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Rules of Court

Rules of Court

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Published by: Francisco Montefalco on Nov 15, 2011
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03/31/2014

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RULES OF COURT _________

Pursuant to the provisions of Section 5(5) of Article !!! of the Constitution" the Supre#e Court here$% a&opts an& pro#ul'ates the follo(in' rules concernin' the protection an& enforce#ent of constitutional ri'hts" plea&in'" practice an& proce&ure in all courts" the a&#ission to the practice of la(" the !nte'rate& )ar" an& le'al assistance to the un&erprivile'e&*

RULE 1

GENERAL PROVISIONS
SECT!O+ ,- Title of the Rules-.These Rules shall $e /no(n an& cite& as the Rules of Court- (,) SEC- 0- In what courts applicable-.These rules shall appl% in all courts" e1cept as other(ise provi&e& $% the Supre#e Court- (n) SEC- 2- Cases governed-.These Rules shall 'overn the proce&ure to $e o$serve& in actions" civil or cri#inal" an& special procee&in's(a) A civil action is one $% (hich a part% sues another for the enforce#ent or protection of a ri'ht" or the prevention or re&ress of a (ron'- (,a" R0) A civil action #a% either $e or&inar% or special- )oth are 'overne& $% the rules for or&inar% civil actions" su$3ect to the specific rules prescri$e& for a special civil action- (n) ($) A cri#inal action is one $% (hich the State prosecutes a person for an act or o#ission punisha$le $% la(- (n) (c) A special procee&in' is a re#e&% $% (hich a part% see/s to esta$lish a status" a ri'ht" or a particular fact- (0a" R0) SEC- 4- In what cases not applicable-.These Rules shall not appl% to election cases" lan& re'istration" ca&astral" naturali5ation an& insolvenc% procee&in's" an& other cases not herein provi&e& for" e1cept $% analo'% or in a suppletor% character an& (henever practica$le an& convenient- (R,42a) SEC- 5- Commencement of action-.A civil action is co##ence& $% the filin' of the ori'inal co#plaint in court- !f an a&&itional &efen&ant is i#plea&e& in a later plea&in'" the action is co##ence& (ith re'ar& to hi# on the &ate of the filin' of such later plea&in'" irrespective of (hether the #otion for its a&#ission" if necessar%" is &enie& $% the court- (6a)

SEC- 6- Construction-.These Rules shall $e li$erall% construe& in or&er to pro#ote their o$3ective of securin' a 3ust" spee&% an& ine1pensive &isposition of ever% action an& procee&in'- (0a)

PART I C! !L ACT!O+S
ORDINARY CIVIL ACTIONS

RULE 2

CAUSE OF ACTION
SECT!O+ ,- Ordinary civil actions, basis of..Ever% or&inar% civil action #ust $e $ase& on a cause of action- (n) SEC- 0- Cause of action, defined -.A cause of action is the act or o#ission $% (hich a part% violates a ri'ht of another- (n) SEC- 2- One suit for a single cause of action -.A part% #a% not institute #ore than one suit for a sin'le cause of action- (2a) SEC- 4- Splitting a single cause of action; effect of. .!f t(o or #ore suits are institute& on the $asis of the sa#e cause of action" the filin' of one or a 3u&'#ent upon the #erits in an% one is availa$le as a 'roun& for the &is#issal of the others- (4a) SEC- 5- oinder of causes of action..A part% #a% in one plea&in' assert" in the alternative or other(ise" as #an% causes of action as he #a% have a'ainst an opposin' part%" su$3ect to the follo(in' con&itions* (a) The part% 3oinin' the causes of action shall co#pl% (ith the rules on 3oin&er of parties7 ($) The 3oin&er shall not inclu&e special civil actions or actions 'overne& $% special rules7 (c)8here the causes of action are $et(een the sa#e parties $ut pertain to &ifferent venues or 3uris&ictions" the 3oin&er #a% $e allo(e& in the Re'ional Trial Court provi&e& one of the causes of action falls (ithin the 3uris&iction of sai& court an& the venue lies therein7 an& (&) 8here the clai#s in all the causes of action are principall% for recover% of #one%" the a''re'ate a#ount clai#e& shall $e the test of 3uris&iction(5a)

SEC- 6- !is"oinder of causes of action -.9is3oin&er of causes of action is not a 'roun& for &is#issal of an action- A #is3oine& cause of action #a%" on #otion of a part% or on the initiative of the court" $e severe& an& procee&e& (ith separatel%- (n)

