the court or 3u&'e shall #a/e such or&er as to costs as the case re>uiresThe fees of officers an& (itnesses shall $e inclu&e& in the costs ta1e&" $ut no officer or person shall have the ri'ht to &e#an& pa%#ent in a&vance of an% fees to (hich he is entitle& $% virtue of the procee&in's.. or for disobeying the same...@.$enalty for refusing to issue writ.$erson discharged not to be again imprisoned. .#hen prisoner may be removed from one custody to another. fees and costs.

Service of "udgment.Contents of petition..The Solicitor Ceneral or the proper provincial or cit% fiscal shall appear on $ehalf of the Covern#ent of the Repu$licSEC.!f the petition file& is sufficient in for# an& su$stance" the court" $% an or&er recitin' the purpose of the petition" shall fi1 a &ate an& place for the hearin' thereof" an& shall &irect that a cop% of the or&er $e pu$lishe& $efore the hearin' at least once a (ee/ for three (2) successive (ee/s in so#e ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation pu$lishe& in the province" as the court shall &ee# $est.udgment.4..Hu&'#ents or or&ers ren&ere& in connection (ith this rule shall $e furnishe& the civil re'istrar of the #unicipalit% or cit% (here the court issuin' the sa#e is situate&" (ho shall forth(ith enter the sa#e in the civil re'ister- RULE 104 VOLUNTARY DISSOLUTION OF CORPORATIONS .2.enue.5..2Upon satisfactor% proof in open court on the &ate fi1e& in the or&er that such or&er has $een pu$lishe& as &irecte& an& that the alle'ations of the petition are true" the court shall" if proper an& reasona$le cause appears for chan'in' the na#e of the petitioner" a&3u&'e that such na#e $% chan'e& in accor&ance (ith the pra%er of the petitionSEC.6.The &ate set for the hearin' shall not $e (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s prior to an election nor (ithin four (4) #onths after the last pu$lication of the noticeSEC.An% intereste& person #a% appear at the hearin' an& oppose the petition.RULE 103 C ANGE OF NAME SECT!O+ .A petition for chan'e of na#e shall $e si'ne& an& verifie& $% the person &esirin' his na#e& chan'e&" or so#e other person on his $ehalf" an& shall set forth* (a) That the petitioner has $een a bona fide resi&ent of the province (here the petition is file& for at least three (2) %ears prior to the &ate of such filin'7 ($) (c) The cause for (hich the chan'e of the petitionerNs na#e is sou'ht7 The na#e as/e& for- SEC.Order for hearing.0.3earing...A person &esirin' to chan'e his na#e shall present the petition to the Re'ional Trial Court of the province in (hich he resi&es" or" in the Cit% of 9anila" to the Huvenile an& Fo#estic Relations CourtESEC...

)efore such &ate a cop% of the or&er shall $e pu$lishe& at least once a (ee/ for four (4) successive (ee/s in so#e ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation pu$lishe& in the #unicipalit% or cit% (here the principal office of the corporation is situate&" or" if there $e no such ne(spaper" then in so#e ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the Philippines" an& a si#ilar cop% shall $e poste& for four (4) (ee/s in three pu$lic places in such #unicipalit% or cit%SEC..2.A petition for &issolution of a corporation shall $e file& in the Re'ional Trial Court of the province (here the principal office of a corporation is situate&.#hat shall constitute record..2 !f the petition is sufficient in for# an& substance the court" $% an or&er recitin' the purpose of the petition" shall fi1 a &ate on or $efore (hich o$3ections thereto #a% $e file& $% an% person" (hich &ate shall not $e less than thirt% (2B) nor #ore than si1t% (6B) &a%s after the entr% of the or&er.Upon five (5) &a%s notice 'iven after the &ate on (hich the ri'ht to file o$3ections as fi1e& in the or&er e1pire&" the court shall procee& to hear the petition an& tr% an% issue #a&e $% o$3ections file&7 an& if no such o$3ection is sufficient" an& the #aterial alle'ations of the petition are true" it shall ren&er 3u&'#ent &issolvin' the corporations an& &irectin' such &isposition of its assets as 3ustice re>uires" an& #a% appoint a receiver to collect such assets an& pa% the &e$ts of the corporationSEC.4. by whom and on what showing application made.#here. .3earing.D!n the Cit% of 9anila" the petition shall $e file& in the Huvenile an& Fo#estic Relations CourtE- .The petition" or&ers" proof of pu$lication an& postin'" o$3ections file&" &eclaration of &issolution" an& an% evi&ence ta/en" shall constitute the recor& in the case- RULE 105 $UDICIAL APPROVAL OF VOLUNTARY RECOGNITION OF MINOR NATURAL C ILDREN SECT!O+ . dissolution..enue.8here 3u&icial approval of a voluntar% reco'nition of a #inor natural chil& is re>uire&" such chil& or his parents shall o$tain the sa#e $% filin' a petition to that effect (ith the Re'ional Trial Court of the province in (hich the chil& resi&es. .SECT!O+ . and disposition of assets.The petition shall $e si'ne& $% a #a3orit% of its $oar& of &irectors or other officers havin' the #ana'e#ent of its affairs" verifie& $% its presi&ent or secretar% or one of its &irectors" an& shall set forth all clai#s an& &e#an&s a'ainst it" an& that its &issolution (as resolve& upon $% a #a3orit% of the #e#$ers" or" if a stoc/ corporation" $% the affir#ative vote of the stoc/hol&ers hol&in' an& representin' t(o<thir&s of all shares of stoc/ issue& or su$scri$e&" at a #eetin' of its #e#$ers or stoc/hol&ers calle& for that purposeSEC.Order thereupon for filing ob"ections.. Receiver..0.

.Service of "udgment upon civil registrar. The petition for 3u&icial approval of a voluntar% reco'nition of a #inor natural chil& shall contain the follo(in' alle'ations* (a) The 3uris&ictional facts7 ($) The na#es an& resi&ences of the parents (ho ac/no(le&'e& the chil&" or of either of the#" an& their co#pulsor% heirs" an& the person or persons (ith (ho# the chil& lives7 (c) The fact that the reco'nition #a&e $% the parent or parents too/ place in a state#ent $efore a court of recor& or in an authentic (ritin'" cop% of the state#ent or (ritin' $ein' attache& to the petitionSEC.5) &a%s fro# service" or fro# the last &ate of pu$lication" of the or&er referre& to in the ne1t prece&in' section" file his opposition to the petition" statin' the 'roun&s or reasons thereforSEC.!f" fro# the evi&ence presente& &urin' the hearin'" the court is satisfie& that the reco'nition of the #inor natural chil& (as (illin'l% an& voluntaril% #a&e $% the parent or parents concerne&" an& that the reco'nition is for the $est interest of the chil&" it shall ren&er 3u&'#ent 'rantin' 3u&icial approval of such reco'nitionSEC. .6.5.D!n the Cit% of 9anila" the petition shall $e file& in the Huvenile an& Fo#estic Relations CourtE8hen there is &an'er that a person o$li'e& to 'ive support #a% lose his or her fortune $ecause of 'rave #is#ana'e#ent or on account of riotous livin'" his or her spouse" if an%" an& a #a3orit% of those entitle& to $e supporte& $% hi# or $% her #a% petition the Re'ional Trial Court for the creation of the fa#il% ho#e- .A cop% of the 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in accor&ance (ith the prece&in' section shall $e serve& upon the civil re'istrar (hose &ut% it shall $e to enter the sa#e in the re'ister- RULE 106 CONSTITUTION OF FAMILY OME SECT!O+ .4...Order for hearing.Upon the filin' of the petition" the court" $% an or&er recitin' the purpose of the sa#e" shall fi1 the &ate an& place for the hearin' thereof" (hich &ate shall not $e #ore than si1 (6) #onths after the entr% of the or&er" an& shall" #oreover" cause a cop% of the or&er to $e serve& personall% or $% #ail upon the intereste& parties" an& pu$lishe& once a (ee/ for three (2) consecutive (ee/s" in a ne(spaper or ne(spapers of 'eneral circulation in the provinceSEC.2The hea& of a fa#il% o(nin' a house an& the lan& on (hich it is situate& #a% constitute the sa#e into a fa#il% ho#e $% filin' a verifie& petition to that effect (ith the Re'ional Trial Court of the province or cit% (here the propert% is locate&.SEC.Contents of petition..Opposition.udgment. An% intereste& part% #ust" (ithin fifteen (..2.#ho may constitute.0.

SEC- 0- Contents of petition..The petition shall contain the follo(in' particulars* (a) Fescription of the propert%7 ($) An esti#ate of its actual value7 (c) A state#ent that the petitioner is actuall% resi&in' in the pre#ises7 (&) The encu#$rances thereon7 (e) The na#es an& a&&resses of all the cre&itors of the petitioner or hea& of the fa#il% an& of all #ort'a'ees an& other persons (ho have an interest in the propert%7 (f) The na#es of all the $eneficiaries of the fa#il% ho#eSEC- 2- %otice and publication..The court shall notif% the cre&itors" #ort'a'ees an& all other persons (ho have an interest in the estate" of the filin' of the petition" causin' copies thereof to $e serve& upon the#" an& pu$lishe& once a (ee/ for three (2) consecutive (ee/s in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation- The petition shall" #oreover" $e cause& to $e poste& in a conspicuous place in the parcel of lan& #entione& therein" an& also in a conspicuous place of the #unicipal $uil&in' of the #unicipalit% or cit% in (hich the lan& is situate&" for at least fourteen (,4) &a%s prior to the &a% of the hearin'SEC- 4- Ob"ection and date of hearing..!n the notice an& pu$lication re>uire& in the prece&in' section" the court shall re>uire the intereste& parties to file their o$3ection to the petition (ithin a perio& of not less than thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# receipt of notice or fro# the &ate of last pu$lication" an& shall fi1 the &ate an& ti#e of the hearin' of the petitionSEC- 5- Order..After hearin'" if the court fin&s that the actual value of the propose& fa#il% ho#e &oes not e1cee& t(ent% thousan& pesos" or thirt% thousan& pesos in chartere& cities" an& that no thir& person is pre3u&ice& there$%" or that cre&itors have $een 'iven sufficient securit% for their cre&its" the petition shall $e approve&SEC- 6- Registration of order..A certifie& cop% of the or&er of the court approvin' the esta$lish#ent of the fa#il% ho#e shall $e furnishe& the re'ister of &ee&s (ho shall recor& the sa#e in the re'istr% of propert%-

RULE 107

A!SENTEES
SECT!O+ ,- (ppointment of representative..8hen a person &isappears fro# his &o#icile" his (herea$outs $ein' un/no(n" an& (ithout havin' left an a'ent to a&#inister his propert%" or the po(er conferre& upon the a'ent has e1pire&" an% intereste& part%" relative or frien&" #a% petition the Re'ional Trial Court of the place (here the a$sentee resi&e& $efore his &isappearance" for the appoint#ent of a person

to represent hi# provisionall% in all that #a% $e necessar%- D!n the Cit% of 9anila" the petition shall $e file& in the Huvenile an& Fo#estic Relations Court-E SEC- 0- +eclaration of absence; who may petition.2 After the lapse of t(o (0) %ears fro# his &isappearance an& (ithout an% ne(s a$out the a$sentee or since the receipt of the last ne(s" or of five (5) %ears in case the a$sentee has left a person in char'e of the a&#inistration of his propert%" the &eclaration of his a$sence an& appoint#ent of a trustee or a&#inistrator #a% $e applie& for $% an% of the follo(in'* (a) The spouse present7 ($) sa#e7 (c) The relatives (ho (oul& succee& $% the la( of intestac%7 an& (&) Those (ho have over the propert% of the a$sentee so#e ri'ht su$or&inate& to the con&ition of his &eathSEC- 2- Contents of petition..The petition for the appoint#ent of a representative" or for the &eclaration of a$sence an& the appoint#ent of a trustee or an a&#inistrator" #ust sho( the follo(in'* (a) The 3uris&ictional facts7 ($) The na#es" a'es" an& resi&ences of the heirs institute& in the (ill" cop% of (hich shall $e presente&" an& of the relatives (ho (oul& succee& $% the la( of intestac%7 (c) The na#es an& resi&ences of cre&itors an& others (ho #a% have an% a&verse interest over the propert% of the a$sentee7 (&) The pro$a$le value" $elon'in' to the a$senteelocation an& character of the propert% The heirs institute& in a (ill" (ho #a% present an authentic cop% of the

SEC- 4- Time of hearing; notice and publication thereof.28hen a petition for the appoint#ent of a representative" or for the &eclaration of a$sence an& the appoint#ent of a trustee or a&#inistrator" is file&" the court shall fi1 a &ate an& place for the hearin' thereof (here all -concerne& #a% appear to contest the petitionCopies of the notice of the ti#e an& place fi1e& for the hearin' shall $e serve& upon the /no(n heirs" le'atees" &evisees" cre&itors an& other intereste& persons" at least ten (,B) &a%s $efore the &a% of the hearin'" an& shall $e pu$lishe& once a (ee/ for three (2) consecutive (ee/s prior to the ti#e &esi'nate& for the hearin'" in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the province or cit% (here a$sentee resi&es" as the court shall &ee# $estSEC- 5- Opposition-.An%one appearin' to contest the petition shall state in (ritin' his 'roun&s therefor" an& serve a cop% thereof on the petitioner an& other intereste& parties on or $efore the &ate &esi'nate& for the hearin'SEC" 6- $roof at hearing; order..At the hearin'" co#pliance (ith the provisions of section 4 of this rule #ust first $e sho(n- Upon satisfactor% proof of the alle'ations in

the petition" the court shall issue an or&er 'rantin' the sa#e an& appointin' the representative" trustee or a&#inistrator for the a$sentee- The 3u&'e shall ta/e the necessar% #easures to safe'uar& the ri'hts an& interests of the a$sentee an& shall specif% the po(ers" o$li'ations an& re#uneration of his representative" trustee or a&#inistrator" re'ulatin' the# $% the rules concernin' 'uar&ians!n case of &eclaration of a$sence" the sa#e shall not ta/e effect until si1 (6) #onths after its pu$lication in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation &esi'nate& $% the court an& the Official Ca5etteSEC- ?- #ho may be appointed. . !n the appoint#ent of a representative" the spouse present shall $e preferre& (hen there is no le'al separation- !f the a$sentee left no spouse" or if the spouse present is a #inor or other(ise inco#petent" an% co#petent person #a% $e appointe& $% the court- !n case of &eclaration of a$sence" the trustee or a&#inistrator of the a$senteeNs propert% shall $e appointe& in accor&ance (ith the prece&in' para'raphSEC- @- Termination of administration..The trusteeship or a&#inistration of the propert% of the a$sentee shall cease upon or&er of the court in an% of the follo(in' cases* (a) 8hen the a$sentee appears personall% or $% #eans of an a'ent7 ($) 8hen the &eath of the a$sentee is prove& an& his testate or intestate heirs appear7 (c) 8hen a thir& person appears" sho(in' $% a proper &ocu#ent that he has ac>uire& the a$senteeNs propert% $% purchase or other title!n these cases the trustee or a&#inistrator shall cease in the perfor#ance of his office" an& the propert% shall $e place& at the &isposal of those (ho #a% have a ri'ht thereto-

RULE 108

CANCELLATION OR CORRECTION OF ENTRIES IN T E CIVIL REGISTRY
SECT!O+ ,- #ho may file petition..An% person intereste& in an% act" event" or&er or &ecree concernin' the civil status of persons (hich has $een recor&e& in the civil re'ister" #a% file a verifie& petition for the cancellation or correction of an% entr% relatin' thereto" (ith the Re'ional Trial Court of the province (here the correspon&in' civil re'istr% is locate&SEC- 0- Entries su$3ect to cancellation or correction-.Upon 'oo& an& vali& 'roun&s" the follo(in' entries in the civil re'ister #a% $e cancelle& or correcte&* (a) $irths7 ($) #arria'es7 (c) &eaths7 (&) le'al separations7 (e) 3u&'#ents of annul#ents of

#arria'e7 (f) 3u&'#ents &eclarin' #arria'es voi& fro# the $e'innin'7 (') le'iti#ations7 (h) a&options7 (i) ac/no(le&'#ents of natural chil&ren7 (3) naturali5ation7 (/) election" loss or recover% of citi5enship7 (,) civil inter&iction7 (#) 3u&icial &eter#ination of filiation7 (n) voluntar% e#ancipation of a #inor7 an& (o) chan'es of na#eSEC- 2- $arties..8hen cancellation or correction of an entr% in the civil re'ister is sou'ht" the civil re'istrar an& all persons (ho have or clai# an% interest (hich (oul& $e affecte& there$% shall $e #a&e parties to the procee&in'SEC- 4- %otice and publication..Upon the filin' of the petition" the court shall" $% an or&er" fi1 the ti#e an& place for the hearin' of the sa#e" an& cause reasona$le notice thereof to $e 'iven to the persons na#e& in the petition- The court shall also cause the or&er to $e pu$lishe& once a (ee/ for three (2) consecutive (ee/s in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the provinceSEC- 5- Opposition..The civil re'istrar an& an% person havin' or clai#in' an% interest un&er the entr% (hose cancellation or correction is sou'ht #a%" (ithin fifteen (,5) &a%s fro# notice of the petition" or fro# the last &ate of pu$lication of such notice" file his opposition theretoSEC- 6- *,pediting proceedings-.The court in (hich the procee&in's is $rou'ht #a% #a/e or&ers e1pe&itin' the procee&in's" an& #a% also 'rant preli#inar% in3unction for the preservation of the ri'hts of the parties pen&in' such procee&in'sSEC- ?- Order-.After hearin'" the court #a% either &is#iss the petition or issue an or&er 'rantin' the cancellation or correction pra%e& for- !n either case" a certifie& cop% of the 3u&'#ent shall $e serve& upon the civil re'istrar concerne& (ho shall annotate the sa#e in his recor&-

RULE 109

APPEALS IN SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS
SECT!O+ ,- Orders or "udgments from which appeals may be ta)en. .An intereste& person #a% appeal in special procee&in's fro# an or&er or 3u&'#ent ren&ere& $% a Re'ional Trial Court Dor a Huvenile" an& Fo#estic Relations CourtE" (here such or&er or 3u&'#ent* (a) Allo(s or &isallo(s a (ill7 ($) Feter#ines (ho are the la(ful heirs of a &ecease& person" or the &istri$utive share of the estate to (hich such person is entitle&7 (c) Allo(s or &isallo(s" in (hole or in part" an% clai# a'ainst the estate of a &ecease& person" or an% clai# presente& on $ehalf of the estate in offset to a clai# a'ainst it7

(&) Settles the account of an e1ecutor" a&#inistrator" trustee or 'uar&ian7 (e) Constitutes" in procee&in's relatin' to the settle#ent of the estate of a &ecease& person" or the a&#inistration of a trustee or 'uar&ian" a final &eter#ination in the lo(er court of the ri'hts of the part% appealin'" e1cept that no appeal shall $e allo(e& fro# the appoint#ent of a special a&#inistrator7 an& (f) !s the final or&er or 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in the case" an& affects the su$stantial ri'hts of the person appealin'" unless it $e an or&er 'rantin' or &en%in' a #otion for a ne( trial or for reconsi&erationSEC- 0- (dvance distribution in special proceedings. .+ot(ithstan&in' a pen&in' controvers% or appeal in procee&in's to settle the estate of a &ece&ent" the court #a%" in its &iscretion an& upon such ter#s as it #a% &ee# proper an& 3ust" per#it that such part of the estate as #a% not $e affecte& $% the controvers% or appeal $e &istri$ute& a#on' the heirs or le'atees" upon co#pliance (ith the con&itions set forth in Rule AB of these rules-

PART III CRIMINAL PROCEDURE,

RULE 110

PROSECUTION OF OFFENSES
SECT!O+ ,- Institution of criminal actions..Cri#inal actions shall $e institute& as follo(s* (a) For offenses (here a preli#inar% investi'ation is re>uire& pursuant to section , of Rule ,,0" $% filin' the co#plaint (ith the proper officer for the purpose of con&uctin' the re>uisite preli#inar% investi'ation($) For all other offenses" $% filin' the co#plaint or infor#ation &irectl% (ith the 9unicipal Trial Courts an& 9unicipal Circuit Trial Courts" or the co#plaint (ith the office of the prosecutor- !n 9anila an& other chartere& cities" the co#plaint shall $e file& (ith the office of the prosecutor unless other(ise provi&e& in their chartersThe institution of the cri#inal action shall interrupt the runnin' of the perio& of prescription of the offense char'e& unless other(ise provi&e& in special la(s" (,a)
,

These Rules (ere revise& an& approve& on Octo$er 2" 0BBB to ta/e effect on Fece#$er ," 0BBB- The sa#e (ere pu$lishe& in the 9anila )ulletin an& the Philippine Star" Octo$er ,6 an& ,@" respectivel%-

A co#plaint or infor#ation is sufficient if it states the na#e of the accuse&7 the &esi'nation of the offense 'iven $% the statute7 the acts or o#issions co#plaine& of as constitutin' the offense7 the na#e of the offen&e& part%7 the appro1i#ate &ate of the co##ission of the offense7 an& the .Sufficiency of complaint or information.!f the offen&e& part% &ies or $eco#es incapacitate& $efore she can file the co#plaint" an& she has no /no(n parents" 'ran&parents or 'uar&ian" the State shall initiate the cri#inal action in her $ehalfThe offen&e& part%" even if a #inor" has the ri'ht to initiate the prosecution of the offenses of se&uction" a$&uction an& acts of lasciviousness in&epen&entl% of her parents" 'ran&parents" or 'uar&ian" unless she is inco#petent or incapa$le of &oin' so8here the offen&e& part%" (ho is a #inor" fails to file the co#plaint" her parents" 'ran&parents" or 'uar&ian #a% file the sa#e..2An infor#ation is an accusation in (ritin' char'in' a person (ith an offense" su$scri$e& $% the prosecutor an& file& (ith the court.All cri#inal actions co##ence& $% a co#plaint or infor#ation shall $e prosecute& un&er the &irection an& control of the prosecutor.(0a) SEC.The offen&e& part% cannot institute cri#inal prosecution (ithout inclu&in' the 'uilt% parties" if $oth are alive" nor" in an% case" if the offen&e& part% has consente& to the offense or par&one& the offen&ersThe offenses of se&uction" a$&uction an& acts of lasciviousness shall not $e prosecute& e1cept upon a co#plaint file& $% the offen&e& part% or her parents" 'ran&parents or 'uar&ian" nor" in an% case" if the offen&er has $een e1pressl% par&one& $% an% of the#. .The co#plaint or infor#ation shall $e in (ritin'" in the na#e of the People of the Philippines an& a'ainst all persons (ho appear to $e responsi$le for the offense involve&.Information defined.This authorit% shall cease upon actual intervention of the prosecutor or upon elevation of the case to the Re'ional Trial CourtThe cri#es of a&ulter% an& concu$ina'e shall not $e prosecute& e1cept upon a co#plaint file& $% the offen&e& spouse.=o(ever" in 9unicipal Trial Courts or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Courts (hen the prosecutor assi'ne& thereto or to the case is not availa$le" the offen&e& part%" an% peace officer" or pu$lic officer char'e& (ith the enforce#ent of the la( violate& #a% prosecute the case.(5a) The prosecution for violation of special la(s shall $e 'overne& $% the provisions thereof" (n) SEC.SEC.6.#ho must prosecute criminal actions.The ri'ht to file the action 'rante& to parents" 'ran&parents" or 'uar&ian shall $e e1clusive of all other persons an& shall $e e1ercise& successivel% in the or&er herein provi&e&" e1cept as state& in the prece&in' para'raph+o cri#inal action for &efa#ation (hich consists in the i#putation of an% of the offenses #entione& a$ove shall $e $rou'ht e1cept at the instance of an& upon co#plaint file& $% the offen&e& part%.2.4.A co#plaint is a s(orn (ritten state#ent char'in' a person (ith an offense" su$scri$e& $% the offen&e& part%" an% peace officer" or other pu$lic officer char'e& (ith the enforce#ent of the la( violate&.5. .The complaint or information..Complaint defined.(4a) SEC.(2) SEC.0.

.+esignation of the offense.0. ..The acts or o#issions co#plaine& of as constitutin' the offense an& the >ualif%in' an& a''ravatin' circu#stances #ust $e state& in or&inar% an& concise lan'ua'e an& not necessaril% in the lan'ua'e use& in the statute" $ut in ter#s sufficient to ena$le a person of co##on un&erstan&in' to /no( (hat offense is $ein' char'e& as (ell as its >ualif%in' an& a''ravatin' circu#stances an& for the court to pronounce 3u&'#ent..!t is not necessar% to state in the co#plaint or infor#ation the precise &ate the offense (as co##itte& e1cept (hen it is a #aterial in're&ient of the offense.%ame of the offended party.. .$lace of commission of the offense.!f his na#e cannot $e ascertaine&" he #ust $e &escri$e& un&er a fictitious na#e (ith a state#ent that his true na#e is un/no(n!f the true na#e of the accuse& is thereafter &isclose& $% hi# or appears in so#e other #anner to the court" such true na#e shall $e inserte& in the co#plaint or infor#ation an& recor&.!f there is no &esi'nation of the offense" reference shall $e #a&e to the section or su$section of the statute punishin' it.The co#plaint or infor#ation shall state the &esi'nation of the offense 'iven $% the statute" aver the acts or o#issions constitutin' the offense" an& specif% its >ualif%in' an& a''ravatin' circu#stances..(?a) SEC. ...The co#plaint or infor#ation #ust state the na#e an& surna#e of the accuse& or an% appellation or nic/na#e $% (hich he has $een or is /no(n.(.+ate of commission of the offense.B.Ba) SEC.The co#plaint or infor#ation is sufficient if it can $e un&erstoo& fro# its alle'ations that the offense (as co##itte& or so#e of its essential in're&ients occurre& at so#e place (ithin the 3uris&iction of the court" unless the particular place (here it (as co##itte& constitutes an essential ele#ent of the offense char'e& or is necessar% for its i&entification..ACause of the accusation.(..(@a) SEC.place (here the offense (as co##itte&8hen an offense is co##itte& $% #ore than one person" all of the# shall $e inclu&e& in the co#plaint or infor#ation.(Aa) SEC.a) SEC.@.?.The offense #a% $e alle'e& to have $een co##itte& on a &ate as near as possi$le to the actual &ate of its co##ission.%ame of the accused.(6a) SEC.!f there is no $etter (a% of i&entif%in' hi#" he #ust $e &escri$e& un&er a fictitious na#e(a) !n offenses a'ainst propert%" if the na#e of the offen&e& part% is un/no(n" the propert% #ust $e &escri$e& (ith such particularit% as to properl% i&entif% the offense char'e&($) !f the true na#e of the person a'ainst (ho# or a'ainst (hose propert% the offense (as co##itte& is thereafter &isclose& or ascertaine&" the court #ust cause such true na#e to $e inserte& in the co#plaint or infor#ation an& the recor&- .The co#plaint or infor#ation #ust state the na#e an& surna#e of the person a'ainst (ho# or a'ainst (hose propert% the offense (as co##itte&" or an% appellation or nic/na#e $% (hich such person has $een or is /no(n.

..6a) . .(.2a) SEC.(...A co#plaint or infor#ation #ust char'e onl% one offense" e1cept (hen the la( prescri$es a sin'le punish#ent for various offenses.8here the civil action for recover% of civil lia$ilit% is institute& in the cri#inal action pursuant to Rule .The court #a% re>uire the (itnesses to 'ive $ail for their appearance at the trial.5.A" Rule .After the plea an& &urin' the trial" a for#al a#en&#ent #a% onl% $e #a&e (ith leave of court an& (hen it can $e &one (ithout causin' pre3u&ice to the ri'hts of the accuse&=o(ever" an% a#en&#ent $efore plea" (hich &o(n'ra&es the nature of the offense char'e& in or e1clu&es an% accuse& fro# the co#plaint or infor#ation" can $e #a&e onl% upon #otion $% the prosecutor" (ith notice to the offen&e& part% an& (ith leave of court.0a) SEC.4.The court shall state its reasons in resolvin' the #otion an& copies of its or&er shall $e furnishe& all parties" especiall% the offen&e& part%" (n) !f it appears at an% ti#e $efore 3u&'#ent that a #ista/e has $een #a&e in char'in' the proper offense" the court shall &is#iss the ori'inal co#plaint or infor#ation upon the filin' of a ne( one char'in' the proper offense in accor&ance (ith section . (a) Su$3ect to e1istin' la(s" the cri#inal action shall $e institute& an& trie& in the court of the #unicipalit% or territor% (here the offense (as co##itte& or (here an% of its essential in're&ients occurre&($) 8here an offense is co##itte& in a train" aircraft" or other pu$lic or private vehicle in the course of its trip" the cri#inal action shall $e institute& an& trie& in the court of an% #unicipalit% or territor% (here such train" aircraft" or other vehicle passe& &urin' its trip" inclu&in' the place of its &eparture an& arrival(c) 8here an offense is co##itte& on $oar& a vessel in the course of its vo%a'e" the cri#inal action shall $e institute& an& trie& in the court of the first port of entr% or of an% #unicipalit% or territor% (here the vessel passe& &urin' such vo%a'e" su$3ect to the 'enerall% accepte& principles of international la((&) Cri#es co##itte& outsi&e the Philippines $ut punisha$le un&er Article 0 of the Revise& Penal Co&e shall $e co'ni5a$le $% the court (here the cri#inal action is first file&.A" provi&e& the accuse& shall not $e place& in &ou$le 3eopar&%.(.(.5a) SEC..4a) SEC.+uplicity of the offense.A co#plaint or infor#ation #a% $e a#en&e&" in for# or in su$stance" (ithout leave of court" at an% ti#e $efore the accuse& enters his plea....(mendment or substitution...2.Intervention of the offended party in criminal action.6.$lace where action is to be instituted.(c) !f the offen&e& part% is a 3uri&ical person" it is sufficient to state its na#e" or an% na#e or &esi'nation $% (hich it is /no(n or $% (hich it #a% $e i&entifie&" (ithout nee& of averrin' that it is a 3uri&ical person or that it is or'ani5e& in accor&ance (ith la(." the offen&e& part% #a% intervene $% counsel in the prosecution of the offense(.

!f the a#ounts are not so alle'e& $ut an% of these &a#a'es are su$se>uentl% a(ar&e& $% the court" the filin' fees $ase& on the a#ount a(ar&e& shall constitute a first lien on the 3u&'#ent8here the civil action has $een file& separatel% an& trial thereof has not %et co##ence&" it #a% $e consoli&ate& (ith the cri#inal action upon application (ith the court tr%in' the latter case.+o reservation to file such civil action separatel% shall $e allo(e&Upon filin' of the aforesai& 3oint cri#inal an& civil actions" the offen&e& part% shall pa% in full the filin' fees $ase& on the a#ount of the chec/ involve&" (hich shall $e consi&ere& as the actual &a#a'es clai#e&.Institution of criminal and civil actions..5?<A?) . .(cir.00 shall $e &ee#e& to inclu&e the correspon&in' civil action.(a) 8hen a cri#inal action is institute&" the civil action for the recover% of civil lia$ilit% arisin' fro# the offense char'e& shall $e &ee#e& institute& (ith the cri#inal action unless the offen&e& part% (aives the civil action" reserves the ri'ht to institute it separatel% or institutes the civil action prior to the cri#inal actionThe reservation of the ri'ht to institute separatel% the civil action shall $e #a&e $efore the prosecution starts presentin' its evi&ence an& un&er circu#stances affor&in' the offen&e& part% a reasona$le opportunit% to #a/e such reservation8hen the offen&e& part% see/s to enforce civil lia$ilit% a'ainst the accuse& $% (a% of #oral" no#inal" te#perate" or e1e#plar% &a#a'es (ithout specif%in' the a#ount thereof in the co#plaint or infor#ation" the filin' fees therefor shall constitute a first lien on the 3u&'#ent a(ar&in' such &a#a'es8here the a#ount of &a#a'es" other than actual" is specifie& in the co#plaint or infor#ation" the correspon&in' filin' fees shall $e pai& $% the offen&e& part% upon the filin' thereof in courtE1cept as other(ise provi&e& in these Rules" no filin' fees shall $e re>uire& for actual &a#a'es+o counterclai#" cross<clai# or thir&<part% co#plaint #a% $e file& $% the accuse& in the cri#inal case" $ut an% cause of action (hich coul& have $een the su$3ect thereof #a% $e liti'ate& in a separate civil action" (.RULE 111 PROSECUTION OF CIVIL ACTION SECT!O+ .8here the co#plaint or infor#ation also see/s to recover li>ui&ate&" #oral" no#inal" te#perate or e1e#plar% &a#a'es" the offen&e& part% shall pa% a&&itional filin' fees $ase& on the a#ounts alle'e& therein.a) ($) The cri#inal action for violation of )atas Pa#$ansa )l'.!f the application is 'rante&" the trial of $oth actions shall procee& in accor&ance (ith section 0 of this Rule 'overnin' consoli&ation of the civil an& cri#inal actions.

!n case of consoli&ation" the evi&ence alrea&% a&&uce& in the civil action shall $e &ee#e& auto#aticall% repro&uce& in the cri#inal action (ithout pre3u&ice to the ri'ht of the prosecution to cross<e1a#ine the (itnesses presente& $% the offen&e& part% in the cri#inal case an& of the parties to present a&&itional evi&ence.2The &eath of the accuse& after arrai'n#ent an& &urin' the pen&enc% of the cri#inal action shall e1tin'uish the civil lia$ilit% arisin' fro# the &elict=o(ever" the in&epen&ent civil action institute& un&er section 2 of this Rule or (hich thereafter is institute& to enforce lia$ilit% arisin' fro# other sources of o$li'ation #a% $e continue& a'ainst the estate or le'al representative of the accuse& after proper su$stitution or a'ainst sai& estate" as the case #a% $e.0.?6 of the Civil Co&e of the Philippines" the in&epen&ent civil action #a% $e $rou'ht $% the offen&e& part%.*ffect of death on civil actions.!n no case" ho(ever" #a% the offen&e& part% recover &a#a'es t(ice for the sa#e act or o#ission char'e& in the cri#inal action.#hen separate civil action is suspended. .The suspension shall last until final 3u&'#ent is ren&ere& in the cri#inal action+evertheless" $efore 3u&'#ent on the #erits is ren&ere& in the civil action" the sa#e #a%" upon #otion of the offen&e& part%" $e consoli&ate& (ith the cri#inal action in the court tr%in' the cri#inal action.(0a) SEC.The consoli&ate& cri#inal an& civil actions shall $e trie& an& &eci&e& 3ointl%Furin' the pen&enc% of the cri#inal action" the runnin' of the perio& of prescription of the civil action (hich cannot $e institute& separatel% or (hose procee&in' has $een suspen&e& shall $e tolle&" (n) The e1tinction of the penal action &oes not carr% (ith it e1tinction of the civil action=o(ever" the civil action $ase& on &elict shall $e &ee#e& e1tin'uishe& if there is a fin&in' in a final 3u&'#ent in the cri#inal action that the act or o#ission fro# (hich the civil lia$ilit% #a% arise &i& not e1ist.After the cri#inal action has $een co##ence&" the separate civil action arisin' therefro# cannot $e institute& until final 3u&'#ent has $een entere& in the cri#inal action!f the cri#inal action is file& after the sai& civil action has alrea&% $een institute&" the latter shall $e suspen&e& in (hatever sta'e it #a% $e foun& $efore 3u&'#ent on the #erits.2.The heirs of the accuse& #a% $e su$stitute& for the &ecease& (ithout re>uirin' the appoint#ent of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator an& the court #a% appoint a 'uar&ian ad litem for the #inor heirsThe court shall forth(ith or&er sai& le'al representative or representatives to appear an& $e su$stitute& (ithin a perio& of thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# noticeA final 3u&'#ent entere& in favor of the offen&e& part% shall $e enforce& in the #anner especiall% provi&e& in these rules for prosecutin' clai#s a'ainst the estate of the &ecease&!f the accuse& &ies $efore arrai'n#ent" the case shall $e &is#isse& (ithout .SEC.(2a) SEC. .4.!t shall procee& in&epen&entl% of the cri#inal action an& shall re>uire onl% a prepon&erance of evi&ence.!n the cases provi&e& in Articles 20" 22" 24 an& 0.#hen civil action may proceed independently.

2 The ele#ents of a pre3u&icial >uestion are* (a) the previousl% institute& civil action involves an issue si#ilar or inti#atel% relate& to the issue raise& in the su$se>uent cri#inal action" an& ($) the resolution of such issue &eter#ines (hether or not the cri#inal action #a% procee&.) &a% (ithout re'ar& to the fine" (.5.Officers authori5ed to conduct preliminary investigations. .$reliminary investigation defined.*lements of pre"udicial 6uestion. .. .udgment in civil action not a bar.(4a) SEC.. .0.A petition for suspension of the cri#inal action $ase& upon the pen&enc% of a pre3u&icial >uestion in a civil action #a% $e file& in the office of the prosecutor or the court con&uctin' the preli#inar% investi'ation.(5a) RULE 112 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION SECT!O+ . The follo(in' #a% con&uct preli#inar% investi'ations* (a) Provincial or Cit% Prosecutors an& their assistants7 ($) Hu&'es of the 9unicipal Trial Courts an& 9unicipal Circuit Trial Courts7 (c) +ational an& Re'ional State Prosecutors7 an& (&) Other officers as #a% $e authori5e& $% la(Their authorit% to con&uct preli#inar% investi'ations shall inclu&e all cri#es co'ni5a$le $% the proper court in their respective territorial 3uris&ictions.The preli#inar% investi'ation shall $e con&ucte& in the follo(in' #anner* .(0a) SEC.Suspension by reason of pre"udicial 6uestion.Preli#inar% investi'ation is an in>uir% or procee&in' to &eter#ine (hether there is sufficient 'roun& to en'en&er a (ell<foun&e& $elief that a cri#e has $een co##itte& an& the respon&ent is pro$a$l% 'uilt% thereof" an& shoul& $e hel& for trialE1cept as provi&e& in section ? of this Rule" a preli#inar% investi'ation is re>uire& to $e con&ucte& $efore the filin' of a co#plaint or infor#ation for an offense (here the penalt% prescri$e& $% la( is at least four (4) %ears" t(o (0) #onths an& one (. when re6uired.2.(6a) SEC.6.?.A final 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in a civil action a$solvin' the &efen&ant fro# civil lia$ilit% is not a $ar to a cri#inal action a'ainst the &efen&ant for the sa#e act or o#ission su$3ect of the civil action.8hen the cri#inal action has $een file& in court for trial" the petition to suspen& shall $e file& in the sa#e cri#inal action at an% ti#e $efore the prosecution rests.a) SEC.pre3u&ice to an% civil action the offen&e& part% #a% file a'ainst the estate of the &ecease&" (n) SEC.$rocedure.

!t shall $e ter#inate& (ithin five (5) &a%s(f) 8ithin ten (.B) &a%s fro# receipt of the su$poena (ith the co#plaint an& supportin' affi&avits an& &ocu#ents" the respon&ent shall su$#it his counter<affi&avit an& that of his (itnesses an& other supportin' &ocu#ents relie& upon for his &efense.The% #a%" ho(ever" su$#it to the investi'atin' officer >uestions (hich #a% $e as/e& to the part% or (itness concerne&The hearin' shall $e hel& (ithin ten (.(a) The co#plaint shall state the a&&ress of the respon&ent an& shall $e acco#panie& $% the affi&avits of the co#plainant an& his (itnesses" as (ell as other supportin' &ocu#ents to esta$lish pro$a$le cause.B) &a%s after the filin' of the co#plaint" the investi'atin' officer shall either &is#iss it if he fin&s no 'roun& to continue (ith the investi'ation" or issue a su$poena to the respon&ent attachin' to it a cop% of the co#plaint an& its supportin' affi&avits an& &ocu#entsThe respon&ent shall have the ri'ht to e1a#ine the evi&ence su$#itte& $% the co#plainant (hich he #a% not have $een furnishe& an& to cop% the# at his e1pense.The parties can $e present at the hearin' $ut (ithout the ri'ht to e1a#ine or cross<e1a#ine.B) &a%s fro# su$#ission of the counter<affi&avits an& other &ocu#ents or fro# the e1piration of the perio& for their su$#ission.B) &a%s after the investi'ation" the investi'atin' officer shall &eter#ine (hether or not there is sufficient 'roun& to hol& the respon&ent for trial(2a) .The% shall $e in such nu#$er of copies as there are respon&ents" plus t(o (0) copies for the official fileThe affi&avits shall $e su$scri$e& an& s(orn to $efore an% prosecutor or 'overn< #ent official authori5e& to a&#inister oath" or" in their a$sence or unavaila$ilit%" $efore a notar% pu$lic" each of (ho# #ust certif% that he personall% e1a#ine& the affiants an& that he is satisfie& that the% voluntaril% e1ecute& an& un&erstoo& their affi&avits($) 8ithin ten (.The respon&ent shall not $e allo(e& to file a #otion to &is#iss in lieu of a counter<affi&avit(&) !f the respon&ent cannot $e su$poenae&" of if su$poenae&" &oes not su$#it counter<affi&avits (ithin the ten (.!f the evi&ence is volu#inous" the co#plainant #a% $e re>uire& to specif% those (hich he inten&s to present a'ainst the respon&ent" an& these shall $e #a&e availa$le for e1a#ination or cop%in' $% the respon&ent at his e1penseO$3ects as evi&ence nee& not $e furnishe& a part% $ut shall $e #a&e availa$le for e1a#ination" cop%in'" or photo'raphin' at the e1pense of the re>uestin' part%(c) 8ithin ten (.B) &a% perio&" the investi'atin' officer shall resolve the co#plaint $ase& on the evi&ence presente& $% the co#plainant(e) The investi'atin' officer #a% set a hearin' if there are facts an& issues to $e clarifie& fro# a part% or a (itness.The counter<affi&avits shall $e su$scri$e& an& s(orn to an& certifie& as provi&e& in para'raph (a) of this section" (ith copies thereof furnishe& $% hi# to the co#plainant7.