RULE 3

PARTIES TO CIVIL ACTIONS
SECT!O+ ,- #ho may be parties; plaintiff and defendant -.Onl% natural or 3uri&ical persons" or entities authori5e& $% la( #a% $e parties in a civil action- The ter# :plaintiff; #a% refer to the clai#in' part%" the counter<clai#ant" the cross<clai#ant" or the thir& (fourth etc-).part% plaintiff- The ter# :&efen&ant; #a% refer to the ori'inal &efen&in' part%" the &efen&ant in a counterclai#" the cross<&efen&ant" or the thir& (fourth" etc-).part% &efen&ant- (,a) SEC- 0- $arties in interest-.A real part% in interest is the part% (ho stan&s to $e $enefite& or in3ure& $% the 3u&'#ent in the suit" or the part% entitle& to the avails of the suit- Unless other(ise authori5e& $% la( or these Rules" ever% action #ust $e prosecute& or &efen&e& in the na#e of the real part% in interest- (0a)SEC- 2- Representatives as parties- .8here the action is allo(e& to $e prosecute& or &efen&e& $% a representative or so#eone actin' in a fi&uciar% capacit%" the $eneficiar% shall $e inclu&e& in the title of the case an& shall $e &ee#e& to $e the real part% in interest- A representative #a% $e a trustee of an e1press trust" a 'uar&ian" an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" or a part% authori5e& $% la( or these Rules- An a'ent actin' in his o(n na#e an& for the $enefit of an un&isclose& principal #a% sue or $e sue& (ithout 3oinin' the principal e1cept (hen the contract involves thin's $elon'in' to the principal- (2a) SEC- 4- Spouses as parties-.=us$an& an& (ife shall sue or $e sue& 3ointl%" e1cept as provi&e& $% la(- (4a) SEC- 5- !inor or incompetent persons-.A #inor or a person alle'e& to $e inco#petent" #a% sue or $e sue&" (ith the assistance of his father" #other" 'uar&ian" or if he has none" a 'uar&ian ad litem- (5a) SEC- 6- $ermissive "oinder of parties..All persons in (ho# or a'ainst (ho# an% ri'ht to relief in respect to or arisin' out of the sa#e transaction or series of transactions is alle'e& to e1ist" (hether 3ointl%" severall%" or in the alternative" #a% e1cept as other(ise provi&e& in these Rules" 3oin as plaintiffs or $e 3oine& as &efen&ants in one co#plaint" (here an% >uestion of la( or fact co##on to all such plaintiffs or to all such &efen&ants #a% arise in the action7 $ut the court #a% #a/e such or&ers as #a% $e 3ust to prevent an% plaintiff or &efen&ant fro# $ein' e#$arrasse& or put to e1pense in connection (ith an% procee&in's in (hich he #a% have no interest- (6) SEC- ?- Compulsory "oinder of indispensable parties -.Parties in interest (ithout

(ho# no final &eter#ination can $e ha& of an action shall $e 3oine& either s plaintiffs or &efen&ants- (?) SEC- @- %ecessary party-.A necessar% part% is one (ho is not in&ispensa$le $ut (ho ou'ht to $e 3oine& as a part% if co#plete relief is to $e accor&e& as to those alrea&% parties" or for a co#plete &eter#ination or settle#ent of the clai# su$3ect of the action(@a) SEC- A- %on&"oinder of necessary parties to be pleaded -.8henever in an% plea&in' in (hich a clai# is asserte& a necessar% part% is not 3oine&" the plea&er shall set forth his na#e" if /no(n" an& shall state (h% he is o#itte&- Shoul& the court fin& the reason for the o#ission un#eritorious" it #a% or&er the inclusion of the o#itte& necessar% part% if 3uris&iction over his person #a% $e o$taine&The failure to co#pl% (ith the or&er for his inclusion" (ithout 3ustifia$le cause" shall $e &ee#e& a (aiver of the clai# a'ainst such part%The non<inclusion of a necessar% part% &oes not prevent the court fro# procee&in' in the action" an& the 3u&'#ent ren&ere& therein shall $e (ithout pre3u&ice to the ri'hts of such necessar% part%- (@a" Aa) SEC- ,B- 'nwilling co&plaintiff-. !f the consent of an% part% (ho shoul& $e 3oine& as plaintiff can not $e o$taine& " he #a% $e #a&e a &efen&ant an& the reason therefor shall $e state& in the co#plaint- (,B) SEC- ,,- !is"oinder and non&"oinder of parties -.+either #is3oin&er nor non<3oin&er of parties is 'roun& for &is#issal of an action- Parties #a% $e &roppe& or a&&e& $% or&er of the court on #otion of an% part% or on its o(n initiative at an% sta'e of the action an& on such ter#s as are 3ust- An% clai# a'ainst a #is3oine& part% #a% $e severe& an& procee&e& (ith separatel%- (,,a) SEC- ,0- Class suit-.8hen the su$3ect #atter of the controvers% is one of the co##on or 'eneral interest to #an% persons so nu#erous that it is i#practica$le to 3oin all as parties" a nu#$er of the# (hich the court fin&s to $e sufficientl% nu#erous an& representative as to full% protect the interests of all concerne& #a% sue or &efen& for the $enefit of all- An% part% in interest shall have the ri'ht to intervene to protect his in&ivi&ual interest- (,0a) SEC- ,2- (lternative defendants-.8here the plaintiff is uncertain a'ainst (ho of several persons he is entitle& to relief" he #a% 3oin an% or all of the# as &efen&ants in the alternative" althou'h a ri'ht to relief a'ainst one #a% $e inconsistent (ith a ri'ht of relief a'ainst the other- (,2a) SEC- ,4- 'n)nown identity or name of defendant -.8henever the i&entit% or na#e of a &efen&ant is un/no(n" he #a% $e sue& as the un/no(n o(ner" heir" &evisee" or $% such other &esi'nation as the case #a% re>uire7 (hen his i&entit% or true na#e is &iscovere&" the plea&in' #ust $e a#en&e& accor&in'l%- (,4) SEC- ,5- *ntity without "uridical personality as defendant -.8hen t(o or #ore persons not or'ani5e& as an entit% (ith 3uri&ical personalit% enter into a transaction" the% #a% $e sue& un&er the na#e $% (hich the% are 'enerall% or co##onl% /no(n-

!n the ans(er of such &efen&ant the na#es an& a&&resses of the persons co#posin' sai& entit% #ust all $e reveale&- (,5a) SEC- ,6- +eath of party; duty of counsel-.8henever a part% to a pen&in' action &ies" an& the clai# is not there$% e1tin'uishe&" it shall $e the &ut% of his counsel to infor# the court (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after such &eath of the fact thereof" an& to 'ive the na#e an& a&&ress of his le'al representative or representatives- Failure of counsel to co#pl% (ith this &ut% shall $e a 'roun& for &isciplinar% actionThe heirs of the &ecease& #a% $e allo(e& to $e su$stitute& for the &ecease&" (ithout re>uirin' the appoint#ent of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator an& the court #a% appoint a 'uar&ian ad litem for the #inor heirsThe court shall forth(ith or&er sai& le'al representative or representatives to appear an& $e su$stitute& (ithin a perio& of thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# notice!f no le'al representative is na#e& $% the counsel for the &ecease& part% or if the one so na#e& shall fail to appear (ithin the specifie& perio&" the court #a% or&er the opposin' part%" (ithin a specifie& ti#e" to procure the appoint#ent of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator for the estate of the &ecease& an& the latter shall i##e&iatel% appear for an& on $ehalf of the &ecease&- The court char'es in procurin' such appoint#ent" if &efra%e& $% the opposin' part%" #a% $e recovere& as costs- (,6a" ,?a) SEC- ,?- +eath or separation of a party who is a public officer -.8hen a pu$lic officer is a part% in an action in his official capacit% an& &urin' its pen&enc% &ies" resi'ns" or other (ise ceases to hol& office" the action #a% $e continue& an& #aintaine& $% or a'ainst his successor if" (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after the successor ta/es office or such ti#e as #a% $e 'rante& $% the court" it is satisfactoril% sho(n to the court $% an% part% that there is a su$stantial nee& for continuin' or #aintainin' it an& that the successor a&opts or continues or threatens to a&opt or continue the action of his pre&ecessor- )efore a su$stitution is #a&e" the part% or officer to $e affecte&" unless e1pressl% assentin' thereto" shall $e 'iven reasona$le notice of the application therefor an& accor&e& an opportunit% to $e hear&- (,@a) SEC- ,@- Incompetency or incapacity-.!f a part% $eco#es inco#petent or incapacitate&" the court" upon #otion (ith notice" #a% allo( the action to $e continue& $% or a'ainst the inco#petent or incapacitate& person assiste& $% his le'al 'uar&ian or 'uar&ian ad litem- (,Aa) SEC- ,A- Transfer of interest-.!n case of an% transfer of interest" the action #a% $e continue& $% or a'ainst the ori'inal part%" unless the court upon #otion &irects the person to (ho# the interest is transferre& to $e su$stitute& in the action or 3oine& (ith the ori'inal part%- (0B) SEC- 0B- (ction on contractual money claims -.8hen the action is for recover% of #one% arisin' fro# contract" e1press or i#plie&" an& the &efen&ant &ies $efore entr% of final 3u&'#ent in the court in (hich the action (as pen&in' at the ti#e of such &eath" it shall not $e &is#isse& $ut shall instea& $e allo(e& to continue until entr% of final 3u&'#ent- A favora$le 3u&'#ent o$taine& $% the plaintiff therein shall $e enforce& in the #anner especiall% provi&e& in these Rules for prosecutin' clai#s a'ainst the estate of a