Resolution of investigating "udge and its review. .The resolution shall state the fin&in's of facts an& the la( supportin' his action" to'ether (ith the recor& of the case (hich" shall inclu&e* (a) the (arrant" if the arrest is $% virtue of a (arrant7 ($) the affi&avits" counter<affi&avits an& other supportin' evi&ence of the parties7 (c) the un&erta/in' or $ail of the accuse& an& the or&er for his release7 (&) the transcripts of the procee&in's &urin' the preli#inar% investi'ation7 an& (e) the or&er of cancellation of his $ail $on&" if the resolution is for the &is#issal of the co#plaint8ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# receipt of the recor&s" the provincial or cit% prosecutor" or the O#$u&s#an or his &eput%" as the case #a% $e" shall revie( the resolution of the .The% shall act on the resolution (ithin ten (.4.SEC.The sa#e rule shall appl% in preli#inar% investi'ations con&ucte& $% the officers of the Office of the O#$u&s#an.2 8ithin ten (.Other(ise" he shall reco##en& the &is#issal of the co#plaint8ithin five (5) &a%s fro# his resolution" he shall for(ar& the recor& of the case to the provincial or cit% prosecutor or chief state prosecutor" or to the O#$u&s#an or his &eput% in cases of offenses co'ni5a$le $% the Sandiganbayan in the e1ercise of its ori'inal 3uris&iction.(4a) SEC.B) &a%s after the preli#inar% investi'ation" the investi'atin' 3u&'e shall trans#it the resolution of the case to the provincial or cit% prosecutor" or to the O#$u&s#an or his &eput% in cases of offenses co'ni5a$le $% the Sandiganbayan in the e1ercise of its ori'inal 3uris&iction" for appropriate action.!f the investi'atin' prosecutor fin&s cause to hol& the respon&ent for trial" he shall prepare the resolution an& infor#ation.Resolution of investigating prosecutor and its review.5.B) &a%s fro# their receipt thereof an& shall i##e&iatel% infor# the parties of such action+o co#plaint or infor#ation #a% $e file& or &is#isse& $% an investi'atin' prosecutor (ithout the prior (ritten authorit% or approval of the provincial or cit% prosecutor or chief state prosecutor or the O#$u&s#an or his &eput%8here the investi'atin' prosecutor reco##en&s the &is#issal of the co#plaint $ut his reco##en&ation is &isapprove& $% the provincial or cit% prosecutor or chief state prosecutor or the O#$u&s#an or his &eput% on the 'roun& that a pro$a$le cause e1ists" the latter #a%" $% hi#self" file the infor#ation a'ainst the respon&ent" or &irect another assistant prosecutor or state prosecutor to &o so (ithout con&uctin' another preli#inar% investi'ation!f upon petition $% a proper part% un&er such rules as the Fepart#ent of Hustice #a% prescri$e or motu proprio. the Secretar% of Hustice reverses or #o&ifies the resolution of the provincial or cit% prosecutor or chief state prosecutor" he shall &irect the prosecutor concerne& either to file the correspon&in' infor#ation (ithout con&uctin' another preli#inar% investi'ation" or to &is#iss or #ove for &is#issal of the co#plaint or infor#ation (ith notice to the parties.=e shall certif% un&er oath in the infor#ation that he" or as sho(n $% the recor&" an authori5e& officer" has personall% e1a#ine& the co#plainant an& his (itnesses7 that there is reasona$le 'roun& to $elieve that a cri#e has $een co##itte& an& that the accuse& is pro$a$l% 'uilt% thereof7 that the accuse& (as infor#e& of the co#plaint an& of the evi&ence su$#itte& a'ainst hi#7 an& that he (as 'iven an opportunit% to su$#it controvertin' evi&ence.

#hen warrant of arrest may issue.(5a) SEC.6.B) &a%s fro# the filin' of the co#plaint or infor#ation" the 3u&'e shall personall% evaluate the resolution of the prosecutor an& its supportin' evi&ence.(a) 1y the Regional Trial Court -.The% shall or&er the release of an accuse& (ho is &etaine& if no pro$a$le cause is foun& a'ainst hi#. .!f his fin&in's an& reco##en&ations are affir#e& $% the provincial or cit% prosecutor" or $% the O#$u&s#an or his &eput%" an& the correspon&in' infor#ation is file&" he shall issue a (arrant of arrest. 8ithin ten (.A (arrant of arrest shall not issue if the accuse& is alrea&% un&er &etention pursuant to a (arrant issue& $% the #unicipal trial court in accor&ance (ith para'raph ($) of this section" or if the co#plaint or infor#ation (as file& pursuant to section ? of this Rule or is for an offense penali5e& $% fine onl%The court shall then procee& in the e1ercise of its ori'inal 3uris&iction. ..(6a) SEC.8hen a person is la(full% arreste& (ithout a (arrant involvin' an offense (hich re>uires a preli#inar% investi'ation" the co#plaint or infor#ation #a% $e file& $% a prosecutor (ithout nee& of such investi'ation provi&e& an in>uest has $een con&ucte& in accor&ance (ith e1istin' rules. .!n the a$sence or unavaila$ilit% of an in>uest prosecutor" the co#plaint #a% $e file& $% the offen&e& part% or a peace officer &irectl% (ith the proper court on the $asis of the affi&avit of the offen&e& part% or arrestin' officer or person)efore the co#plaint or infor#ation is file&" the person arreste& #a% as/ for a preli#inar% investi'ation in accor&ance (ith this Rule" $ut he #ust si'n a (aiver of the .!n case of &ou$t on the e1istence of pro$a$le cause" the 3u&'e #a% or&er the prosecutor to present a&&itional evi&ence (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# notice an& the issue #ust $e resolve& $% the court (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the filin' of the co#plaint or infor#ation($) 1y the !unicipal Trial Court.=e #a% i##e&iatel% &is#iss the case if the evi&ence on recor& clearl% fails to esta$lish pro$a$le cause. of this Rule" the preli#inar% investi'ation of cases fallin' un&er the ori'inal 3uris&iction of the 9etropolitan Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court in Cities" 9unicipal Trial Court" or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court #a% $e con&ucte& $% either the 3u&'e or the prosecutor.!f he fin&s pro$a$le cause" he shall issue a (arrant of arrest" or a co##it#ent or&er if the accuse& has alrea&% $een arreste& pursuant to a (arrant issue& $% the 3u&'e (ho con&ucte& the preli#inar% investi'ation or (hen the co#plaint or infor#ation (as file& pursuant to section ? of this Rule.#hen accused lawfully arrested without warrant.?.=o(ever" (ithout (aitin' for the conclusion of the investi'ation" the 3u&'e #a% issue a (arrant of arrest if he fin&s after an e1a#ination in (ritin' an& un&er oath of the co#plainant an& his (itnesses in the for# of searchin' >uestions an& ans(ers" that a pro$a$le cause e1ists an& that there is a necessit% of placin' the respon&ent un&er i##e&iate custo&% in or&er not to frustrate the en&s of 3ustice(c) #hen warrant of arrest not necessary.Their rulin' shall e1pressl% an& clearl% state the facts an& the la( on (hich it is $ase& an& the parties shall $e furnishe& (ith copies thereof.8hen re>uire& pursuant to the secon& para'raph of section .8hen the investi'ation is con&ucte& $% the 3u&'e hi#self" he shall follo( the proce&ure provi&e& in section 2 of this Rule.8hen con&ucte& $% the prosecutor" the proce&ure for the issuance of a (arrant of arrest $% the 3u&'e shall $e 'overne& $% para'raph (a) of this section.investi'atin' 3u&'e on the e1istence of pro$a$le cause.

+o.(@a) SEC.B) &a%s fro# notice" to &eter#ine further the e1istence of pro$a$le cause. . (a) If filed with the prosecutor.@.5) &a%s fro# its inceptionAfter the filin' of the co#plaint or infor#ation in court (ithout a preli#inar% investi'ation" the accuse& #a%" (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# the ti#e he learns of its filin'" as/ for a preli#inar% investi'ation (ith the sa#e ri'ht to a&&uce evi&ence in his &efense as provi&e& in this Rule.?42@) SEC.8hen he fin&s pro$a$le cause" he shall issue a (arrant of arrest" or a co##it#ent or&er if the accuse& ha& alrea&% $een arreste&" an& hol& hi# for trial. .An infor#ation or co#plaint file& in court shall $e supporte& $% the affi&avits an& counter< affi&avits of the parties an& their (itnesses" to'ether (ith the other supportin' evi&ence an& the resolution on the case($) Record of preliminary investigation.A.(?a7 sec.Cases not re>uirin' a preli#inar% investi'ation nor covere& $% the Rule on Su##ar% Proce&ure-..B) &a%s after the filin' of the co#plaint or infor#ation" the 3u&'e fin&s no pro$a$le cause after personall% evaluatin' the evi&ence" or after personall% e1a#inin' in (ritin' an& un&er oath the co#plainant an& his (itnesses in the for# of searchin' >uestions an& ans(ers" he shall &is#iss the sa#e.!f the 3u&'e still fin&s no pro$a$le cause &espite the a&&itional evi&ence" he shall" (ithin ten (.!f the co#plaint is file& &irectl% (ith the prosecutor involvin' an offense punisha$le $% i#prison#ent of less than four (4) %ears" t(o (0) #onths an& one (.=o(ever" the court" on its o(n initiative or on #otion of an% part%" #a% or&er the pro&uction of the recor& or an% of its part (hen necessar% in the resolution of the case or an% inci&ent therein" or (hen it is to $e intro&uce& as an evi&ence in the case $% the re>uestin' part%.The recor& of the preli#inar% investi'ation" (hether con&ucte& $% a 3u&'e or a prosecutor" shall not for# part of the recor& of the case. .=e #a%" ho( ever" re>uire the su$#ission of a&&itional evi&ence" (ithin ten (. !f the co#plaint or infor#ation is file& (ith the 9unicipal Trial Court or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court for an offense covere& $% this section" the proce&ure in section 2(a) of this Rule shall $e o$serve&!f (ithin ten (..(a) Records supporting the information or complaint.) &a%" the proce&ure outline& in section 2(a) of this Rule shall $e o$serve&.B) &a%s fro# its filin'($) If filed with the !unicipal Trial Court.provisions of Article .05 of the Revise& Penal Co&e" as a#en&e&" in the presence of his counsel.=o(ever" if the 3u&'e is satisfie& that there is no necessit% for placin' the accuse& un&er custo&%" he #a% issue su##ons instea& of a (arrant of arrest.0" R-A.B) &a%s fro# its su$#ission or e1piration of sai& perio&" &is#iss the case.The prosecutor shall act on the co#plaint $ase& on the affi&avits an& other supportin' &ocu#ents su$#itte& $% the co#plainant (ithin ten (.+ot(ithstan&in' the (aiver" he #a% appl% for $ail an& the investi'ation #ust $e ter#inate& (ithin fifteen (.(Aa) RULE 113 .Records.

0" (5a) SEC.+efinition of arrest.Time of ma)ing arrest..B) &a%s fro# its receipt.?.ecution of warrant.*.2.+uty of arresting officer.The officer nee& not have the (arrant in his possession at the ti#e of the arrest $ut after the arrest" if the person arreste& so re>uires" the (arrant shall $e sho(n to hi# as soon as practica$le.!ethod of arrest by officer by virtue of warrant.!n case of his failure to e1ecute the (arrant" he shall state the reasons therefor(4a) SEC. .(?a) .ARREST SECT!O+ .8hen #a/in' an arrest $% virtue of a (arrant" the officer shall infor# the person to $e arreste& of the cause of the arrest an& the fact that a (arrant has $een issue& for his arrest" e1cept (hen he flees or forci$l% resists $efore the officer has opportunit% to so infor# hi#" or (hen the 'ivin' of such infor#ation (ill i#peril the arrest.(.(rrest.A peace officer or a private person #a%" (ithout a (arrant" arrest a person* (a) 8hen" in his presence" the person to $e arreste& has co##itte&" is actuall% co##ittin'" or is atte#ptin' to co##it an offense7 ($) 8hen an offense has 3ust $een co##itte& an& he has pro$a$le cause to $elieve $ase& on personal /no(le&'e of facts or circu#stances that the person to $e arreste& has co##itte& it7 an& (c) 8hen the person to $e arreste& is a prisoner (ho has escape& fro# a penal esta$lish#ent or place (here he is servin' final 3u&'#ent or is te#poraril% confine& (hile his case is pen&in'" or has escape& (hile $ein' transferre& fro# one confine#ent to another!n cases fallin' un&er para'raphs (a) an& ($) a$ove" the person arreste& (ithout a (arrant shall $e forth(ith &elivere& to the nearest police station or 3ail an& shall $e procee&e& a'ainst in accor&ance (ith section ? of Rule .. when lawful.!t shall $e the &ut% of the officer e1ecutin' the (arrant to arrest the accuse& an& &eliver hi# to the nearest police station or 3ail (ithout unnecessar% &ela%.) SEC.2Arrest is the ta/in' of a person into custo&% in or&er that he #a% $e $oun& to ans(er for the co##ission of an offense. how made.The person arreste& shall not $e su$3ect to a 'reater restraint than is necessar% for his &etention(0a) SEC.. .8ithin ten (.An arrest is #a&e $% an actual restraint of a person to $e arreste&" or $% his su$#ission to the custo&% of the person #a/in' the arrest+o violence or unnecessar% force shall $e use& in #a/in' an arrest..6.4.(rrest without warrant..B) &a%s after the e1piration of the perio&" the officer to (ho# it (as assi'ne& for e1ecution shall #a/e a report to the 3u&'e (ho issue& the (arrant.The hea& of the office to (ho# the (arrant of arrest (as &elivere& for e1ecution shall cause the (arrant to $e e1ecute& (ithin ten (.5.0.An arrest #a% $e #a&e on an% &a% an& at an% ti#e of the &a% or ni'ht.(6) SEC.(2a) SEC..

(.0a) SEC.1ail defined.!ethod of arrest by officer without warrant.Right of attorney or relative to visit person arrested..!ethod of arrest by private person.2)ail is the securit% 'iven for the release of a person in custo&% of the la(" furnishe& $% hi# or a $on&s#an" to 'uarantee his appearance $efore an% court as re>uire& un&er the con&itions hereinafter specifie&... .8hen #a/in' an arrest (ithout a (arrant" the officer shall infor# the person to $e arreste& of his authorit% an& the cause of the arrest" unless the latter is either en'a'e& in the co##ission of an offense" is pursue& i##e&iatel% after its co##ission" has escape&" flees" or forci$l% resists $efore the officer has opportunit% to so infor# hi#" or (hen the 'ivin' of such infor#ation (ill i#peril the arrest. ..Ever% person so su##one& $% an officer shall assist hi# in effectin' the arrest (hen he can ren&er such assistance (ithout &etri#ent to hi#self.(.(.(rrest after escape or rescue..8henever an officer has entere& the $uil&in'" or enclosure in accor&ance (ith the prece&in' section" he #a% $rea/ out therefro# (hen necessar% to li$erate hi#self.)ail #a% $e .a) SEC.4a) RULE 114 !AIL SECT!O+ ..2) SEC.A.4..(..An officer" in or&er to #a/e an arrest either $% virtue of a (arrant" or (ithout a (arrant as provi&e& in section 5" #a% $rea/ into an% $uil&in' or enclosure (here the person to $e arreste& is or is reasona$l% $elieve& to $e" if he is refuse& a&#ittance thereto" after announcin' his authorit% an& purpose" (.An% #e#$er of the Philippine )ar shall" at the re>uest of the person arreste& or of another actin' in his $ehalf" have the ri'ht to visit an& confer privatel% (ith such person in the 3ail or an% other place of custo&% at an% hour of the &a% or ni'ht. .Ba) SEC. .Officer may summon assistance.!f a person la(full% arreste& escapes or is rescue&" an% person #a% i##e&iatel% pursue or reta/e hi# (ithout a (arrant at an% ti#e an& in an% place (ithin the Philippines.Su$3ect to reasona$le re'ulations" a relative of the person arreste& can also e1ercise the sa#e ri'ht.B.SEC...2. .0.8hen #a/in' an arrest" a private person shall infor# the person to $e arreste& of the intention to arrest hi# an& the cause of the arrest" unless the latter is either en'a'e& in the co##ission of an offense" is pursue& i##e&iatel% after its co##ission" or has escape&" flees" or forci$l% resists $efore the person #a/in' the arrest has opportunit% to so infor# hi#" or (hen the 'ivin' of such infor#ation (ill i#peril the arrest.An officer #a/in' a la(ful arrest #a% orall% su##on as #an% persons as he &ee#s necessar% to assist hi# in effectin' the arrest..(@a) SEC.@.Right to brea) out from building or enclosure.Right of officer to brea) into building or enclosure.(Aa) SEC.

Photo'raphs (passport si5e) ta/en (ithin the last si1 (6) #onths sho(in' the face" left an& ri'ht profiles of the accuse& #ust $e attache& to the $ail.Upon conviction $% the Re'ional Trial Court of an -offense not punisha$le $% &eath" reclusion perpetua. an& (&) The $on&s#an shall surren&er the accuse& to the court for e1ecution of the final e1ecutionThe ori'inal papers shall state the full na#e an& a&&ress of the accuse&" the a#ount of the un&erta/in' an& the con&itions re>uire& $% this section.2 All persons in custo&% shall $e a&#itte& to $ail as a #atter of ri'ht" (ith sufficient sureties" or release& on reco'ni5ance as prescri$e& $% la( or this Rule (a) $efore or after conviction $% the 9etropolitan Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court in Cities" or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court" an& ($) $efore conviction $% the Re'ional Trial Court of an offense not punisha$le $% &eath" reclusion perpetua. .4.ception.=o(ever" if the &ecision of the trial court convictin' the accuse& chan'e& the nature of the offense fro# non<$aila$le to $aila$le" the application for $ail can onl% $e file& (ith an& resolve& $% the appellate courtShoul& the court 'rant the application" the accuse& #a% $e allo(e& to continue on provisional li$ert% &urin' the pen&enc% of the appeal un&er the sa#e $ail su$3ect to the consent of the $on&s#an!f the penalt% i#pose& $% the trial court is i#prison#ent e1cee&in' si1 (6) %ears" the accuse& shall $e &enie& $ail" or his $ail shall $e cancelle& upon a sho(in' $% the prosecution" (ith notice to the accuse&" of the follo(in' or other si#ilar circu#stances* .a) SEC.'iven in the for# of corporate suret%" propert% $on&" cash &eposit" or reco'ni5ance" (.All /in&s of $ail are su$3ect to the follo(in' con&itions* (a) The un&erta/in' shall $e effective upon approval" an& unless cancelle&" shall re#ain in for# at all sta'es of the case until pro#ul'ation of the 3u&'#ent of the Re'ional Trial Court" irrespective of (hether the case (as ori'inall% file& in or appeale& to it7 ($) The accuse& shall appear $efore the proper court (henever re>uire& $% the court or these Rules7 (c) The failure of the accuse& to appear at the trial (ithout 3ustification an& &espite &ue notice shall $e &ee#e& a (aiver of his ri'ht to $e present thereat. when discretionary. .5.1ail. or life i#prison#ent. a matter of right.cept on court order or bail.(2a) SEC..(4a) SEC.%o release or transfer e. e.+o person un&er &etention $% le'al process shall $e release& or transferre& e1cept upon or&er of the court or (hen he is a&#itte& to $ail.The application for $ail #a% $e file& an& acte& upon $% the trial court &espite the filin' of a notice of appeal" provi&e& it has not trans#itte& the ori'inal recor& to the appellate court. re6uirements.1ail.Conditions of the bail. or life i#prison#ent" a&#ission to $ail is &iscretionar%.0.(0a) SEC.2.!n such case" the trial #a% procee& in absentia.

@.At the hearin' of an application for $ail file& $% a person (ho is in custo&% for the co##ission of an offense punisha$le $% &eath" reclusion perpetua.(@a) SEC. guidelines.The evi&ence presente& &urin' the $ail hearin' shall $e consi&ere& auto#aticall% repro&uce& at the trial $ut" upon #otion of either part%" the court #a% recall an% (itness for a&&itional e1a#ination unless the latter is &ea&" outsi&e the Philippines" or other(ise una$le to testif%. ..The 3u&'e (ho issue& the (arrant or 'rante& the application shall fi1 a reasona$le a#ount of $ail consi&erin' pri#aril%" $ut not li#ite& to" the follo(in' factors* (a) Financial a$ilit% of the accuse& to 'ive $ail7 ($) +ature an& circu#stances of the offense7 (c) Penalt% for the offense char'e&7 (&) Character an& reputation of the accuse&7 (e) A'e an& health of the accuse&7 (f) 8ei'ht of the evi&ence a'ainst the accuse&7 (') Pro$a$ilit% of the accuse& appearin' at the trial7 (h) Forfeiture of other $ail7 .(mount of bail.(a) That he is a reci&ivist" >uasi<reci&ivist" or ha$itual &elin>uent" or has co##itte& the cri#e a''ravate& $% the circu#stance of reiteration7 ($) That he has previousl% escape& fro# le'al confine#ent" eva&e& sentence" or violate& the con&itions of his $ail (ithout vali& 3ustification7 (c) That he co##itte& the offense (hile un&er pro$ation" parole" or con&itional par&on7 (&) That the circu#stances of his case in&icate the pro$a$ilit% of fli'ht if release& on $ail7 or (e) That there is un&ue ris/ that he #a% co##it another cri#e &urin' the pen&enc% of the appealThe appellate court #a%" motu proprio or on #otion of an% part%" revie( the resolution of the Re'ional Trial Court after notice to the a&verse part% in either case(5a) SEC.Capital offense.?.A capital offense is an offense (hich" un&er the la( e1istin' at the ti#e of its co##ission an& of the application for a&#ission to $ail" #a% $e punishe& (ith &eath.Capital offense or an offense punishable by reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment.6. defined. not bailable.(6a) SEC.. or life i#prison#ent" the prosecution has the $ur&en of sho(in' that evi&ence of 'uilt is stron'.(?a) SEC.A..1urden of proof in bail application.+o person char'e& (ith a capital offense" or an offense punisha$le $% reclusion perpetua or life i#prison#ent" shall $e a&#itte& to $ail (hen evi&ence of 'uilt is stron'" re'ar&less of the sta'e of the cri#inal prosecution.

$roperty bond.Ever% suret% shall 3ustif% $% affi&avit ta/en $efore the 3u&'e that he possesses the >ualifications prescri$e& in the prece&in' section.(Aa) SEC..0a) SEC.ustification of sureties.Upon su$#ission of a proper certificate of .+eposit of cash as bail. .Ba) SEC.2a) SEC..(.. how posted..The accuse& or an% person actin' in his $ehalf #a% &eposit in cash (ith the nearest collector of internal revenue or provincial" cit%" or #unicipal treasurer the a#ount of $ail fi1e& $% the court" or reco##en&e& $% the prosecutor (ho investi'ate& or file& the case.a) SEC...Corporate surety.A propert% $on& is an un&erta/in' constitute& as lien on the real propert% 'iven as securit% for the a#ount of the $ail8ithin ten (.2.(..(.0..The >ualifications of sureties in a propert% $on& shall $e as follo(s* (a) Each #ust $e a resi&ent o(ner of real estate (ithin the Philippines7 ($) 8here there is onl% one suret%" his real estate #ust $e (orth at least the a#ount of the un&erta/in'7 (c) !f there are t(o or #ore sureties" each #a% 3ustif% in an a#ount less than that e1presse& in the un&erta/in' $ut the a''re'ate of the 3ustifie& su#s #ust $e e>uivalent to the (hole a#ount of the $ail &e#an&e&!n all cases" ever% suret% #ust $e (orth the a#ount specifie& in his o(n un&erta/in' over an& a$ove all 3ust &e$ts" o$li'ations an& properties e1e#pt fro# e1ecution.=e shall &escri$e the propert% 'iven as securit%" statin' the nature of his title" its encu#$rances" the nu#$er an& a#ount of other $ails entere& into $% hi# an& still un&ischar'e&" an& his other lia$ilities.8ualifications of sureties in property bond.4...B) &a%s after the approval of the $on&" the accuse& shall cause the annotation of the lien on the certificate of title on file (ith the Re'istr% of Fee&s if the lan& is re'istere&" or if unre'istere&" in the Re'istration )oo/ on the space provi&e& therefor" in the Re'istr% of Fee&s for the province or cit% (here the lan& lies" an& on the correspon&in' ta1 &eclaration in the office of the provincial" cit% an& #unicipal assessor concerne&8ithin the sa#e perio&" the accuse& shall su$#it to the court his co#pliance an& his failure to &o so shall $e sufficient cause for the cancellation of the propert% $on& an& his re<arrest an& &etention..B.+o $ail shall $e approve& unless the suret% is >ualifie&.(.An% &o#estic or forei'n corporation" license& as a suret% in accor&ance (ith la( an& currentl% authori5e& to act as such" #a% provi&e $ail $% a $on& su$scri$e& 3ointl% $% the accuse& an& an officer of the corporation &ul% authori5e& $% its $oar& of &irectors.The court #a% e1a#ine the sureties upon oath concernin' their sufficienc% in such #anners it #a% &ee# proper..(i) The fact that the accuse& (as a fu'itive fro# 3ustice (hen arreste&7 an& (3) Pen&enc% of other cases (here the accuse& is on $ailE1cessive $ail shall not $e re>uire&.

(a) )ail in the a#ount fi1e& #a% $e file& (ith the court (here the case is pen&in'" or in the a$sence or unavaila$ilit% of the 3u&'e thereof" (ith an% re'ional trial 3u&'e" #etropolitan trial 3u&'e" #unicipal trial 3u&'e" or #unicipal circuit trial 3u&'e in the province" cit%" or #unicipalit%.&eposit an& a (ritten un&erta/in' sho(in' co#pliance (ith the re>uire#ents of section 0 of this Rule" the accuse& shall $e &ischar'e& fro# custo&%.?a) $ail SEC.0B.1ail.5..Aa) SEC. where filed.1ail.& .!n the application for $ail un&er section @ of this Rule" the court #ust 'ive reasona$le notice of the hearin' to the prosecutor or re>uire hi# to su$#it his reco##en&ation. .Release on bail.(.+o $ail shall $e re>uire& (hen the la( or these Rules so provi&e8hen a person has $een in custo&% for a perio& e>ual to or #ore than the possi$le #a1i#u# i#prison#ent prescri$e& for the offense char'e&" he shall $e release& i##e&iatel%" (ithout pre3u&ice to the continuation of the trial or the procee&in's on appeal.? of this Rule8hen $ail is file& (ith a court other than (here the case is pen&in'" the 3u&'e (ho accepte& the $ail shall for(ar& it" to'ether (ith the or&er of release an& other supportin' papers" to the court (here the case is pen&in'" (hich #a%" for 'oo& reason" re>uire a &ifferent one to $e file&..@a) SEC.After the accuse& is a&#itte& to $ail" the court #a%" upon 'oo& cause" either increase or re&uce its a#ount.(.Increase or reduction of bail.8henever allo(e& $% la( or these Rules" the court #a% release a person in custo&% on his o(n reco'ni5ance or that of a responsi$le person(.4a) SEC.?.The #one% &eposite& shall $e consi&ere& as $ail an& applie& to the pa%#ent of fine an& costs (hile the e1cess" if an%" shall $e returne& to the accuse& or to (hoever #a&e the &eposit.(.6a) SEC..!f the accuse& is arreste& in a province" cit%" or #unicipalit% other than (here the case is pen&in'" $ail #a% also $e file& (ith an% re'ional trial court of sai& place" or if no 3u&'e thereof is availa$le" (ith an% #etropolitan trial 3u&'e" #unicipal trial 3u&'e" or #unicipal circuit trial 3u&'e therein($) 8here the 'rant of $ail is a #atter of &iscretion" or the accuse& see/s to $e release& on reco'ni5ance" the application #a% onl% $e file& in the court (here the case is pen&in'" (hether on preli#inar% investi'ation" trial" or appeal(c) An% person in custo&% (ho is not %et char'e& in court #a% appl% for (ith an% court in the province" cit%" or #unicipalit% (here he is hel&. when not re6uired.6..(.%otice of application to prosecutor..(. reduced bail or recogni5ance.The accuse& #ust $e &ischar'e& upon approval of the $ail $% the 3u&'e (ith (ho# it (as file& in accor&ance (ith section . he shall $e release& after thirt% (2B) &a%s of preventive i#prison#entA person in custo&% for a perio& e>ual to or #ore than the #ini#u# of the principal penalt% prescri$e& for the offense char'e&" (ithout application of the !n&eter#inate Sentence La( or an% #o&if%in' circu#stance" shall $e release& on a re&uce& $ail or on his o(n reco'ni5ance" at the &iscretion of the court.A..Recogni5ance.8hen increase&" the . ..@.!f the #a1i#u# penalt% to (hich the accuse& #a% $e sentence& is destierro..5a) SEC.

Cancellation of bail.04.!f the accuse& fails to appear in person as re>uire&" his $ail shall $e &eclare& forfeite& an& the $on&s#en 'iven thirt% (2B) &a%s (ithin (hich to pro&uce their principal an& to sho( cause (h% no 3u&'#ent shoul& $e ren&ere& a'ainst the# for the a#ount of their $ail.05.8hen the presence of the accuse& is re>uire& $% the court or these Rules" his $on&s#en shall $e notifie& to pro&uce hi# $efore the court on a 'iven &ate an& ti#e.Court supervision of detainees.The court shall not re&uce or other(ise #iti'ate the lia$ilit% of the $on&s#en" unless the accuse& has $een surren&ere& or is ac>uitte&.For the purpose of surren&erin' the accuse&" the $on&s#en #a% arrest hi# or" upon (ritten authorit% en&orse& on a certifie& cop% of the un&erta/in'" cause hi# to $e arreste& $% a police officer or an% other person of suita$le a'e an& &iscretionAn accuse& release& on $ail #a% $e re<arreste& (ithout the necessit% of a (arrant if he atte#pts to &epart fro# the Philippines (ithout per#ission of the court (here the case is pen&in'.%o bail after final "udgment..02.00.(rrest of accused out on bail.!n no case shall $ail $e allo(e& after the accuse& has co##ence& to serve sentence.!f $efore such finalit%" the accuse& applies for pro$ation" he #a% $e allo(e& te#porar% li$ert% un&er his $ail.0.8ithin the sai& perio&" the $on&s#en #ust* (a) pro&uce the $o&% of their principal or 'ive the reason for his non< pro&uction7 an& ($) e1plain (h% the accuse& &i& not appear $efore the court (hen first re>uire& to &o soFailin' in these t(o re>uisites" a 3u&'#ent shall $e ren&ere& a'ainst the $on&s#en" 3ointl% an& severall%" for the a#ount of the $ail. .(0.a) SEC.accuse& #a% $e co##itte& to custo&% if he &oes not 'ive $ail in the increase& a#ount (ithin a reasona$le perio&.4orfeiture of bail.. e.ception.8hen no $ail (as file& or the accuse& is incapa$le of filin' one" the court #a% allo( his release on reco'ni5ance to the custo&% of a responsi$le #e#$er of the co##unit%..2The court shall e1ercise supervision over . .(04a) SEC.(02a) SEC.An accuse& hel& to ans(er a cri#inal char'e" (ho is release& (ithout $ail upon filin' of the co#plaint or infor#ation" #a%" at an% su$se>uent sta'e of the procee&in's an& (henever a stron' sho(in' of 'uilt appears to the court" $e re>uire& to 'ive $ail in the a#ount fi1e&" or in lieu thereof" co##itte& to custo&%(0Ba) SEC.Upon application of the $on&s#en" (ith &ue notice to the prosecutor" the $ail #a% $e cancelle& upon surren&er of the accuse& or proof of his &eathThe $ail shall $e &ee#e& auto#aticall% cancelle& upon ac>uittal of the accuse&" &is#issal of the case" or e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent of conviction!n all instances" the cancellation shall $e (ithout pre3u&ice to an% lia$ilit% on the $ail(00a) SEC.+o $ail shall $e allo(e& after a 3u&'#ent of conviction has $eco#e final.

An application for or a&#ission to $ail shall not $ar the accuse& fro# challen'in' the vali&it% of his arrest or the le'alit% of the (arrant issue& therefor" or fro# assailin' the re'ularit% or >uestionin' the a$sence of a preli#inar% investi'ation of the char'e a'ainst hi#" provi&e& that he raises the# $efore enterin' his plea.all persons in custo&% for the purpose of eli#inatin' unnecessar% &etention.Rights of accused at the trial.The court shall resolve the #atter as earl% as practica$le $ut not later than the start of the trial of the case" (n) RULE 115 RIG TS OF ACCUSED SECT!O+ .The a$sence of the accuse& (ithout 3ustifia$le cause at the trial of (hich he ha& notice shall $e consi&ere& a (aiver of his ri'ht to $e present thereat8hen an accuse& un&er custo&% escapes" he shall $e &ee#e& to have (aive& his ri'ht to $e present on all su$se>uent trial &ates until custo&% over hi# is re'aine&- .The e1ecutive 3u&'es of the Re'ional Trial Courts shall con&uct #onthl% personal inspections of provincial" cit%" an& #unicipal 3ails an& the prisoners (ithin their respective 3uris&ictions.2 !n all cri#inal prosecutions" the accuse& shall $e entitle& to the follo(in' ri'hts* (a) To $e presu#e& innocent until the contrar% is prove& $e%on& reasona$le &ou$t($) To $e infor#e& of the nature an& cause of the accusation a'ainst hi#(c) To $e present an& &efen& in person an& $% counsel at ever% sta'e of the procee&in's" fro# arrai'n#ent to pro#ul'ation of the 3u&'#ent..The% shall ascertain the nu#$er of &etainees" in>uire on their proper acco##o&ation an& health an& e1a#ine the con&ition of the 3ail facilities.06.(05a) SEC.1ail not a bar to ob"ections on illegal arrest..The accuse& #a%" ho(ever" (aive his presence at the trial pursuant to the stipulations set forth in his tail" unless his presence is specificall% or&ere& $% the court for purposes of i&entification.The% shall or&er the se're'ation of se1es an& of #inors fro# a&ults" ensure the o$servance of the ri'ht of &etainees to confer privatel% (ith counsel" an& strive to eli#inate con&itions ini#ical to the &etainees!n cities an& #unicipalities to $e specifie& $% the Supre#e Court" the #unicipal trial 3u&'es or #unicipal circuit trial 3u&'es shall con&uct #onthl% personal inspections of the #unicipal 3ails in their respective #unicipalities an& su$#it a report to the e1ecutive 3u&'e of the Re'ional Trial Court havin' 3uris&iction thereinA #onthl% report of such visitation shall be su$#itte& $% the e1ecutive 3u&'es to the Court A&#inistrator (hich shall state the total nu#$er of &etainees" the na#es of those hel& for #ore than thirt% (2B) &a%s" the &uration of &etention" the cri#e char'e&" the status of the case" the cause for &etention" an& other pertinent infor#ation. lac) of or irregular preliminary investigation.

(. (a) The accuse& #ust $e arrai'ne& $efore the court (here the co#plaint or infor#ation (as file& or assi'ne& for trial.a) (&) 8hen the accuse& plea&s 'uilt% $ut presents e1culpator% evi&ence" his plea shall $e &ee#e& (ith&ra(n an& a plea of not 'uilt% shall $e entere& for hi#.The arrai'n#ent shall $e #a&e in open court $% the 3u&'e or cler/ $% furnishin' the accuse& (ith a cop% of the co#plaint or infor#ation" rea&in' the sa#e in the lan'ua'e or &ialect /no(n to hi#" an& as/in' hi# (hether he plea&s 'uilt% or not 'uilt%.(.)oth arrai'n#ent an& plea shall $e #a&e of recor&" $ut failure to &o so shall not affect the vali&it% of the procee&in's(c) 8hen the accuse& refuses to plea& or #a/es a con&itional plea" a plea of not 'uilt% shall $e entere& for hi#. .=is silence shall not in an% #anner pre3u&ice hi#(e) To $e e1e#pt fro# $ein' co#pelle& to $e a (itness a'ainst hi#self(f) To confront an& cross<e1a#ine the (itnesses a'ainst hi# at the trialEither part% #a% utili5e as part of its evi&ence the testi#on% of a (itness (ho is &ecease&" out of or can not (ith &ue &ili'ence $e foun& in the Philippines" unavaila$le" or other(ise una$le to testif%" 'iven in another case or procee&in'" 3u&icial or a&#inistrative" involvin' the sa#e parties an& su$3ect #atter" the a&verse part% havin' the opportunit% to cross<e1a#ine hi#(') To have co#pulsor% process issue& to secure the atten&ance of (itnesses an& pro&uction of other evi&ence in his $ehalf(h) To have spee&%" i#partial an& pu$lic trial(i) To appeal in all cases allo(e& an& in the #anner prescri$e& $% la(.a) RULE 116 ARRAIGNMENT AND PLEA SECT!O+ . how made.(n) (e) 8hen the accuse& is un&er preventive &etention" his case shall $e raffle& an& its recor&s trans#itte& to the 3u&'e to (ho# the case (as raffle& (ithin three (2) &a%s fro# the filin' of the infor#ation or co#plaint.The accuse& shall $e .The prosecution #a% call at the trial (itnesses other than those na#e& in the co#plaint or infor#ation($) The accuse& #ust $e present at the arrai'n#ent an& #ust personall% enter his plea.Upon #otion" the accuse& #a% $e allo(e& to &efen& hi#self in person (hen it sufficientl% appears to the court that he can properl% protect his ri'hts (ithout the assistance of counsel(&) To testif% as a (itness in his o(n $ehalf $ut su$3ect to cross<e1a#ination on #atters covere& $% &irect e1a#ination.(rraignment and plea.

0" cir.The accuse& #a% present evi&ence in his $ehalf.At an% ti#e $efore the 3u&'#ent of conviction $eco#es final" the court #a% per#it an i#provi&ent plea of 'uilt% to $e (ith&ra(n an& $e su$stitute& $% a plea of not 'uilt%.(2a) SEC.(sec.The pre<trial conference of his case shall $e hel& (ithin ten (.4" cir.+uty of court to inform accused of his right to counsel.The ti#e of the pen&enc% of a #otion to >uash or for a $ill of particulars or other causes 3ustif%in' suspension of the arrai'n#ent shall $e e1clu&e& in co#putin' the perio&" (sec.Unless the accuse& is allo(e& to &efen& hi#self in person or has e#plo%e& counsel of his choice" the court #ust assi'n a counsel de oficio to &efen& hi#.(4) SEC.8hen the accuse& plea&s 'uilt% to a capital offense" the court shall con&uct a searchin' in>uir% into the voluntariness an& full co#prehension of the conse>uences of his plea an& shall re>uire the prosecution to prove his 'uilt an& the precise &e'ree of culpa$ilit%.$lea of guilty to non&capital offense. discretionary..@.)efore arrai'n#ent" the court shall infor# the accuse& of his ri'ht to counsel an& as/ hi# if he &esires to have one.5.4.<@A) (') Unless a shorter perio& is provi&e& $% special la( or Supre#e Court circular" the arrai'n#ent shall $e hel& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the &ate the court ac>uires 3uris&iction over the person of the accuse&.2. .!n case of failure of the offen&e& part% to appear &espite &ue notice" the court #a% allo( the accuse& to enter a plea of 'uilt% to a lesser offense (hich is necessaril% inclu&e& in the offense char'e& (ith the confor#it% of the trial prosecutor alone" (cir.6.0. .$lea of guilty to capital offense..+o a#en&#ent of the co#plaint or infor#ation is necessar%.(ppointment of counsel de oficio. . .(?a) SEC.The court" consi&erin' the 'ravit% of the offense an& the &ifficult% of the >uestions that #a% arise" shall appoint as counsel de oficio such #e#$ers of the $ar in 'oo& stan&in' (ho" $% reason of their e1perience an& a$ilit%" can co#petentl% &efen& the accuse&. ..2@<A@) SEC. reception of evidence.(5) SEC.2@<A@) SEC.At arrai'n#ent" the accuse&" (ith the consent of the offen&e& part% an& the prosecutor" #a% $e allo(e& $% the trial court to plea& 'uilt% to a lesser offense (hich is necessaril% inclu&e& in the offense char'e&After arrai'n#ent $ut $efore trial" the accuse& #a% still $e allo(e& to plea& 'uilt% to sai& lesser offense after (ith&ra(in' his plea of not 'uilt%.8henever a .arrai'ne& (ithin ten (.?.Time for counsel de oficio to prepare for arraignment.)ut in localities (here such #e#$ers of the $ar are not availa$le" the court #a% appoint an% person" resi&ent of the province an& of 'oo& repute for pro$it% an& a$ilit%" to &efen& the accuse&.(6a) SEC. 8hen the accuse& plea&s 'uilt% to a non<capital offense" the court #a% receive evi&ence fro# the parties to &eter#ine the penalt% to $e i#pose&.#ithdrawal of improvident plea of guilty.B) &a%s fro# the &ate of the raffle.B) &a%s after arrai'n#ent" (n) (f) The private offen&e& part% shall $e re>uire& to appear at the arrai'n#ent for purposes of plea $ar'ainin'" &eter#ination of civil lia$ilit%" an& other #atters re>uirin' his presence.$lea of guilty to a lesser offense. reception of evidence.

Upon #otion of the accuse& sho(in' 'oo& cause an& (ith notice to the parties" the court" in or&er to prevent surprise" suppression" or alteration" #a% or&er the prosecution to pro&uce an& per#it the inspection an& cop%in' or photo'raphin' of an% (ritten state#ent 'iven $% the co#plainant an& other (itnesses in an% investi'ation of the offense con&ucte& $% the prosecution or other investi'atin' officers" as (ell as an% &esi'nate& &ocu#ents" papers" $oo/s" accounts" letters" photo'raphs" o$3ects" or tan'i$le thin's not other(ise privile'e&" (hich constitute or contain evi&ence #aterial to an% #atter involve& in the case an& (hich are in possession or un&er the control of the prosecution" police" or other la( investi'atin' a'encies..The #otion shall specif% the alle'e& &efects of the co#plaint or infor#ation an& the &etails &esire&.) SEC.The court shall consi&er no 'roun& other than those state& in the #otion" e1cept lac/ of 3uris&iction over the offense char'e& (0a) SEC.Time to move to 6uash-IAt an% ti#e $efore enterin' his plea" the accuse& #a% #ove to >uash the co#plaint for infor#ation.a) SEC..4orm and contents-IThe #otion to >uash shall $e in (ritin'" si'ne& $% the accuse& or his counsel an& shall &istinctl% specif% its factual an& le'al 'roun&s.1ill of particular .(.(@) SEC.B.Suspension of arraignment-IUpon #otion $% the proper part%" the arrai'n#ent shall $e suspen&e& in the follo(in' cases* (a) The accuse& appears to $e sufferin' fro# an unsoun& #ental con&ition (hich effectivel% ren&ers hi# una$le to full% un&erstan& the char'e a'ainst hi# an& to plea& intelli'entl% thereto.0a) RULE 117 MOTION TO 'UAS SECT!O+ ..(.IThe accuse& #a% #ove to >uash the co#plaint or infor#ation on an% of follo(in' 'roun&s* ..counsel de oficio is appointe& $% the court to &efen& the accuse& at the arrai'n#ent" he shall $e 'iven a reasona$le ti#e to consult (ith the accuse& as to his plea $efore procee&in' (ith the arrai'n#ent..-rounds.(..!n such case" the court shall or&er his #ental e1a#ination an&" if necessar%" his confine#ent for such purpose7 ($) There e1ists a pre3u&icial >uestion7 an& (c) A petition for revie( of the resolution of the prosecutor is pen&in' at either the Fepart#ent of Hustice" or the Office of the Presi&ent7 provided" that the perio& of suspension shall not e1cee& si1t% (6B) &a%s counte& fro# the filin' of the petition (ith the revie(in' office. The accuse& #a%" $efore arrai'n#ent" #ove for a $ill of particulars to ena$le hi# properl% to plea& an& prepare for trial.2.$roduction or inspection of material evidence in p ossession of prosecution.Ba) SEC.(..0.A.

!f the #otion to >uash is $ase& on an alle'e& &efect of the co#plaint or infor#ation (hich can $e cure& $% a#en&#ent" the court shall or&er that an a#en&#ent $e #a&e.(mendment of complaint or information.(a) That the facts char'e& &o not constitute an offense7 ($) char'e&7 (c) accuse&7 so7 (e) That it &oes not confor# su$stantiall% to the prescri$e& for#7 (f) That #ore than one offense is char'e& e1cept (hen a sin'le punish#ent for various offenses is prescri$e& $% la(7 (') That the cri#inal action or lia$ilit% has $een e1tin'uishe&7 (h) That it contains aver#ents le'al e1cuse or 3ustification7 an& (hich" if true" (oul& constitute a That the court tr%in' the case has no 3uris&iction over the offense That the court tr%in' the case has no 3uris&iction over the person of the (&) That the officer (ho file& the infor#ation ha& no authorit% to &o (i) That the accuse& has $een previousl% convicte& or ac>uitte& of the offense char'e&" or the case a'ainst hi# (as &is#isse& or other(ise ter#inate& (ithout his e1press consent.4ormer conviction or ac6uittal..8hen an accuse& has $een convicte& or ac>uitte&" or the case a'ainst hi# &is#isse& or other(ise ter#inate& (ithout his e1press consent $% a court of co#petent 3uris&iction" upon a vali& co#plaint or infor#ation or other for#al char'e sufficient in for# an& su$stance to sustain a conviction an& after the accuse& ha& plea&e& to the char'e" the conviction or ac>uittal .(5a) SEC.(2a) SEC.!f the or&er is #a&e" the accuse&" if in custo&%" shall not $e &ischar'e& unless a&#itte& to $ail.5..!f no or&er is #a&e or if havin' $een #a&e" no ne( infor#ation is file& (ithin the ti#e specifie& in the or&er or (ithin such further ti#e as the court #a% allo( for 'oo& cause" the accuse&" if in custo&%" shall $e &ischar'e& unless he is also in custo&% for another char'e. .6.An or&er sustainin' the #otion to >uash is not a $ar to another prosecution for the sa#e offense unless the #otion (as $ase& on the 'roun&s specifie& in section 2 (') an& (i) of this Rule.?. double "eopardy.(4a)7 !f it is $ase& on the 'roun& that the facts char'e& &o not constitute an offense" the prosecution shall $e 'iven $% the court an opportunit% to correct the &efect $% a#en&#ent.The #otion shall $e 'rante& if the prosecution fails to #a/e the a#en&#ent" or the co#plaint or infor#ation still suffers fro# the sa#e &efect &espite the a#en&#ent" (n) SEC.Order sustaining the motion to 6uash not a bar to another prosecution.(6a) SEC.ception.!f the #otion to >uash is sustaine&" the court #a% or&er that another co#plaint or infor#ation $e file& e1cept as provi&e& in section 6 of this Rule.4. . e.*ffect of sustaining the motion to 6uash.

of the accuse& or the &is#issal of the case shall $e a $ar to another prosecution for the offense char'e&" or for an% atte#pt to co##it the sa#e or frustration thereof" or for an% offense (hich necessaril% inclu&es or is necessaril% inclu&e& in the offense char'e& in the for#er co#plaint or infor#ation=o(ever" the conviction of the accuse& shall not $e a $ar to another prosecution for an offense (hich necessaril% inclu&es the offense char'e& in the for#er co#plaint or infor#ation un&er an% of the follo(in' instances* (a) the 'raver offense &evelope& &ue to supervenin' facts arisin' fro# the sa#e act or o#ission constitutin' the for#er char'e7 ($) the facts constitutin' the 'raver char'e $eca#e /no(n or (ere &iscovere& onl% after a plea (as entere& in the for#er co#plaint or infor#ation7 or (c) the plea of 'uilt% to the lesser offense (as #a&e (ithout the consent of the prosecutor an& of the offen&e& part% e1cept as provi&e& in section ..A case shall not $e provisionall% &is#isse& e1cept (ith the e1press consent of the accuse& an& (ith notice to the offen&e& part%The provisional &is#issal of offenses punisha$le $% i#prison#ent not e1cee&in' si1 (6) %ears or a fine of an% a#ount" or $oth" shall $eco#e per#anent one (.6!n an% of the fore'oin' cases" (here the accuse& satisfies or serves in (hole or in part the 3u&'#ent" he shall $e cre&ite& (ith the sa#e in the event of conviction for the 'raver offense..A.) %ear after issuance of the or&er (ithout the case havin' $een revive&. ..$rovisional dismissal.(?a) SEC.4ailure to move to 6uash or to allege any ground therefor.(f) of Rule .The failure of the accuse& to assert an% 'roun& of a #otion to >uash $efore he plea&s to the co#plaint or infor#ation" either $ecause he &i& not file a #otion to >uash or faile& to alle'e the sa#e in sai& #otion" shall $e &ee#e& a (aiver of an% o$3ections e1cept those $ase& on the 'roun&s provi&e& for in para'raphs (a)" ($)" (')" an& (i) of section 2 of this Rule.8ith respect to offenses punisha$le $% i#prison#ent of #ore than si1 (6) %ears" their provisional &is#issal shall $eco#e per#anent t(o (0) %ears after issuance of the or&er (ithout the case havin' $een revive&" (n) SEC.!n all cri#inal cases co'ni5a$le $% the San&i'an$a%an" Re'ional Trial Court" 9etropolitan Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court in Cities" 9unicipal Trial Court an& 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court" the court shall" after arrai'n#ent an& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the &ate the court .$re&trial.@.(@a) RULE 118 PRE%TRIAL SECT!O+ . mandatory in criminal cases. .

!f the counsel for the accuse& or the prosecutor &oes not appear at the pre<trial conference an& &oes not offer an accepta$le e1cuse for his lac/ of cooperation" the court #a% i#pose proper sanctions or penalties" (sec. of this Rule shall $e approve& $% the court" (sec. .2..!t #a% $e postpone& for a reasona$le perio& of ti#e for 'oo& cause.After the pre<trial conference" the court shall issue an or&er recitin' the actions ta/en" the facts stipulate&" an& evi&ence #ar/e&.(2) RULE 119 TRIAL SECT!O+ .0.2@<A@) SEC.ac>uires 3uris&iction over the person of the accuse&" unless a shorter perio& is provi&e& for in special la(s or circulars of the Supre#e Court" or&er a pre<trial conference to consi&er the follo(in'* (a) ($) (c) (&) plea $ar'ainin'7 stipulation of facts7 #ar/in' for i&entification of evi&ence of the parties7 (aiver of o$3ections to a&#issi$ilit% of evi&ence7 (e) #o&ification of the or&er of trial if the accuse& a&#its the char'e $ut interposes a la(ful &efense7 an& (f) such #atters as (ill pro#ote a fair an& e1pe&itious trial of the cri#inal an& civil aspects of the case..2@<A@) SEC.!n no case shall the entire trial perio& e1cee& .$re&trial order. postponements.5" cir.Time to prepare for trial.5) &a%s to prepare for trial.4" cir.Trial once co##ence& shall continue fro# &a% to &a% as far as practica$le until ter#inate&.%on&appearance at pre&trial conference.(0a) The court" shall" after consultation (ith the prosecutor an& &efense counsel" set the case for continuous trial on a (ee/l% or other short<ter# trial calen&ar at the earliest possi$le ti#e so as to ensure spee&% trial.2After a plea of not 'uilt% is entere&" the accuse& shall have at least fifteen (.6" cir.4.$re&trial agreement.0 an& 2" cir..0..All a'ree#ents or a&#issions #a&e or entere& &urin' the pre<trial conference shall $e re&uce& in (ritin' an& si'ne& $% the accuse& an& counsel" other(ise" the% cannot $e use& a'ainst the accuse&.Such or&er shall $in& the parties" li#it the trial to #atters not &ispose& of" an& control the course of the action &urin' the trial" unless #o&ifie& $% the court to prevent #anifest in3ustice.Continuous trial until terminated.The a'ree#ents coverin' the #atters referre& to in section .(secs.2@<A@) SEC.2@<A@) SEC.The trial shall co##ence (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# receipt of the pre<trial or&er" (sec.

.2@<A@)The ti#e li#itations provi&e& un&er this section an& the prece&in' section shall not appl% (here special la(s or circulars of the Supre#e Court provi&e for a shorter perio& of trial" (n) SEC.2.clusions.*.one hun&re& ei'ht% (.@B) &a%s fro# the first &a% of trial" e1cept as other(ise authori5e& $% the Supre#e Court" (sec.=e shall $e consi&ere& unavaila$le (henever his (herea$outs are /no(n $ut his presence for trial cannot $e o$taine& $% &ue &ili'ence(c) An% perio& of &ela% resultin' fro# the #ental inco#petence or ph%sical ina$ilit% of the accuse& to stan& trial(&) !f the infor#ation is &is#isse& upon #otion of the prosecution an& thereafter a char'e is file& a'ainst the accuse& for the sa#e offense" an% perio& of &ela% fro# the &ate the char'e (as &is#isse& to the &ate the ti#e li#itation (oul& co##ence to run as to the su$se>uent char'e ha& there $een no previous char'e(e) A reasona$le perio& of &ela% (hen the accuse& is 3oine& for trial (ith a .The follo(in' perio&s of &ela% shall $e e1clu&e& in co#putin' the ti#e (ithin (hich trial #ust co##ence* (a) An% perio& of &ela% resultin' fro# other procee&in's concernin' the accuse&" inclu&in' $ut not li#ite& to the follo(in'* (.) Fela% resultin' fro# an e1a#ination of the ph%sical an& #ental con&ition of the accuse&7 (0) Fela% resultin' fro# procee&in's (ith respect to other cri#inal char'es a'ainst the accuse&7 (2) Fela% resultin' fro# e1traor&inar% re#e&ies a'ainst interlocutor% or&ers7 (4) Fela% resultin' fro# pre<trial procee&in's7 provi&e&" that the &ela% &oes not e1cee& thirt% (2B) &a%s7 (5) Fela% resultin' fro# or&ers of inhi$ition" or procee&in's relatin' to chan'e of venue of cases or transfer fro# other courts7 (6) Fela% resultin' fro# a fin&in' of the e1istence of a pre3u&icial >uestion7 an& (?) Fela% reasona$l% attri$uta$le to an% perio&" not to e1cee& thirt% (2B) &a%s" &urin' (hich an% procee&in' concernin' the accuse& is actuall% un&er a&vise#ent($) An% perio& of &ela% resultin' fro# the a$sence or unavaila$ilit% of an essential (itnessFor purposes of this su$para'raph" an essential (itness shall $e consi&ere& a$sent (hen his (herea$outs are un/no(n or his (herea$outs cannot $e &eter#ine& $% &ue &ili'ence.@" cir.

.(sec..+ot(ithstan&in' the provisions of section .." for the first t(elve<calen&ar<#onth perio& follo(in' its effectivit% on Septe#$er .$ublic attorneyAs duties where accused is imprisoned.AA@" the ti#e li#it (ith respect to the perio& fro# arrai'n#ent to trial i#pose& $% sai& provision shall $e one hun&re& ei'ht% (.2@<A@) SEC.2@<A@) SEC.5" .4.@B) &a%sFor the secon& t(elve<#onth perio&" the ti#e li#it shall $e one hun&re& t(ent% (.5.*.@B) &a%s fro# notice of sai& or&er for a ne( trial" (sec.6.6 an& the prece&in' section .!f the pu$lic attorne% assi'ne& to &efen& a person char'e& (ith a cri#e /no(s that the latter is preventivel% &etaine&" either $ecause he is char'e& (ith a $aila$le cri#e $ut has no #eans to post $ail" or" is char'e& (ith a non<$aila$le cri#e" or" is servin' a ter# of i#prison#ent in an% penal institution" it shall $e his &ut% to &o the follo(in'* (a) Shall pro#ptl% un&erta/e to o$tain the presence of the prisoner for trial or cause a notice to $e serve& on the person havin' custo&% of the prisoner re>uirin' such person to so a&vise the prisoner of his ri'ht to &e#an& trial($) Upon receipt of that notice" the custo&ian of the prisoner shall pro#ptl% .0B) &a%s" an& for the thir& t(elve<#onth perio&" the ti#e li#it shall $e ei'ht% (@B) &a%s" (sec?" cir.." cir.co<accuse& over (ho# the court has not ac>uire& 3uris&iction" or" as to (ho# the ti#e for trial has not run an& no #otion for separate trial has $een 'rante&(f) An% perio& of &ela% resultin' fro# a continuance 'rante& $% an% court #otu proprio" or on #otion of either the accuse& or his counsel" or the prosecution" if the court 'rante& the continuance on the $asis of its fin&in's set forth in the or&er that the en&s of 3ustice serve& $% ta/in' such action out(ei'h the $est interest of the pu$lic an& the accuse& in a spee&% trial.A" cir..tended time limit.B" cir..(')" Rule .4actors for granting continuance.Time limit following an order for new trial.2@< A@) SEC..The follo(in' factors" a#on' others" shall $e consi&ere& $% a court in &eter#inin' (hether to 'rant a continuance un&er section 2(f) of this Rule(a) 8hether or not the failure to 'rant a continuance in the procee&in' (oul& li/el% #a/e a continuation of such procee&in' i#possi$le or result in a #iscarria'e of 3ustice7 an& ($) 8hether or not the case ta/en as a (hole is so novel" unusual an& co#ple1" &ue to the nu#$er of accuse& or the nature of the prosecution" or that it is unreasona$le to e1pect a&e>uate preparation (ithin the perio&s of ti#e esta$lishe& therein!n a&&ition" no continuance un&er section 2(f) of this Rule shall $e 'rante& $ecause of con'estion of the courtNs calen&ar or lac/ of &ili'ent preparation or failure to o$tain availa$le (itnesses on the part of the prosecutor" (sec.2@<A@) SEC.?. .!f the accuse& is to $e trie& a'ain pursuant to an or&er for a ne( trial" the trial shall co##ence (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# notice of the or&er" provi&e& that if the perio& $eco#es i#practical &ue to unavaila$ilit% of (itnesses an& other factors" the court #a% e1ten& it $ut not to e1cee& one hun&re& ei'ht% (.

Sanctions.2" cir.The accuse& shall have the $ur&en of provin' the #otion $ut the prosecution shall have the $ur&en of 'oin' for(ar& (ith the evi&ence to esta$lish the e1clusion of ti#e un&er section 2 of this Rule. pu$lic attorne%" or prosecutor a fine not e1cee&in' five thousan& pesos (P5-BBB-BB)7 an& (2) )% &en%in' an% &efense counsel or prosecutor the ri'ht to practice $efore the court tr%in' the case for a perio& not e1cee&in' thirt% (2B) &a%s..) )% i#posin' on a counsel privatel% retaine& in connection (ith the &efense of an accuse&" a fine not e1cee&in' t(ent% thousan& pesos (P0B"BBB-BB)7 (0) )% i#posin' on an% appointe& counsel de oficio..2@<A@) SEC." as e1ten&e& $% Section 6 of this rule" the infor#ation #a% $e &is#isse& on #otion of the accuse& on the 'roun& of &enial of his ri'ht to spee&% trial.0" cir.4" cir.(sec..@.a&vise the prisoner of the char'e an& of his ri'ht to &e#an& trial..The &is#issal shall $e su$3ect to the rules on &ou$le 3eopar&%Failure of the accuse& to #ove for &is#issal prior to trial shall constitute a (aiver of the ri'ht to &is#iss un&er this section" (sec.Remedy where accused is not brought to trial within the time limit.!f at an%ti#e thereafter the" prisoner infor#s his custo&ian that he &e#an&s such trial" the latter shall cause notice to that effect to $e sent pro#ptl% to the pu$lic attorne%(c) Upon receipt of such notice" the pu$lic attorne% shall pro#ptl% see/ to o$tain the presence of the prisoner for trial(&) 8hen the custo&ian of the prisoner receives fro# the pu$lic attorne% a properl% supporte& re>uest for the availa$ilit% of the prisoner for purposes of trial" the prisoner shall $e #a&e availa$le accor&in'l%" (sec.The punish#ent provi&e& for $% this section shall $e (ithout pre3u&ice to an% appropriate cri#inal action or other sanction authori5e& un&er these rules.A.2@<A@) .2@<A@) SEC.!f the accuse& is not $rou'ht to trial (ithin the ti#e li#it re>uire& $% Section .6 an& Section . .2!n an% case in (hich private counsel for the accuse&" the pu$lic attorne%" or the prosecutor* (a) Ono(in'l% allo(s the case to $e set for trial (ithout &isclosin' that a necessar% (itness (oul& $e unavaila$le for trial7 ($) Files a #otion solel% for &ela% (hich he /no(s is totall% frivolous an& (ithout #erit7 (c) 9a/es a state#ent for the purpose of o$tainin' continuance (hich he /no(s to $e false an& (hich is #aterial to the 'rantin' of a continuance7 or (&) 8illfull% fails to procee& to trial (ithout 3ustification consistent (ith the provisions hereof" the court #a% punish such counsel" attorne%" or prosecutor" as follo(s* (.(')" Rule .

1ail to secure appearance of material witness...2..(5a) SEC.4...0.*.8hen the accuse& has $een hel& to ans(er for an offense" he #a%" upon #otion (ith notice to the other parties" have (itnesses con&itionall% e1a#ine& in his $ehalf.. .The e1a#ination shall $e ta/en $efore a 3u&'e" or" if not practica$le" a #e#$er of the )ar in 'oo& stan&in' so &esi'nate& $% the 3u&'e in the or&er" or if the or&er $e #a&e $% a court of superior 3uris&iction" $efore an inferior court to $e &esi'nate& therein.4(0)" article !!!" of the .BB) /ilo#eters fro# the place of trial an& has no #eans to atten& the sa#e" or that other si#ilar circu#stances e1ist that (oul& #a/e hi# unavaila$le or prevent hi# fro# atten&in' the trial.7aw on speedy trial not a bar to provision on speedy trial in the Constitution.amination of defense witness..The e1a#ination shall procee& not(ithstan&in' the a$sence of the prosecutor provi&e& he (as &ul% notifie& of the hearin'.B.The #otion shall state* (a) the na#e an& resi&ence of the (itness7 ($) the su$stance of his testi#on%7 an& (c) that the (itness is sic/ or infir# as to affor& reasona$le 'roun& for $elievin' that he (ill not $e a$le to atten& the trial" or resi&es #ore than one hun&re& (. .Order of trial.SEC.2The trial shall procee& in the follo(in' or&er* (a) The prosecution shall present evi&ence to prove the char'e an&" in the proper case" the civil lia$ilit%($) The accuse& #a% present evi&ence to prove his &efense an& &a#a'es" if an%" arisin' fro# the issuance of a provisional re#e&% in the case(c) The prosecution an& the &efense #a%" in that or&er" present re$uttal an& sur<re$uttal evi&ence unless the court" in furtherance of 3ustice" per#its the# to present a&&itional evi&ence $earin' upon the #ain issue(&) Upon a&#ission of the evi&ence of the parties" the case shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for &ecision unless the court &irects the# to ar'ue orall% or to su$#it (ritten #e#oran&a(e) 8hen the accuse& a&#its the act or o#ission char'e& in the co#plaint or infor#ation $ut interposes a la(ful &efense" the or&er of trial #a% $e #o&ifie&(2a) SEC.The #otion shall $e supporte& $% an affi&avit of the accuse& an& such other evi&ence as the court #a% re>uire.A (ritten recor& of the testi#on% shall $e ta/en.+o provision of la( on spee&% trial an& no rule i#ple#entin' the sa#e shall $e interprete& as a $ar to an% char'e of &enial of the ri'ht to spee&% trial 'uarantee& $% section ..amination of witness for accused before trial.(pplication for e.5" cir.Upon refusal to post $ail" the court shall co##it hi# to prison until he .2@<A@) SEC. how made. .8hen the court is satisfie&" upon proof or oath" that a #aterial (itness (ill not testif% (hen re>uire&" it #a%" upon #otion of either part%" or&er the (itness to post $ail in such su# as #a% $e &ee#e& proper..!f the court is satisfie& that the e1a#ination of a (itness for the accuse& is necessar%" an or&er shall $e #a&e &irectin' that the (itness $e e1a#ine& at a specific &ate" ti#e an& place an& that a cop% of the or&er $e serve& on the prosecutor at least three (2) &a%s $efore the sche&ule& e1a#ination.A@? Constitution" (sec.(4a) SEC.

+ischarge of accused operates as ac6uittal -..*.(.Failure or refusal of the accuse& to atten& the e1a#ination after notice shall $e consi&ere& a (aiver.(Aa) SEC.@.8hen t(o or #ore accuse& are 3ointl% char'e& (ith an offense" the% shall $e trie& 3ointl% unless the court" in its &iscretion an& upon #otion of the prosecutor or an% accuse&" or&ers separate trial for one or #ore accuse&(@a) SEC....8hen it satisfactoril% appears that a (itness for the prosecution is too sic/ or infir# to appear at the trial as &irecte& $% the court" or has to leave the Philippines (ith no &efinite &ate of returnin'" he #a% forth(ith $e con&itionall% e1a#ine& $efore the court (here the case is pen&in'Such e1a#ination" in the presence of the accuse&" or in his a$sence after reasona$le notice to atten& the e1a#ination has $een serve& on hi#" shall $e con&ucte& in the sa#e #anner as an e1a#ination of the trial.8hen it $eco#es #anifest at an% ti#e $efore 3u&'#ent that a #ista/e has $een #a&e in char'in' the proper offense an& the accuse& cannot $e convicte& of the offense .amination of witness for the prosecution.(?a) SEC.!f the court &enies the #otion for &ischar'e of the accuse& as state (itness" his s(orn state#ent shall $e ina&#issi$le in evi&ence.?.(6a) SEC.8hen t(o or #ore persons are 3ointl% char'e& (ith the co##ission of an% offense" upon #otion of the prosecution $efore restin' its case" the court #a% &irect one or #ore of the accuse& to $e &ischar'e& (ith their consent so that the% #a% $e (itnesses for the state (hen" after re>uirin' the prosecution to present evi&ence an& the s(orn state#ent of each propose& state (itness at a hearin' in support of the &ischar'e" the court is satisfie& that* (a) There is a$solute necessit% for the testi#on% of the accuse& (hose &ischar'e is re>ueste&7 ($) There is no other &irect evi&ence availa$le for the proper prosecution of the offense co##itte&" e1cept the testi#on% of sai& accuse&7 (c) The testi#on% of sai& accuse& can $e su$stantiall% corro$orate& in its #aterial points7 (&) Sai& accuse& &oes not appear to $e the #ost 'uilt%7 an& (e) Sai& accuse& has not at an% ti#e $een convicte& of an% offense involvin' #oral turpitu&eEvi&ence a&&uce& in support of the &ischar'e shall auto#aticall% for# part of the trial..Trial of several accused. .6.A.#hen mista)e has been made in charging the proper offense..+ischarge of accused to be state witness.The state#ent ta/en #a% $e a&#itte& in $ehalf of or a'ainst the accuse&.The or&er in&icate& in the prece&in' section shall a#ount to an ac>uittal of the &ischar'e& accuse& an& shall $e a $ar to future prosecution for the sa#e offense" unless the accuse& fails or refuses to testif% a'ainst his co<accuse& in accor&ance (ith his s(orn state#ent constitutin' the $asis for his &ischar'e.co#plies" or is le'all% &ischar'e& after his testi#on% has $een ta/en.Ba) SEC. ..5.

2 Char'es for offenses foun&e& on the sa#e facts or for#in' part of a series of offenses of si#ilar character #a% $e trie& 3ointl% at the &iscretion of the court.The prosecution #a% oppose the &e#urrer to evi&ence (ithin a si#ilar perio& fro# its receiptThe or&er &en%in' the #otion for leave of court to file &e#urrer to evi&ence or the &e#urrer itself shall not $e revie(a$le $% appeal or $% certiorari $efore 3u&'#ent" (n) SEC.5a) The #otion for leave of court to file &e#urrer to evi&ence shall specificall% state its 'roun&s an& shall $e file& (ithin a non<e1ten&i$le perio& of five (5) &a%s after the prosecution rests its case.At an% ti#e $efore finalit% of the 3u&'#ent of conviction" the 3u&'e #a%" motu proprio or upon #otion" (ith hearin' in either case" reopen the procee&in's to avoi& a #iscarria'e of 3ustice.(.(.8hen a prosecutor" his assistant or &eput% is &is>ualifie& to act &ue to an% of the 'roun&s state& in section .The prosecution #a% oppose the #otion (ithin a non< e1ten&i$le perio& of five (5) &a%s fro# its receipt!f leave of court is 'rante&" the accuse& shall file the &e#urrer to evi&ence (ithin a non<e1ten&i$le perio& of ten (..*.Consolidation of trials of related offenses...4a) SEC.(ppointment of acting prosecutor.04.0B.(..(n) RULE 120 .=e #a% also" on #otion of the accuse&" e1clu&e the pu$lic fro# the trial e1cept court personnel an& the counsel of the parties.(.char'e& or an% other offense necessaril% inclu&e& therein" the accuse& shall not $e &ischar'e& if there appears 'oo& cause to &etain hi#.+emurrer to evidence.The 3u&'e #a%" motu proprio.8hen the &e#urrer to evi&ence is file& (ithout leave of court" the accuse& (aives the ri'ht to present evi&ence an& su$#its the case for 3u&'#ent on the $asis of the evi&ence for the prosecution.0.a) SEC.2a) SEC..(. e1clu&e the pu$lic fro# the courtroo# if the evi&ence to $e pro&uce& &urin' the trial is offensive to &ecenc% or pu$lic #orals.) on its o(n initiative after 'ivin' the prosecution the opportunit% to $e hear& or (0) upon &e#urrer to evi&ence file& $% the accuse& (ith or (ithout leave of court !f the court &enies the &e#urrer to evi&ence file& (ith leave of court" the accuse& #a% a&&uce evi&ence in his &efense. of Rule .Reopening.0a) SEC.00.The procee&in's shall $e ter#inate& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the or&er 'rantin' it.2? or for an% other reason" the 3u&'e or the prosecutor shall co##unicate (ith the Secretar% of Hustice in or&er that the latter #a% appoint an actin' prosecutor.clusion of the public.!n such case" the court shall co##it the accuse& to ans(er for the proper offense an& &is#iss the ori'inal case upon the filin' of the proper infor#ation.2After the prosecution rests its case" the court #a% &is#iss the action on the 'roun& of insufficienc% of evi&ence (.B) &a%s fro# notice.02.

udgment.udgment in case of variance between allegation and proof.5.Contents of the "udgment.2.$romulgation of "udgment.$UDGMENT SECT!O+ ..) the le'al >ualification of the offense constitute& $% the acts co##itte& $% the accuse& an& the a''ravatin' or #iti'atin' circu#stances (hich atten&e& its co##ission7 (0) the participation of the accuse& in the offense" (hether as principal" acco#plice" or accessor% after the fact7 (2) the penalt% i#pose& upon the accuse&7 an& (4) the civil lia$ilit% or &a#a'es cause& $% his (ron'ful act or o#ission to $e recovere& fro# the accuse& $% the offen&e& part%" if there is an%" unless the enforce#ent of the civil lia$ilit% $% a separate civil action has $een reserve& or (aive&!n case the 3u&'#ent is of ac>uittal" it shall state (hether the evi&ence of the prosecution a$solutel% faile& to prove the 'uilt of the accuse& or #erel% faile& to prove his 'uilt $e%on& reasona$le &ou$t.8hen the 3u&'e is a$sent or outsi&e the province or cit%" the 3u&'#ent #a% $e pro#ul'ate& $% the cler/ of court!f the accuse& is confine& or &etaine& in another province or cit%" the 3u&'#ent #a% $e pro#ul'ate& $% the e1ecutive 3u&'e of the Re'ional Trial Court havin' 3uris&iction . .!n either case" the 3u&'#ent shall &eter#ine if the act or o#ission fro# (hich the civil lia$ilit% #i'ht arise &i& not e1ist.4.a) SEC.!t #ust $e (ritten in the official lan'ua'e" personall% an& &irectl% prepare& $% the 3u&'e an& si'ne& $% hi# an& shall contain clearl% an& &istinctl% a state#ent of the facts an& the la( upon (hich it is $ase&(. . . definition and form.(4a) SEC.udgment for two or more offenses.8hen t(o or #ore offenses are char'e& in a sin'le co#plaint or infor#ation $ut the accuse& fails to o$3ect to it $efore trial" the court #a% convict hi# of as #an% offenses as are char'e& an& prove&" an& i#pose on hi# the penalt% for each offense" settin' out separatel% the fin&in's of fact an& la( in each offense.(0a) SEC. .(2a) SEC.8hen there is variance $et(een the offense char'e in the co#plaint or infor#ation an& that prove&" an& the offense as char'e& is inclu&e& in or necessaril% inclu&es the offense prove&" the accuse& shall $e convicte& of the offense prove& (hich is inclu&e& in the offense char'e&" or of the offense char'e& (hich is inclu&e& in the offense prove&.Hu&'#ent is the a&3u&ication $% the court that the accuse& is 'uilt% or not 'uilt% of the offense char'e& an& the i#position on hi# of the proper penalt% an& civil lia$ilit%" if an%.2 An offense char'e& necessaril% inclu&es the offense prove& (hen so#e of the essential ele#ents or in're&ients of the for#er" as alle'e& in the co#plaint or infor#ation" constitute the latterAn& an offense char'e& is necessaril% inclu&e& in the offense prove&" (hen the essential in're&ients of the for#er constitute or for# part of those constitutin' the latter(5a) SEC. .#hen an offense includes or is included in another.6.The 3u&'#ent is pro#ul'ate& $% rea&in' it in the presence of the accuse& an& an% 3u&'e of the court in (hich it (as ren&ere&=o(ever" if the conviction is for a li'ht offense" the 3u&'#ent #a% $e pronounce& in the presence of his counsel or representative.!f the 3u&'#ent is of conviction" it shall state (.0.

probation and parole not affected by this Rule.8ithin fifteen (.5) &a%s fro# pro#ul'ation of 3u&'#ent" ho(ever" the accuse& #a% surren&er an& file a #otion for leave of court to avail of these re#e&ies.At an% ti#e $efore a 3u&'#ent of conviction $eco#es final" the court #a%" on #otion of the accuse& or at its o(n instance $ut (ith the consent of the accuse&" 'rant a ne( trial or reconsi&eration..A 3u&'#ent of conviction #a%" upon #otion of the accuse&" $e #o&ifie& or set asi&e $efore it $eco#es final or $efore appeal is perfecte&.5) &a%s fro# notice.The court pro#ul'atin' the 3u&'#ent shall have authorit% to accept the notice of appeal an& to approve the $ail $on& pen&in' appeal7 provi&e&" that if the &ecision of the trial court convictin' the accuse& chan'e& the nature of the offense fro# non< $aila$le to $aila$le" the application for $ail can onl% $e file& an& resolve& $% the appellate courtThe proper cler/ of court shall 'ive notice to the accuse& personall% or throu'h his $on&s#an or (ar&en an& counsel" re>uirin' hi# to $e present at the pro#ul'ation of the &ecision..!f the accuse& (as trie& in absentia $ecause he 3u#pe& $ail or escape& fro# prison" the notice to hi# shall $e serve& at his last /no(n a&&ress!n case the accuse& fails to appear at the sche&ule& &ate of pro#ul'ation of 3u&'#ent &espite notice" the pro#ul'ation shall $e #a&e $% recor&in' the 3u&'#ent in the cri#inal &oc/et an& servin' hi# a cop% thereof at his last /no(n a&&ress or thru his counsel!f the 3u&'#ent is for conviction an& the failure of the accuse& to appear (as (ithout 3ustifia$le cause" he shall lose the re#e&ies availa$le in these rules a'ainst the 3u&'#ent an& the court shall or&er his arrest.@.A.(@) SEC.(?a) SEC. .(.After a 3u&'#ent has $eco#e final" it shall $e entere& in accor&ance (ith Rule 26.E1cept (here the &eath penalt% is i#pose&" a 3u&'#ent $eco#es final after the lapse of the perio& for perfectin' an appeal" or (hen the sentence has $een partiall% or totall% satisfie& or serve&" or (hen the accuse& has (aive& in (ritin' his ri'ht to appeal" or has applie& for pro$ation.over the place of confine#ent or &etention upon re>uest of the court (hich ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent.a) .(6a) SEC.!odification of "udgment.isting provisions governing suspension of sentence.%ew trial or reconsideration.(Aa) RULE 121 NEW TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION SECT!O+ ..*.*ntry of "udgment.+othin' in this Rule shall affect an% e1istin' provisions in the la(s 'overnin' suspension of sentence" pro$ation or parole..?.=e shall state the reasons for his a$sence at the sche&ule& pro#ul'ation an& if he proves that his a$sence (as for a 3ustifia$le cause" he shall $e allo(e& to avail of sai& re#e&ies (ithin fifteen (.

The court #a%" in the interest of 3ustice" allo( the intro&uction of a&&itional evi&ence($) 8hen a ne( trial is 'rante& on the 'roun& of ne(l%<&iscovere& evi&ence" the evi&ence alrea&% a&&uce& shall stan& an& the ne(l%<&iscovere& an& such other evi&ence as the court #a%" in the interest of 3ustice" allo( to $e intro&uce& shall $e ta/en an& consi&ere& to'ether (ith the evi&ence alrea&% in the recor&(c) !n all cases" (hen the court 'rants ne( trial or reconsi&eration" the ori'inal 3u&'#ent shall $e set asi&e or vacate& an& a ne( 3u&'#ent ren&ere& accor&in'l%.(0a) SEC.. The effects of 'rantin' a ne( trial or reconsi&eration are the follo(in'* (a) 8hen a ne( trial is 'rante& on the 'roun& of errors of la( or irre'ularities co##itte& &urin' the trial" all the procee&in's an& evi&ence affecte& there$% shall $e set asi&e an& ta/en ane(.SEC.0.(6a) RULE 122 APPEAL SECT!O+ ..-round for reconsideration.8here a #otion for ne( trial calls for resolution of an% >uestion of fact" the court #a% hear evi&ence thereon $% affi&avits or other(ise.6.#here to appeal.+otice of the #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration shall $e 'iven to the prosecutor.The appeal #a% $e ta/en as follo(s* .(5a) SEC.(0a) SEC.3earing on motion.The court shall 'rant a ne( trial on an% of the follo(in' 'roun&s* (a) That errors of la( or irre'ularities pre3u&icial to the su$stantial ri'hts of the accuse& have $een co##itte& &urin' the trial7 ($) That ne( an& #aterial evi&ence has $een &iscovere& (hich the accuse& coul& not (ith reasona$le &ili'ence have &iscovere& an& pro&uce& at the trial an& (hich if intro&uce& an& a&#itte& (oul& pro$a$l% chan'e the 3u&'#ent.5..#ho may appeal..0.(4a) SEC.For# of motion and notice PB the prosecutor.4.-rounds for a new trial.2....The court shall 'rant reconsi&eration on the 'roun& of errors of la( or fact in the 3u&'#ent" (hich re>uires no further procee&in's(2a) SEC.The #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration shall $e in (ritin' an& shall state the 'roun&s on (hich it is $ase&. .An% part% #a% appeal fro# a 3u&'#ent or final or&er" unless the accuse& (ill $e place& in &ou$le 3eopar&%.*ffects of granting a new trial or reconsideration.!f $ase& on a ne(l%<&iscovere& evi&ence" the #otion #ust $e supporte& $% affi&avits of (itnesses $% (ho# such evi&ence is e1pecte& to $e 'iven or $% &ul% authenticate& copies of &ocu#ents (hich are propose& to $e intro&uce& in evi&ence.

5) &a%s fro# pro#ul'ation of the 3u&'#ent or fro# notice of the final or&er appeale& fro#This perio& for perfectin' an appeal shall $e suspen&e& fro# the ti#e a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration is file& until notice of the or&er overrulin' the #otion has $een serve& upon the accuse& or his counsel at (hich ti#e the $alance of the perio& $e'ins to run..a) SEC.The appellee #a% (aive his ri'ht to a notice that an appeal has $een ta/en.04" all other appeals to the Supre#e Court shall $e $% petition for revie( on certiorari un&er Rule 45.B of this Rule(e) E1cept as provi&e& in the last para'raph of section . or life i#prison#ent" or (here a lesser penalt% is i#pose& $ut for offenses co##itte& on the sa#e occasion or (hich arose out of the sa#e occurrence that 'ave rise to the #ore serious offense for (hich the penalt% of &eath" reclusion perpetua.(5a) SEC.4.$ublication of notice of appeal..!f personal service of the cop% of the notice of appeal can not $e #a&e upon the a&verse part% or his counsel" service #a% $e &one $% re'istere& #ail or $% su$stitute& service pursuant to sections ? an& @ of Rule . or life i#prison#ent is i#pose&" shall $e $% filin' a notice of appeal in accor&ance (ith para'raph (a) of this section(&) +o notice of appeal is necessar% in cases (here the &eath penalt% is i#pose& $% the Re'ional Trial Court.The sa#e shall $e auto#aticall% revie(e& $% the Supre#e Court as provi&e& in section .#hen appeal.5.23ow appeal ta)en-.6.An appeal #ust $e ta/en (ithin fifteen (.2" Rule . .(a) To the Re'ional Trial Court" in cases &eci&e& $% the 9etropolitan Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court in Cities" 9unicipal Trial Court" or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court7 ($) To the Court of Appeals or to the Supre#e Court in the proper cases provi&e& $% la(" in cases &eci&e& $% the Re'ional Trial Court7 an& (c) To the Supre#e Court" in cases &eci&e& $% the Court of Appeals" (.(2a) SEC.#aiver of notice. to be ta)en.(6a) . (a) The appeal to the Re'ional Trial Court" or to the Court of Appeals in cases &eci&e& $% the Re'ional Trial Court in the e1ercise of its ori'inal 3uris&iction" shall $e ta/en $% filin' a notice of appeal (ith the court (hich ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro# an& $% servin' a cop% thereof upon the a&verse part%($) The appeal to the Court of Appeals in cases &eci&e& $% the Re'ional Trial Court in the e1ercise of its appellate 3uris&iction shall $e $% petition for revie( un&er Rule 40(c) The appeal to the Supre#e Court in cases (here the penalt% i#pose& $% the Re'ional Trial Court is &eath" reclusion perpetua.The appellate court #a%" in its &iscretion" entertain an appeal not(ithstan&in' failure to 'ive such notice if the interests of 3ustice so re>uire.2-(4a) SEC.