.Indigent party-.enue of actions against nonresidents -.0.(02a) RULE 4 VENUE OF ACTIONS SECT!O+ .!f an% of the &efen&ants &oes not resi&e an& is not foun& in the Philippines" an& the action affects the personal status of the plaintiff" or an% propert% of sai& &efen&ant locate& in the Philippines" the action #a% .00.&ecease& person..%otice to the Solicitor -eneral-.(0.DaE" 0DaEa) SEC..!f the pa%#ent is not #a&e (ithin the ti#e fi1e& $% the court" e1ecution shall issue or the pa%#ent thereof" (ithout pre3u&ice to such other sanctions as the court #a% i#pose.A part% #a% $e authori5e& to liti'ate his action" clai# or &efense as an in&i'ent if the court" upon an e.0.(0D$Ea) SEC.!f the court shoul& &eter#ine after hearin' that the part% &eclare& as an in&i'ent is in fact a person (ith sufficient inco#e or propert%" the proper &oc/et an& other la(ful fees shall $e assesse& an& collecte& $% the cler/ of court.a) SEC.The a#ount of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees (hich the in&i'ent (as e1e#pte& fro# pa%in' shall $e a lien on an% 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in the case favora$le to the in&i'ent" unless the court other(ise provi&esAn% a&verse part% #a% contest the 'rant of such authorit% at an% ti#e $efore 3u&'#ent is ren&ere& $% the trial court. parte application an& hearin'" is satisfie& that the part% is one (ho has no #one% or propert% sufficient an& availa$le for foo&" shelter an& $asic necessities for hi#self an& his fa#il%Such authorit% shall inclu&e an e1e#ption fro# pa%#ent of &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" an& of transcripts of steno'raphic notes (hich the court #a% or&er to $e furnishe& hi#.(00a)SEC.enue of personal actions-..(.!n an% action involvin' the vali&it% of an% treat%" la(" or&inance" e1ecutive or&er" presi&ential &ecree" rules or re'ulations" the court" in its &iscretion" #a% re>uire the appearance of the Solicitor Ceneral (ho #a% $e hear& in person or throu'h a representative &ul% &esi'nate& $% hi#.Actions affectin' title to or possession of real propert%" or interest therein" shall $e co##ence& an& trie& in the proper court (hich has 3uris&iction over the area (herein the real propert% involve&" or a portion thereof" is situate&Forci$le entr% an& &etainer actions shall $e co##ence& an& trie& in the #unicipal trial court of the #unicipalit% or cit% (herein the real propert% involve&" or a portion thereof" is situate&.enue of real actions-.2..All other actions #a% $e co##ence& an& trie& (here the plaintiff or an% of the principal plaintiffs resi&es" or (here the &efen&ant or an% of the principal &efen&ants resi&es" or in the case of a non<resi&ent &efen&ant (here he #a% $e foun&" at the election of the plaintiff.

(.!eaning of terms-.The ter# :9unicipal Trial Courts.(. (a) !n those cases (here a specific rule or la( provi&es other(ise7 or ($) 8here the parties have vali&l% a'ree& in (ritin' $efore the filin' of the action on the e1clusive venue thereof.(0DcEa) SEC.part% co#plaint" or co#plaint<in< interventionThe &efenses of a part% are alle'e& in the ans(er to the plea&in' assertin' a clai# a'ainst hi#An ans(er #a% $e respon&e& to $% a repl%. as use& in these Rules shall inclu&e 9etropolitan Trial Courts" 9unicipal Trial Courts in Cities" 9unicipal Trial Courts" an& 9unicipal Circuit Trial Courts.#hen Rule not applicable-.Plea&in's are the (ritten state#ents of the respective clai#s an& &efenses of the parties su$#itte& to the court for appropriate 3u&'#ent.a) SEC.Complaint-.The co#plaint is the plea&in' alle'in' the plaintiffGs cause or causes of action.2.The clai#s of a part% are asserte& in a co#plaint" counterclai#" cross<clai#" thir& (fourth" etc-).'niform procedure-.$e co##ence& an& trie& in the court of the place (here the plaintiff resi&es" or (here the propert% or an% portion thereof is situate& or foun&.$leadings allowed-.4.(2a" 5a) RULE 5 UNIFORM PROCEDURE IN TRIAL COURTS SECT!O+ .(n) SEC.This Rule shall not appl%.a) PROCEFURE !+ REC!O+AL TR!AL COURTS RULE 6 KINDS OF PLEADINGS SECT!O+ .The na#es an& resi&ences of the plaintiff an& &efen&ant #ust $e state& in the co#plaint..(2a) .(n) SEC..$leadings defined-.0.0.The proce&ure in the 9unicipal Trial Courts shall $e the sa#e as in the Re'ional Trial Courts" e1cept (a) (here a particular provision e1pressl% or i#plie&l% applie& onl% to either of sai& courts" or ($) in civil cases 'overne& $% the Rule on Su##ar% proce&ure.