.(Aa) SEC.The other cop% of the transcript shall re#ain in the lo(er court.Ba) SEC.Transmission of records in case of death penalty.2 (a) 8ithin five (5) &a%s fro# perfection of the appeal" the cler/ of court shall trans#it the ori'inal recor& to the appropriate Re'ional Trial Court($) Upon receipt of the co#plete recor& of the case" transcripts an& e1hi$its" the cler/ of court of the Re'ional Trial Court shall notif% the parties of such fact(c) 8ithin fifteen (..?.The ori'inal an& three copies of the transcript of steno'raphic notes" to'ether (ith the recor&s" shall also $e trans#itte& to the cler/ of the appellate court (ithout un&ue &ela%.Effect of appeal $% an% of several accuse&-.Transcribing and filing notes of stenographic reporter upon appeal.(@a) SEC..A(ppeal to the Regional Trial Courts.After the su$#ission of such #e#oran&a or $riefs" or upon the e1piration of the perio& to file the sa#e" the Re'ional Trial Court shall &eci&e the case on the $asis of the entire recor& of the case an& of such #e#oran&a or $riefs as #a% have $een file&.SEC.8ithin five (5) &a%s fro# the filin' of the notice of appeal" the cler/ of the court (ith (ho# the notice of appeal (as file& #ust trans#it to the cler/ of court of the appellate court the co#plete recor& of the case" to'ether (ith sai& notice. .The steno'raphic reporter shall certif% to the correctness of the notes an& the transcript thereof" (hich shall consist of the ori'inal an& four copies" an& shall file sai& ori'inal an& four copies (ith the cler/ (ithout unnecessar% &ela%!f &eath penalt% is i#pose&" the steno'raphic reporter shall" (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# pro#ul'ation of the sentence" file (ith the cler/ the ori'inal an& four copies of the &ul% certifie& transcript of his notes of the procee&in's.B) &a%s after the filin' thereof $% the steno'raphic reporter.Transmission of papers to appellate court upon appeal.@.8hen notice of appeal is file& $% the accuse&" the trial court shall &irect the steno'raphic reporter to transcri$e his notes of the procee&in's.(..B..(?a) SEC.5) &a% follo(in' the pro#ul'ation of the 3u&'#ent or notice of &enial of a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration. (a) An appeal ta/en $% one or #ore of several accuse& shall not affect those (ho &i& not appeal" e1cept insofar as the 3u&'#ent of the appellate court is favora$le an& applica$le to the latter- .8hen file& $% the People of the Philippines" the trial court shall &irect the steno'raphic reporter to transcri$e such portion of his notes of the procee&in's as the court" upon #otion" shall specif% in (ritin'.The transcript shall also $e for(ar&e& (ithin ten (. !n all cases (here the &eath penalt% is i#pose& $% the trial court" the recor&s shall $e for(ar&e& to the Supre#e Court for auto#atic revie( an& 3u&'#ent (ithin five (5) &a%s after the fifteenth (.+o e1tension of ti#e for filin' of sai& transcript of steno'raphic notes shall $e 'rante& e1cept $% the Supre#e Court an& onl% upon 3ustifia$le 'roun&s.5) &a%s fro# receipt of sai& notice" the parties #a% su$#it #e#oran&a or $riefs" or #a% $e re>uire& $% the Re'ional Trial Court to &o so. .

.a) SEC.2The proce&ure to $e o$serve& in the 9etropolitan Trial Courts" 9unicipal Trial Courts an& 9unicipal Circuit Trial Courts shall $e the sa#e as in the Re'ional Trial Courts" e1cept (here a particular provision applies onl% to either of sai& courts an& in cri#inal cases 'overne& $% the Revise& Rule on Su##ar% Proce&ure" (...0a) SEC.2a) RULE 123 PROCEDURE IN T E MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS SECT!O+ .(.Title of the case.'niform $rocedure.The Re'ional Trial Court #a% also" in its &iscretion" allo( the appellant fro# the 3u&'#ent of a 9etropolitan Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court in Cities" 9unicipal Trial Court" or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court to (ith&ra( his appeal" provi&e& a #otion to that effect is file& $efore ren&ition of the 3u&'#ent in the case on appeal" in (hich case the 3u&'#ent of the court of ori'in shall $eco#e final an& the case shall $e re#an&e& to the latter court for e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent..!t shall $e the &ut% of the cler/ of the trial court" upon filin' of a notice of appeal" to ascertain fro# the appellant" if confine& in prison" (hether he &esires the Re'ional Trial Court" Court of Appeals or the Supre#e Court to appoint a counsel de oficio to &efen& hi# an& to trans#it (ith the recor& on a for# to $e prepare& $% the cler/ of court of the appellate court" a certificate of co#pliance (ith this &ut% an& of the response of the appellant to his in>uir%.+ot(ithstan&in' perfection of the appeal" the Re'ional Trial NCourt" 9etropolitan Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court in Cities" 9unicipal Trial Court" or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court" as the case #a% $e" #a% allo( the appellant to (ith&ra( his appeal $efore the recor& has $een for(ar&e& $% the cler/ of court to the proper appellate court as provi&e& in section @" in (hich case the 3u&'#ent shall $eco#e final.0.(...#ithdrawal of appeal.(ppointment of counsel de oficio for accused on appeal.2..a) RULE 124 PROCEDURE IN T E COURT OF APPEALS SECT!O+ .($) The appeal of the offen&e& part% fro# the civil aspect shall not affect the cri#inal aspect of the 3u&'#ent or or&er appeale& fro#(c) Upon perfection of the appeal" the e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro# shall $e sta%e& as to the appealin' part%" (.!n all cri#inal cases appeale& to the Court of Appeals" the part% appealin' the case shall $e calle& the MappellantM an& the a&verse ..

a) SEC.6 ##in (i&th.+ismissal of appeal for abandonment or failure to prosecute.(0a) SEC.4orm of briefs.part% the Mappellee"M $ut the title of the case shall re#ain as it (as in the court of ori'in" (.0.2 an& .5.in len'th $% 0. .(5a) SEC.@.$rompt disposition of appeals.The Court of .A.B) &a%s fro# receipt of the notice to file $rief an& he esta$lishes his ri'ht thereto. The Court of Appeals #a% also" upon #otion of the appellee or motu proprio.8ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# receipt of the $rief of the appellant" the appellee shall file seven (?) copies of the $rief of the appellee (ith the cler/ of court (hich shall $e acco#panie& $% proof of service of t(o (0) copies thereof upon the appellant8ithin t(ent% (0B) &a%s fro# receipt of the )rief of the appellee" the appellant #a% file a repl% $rief traversin' #atters raise& in the for#er $ut not covere& in the $rief of the appellant.The $riefs in cri#inal cases shall have the sa#e contents as provi&e& in sections .*.E1tension of ti#e for the filin' of $riefs (ill not $e allo(e& e1cept for 'oo& an& sufficient cause an& onl% if the #otion for e1tension is file& $efore the e1piration of the ti#e sou'ht to $e e1ten&e&. .Appeals of accuse& (ho are un&er &etention shall $e 'iven prece&ence in their &isposition over other appeals.2 8ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# receipt $% the appellant or his counsel of the notice fro# the cler/ of court of the Court of Appeals that the evi&ence" oral an& &ocu#entar%" is alrea&% attache& to the recor&" the appellant shall file seven (?) copies of his $rief (ith the cler/ of court (hich shall $e acco#panie& $% proof of service of t(o (0) copies thereof upon the appellee.4 of Rule 44.The Court of Appeals #a%" upon #otion of the appellee or motu proprio an& (ith notice to the appellant in either case" &is#iss the appeal if the appellant fails to file his $rief (ithin the ti#e prescri$e& $% this Rule" e1cept (here the appellant is represente& $% a counsel de oficio.#hen brief for appellee to be filed. &is#iss the appeal if the appellant escapes fro# prison or confine#ent" 3u#ps $ail or flees to a forei'n countr% &urin' the pen&enc% of the appeal..4..!f it appears fro# the recor& of the case as trans#itte& that (a) the accuse& is confine& in prison" ($) is (ithout counsel de parte on appeal" or (c) has si'ne& the notice of appeal hi#self" the cler/ of court of the Court of Appeals shall &esi'nate a counsel de oficio.A certifie& true cop% of the &ecision or final or&er appeale& fro# shall $e appen&e& to the $rief of the appellant(?a) SEC. .6.?.(2a) SEC.2.(6a) SEC.(ppointment of counsel de oficio for the accused.#hen brief for appellant to be filed.. An appellant (ho is not confine& in prison #a%" upon re>uest" $e assi'ne& a counsel de oficio (ithin ten (.tension of time for filing briefs.Contents of brief.(4a) SEC. reply brief of the appellant.(@a) SEC..)riefs shall either $e printe&" enco&e& or t%pe(ritten in &ou$le space on le'al si5e" 'oo& >ualit% un'la5e& paper" 22B ##.

+o 3u&'#ent shall $e reverse& or #o&ifie& unless the Court of Appeals" after an e1a#ination of the recor& an& of the evi&ence a&&uce& $% the parties" is of the opinion that error (as co##itte& (hich in3uriousl% affecte& the su$stantial ri'hts of the appellant.The accuse& nee& not $e present in court &urin' the hearin' of the appeal. or life i#prison#ent as the circu#stances (arrant.Appeals shall hear an& &eci&e the appeal at the earliest practica$le ti#e (ith &ue re'ar& to the ri'hts of the parties..cept for substantial error.The unani#ous vote of the three (2) Hustices of a &ivision shall $e necessar% for the pronounce#ent of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution" (hich shall $e reache& in consultation $efore the (ritin' of the opinion $% a #e#$er of the &ivision..udgment not to be reversed or modified e. .At an% ti#e after the appeal fro# the lo(er court has $een perfecte& an& $efore the 3u&'#ent of the Court of Appeals convictin' the appellant $eco#es final" the latter #a% #ove for a ne( trial on the 'roun& of ne(l%< &iscovere& evi&ence #aterial to his &efense.The #otion shall confor# (ith the provisions of section 4" Rule .5.8uorum of the court..(. or life i#prison#ent shoul& $e i#pose& in a case" the court" after &iscussion of the evi&ence an& the la( involve&" shall ren&er 3u&'#ent i#posin' the penalt% of &eath" reclusion perpetua...#here new trial conducted.0a) SEC.(.5a) .a) SEC.(..The &esi'nation of such a&&itional Hustices shall $e #a&e strictl% $% raffle an& rotation a#on' all other Hustices of the Court of Appeals8henever the Court of Appeals fin&s that the penalt% of &eath" reclusion perpetua.8hen a ne( trial is 'rante&" the Court of Appeals #a% con&uct the hearin' an& receive evi&ence as provi&e& in section .2.B. Three (2) Hustices of the Court of Appeals shall constitute a >uoru# for the sessions of a &ivision.!n the event that the three (2) Hustices can not reach a unani#ous vote" the Presi&in' Hustice shall &irect the raffle co##ittee of the Court to &esi'nate t(o (0) a&&itional Hustices to sit te#poraril% (ith the#" for#in' a special &ivision of five (5) #e#$ers an& the concurrence of a #a3orit% of such &ivision shall $e necessar% for the pronounce#ent of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution.. .4..4a) SEC.The Court of Appeals shall have the po(er to tr% cases an& con&uct hearin's" receive evi&ence an& perfor# an% an& all acts necessar% to resolve factual issues raise& in cases (a) fallin' (ithin its ori'inal 3uris&iction" ($) involvin' clai#s for &a#a'es arisin' fro# provisional re#e&ies" or (c) (here the court 'rants a ne( trial $ase& onl% on the 'roun& of ne(l%<&iscovere& evi&ence.0 of this Rule or refer the trial to the court of ori'in....Ba) SEC.(...!otion for new trial.0.2a) SEC.(Aa) SEC.Scope of "udgment.(.=o(ever" it shall refrain fro# enterin' the 3u&'#ent an& forth(ith certif% the case an& elevate the entire recor& thereof to the Supre#e Court for revie(.. certification or appeal of cases to Supreme Court.The Court of Appeals #a% reverse" affir#" or #o&if% the 3u&'#ent an& increase or re&uce the penalt% i#pose& $% the trial court" re#an& the case to the Re'ional Trial Court for ne( trial or retrial" or &is#iss the case.0.$ower to receive evidence.(.

(pplication of certain rules in civil procedure to criminal cases-..The #itti#us shall $e sta%e& &urin' the pen&enc% of the #otion for reconsi&eration.The provisions of Rules 40" 44 to 46 an& 4@ to 56 relatin' to proce&ure in the Court of Appeals an& in the Supre#e Court in ori'inal an& appeale& civil cases shall $e applie& to cri#inal cases insofar as the% are applica$le an& not inconsistent (ith the provisions of this Rule.Search warrant defined.?a) SEC.Reconsideration.+ecision if opinion is e6ually divided.@a) RULE 125 PROCEDURE IN T E SUPREME COURT SECT!O+ .Review of decisions of the Court of (ppeals.(.(2a) RULE 126 SEARC AND SEI2URE SECT!O+ .+o part% shall $e allo(e& a secon& #otion for reconsi&eration of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er..(.SEC..6.(0a) SEC.'niform procedure..5) &a%s fro# notice of the &ecision or final or&er of the Court of Appeals" (ith copies thereof serve& upon the a&verse part%" settin' forth the 'roun&s in support thereof..udgment transmitted and filed in trial court.Unless other(ise provi&e& $% the Constitution or $% la(" the proce&ure in the Supre#e Court in ori'inal an& in appeale& cases shall $e the sa#e as in the Court of Appeals" (.@.) .(. .(.?.The proce&ure for the revie( $% the Supre#e Court of &ecisions in cri#inal cases ren&ere& $% the Court of Appeals shall $e the sa#e as in civil cases.A search (arrant is an or&er in (ritin' issue& in the na#e of the People of the Philippines" si'ne& $% a 3u&'e an& &irecte& to a peace officer" co##an&in' hi# to search for personal propert% &escri$e& therein an& $rin' it $efore the court..a) SEC..0...8hen the Supre#e Court en banc is e>uall% &ivi&e& in opinion or the necessar% #a3orit% cannot $e ha& on (hether to ac>uit the appellant" the case shall a'ain $e &eli$erate& upon an& if no &ecision is reache& after re<&eli$eration" the 3u&'#ent of conviction of the lo(er court shall $e reverse& an& the accuse& ac>uitte&.A #otion for reconsi&eration shall $e file& (ithin fifteen (.6a) SEC.2..8hen the entr% of 3u&'#ent of the Court of Appeals is issue&" a certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent shall $e attache& to the ori'inal recor& (hich shall $e re#an&e& to the cler/ of the court fro# (hich the appeal (as ta/en.

!f the 3u&'e is satisfie& of the e1istence of facts upon (hich the application is $ase& or that there is pro$a$le cause to $elieve that the% e1ist" he shall issue the (arrant" (hich #ust $e su$stantiall% in the for# prescri$e& $% these Rules.2.*.5.(2a) SEC.4..SEC. . . .Issuance and form of search warrant. record.0.A search (arrant shall not issue e1cept upon pro$a$le cause in connection (ith one specific offense to $e &eter#ine& personall% $% the 3u&'e after e1a#ination un&er oath or affir#ation of the co#plainant an& the (itnesses he #a% pro&uce" an& particularl% &escri$in' the place to $e searche& an& the thin's to $e sei5e& (hich #a% $e an%(here in the Philippines.(5a) Q Q Su$3ect of the offense7 Stolen or e#$e55le& an& other procee&s" or fruits of the offense7 or Use& or inten&e& to $e use& as the #eans of co##ittin' an offense- (For#* Application for Search 8arrant) PEOPLE OF T=E P=!L!PP!+ES Plaintiff" ersus A-)-" Accuse&" 1 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<1 Cri#inal Case +o-____ for PState nature of the offense) APPL!CAT!O+ FOR SEARC= 8ARRA+T The un&ersi'ne& (na#e of applicant) after havin' $een &ul% s(orn7 states* .(4a) SEC.6.An application for search (arrant shall $e file& (ith the follo(in'* (a) An% court (ithin (hose territorial 3uris&iction a cri#e (as co##itte&($) For co#pellin' reasons state& in the application" an% court (ithin the 3u&icial re'ion (here the cri#e (as co##itte& if the place of the co##ission of the cri#e is /no(n" or an% court (ithin the 3u&icial re'ion (here the (arrant shall $e enforce&=o(ever" if the cri#inal action has alrea&% $een file&" the application shall onl% $e #a&e in the court (here the cri#inal action is pen&in'" (n) SEC.Court where application for search warrant shall be filed.A search (arrant #a% $e issue& for the search an& sei5ure of personal propert%* (a) ($) (c) (0a) SEC.amination of complainant.The 3u&'e #ust" $efore issuin' the (arrant" personall% e1a#ine in the for# of searchin' >uestions an& ans(ers" in (ritin' an& un&er oath" the co#plainant an& the (itnesses he #a% pro&uce on facts personall% /no(n to the# an& attach to the recor& their s(orn state#ents" to'ether (ith the affi&avits su$#itte&.$ersonal property to be sei5ed. That (na#e of the person to $e searche&)" (ho #a% $e foun& at (&escri$e pre#ises) is in possession or has in his control (na#e propert% su$3ect of the offense7 or stolen or e#$e55le& an& other .Re6uisites for issuing search warrant. .

A____ _____________ Hu&'e Cri#inal Case +o-_______ for (State nature of the offense) . or premises to be made in presence of two witnesses.?.Search of house..Right to brea) door or window to effect search.@.A______ ______________ Applicant (For#* Search 8arrant) PEOPLE OF T=E P=!L!PP!+ES Plaintiff" ersus A-)-" Accuse&" 1 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<1 TO A+R PEACE OFF!CER Creetin's* !t appearin' to the satisfaction of the un&ersi'ne& after e1a#inin' un&er oath (na#e of applicant) an& his (itness (na#e of (itness) that there is pro$a$le cause to $elieve that (&escri$e the act char'e&) has $een co##itte& or is a$out to $e co##itte& an& that there are 'oo& an& sufficient reasons to $elieve that (na#e of person or persons to $e searche&) has in his possession or control in (&escri$e pre#ises) in (na#e of street)" &istrict of_______________________" (na#e of propert% su$3ect of the offense" or stolen or e#$e55le& an& other procee&s or fruits of the offense or use& or inten&e& to $e use& as a #eans of co##ittin' an offense) (hich shoul& $e sei5e& an& $rou'ht to the un&ersi'ne&.(6) SEC.That a search (arrant shoul& $e issue& to ena$le an& a'ent of the la( to ta/e possession an& $rin' to his court the follo(in' &escri$e& propert%* ('ive a co#plete an& &etaile& &escription of the propert% to $e sei5e&)8herefore" the un&ersi'ne& pra%s this =onora$le Court to issue a search (arrant authori5in' an% a'ent of the la( to search the pre#ises a$ove &escri$e& an& to sei5e an& surren&er to this =onora$le Court the personal propert% #entione& a$ove to $e &ealt (ith as the la( &irects______________" Philippines"______.(Cancel &escription not applica$le) Rou are here$% co##an&e& to #a/e an i##e&iate search at an% ti#e in the &a% (or ni'ht) of the pre#ises a$ove &escri$e& an& forth(ith sei5e an& ta/e possession of the follo(in' personal propert%" to (it* ('ive a co#plete an& &etaile& &escription of the propert% to $e sei5e&) an& $rin' sai& propert% to the un&ersi'ne& to $e &ealt (ith as the la( &irects8itness #% han& this_____&a% of_______________" . room.+o search of a house" roo#" or an% other pre#ises shall $e #a&e e1cept in the presence of the la(ful occupant thereof or an% #e#$er of his fa#il% or in the a$sence of the latter" t(o (itnesses of sufficient a'e an& &iscretion resi&in' in the sa#e localit%.(Cancel &escription not applica$le)0.(?a) procee&s or fruits of the offense7 or use& or inten&e& to $e use& as the #eans of co##ittin' an offense) (hich he is /eepin' an& concealin' in pre#ises a$ove &escri$e&.SEC. .The officer" if refuse& a&#ittance to the place of &irecte& search after 'ivin' notice of his purpose an& authorit%" #a% $rea/ open an% outer or inner &oor or (in&o( of a house or an% part of a house or an%thin' therein to e1ecute the (arrant or li$erate hi#self or an% person la(full% ai&in' hi# (hen unla(full% &etaine& therein.

.A search (arrant shall $e vali& for ten (..B) &a%s fro# its &ate. .B..Thereafter" it shall $e voi&...0. .(a) The officer #ust forth(ith &eliver the propert% sei5e& to the 3u&'e (ho issue& the (arrant" to'ether (ith a true inventor% thereof &ul% verifie& un&er oath($) Ten (.B) &a%s after issuance -of the search (arrant" the issuin' 3u&'e shall ascertain if the return has $een #a&e" an& if none" shall su##on the person to (ho# the (arrant (as issue& an& re>uire hi# to e1plain (h% no return (as #a&e.Search incident to lawful arrest.A..=o(ever" if such court faile& to resolve the #otion an& a cri#inal case is su$se>uentl% file& in another court" the #otion shall $e resolve& $% the latter court.alidity of search warrant..!f the return has $een #a&e" the 3u&'e shall ascertain (hether section . return and proceedings thereon.2.!f no cri#inal action has $een institute&" the #otion #a% $e file& in an& resolve& $% the court that issue& the search (arrant.SEC. where to file.!otion to 6uash a search warrant or to suppress evidence.(Aa) SEC.(.A person la(full% arreste& #a% $e searche& for &an'erous (eapons or an%thin' (hich #a% have $een use& or constitute proof in the co##ission of an offense (ithout a search (arrant..Receipt for the property sei5ed. of this Rule has $een co#plie& (ith an& shall re>uire that the propert% sei5e& $e &elivere& to hi#.4.The (arrant #ust &irect that it $e serve& in the &a% ti#e" unless the affi&avit asserts that the propert% is on the person or in the place or&ere& to $e searche&" in (hich case a &irection #a% $e inserte& that it $e serve& at an% ti#e of the &a% or ni'ht.0a) SEC.(n) RULE 127 PROVISIONAL REMEDIES IN CRIMINAL CASES ...(.A #otion to >uash a search (arrant an&Jor to suppress evi&ence o$taine& thereof #a% $e file& in an& acte& upon onl% $% the court (here the action has $een institute&.The officer sei5in' propert% un&er the (arrant #ust 'ive a &etaile& receipt for the sa#e to the la(ful occupant of the pre#ises in (hose presence the search an& sei5ure (ere #a&e" or in the a$sence of such occupant" #ust" in the presence of at least t(o (itnesses of sufficient a'e an& &iscretion resi&in' in the sa#e localit%" leave a receipt in the place in (hich he foun& the sei5e& propert%....Time of ma)ing search.(@) SEC..+elivery of property and inventory thereof to court.a) SEC.The 3u&'e shall see to it that su$section (a) hereof has $een co#plie& (ith(c) The return on the search (arrant shall $e file& an& /ept $% the custo&ian of the lo' $oo/ on search (arrants (ho shall enter therein the &ate of the return" the result" an& other actions of the 3u&'eA violation of this section shall constitute conte#pt of court.(.Ba) SEC.

Evi&ence #ust have such a relation to the fact in issue as to in&uce $elief in its e1istence or non<e1istence.(. .(ttachment.2.(0a) PART IV RULES ON EVIDENCE 3 RULE 128 GENERAL PROVISIONS SECT!O+ .." the offen&e& part% #a% have the propert% of the accuse& attache& as securit% for the satisfaction of an% 3u&'#ent that #a% $e recovere& fro# the accuse& in the follo(in' cases* (a) 8hen the accuse& is a$out to a$scon& fro# the Philippines7 ($) 8hen the cri#inal action is $ase& on a clai# for #one% or propert% e#$e55le& or frau&ulentl% #isapplie& or converte& to the use of the accuse& (ho is a pu$lic officer" officer of a corporation" attorne%" factor" $ro/er" a'ent or cler/" in the course of his e#plo%#ent as such" or $% an% other person in a fi&uciar% capacit%" or for a (illful violation of &ut%7 (c) 8hen the accuse& has conceale&" re#ove&" or &ispose& of his propert%" or is a$out to &o so7 an& (&) 8hen the accuse& resi&es outsi&e the Philippines...SECT!O+ .4" .Scope. collateral matters.(dmissibility of evidence..A@A- .The provisional re#e&ies in civil actions" insofar as the% are applica$le" #a% $e availe& of in connection (ith the civil action &ee#e& institute& (ith the cri#inal action.The rules of evi&ence shall $e the sa#e in all courts an& in all trials an& hearin's" e1cept as other(ise provi&e& $% la( or these rules-(0a) SEC.*vidence defined. .A@A an& too/ effect Hul% ..Evi&ence on collateral #atters shall not $e allo(e&" e1cept (hen it ten&s in an% reasona$le &e'ree to esta$lish Q As a#en&e& per Resolution a&opte& on 9arch .8hen the civil action is properl% institute& in the cri#inal action as provi&e& in Rule ." ..) SEC..Evi&ence is a&#issi$le (hen it is relevant to the issue an& is not e1clu&e& $% the la( or these rules-(2a) SEC.a) SEC.0. Evi&ence is the #eans" sanctione& $% these rules" of ascertainin' in a 3u&icial procee&in' the truth respectin' a #atter of fact-(..0.4.(vailability of provisional remedies.Relevancy.

. when mandatory.a) SEC..A court shall ta/e 3u&icial notice" (ithout the intro&uction of evi&ence" of the e1istence an& territorial e1tent of states" their political histor%" for#s of 'overn#ent an& s%#$ols of nationalit%" the la( of nations" the a&#iralt% an& #ariti#e courts of the (orl& an& their seals" the political constitution an& histor% of the Philippines" the official acts of the le'islative" e1ecutive an& 3u&icial &epart#ents of the Philippines" the la(s of nature" the #easure of ti#e" an& the 'eo'raphical &ivisions-(.Furin' the trial" the court" on its o(n initiative" or on re>uest of a part%" #a% announce its intention to ta/e 3u&icial notice of an% #atter an& allo( the parties to $e hear& thereonAfter the trial" an& $efore 3u&'#ent or on appeal" the proper court" on its o(n initiative or on re>uest of a part%" #a% ta/e 3u&icial notice of an% #atter an& allo( the parties to $e hear& thereon if such #atter is &ecisive of a #aterial issue in the case-(n) SEC.0.Ob"ect as evidence..udicial notice.udicial admissions. when hearing necessary.A court #a% ta/e 3u&icial notice of #atters (hich are of pu$lic /no(le&'e" or are capa$le of un>uestiona$le &e#onstration" or ou'ht to $e /no(n to 3u&'es $ecause of their 3u&icial functions-(.8hen an o$3ect is relevant to the fact in issue" it #a% $e e1hi$ite& to" e1a#ine& or vie(e& $% the court-(. .a) ...4.An a&#ission" ver$al or (ritten" #a&e $% a part% in the course of the procee&in's in the sa#e case" &oes not re>uire proof.a) SEC.udicial notice.udicial notice..2.the pro$a$ilit% or i#pro$a$ilit% of the fact in issue-(4a) RULE 129 W AT NEED NOT !E PROVED SECT!O+ . when discretionary.The a&#ission #a% $e contra&icte& onl% $% sho(in' that it (as #a&e throu'h palpa$le #ista/e or that no such a&#ission (as #a&e-(0a) RULE 130 RULES OF ADMISSI!ILITY A" O!$ECT 4REAL5 EVIDENCE SECT!O+ .O$3ects as evi&ence are those a&&resse& to the senses of the court.

.+ocumentary evidence.*vidence admissible when original document is a public record.2 !f the &ocu#ent is in the custo&% or un&er the control of the a&verse part%" he #ust have reasona$le notice to pro&uce it.Original document must be produced.8hen the su$3ect of in>uir% is the contents of a &ocu#ent" no evi&ence shall $e a&#issi$le other than the ori'inal &ocu#ent itself" e1cept in the follo(in' cases* (a) 8hen the ori'inal has $een lost or &estro%e&" or cannot $e pro&uce& in court" (ithout $a& faith on the part of the offeror7 ($) 8hen the ori'inal is in the custo&% or un&er the control of the part% a'ainst (ho# the evi&ence is offere&" an& the latter fails to pro&uce it after reasona$le notice7 (c) 8hen the ori'inal consists of nu#erous accounts or other &ocu#ents (hich cannot $e e1a#ine& in court (ithout 'reat loss of ti#e an& the fact sou'ht to $e esta$lishe& fro# the# is onl% the 'eneral result of the (hole7 an& (&) 8hen the ori'inal is a pu$lic recor& in the custo&% of a pu$lic officer or is recor&e& in a pu$lic office-(0a) SEC.?. .#hen original document is in adverse partyAs custody or control. .Original of document.Focu#ents as evi&ence consist of (ritin's or an% #aterial containin' letters" (or&s" nu#$ers" fi'ures" s%#$ols or other #o&es of (ritten e1pressions offere& as proof of their contents-(n) 1" !EST EVIDENCE RULE SEC. . e.8hen the ori'inal &ocu#ent has $een lost or &estro%e&" or cannot $e pro&uce& in court" the offeror" upon proof of its e1ecution or e1istence an& the cause of its unavaila$ilit% (ithout $a& faith on his part" #a% prove its contents $% a cop%" or $% a recital of its contents in so#e authentic &ocu#ent" or $% the testi#on% of (itnesses in the or&er state&-(4a) SEC.5.!" DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE SEC.8hen the ori'inal of a &ocu#ent is in the custo&% of a pu$lic officer or is recor&e& in a pu$lic .4. (a) The ori'inal of a &ocu#ent is one the contents of (hich are the su$3ect of in>uir%($) 8hen a &ocu#ent is in t(o or #ore copies e1ecute& at or a$out the sa#e ti#e" (ith i&entical contents" all such copies are e>uall% re'ar&e& as ori'inals(c) 8hen an entr% is repeate& in the re'ular course of $usiness" one $ein' copie& fro# another at or near the ti#e of the transaction" all the entries are li/e(ise e>uall% re'ar&e& as ori'inals-(2a) 2" SECONDARY EVIDENCE SEC.#hen original document is unavailable.0.!f after such notice an& after satisfactor% proof of its e1istence" he fails to pro&uce the &ocu#ent" secon&ar% evi&ence #a% $e presente& as in the case of its loss-(5a) SEC.6. .ceptions.2.

Interpretation according to intention. .Interpretation of a writing according to its legal meaning. .!n the construction of an instru#ent" the intention of the parties is to $e pursue&7 an& (hen a 'eneral an& a particular provision are inconsistent" the latter is para#ount to the for#er..8hen the ter#s of an a'ree#ent have $een re&uce& to (ritin'" it is consi&ere& as containin' all the ter#s a'ree& upon an& there can $e" $et(een the parties an& their successors in interest" no evi&ence of such ter#s other than the contents of the (ritten a'ree#ent=o(ever" a part% #a% present evi&ence to #o&if%" e1plain or a&& to the ter#s of the (ritten a'ree#ent if he puts in issue in his plea&in'* (a) An intrinsic a#$i'uit%" #ista/e or i#perfection in the (ritten a'ree#ent7 ($) The failure of the (ritten a'ree#ent to e1press the true intent an& a'ree#ent of the parties thereto7 (c) The vali&it% of the (ritten a'ree#ent7 or (&) The e1istence of other ter#s a'ree& to $% the parties or their successors in interest after the e1ecution of the (ritten a'ree#entThe ter# Ma'ree#entM inclu&es (ills-(?a) 4" INTERPRETATION OF DOCUMENTS SEC..!n the construction of an instru#ent (here there are several provisions or particulars" such a construction is" if possi$le" to $e a&opte& as (ill 'ive effect to all-(A) SEC.. .B...2.4.@. general and particular provisions. .The ter#s of a (ritin' are presu#e& to have $een use& in their pri#ar% an& 'eneral acceptation" $ut evi&ence is a&#issi$le to sho( that the% have a local" technical" or other(ise peculiar si'nification" an& (ere so use& an& un&erstoo&" in the particular instance" in (hich case the a'ree#ent #ust $e .office" its contents #a% $e prove& $% a certifie& cop% issue& $% the pu$lic officer in custo&% thereof-(0a) SEC.For the proper construction of an instru#ent" the circu#stances un&er (hich it (as #a&e" inclu&in' the situation of the su$3ect thereof an& of the parties to it" #a% $e sho(n" so that the 3u&'e #a% $e place& in the position of those (hose lan'ua'e he is to interpret-(.) SEC.*vidence of written agreements.B) SEC...A part% (ho calls for the pro&uction of a &ocu#ent an& inspects the sa#e is not o$li'e& to offer it as evi&ence-(6a) 3" PAROL EVIDENCE RULE SEC.A.$arty who calls for document not bound to offer it. ..$eculiar signification of terms.Instrument construed so as to give effect to all provisions.So a particular intent (ill control a 'eneral one that is inconsistent (ith it-(..0.The lan'ua'e of a (ritin' is to $e interprete& accor&in' to the le'al #eanin' it $ears in the place of its e1ecution" unless the parties inten&e& other(ise-(@) SEC.Interpretation according to circumstances. .

?.*.6) SEC.0B.@a) SEC.construe& accor&in'l%-(.8hen the ter#s of an a'ree#ent have $een inten&e& in a &ifferent sense $% the &ifferent parties to it" that sense is to prevail a'ainst either part% in (hich he suppose& the other un&erstoo& it" an& (hen &ifferent constructions of a provision are other(ise e>uall% proper" that is to $e ta/en (hich is the #ost favora$le to the part% in (hose favor the provision is #a&e-(.The follo(in' persons cannot $e (itnesses* (a) Those (hose #ental con&ition" at the ti#e of their pro&uction for e1a#ination" is such that the% are incapa$le of intelli'entl% #a/in' /no(n their perception to others7 ($) Chil&ren (hose #ental #aturit% is such as to ren&er the# incapa$le of perceivin' the facts respectin' (hich the% are e1a#ine& an& of relatin' the# truthfull%-(.+is6ualification by reason of mental incapacity or immaturity.Furin' their #arria'e" neither the hus$an& nor the (ife #a% testif% for or a'ainst the other (ithout the consent of the affecte& spouse" e1cept in a civil case $% one a'ainst the other" or in a cri#inal case for a cri#e co##itte& $% one a'ainst the other or the latterNs &irect &escen&ants or ascen&ants-(0Ba) ..0) SEC. which preferred.E1cept as provi&e& in the ne1t succee&in' section" all persons (ho can perceive" an& perceivin'" can #a/e /no(n their perception to others" #a% $e (itnessesReli'ious or political $elief" interest in the outco#e of the case" or conviction of a cri#e unless other(ise provi&e& $% la(" shall not $e a 'roun& for &is>ualification-(.#ritten words control printed..0.Interpretation according to usage..An instru#ent #a% $e construe& accor&in' to usa'e" in or&er to &eter#ine its true character-(.perts and interpreters to be used in e.Of two constructions. ...2) SEC..plaining certain writings.8hen an instru#ent consists partl% of (ritten (or&s an& partl% of a printe& for#" an& the t(o are inconsistent" the for#er controls the latter-(.@.A. . .5.Aa) SEC. .6. their 6ualifications.4) SEC.?) C" TESTIMONIAL EVIDENCE 1" 'UALIFICATION OF WITNESSES SEC.00.Construction in favor of natural right..#itnesses.5) SEC.8hen an instru#ent is e>uall% suscepti$le of t(o interpretations" one in favor of natural ri'ht an& the other a'ainst it" the for#er is to $e a&opte&-(...8hen the characters in (hich an instru#ent is (ritten are &ifficult to $e &eciphere&" or the lan'ua'e is not un&erstoo& $% the court" the evi&ence of persons s/ille& in &ecipherin' the characters" or (ho un&erstan& the lan'ua'e" is a&#issi$le to &eclare the characters or the #eanin' of the lan'ua'e-(.+is6ualification by reason of marriage. .

. .+is6ualification by reason of privileged communication.!n civil cases" an offer of co#pro#ise is not an a&#ission of an% lia$ilit%" an& is not a&#issi$le in evi&ence a'ainst the offeror- .a) 2" TESTIMONIAL PRIVILEGE SEC.$arental and filial privilege.Offer of compromise not admissible.Parties or assi'nors of parties to a case" or persons in (hose $ehalf a case is prosecute&" a'ainst an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator or other representative of a &ecease& person" or a'ainst a person of unsoun& #in&" upon a clai# or &e#an& a'ainst the estate of such &ecease& person or a'ainst such person of unsoun& #in&" cannot testif% as to an% #atter of fact occurrin' $efore the &eath of such &ecease& person or $efore such person $eca#e of unsoun& #in&-(0Ba) SEC.05.0?..+o person #a% $e co#pelle& to testif% a'ainst his parents" other &irect ascen&ants" chil&ren or other &irect &escen&ants-(0Ba) 3" ADMISSIONS AND CONFESSIONS SEC.SEC.02.The follo(in' persons cannot testif% as to #atters learne& in confi&ence in the follo(in' cases* (a) The hus$an& or the (ife" &urin' or after the #arria'e" cannot $e e1a#ine& (ithout the consent of the other as to an% co##unication receive& in confi&ence $% one fro# the other &urin' the #arria'e e1cept in a civil case $% one a'ainst the other" or in a cri#inal case for a cri#e co##itte& $% one a'ainst the other or the latterNs &irect &escen&ants or ascen&ants7 ($) An attorne% cannot" (ithout the consent of his client" $e e1a#ine& as to an% co##unication #a&e $% the client to hi#" or his a&vice 'iven thereon in the course of" or (ith a vie( to" professional e#plo%#ent" nor can an attorne%Ns secretar%" steno'rapher" or cler/ $e e1a#ine&" (ithout the consent of the client an& his e#plo%er" concernin' an% fact the /no(le&'e of (hich has $een ac>uire& in such capacit%7 (c) A person authori5e& to practice #e&icine" sur'er% or o$stetrics cannot in a civil case" (ithout the consent of the patient" $e e1a#ine& as to an% a&vice or treat#ent 'iven $% hi# or an% infor#ation (hich he #a% have ac>uire& in atten&in' such patient in a professional capacit%" (hich infor#ation (as necessar% to ena$le hi# to act in that capacit%" an& (hich (oul& $lac/en the reputation of the patient7 (&) A #inister or priest cannot" (ithout the consent of the person #a/in' the confession" $e e1a#ine& as to an% confession #a&e to or an% a&vice 'iven $% hi# in his professional character in the course of &iscipline en3oine& $% the church to (hich the #inister or priest $elon's7 (e) A pu$lic officer cannot $e e1a#ine& &urin' his ter# of office or after(ar&s" as to co##unications #a&e to hi# in official confi&ence" (hen the court fin&s that the pu$lic interest (oul& suffer $% the &isclosure-(0.The act" &eclaration or o#ission of a part% as to a relevant fact #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence a'ainst hi#-(00) SEC.04. .+is6ualification by reason of death or insanity of adverse party.(dmissions of a party. .06.

8here one &erives title to propert% fro# another" the act" &eclaration" or o#ission of the latter" (hile hol&in' the title" in relation to the propert%" is evi&ence a'ainst the for#er-(0@) SEC.(dmission by third party.24.0@..2B.The &eclaration of an accuse& ac/no(le&'in' his 'uilt of the offense char'e&" or of an% offense necessaril% inclu&e& therein" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence a'ainst hi#-(0Aa) 4" PREVIOUS CONDUCT AS EVIDENCE SEC.22.!n cri#inal cases" e1cept those involvin' >uasi<offenses (cri#inal ne'li'ence) or those allo(e& $% la( to $e co#pro#ise&" an offer of co#pro#ise $% the accuse& #a% $e receive& in evi&ence as an i#plie& a&#ission of 'uiltA plea of 'uilt% later (ith&ra(n" or an unaccepte& offer of a plea of 'uilt% to a lesser offense" is not a&#issi$le in evi&ence a'ainst the accuse& (ho #a&e the plea or offerAn offer to pa% or the pa%#ent of #e&ical" hospital or other e1penses occasione& $% an in3ur% is not a&#issi$le in evi&ence as proof of civil or cri#inal lia$ilit% for the in3ur%-(04a) SEC..25.The act or &eclaration of a conspirator relatin' to the conspirac% an& &urin' its e1istence" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence a'ainst the co< conspirator after the conspirac% is sho(n $% evi&ence other than such act or &eclaration-(0?) SEC.Confession..20.(dmission by silence.. .Evi&ence that one &i& or &i& not &o a certain thin' at one ti#e is not a&#issi$le to prove that he &i& or &i& not &o the sa#e or a si#ilar thin' at another ti#e7 $ut it #a% $e receive& to prove a specific intent or /no(le&'e" i&entit%" plan" s%ste#" sche#e" ha$it" custo# or usa'e" an& the li/e-(4@a) SEC...0A..2.(dmission by co&partner or agent.(dmission by conspirator.The sa#e rule applies to the act or &eclaration of a 3oint o(ner" 3oint &e$tor" or other person 3ointl% intereste& (ith the part%-(06a) SEC.Similar acts as evidence.The act or &eclaration of a partner or a'ent of the part% (ithin the scope of his authorit% an& &urin' the e1istence of the partnership or a'enc%" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence a'ainst such part% after the partnership or a'enc% is sho(n $% evi&ence other than such act or &eclaration.An offer in (ritin' to pa% a particular su# of #one% or to &eliver a (ritten instru#ent or specific personal propert% is" if re3ecte& (ithout vali& cause" e>uivalent to the actual pro&uction an& ten&er of the #one%" instru#ent" or propert%-(4Aa) .'naccepted offer. .(dmission by privies.An act or &eclaration #a&e in the presence an& (ithin the hearin' or o$servation of a part% (ho &oes or sa%s nothin' (hen the act or &eclaration is such as naturall% to call for action or co##ent if not true" an& (hen proper an& possi$le for hi# to &o so" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence a'ainst hi#-(02a) SEC.The ri'hts of a part% cannot $e pre3u&ice& $% an act" &eclaration" or o#ission of another" e1cept as hereinafter provi&e&-(05a) SEC.

cluded.The &eclaration of a &%in' person" #a&e un&er the consciousness of an i#pen&in' &eath" #a% $e receive& in an% case (herein his &eath is the su$3ect of in>uir%" as evi&ence of the cause an& surroun&in' circu#stances of such &eath-(2.!t e#$races also facts of fa#il% histor% inti#atel% connecte& (ith pe&i'ree-(22a) SEC... The reputation or tra&ition e1istin' in a fa#il% previous to the controvers%" in respect to the pe&i'ree of an% one of its #e#$ers" #a% $e receive& in evi&ence if the (itness testif%in' thereon $e also a #e#$er of the fa#il%" either $% consan'uinit% or affinit%. . hearsay e..The act or &eclaration of a person &ecease&" or una$le to testif%" in respect to the pe&i'ree of another person relate& to hi# $% $irth or #arria'e" #a% $e receive& in evi&ence (here it occurre& $efore the controvers%" an& the relationship $et(een the t(o persons is sho(n $% evi&ence other than such act or &eclaration..Common reputation.4amily reputation or tradition regarding pedigree.Co##on reputation e1istin' previous to the controvers%" respectin' facts of pu$lic or 'eneral interest #ore than thirt% %ears ol&" or respectin' #arria'e or #oral character" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence" 9onu#ents an& inscriptions in pu$lic places #a% $e receive& as evi&ence of co##on reputation-(25) SEC.5" TESTIMONIAL KNOWLEDGE SEC.A (itness can testif% onl% to those facts (hich he /no(s of his personal /no(le&'e7 that is" (hich are &erive& fro# his o(n perception" e1cept as other(ise provi&e& in these rules-(2Ba) 6" E&CEPTIONS TO T E EARSAY RULE SEC.2?.40. .*ntries in the course of business.The &eclaration #a&e $% a person &ecease&" or una$le to testif%" a'ainst the interest of the &eclarant" if the fact asserte& in the &eclaration (as at the ti#e it (as #a&e so far contrar% to &eclarantNs o(n interest" that a reasona$le #an in his position (oul& not have #a&e the &eclaration unless he $elieve& it to $e true" #a% $e receive& in evi&ence a'ainst hi#self or his successors in interest an& a'ainst thir& persons-(20a) SEC. So" also" state#ents acco#pan%in' an e>uivocal act #aterial to the issue" an& 'ivin' it a le'al si'nificance" #a% $e receive& as part of the res gestae.The (or& Mpe&i'reeM inclu&es relationship" fa#il% 'enealo'%" $irth" #arria'e" &eath" the &ates (hen an& the places (here these facts occurre&" an& the na#es of the relatives.42.(26a) SEC.2@.(ct or declaration about pedigree..State#ents #a&e $% a person (hile a startlin' occurrence is ta/in' place or i##e&iatel% prior or su$se>uent thereto (ith respect to the circu#stances thereof" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence as part of the res gestae.$art of the res gestae. .Entries #a&e at" or near the ti#e of the transactions to (hich the% refer" $% a person &ecease&" or una$le to testif%" (ho (as in a position to /no( the facts therein state&" #a% $e receive& as prima facie .Testimony generally confined to personal )nowledge.26.+ying declaration.2A.+eclaration against interest.a) SEC.4B..Entries in fa#il% $i$les or other fa#il% $oo/s or charts" en'ravin' on rin's" fa#il% portraits an& the li/e" #a% $e receive& as evi&ence of pe&i'ree-(24a) SEC.4.

e. .Opinion of e.*ntries in official records.44.The testi#on% or &eposition of a (itness &ecease& or una$le to testif%" 'iven in a for#er case or procee&in'" 3u&icial or a&#inistrative" involvin' the sa#e parties an& su$3ect #atter" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence a'ainst the a&verse part% (ho ha& the opportunit% to cross< e1a#ine hi#-(4.) The accuse& #a% prove his 'oo& #oral character (hich is pertinent .Testimony or deposition at a former proceeding..ceptionsC2 (a) !n Cri#inal Cases* (.5.A pu$lishe& treatise" perio&ical or pa#phlet on a su$3ect of histor%" la(" science or art is a&#issi$le as ten&in' to prove the truth of a #atter state& therein if the court ta/es 3u&icial notice" or a (itness e1pert in the su$3ect testifies" that the (riter of the state#ent in the treatise" perio&ical or pa#phlet is reco'ni5e& in his profession or callin' as e1pert in the su$3ect-(4Ba) SEC.46.Character evidence not generally admissible..4@.5B.a) 7" OPINION RULE SEC..7earned treatises.The opinion of a (itness on a #atter re>uirin' special /no(le&'e" s/ill" e1perience or trainin' (hich he is sho(n to possess" #a% $e receive& in evi&ence-(42a) SEC.pert witness.The opinion of a (itness for (hich proper $asis is 'iven" #a% $e receive& in evi&ence re'ar&in'.Entries in official recor&s #a&e in the perfor#ance of his &ut% $% a pu$lic officer of the Philippines" or $% a person in the perfor#ance of a &ut% speciall% en3oine& $% la(" are prima facie evi&ence of the facts therein state&-(2@) SEC.45. .Evi&ence of state#ents of #atters of interest to persons en'a'e& in an occupation containe& in a list" re'ister" perio&ical" or other pu$lishe& co#pilations a&#issi$le as ten&in' to prove the truth of an% relevant #atter so state& if that co#pilation is pu$lishe& for use $% persons en'a'e& in that occupation an& is 'enerall% use& an& relie& upon $% the# therein-(2A) SEC.. (a) The i&entit% of a person a$out (ho# he has a&e>uate /no(le&'e7 ($) A han&(ritin' (ith (hich he has sufficient fa#iliarit%7 an& (c) The #ental sanit% of a person (ith (ho# he is sufficientl% ac>uainte&The (itness #a% also testif% on his i#pressions of the #otion" $ehavior" con&ition or appearance of a person-(44a) 8" C ARACTER EVIDENCE SEC.Opinion of ordinary witnesses.4?.evi&ence" if such person #a&e the entries in his professional capacit% or in the perfor#ance of &ut% an& in the or&inar% or re'ular course of $usiness or &ut%-(2?a) SEC.Commercial lists and the li)e..4A..The opinion of a (itness is not a&#issi$le" e1cept as in&icate& in the follo(in' sections-(40) SEC.-eneral rule.

4.20" Section .+isputable presumptions.0.2.a" 0a) SEC.The follo(in' presu#ptions are satisfactor% if uncontra&icte&" $ut #a% $e contra&icte& an& overco#e $% other evi&ence* (a) That a person is innocent of cri#e or (ron'7 ($) That an unla(ful act (as &one (ith an unla(ful intent7 (c) That a person inten&s the or&inar% conse>uences of his voluntar% act7 (&) That a person ta/e or&inar% care of his concerns7 (e) That evi&ence (illfull% suppresse& (oul& $e a&verse if pro&uce&7 (f) That #one% pai& $% one to another (as &ue to the latter7 (') That a thin' &elivere& $% one to another $elon'e& to the latter7 (h) That an o$li'ation &elivere& up to the &e$tor has $een pai&7 .1urden of proof.2)ur&en of proof is the &ut% of a part% to present evi&ence on the facts in issue necessar% to esta$lish his clai# or &efense $% the a#ount of evi&ence re>uire& $% la(-(.to the #oral trait involve& in the offense char'e&(0) Unless in re$uttal" the prosecution #a% not prove his $a& #oral character (hich is pertinent to the #oral trait involve& in the offense char'e&(2) The 'oo& or $a& #oral character of the offen&e& part% #a% $e prove& if it ten&s to esta$lish in an% reasona$le &e'ree the pro$a$ilit% or i#pro$a$ilit% of the offense char'e&($) !n Civil Cases* Evi&ence of the #oral character of a part% in a civil case is a&#issi$le onl% (hen pertinent to the issue of character involve& in the case(c) !n the case provi&e& for in Rule ...(46a" 4?a) RULE 131 !URDEN OF PROOF AND PRESUMPTIONS SECT!O+ ..The follo(in' are instances of conclusive presu#ptions* (a) 8henever a part% has" $% his o(n &eclaration" act" or o#ission" intentionall% an& &eli$eratel% le& another to $elieve a particular thin' true" an& to act upon such $elief" he cannot" in an% liti'ation arisin' out of such &eclaration" act or o#ission" $e per#itte& to falsif% it* ($) The tenant is not per#itte& to &en% the title of his lan&lor& at the ti#e of the co##ence#ent of the relation of lan&lor& an& tenant $et(een the#-(2a) SEC.Conclusive presumptions.

) A person on $oar& a vessel lost &urin' a sea vo%a'e" or an aircraft (hich is #issin'" (ho has not $een hear& of for four %ears since the loss of the vessel or aircraft7 .!f he &isappeare& after the a'e of sevent%<five %ears" an a$sence of five %ears shall $e sufficient in or&er that his succession #a% $e opene&The follo(in' shall $e consi&ere& &ea& for all purposes inclu&in' the &ivision of the estate a#on' the heirs* (.(i) That prior rents or install#ents ha& $een pai& (hen a receipt for the later ones is pro&uce&7 (3) That a person foun& in possession of a thin' ta/en in the &oin' of a recent (ron'ful act is the ta/er an& the &oer of the (hole act7 other(ise" that thin's (hich a person possesses" or e1ercises acts of o(nership over" are o(ne& $% hi#7 (/) That a person in possession of an or&er on hi#self for the pa%#ent of the #one%" or the &eliver% of an%thin'" has pai& the #one% or &elivere& the thin' accor&in'l%7 (l) That a person actin' in a pu$lic office (as re'ularl% appointe& or electe& to it7 (#) That official &ut% has $een re'ularl% perfor#e&7 (n) That a court" or 3u&'e actin' as such" (hether in the Philippines or else(here" (as actin' in the la(ful e1ercise of 3uris&iction7 (o) That all the #atters (ithin an issue raise& in a case (ere lai& $efore the court an& passe& upon $% it7 an& in li/e #anner that all #atters (ithin an issue raise& in a &ispute su$#itte& for ar$itration (ere lai& $efore the ar$itrators an& passe& upon $% the#7 (p) That private transactions have $een fair an& re'ular7 (>) That the or&inar% course of $usiness has $een follo(e&7 (r) That there (as a sufficient consi&eration for a contract7 (s) That a ne'otia$le instru#ent (as 'iven or in&orse& for a sufficient consi&eration7 (t) That an in&orse#ent of a ne'otia$le instru#ent (as #a&e $efore the instru#ent (as over&ue an& at the place (here the instru#ent is &ate&7 (u) That a (ritin' is trul% &ate&7 (v) That a letter &ul% &irecte& an& #aile& (as receive& in the re'ular course of the #ail7 (() That after an a$sence of seven %ears" it $ein' un/no(n (hether or not the a$sentee still lives" he is consi&ere& &ea& for all purposes" e1cept for those of successionThe a$sentee shall not $e consi&ere& &ea& for the purpose of openin' his succession till after an a$sence of ten %ears.

!n case of &isappearance" (here there is &an'er of &eath un&er the circu#stances hereina$ove provi&e& an a$sence of onl% t(o %ears shall $e sufficient for the purpose of contractin' a su$se>uent #arria'e.) A chil& $orn $efore one hun&re& ei'ht% &a%s after the sole#ni5ation of the su$se>uent #arria'e is consi&ere& to have $een conceive& &urin' the for#er #arria'e" provi&e& it $e $orn (ithin three hun&re& &a%s after the ter#ination of the for#er #arria'e7 (0) A chil& $orn after one hun&re& ei'ht% &a%s follo(in' the cele$ration of the su$se>uent #arria'e is consi&ere& to have $een conceive& &urin' such #arria'e" even thou'h it $e $orn (ithin the three hun&re& &a%s after the .=o(ever" in an% case" $efore #arr%in' a'ain" the spouse present #ust institute a su##ar% procee&in' as provi&e& in the Fa#il% Co&e an& in the rules for a &eclaration of presu#ptive &eath of the a$sentee" (ithout pre3u&ice to the effect of reappearance of the a$sent spouse(1) That ac>uiescence resulte& fro# a $elief that the thin' ac>uiesce& in (as confor#a$le to the la( or fact7 (%) That thin's have happene& accor&in' to the or&inar% course of nature an& the or&inar% ha$its of life7 (5) That persons actin' as copartners have entere& into a contract of copartnership7 (aa) That a #an an& (o#an &eportin' the#selves as hus$an& an& (ife have entere& into a la(ful contract of #arria'e7 ($$) That propert% ac>uire& $% a #an an& (o#an (ho are capacitate& to #arr% each other an& (ho live e1clusivel% (ith each other as hus$an& an& (ife (ithout the $enefit of #arria'e or un&er a voi& #arria'e" has $een o$taine& $% their 3oint efforts" (or/ or in&ustr%(cc) That in cases of coha$itation $% a #an an& a (o#an (ho are not capacitate& to #arr% each other an& (ho have ac>uire& propert% throu'h their actual 3oint contri$ution of #one%" propert% or in&ustr%" such contri$utions an& their correspon&in' shares inclu&in' 3oint &eposits of #one% an& evi&ences of cre&it are e>ual(&&) That if the #arria'e is ter#inate& an& the #other contracte& another #arria'e (ithin three hun&re& &a%s after such ter#ination of the for#er #arria'e" these rules shall 'overn in the a$sence of proof to the contrar%* (.(0) A #e#$er of the ar#e& forces (ho has ta/en part in ar#e& hostilities" an& has $een #issin' for four %ears7 (2) A person (ho has $een in &an'er of &eath un&er other circu#stances an& (hose e1istence has not $een /no(n for four %ears7 (4) !f a #arrie& person has $een a$sent for four consecutive %ears" the spouse present #a% contract a su$se>uent #arria'e if he or she has a (ell< foun&e& $elief that the a$sent spouse is alrea&% &ea&.

%o presumption of legitimacy or illegitimacy.4.There is no presu#ption of le'iti#ac% or ille'iti#ac% of a chil& $orn after three hun&re& &a%s follo(in' the &issolution of the #arria'e or the separation of the spouses.!f $oth (ere a$ove the a'e of si1t%" the %oun'er is &ee#e& to have survive&7 2.8hoever alle'es the le'iti#ac% or ille'iti#ac% of such chil& #ust prove his alle'ation-(6) RULE 132 .ter#ination of the for#er #arria'e(ee) That a thin' once prove& to e1ist continues as lon' as is usual (ith thin's of that nature7 (ff) That the la( has $een o$e%e&7 ('') That a printe& or pu$lishe& $oo/" purportin' to $e printe& or pu$lishe& $% pu$lic authorit%" (as so printe& or pu$lishe&7 (hh) That a printe& or pu$lishe& $oo/" purportin' to contain reports of cases a&3u&'e& in tri$unals of the countr% (here the $oo/ is pu$lishe&" contains correct reports of such cases7 (ii) That a trustee or other person (hose &ut% it (as to conve% real propert% to a particular person has actuall% conve%e& it to hi# (hen such presu#ption is necessar% to perfect the title of such person or his successor in interest7 (33) That e1cept for purposes of succession" (hen t(o persons perish in the sa#e cala#it%" such as (rec/" $attle" or confla'ration" an& it is not sho(n (ho &ie& first" an& there are no particular circu#stances fro# (hich it can $e inferre&" the survivorship is &eter#ine& fro# the pro$a$ilities resultin' fro# the stren'th an& a'e of the se1es" accor&in' to the follo(in' rules* .!f one is un&er fifteen an& the other a$ove si1t%" the for#er is &ee#e& to have survive&7 4.!f $oth (ere un&er the a'e of fifteen %ears" the ol&er is &ee#e& to have survive&7 0. ..!f one $e un&er fifteen or over si1t%" an& the other $et(een those a'es" the latter is &ee#e& to have survive&(//) That if there is a &ou$t" as $et(een t(o or #ore persons (ho are calle& to succee& each other" as to (hich of the# &ie& first" (hoever alle'es the &eath of one prior to the other" shall prove the sa#e7 in the a$sence of proof" the% shall $e consi&ere& to have &ie& at the sa#e ti#e-(5a) SEC.!f $oth $e over fifteen an& un&er si1t%" an& the se1 $e &ifferent" the #ale is &ee#e& to have survive&7 if the se1 $e the sa#e" the ol&er7 5.

)ut a (itness #ust ans(er to the fact of his previous final conviction for an offense-(2a" .amination of an individual witness.=o(ever" it is the ri'ht of a (itness* (.$roceedings to be recorded.amination to be done in open court.A (itness #ust ans(er >uestions" althou'h his ans(er #a% ten& to esta$lish a clai# a'ainst hi#.2.+irect e. ..Aa) SEC.*.Upon the ter#ination of the &irect e1a#ination" the (itness #a% $e cross<e1a#ine& $% the a&verse part% as to an% #atters state& in the &irect e1a#ination" or connecte& there(ith" (ith sufficient fullness .4.5.Cross&e.Rights and obligations of a witness. The or&er in (hich an in&ivi&ual (itness #a% $e e1a#ine& is as follo(s* (a) Firect e1a#ination $% the proponent7 ($) Cross<e1a#ination $% the opponent7 (c) Re<&irect e1a#ination $% the proponent7 (&) Re<cross<e1a#ination $% the opponent-(4) SEC.0.) To $e protecte& fro# irrelevant" i#proper" or insultin' >uestions" an& fro# harsh or insultin' &e#eanor7 (0) +ot to $e &etaine& lon'er than the interests of 3ustice re>uire7 (2) +ot to $e e1a#ine& e1cept onl% as to #atters pertinent to the issue7 (4) +ot to 'ive an ans(er (hich (ill ten& to su$3ect hi# to a penalt% for an offense unless other(ise provi&e& $% la(7 or (5) +ot to 'ive an ans(er (hich (ill ten& to &e'ra&e his reputation" unless it $e to the ver% fact at issue or to a fact fro# (hich the fact in issue (oul& $e presu#e&.Firect e1a#ination is the e1a#ination<in<chief of a (itness $% the part% presentin' hi# on the facts relevant to the issue-(5a) SEC.amination..The e1a#ination of (itnesses presente& in a trial or hearin' shall $e &one in open court" an& un&er oath or affir#ationUnless the (itness is incapacitate& to spea/" or the >uestion calls for a &ifferent #o&e of ans(er" the ans(ers of the (itness shall $e 'iven orall%-(.tent.6.PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE A" E&AMINATION OF WITNESSES SECT!O+ . . its purpose and e.a) SEC. .Order in the e..amination.The entire procee&in's of a trial or hearin'" inclu&in' the >uestions propoun&e& to a (itness an& his ans(ers thereto" the state#ents #a&e $% the 3u&'e or an% of the parties" counsel" or (itnesses (ith reference to the case" shall $e recor&e& $% #eans of shorthan& or stenot%pe or $% other #eans of recor&in' foun& suita$le $% the courtA transcript of the recor& of the procee&in's #a&e $% the official steno'rapher" stenot%pist or recor&er an& certifie& as correct $% hi# shall $e &ee#e& prima facie a correct state#ent of such procee&in's-(0a) SEC. .

@. .. .0) SEC.7eading and misleading 6uestions.?.$arty may not impeach his own witness.Re&direct e..4) SEC..amination.Upon the conclusion of the re<&irect e1a#ination" the a&verse part% #a% re<cross<e1a#ine the (itness on #atters state& in his re<&irect e1a#ination" an& also on such other #atters as #a% $e allo(e& $% the court in its &iscretion-(..B.After the cross< e1a#ination of the (itness has $een conclu&e&" he #a% $e re<e1a#ine& $% the part% callin' hi#" to e1plain or supple#ent his ans(ers 'iven &urin' the cross<e1a#inationOn re<&irect e1a#ination" >uestions on #atters not &ealt (ith &urin' the cross< e1a#ination" #a% $e allo(e& $% the court in its &iscretion-(.After the e1a#ination of a (itness $% $oth si&es has $een conclu&e&" the (itness cannot $e recalle& (ithout leave of the court.A. .Re&cross&e.B" the part% pro&ucin' a (itness is not allo(e& to i#peach his cre&i$ilit%A (itness #a% $e consi&ere& as un(illin' or hostile onl% if so &eclare& $% the court .. its purpose and e.E1cept (ith respect to (itnesses referre& to in para'raphs (&) an& (e) of Section .Impeachment of adverse partyAs witness.A (itness #a% $e i#peache& $% the part% a'ainst (ho# he (as calle&" $% contra&ictor% evi&ence" $% evi&ence that his 'eneral reputation for truth" honest%" or inte'rit% is $a&" or $% evi&ence that he has #a&e at other ti#es state#ents inconsistent (ith his present testi#on%" $ut not $% evi&ence of particular (ron'ful acts" e1cept that it #a% $e sho(n $% the e1a#ination of the (itness" or the recor& of the 3u&'#ent" that he has $een convicte& of an offense(.amination.2) SEC.The court (ill 'rant or (ithhol& leave in its &iscretion" as the interests of 3ustice #a% re>uire& .!t is not allo(e&" e1cept* (a) On cross e1a#ination7 ($) On preli#inar% #atters7 (c) 8hen there is &ifficult% in 'ettin' &irect an& intelli'i$le ans(ers fro# a (itness (ho is i'norant" or a chil& of ten&er %ears" or is of fee$le #in&" or a &eaf< #ute7 (&) Of an un(illin' or hostile (itness7 or (e) Of a (itness (ho is an a&verse part% or an officer" &irector" or #ana'in' a'ent of a pu$lic or private corporation or of a partnership or association (hich is an a&verse part%A #islea&in' >uestion is one (hich assu#es as true a fact not %et testifie& to $% the (itness" or contrar% to that (hich he has previousl% state&.an& free&o# to test his accurac% an& truthfulness an& free&o# fro# interest or $ias" or the reverse" an& to elicit all i#portant facts $earin' upon the issue-(@a) SEC...0.A >uestion (hich su''ests to the (itness the ans(er (hich the e1a#inin' part% &esires is a lea&in' >uestion.!t is not allo(e&-(5a" 6a" an& @a) SEC.Recalling witness.5) SEC.tent. .

Evi&ence of the 'oo& character of a (itness is not a&#issi$le until such character has $een i#peache&-( . .So" also" a (itness #a% testif% fro# such a (ritin' or recor&" thou'h he retain no recollection of the particular facts" if he is a$le to s(ear that the (ritin' or recor& correctl% state& the transaction (hen #a&e7 $ut such evi&ence #ust $e receive& (ith caution-(.A (itness #a% $e allo(e& to refresh his #e#or% respectin' a fact" $% an%thin' (ritten or recor&e& $% hi#self or un&er his &irection at the ti#e (hen the fact occurre&" or i##e&iatel% thereafter" or at an% other ti#e (hen the fact (as fresh in his #e#or% an& he /ne( that the sa#e (as correctl% (ritten or recor&e&7 $ut in such case the (ritin' or recor& #ust $e pro&uce& an& #a% $e inspecte& $% the a&verse part%" (ho #a%" if he chooses" cross<e1a#ine the (itness upon it" an& #a% rea& it in evi&ence.Classes of documents.=e #a% also $e i#peache& an& cross<e1a#ine& $% the a&verse part%" $ut such cross<e1a#ination #ust onl% $e on the su$3ect #atter of his e1a#ination<in<chief.On an% trial or hearin'" the 3u&'e #a% e1clu&e fro# the court an% (itness not at the ti#e un&er e1a#ination" so that he #a% not hear the testi#on% of other (itnesses.@... .4. writing or record given in evidence.8hen part of an act" &eclaration" conversation" (ritin' or recor& is 'iven in evi&ence $% one part%" the (hole of the sa#e su$3ect #a% $e in>uire& into $% the other" an& (hen a &etache& act" &eclaration" conversation" (ritin' or recor& is 'iven in evi&ence" an% other act" &eclaration" conversation" (ritin' or recor& necessar% to its un&erstan&in' #a% also $e 'iven in evi&ence-(.?) SEC.6) SEC..#hen part of transaction.6....!f the state#ents $e in (ritin' the% #ust $e sho(n to the (itness $efore an% >uestion is put to hi# concernin' the#-(.5.?.#hen witness may refer to memorandum.)efore a (itness can $e i#peache& $% evi&ence that he has #a&e at other ti#es state#ents inconsistent (ith his present testi#on%" the state#ents #ust $e relate& to hi#" (ith the circu#stances of the ti#es an& places an& the persons present" an& he #ust $e as/e& (hether he #a&e such state#ents" an& if so" allo(e& to e1plain the#.The 3u&'e #a% also cause (itnesses to $e /ept separate an& to $e prevente& fro# conversin' (ith one another until all shall have $een e1a#ine&-(.Ba) SEC.*. .. .(6a" ?a) SEC..Right to inspect writing shown to witness. ..For the purpose of their presentation in evi&ence" &ocu#ents are either pu$lic or private- .8henever a (ritin' is sho(n to a (itness" it #a% $e inspecte& $% the a&verse part%-(Aa) !" AUT ENTICATION AND PROOF OF DOCUMENTS SEC.*vidence of good character of witness.3ow witness impeached by evidence of inconsistent statements. the remainder admissible.@) SEC..2.clusion and separation of witnesses.A.upon a&e>uate sho(in' of his a&verse interest" un3ustifie& reluctance to testif%" or his havin' #isle& the part% into callin' hi# to the (itness stan&The un(illin' or hostile (itness so &eclare&" or the (itness (ho is an a&verse part%" #a% $e i#peache& $% the part% presentin' hi# in all respects as if he ha& $een calle& $% the a&verse part%" e1cept $% evi&ence of his $a& character.a) SEC.

$ublic documents as evidence.04.02.All other pu$lic &ocu#ents are evi&ence" even a'ainst a thir& person" of the fact (hich 'ave rise to their e1ecution an& of the &ate of the latter-(04a) SEC.#hen evidence of authenticity of private document not necessary..00.Pu$lic &ocu#ents are* (a) The (ritten official acts" or recor&s of the official acts of the soverei'n authorit%" official $o&ies an& tri$unals" an& pu$lic officers" (hether of the Philippines" or of a forei'n countr%7 ($) Focu#ents ac/no(le&'e& $efore a notar% pu$lic e1cept last (ills an& testa#ents7 an& (c) Pu$lic recor&s" /ept in the Philippines" of private &ocu#ents re>uire& $% la( to $e entere& thereinAll other (ritin's are private-(0Ba) SEC..!f the office in (hich the recor& is /ept is in a forei'n countr%" the certificate #a% $e #a&e $% a secretar% of the e#$ass% or le'ation" consul 'eneral" consul" vice consul" or consular a'ent or $% an% .)efore an% private &ocu#ent offere& as authentic is receive& in evi&ence" its &ue e1ecution an& authenticit% #ust $e prove& either* (a) )% an%one (ho sa( the &ocu#ent e1ecute& or (ritten7 or ($) #a/er)% evi&ence of the 'enuineness of the si'nature or han&(ritin' of the An% other private &ocu#ent nee& onl% $e i&entifie& as that (hich it is clai#e& to $e(0.a) SEC.0. .The han&(ritin' of a person #a% $e prove& $% an% (itness (ho $elieves it to $e the han&(ritin' of such person $ecause he has seen the person (rite" or has seen (ritin' purportin' to $e his upon (hich the (itness has acte& or $een char'e&" an& has thus ac>uire& /no(le&'e of the han&(ritin' of such person.. 8here a private &ocu#ent is #ore than thirt% %ears ol&" is pro&uce& fro# a custo&% in (hich it (oul& naturall% $e foun& if 'enuine" an& is un$le#ishe& $% an% alterations or circu#stances of suspicion" no other evi&ence of its authenticit% nee& $e 'iven-(00a) SEC.3ow genuineness of handwriting proved.Evi&ence respectin' the han&(ritin' #a% also $e 'iven $% a co#parison" #a&e $% the (itness or the court" (ith (ritin's a&#itte& or treate& as 'enuine $% the part% a'ainst (ho# the evi&ence is offere&" or prove& to $e 'enuine to the satisfaction of the 3u&'e-(02a) SEC. .0B..$roof of private document.The recor& of pu$lic &ocu#ents referre& to in para'raph (a) of Section .Focu#ents consistin' of entries in pu$lic recor&s #a&e in the perfor#ance of a &ut% $% a pu$lic officer are prima facie evi&ence of the facts therein state&.$roof of official record.A" (hen a&#issi$le for an% purpose" #a% $e evi&ence& $% an official pu$lication thereof or $% a cop% atteste& $% the officer havin' the le'al custo&% of the recor&" or $% his &eput%" an& acco#panie&" if the recor& is not /ept in the Philippines" (ith a certificate that such officer has the custo&%.

2B.An authori5e& pu$lic recor& of a private &ocu#ent #a% $e prove& $% the ori'inal recor&" or $% a cop% thereof" atteste& $% the le'al custo&ian of the recor&" (ith an appropriate certificate that such officer has the custo&% -(0@a) SEC.a) SEC.To avoi& interruption of procee&in's" parties or their attorne%s are &irecte& to have such translation prepare& $efore trial-(24a) .#hat attestation of copy must state.An% pu$lic recor&" an official cop% of (hich is a&#issi$le in evi&ence" #ust not $e re#ove& fro# the office in (hich it is /ept" e1cept upon or&er of a court (here the inspection of the recor& is essential to the 3ust &eter#ination of a pen&in' case-(0?a) SEC. .Irremovability of public record.0?. .Ever% instru#ent &ul% ac/no(le&'e& or prove& an& certifie& as provi&e& $% la(" #a% $e presente& in evi&ence (ithout further proof" the certificate of ac/no(le&'#ent $ein' prima facie evi&ence of the e1ecution of the instru#ent or &ocu#ent involve&-(2.There shall $e no &ifference $et(een seale& an& unseale& private &ocu#ents insofar as their a&#issi$ilit% as evi&ence is concerne&-(22a) SEC.Seal.22. .2.05..20.officer in the forei'n service of the Philippines statione& in the forei'n countr% in (hich the recor& is /ept" an& authenticate& $% the seal of his office-(05a) SEC. how to e.+ocumentary evidence in an unofficial language.plain..0@.The attestation #ust $e un&er the official seal of the attestin' officer" if there $e an%" or if he $e the cler/ of a court havin' a seal" un&er the seal of such court-(06a) SEC.!f he fails to &o that" the &ocu#ent shall not $e a&#issi$le in evi&ence-(20a) SEC... .(lterations in document.0A.06.$roof of lac) of record.$ublic record of a private document.3ow "udicial record impeached..An% 3u&icial recor& #a% $e i#peache& $% evi&ence of* (a) (ant of 3uris&iction in the court or 3u&icial officer" ($) collusion $et(een the parties" or (c) frau& in the part% offerin' the recor&" in respect to the procee&in's-(2Ba) SEC.A (ritten state#ent si'ne& $% an officer havin' the custo&% of an official recor& or $% his &eput% that after &ili'ent search no recor& or entr% of a specifie& tenor is foun& to e1ist in the recor&s of his office" acco#panie& $% a certificate as a$ove provi&e&" is a&#issi$le as evi&ence that the recor&s of his office contain no such recor& or entr%-(0A) SEC.8henever a cop% of a &ocu#ent or recor& is atteste& for the purpose of evi&ence" the attestation #ust state" in su$stance" that the cop% is a correct cop% of the ori'inal" or a specific part thereof" as the case #a% $e.Focu#ents (ritten in an unofficial lan'ua'e shall not $e a&#itte& as evi&ence" unless acco#panie& (ith a translation into En'lish or Filipino. .$roof of notarial documents.The part% pro&ucin' a &ocu#ent as 'enuine (hich has $een altere& an& appears to have $een altere& after its e1ecution" in a part #aterial to the >uestion in &ispute" #ust account for the alteration=e #a% sho( that the alteration (as #a&e $% another" (ithout his concurrence" or (as #a&e (ith the consent of the parties affecte& $% it" or (as other(ise properl% or innocentl% #a&e" or that the alteration &i& not chan'e the #eanin' or lan'ua'e of the instru#ent.

O$3ection to evi&ence offere& orall% #ust $e #a&e i##e&iatel% after the offer is #a&eO$3ection to a >uestion propoun&e& in the course of the oral e1a#ination of a (itness shall $e #a&e as soon as the 'roun&s therefor shall $eco#e reasona$l% apparentAn offer of evi&ence in (ritin' shall $e o$3ecte& to (ithin three (2) &a%s after notice of the offer unless a &ifferent perio& is allo(e& $% the court!n an% case" the 'roun&s for the o$3ections #ust $e specifie&.8hen it $eco#es reasona$l% apparent in the course of the e1a#ination of a (itness that the >uestions $ein' propoun&e& are of the sa#e class as those to (hich o$3ection has $een #a&e" (hether such o$3ection (as sustaine& or overrule&" it shall not $e necessar% to repeat the o$3ection" it $ein' sufficient for the a&verse part% to recor& his continuin' o$3ection to such class of >uestions-(2?a) SEC.cluded evidence. .!f the evi&ence e1clu&e& is oral" the offeror #a% state for the recor& the ..!f &ocu#ents or thin's offere& in evi&ence are e1clu&e& $% the court" the offeror #a% have the sa#e attache& to or #a&e part of the recor&..#hen to ma)e offer.#hen repetition of ob"ection unnecessary..Shoul& a (itness ans(er the >uestion $efore the a&verse part% ha& the opportunit% to voice full% its o$3ection to the sa#e" an& such o$3ection is foun& to $e #eritorious" the court shall sustain the o$3ection an& or&er the ans(er 'iven to $e stric/en off the recor&On proper #otion" the court #a% also or&er the stri/in' out of ans(ers (hich are inco#petent" irrelevant" or other(ise i#proper-(n) SEC.4B..The court shall consi&er no evi&ence (hich has not $een for#all% offere&.2A.2@.(26a) SEC.Such offer shall $e &one orall% unless allo(e& $% the court to $e &one in (ritin'" (n) SEC.=o(ever" if the o$3ection is $ase& on t(o or #ore 'roun&s" a rulin' sustainin' the o$3ection on one or so#e of the# #ust specif% the 'roun& or 'roun&s relie& upon-(2@a) SEC.26.The rulin' of the court #ust $e 'iven i##e&iatel% after the o$3ection is #a&e" unless the court &esires to ta/e a reasona$le ti#e to infor# itself on the >uestion presente&7 $ut the rulin' shall al(a%s $e #a&e &urin' the trial an& at such ti#e as (ill 'ive the part% a'ainst (ho# it is #a&e an opportunit% to #eet the situation presente& $% the rulin'The reason for sustainin' or overrulin' an o$3ection nee& not $e state&.Tender of e.Stri)ing out answer..24.The purpose for (hich the evi&ence is offere& #ust $e specifie&(25) SEC.C" OFFER AND O!$ECTION SEC.Ruling.(s re'ar&s the testi#on% of a (itness" the offer #ust $e #a&e at the ti#e the (itness is calle& to testif%Focu#entar% an& o$3ect evi&ence shall $e offere& after the presentation of a part%Ns testi#onial evi&ence.2?.Ob"ection.Offer of evidence..25.

sa#e an& other personal circu#stances of the (itness an& the su$stance of the propose& testi#on%-(n)

RULE 133

WEIG T AND SUFFICIENCY OF EVIDENCE
SECT!O+ ,- $reponderance of evidence, how determined. . !n civil cases" the part% havin' the $ur&en of proof #ust esta$lish his case $% a prepon&erance of evi&ence- !n &eter#inin' (here the prepon&erance or superior (ei'ht of evi&ence on the issues involve& lies" the court #a% consi&er all the facts an& circu#stances of the case" the (itnessesG #anner of testif%in'" their intelli'ence" their #eans an& opportunit% of /no(in' the facts to (hich the% are testif%in'" the nature of the facts to (hich the% testif%" the pro$a$ilit% or i#pro$a$ilit% of their testi#on%" their interest or (ant of interest" an& also their personal cre&i$ilit% so far as the sa#e #a% le'iti#atel% appear upon the trial- The court #a% also consi&er the nu#$er of (itnesses" thou'h the prepon&erance is not necessaril% (ith the 'reater nu#$er-(,a) SEC- 0- $roof beyond reasonable doubt..!n a cri#inal case" the accuse& is entitle& to an ac>uittal" unless his 'uilt is sho(n $e%on& reasona$le &ou$t- Proof $e%on& reasona$le &ou$t &oes not #ean such a &e'ree of proof as" e1clu&in' possi$ilit% of error" pro&uces a$solute certaint%- 9oral certaint% onl% is re>uire&" or that &e'ree of proof (hich pro&uces conviction in an unpre3u&ice& #in&-(0a) SEC- 2- *,tra"udicial confession, not sufficient ground for conviction. .An e1tra3u&icial confession #a&e $% an accuse&" shall not $e sufficient 'roun& for conviction" unless corro$orate& $% evi&ence of corpus delicti./D0 SEC- 4- Circumstantial evidence, when sufficient. .Circu#stantial evi&ence is sufficient for conviction if* (a) There is #ore than one circu#stance7 ($) The facts fro# (hich the inferences are &erive& are proven7 an& (c) The co#$ination of all the circu#stances is such as to pro&uce a conviction $e%on& reasona$le &ou$t-(5) SEC- 5- Substantial evidence..!n cases file& $efore a&#inistrative or >uasi<3u&icial $o&ies" a fact #a% $e &ee#e& esta$lishe& if it is supporte& $% su$stantial evi&ence" or that a#ount of relevant evi&ence (hich a reasona$le #in& #i'ht accept as a&e>uate to 3ustif% a conclusion-(n) SEC- 6- $ower of the court to stop further evidence. .The court #a% stop the intro&uction of further testi#on% upon an% particular point (hen the evi&ence upon it is alrea&% so full that #ore (itnesses to the sa#e point cannot $e reasona$l% e1pecte& to $e a&&itionall% persuasive- )ut this po(er shoul& $e e1ercise& (ith caution-(6)

SEC- ?- *vidence on motion..8hen a #otion is $ase& on facts not appearin' of recor& the court #a% hear the #atter on affi&avits or &epositions presente& $% the respective parties" $ut the court #a% &irect that the #atter $e hear& (holl% or partl% on oral testi#on% or &epositions-(?)