Cross&claim.+efenses-..party complaint-.4.6.A repl% is a plea&in'" the office or function of (hich is to &en%" or alle'e facts in &enial or avoi&ance of ne( #atters alle'e& $% (a% of &efense in the ans(er an& there$% 3oin or #a/e issue as to such ne( #atters.(6a) SEC.1ringing new parties-.(5a) SEC.Fefenses #a% either $e ne'ative or affir#ative(a) A ne'ative &efense is the specific &enial of the #aterial fact or facts alle'e& in the plea&in' of the clai#ant essential to his cause or causes of action($) An affir#ative &efense is an alle'ation of a ne( #atter (hich" (hile h%potheticall% a&#ittin' the #aterial alle'ations in the plea&in' of the clai#ant (oul& nevertheless prevent or $ar recover% $% hi#.(?) SEC.Such cross<clai# #a% inclu&e a clai# that the part% a'ainst (ho# it is asserte& is or #a% $e lia$le to the cross<clai#ant for all or part of a clai# asserte& in the action a'ainst the cross<clai#ant..A thir& (fourth" etc-).0.part% &efen&ant" for contri$ution" in&e#nit%" su$ro'ation or an% other relief" in respect of his opponentGs clai#.(4a) SEC.A counterclai# #a% $e asserte& a'ainst an ori'inal counter<clai#antA cross<clai# #a% also $e file& a'ainst an ori'inal cross<clai#ant.Compulsory counterclaim-.part% co#plaint is a clai# that a &efen&in' part% #a%" (ith leave of court" file a'ainst a person not a part% to the action" calle& the thir& (fourth" etc-).An ans(er is a plea&in' in (hich a &efen&in' part% sets fourth his &efenses.B.Third..(.0a) SEC.SEC.(nswer-.5..The affir#ative &efenses inclu&e frau&" statute of li#itations" release pa%#ent" ille'alit%" statute of frau&s" estoppel" for#er recover%" &ischar'e in $an/ruptc%" an& an% other #atter $% (a% of confession an& avoi&ance.Such a counterclai# #ust $e (ithin the 3uris&iction of the court $oth as to the a#ount an& the nature thereof" e1cept that in an ori'inal action $efore the Re'ional Trial Court" the counterclai# #a% $e consi&ere& co#pulsor% re'ar&less of the a#ount.(.A co#pulsor% counterclai# is one (hich" $ein' co'ni5a$le $% the re'ular courts of 3ustice" arises out of or is connecte& (ith the transaction or occurrence constitutin' the su$3ect #atter of the opposin' part%Gs clai# an& &oes not re>uire for its a&3u&ication the presence of thir& parties of (ho# the court cannot ac>uire 3uris&iction.A counterclai# is an% clai# (hich a &efen&in' part% #a% have a'ainst an opposin' part%.) SEC.A cross<clai# is an% clai# $% one part% a'ainst a co<part% arisin' out of the transaction or occurrence that is the su$3ect #atter either of the ori'inal action or of a counterclai# therein..(n) SEC. /fourth.(n) SEC.Reply-.!f a part% &oes not file such repl%" all the ne( #atters alle'e& in the ans(er are &ee#e& controverte&!f the plaintiff (hishes to interpose an% clai#s arisin' out of the ne( #atters so alle'e& such clai#s shall $e set forth in an a#en&e& or supple#ental co#plaint..Counterclaim-.?.ACounterclaims and counter&cross&claims -.0.. etc.8hen the presence of parties other than those to .@.

.0. an& so on for the others8hen one or #ore para'raphs in the ans(er are a&&resse& to one of several causes of action in the co#plaint" the% shall $e preface& $% the (or&s :ans(er to the first cause of action.(n) RULE 7 PARTS OF A PLEADING SECT!O+ . .The caption sets forth the na#e of the court" the title of the action" an& the &oc/et nu#$er if assi'ne&The title of the action in&icates the na#es of the parties.The% shall all $e na#e& in the ori'inal co#plaint or petition7 $ut in su$se>uent plea&in's" it shall $e sufficient if the na#e of the first part% on each si&e $e state& (ith an appropriate in&ication (hen there are other partiesTheir respective participation in the case shall $e in&icate&.. of the secon& $% :secon& cause of action".part% plaintiff #a% have a'ainst the ori'inal plaintiffGs clai#.The alle'ations in the $o&% of a plea&in' shall $e &ivi&e& into para'raphs so nu#$ere& as to $e rea&il% i&entifie&" each of (hich shall contain a state#ent of a sin'le set of circu#stances so far as that can $e &one (ith convenience. part% &efen&ant #a% alle'e in his ans(er his &efenses" counterclai#s or cross<clai#s" inclu&in' such &efenses that the thir& (fourth" etc-).02party complaint.(.!n proper cases" he #a% also assert a counterclai# a'ainst the ori'inal plaintiff in respect of the latterGs clai# a'ainst the thir&<part% plaintiff.(.(2a) ($) 3eadings2#hen t(o or #ore causes of action are 3oine&" the state#ent of the first shall $e preface& $% the (or&s :first cause of action".2The plea&in' shall specif% the relief sou'ht" $ut it #a% a&& a 'eneral pra%er for such further or other relief as #a% $e &ee#e& 3ust or e>uita$le(2a" R6) . or :ans(er to the secon& cause of action.(n) (a) $aragraphs-.4) SEC.The $o&% of the plea&in' sets forth its &esi'nation" the alle'ations of the part%Gs clai#s or &efenses" the relief pra%e& for" an& the &ate of the plea&in'. an& so on7 an& (hen one or #ore para'raphs of the ans(er are a&&resse& to several causes of action" the% shall $e preface& $% (or&s to that effect.A para'raph #a% $e referre& to $% its nu#$er in all succee&in' plea&in's.2.The body-. etc.the ori'inal action is re>uire& for the 'rantin' of co#plete relief in the &eter#ination of a counterclai# or cross<clai#" the court shall or&er the# to $e $rou'ht in as &efen&ants" if 3uris&iction over the# can $e o$taine&.A thir& (fourth" etc-).(4) (c) Relief.a"0a) SEC.(nswer to third /fourth.Caption-.