RULE 1341

PERPETUATION OF TESTIMONY
SECT!O+ ,- $etition..A person (ho &esires to perpetuate his o(n testi#on% or that of another person re'ar&in' an% #atter that #a% $e co'ni5a$le in an% court of the Philippines" #a% file a verifie& petition in the court of the province of the resi&ence of an% e1pecte& a&verse part%SEC- 0- Contents of petition.2The petition shall $e entitle& in the na#e of the petitioner an& shall sho(* (a) that the petitioner e1pects to $e a part% to an action in a court of the Philippines $ut is presentl% una$le to $rin' it or cause it to $e $rou'ht7 ($) the su$3ect #atter of the e1pecte& action an& his interest therein7 (c) the facts (hich he &esires to esta$lish $% the propose& testi#on% an& his reasons for &esirin' to perpetuate it7 (&) the na#es or a &escription of the persons he e1pects (ill $e a&verse parties an& their a&&resses so far as /no(n7 an& (e) the na#es an& a&&resses of the persons to $e e1a#ine& an& the su$stance of the testi#on% (hich he e1pects to elicit fro# each" an& shall as/ for an or&er authori5in' the petitioner to ta/e the &epositions of the persons to $e e1a#ine& na#e& in the petition for the purpose of perpetuatin' their testi#on%SEC- 2- %otice and service..The petitioner shall thereafter serve a notice upon each person na#e& in the petition as an e1pecte& a&verse part%" to'ether (ith a cop% of the petition" statin' that the petitioner (ill appl% to the court" at a ti#e an& place na#e& therein" for the or&er &escri$e& in the petition- At least t(ent% (0B) &a%s $efore the &ate of hearin' the notice shall $e serve& in the #anner provi&e& for service of su##onsSEC- 4- Order of e,amination..!f the court is satisfie& that the perpetuation of the testi#on% #a% prevent a failure or &ela% of 3ustice" it shall #a/e an or&er &esi'natin' or &escri$in' the persons (hose &eposition #a% $e ta/en an& specif%in' the su$3ect #atter of the e1a#ination" an& (hether the &epositions shall $e ta/en upon oral e1a#ination or (ritten interro'atories- The &epositions #a% then $e ta/en in accor&ance (ith Rule 04 $efore the hearin'SEC- 5- Reference to court..For the purpose of appl%in' Rule 04 to &eposition for perpetuatin' testi#on%" each reference therein to the court in (hich the action is pen&in' shall $e &ee#e& to refer to the court in (hich the petition for such &eposition
,

This rule (ill $e transpose& to Part ! of the Rules of Court on Fepositions an& Fiscover%- (Rule 04)

(as file&SEC- 6- 'se of deposition..!f a &eposition to perpetuate testi#on% is ta/en un&er this rule" or if" althou'h not so ta/en" it (oul& $e a&#issi$le in evi&ence" it #a% $e use& in an% action involvin' the sa#e su$3ect #atter su$se>uentl% $rou'ht in accor&ance (ith the provisions of Sections 4 an& 5 of Rule 04SEC- ?- +epositions pending appeal..!f an appeal has $een ta/en fro# a 3u&'#ent of the Re'ional Trial Court or $efore the ta/in' of an appeal if the ti#e therefor has not e1pire&" the Re'ional Trial Court in (hich the 3u&'#ent (as ren&ere& #a% allo( the ta/in' of &epositions of (itnesses to perpetuate their testi#on% for use in the event of further procee&in's in the sai& court- !n such case the part% (ho &esires to perpetuate the testi#on% #a% #a/e a #otion in the sai& Re'ional Trial Court for leave to ta/e the &epositions" upon the sa#e notice an& service thereof as if the action (as pen&in' therein- The #otion shall sho( (a) the na#es an& a&&resses of the persons to $e e1a#ine& an& the su$stance of the testi#on% (hich he e1pects to elicit fro# each7 an& ($) the reason for perpetuatin' their testi#on%- !f the court fin&s that the perpetuation of the testi#on% is proper to avoi& a failure or &ela% of 3ustice" it #a% #a/e an or&er allo(in' the &epositions to $e ta/en" an& thereupon the &epositions #a% $e ta/en an& use& in the sa#e #anner an& un&er the sa#e con&itions as are prescri$e& in these rules for &epositions ta/en in actions pen&in' in the Re'ional Trial Court-(?)

PART V LEGAL ET ICS

RULE 135

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COURTS AND $UDICIAL OFFICERS
SECT!O+ ,- Courts always open; "ustice to be promptly and impartially administered..Courts of 3ustice shall al(a%s $e open" e1cept on le'al holi&a%s" for the filin' of an% plea&in's" #otion or other papers" for the trial of cases" hearin' of #otions" an& for the issuance of or&ers or ren&ition of 3u&'#ents- Hustice shall $e i#partiall% a&#inistere& (ithout unnecessar% &ela%SEC- 0- $ublicity of proceedings and records..The sittin' of ever% court of 3ustice shall $e pu$lic" $ut an% court #a%" in its &iscretion" e1clu&e the pu$lic (hen the evi&ence to $e a&&uce& is of such nature as to re>uire their e1clusion in the interest of #oralit% or &ecenc%- The recor&s of ever% court of 3ustice shall $e pu$lic recor&s an& shall $e availa$le for the inspection of an% intereste& person" at all proper $usiness hours" un&er the supervision of the cler/ havin' custo&% of such recor&s" unless the

court shall" in an% special case" have for$i&&en their pu$licit%" in the interest of #oralit% or &ecenc%SEC- 2- $rocess of superior courts enforced throughout the $hilippines. .Process issue& fro# a superior court in (hich a case is pen&in' to $rin' in a &efen&ant" Or for the arrest of an% accuse& person" or to e1ecute an% or&er or 3u&'#ent of the court" #a% $e enforce& in an% part of the PhilippinesSEC- 4- $rocess of inferior courts..The process of inferior courts shall $e enforcea$le (ithin the province (here the #unicipalit% or cit% lies- !t shall not $e serve& outsi&e the $oun&aries of the province in (hich the% are co#prise& e1cept (ith the approval of the 3u&'e of the Re'ional Trial Court of sai& province" an& onl% in the follo(in' cases* (a) 8hen an or&er for the &eliver% of personal propert% l%in' outsi&e the province is to $e co#plie& (ith7 ($) 8hen an attach#ent of real or personal propert% l%in' outsi&e the province is to $e #a&e7 (c) 8hen the action is a'ainst t(o or #ore &efen&ants resi&in' in &ifferent provinces7 an& (&) 8hen the place (here the case has $een $rou'ht is that specifie& in a contract in (ritin' $et(een the parties" or is the place of the e1ecution of such contract as appears therefro#8rits of e1ecution issue& $% inferior courts #a% $e enforce& in an% part of the Philippines (ithout an% previous approval of the 3u&'e of first instanceCri#inal process #a% $e issue& $% a 3ustice of the peace or other inferior court" to $e serve& outsi&e his province" (hen the &istrict 3u&'e" or in his a$sence the provincial fiscal" shall certif% that in his opinion the interests of 3ustice re>uire such serviceSEC- 5- Inherent powers of courts..Ever% court shall have po(er* (a) To preserve an& enforce or&er in its i##e&iate presence7 ($) To enforce or&er in procee&in's $efore it" or $efore a person or persons e#po(ere& to con&uct a 3u&icial investi'ation un&er its authorit%7 (c) To co#pel o$e&ience to its 3u&'#ents" or&ers an& processes" an& to the la(ful or&ers of a 3u&'e out of court" in a case pen&in' therein7 (&) To control" in furtherance of 3ustice" the con&uct of its #inisterial officers" an& of all other persons in an% #anner connecte& (ith a case $efore it" in ever% #anner appertainin' thereto7 (e) therein7 To co#pel the atten&ance of persons to testif% in a case pen&in'

(f) To a&#inister or cause to $e a&#inistere& oaths in a case pen&in' therein" an& in all other cases (here it #a% $e necessar% in the e1ercise of its po(ers7

(') To a#en& an& control its process an& or&ers so as to #a/e the# confor#a$le to la( an& 3ustice7 (h) To authori5e a cop% of a lost or &estro%e& plea&in' or other paper to $e file& an& use& instea& of the ori'inal" an& to restore" an& suppl% &eficiencies in its recor&s an& procee&in'sSEC- 6- !eans to carry "urisdiction into effect. .8hen $% la( 3uris&iction is conferre& on a court or 3u&icial officer" all au1iliar% (rits" processes an& other #eans necessar% to carr% it into effect #a% $e e#plo%e& $% such court or officer7 an& if the proce&ure to $e follo(e& in the e1ercise of such 3uris&iction is not specificall% pointe& out $% la( or $% these rules" an% suita$le process or #o&e of procee&in' #a% $e a&opte& (hich appears confor#a$le to the spirit of sai& la( or rulesSEC- ?- Trials and hearings; orders in chambers. .All trials upon the #erits shall $e con&ucte& in open court an& so far as convenient in a re'ular court roo#- All other acts or procee&in's #a% $e &one or con&ucte& $% a 3u&'e in cha#$ers" (ithout the atten&ance of the cler/ or other court officialsSEC- @- Interlocutory orders out of province. .A 3u&'e of Re'ional Trial Court shall have po(er to hear an& &eter#ine" (hen (ithin the &istrict thou'h (ithout his province" an% interlocutor% #otion or issue after &ue an& reasona$le notice to the parties- On the filin' of a petition for the (rit of habeas corpus or for release upon $ail or re&uction of $ail in an% Re'ional Trial Court" the hearin's #a% $e ha& at an% place in the 3u&icial &istrict (hich the 3u&'e shall &ee# convenientSEC- A- Signing "udgments out of province. .8henever a 3u&'e appointe& or assi'ne& in an% province or $ranch of a Re'ional Trial Court in a province shall leave the province $% transfer or assi'n#ent to another court of e>ual 3uris&iction" or $% e1piration of his te#porar% assi'n#ent" (ithout havin' &eci&e& a case totall% hear& $% hi# an& (hich (as ar'ue& or an opportunit% 'iven for ar'u#ent to the parties or their counsel" it shall $e la(ful for hi# to prepare an& si'n his &ecision in sai& case an%(here (ithin the Philippines- =e shall sen& the sa#e $% re'istere& #ail to the cler/ of the court (here the case (as hear& or ar'ue& to $e file& therein as of the &ate (hen the sa#e (as receive& $% the cler/" in the sa#e #anner as if he ha& $een present in court to &irect the filin' of the 3u&'#ent- !f a case has $een onl% in part" the Supre#e Court" upon petition of an% of the parties to the case an& the reco##en&ation of the respective &istrict 3u&'e" #a% also authori5e the 3u&'e (ho has partl% hear& the case" if no other 3u&'e ha& hear& the case in part" to continue hearin' an& to &eci&e sai& case not(ithstan&in' his transfer or appoint#ent to another court of e>ual 3uris&iction-

RULE 136

COURT RECORD AND GENERAL DUTIES OF CLERKS AND STENOGRAP ERS

.Pale(a%s of t(o pieces a5ure an& gules super<i#pose& a $alance or center (ith t(o ta$lets containin' the co##an&#ents of Co& or on either si&e7 a chief argent (ith three #ullets or e>ui&istant fro# each other" in point of honor" avoi& argent over all the sun ra%onnant or (ith ei'ht #a3or an& #inor ra%s-...Cler)As office. The cler/ of each superior court shall receive an& file all plea&in's an& other papers properl% presente&" . . ) SEC.SECT!O+ . >9=<. aroun& the 'arlan& the te1t MSupre#e Court" Repu$lic of the Philippines-M :The ar#s an& seal of the Court of Appeals shall $e the sa#e as that of the Supre#e Court (ith the onl% &ifference that in the seal shall $ear aroun& the 'arlan& the te1t MCourt of Appeals" Repu$lic of the Philippines-M :The ar#s an& seal of the Re'ional Trial Court shall $e the sa#e as that of the Supre#e Court (ith the onl% &ifference that the seal shall $ear aroun& the 'arlan& the te1t MRe'ional Trial Court" the na#e of the province" Repu$lic of the Philippines-M ( (s amended by Resolution of the Supreme Court.Cler) shall receive papers and prepare minutes.5.The cler/ of a superior court shall issue un&er the seal of the court all or&inar% (rits an& process inci&ent to pen&in' cases" the issuance of (hich &oes not involve the e1ercise of functions appertainin' to the court or 3u&'e onl%7 an& #a%" un&er the &irection of the court or 3u&'e" #a/e out an& si'n letters of a&#inistration" appoint#ents of 'uar&ians" trustees an& receivers" an& all (rits an& process issuin' fro# the courtSEC.4.Ar#s and great seal of court.6. .2The cler/Ns office" (ith the cler/ or his &eput% in atten&ance" shall $e open &urin' $usiness hours on all &a%s e1cept Sun&a%s an& le'al holi&a%sThe cler/ of the Supre#e Court an& that of the Court of Appeals shall /eep office at 9anila an& all papers authori5e& or re>uire& to $e file& therein shall $e file& at 9anilaSEC.Issuance by cler) of process. dated %ov.Style of process.+uties of the cler) in the absence or by direction of the "udge.The ar#s an& 'reat seal of the Supre#e Court are these* :Ar#s..2.!n the a$sence of the 3u&'e" the cler/ #a% perfor# all the &uties of the 3u&'e in receivin' applications" petitions" inventories" reports" an& the issuance of all or&ers an& notices that follo( as a #atter of course un&er these rules" an& #a% also" (hen &irecte& so to &o $% the 3u&'e" receive the accounts off e1ecutors" a&#inistrators" 'uar&ians" trustees" an& receivers" an& all evi&ence relatin' to the#" or to the settle#ent of the estates of &ecease& persons" or to 'uar&ianships" trusteeships" or receiverships an& forth(ith trans#it such reports" accounts" an& evi&ence to the 3u&'e" to'ether (ith his fin&in's in relation to the sa#e" if the 3u&'e shall &irect hi# to #a/e fin&in's an& inclu&e the sa#e in his reportSEC. >E. :The 'reat seal of the Supre#e Court shall $e circular in for#" (ith the ar#s as &escri$e& in the last prece&in' para'raph an& a scroll ar'ent (ith the follo(in' inscriptions* Le1 Populus>ue" an& surroun&in' the (hole a 'arlan& of laurel leaves in or.0.Process shall $e un&er the seal of the court fro# (hich it issues" $e st%le& MRepu$lic of the Philippines" Province of_____________________M to $e si'ne& $% the cler/ an& $ear &ate the &a% it actuall% issue&SEC.

!f the court so &irects" the cler/ shall /eep t(o or #ore of either or all of the $oo/s an& &oc/ets a$ove #entione&" separatin' civil fro# cri#inal cases" or actions fro# special procee&in's" or other(ise /eepin' cases separate& $% classes as the court shall &ee# $estSEC.udgment and entries boo).2.All unprinte& &ocu#ents presente& to the superior courts of the Philippines shall $e (ritten on paper of 'oo& >ualit% t(elve an& three ei'ht inches in len'th $% ei'ht an& one<half inches in (i&th" leavin' a #ar'in at the top an& at the left<han& si&e not less than one inch an& one<half in (i&th...?.The cler/ shall prepare" for an% person &e#an&in' the sa#e" a cop% certifie& un&er the seal of the court of an% paper" recor&" or&er" 3u&'#ent" or entr% in his office" proper to $e certifie&" for the fees prescri$e& $% these rulesSEC.$apel catalan.4.Safe)eeping of property.'nprinted papers.B.Certified copies..5..The cler/ shall safel% /eep all recor&s" papers" files" e1hi$its an& pu$lic propert% co##itte& to his char'e" inclu&in' the li$rar% of the court" an& the seal an& furniture $elon'in' to his officeSEC..+o recor& shall $e ta/en fro# the cler/Ns office (ithout an or&er of the court e1cept as other(ise provi&e& $% these rules...@.0.. ..The cler/ shall /eep a 3u&'#ent $oo/ containin' a cop% of each 3u&'#ent ren&ere& $% the court in or&er of its &ate" an& a $oo/ of entries of 3u&'#ents containin' at len'th in chronolo'ical or&er entries of all final 3u&'#ents or or&ers of the courtSEC. .A.The 'eneral &oc/et" 3u&'#ent $oo/" entries $oo/ an& e1ecution $oo/ shall each $e in&e1e& in alpha$etical or&er in the na#es of the parties" an& each of the#.-eneral doc)et. of the first an& secon& classes" le'al cap" an& t%pe(ritin' paper of such (ei'ht as not to per#it the (ritin' of #ore than one ori'inal an& t(o car$ons at one ti#e" (ill $e accepte&" .Other boo)s and duties.Inde.Ta)ing of record from the cler)As office.The cler/ shall /eep a 'eneral &oc/et" each pa'e of (hich shall $e nu#$ere& an& prepare& for receivin' all the entries in a sin'le case" an& shall enter therein all cases" nu#$ere& consecutivel% in the or&er in (hich the% (ere receive&" an&" un&er the hea&in' of each case an& a co#plete title thereof" the &ate of each paper file& or issue&" of each or&er or 3u&'#ent entere&" an& of each other step ta/en in the case" so that $% reference to a sin'le pa'e the histor% of the case #a% $e seenSEC.en&orsin' on each such paper the ti#e (hen it (as file&" an& shall atten& all of the sessions of the court an& enter its procee&in's for each &a% in a #inute $oo/ to $e /ept $% hi#SEC.=o(ever" the Solicitor Ceneral or an% of his assistants" the provincial fiscal or his &eput%" an& the attorne%s de oficio shall $e per#itte&" upon proper receipt" to (ith&ra( fro# the cler/Ns office the recor& of an% cases in (hich the% are intereste&SEC.*....ecution boo). separating cases.The cler/ shall /eep an e1ecution $oo/ in (hich he or his &eput% shall recor& at len'th in chronolo'ical or&er each e1ecution" an& the officerNs return thereon" $% virtue of (hich real propert% has $een sol&SEC...2The cler/ shall /eep such other $oo/s an& perfor# such other &uties as the court #a% &irectSEC..

provi&e& that such paper is of the re>uire& si5e an& of 'oo& >ualit%.@. an& the% #ust not $e &ou$le&SEC...pedients.6..8hen such notes are transcri$e& the transcript shall $e &elivere& to the cler/" &ul% initiale& on each pa'e thereof" to $e attache& to the recor& of the case8henever re>ueste& $% a part%" an% state#ent #a&e $% a 3u&'e of first instance" or $% a co##issioner" (ith reference to a case $ein' trie& $% hi#" or to an% of the parties thereto" or to an% (itness or attorne%" &urin' the hearin' of such case" shall $e #a&e of recor& in the steno'raphic notesSEC.2!t shall $e the &ut% of the steno'rapher (ho has atten&e& a session of a court either in the #ornin' or in the afternoon" to &eliver to the cler/ of court" i##e&iatel% at the close of such #ornin' or afternoon session" all the notes he has ta/en" to $e attache& to the recor& of the case7 an& it shall li/e(ise $e the &ut% of the cler/ to &e#an& that the steno'rapher co#pl% (ith sai& &ut%.The t%pe use& shall not $e s#aller than t(elve point.+oc)et and other records of inferior courts -.$rinted papers.One si&e onl% of the pa'e (ill $e (ritten upon" an& the &ifferent sheets (ill $e se(n to'ether" fir#l%" $% five stitches in the left<han& $or&er in or&er to facilitate the for#ation of the e.?..All papers re>uire& $% these rules to $e printe& shall $e printe& (ith $lac/ in/ on un'la5e& paper" (ith pa'es si1 inches in (i&th $% nine inches in len'th" in pa#phlet for#.Stenographer.T%pe(ritten &ocu#ents shall $e (ritten &ou$le<space&.The cler/ of court shall sta#p the &ate on (hich notes are receive& $% hi#.The paper use& shall $e of sufficient (ei'ht to prevent the printin' upon one si&e fro# $ein' visi$le upon the otherSEC.Ever% #unicipal or cit% 3u&'e shall /eep a (ell<$oun& $oo/ la$ele& M&oc/et"M in (hich he shall enter for each case* (a) The title of the case inclu&in' the na#es of all the parties7 ($) The nature of the case" (hether civil or cri#inal" an& if the latter" the offense char'e&7 (c) The &ate of issuin' preli#inar% an& inter#e&iate process inclu&in' or&ers of arrest an& su$poenas" an& the &ate an& nature of the return thereon7 (&) The &ate of the appearance or &efault of the &efen&ant7 (e) The &ate of presentin' the plea" ans(er" or #otion to >uash" an& the nature of the sa#e7 (f) The #inutes of the trial" inclu&in' the &ate thereof an& of all a&3ourn#ents7 (') The na#es an& a&&resses of all (itnesses7 (h) The &ate an& nature of the 3u&'#ent" an&" in a civil case" the relief 'rante&7 (i) An ite#i5e& state#ent of the costs7 (3) The &ate of an% e1ecution issue&" an& the &ate an& contents of the return thereon7 (/) The &ate of an% notice of appeal file&" an& the na#e of the part% filin' .Focu#ents (ritten (ith in/ shall not $e of #ore than t(ent%<five lines to one pa'e.

=e shall also /eep all the plea&in' an& other papers an& e1hi$its in cases pen&in' in his court" an& shall certif% copies of his &oc/et entries an& other recor&s proper to $e certifie&" for the fees prescri$e& $% these rules.the sa#eA #unicipal or cit% 3u&'e #a% /eep t(o &oc/ets" one for civil an& one for cri#inal cases..0. how made and effect.+o 3u&'e or 3u&icial officer shall sit in an% case in (hich he" or his (ife or chil&" is pecuniaril% intereste& as heir" le'atee" cre&itor or other(ise" or in (hich he is relate& to either part% (ithin the si1th &e'ree of consan'uinit% or affinit%" or to counsel (ithin the fourth &e'ree" co#pute& accor&in' to the rules of the civil la(" or in (hich he has $een e1ecutor" a&#inistrator" 'uar&ian" trustee or counsel" or in (hich he has presi&e& in an% inferior court (hen his rulin' or &ecision is the su$3ect of revie(" (ithout the (ritten consent of all parties in interest" si'ne& $% the# an& entere& upon the recor&A 3u&'e #a%" in the e1ercise of his soun& &iscretion" &is>ualif% hi#self fro# sittin' in a case" for 3ust or vali& reasons other than those #entione& a$oveSEC.*ntry on doc)et of inferior courts.!f it $e clai#e& that an official is &is>ualifie& fro# sittin' as a$ove provi&e&" the part% o$3ectin' to his co#petenc% #a%" in (ritin'" file (ith the official his o$3ection" statin' the 'roun&s therefor" an& the official shall thereupon procee& (ith the trial" or (ith&ra(" therefro# in accor&ance (ith his &eter#ination of the >uestion of his &is>ualification.=is &ecision shall $e forth(ith #a&e in (ritin' an& file& (ith the other papers in the case" $ut no .. .+is6ualification of "udges.Ob"ection that "udge dis6ualified..!t shall not $e necessar% for the #unicipal or cit% 3u&'e to re&uce to (ritin' the testi#on% of (itnesses" e1cept that of the accuse& in preli#inar% investi'ationsSEC.Each 9etropolitan Trial 3u&'e shall" at the $e'innin' an& in front of all his entries in his &oc/et" #a/e an& su$scri$e su$stantiall% the follo(in' entr%* MA &oc/et of procee&in's in cases $efore ______________________-" ___________________________ (#etropolitan trial 3u&'e) of the #unicipalit% (or cit%) of ________________________________________ in the province of _____________________________________" Repu$lic of the Philippines8itness #% si'nature" __________________________ !unicipal /or !etropolitan Trial udge0B RULE 137 DIS'UALIFICATION OF $UDICIAL OFFICERS SECT!O+ .A. .

0..Applicants for a&#ission (ho" $ein' Filipino citi5ens" are enrolle& attorne%s in 'oo& stan&in' in the Supre#e Court of the Unite& States or in an% circuit Court of Appeals or &istrict court therein" or in the hi'hest court of an% State or Territor% of the Unite& States" an& (ho can sho( $% satisfactor% certificates that the% have practice& at least five %ears in an% of sai& courts" that such practice $e'an $efore Hul% 4" .Re6uirements for all applicants for admission to the bar. .appeal or sta% shall $e allo(e& fro#" or $% #eans of" his &ecision in favor of his o(n co#petenc%" until after final 3u&'#ent in the case- RULE 138 ATTORNEYS AND ADMISSION TO !AR SECT!O+ .A46" an& that the% have never $een suspen&e& or &is$arre&" #a%" in the &iscretion of the Court" $e a&#itte& (ithout e1a#ination- .#ho may practice law. .Ever% applicant for a&#ission as a #e#$er of the $ar #ust $e a citi5en of the Philippines" at least t(ent%<one %ears of a'e" of 'oo& #oral character" an& a resi&ent of the Philippines7 an& #ust pro&uce $efore the Supre#e Court satisfactor% evi&ence of 'oo& #oral character" an& that no char'es a'ainst hi#" involvin' #oral turpitu&e" have $een file& or are pen&in' in an% court in the PhilippinesSEC.Re6uirements for lawyers who are citi5ens of the 'nited States of (merica.A46" (ere &ul% license& #e#$ers of the Philippine )ar" in active practice in the courts of the Philippines an& in 'oo& an& re'ular stan&in' as such #a%" upon satisfactor% proof of those facts $efore the Supre#e Court" $e allo(e& to continue such practice after ta/in' the follo(in' oath of office* M!"_____________" havin' $een per#itte& to continue in the practice of la( in the Philippines" &o sole#nl% s(ear that ! reco'ni5e the supre#e authorit% of the Repu$lic of the Philippines7 ! (ill support its Constitution an& o$e% the la(s as (ell as the le'al or&ers of the &ul% constitute& authorities therein7 ! (ill &o no falsehoo&" nor consent to the &oin' of an% in court7 ! (ill not (ittin'l% or (illin'l% pro#ote or sue an% 'roun&less" false or unla(ful suit" nor 'ive ai& nor consent to the sa#e7 ! (ill &ela% no #an for #one% or #alice" an& (ill con&uct #%self as a la(%er accor&in' to the $est of #% /no(le&'e an& &iscretion (ith all 'oo& fi&elit% as (ell to the courts as to #% clients7 an& ! i#pose upon #%self this voluntar% o$li'ation (ithout an% #ental reservation or purpose of evasion. .2.Re6uirements for applicants from other "urisdictions..Citi5ens of the Unite& States of A#erica (ho" $efore Hul% 4" .So help #e Co&-M SEC.4.An% person heretofore &ul% a&#itte& as a #e#$er of the $ar" or thereafter a&#itte& as such in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this rule" an& (ho is in 'oo& an& re'ular stan&in'" is entitle& to practice la(SEC.

5.All applicants for a&#ission shall file (ith the cler/ of the Supre#e Court the evi&ence re>uire& $% section 0 of this rule at least fifteen (.An applicant (ho &esires to ta/e the $ar e1a#inations #ust not onl% have stu&ie& la( in a local school $ut has to present the certifications re>uire& un&er Sections 5 an& 6 of Rule .*.AA2" provi&es that $e'innin' ne1t %ear (.AA2-) Re* Cui&elines for the re'istration of forei'n professionals allo(e& $% la( to practice the re'istere& professions in the Philippines..2@ (Rules of Court) in or&er to ta/e the $ar e1a#inations.A@<54?.B) &a%s $efore the $e'innin' of the e1a#inationSEC.$re&7aw.(dditional re6uirements for other applicants.Applicants" not other(ise provi&e& for in sections 2 an& 4 of this rule" shall $e su$3ecte& to e1a#inations in the follo(in' su$3ects* Civil Q Resolution of the Court en banc &ate& Hul% 0?" .AA@" issue& Hanuar% 0B" .AA@- .SEC.5) &a%s $efore the $e'innin' of the e1a#ination..The affi&avit of the can&i&ate" acco#panie& $% a certificate fro# the universit% or school of la(" shall $e file& as evi&ence of such facts" an& further evi&ence #a% $e re>uire& $% the court+o applicant shall $e a&#itte& to the $ar e1a#ination unless he has satisfactoril% co#plete& the follo(in' courses in a la( school or universit% &ul% reco'ni5e& $% the 'overn#ent* civil la(" co##ercial la(" re#e&ial la(" cri#inal la(" pu$lic an& private international la(" political la(" la$or an& social le'islation" #e&ical 3urispru&ence" ta1ation an& le'al ethicsSEC.?.%otice of applications.@.issue& Au'ust 2" . sub"ects.All applicants for a&#ission other than those referre& to in the t(o prece&in' sections shall" $efore $ein' a&#itte& to the e1a#ination" satisfactoril% sho( that the% have re'ularl% stu&ie& la( for four %ears" an& successfull% co#plete& all prescri$e& courses" in a la( "school or universit%" officiall% approve& an& reco'ni5e& $% the Secretar% of E&ucation.Res.Time for filing proof of 6ualifications.. .!f not e#$race& (ithin sections 2 an& 4 of this rule the% shall also file (ithin the sa#e perio& the affi&avit an& certificate re>uire& $% section 5" an& if e#$race& (ithin sections 2 an& 4 the% shall e1hi$it a license evi&encin' the fact of their a&#ission to practice" satisfactor% evi&ence that the sa#e has not $een revo/e&" an& certificates as to their professional stan&in'Applicants shall also file at the sa#e ti#e their o(n affi&avits as to their a'e" resi&ence" an& citi5enshipSEC.amination.6...(S-C.+otice of applications for a&#ission shall $e pu$lishe& $% the cler/ of the Supre#e Court in ne(spapers pu$lishe& in Filipino" En'lish an& Spanish" for at least ten (.S.+o applicant for a&#ission to the $ar e1a#ination shall $e a&#itte& unless he presents a certificate that he has satisfie& the Secretar% of E&ucation that" $efore he $e'an the stu&% of la(" he ha& pursue& an& satisfactoril% co#plete& in an authori5e& an& reco'ni5e& universit% or colle'e" re>uirin' for a&#ission thereto the co#pletion of a four<%ear hi'h school course" the course of stu&% prescri$e& therein for a $achelorNs &e'ree in arts or sciences (ith an% of the follo(in' su$3ects as #a3or or fiel& of concentration* political science" lo'ic" En'lish" Spanish" histor% an& econo#ics∗ SEC.Since 'ra&uates of forei'n la( schools cannot su$#it sai& certifications" the% shall henceforth not $e allo(e& to ta/e the $ar e1a#inations.A.See PRC Resolution +o.AA4)" the Court (ill not allo( 'ra&uates of forei'n la( schools to ta/e the $ar e1a#inations.

E1a#inations shall $e con&ucte& $% a co##ittee of $ar e1a#iners to $e appointe& $% the Supre#e Court.Onl% noiseless t%pe(riters shall $e allo(e& to $e use&The co##ittee of $ar e1a#iners shall ta/e such precautions as are necessar% to prevent the su$stitution of papers or co##ission of other frau&s.!n or&er that a can&i&ate #a% $e &ee#e& to have passe& his e1a#inations successfull%" he #ust have o$taine& a 'eneral avera'e of ?5 per cent in all su$3ects" (ithout fallin' $elo( 5B per cent in an% su$3ect..0.The su$3ect shall $e &istri$ute& as follo(s* First &a%* Political an& !nternational La( (#ornin') an& La$or an& Social Le'islation (afternoon)7 Secon& &a%* Civil La( (#ornin') an& Ta1ation (afternoon)7 Thir& &a%* 9ercantile La( (#ornin') an& Cri#inal La( (afternoon)7 Fourth &a%* Re#e&ial La( (#ornin') an& Le'al Ethics an& Practical E1ercises (afternoon)SEC..+o can&i&ate shall en&eavor to influence an% #e#$er of the co##ittee" an& &urin' e1a#ination the can&i&ates shall not co##unicate (ith each other nor shall the% 'ive or receive an% assistance.5 per cent7 La$or an& Social Le'islation" .B per cent* Political an& !nternational La(" .B.E1a#inees shall not place their na#es on the e1a#ination papers..E1a#inations for a&#ission to the $ar of the Philippines shall ta/e place annuall% in the Cit% of 9anila.amination.Persons ta/in' the e1a#ination shall not $rin' papers" $oo/s or notes into the e1a#ination roo#s.$assing average.The% shall $e hel& in four &a%s to $e &esi'nate& $% the chair#an of the co##ittee on $ar e1a#iners.5 per cent7 Ta1ation" .E1a#inees shall ans(er the >uestions personall% (ithout help fro# an%oneUpon verifie& application #a&e $% an e1a#inee statin' that his pen#anship is so poor that it (ill $e &ifficult to rea& his ans(ers (ithout #uch loss of ti#e" the Supre#e Court #a% allo( such e1a#inee to use a t%pe(riter in ans(erin' the >uestions.5 per cent7 Cri#inal La(" .The >uestions shall $e the sa#e for all e1a#inees an& a cop% thereof" in En'lish or Spanish" shall $e 'iven to each e1a#inee.!n &eter#inin' the avera'e" the su$3ects in the e1a#ination shall $e 'iven the follo(in' relative (ei'hts* Civil La(" . and in writing.aminers..This co##ittee shall $e co#pose& of a Hustice of the Supre#e Court" (ho shall act as chair#an" an& (ho shall $e &esi'nate& $% the court to serve for one %ear" an& ei'ht #e#$ers of the $ar of the Philippines" (ho shall hol& office for a perio& of one %ear. .1ar e.The na#es of the #e#$ers of this co##ittee shall $e pu$lishe& in each volu#e of the official reportsSEC.La(7 La$or an& Social Le'islation7 9ercantile La(7 Cri#inal La(7 Political La( (Constitutional La(" Pu$lic Corporations" an& Pu$lic Officers)7 !nternational La( (Private an& Pu$lic)7 Ta1ation* Re#e&ial La( (Civil Proce&ure" Cri#inal Proce&ure" an& Evi&ence)7 Le'al Ethics an& Practical E1ercises (in Plea&in' an& Conve%ancin')SEC..The can&i&ate (ho violates this provision" or an% other provision of this rule" shall $e $arre& fro# the e1a#ination" an& the sa#e to count as a failure a'ainst hi#" an& further &isciplinar% action" inclu&in' per#anent &is>ualification" #a% $e ta/en in the &iscretion of the courtSEC.Committee of e.B per cent7 9ercantile La(" .+isciplinary measures.(nnual e...amination. by 6uestions and answers..B per cent7 Re#e&ial La(" 0B per cent7 Le'al Ethics an& Practical E1ercises" .4..2...+o oral e1a#ination shall $e 'ivenSEC.

The cler/ of the Supre#e Court shall /eep a roll of all attorne%s a&#itte& to practice" (hich roll shall $e si'ne& $% the person a&#itte& (hen he receives his certificateSEC. filing of e.5.(dmission and oath of successful applicants.amination papers.... .5 per centSEC.Can&i&ates (ho have faile& the $ar e1a#inations for three ti#es shall $e &is>ualifie& fro# ta/in' another e1a#ination unless the% sho( to the satisfaction of the court that the% have enrolle& in an& passe& re'ular fourth %ear revie( classes as (ell as atten&e& a pre<$ar revie( course in a reco'ni5e& la( schoolThe professors of the in&ivi&ual revie( su$3ects atten&e& $% the can&i&ates un&er this rule certif% un&er oath that the can&i&ates have re'ularl% atten&e& classes an& passe& the su$3ects un&er the sa#e con&itions as or&inar% stu&ents an& the ratin's o$taine& $% the# in the particular su$3ectSEC.Report of the committee.5th after the e1a#ination" or as soon thereafter as #a% $e practica$le" the co##ittee shall file its report on the result of such e1a#ination.?. .Certificate.4ailing candidates to ta)e review course.+uties of attorneys.The e1a#ination papers an& notes of the co##ittee shall $e file& (ith the cler/ an& #a% there $e e1a#ine& $% the parties in interest" after the court has approve& the reportSEC..+ot later than Fe$ruar% .An applicant (ho has passe& the re>uire& e1a#ination" or has $een other(ise foun& to $e entitle& to a&#ission to the $ar" shall ta/e an& su$scri$e $efore the Supre#e Court the correspon&in' oath of officeSEC...A.2The Supre#e Court shall thereupon a&#it the applicant as a #e#$er of the $ar for all the courts of the Philippines" an& shall &irect an or&er to $e entere& to that effect upon its recor&s" an& that a certificate of such recor& $e 'iven to hi# $% the cler/ of court" (hich certificate shall $e his authorit% to practiceSEC. ..!t is the &ut% of an attorne%* (a) To #aintain alle'iance to the Repu$lic of the Philippines an& to support the Constitution an& o$e% the la(s of the Philippines($) To o$serve an& #aintain the respect &ue to the courts of 3ustice an& 3u&icial officers7 (c) To counsel or #aintain such actions or procee&in's onl% as appear to hi# to $e 3ust" an& such &efenses onl% as he $elieves to $e honestl% &e$ata$le un&er the la(7 (&) To e#plo%" for the purpose of #aintainin' the causes confi&e& to hi#" such #eans onl% as are consistent (ith truth an& honor" an& never see/ to #islea& the 3u&'e or an% 3u&icial officer $% an artifice or false state#ent of fact or la(7 (e) To #aintain inviolate the confi&ence" an& at ever% peril to hi#self" to preserve the secrets of his client" an& to accept no co#pensation in connection (ith his clientNs $usiness e1cept fro# hi# or (ith his /no(le&'e an& approval7 .0B.@.(ttorneysA roll.6.

An attorne% shall $e entitle& to have an& recover fro# his client no #ore than a reasona$le co#pensation for his services" (ith a vie( to the i#portance of the su$3ect #atter of the controvers%" the e1tent of the services ren&ere&" an& the professional stan&in' of the attorne%.+o court shall $e $oun& $% the opinion of attorne%s as e1pert (itnesses as to the proper co#pensation" $ut #a% &isre'ar& such testi#on% an& $ase its conclusion on its o(n professional /no(le&'e..A (ritten contract for services shall control the a#ount to $e pai& therefor unless foun& $% the court to $e unconsciona$le or unreasona$leSEC..(ttorney who appears in lower court presumed to represent client on appeal.)ut the% cannot" (ithout special authorit%" co#pro#ise their clientNs liti'ation" or receive an%thin' in &ischar'e of a clientNs clai# $ut the full a#ount in cashSEC.Attorne%s have authorit% to $in& their clients in an% case $% an% a'ree#ent in relation thereto #a&e in (ritin'" an& in ta/in' appeals" an& in all #atters of or&inar% 3u&icial proce&ure.(uthority of attorneys to bind clients. contempt. .An attorne% (ilfull% appearin' in court for a person (ithout $ein' e#plo%e&" unless $% leave of the court" #a% $e punishe& for conte#pt as an officer of the court (ho has #is$ehave& in his official transactionsSEC.An attorne% is presu#e& to $e properl% authori5e& to represent an% cause in (hich he appears" an& no (ritten po(er of attorne% is re>uire& to authori5e hi# to appear in court for his client" $ut the presi&in' 3u&'e #a%" on #otion of either part% an& on reasona$le 'roun&s therefor $ein' sho(n" re>uire an% attorne% (ho assu#es the ri'ht to appear in a case to pro&uce or prove the authorit% un&er (hich he appears" an& to &isclose" (henever pertinent to an% issue" the na#e of the person (ho e#plo%e& hi#" an& #a% thereupon #a/e such or&er as 3ustice re>uires.02. .(uthority of attorney to appear.8hen an attorne% un3ustl% retains in his han&s #one% of his client after it has $een &e#an&e& he #a% $e punishe& for conte#pt as an officer of the Court (ho has #is$ehave& in his official transactions7 $ut procee&in's un&er this section shall not $e a $ar to a cri#inal prosecution- .04.05.An attorne% (ho appears de parte in a case $efore a lo(er court shall $e presu#e& to continue representin' his client on appeal" unless he files a for#al petition (ith&ra(in' his appearance in the appellate courtSEC.'nlawful retention of clientAs funds.. .(f) To a$stain fro# all offensive personalit% an& to a&vance no fact pre3u&icial to the honor or reputation of a part% or (itness" unless re>uire& $% the 3ustice of the cause (ith (hich he is char'e&7 (') +ot to encoura'e either the co##ence#ent or the continuance of an action or procee&in'" or &ela% an% #anNs cause" fro# an% corrupt #otive or interest7 (h) +ever to re3ect" for an% consi&eration personal to hi#self" the cause of the &efenseless or oppresse&7 (i) !n the &efense of a person accuse& of cri#e" $% all fair an& honora$le #eans" re'ar&less of his personal opinion as to the 'uilt of the accuse&" to present ever% &efense that the la( per#its" to the en& that no person #a% $e &eprive& of life or li$ert%" $ut $% &ue process of la(SEC.0. agreement as to fees.00.Compensation of attorneys.

0?.SEC.=e #a% also retire at an% ti#e fro# an action or special procee&in'" (ithout the consent of his client" shoul& the court" on notice to the client an& attorne%" an& on hearin'" &eter#ine that he ou'ht to $e allo(e& to retire.+isbarment or suspension of attorneys by Supreme Court. dated 4eb. .0 SEC..The practice of solicitin' cases at la( for the purpose of 'ain" either personall% or throu'h pai& a'ents or $ro/ers" constitutes #alpracticeThe &is$ar#ent or suspension of a #e#$er of the Philippine )ar $% a co#petent court or other &isciplinator% a'enc% in a forei'n 3uris&iction (here he has also $een a&#itte& as an attorne% is a 'roun& for his &is$ar#ent or suspension if the $asis of such action inclu&es an% of the acts hereina$ove enu#erate&The 3u&'#ent" resolution or or&er of the forei'n court or &isciplinar% a'enc% shall $e prima facie evi&ence of the 'roun& for &is$ar#ent or suspension.A #e#$er of the $ar #a% $e &is$arre& or suspen&e& fro# his office as attorne% $% the Supre#e Court for an% &eceit" #alpractice" or other 'ross #iscon&uct in such office" 'rossl% i##oral con&uct" or $% reason of his conviction of a cri#e involvin' #oral turpitu&e" or for an% violation of the oath (hich he is re>uire& to ta/e $efore a&#ission to practice" or for a (ilful &iso$e&ience appearin' as an attorne% for a part% to a case (ithout authorit% so to &o. >D.0@.06. (ct %o.(As amended by Rep.An attorne% #a% retire at an% ti#e fro# an% action or special procee&in'" $% the (ritten consent of his client file& in court.'pon suspension by Court of (ppeals or Regional Trial Court. =D=. further proceedings in Supreme Court.(As amended by SC Res.Change of attorneys.Upon such suspension" the Court of Appeals or the Re'ional Trial Court shall forth(ith trans#it to the Supre#e Court a certifie& cop% of the or&er of suspension an& a full state#ent of the facts upon (hich the sa#e (as $ase&Upon the receipt of such certifie& cop% an& state#ent" the Supre#e Court shall #a/e full investi'ation of the facts involve& an& #a/e such or&er revo/in' or e1ten&in' the suspension" or re#ovin' the attorne% fro# his office as such" as the facts (arrant- .For the pa%#ent of such co#pensation the attorne% shall have a lien upon all 3u&'#ents for the pa%#ent of #one%" an& e1ecution issue& in pursuant of such 3u&'#ents" ren&ere& in the case (herein his services ha& $een retaine& $% the client.!n case of su$stitution" the na#e of the attorne% ne(l% e#plo%e& shall $e entere& on the &oc/et of the court in place of the for#er one" an& (ritten notice of the chan'e shall $e 'iven to the a&verse part%A client #a% at an% ti#e &is#iss his attorne% or su$stitute another in his place" $ut if the contract $et(een client an& attorne% has $een re&uce& to (ritin' an& the &is#issal of the attorne% (as (ithout 3ustifia$le cause" he shall $e entitle& to recover fro# the client the full co#pensation stipulate& in the contract. grounds therefor..Suspension of attorney by the Court of (ppeals or a Regional Trial Court.0 SEC. .0A. >99@.The Court of Appeals or a Re'ional Trial Court #a% suspen& an attorne% fro# practice for an% of the causes na#e& in the last prece&in' section" an& after such suspension such attorne% shall not practice his profession until further action of the Supre#e Court in the pre#isesSEC.

!n the court of a #unicipalit% a part% #a% con&uct his liti'ation in person" (ith the ai& of an a'ent or frien& appointe& $% hi# for that purpose" or (ith the ai& of an attorne%.1y whom litigation conducted..SEC.8henever such co#pensation is allo(e&" it shall not $e less than thirt% pesos (P2B) in an% case" nor #ore than the follo(in' a#ounts* (.=e shall also have a lien to the sa#e e1tent upon all 3u&'#ents for the pa%#ent of #one%" an& e1ecutions issue& in pursuance of such 3u&'#ents" (hich he has secure& in a liti'ation of his client" fro# an& after the ti#e (hen he shall have cause& a state#ent of his clai# of such lien to $e entere& upon the .Certain attorneys not to practice. dated !ay @E.. .(ttorneys for destitute litigants.!n an% other court" a part% #a% con&uct his liti'ation personall% or $% ai& of an attorne%" an& his appearance #ust $e either personal or $% a &ul% authori5e& #e#$er of the $arSEC.(micus curiae.+o attorne% shall $e re#ove& or suspen&e& fro# the practice of his profession" until he has ha& full opportunit% upon reasona$le notice to ans(er the char'es a'ainst hi#" to pro&uce (itnesses in his o(n $ehalf" an& to $e hear& $% hi#self or counsel.20.BB) in less 'rave felonies7 (2) T(o hun&re& pesos (P0BB) in 'rave felonies other than capital offenses7 (4) Five hun&re& pesos (P5BB) in capital offensesSEC.2?. .2B.!t shall $e the &ut% of the attorne% so assi'ne& to ren&er the re>uire& service" unless he is e1cuse& therefro# $% the court for sufficient cause sho(nSEC.Standing in court of persons authori5ed to appear for -overnment.An% official or other person appointe& or &esi'nate& in accor&ance (ith la( to appear for the Covern#ent of the Philippines shall have all the ri'hts of a &ul% authori5e& #e#$er of the $ar to appear in an% case in (hich sai& 'overn#ent has an interest &irect or in&irectSEC. .Compensation for attorneys de oficio.26.A court #a% assi'n an attorne% to ren&er professional ai& free of char'e to an% part% in a case" if upon investi'ation it appears that the part% is &estitute an& una$le to e#plo% an attorne%" an& that the services of counsel are necessar% to secure the en&s of 3ustice an& to protect the ri'hts of the part%.0 SEC.22. .Su$3ect to availa$ilit% of fun&s as #a% $e provi&e& $% la( the court #a%" in its &iscretion" or&er an attorne% e#plo%e& as counsel de oficio to $e co#pensate& in such su# as the court #a% fi1 in accor&ance (ith section 04 of this rule.An attorne% shall have a lien upon the fun&s" &ocu#ents an& papers of his client" (hich have la(full% co#e into his possession an& #a% retain the sa#e until his la(ful fees an& &is$urse#ents have $een pai&" an& #a% appl% such fun&s to the satisfaction thereof..(ttorneysA liens.) Fift% pesos (P5B) in li'ht felonies7 (0) One hun&re& pesos (P.E1perience& an& i#partial attorne%s #a% $e invite& $% the Court to appear as amid curiae to help in the &isposition of issues su$#itte& to it(As amended by Resolution of the Supreme Court..24.. >9=F. SEC.+o 3u&'e or other official or e#plo%ee of the superior courts or of the Office of the Solicitor Ceneral" shall en'a'e in private practice as a #e#$er of the $ar or 'ive professional a&vice to clientsSEC.25.2.(ttorney to be heard before removal or suspension.)ut if upon reasona$le notice he fails to appear an& ans(er the accusation" the court #a% procee& to &eter#ine the #atter e. parte.

>9.The la( stu&ent shall co#pl% (ith the stan&ar&s of professional con&uct 'overnin' #e#$ers of the )ar.2A la( stu&ent (ho has successfull% co#plete& his 2r& %ear of the re'ular four<%ear prescri$e& la( curriculu# an& is enrolle& in a reco'ni5e& la( schoolNs clinical le'al e&ucation pro'ra# approve& $% the Supre#e Court" #a% appear (ithout co#pensation in an% civil" cri#inal or a&#inistrative case $efore an% trial court" tri$unal" $oar& or officer" to represent in&i'ent clients accepte& $% the le'al clinic of the la( schoolSEC. prom.0.0 RULE 139 DIS!ARMENT OR SUSPENSION OF ATTORNEYS Q SECT!O+ .4. +ec.$rivileged communications.Procee&in's for the re#oval or suspension of attorne%s #a% $e ta/en $% the Supre#e Court on its o(n #otion or upon the co#plaint un&er oath of another in (ritin'.(ppearance..0B" Rule .2A<)- ./SC Circular %o.An% an& all plea&in's" #otions" $riefs" #e#oran&a or other papers to $e file&" #ust $e si'ne& $% the supervenin' attorne% for an& in $ehalf of the le'al clinicSEC.recor&s of the court ren&erin' such 3u&'#ent" or issuin' such e1ecution" an& shall have cause& (ritten notice thereof to $e &elivere& to his client an& to the a&verse part%7 an& he shall have the sa#e ri'ht an& po(er over such 3u&'#ents an& e1ecutions as his client (oul& have to enforce his lien an& secure the pa%#ent of his 3ust fees an& &is$urse#ents- RULE 138%A LAW STUDENT PRACTICE RULE SECT!O+ .!otion or complaint. >9F=..Failure of an attorne% to provi&e a&e>uate supervision of stu&ent practice #a% $e a 'roun& for &isciplinar% action.The Rules safe'uar&in' privile'e& co##unications $et(een attorne% an& client shall appl% to si#ilar co##unications #a&e to or receive& $% the la( stu&ent" actin' for the le'al clinicSEC.The appearance of the la( stu&ent authori5e& $% this rule" shall $e un&er" the &irect supervision an& control of a #e#$er of the !nte'rate& )ar of the Philippines &ul% accre&ite& $% the la( school.The co#plaint shall set out &istinctl%" clearl%" an& concisel% the facts co#plaine& of" supporte& $% affi&avits" if an%" of persons havin' Q Superse&e& $% Sec.Conditions for Student $ractice. >9.... .Standards of conduct and supervision.2.

B) &a%s fro# the &ate of service..)ase& upon the evi&ence a&&uce& at the hearin'" if the Solicitor Ceneral fin&s no sufficient 'roun& to procee& a'ainst the respon&ent" he shall su$#it a report to the Supre#e Court containin' his fin&in's of fact an& conclusion" (hereupon the respon&ent shall $e e1onerate& unless the court or&ers &ifferentl%SEC.!f the co#plaint appears to #erit action" a cop% thereof shall $e serve& upon the respon&ent" re>uirin' hi# to ans(er the sa#e (ithin ten (. parte.!f the co#plaint &oes not #erit action" or if the ans(er sho(s to the satisfaction of the Supre#e Court that the co#plaint is not #eritorious" the sa#e shall $e &is#isse&SEC.*vidence produced before Solicitor -eneral available.The evi&ence pro&uce& $efore the Solicitor Ceneral in his investi'ation #a% $e consi&ere& $% the Supre#e Court in the final &ecision of the case" if the respon&ent ha& an opportunit% to o$3ect an& cross<e1a#ine.The Solicitor Ceneral or his representative shall appear $efore the co##issioner to con&uct the prosecution. The rules of evi&ence shall $e applica$le to procee&in's of this nature- .!f in the respon&entNs ans(er no state#ent is #a&e as to an% intention of intro&ucin' a&&itional evi&ence" the case shall $e set &o(n for hearin'" upon the filin' of such ans(er or upon the e1piration of the ti#e to file the sa#eSEC.personal /no(le&'e of the facts therein alle'e& an& shall $e acco#panie& (ith copies of such &ocu#ents as #a% su$stantiate sai& factsSEC.5) &a%sSEC.!n the investi'ation con&ucte& $% the Solicitor Ceneral" the respon&ent shall $e 'iven full opportunit% to &efen& hi#self" to pro&uce (itnesses on his o(n $ehalf" an& to $e hear& $% hi#self an& counsel.Upon receipt of the respon&entNs ans(er" (herein a state#ent is #a&e as to his &esire to intro&uce a&&itional evi&ence" the case shall $e referre& to a co##issioner (ho" in the &iscretion of the court" #a% $e the cler/ of the Supre#e Court" a 3u&'e of the Re'ional Trial Court" or an attorne%<at<la( for investi'ation" report" an& reco##en&ation.Upon the issues raise& $% the co#plaint an& ans(er" or upon failure of the respon&ent to ans(er" the case shall $e referre& to the Solicitor Ceneral for investi'ation to &eter#ine if there is sufficient 'roun& to procee& (ith the prosecution of the respon&ent. Rules of evidence. parte.Report of the Solicitor -eneral. (nswer of respondent. .0. .=o(ever" if upon reasona$le notice" the respon&ent fails to appear" the investi'ation shall procee& e.4.2.The respon&ent shall $e 'iven full opportunit% to &efen& hi#self" to pro&uce a&&itional evi&ence in his o(n $ehalf" an& to $e hear& $% hi#self an& counsel=o(ever" if upon reasona$le notice the respon&ent fails to appear" the investi'ation shall procee& e.Commissioner to investigate and recommend. . SEC.Complaint of the Solicitor -eneral.Service or dismissal.!f the Solicitor Ceneral fin&s sufficient 'roun& to procee& a'ainst the respon&ent" he shall file the correspon&in' co#plaint" acco#panie& (ith all the evi&ence intro&uce& in his investi'ation" (ith the Supre#e Court" an& the respon&ent shall $e serve& $% the cler/ of the Supre#e Court (ith a cop% of the co#plaint (ith &irection to ans(er the sa#e (ithin fifteen (.5.Investigation by Solicitor -eneral. .?..6.

0.There is here$% or'ani5e& an official national $o&% to $e /no(n as the :!nte'rate& )ar of the Philippines".$urposes.A?2- ...SEC.Regions.Procee&in's a'ainst attorne%s shall $e private an& confi&ential" e1cept that the final or&er of the court shall $e #a&e pu$lic as in other cases co#in' $efore the court- RULE 139%A INTEGRATED !AR OF T E P ILIPPINES 1 SECT!O+ .!n case of suspension of the respon&ent" the 3u&'e of Re'ional Trial Court or Hustice of the Court of Appeals shall forth(ith trans#it to the Supre#e Court a certifie& cop% of the or&er of suspension an& a full state#ent of the facts upon (hich sa#e is $ase&SEC..2.@.As far as #a% $e applica$le" the proce&ure a$ove outline& shall li/e(ise 'overn the filin' an& investi'ation of co#plaints a'ainst attorne%s in the Court of Appeals or in Re'ional Trial Court.Confidential.Upon receipt of the report of the co##issioner" copies of (hich shall $e furnishe& the Solicitor Ceneral an& the respon&ent" the case shall $e set &o(n for hearin' $efore the court" follo(in' (hich the case shall $e consi&ere& su$#itte& to the court for its final &eter#inationSEC.. !nserte& $% Repu$lic Act +o.6" .Organi5ation.$rocedure in Court of (ppeals or Regional Trial Court. co#pose& of all persons (hose na#es no( appear or #a% hereafter $e inclu&e& in the Roll of Attorne%s of the Supre#e CourtSEC.Report of commissioner and hearing. .. .A.The fun&a#ental purposes of the !nte'rate& )ar shall $e to elevate the stan&ar&s of the le'al profession" i#prove the a&#inistration of 3ustice" an& ena$le the )ar to &ischar'e its pu$lic responsi$ilit% #ore effectivel%SEC.B..The Philippines is here$% &ivi&e& into nine Re'ions of the !nte'rate& )ar" to (it* (a) +orthern Lu5on" consistin' of the provinces of A$ra" )atanes" )en'uet" Ca'a%an" !fu'ao" !locos +orte" !locos Sur" !sa$ela" Oalin'a<Apa%ao" La Union" 9ountain Province" +ueva i5ca%a" an& Luirino7 ($) Central Lu5on" consistin' of the province of )ataan" )ulacan" +ueva Eci3a" Pa#pan'a" Pan'asinan" Tarlac" an& Sa#$ales7 (c) Creater 9anila" consistin' of the Cit% of 9anila an& Lue5on Cit%7 (&) Southern Lu5on" consistin' of the provinces of )atan'as" Cavite" La'una" 9arin&u>ue" Occi&ental 9in&oro" Oriental 9in&oro" Lue5on" an& Ri5al7 (e) )icolan&ia" consistin' of the provinces of Al$a%" Ca#arines +orte" .62A?" it too/ effect on Hanuar% .

The !nte'rate& )ar shall have a =ouse of Fele'ates of not #ore than one hun&re& t(ent% #e#$ers (ho shall $e apportione& a#on' all the .!n no case shall an% la(%er $e a #e#$er of #ore than one ChapterEach Chapter shall have its o(n local 'overn#ent as provi&e& for $% unifor# rules to $e prescri$e& $% the )oar& of Covernors an& approve& $% the Supre#e Court" the provisions of Section ..Ca#arines Sur" Catan&uanes" 9as$ate" an& Sorso'on7 (f) Eastern isa%as" consistin' of the provinces of )ohol" Ce$u" Eastern Sa#ar" Le%te" +orthern Sa#ar" Sa#ar" an& Southern Le%te7 (') 8estern isa%as" Consistin' of the provinces of A/lan" Anti>ue" Capi5" !loilo" +e'ros Occi&ental" +e'ros Oriental" Pala(an" Ro#$lon" an& Si>ui3or7 (h) Eastern 9in&anao" consistin' of the provinces of A'usan &el +orte" A'usan &el Sur" )u/i&non" Ca#i'uin" Favao &el +orte" Favao &el Sur" Favao Oriental" 9isa#is Oriental" Suri'ao &el +orte" an& Suri'ao &el Sur7 an& (i) 8estern 9in&anao" consistin' of the cities of )asilan an& Sa#$oan'a" an& the provinces of Cota$ato" Lanao &el +orte" Lanao &el Sur" 9isa#is Occi&ental" South Cota$ato" Sulu" Sa#$oan'a &el +orte" an& Sa#$oan'a &el Sur!n the event of the creation of an% ne( province" the )oar& of Covernors shall" (ith the approval of the Supre#e Court &eter#ine the Re'ion to (hich the sai& province shall $elon'SEC.A of this Rule not(ithstan&in'Chapters $elon'in' to the sa#e Re'ion #a% hol& re'ional conventions on #atters an& pro$le#s of co##on concernSEC..Chapters.A Chapter of the !nte'rate& )ar shall $e or'ani5e& in ever% province.E1cept as herein$elo( provi&e&" ever% cit% shall $e consi&ere& part of the province (ithin (hich it is 'eo'raphicall% situate&A separate Chapter shall $e or'ani5e& in each of follo(in' political su$&ivisions or areas* (a) The su$province of Aurora7 ($) Each con'ressional &istrict of the Cit% of 9anila7 (c) Lue5on Cit%7 (&) Caloocan Cit%" 9ala$on an& +avotas7 (e) Pasa% Cit%" 9a/ati" 9an&alu%on' an& San Huan &el 9onte7 (f) Ce$u Cit%7 an& (') Sa#$oan'a Cit% an& )asilan Cit%Unless he other(ise re'isters his preference for a particular Chapter" a la(%er shall $e consi&ere& a #e#$er of the Chapter of the Province" cit%" political su$&ivision or area (here his office or" in the a$sence thereof" his resi&ence is locate&.3ouse of +elegates.4.5.

Officers..A #a3orit% of the Fele'ates (ho have re'istere& for a convention" (hether annual or special" shall constitute a >uoru# to &o $usinessSEC.?.2The !nte'rate& )ar shall $e 'overne& $%<a )oar& of Covernors.Special conventions of the =ouse #a% $e calle& $% the )oar& of Covernors to consi&er onl% such #atters as the )oar& shall in&icate.6.Each Covernor shall $e chosen fro# a list of no#inees su$#itte& $% the Fele'ates fro# the Re'ion" provi&e& that no #ore than one no#inee shall co#e fro# an% Chapter.A #a3orit% of all the #e#$ers of the )oar& shall constitute a >uoru# to &o $usiness.+o person #a% $e a Fele'ate for #ore than t(o ter#sThe =ouse shall hol& an annual convention at the call of the )oar& of Covernors at an% ti#e &urin' the #onth of April of each %ear for the election of Covernors" the rea&in' an& &iscussion of reports inclu&in' the annual report of the )oar& of Covernors" the transaction of such other $usiness as #a% $e referre& to it $% the )oar&" an& the consi&eration of such a&&itional #atters as #a% $e re>ueste& in (ritin' $% at least t(ent% Fele'ates.1oard of -overnors." .The !nte'rate& )ar shall have a Presi&ent an& an E1ecutive ice Presi&ent (ho shall $e chosen $% the Covernors i##e&iatel% after the latterNs election" either fro# a#on' the#selves or fro# other #e#$ers of the !nte'rate& )ar $% the vote .The Presi&ent an& the E1ecutive ice Presi&ent" if chosen $% the Covernors fro# outsi&e of the#selves as provi&e& in Section ? of this Rule" shall ipso facto $eco#e #e#$ers of the )oar&The #e#$ers of the )oar& shall hol& office for a ter# of one %ear fro# the &ate of their election an& until their successors shall have $een &ul% electe& an& >ualifie&.On or $efore Fece#$er 2.Special #eetin's #a% $e calle& $% the Presi&ent or $% five #e#$ers of the )oar&Su$3ect to the approval of the Supre#e Court" the )oar& shall a&opt )%<La(s an& pro#ul'ate Canons of Professional Responsi$ilit% for all #e#$ers of the !nte'rate& )arThe )%<La(s an& the Canons #a% $e a#en&e& $% the Supre#e Court motu proprio or upon the reco##en&ation of the )oar& of CovernorsThe )oar& shall prescri$e such other rules an& re'ulations as #a% $e necessar% an& proper to carr% out the purposes of the !nte'rate& )ar as (ell as the provisions of this RuleSEC.Chapters as nearl% as #a% $e accor&in' to the nu#$er of their respective #e#$ers" $ut each Chapter shall have at least one Fele'ate.+o person #a% $e a Covernor for #ore than t(o ter#sThe )oar& shall #eet re'ularl% once ever% three #onths" on such &ate an& at such ti#e an& place as it shall &esi'nate.+ine Covernors shall $e electe& $% the =ouse of Fele'ates fro# the nine Re'ions on the representation $asis of one Covernor fro# each Re'ion.A?4" an& ever% four %ears thereafter" the )oar& of Covernors shall #a/e an apportion#ent of Fele'atesThe ter# of the office of Fele'ate shall $e'in on the &ate of the openin' of the annual convention of the =ouse an& shall en& on the &a% i##e&iatel% prece&in' the &ate of the openin' of the ne1t succee&in' annual convention.

.!embership dues.. reinstatement.Su$3ect to the provisions of Section .The )oar& of Covernors shall provi&e in the )%< La(s for 'rievance proce&ures for the enforce#ent an& #aintenance of &iscipline .acancies.-rievance procedures.oluntary termination of membership.BT) of the collections fro# each Chapter shall $e set asi&e as a 8elfare Fun& for &isa$le& #e#$ers of the Chapter an& the co#pulsor% heirs of &ecease& #e#$ers thereofSEC.of at least five Covernors.Ever% #e#$er of the !nte'rate& shall pa% such annual &ues as the )oar& of Covernors shall &eter#ine (ith the approval of the Supre#e Court.A #e#$er #a% ter#inate his #e#$ership $% filin' a (ritten notice to that effect (ith the Secretar% of the !nte'rate& )ar" (ho shall i##e&iatel% $rin' the #atter to the attention of the Supre#e Court.0.B....!n the event of the &eath" resi'nation" re#oval" or &isa$ilit% of $oth the Presi&ent an& the E1ecutive ice Presi&ent" the )oar& of Covernors shall elect an Actin' Presi&ent to hol& office until the ne1t succee&in' election or &urin' the perio& of &isa$ilit%The fillin' of vacancies in the =ouse of Fele'ates" )oar& of Covernors" an& all other positions of Officers of the !nte'rate& )ar shall $e as provi&e& in the )%<La(s8henever the ter# of an office or position is for a fi1e& perio&" the person chosen to fill a vacanc% therein shall serve onl% for the une1pire& ter#SEC.A fi1e& su# e>uivalent to ten percent (. officio ice Presi&ent for the Re'ion (hich he representsThe Presi&ent an& the E1ecutive ice Presi&ent shall hol& office for a ter# of one %ear fro# the &ate of their election an& until their successors shall have &ul% >ualifie&The E1ecutive ice Presi&ent shall auto#aticall% $eco#e the Presi&ent for the ne1t succee&in' full ter#.0 of this Rule" &efault in the pa%#ent of annual &ues for si1 #onths shall (arrant suspension of #e#$ers in the !nte'rate& )ar" an& &efault in such pa%#ent for one %ear shall $e a 'roun& for the re#oval of the na#e of &elin>uent #e#$er fro# the Roll of Attorne%sSEC.A..+o person shall $e Presi&ent or E1ecutive ice Presi&ent of the !nte'rate& )ar for #ore than one ter#The !nte'rate& )ar shall have a Secretar%" a Treasurer" an& such other officer an& e#plo%ees as #a% $e re>uire& $% the )oar& of Covernors" to $e appointe& $% the Presi&ent (ith the consent of the )oar&" an& to hol& office at the pleasure of the )oar& or for such ter# as it #a% fi1.The Presi&enc% shall rotate fro# %ear to %ear a#on' all the nine Re'ions in such or&er of rotation as the )oar& of Covernors shall prescri$e.!n the event the Presi&ent is a$sent or una$le to act" his &uties shall $e perfor#e& $% the E1ecutive ice Presi&ent7 an& in the event of the &eath" resi'nation" or re#oval of the Presi&ent" the E1ecutive ice Presi&ent shall serve as Actin' Presi&ent &urin' the re#ain&er of the ter# of the office thus vacate&....@..*ffect of non&payment of dues...Sai& officers an& e#plo%ees nee& not $e #e#$ers of the !nte'rate& )arSEC.Each of the re'ional #e#$ers of the )oar& shall $e e.Forth(ith he shall cease to $e a #e#$er an& his na#e shall $e stric/en $% the Court in accor&ance (ith rules an& re'ulations prescri$e& $% the )oar& of Covernors an& approve& $% the CourtSEC.

@..4iscal matters.A.The )oar& of Covernors shall cause to $e pu$lishe& a >uarterl% Hournal of the !nte'rate& )ar" free copies of (hich shall $e &istri$ute& to ever% #e#$er of the !nte'rate& )arSEC.$ositions honorary..a#on' all the #e#$ers of the !nte'rate& )ar" $ut no action involvin' the suspension or &is$ar#ent of a #e#$er or the re#oval of his na#e fro# the Roll of Attorne%s shall $e effective (ithout the final approval of the Supre#e CourtSEC.The Co##ission on )ar !nte'ration shall or'ani5e the local Chapters an& to(ar& this en& shall secure the assistance of the Fepart#ent of Hustice an& of all Hu&'es throu'hout the Philippines...The )oar& of Covernors shall a&#inister the fun&s of the !nte'rate& )ar an& shall have the po(er to #a/e appropriations an& &is$urse#ents therefro#.All voluntar% )ar associations no( e1istin' or (hich #a% hereafter $e for#e& #a% co<e1ist (ith the !nte'rate& )ar $ut shall not operate at cross<purposes there(ithSEC..E1cept as #a% $e specificall% authori5e& or allo(e& $% the Supre#e Court" no Fele'ate or Covernor an& no national or local Officer or co##ittee #e#$er shall receive an% co#pensation" allo(ance or e#olu#ent fro# the fun&s of the !nte'rate& )ar for an% service ren&ere& therein or $e entitle& to rei#$urse#ent for an% e1pense incurre& in the &ischar'e of his functionsSEC.4.!t shall cause proper )oo/s of Accounts to $e /ept an& Financial State#ents to $e ren&ere& an& shall see to it that the proper au&it is #a&e of all accounts of the !nte'rate& )ar an& all the Chapters thereofSEC.5.+o la(%er hol&in' an elective" 3u&icial" >uasi<3u&icial" or prosecutor% office in the Covern#ent or an% political su$&ivision or instru#entalit% thereof shall $e eli'i$le for election or appoint#ent to an% position in the !nte'rate& )ar or an% Chapter thereof.ournal.Organi5ational period..The la(%ers present at the #eetin' calle& to or'ani5e a Chapter shall constitute a >uoru# for the purpose" inclu&in' the election of a Presi&ent" ice Presi&ent" Secretar%" Treasurer" an& five Firectors- ...!n ever% case" the Co##ission shall cause proper notice of the &ate" ti#e an& place of the #eetin' to $e serve& upon all the la(%ers concerne& at their a&&resses appearin' in the recor&s of the Co##ission.6.oluntary 1ar associations..(mendments.The !nte'rate& )ar shall $e strictl% non<political" an& ever% activit% ten&in' to i#pair this $asic feature is strictl% prohi$ite& an& shall $e penali5e& accor&in'l%.?" .This Rule #a% $e a#en&e& $% the Supre#e Court motu proprio or upon the reco##en&ation of the )oar& of Covernors or an% Chapter of the !nte'rate& )arSEC..A?2..A Fele'ate" Covernor" Officer or e#plo%ee of the !nte'rate& )ar" or an officer or e#plo%ee of an% Chapter thereof shall $e consi&ere& ipso facto resi'ne& fro# his position as of the #o#ent he files his certificate of can&i&ac% for an% elective pu$lic office or accepts appoint#ent to an% 3u&icial" >uasi<3u&icial" or prosecutor% office in the Covern#ent or an% political su$&ivision or instru#entalit% thereofSEC.?.All Chapter or'ani5ational #eetin's shall $e hel& on Satur&a%" Fe$ruar% .%on&political 1ar-....2.

6".The Covernors shall i##e&iatel% assu#e office an& forth(ith #eet to elect the Officers of the !nte'rate& )arThe Officers so chosen shall i##e&iatel% assu#e their respective positionsSEC.A?2- RULE 139%! DIS!ARMENT AND DISCIPLINE OF ATTORNEYS SECT!O+ .The )oar& of Covernors shall appoint fro# a#on' !)P #e#$ers an !nvesti'ator or" (hen special circu#stances so (arrant" a ..2This Rule shall ta/e effect on Hanuar% . or $% the !nte'rate& )ar of the Philippines (!)P) upon the verifie& co#plaint of an% person.0. an& Hu&'es of the Court of Ta1 Appeals an& lo(er courts" even if la(%ers are 3ointl% char'e& (ith the#" shall $e file& (ith the Supre#e Court* $rovided.The Presi&ent of each Chapter shall concurrentl% $e its Fele'ate to the =ouse of Fele'ates. !ay >. That char'es file& a'ainst Hustices an& Hu&'es $efore the !)P" inclu&in' those file& prior to their appoint#ent in the Hu&iciar%" shall i##e&iatel% $e for(ar&e& to the Supre#e Court for &isposition an& a&3u&ication.The Co##ission shall initiall% fi1 the nu#$er of Fele'ates an& apportion the sa#e a#on' all the Chapters as nearl% as #a% $e in proportion to the nu#$er of their respective #e#$ers" $ut each chapter shall have at least one Fele'ate.*ffectivity.0B. That all char'es a'ainst Hustices of the Court of Appeals an& the Sandiganbayan.?" .The ice Presi&ent shall $e his alternate" e1cept (here the Chapter is entitle& to have #ore than one Fele'ate" in (hich case the ice Presi&ent shall also $e a Fele'ate.The co#plaint shall state clearl% an& concisel% the facts co#plaine& of an& shall $e supporte& $% affi&avits of persons havin' personal /no(le&'e of the facts therein alle'e& an&Jor $% such &ocu#ents as #a% su$stantiate sai& factsThe !)P )oar& of Covernors #a%" motu proprio or upon referral $% the Supre#e Court or $% a Chapter )oar& of Officers" or at the instance of an% person" initiate an& prosecute proper char'es a'ainst an% errin' attorne%s inclu&in' those in the 'overn#ent service* $rovided.%ational -rievance Investigators.2Procee&in's for the &is$ar#ent" suspension" or &iscipline of attorne%s #a% $e ta/en $% the Supre#e Court motu proprio. >9=E. @EEE.A?2 for the purpose of electin' a )oar& of Covernors.( (s amended by 1ar !atter %o.The )oar& of Firectors of the Chapter shall in proper cases elect a&&itional as (ell as alternative Fele'atesThe =ouse of Fele'ates shall convene in the Cit% of 9anila on Satur&a%" 9arch . further.0 Si1 (6) copies of the verifie& co#plaint shall $e file& (ith the Secretar% of the !)P or the Secretar% of an% of its chapters (ho shall forth(ith trans#it the sa#e to the !)P )oar& of Covernors for assi'n#ent to an investi'ator- A" PROCEEDINGS IN T E INTEGRATED !AR OF T E P ILIPPINES SEC. however..3ow Instituted.

The +ational Crievance !nvesti'ators shall investi'ate all co#plaints a'ainst #e#$ers of the !nte'rate& )ar referre& to the# $% the !)P )oar& of CovernorsSEC.The ans(er shall $e verifie&.!f the co#plaint &oes not #erit action" or if the ans(er sho(s to the satisfaction of the !nvesti'ator that the co#plaint is not #eritorious" the sa#e #a% $e &is#isse& $% the )oar& of Covernors upon his reco##en&ation. .A cop% of the !nvesti'atorNs appoint#ent an& oath shall $e trans#itte& to the Supre#e CourtAn !nvesti'ator #a% $e &is>ualifie& $% reason of relationship (ithin the fourth &e'ree of consan'uinit% or affinit% to an% of the parties or their counsel" pecuniar% interest" personal $ias" or his havin' acte& as counsel for either part%" unless the parties si'n an& enter upon the recor& their (ritten consent to his actin' as such !nvesti'ator8here the !nvesti'ator &oes not &is>ualif% hi#self" a part% #a% appeal to the !)P )oar& of Covernors" (hich $% #a3orit% vote of the #e#$ers present" there $ein' a >uoru#" #a% or&er his &is>ualificationAn% !nvesti'ator #a% also $e re#ove& for cause" after the hearin'" $% the vote of at least si1 (6) #e#$ers of the !)P )oar& of Covernors.All !nvesti'ators shall ta/e an oath of office in the for# prescri$e& $% the )oar& of Covernors.5 &a%s fro# notice of the &is#issal of the co#plaint+o investi'ation shall $e interrupte& or ter#inate& $% reason of the &esistance" settle#ent" co#pro#ise" restitution" (ith&ra(al of the char'es" or failure of the co#plainant to prosecute the sa#eSEC. .5.The &ecision of the )oar& of Covernors in all cases of &is>ualification or re#oval shall $e finalSEC..4.(dministrative counsel.panel of three (2) investi'ators to investi'ate the co#plaint.erification and service of answer.A cop% of the resolution of &is#issal shall $e furnishe& the co#plainant an& the Supre#e Court (hich #a% revie( the case motu proprio or upon ti#el% appeal of the co#plainant file& (ithin . parte.6.Upon 3oin&er of issues or upon failure of the respon&ent to ans(er" the !nvesti'ator shall" (ith &eli$erate spee&" procee& (ith the investi'ation of the case.+uties of the %ational -rievance Investigator. .5) &a%s fro# the &ate of service.=o(ever" if upon reasona$le notice" the respon&ent fails to appear" the investi'ation shall procee& e.The proper !)P Chapter #a% assist the co#plainants) in the preparation an& filin' of his co#plaint(s)SEC. .The ori'inal an& five (5) le'i$le copies of the ans(er shall $e file& (ith the !nvesti'ator" (ith proof of service of a cop% thereof on the co#plainant or his counselSEC.The respon&ent shall $e 'iven full opportunit% to &efen& hi#self" to present (itnesses on his $ehalf" an& $e hear& $% hi#self an& counsel.?.@.!f the co#plaint appears to $e #eritorious" the !nvesti'ator shall &irect that a cop% thereof $e serve& upon the respon&ent" re>uirin' hi# to ans(er the sa#e (ithin fifteen (.=e shall have the po(er to issue su$poenas an& a&#inister oaths....2.Chapter assistance to complainant.The !)P )oar& of Covernors shall appoint a suita$le #e#$er of the !nte'rate& )ar as counsel to assist the co#plainant or the respon&ent &urin' the investi'ation in case of nee& for such assistanceSEC.Service or dismissal.Investigation.

The !nvesti'ator shall ter#inate the investi'ation (ithin three (2) #onths fro# the &ate of its co##ence#ent" unless e1ten&e& for 'oo& cause $% the )oar& of Covernors upon prior application8illful failure to refusal to o$e% a su$poena or an% other la(ful or&er issue& $% the !nvesti'ator shall $e &ealt (ith as for in&irect conte#pt of court.5) &a%s fro# its co##ence#ent.+epositions.Such hearin' shall as far as practica$le $e ter#inate& (ithin fifteen (.Thereafter" the !)P )oar& of Covernors shall (ithin a li/e perio& of fifteen (.The correspon&in' char'e shall $e file& $% the !nvesti'ator $efore the !)P )oar& of Covernors (hich shall re>uire the alle'e& conte#nor to sho( cause (ithin ten (.The &ecision of the )oar& upon such revie( shall $e in (ritin' an& shall .A..B...+o &efect in a co#plaint" notice" ans(er" or in the procee&in' or the !nvesti'atorNs Report shall $e consi&ere& as su$stantial unless the )oar& of Covernors" upon consi&erin' the (hole recor&" fin&s that such &efect has resulte& or #a% result in a #iscarria'e of 3ustice" in (hich event the )oar& shall ta/e such re#e&ial action as the circu#stances #a% (arrant" inclu&in' invali&ation of the entire procee&in'sSEC.2+ot later than thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the ter#ination of the investi'ation" the !nvesti'ator shall su$#it a report containin' his fin&in's of fact an& reco##en&ations to the !)P )oar& of Covernors" to'ether (ith the steno'raphic notes an& the transcript thereof" an& all the evi&ence presente& &urin' the investi'ationThe su$#ission of the report nee& not a(ait the transcription of the steno'raphic notes" it $ein' sufficient that the report repro&uce su$stantiall% fro# the !nvesti'atorNs personal notes an% relevant an& pertinent testi#oniesSEC.The !)P )oar& of Covernors #a% thereafter con&uct hearin's" if necessar%" in accor&ance (ith the proce&ure set forth in this Rule for hearin's $efore the !nvesti'ator.Review and decision by the 1oard of -overnors.5) &a%s issue a resolution settin' forth its fin&in's an& reco##en&ations" (hich shall forth(ith $e trans#itte& to the Supre#e Court for final action an& if (arrante&" the i#position of penalt%SEC.Report of Investigator..Fepositions #a% $e ta/en in accor&ance (ith the Rules of Court (ith leave of the investi'ators)8ithin the Philippines" &epositions #a% $e ta/en $efore an% #e#$er of the )oar& of Covernors" the Presi&ent of an% Chapter" or an% officer authori5e& $% la( to a&#inister oathsFepositions #a% $e ta/en outsi&e the Philippines $efore a &iplo#atic or consular representative of the Philippine Covern#ent or $efore an% person a'ree& upon $% the parties or &esi'nate& $% the )oar& of CovernorsAn% suita$le #e#$er of the !nte'rate& )ar in the Place (here a &eposition shall $e ta/en #a% $e &esi'nate& $% the !nvesti'ator to assist the co#plainant or the respon&ent in ta/in' a &epositionSEC..0.. (a) Ever% case hear& $% an investi'ator shall $e revie(e& $% the !)P )oar& of Covernors upon the recor& an& evi&ence trans#itte& to it $% the !nvesti'ator (ith his report.+efects...B) &a%s fro# notice.

..Supreme Court Investigators.2@" Section 0?" until further action of the Supre#e Court in the case- .6..!t shall $e pro#ul'ate& (ithin a perio& not e1cee&in' thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the ne1t #eetin' of the )oar& follo(in' the su$#ittal of the !nvesti'atorNs Report($) !f the )oar&" $% the vote of a #a3orit% of its total #e#$ership" &eter#ines that the respon&ent shoul& $e suspen&e& fro# the practice of la( or &is$arre&" it shall issue a resolution settin' forth its fin&in's an& reco##en&ations (hich" to'ether (ith the (hole recor& of the case" shall forth(ith $e trans#itte& to the Supre#e Court for final action(c) !f the respon&ent is e1onerate& $% the )oar& or the &isciplinar% sanction i#pose& $% it is less than suspension or &is$ar#ent (such as a&#onition" repri#an&" or fin&) it shall issue a &ecision e1oneratin' respon&ent or i#posin' such sanction.Suspension of attorney by the Court of (ppeals or a Regional Trial Court..clearl% an& &istinctl% state the facts an& the reasons on (hich it is $ase&.2@" Section 0?" &urin' the pen&enc% of the investi'ation until such suspension is lifte& $% the Supre#e CourtSEC.A cop% of the sa#e shall $e trans#itte& to the Supre#e Court- !" PROCEEDINGS IN T E SUPREME COURT SEC.Suspension of attorney by Supreme Court.5. . . or at the instance of the !)P )oar& of Covernors upon the reco##en&ation of the !nvesti'ators" #a% suspen& an attorne% fro# the practice of his profession for an% of the causes specifie& in Rule ... 2The Court of Appeals or Re'ional Trial Court #a% suspen& an attorne% fro# practice for an% of the causes na#e& in Rule .!n procee&in's initiate& motu proprio $% the Supre#e Court or in other procee&in's (hen the interest of 3ustice so re>uires" the Supre#e Court #a% refer the case for investi'ation to the Solicitor Ceneral or to an% officer of the Supre#e Court or 3u&'e of a lo(er court" in (hich case the investi'ation shall procee& in the sa#e #anner provi&e& in sections 6 to .5) &a%s fro# notice of the )oar&Ns resolution" the Supre#e Court or&ers other(ise(&) +otice of the resolution or &ecision of the )oar& shall $e 'iven to all parties throu'h their counsel. )ase& upon the evi&ence a&&uce& at the investi'ation" the Solicitor Ceneral or other !nvesti'ator &esi'nate& $% the Supre#e Court shall su$#it to the Supre#e Court a report containin' his fin&in's of fact an& reco##en&ations to'ether (ith the recor& an& all the evi&ence presente& in the investi'ation for the final action of the Supre#e Court- C" COMMON PROVISIONS SEC.The case shall $e &ee#e& ter#inate& unless upon petition of the co#plainant or other intereste& part% file& (ith the Supre#e Court (ithin fifteen (.After receipt of respon&entNs ans(er or lapse of the perio& therefor" the Supre#e Court" motu proprio. hereof" save that the revie( of the report of investi'ation shall $e con&ucte& &irectl% $% the Supre#e CourtSEC.2.4.Report of the Solicitor -eneral or other Court designated Investigator.

A...Upon such suspension" the Court of Appeals or a Re'ional Trial Court shall forth(ith trans#it to the Supre#e Court a certifie& cop% of the or&er of suspension an& a full state#ent of the facts upon (hich the sa#e (as $ase&Upon receipt of such certifie& cop% an& state#ent" the Supre#e Court shall #a/e a full investi'ation of the case an& #a% revo/e" shorten or e1ten& the suspension" or &is$ar the attorne% as the facts #a% (arrantSEC./1ar !atter %o..Upon the filin' of the respon&entNs co##ent" or upon the e1piration of the ti#e for filin' the sa#e an& unless other .*ffectivity and Transitory $rovision..Confidentiality.penses.A@@ an& shall superse&e the present Rule . >9FF.The co#plaint shall $e in (ritin' an& shall state clearl% an& concisel% the acts an& o#issions constitutin' violations of stan&ar&s of con&uct prescri$e& for Hu&'es $% la(" the Rules of Court" or the Co&e of Hu&icial Con&uctSEC.3ow instituted.0..@.2A entitle& MF!S)AR9E+T OR SUSPE+S!O+ OF ATTOR+ERS-M All cases pen&in' investi'ation $% the Office of the Solicitor Ceneral shall $e transferre& to the !nte'rate& )ar of the Philippines )oar& of Covernors for investi'ation an& &isposition as provi&e& in this Rule e1cept those cases (here the investi'ation has $een su$stantiall% co#plete&. DG=. Resolution (pril >D.*." .Procee&in's a'ainst attorne%s shall $e private an& confi&ential.'pon suspension by Court of (ppeals or Regional Trial Court. further proceedings in Supreme Court.2.All reasona$le an& necessar% e1penses incurre& in relation to &isciplinar% an& &is$ar#ent procee&in's are la(ful char'es for (hich the parties #a% $e ta1e& as costsSEC.B) &a%s fro# the &ate of service..(ction on the complaint.2This Rule shall ta/e effect on Hune ..Other(ise" the sa#e shall $e &is#isse&SEC..?.0 RULE 140 DISCIPLINE OF $UDGES OF REGULAR AND SPECIAL COURTS AND $USTICES OF T E COURT OF APPEALS AND T E SANDIGAN!AYAN SECT!O+ .Procee&in's for the &iscipline of Hu&'es of re'ular an& special courts an& Hustices of the Court of Appeals an& the San&i'an$a%an #a% $e institute& motu proprio $% the Supre#e Court or upon a verifie& co#plaint" supporte& $% affi&avits of persons (ho have personal /no(le&'e of the facts alle'e& therein or $% &ocu#ents (hich #a% su$stantiate sai& alle'ations" or upon an anon%#ous co#plaint" supporte& $% pu$lic recor&s of in&u$ita$le inte'rit%.!f the co#plaint is sufficient in for# an& su$stance" a cop% thereof shall $e serve& upon the respon&ent" an& he shall $e re>uire& to co##ent (ithin ten (.=o(ever" the final or&er of the Supre#e Court shall $e pu$lishe& li/e its &ecisions in other casesSEC. .SEC.0B.1y whom complaint investigated..