Counsel (ho &eli$eratel% files an unsi'ne& plea&in'" or si'ns a plea&in' in violation of this Rule" or alle'es scan&alous or in&ecent #atter therein" or fails to pro#ptl% report to the court a chan'e of his a&&ress" shall $e su$3ect to appropriate &isciplinar% action.Certification against forum shopping. .2Ever% plea&in' #ust $e si'ne& $% the part% or counsel representin' hi#" statin' in either case his a&&ress (hich shoul& not $e a post office $o1The si'nature of counsel constitutes a certificate $% hi# that he has rea& the plea&in'7 that to the $est of his /no(le&'e" infor#ation" an& $elief there is 'oo& 'roun& to support it7 an& that it is not interpose& for &ela%An unsi'ne& plea&in' pro&uces no le'al effect..The su$#ission" of a false certification or non<co#pliance (ith an% of the un&erta/in's therein shall constitute in&irect conte#pt of court" (ithout pre3u&ice to the correspon&in' a&#inistrative an& cri#inal actions.The plaintiff or principal part% shall certif% un&er oath in the co#plaint or other initiator% plea&in' assertin' a clai# for relief" or in a s(orn certification anne1e& thereto an& si#ultaneousl% file& there(ith* (a) that he has not theretofore co##ence& an% action or file& an% clai# involvin' the sa#e issues in an% court" tri$unal or >uasi<3u&icial a'enc% an&" to the $est of his /no(le&'e" no such other action or clai# is pen&in' therein7 ($) if there is such other pen&in' action or clai#" a co#plete state#ent of the present status thereof7 an& (c) if he shoul& thereafter learn that the sa#e or si#ilar action or clai# has $een file& or is pen&in'" he shall report that fact (ithin five (5) &a%s therefro# to the court (herein his aforesai& co#plaint or initiator% plea&in' has $een file&Failure to co#pl% (ith the fore'oin' re>uire#ents shall not $e cura$le $% #ere a#en&#ent of the co#plaint or other initiator% plea&in' $ut shall $e cause for the &is#issal of the case (ithout pre3u&ice" unless other(ise provi&e&" upon #otion an& after hearin'.(4a) SEC.4.(5a) SEC.(n) .2.(n) SEC.(&) +ate.=o(ever" the court #a%" in its &iscretion" allo( such &eficienc% to $e re#e&ie& if it shall appear that the sa#e (as &ue to #ere ina&vertence an& not inten&e& for &ela%.!f the acts of the part% or his counsel clearl% constitute (illful an& &eli$erate foru# shoppin'" the sa#e shall $e 'roun& for su##ar% &is#issal (ith pre3u&ice an& shall constitute &irect conte#pt" as (ell as a cause for a&#inistrative sanctions.erification.2E1cept (hen other(ise specificall% re>uire& $% la( or rule" plea&in's nee& not $e un&er oath" verifie& or acco#panie& $% affi&avitA plea&in' is verifie& $% an affi&avit that the affiant has rea& the plea&in' an& that the alle'ations therein are true an& correct of his personal /no(le&'e or $ase& on authentic recor&sA plea&in' re>uire& to $e verifie& (hich contains a verification $ase& on :infor#ation an& $elief".2Ever% plea&in' shall $e &ate&.Signature and address. or lac/s a proper verification" shall $e treate& as an unsi'ne& plea&in'. or upon :/no(le&'e" infor#ation an& $elief".5.

28hen an action or &efense is foun&e& upon a (ritten instru#ent" copie& in or attache& to the correspon&in' plea&in' as provi&e& in the prece&in' section" the 'enuineness an& &ue e1ecution of the instru#ent shall $e &ee#e& a&#itte& unless the a&verse part%" un&er oath" specificall% &enies .(n) SEC.In general -.(lternative causes of action or defenses.(4) SEC.) !f a &efense relief on is $ase& on la(" the pertinent provisions thereof an& their applica$ilit% to hi# shall $e clearl% an& concisel% state&.9alice" intent" /no(le&'e or other con&ition of the #in& of a person #a% $e averre& 'enerall%.2 !n all aver#ents of frau& or #ista/e" the circu#stances constitutin' frau& or #ista/e #ust $e state& (ith particularit%.Conditions precedent.4.4raud.udgment.Ever% plea&in' shall contain in a #etho&ical an& lo'ical for#" a plain" concise an& &irect state#ent of the ulti#ate facts on (hich the part% plea&in' relies for his clai# or &efense" as the case #a% $e" o#ittin' the state#ent of #ere evi&entiar% facts.2!n plea&in' a 3u&'#ent or &ecision of a &o#estic or forei'n court" 3u&icial or >uasi<3u&icial tri$unal" or of a $oar& or officer" it is sufficient to aver the 3u&'#ent or &ecision (ithout settin' forth #atter sho(in' 3uris&iction to ren&er it.RULE 8 MANNER OF MAKING ALLEGATIONS IN PLEADINGS SECT!O+ .3ow to contest such documents.?.5.(2) SEC.0.2.2Facts sho(in' the capacit% of a part% to sue or $e sue& or the authorit% of a part% to sue or $e sue& in a representative capacit% or the le'al e1istence of an or'ani5e& association of persons that is #a&e a part%" #ust $e averre&.(6) SEC.A part% &esirin' to raise an issue as to the le'al e1istence of an% part% or the capacit% of an% part% to sue or $e sue& in a representative capacit%" shall &o so $% specific &enial" (hich shall inclu&e such supportin' particulars as are peculiarl% (ithin the plea&erGs /no(le&'e. condition of the mind.2 8henever an action or &efense is $ase& upon a (ritten instru#ent or &ocu#ent" the su$stance of such instru#ent or &ocu#ent shall $e set forth in the plea&in'" an& the ori'inal or a cop% thereof shall $e attache& to the plea&in' as an e1hi$it" (hich shall $e &ee#e& to $e a part of the plea&in'" or sai& cop% #a% (ith li/e effect $e set forth in the plea&in'. mista)e.(ction or defense based on document.6.(5a) SEC.(.(?) SEC.2 A part% #a% set forth t(o or #ore state#ents of a clai# or &efense alternativel% or h%potheticall%" either in one cause of action or &efense or in separate causes of action or &efenses.2!n an% plea&in' a 'eneral aver#ent of the perfor#ance or occurrence of all con&itions prece&ent shall $e sufficient.@.Capacity.(0) SEC..8hen t(o or #ore state#ents are #a&e in the alternative an& one of the# if #a&e in&epen&entl% (oul& $e sufficient" the plea&in' is not #a&e insufficient $% the insufficienc% of one or #ore of the alternative state#ents.

!n plea&in' an official &ocu#ent or official act" it is sufficient to aver that the &ocu#ent (as issue& or the act &one in co#pliance (ith la(. declaration of.(4a) SEC..A.(A) SEC.8here a &efen&ant is (ithout /no(le&'e or infor#ation sufficient to for# a $elief as to the truth of a #aterial aver#ent #a&e in the co#plaint" he shall so state" an& this shall have the effect of a &enial.a" RA) SEC.2A &efen&ant #ust specif% each #aterial alle'ation of fact the truth of (hich he &oes not a&#it an&" (henever practica$le" shall set forth the su$stance of the #atters upon (hich he relies to support his &enial.2!f the &efen&in' part% fails to ans(er (ithin the ti#e allo(e& therefor" the court shall" upon #otion of the clai#in' part% (ith notice to the &efen&in' part%" an& proof of such failure" &eclare the &efen&in' part% in &efault- .Fefenses an& o$3ections not plea&e& either in a #otion to &is#iss or in the ans(er are &ee#e& (aive&.2 Upon #otion #a&e $% a part% $efore respon&in' to a plea&in' or" if no responsive plea&in' is per#itte& by these Rules" upon #otion #a&e $% a part% (ithin t(ent% (0B) &a%s after the service of the plea&in' upon hi#" or upon the courtGs o(n initiative at an% ti#e" the court #a% or&er an% plea&in' to $e stric/en out or that an% sha# or false" re&un&ant" i##aterial" i#pertinent" or scan&alous #atter $e stric/en out therefro#..the#" an& sets forth (hat he clai#s to $e the facts7 $ut the re>uire#ent of an oath &oes not appl% (hen the a&verse part% &oes not appear to $e a part% to the instru#ent or (hen co#pliance (ith an or&er for an inspection of the ori'inal instru#ent is refuse&(@a) SEC..(5" RA) RULE 9 EFFECT OF FAILURE TO PLEAD SECT!O+ . or cross&claim.(llegations not specifically denied deemed admitted.2.. not set up barred.Specific denial..0.2 9aterial aver#ent in the co#plaint" other than those as to the a#ount of unli>ui&ate& &a#a'es" shall $e -&ee#e& a&#itte& (hen not specificall% &enie&.B.Stri)ing out of pleading or matter contained therein.+efenses and ob"ections not plea&e&-.8here a &efen&ant &esires to &en% onl% a part of an aver#ent" he shill specif% so #uch of it as is true an& #aterial an& shall &en% onl% the re#ain&er.2 A co#pulsor% counterclai#" or a cross<clai#" not set up shall $e $arre&.+efault.(.=o(ever" (hen it appears fro# the plea&in's or the evi&ence on recor& that the court has no 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter" that there is another action pen&in' $et(een the sa#e parties for the sa#e cause" or that the action is $arre& $% a prior 3u&'#ent or $% statute of li#itations" the court shall &is#iss the clai#.(.Ba) SEC.Compulsory counterclaim.Official document or act.(0a) SEC.0..Alle'ations of usur% in a co#plaint to recover usurious interest are &ee#e& a&#itte& if not &enie& un&er oath..