+o.Cross #iscon&uct constitutin' violations of the Co&e of Hu&icial Con&uct7 4.The Court shall ta/e such action on the report as the facts an& the la( #a% (arrantSEC.Partisan political activities7 an& Alcoholis# an&Jor vicious ha$its- .2B.Cross i'norance of the la( or proce&ure7 ...Ono(in'l% ren&erin' an un3ust 3u&'#ent or or&er as &eter#ine& $% a co#petent court in an appropriate procee&in'7 5.5.!##oralit%7 A.A&#inistrative char'es are classifie& as serious" less serious" or li'htSEC.8ithin thirt% (2B) fro# the ter#ination of the investi'ation" the investi'atin' Hustice or Hu&'e shall su$#it to the Supre#e Court a report containin' fin&in's of fact an& reco##en&ation.3earing. The !nvesti'atin' Hustice or Hu&'e shall ter#inate the investi'ation (ithin ninet% (AB) &a%s fro# the &ate of its co##ence#ent or (ithin such e1tension as the Supre#e Court #a% 'rantSEC.plea&in's or &ocu#ents are re>uire&" the Court shall refer the #atter to the Office of the Court A&#inistrator for evaluation" report" an& reco##en&ation or assi'n the case for investi'ation" report" an& reco##en&ation to a retire& #e#$er of the Supre#e Court" if the respon&ent is a Hustice of the Court of Appeals an& the Sandiganbayan" or to a Hustice of the Court of Appeals" if the respon&ent is a Hu&'e of a Re'ional Trial Court or of a special court of e>uivalent ran/ or" to a Hu&'e of the Re'ional Trial Court if the respon&ent is a Hu&'e of an inferior courtSEC 4.(ction..!f" after &ue notice" the respon&ent fails to appear" the investi'ation shall" procee& e.8illful failure to pa% a 3ust &e$t7 ?.?.B.The investi'atin' Hustice or Hu&'e shall set a &a% for the hearin' an& sen& notice thereof to $oth patties.At such hearin'" the parties #a% present oral an& &ocu#entar% evi&ence.@. parte.Serious char'es inclu&e* ...Fishonest% an& violations of the Anti<Craft an& Corrupt Practices La( (R-A.)ri$er%" &irect or in&irect7 0.6.A)7 2.Report..Classification of charges.Serious charges.Conviction of a cri#e involvin' #oral turpitu&e7 6.)orro(in' #one% or propert% fro# la(%ers an& liti'ants in a case pen&in' $efore the court7 @.The report shall $e confi&ential an& shall $e for e1clusive use of the CourtSEC..The report shall $e acco#panie& $% the recor& containin' the evi&ence an& the plea&in's file& $% the parties.

A fine of not less than P.Suspension fro# office (ithout salar% an& other $enefits for #ore than three (2) $ut not e1cee&in' si1 (6) #onths7 or 2..A fine of #ore than P.A fine of #ore than P0B"BBB-BB $ut not e1cee&in' P4B-BBB-BB).Un&ue &ela% in ren&erin' a &ecision or or&er" or in trans#ittin' the recor&s of a case7 0..Fre>uent an& un3ustifie& a$sences (ithout leave or ha$itual tar&iness7 2..Si#ple 9iscon&uctSEC.!f the respon&ent is 'uilt% of a less serious char'e" an% of the follo(in' sanctions shall $e i#pose&* .Receivin' authori5e& $% la(7 6.7ess Serious Charges.SEC.!f the respon&ent is 'uilt% of a serious char'e" an% of the follo(in' sanctions #a% $e i#pose&* .Unauthori5e& practice of la(7 4iolation of Supre#e Court rules" &irectives" an& circulars7 a&&itional or &ou$le co#pensation unless specificall% 5.B.Fraterni5in' (ith la(%ers an& liti'ants (ith pen&in' caseJcases in his court7 an& 4..Ca#$lin' in pu$lic7 2.A..Fis#issal fro# the service" forfeiture of all or part of the $enefits as the Court #a% &eter#ine" an& &is>ualification fro# reinstate#ent or appoint#ent to an% pu$lic office" inclu&in' 'overn#ent<o(ne& or controlle& corporations* Provi&e&" ho(ever" that the forfeiture of $enefits shall in no case inclu&e accrue& leave cre&its7 0..7ight Charges.) nor #ore than three (2) #onths7 or 0.!f the respon&ent is 'uilt% of a li'ht char'e" an% of the follo(in' sanctions shall $e i#pose&* .Censure7 ..A.B"BBB-BB $ut not e1cee&in' P0B"BBB-BBC.Suspension fro# office (ithout salar% an& other $enefits for not less than one (.Li'ht char'es inclu&e* ..."BBB-BB $ut not e1cee&in' P.Sanctions.Less serious char'es inclu&e* ..B"BBB-BB an&Jor7 0.ul'ar an& un$eco#in' con&uct7 0.Un&ue &ela% in the su$#ission of #onthl% reportsSEC.Untruthful state#ents in the certificate of service7 an& ?..

4.st &a% of 9arch .The fees collecte& shall accrue to the 'eneral fun&.2Upon the filin' of the plea&in' or other application (hich initiates an action or procee&in'" the fees prescri$e& therefor shall $e pai& in full(n) SEC.0..Cler)s of the Court of (ppeals and of the Supreme Court.Procee&in's a'ainst Hu&'es of re'ular an& special courts an& Hustices of the Court of Appeals an& the San&i'an$a%an shall $e private an& confi&ential" $ut a cop% of the &ecision or resolution of the Court shall $e attache& to the recor& of the respon&ent in the Office of the Court A&#inistrator- RULE 141 3 LEGAL FEES SECT!O+ .The persons herein authori5e& to collect le'al fees shall $e accounta$le officers an& shall $e re>uire& to post $on& in such a#ount as prescri$e& $% la(.+o..0.$ayment of fees.2.<SC" (hich too/ effect on the .$ersons authori5ed to collect legal fees.a) SEC." 0BBB- .28here the court in its final 3u&'#ent a(ar&s a clai# not alle'e&" or a relief &ifferent fro# or #ore than that clai#e& in the plea&in'" the part% concerne& shall pa% the a&&itional fees (hich shall constitute a lien on the 3u&'#ent in satisfaction of sai& lien. .2.Confidentiality of proceedings.(n) SEC. (a) For filin' an action" procee&in'" appeal $% notice or recor& on appeal (hen re>uire&" enterin' appearance of the parties" enterin' or&ers of the court" filin' an& &oc/etin' all #otions" &oc/etin' of case on all proper &oc/ets" an& in&e1in' the sa#e" enterin'" recor&in' an& certification of 3u&'#ent an& re#an&in' of recor&s to the lo(er court" ta1in' an& costs" a&#inisterin' all necessar% oaths or affir#ations in the action or procee&in'" recor&in' the opinion of the court" an& issuin' all necessar% process in the action or procee&in' not herein other(ise provi&e& for" each action or special procee&in'" five hun&re& (P5BB-BB) pesos7 Q As a#en&e& $% A-9.The cler/ of court shall assess an& collect the correspon&in' fees.BB<0<B.=o(ever" all increases in the le'al fees prescri$e& in a#en&#ents to this rule as (ell as ne( le'al fees prescri$e& herein shall pertain to the Hu&iciar% Fevelop#ent Fun& as esta$lishe& $% la(.All fees so collecte& shall $e forth(ith re#itte& to the Supre#e Court.A&#onition (ith (arnin'SEC.(.Repri#an&7 4.E1cept as other(ise provi&e& in this rule" the officers an& persons hereinafter #entione&" to'ether (ith their assistants an& &eputies" #a% &e#an&" receive" an& ta/e the several fees hereinafter #entione& an& allo(e& for an% $usiness $% the# respectivel% &one $% virtue of their several offices" an& no #ore..4ees as lien. .

-5T) percent upon all su#s in e1cess of four thousan& P4"BBB-BB pesos an& one (.(0a) SEC.The fees of the cler/ of the Court of Appeals or of the Supre#e Court shall $e pai& hi# at the ti#e of the entr% of the action or procee&in' in the court $% the part% (ho enters the sa#e $% appeal" or other(ise" an& the cler/ shall in all cases 'ive a receipt for the sa#e an& shall enter the a#ount receive& upon his $oo/" specif%in' the &ate (hen receive&" person fro# (ho# receive&" na#e of action in (hich receive&" an& a#ount receive&.4ees to be paid by the advancing party.4ees of bar candidates.. (a) For filin' the application for a&#ission to the $ar" (hether a&#itte& to the e1a#ination or not" one thousan& seven hun&re& fift% (P..!f the fees are not pai&" the court #a% refuse to procee& (ith the action until the% are pai& an& #a% &is#iss the appeal or the action or procee&in'.T) percent on all su#s in e1cess of fort% thousan& (P4B-BBB-BB) pesos.BB-BB 4.5-BB) pesos7 (f) For a co##ission on all #one% co#in' into his han&s $% these rules or or&er of the court an& carin' for the sa#e" t(o an& one<half (0-5T) percent on all su#s not e1cee&in' four thousan& (P4"BBB-BB) pesos an& one an& one<half (. For the issuance of* ."?5B-BB) pesos7 (c) Other )ar Fees.5. ."?5B-BB) pesos for ne( applicants an& for repeaters" plus the a&&itional a#ount of t(o hun&re& (P0BB-BB) pesos #ultiplie& $% the nu#$er of ti#es the applicant has faile& in the $ar e1a#inations7 ($) For a&#ission to the $ar" inclu&in' oath ta/in'" si'nin' of the roll of attorne%s" the issuance of &iplo#a of a&#ission to the Philippine )ar" one thousan& an& seven hun&re& fift% (P.Certificate of 'oo& stan&in' (forei'n) --------------------------------------.Certificate of 'oo& stan&in' (local) ------------------------------------------5B-BB 2.Certification of a&#ission to the Philippine )arU----------------.P 5B-BB 0..($) For the perfor#ance of #arria'e cere#on%" inclu&in' issuance of certificate of #arria'e" three hun&re& (P2BB-BB) pesos7 (c) For furnishin' transcripts of the recor& or copies of an% recor&" 3u&'#ent" or entr% of (hich an% person is entitle& to &e#an& an& receive a cop%" for each pa'e" four (P4-BB) pesos7 (&) For each certificate not on process" thirt% (P2B-BB) pesos7 (e) For ever% search for an%thin' a$ove a %earNs stan&in' an& rea&in' the sa#e" fifteen (P.erification of #e#$ership in the $ar------------------------------------------ .(2a) SEC.6.

"5BB-BB 5.P.Other certification of recor&s at the )ar Office" per pa'e ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.P 5BB-BB 0.P.BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P.Certificate of 'ra&es in the $ar e1a#inations ----------------------------5B-BB 6.P0BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P05B"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU----------------.P25B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut not #ore than .------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5BB-BB For services in connection (ith the return of e1a#ination note$oo/s to e1a#inees" a fee of thirt% (P2B-BB) pesos shall also $e char'e&..co#plaint" or a co#plaint in intervention" an& for all clerical services in the sa#e" if the total<su# clai#e&" e1clusive of interest" or the state& value of the propert% in liti'ation" is* .5B-BB 5.5B"BBB-BB -------------@BB-BB 2.P2BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P25B"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU---------------0"BBB-BB ?.5B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P0BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU-------------..5-BB ?-A &uplicate &iplo#a of a&#ission to the Philippine )ar ..(6a) SEC."?5B-BB 6. (a) For filin' an action or a per#issive counter<clai# or #one% clai# a'ainst an estate not $ase& on 3u&'#ent" or for filin' (ith leave of court a thir&<part%" fourth< part%" etc.BB"BBB-BB --------------------------------------------------------.P05B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P2BB-BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU-------------.."BBB-BB 4.Less than P..?Cler)s of Regional Trial Courts.

.P..P 6BB-BB 0.All other actions not involvin' propert% --------------------------------------6BB-BB !n a real action" the assesse& value of the propert%" or if there is none" the esti#ate& value" thereof shall $e alle'e& $% the clai#ant an& shall $e the $asis in co#putin' the fees(c) For filin' re>uests for e1tra3u&icial foreclosure of real estate or chattel #ort'a'e" if the a#ount of the in&e$te&ness" or the #ort'a'eeNs clai#" is* ."05B-BB .Special civil actions e1cept 3u&icial foreclosure of #ort'a'e (hich shall $e 'overne& $% para'raph (a) a$ove --------------------------------------------6BB-BB 2.P4BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU---------------0"05B-BB @.B-BB ($) For filin'* ..P5B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P.65B-BB 5.P.Actions (here the value of the su$3ect #atter cannot $e esti#ate& UUU--------------------------------------------------------------------."BBB-BB 6.P05B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P2BB"BBB-BB ---------------------------------------------------------------------.Less than P5B"BBB-BB ------------------------------------------------------.For each P.BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P.5B"BBB-BB-------------------------------------------------------------------------.5BB-BB 4.."BBB-BB in e1cess of P4BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU-------------------.P0BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P05B"BBB-BB----------------------------------------------------------------------.BB"BBB-BB---------------------------------------------------------------------------4BB-BB 2.5B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P0BB"BBB-BB------------------------------------------------------------------------..P 0?5-BB 0.

5B"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU-UU-U-P0"BBB-BB 0..P2BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P25B-BBB-BBUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU-U---.B.P2BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P4BB"BBB-BB ---------------------------------------------------------------------.2"BBB-BB 6.P5BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P.For each P.P.05B-BB 2."BBB"BBB-BB---------------------------------------------------------------------------."?5B-BB A."BBB-BB in e1cess of P4BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUU--UUUUUU------------------.?.BB"BBB-BB $ut less than P.P0BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P05B"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU---.0"5BB-BB 4.B-BB !f the value of the estate as &efinitel% appraise& $% the courts is #ore than ."5BB-BB @.For each P.P..BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut not #ore than P4BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU--U--U 2"05B-BB ?.5B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P0BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU----------."BBB"BBB-BB-------------------------------------------------------------------.P4BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than 5BB"BBB-BB--------------------------------------------------------------------------."BBB-BB in e1cess of P.B-BB (&) For initiatin' procee&in's for the allo(ance of (ills" 'rantin' letters of a&#inistration" appoint#ent of 'uar&ians" trustees" an& other special procee&in's" the fees pa%a$le shall $e collecte& in accor&ance (ith the value of the propert% involve& in the procee&in's" (hich #ust $e state& in the application or petition" as follo(s* .9ore than P.0"?5B-BB 5.P05B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P2BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU---.0"BBB-BB .

.T) per centu# on all su#s in e1cess of fort% thousan& (P4B"BBB-BB) pesos7 (l) For an% other services as cler/ not provi&e& in this section" one hun&re& an& fift% (.9ore than P.Cler)s of Courts of the 4irst 7evel.@.the value &eclare& in the application" the &ifference of fee shall $e pai&7 provi&e&" that a certificate fro# the cler/ of court that the proper fees have $een pai& shall $e re>uire& prior to the closure of the procee&in's(e) For filin' petitions for naturali5ation or other #o&es of ac>uisition of citi5enship" t(o thousan& (P0"BBB-BB) pesos7 (f) For filin' petitions for a&option" support" annul#ent of #arria'e" le'al separation an& other actions or procee&in's un&er the Fa#il% Co&e" t(o hun&re& (P0BB-BB) pesos7 !f the procee&in's involve separation of propert%" an a&&itional fee correspon&in' to the value of the propert% involve& shall $e collecte&" co#pute& in accor&ance (ith the rates for special procee&in's(') For all other special procee&in's not concernin' propert% t(o hun&re& (P0BB-BB) pesos7 (h) For the perfor#ance of #arria'e cere#on% inclu&in' issuance of certificate of #arria'e" three hun&re& (P2BB-BB) pesos7 (i) For filin' an application for co##ission as notar% pu$lic" five hun&re& (P5BB-BB) pesos7 (3) For certifie& copies of an% paper" recor&" &ecree" 3u&'#ents or entr% thereof for each pa'e" four (P4-BB) pesos an& fifteen (P.5-BB) pesos for certification7 (/) For a co##ission on all #one% co#in' into the cler/sN han&s $% la(" rule" or&er or (rit of court an& carin' for the sa#e" one an& one<half (.+ot #ore than P0B"BBB-BB U---------------------------------------------P .5BB-BB 2.2 (a) For each civil action or procee&in'" (here the value of the su$3ect #atter involve&" or the a#ount of the &e#an&" inclusive of interest" &a#a'es of (hatever /in&" attorne%Ns fees" liti'ation e1penses" an& costs" is* .(?a) SEC.5B-BB 0.-5T) per centu# on all su#s not e1cee&in' fort% thousan& (P4B"BBB-BB) pesos" an& one (.BB"BBB-BB -------------------------------------------------------------------------.BB"BBB-BB $ut not #ore than P0BB"BBB-BBU---------------------------------------------------------------------.9ore than P0B"BBB-BB $ut not #ore than P."05B-BB .5B-BB) pesos shall $e collecte&.

9ore than P2BB"BBB-BB $ut not #ore than P4BB"BBB-BB U------------------------------------------------------------------.0"5BB-BB !n a real action" other than for forci$le entr% an& unla(ful &etainer" the assesse& value of the propert% or if not &eclare& for ta1ation purposes" the assesse& value of the a&3acent lots" or if there is none" the esti#ate& value thereof shall $e alle'e& $% the clai#ant an& shall $e the $asis in co#putin' the fees($) For initiatin' procee&in's for the allo(ance of (ills" 'rantin' of letters of a&#inistration an& settle#ent of estates of s#all value" (here the value of the estate is* .5B-BB) pesos7 (&) For appeals in all actions or procee&in's" inclu&in' forci$le entr% an& &etainer cases" ta/en fro# courts of first level" t(o hun&re& (P0BB-BB) pesos7 (e) For the perfor#ance of #arria'e cere#on%" inclu&in' issuance of certificate of #arria'e" three hun&re& (P2BB-BB) pesos7 (f) (') For ta/in' affi&avit" t(ent%<five (P05-BB) pesos7 For ta/in' ac/no(le&'#ent" thirt% (P2B-BB) pesos7 (h) For ta/in' an& certif%in' &epositions" inclu&in' oath" per pa'e" ei'ht (P@-BB) pesos7 (i) (3) For certifie& copies of an% recor&" per pa'e" ten (P."?5B-BB 5.9ore than P0BB"BBB-BB $ut not #ore than 2BB"BBB-BB U-----------------------------------------------------------------------.BB"BBB-BB $ut not #ore than P0BB"BBB-BB -------------------------------------------------------------------------0"BBB-BB 4.4.B-BB) pesos7 For sta#pin' an& re'isterin' $oo/s as re>uire& $% Articles nineteen ."25B-BB 2.9ore than P.P 05B-BB 0.9ore than P0B"BBB-BB $ut not #ore than P.+ot #ore than P0B"BBB-BB -------------------------------------------------.For each procee&in' other than the allo(ance of (ills (pro$ate)" 'rantin' a letter of a&#inistration" settle#ent of estate of s#all value" t(o hun&re& (P0BB-BB) pesos- (c) For forci$le entr% an& unla(ful &etainer cases" one hun&re& an& fift% (P..BB"BBB-BB -------------------------------------------------------------------------.

5B-BB) pesos per &a% of actual inventor% (or/7 (3) For lev%in' on e1ecution on personal or real propert%" sevent%<five (P?5-BB) pesos7 (/) pesos7 (l) For #one% collecte& $% hi# $% or&er" e1ecution" attach#ent" or an% other process" 3u&icial or e1tra3u&icial" the follo(in'" to (it* .On all su#s in e1cess of four thousan& (P4"BBB-BB) pesos" t(o an& one< half (0-5T) per centu#!n a&&ition to the fees hereina$ove fi1e&" the part% re>uestin' the process of an% court" preli#inar%" inci&ental" or final" shall pa% the sheriffs e1penses in servin' or e1ecutin' the process" or safe'uar&in' the propert%" levie& upon" attache& or sei5e&" inclu&in' /ilo#etra'e for each /ilo#eter of travel" 'uar&sN fees" (arehousin' an& si#ilar char'es" in an a#ount esti#ate& $% the sheriff" su$3ect to the approval of the courtUpon approval of sai& esti#ate& e1penses" the intereste& part% shall &eposit such a#ount (ith the cler/ of court an& e. (a) For servin' su##ons an& cop% of co#plaint" for each &efen&ant" si1t% (P6B-BB) pesos7 ($) For servin' su$poenas in civil action or procee&in'" for each (itness to $e serve&" t(ent%<four (04-BB) pesos7 (c) For e1ecutin' a (rit of attach#ent a'ainst the propert% of &efen&ant" si1t% (P6B-BB) pesos7 (&) For servin' a te#porar% restrainin' or&er" or (rit of in3unction" preli#inar% or final" of an% court" si1t% (P6B-BB) pesos7 (e) For e1ecutin' a (rit of replevin" si1t% (P6B-BB) pesos7 (f) For filin' $on&s or other instru#ents or securit% in provisional re#e&ies" for each $on& or instru#ent" fift% (P5B-BB) pesos7 (') For e1ecutin' a (rit or process to place a part% in possession of real estates" one hun&re& an& fift% (P.On the first four thousan& (P4"BBB-BB) pesos" five (5T) per centu#7 0..A.5B-BB) pesos7 (h) For a&vertisin' a sale" $esi&es cost of pu$lication" sevent%<five (P?5-BB) pesos7 (i) For ta/in' inventor% of 'oo&s levie& upon (hen the inventor% is or&ere& $% the court" one hun&re& an& fift% (P.an& thirt%<si1 of the Co&e of Co##erce" each $oo/" thirt% (P2B-BB) pesos7 (/) For perfor#in' notarial acts for (hich fees are not specificall% fi1e& in this section" the sa#e fees (hich notaries pu$lic are entitle& to receive.(@a) SEC. officio sheriff" (ho shall &is$urse the sa#e to the For issuin' a notice of 'arnish#ent" for each notice" thirt% (P2B-BB) .Sheriffs and other persons serving processes..

Stenographers.0.An% unspent a#ount shall $e refun&e& to the part% #a/in' the &eposit.+o notar% pu$lic shall char'e or receive for an% service ren&ere& $% hi# an% fee" re#uneration or co#pensation in e1cess of those e1pressl% prescri$e& in the follo(in' sche&ule* (a) For protests of &rafts" $ills of e1chan'e" or pro#issor% notes for nonacceptance or nonpa%#ent" an& for notice thereof" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 ($) For the re'istration of such protest an& filin' or safe/eepin' of the sa#e" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 (c) For authenticatin' po(ers of attorne%" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 (&) For s(orn state#ent concernin' correctness of an% account for other &ocu#ent" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 (e) For each oath of affir#ation" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 (f) For receivin' evi&ence of in&e$te&ness to $e sent outsi&e" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 (') For issuin' a certifie& cop% of all or part of his notarial re'ister or notarial recor&s" for each pa'e" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 (h) an& (i) For ac/no(le&'in' other &ocu#ents not enu#erate& in this section" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos.. however.A full report shall $e su$#itte& $% the &eput% sheriff assi'ne& (ith his return" an& the sheriffs e1penses shall $e ta1e& as costs a'ainst the 3u&'#ent &e$tor-(Aa) SEC....Other officers ta/in' &epositions shall receive the sa#e co#pensation as a$ove provi&e& for notaries pu$lic for ta/in' an& certif%in' &epositions.&eput% sheriff assi'ne& to effect the process" su$3ect to li>ui&ation (ithin the sa#e perio& for ren&erin' a return on the process..B.(..(a) 8itnesses in the Supre#e Court" in the Court of Appeals an& in the Re'ional Trial Courts" either in actions or special procee&in's" shall $e entitle& to one hun&re& (P.BB-BB) pesos per &a% inclusive of travel ti#e7 ($) 8itnesses $efore courts of the first level shall $e allo(e& fift% (P5B-BB) pesos per &a%7 (c) Fees to (hich (itnesses #a% $e entitle& in a civil action shall $e allo(e&" on the For ta/in' &epositions" for each pa'e" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 .(.Ba) SEC.B) SEC...Steno'raphers shall 'ive certifie& transcript of notes ta/en $% the# to ever% person re>uestin' the sa#e upon pa%#ent of (a) si1 (P6-BB) pesos for each pa'e of not less than t(o hun&re& an& fift% (or&s $efore the appeal is ta/en an& ($) three pesos an& si1t% centavos (P2-6B) for the sa#e pa'e" after the filin' of the appeal* $rovided.. That one<thir& of the total char'es shall $e pai& to the court an& the re#ainin' t(o<thir&s to the steno'rapher concerne&-(.a) SEC..Other officers ta)ing depositions.2.%otaries.#itness fees..

5) SEC.(. .An% actual an& necessar% travelin' e1penses incurre& in the perfor#ance of the &uties of such appraisers #a% li/e(ise $e allo(e& an& pai& out of the estate.BB-BB) pesos per &a% for the ti#e actuall% an& necessaril% e#plo%e& in the perfor#ance of then &uties an& in #a/in' their reports" (hich fees" in each instance" shall $e pai& out of the estate of the (ar& or &ecease& person" as the case #a% $e.6.4ees of commissioners in eminent domain proceedings.0a) SEC.4ees of appraisers.empt from payment of legal fees.(. .!n&i'ent liti'ants (a) (hose 'ross inco#e an& that of their i##e&iate fa#il% &o not e1cee& four thousan& (P4"BBB-BB) pesos a #onth if resi&in' in 9etro 9anila" an& three thousan& (P2"BBB-BB) pesos a #onth if resi&in' outsi&e 9etro 9anila" an& ($) (ho &o not o(n real propert% (ith an assesse& value of #ore than fift% thousan& (P5B"BBB-BB) pesos shall $e e1e#pt fro# the pa%#ent of le'al feesThe le'al fees shall $e a lien on an% 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in the case favora$l% to the in&i'ent liti'ant" unless the court other(ise provi&esTo $e entitle& to the e1e#ption herein provi&e&" the liti'ant shall e1ecute an affi&avit that he an& his i##e&iate fa#il% &o not earn a 'ross inco#e a$ove#entione&" nor the% o(n an% real propert% (ith the assesse& value afore#entione&" supporte& $% an affi&avit of a &isintereste& person attestin' to the truth of the liti'antNs affi&avit- .The cler/" un&er the &irection of the 3u&'e" shall /eep a $oo/ in (hich shall $e entere& the ite#s of fees (hich have accrue& for the transaction of $usiness covere& $% the provisions of this rule" for (hich fees are pa%a$le" specif%in' for (hat $usiness each ti#e of fees has accrue&..4ees..The co##issioners appointe& to #a/e partition of real estate shall each receive a co#pensation of one hun&re& (P..?.Indigent litigants e.@.(.The $oo/ of fees /ept $% the cler/ shall $e su$3ect to the inspection of au&itin' officers an& others intereste& therein.The co##issioners appointe& to appraise lan& sou'ht to $e con&e#ne& for pu$lic uses in accor&ance (ith these rules shall each receive a co#pensation of one hun&re& (P.BB-BB) pesos per &a% for the ti#e actuall% an& necessaril% e#plo%e& in the perfor#ance of their &uties an& in #a/in' their report to the court" (hich fees shall $e ta1e& as a part of the costs of the procee&in's.. and the account thereof..(..a) SEC..(. ..4a) SEC.certification of the cler/ of court or 3u&'e of his appearance in the case.4.A (itness shall not $e allo(e& co#pensation for his atten&ance in #ore than one case or #ore then one si&e of the sa#e case at the sa#e ti#e" $ut #a% elect in (hich of several cases or on (hich si&e of a case" (hen he is su##one& $% $oth si&es" to clai# his atten&anceA person (ho is co#pelle& to atten& court on other $usiness shall not $e pai& as (itness.2a) SEC.Receipts shall $e 'iven for all fees receive& an& the% shall $e accounte& for in the #anner provi&e& in relation to the fees of cler/s of court in actions.BB-BB) pesos per &a% for the ti#e actuall% an& necessaril% e#plo%e& in the perfor#ance of their &uties an& in #a/in' their report to the court" (hich fees shall $e ta1e& as a part of the costs of the procee&in's.5.Appraisers appointe& to appraise the estate of a (ar& or of a &ecease& person shall each receive a co#pensation of one hun&re& (P.4ees of commissioners in proceedings for partition of real estate.

0Less than P.Act +o. (pp.All su#s collecte& shall $e re#itte& to the Fepart#ent of Hustice ever% >uarter $% the Cler/ of Court concerne&(.5B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P0BB"BBB-BB-----------------------------------------------------------------------------."BBB-BB 4P0BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P05B"BBB-BB-----------------------------------------------------------------------------.5) &a%s follo(in' the filin' of the infor#ation that the civil lia$ilit% arisin' fro# the cri#e has $een or (oul& $e separatel% prosecute&* .0"BBB-BB ?P25B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut no #ore than P4BB"BBB-BB------------------------------------------------------------------------------."?5B-BB 6P2BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P25B"BBB-BB------------------------------------------------------------------------------...0 SEC.BB"BBB-BB--------------------------------------------.."5BB-BB 5P05B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P2BB"BBB-BB-----------------------------------------------------------------------------.P 5BB-BB P.0"05B-BB ($) For #otions for postpone#ent after co#pletion of the pre<trial .2The follo(in' fees shall also $e collecte& $% the cler/s of Re'ional Trial Courts or courts of the first level" as the case #a% $e* (a) !n estafa cases (here the offen&e& part% fails to #anifest (ithin fifteen (.(.?2BA shall $e assesse& an& collecte& for the filin' of ever% co#plaint or petition initiatin' an or&inar% civil action" special civil action or special procee&in' in the trial courts inclu&in' civil actions i#plie&l% institute& (ith cri#inal actions un&er Rule ." Revise& Rules of Cri#inal Proce&ure (here a filin' fee is li/e(ise collecte&...An% falsit% in the affi&avit of a liti'ant or &isintereste& person shall $e sufficient cause to stri/e out the plea&in' of that part%" (ithout pre3u&ice to (hatever cri#inal lia$ilit% #a% have $een incurre&.@<A) /Read R( <DE9.0B.5B"BBB-BB-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.A.6a) (Rea& also RAs 6B24 an& 6B25" App-) SEC.Other fees.@BB-BB 2P.!n a&&ition to the fees i#pose& in the prece&in' sections" a victi# co#pensation fee of five (P5-BB) pesos pursuant to Rep..BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P.

.0 RULE 142 COSTS SECT!O+ . 99&F&E>&SC.Costs when appeal frivolous.sta'e" one hun&re& (P..empt. >.A) /(s amended by (dm.0 SEC.4..(.(A9.+o costs shall $e allo(e& a'ainst the Repu$lic of the Philippines unless other(ise provi&e& $% la(SEC.0...0.BB-BB) pesos for the first" an& an a&&itional fift% (P5B-BB) pesos for ever% postpone#ent thereafter $ase& on that for the i##e&iatel% procee&in' #otion* Provi&e&" ho(ever" That no fee shall $e i#pose& (hen the #otion is foun& to $e $ase& on 3ustifia$le an& co#pellin' reason7 (c) For $on&s $% sureties in cri#inal an& civil cases" three hun&re& (P2BB-BB) pesos7 (&) For applications for an& entries of certificates of sale an& final &ee&s of sale in e1tra3u&icial foreclosures of #ort'a'es" three hun&re& (P2BB-BB) pesos7 (e) For applications for an& certificates of sale in notarial foreclosures* .-overnment e.2The Repu$lic of the Philippines" its a'encies an& instru#entalities" are e1e#pt fro# pa%in' the le'al fees provi&e& in this rule.On the first four thousan& (P4-BBB-BB) pesos" five (5T) percent7 0. EE&@&E>&SC. Sept. >999.The a#ount of e1penses so pa%a$le shall $e fi1e& $% the 3u&'e in the trial" an& ta1e& as costs- .!f an action or appeal is &is#isse& for (ant of 3uris&iction or other(ise" the court nevertheless shall have the po(er to ren&er 3u&'#ent for costs" as 3ustice #a% re>uireSEC. %o. !emo.Local 'overn#ents an& 'overn#ent<o(ne& or controlle& corporations (ith or (ithout in&epen&ent charters are not e1e#pt fro# pa%in' such fees.On all su#s in e1cess of four thousan& (P4-BBB-BB) pesos" t(o an& one< half (0-5T) percent. and it too) effect on the >st day of !arch @EEE.Costs ordinarily follow results of suit2'nless other(ise provi&e& in these rules" costs shall $e allo(e& to the prevailin' part% as a #atter of course" $ut the court shall have po(er" for special reasons" to a&3u&'e that either part% shall pa% the costs of an action" or that the sa#e $e &ivi&e&" as #a% $e e>uita$le.#hen action or appeal dismissed..!o.4alse allegations..An aver#ent in a plea&in' #a&e (ithout reasona$le cause an& foun& untrue shall su$3ect the offen&in' part% to the pa%#ent of such reasona$le e1penses as #a% have $een necessaril% incurre& $% the other part% $% reason of such untrue plea&in'.2.8here an action or an appeal is foun& to $e frivolous" &ou$le or tre$le costs #a% $e i#pose& on the plaintiff or appellant" (hich shall $e pai& $% his attorne%" if so or&ere& $% the courtSEC.

!n superior courts" costs shall $e ta1e& $% the cler/ of the correspon&in' court on five &a%sN (ritten notice 'iven $% the prevailin' part% to the a&verse part%.%o costs for irrelevant matters.. how ta..)ut this section shall have no relation to the fees to $e char'e& $% an attorne% as a'ainst his clientSEC.Costs.ed.!n inferior courts" the costs shall $e ta1e& $% the #unicipal or cit% 3u&'e an& inclu&e& in the 3u&'#ent.6.+o attorne%Ns fees shall $e ta1e& as costs a'ainst the a&verse part%" e1cept as provi&e& $% the rules of civil la(.5.!n an action or procee&in' pen&in' $efore a #unicipal or cit% 3u&'e" the prevailin' part% #a% recover the follo(in' costs" an& no other* (a) For the co#plaint or ans(er" t(o pesos7 ($) For the atten&ance of hi#self" or his counsel" or $oth" on the &a% of trial" five pesos7 (c) For each a&&itional &a%Ns atten&ance re>uire& in the actual trial of the case" one peso7 (&) For each (itness pro&uce& $% hi#" for each &a%Ns necessar% atten&ance at the trial" one peso" an& his la(ful travelin' fees7 (e) For each &eposition la(full% ta/en $% hi# an& pro&uce& in evi&ence" five pesos7 (f) nothin'7 For ori'inal &ocu#ents" &ee&s" or papers of an% /in& pro&uce& $% hi#" (') For official copies of such &ocu#ents" &ee&s or papers" the la(ful fees necessaril% pai& for o$tainin' such copies7 (h) The la(ful fees pai& $% hi# for service of the su##ons an& other process in the action7 (i) The la(ful fees char'e& a'ainst hi# $% the 3u&'e of the court in enterin' an& &oc/etin' an& tr%in' the action or procee&in'- .8hen the recor& contains an% unnecessar%" irrelevant" or i##aterial #atter" the part% at (hose instance the sa#e (as inserte& or at (hose instance the sa#e (as printe&" shall not $e allo(e& as costs an% &is$urse#ent for preparin'" certif%in'" or printin' such #atterSEC.8ith this notice shall $e serve& a state#ent of the ite#s of costs clai#e& $% the prevailin' part%" verifie& $% his oath or that of his attorne%O$3ections to the ta1ation shall $e #a&e in (ritin'" specif%in' the ite#s o$3ecte& toEither part% #a% appeal to the court fro# the cler/Ns ta1ation.!f the plaintiff in an% action shall recover a su# not e1cee&in' ten pesos as &e$t or &a#a'es" he shall recover no #ore costs than &e$t or &a#a'es" unless the court shall certif% that the action involve& a su$stantial an& i#portant ri'ht to the plaintiff in (hich case full costs #a% $e allo(e&SEC.Restriction of costs.(ttorneyAs fees as costs.SEC. .@.?. .The costs shall $e inserte& in the 3u&'#ent if ta1e& $efore its entr%" an& pa%#ent thereof shall $e enforce& $% e1ecutionSEC.A.Costs in municipal or city courts. .

Costs when witness fails to appear.Costs in Regional Trial Courts.0..Costs in Court of (ppeals and in Supreme Court.. !n an action or procee&in' pen&in' in the Court of Appeals or in the Supre#e Court" the prevailin' part% #a% recover the follo(in' costs" an& no other* (a) For his o(n atten&ance" an& that of his attorne%" &o(n to an& inclu&in' final 3u&'#ent" thirt% pesos in the Court of Appeals an& fift% pesos in the Supre#e Court7 ($) For official copies of recor& on appeal an& the printin' thereof" an& all other copies re>uire& $% the Rules of Court the su# actuall% pai& for the sa#e7 (c) All la(ful fees char'e& a'ainst hi# $% the cler/ of the Court of Appeals or of the Supre#e Court" in enterin' an& &oc/etin' the action an& recor&in' the procee&in's an& 3u&'#ent therein an& for the issuin' of all process7 (&) +o allo(ance shall $e #a&e to the prevailin' part% in the Supre#e Court or Court of Appeals for the $rief or (ritten or printe& ar'u#ents of his attorne%" or copies thereof" asi&e fro# the thirt% or fift% pesos a$ove state&7 (e) !f testi#on% is receive& in the Supre#e Court or Court of Appeals not ta/en in another court an& trans#itte& thereto" the prevailin' part% shall $e allo(e& the sa#e costs for (itness fees" &epositions" an& process an& service thereof as he (oul& have $een allo(e& for such ite#s ha& the testi#on% $een intro&uce& in a Re'ional Trial Court7 (f) The la(ful fees of a co##issioner in an action #a% also $e ta1e& a'ainst the &efeate& part%" or apportione& as 3ustice re>uiresSEC. . . .!f a (itness fails to appear at the ti#e an& place specifie& in the su$poena issue& $% an% inferior court" the costs of the .B...!n an action or procee&in' pen&in' in a Re'ional Trial Court" the prevailin' part% #a% recover the follo(in' costs" an& no other* (a) For the co#plaint or ans(er" fifteen pesos7 ($) For his o(n atten&ance" an& that of his attorne%" &o(n to an& inclu&in' final 3u&'#ent" t(ent% pesos7 (c) For each (itness necessaril% pro&uce& $% hi#" for each &a%Ns necessar% atten&ance of such (itness at the trial" t(o pesos" an& his la(ful travelin' fees7 (&) For each &eposition la(full% ta/en $% hi#" an& pro&uce& in evi&ence" five pesos7 (e) For ori'inal &ocu#ents" &ee&s" or papers of an% /in& pro&uce& $% hi#" nothin'7 (f) For official copies of such &ocu#ents" &ee&s" or papers" the la(ful fees necessaril% pai& for o$tainin' such copies7 (') The la(ful fees pai& $% hi# in enterin' an& &oc/etin' the action or recor&in' the procee&in's" for the" service of an% process in action" an& all la(ful cler/Ns fees pai& $% hi#SEC..SEC.

.8hen a person is cite&" on #otion of another" to appear $efore the court to $e e1a#ine& in pro$ate procee&in's" the court #a%" in its &iscretion" ta1 costs for the person so cite& an& issue e1ecution therefor" allo(in' the sa#e fees as for (itnesses in Re'ional Trial Court- RULE 143 APPLICA!ILITY OF T E RULES These rules shall not appl% to lan& re'istration" ca&astral an& election cases" naturali5ation an& insolvenc% procee&in's" an& other cases not herein provi&e& for" e1cept $% analo'% or in a suppletor% character an& (henever practica$le an& convenient- RULE 144 EFFECTIVENESS These rules shall ta/e effect on Hanuar% .The% shall 'overn all cases $rou'ht after the% ta/e effect" an& also all further procee&in's in cases then pen&in'" e1cept to the e1tent that in the opinion of the court their application (oul& not $e feasi$le or (oul& (or/ in3ustice" in (hich event the for#er proce&ure shall appl%- ..Costs when person cited for e.amination in probate proceedings.A64.2." .(arrant of arrest an& of the arrest of the (itness shall $e pai& $% the (itness if the court shall &eter#ine that his failure to ans(er the su$poena (as (illful or (ithout 3ust e1cuseSEC.