@) (c) *ffect of partial default.2 A part% &eclare& in &efault #a% at an% ti#e after notice thereof an& $efore 3u&'#ent file a #otion un&er oath to set asi&e the or&er of &efault upon proper sho(in' that his failure to ans(er (as &ue to frau&" acci&ent" #ista/e or e1cusa$le ne'li'ence an& that he has a #eritorious &efense!n such case" the or&er of &efault #a% $e set asi&e on such ter#s an& con&itions as the 3u&'e #a% i#pose in the interest of 3ustice.A part% #a% a#en& his plea&in' once as a #atter of ri'ht at an% ti#e $efore a responsive plea&in' is serve& or" in the case of a repl%" at an% ti#e (ithin ten (.(mendments in general-.tent of relief to be awarded.Plea&in's #a% $e a#en&e& $% a&&in' or stri/in' out an alle'ation or the na#e of an% part%" or $% correctin' a #ista/e in the na#e of a part% or a #ista/en or ina&e>uate alle'ation or &escription in an% other respect" so that the actual #erits of the controvers% #a% spee&il% $e &eter#ine&" (ithout re'ar& to technicalities" an& in the #ost e1pe&itious an& ine1pensive #anner(.) SEC.E1cept as provi&e& in the ne1t prece&in' section" su$stantial a#en&#ents #a% $e #a&e onl% upon leave of court.a" R.0.(0a) SEC.2.(2a" R..@) (&) *.(6a" R.(0a" R.(mendments by leave of court-.2!f the &efen&in' part% in an action for annul#ent or &eclaration of nullit% of #arria'e or for le'al separation fails to ans(er" the court shall or&er the prosecutin' attorne% to investi'ate (hether or not a collusion $et(een the parties e1ists" an& if there is no collusion" to intervene for the State in or&er to see to it that the evi&ence su$#itte& is not fa$ricate&.(5a" R.@) RULE 10 AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADINGS SECT!O+ .Such reception of evi&ence #a% $e &ele'ate& to the cler/ of court(.@) (a) *ffect of order of default.)ut such leave .@) ($) Relief from order of default.B) &a%s after it is serve&.28hen a plea&in' assertin' a clai# states a co##on cause of action a'ainst several &efen&in' parties" so#e of (ho# ans(er an& the others fail to &o so" the court shall tr% the case a'ainst all upon the ans(ers thus file& an& ren&er 3u&'#ent upon the evi&ence presente&.(mendments as a matter of ri'ht-.2 A part% in &efault shall $e entitle& to notice of su$se>uent procee&in's $ut not to ta/e part in the trial.Thereupon" the court shall procee& to ren&er 3u&'#ent 'rantin' the clai#ant such relief as his plea&in' #a% (arrant" unless the court in its &iscretion re>uires the clai#ant to su$#it evi&ence.(4a" R.@) (e) #here no defaults allowed.2 A 3u&'#ent ren&ere& a'ainst a part% in &efault shall not e1cee& the a#ount or $e &ifferent in /in& fro# that pra%e& for nor a(ar& unli>ui&ate& &a#a'es.

6.Supplemental pleadings..The court #a% 'rant a continuance to ena$le the a#en&#ent to $e #a&e.(mendment to conform to or authori5e presentation of evidence -.The &efen&ant shall file his ans(er to the co#plaint (ithin fifteen (. 2 Upon #otion of a part% the court #a%" upon reasona$le notice an& upon such ter#s asG are 3ust" per#it hi# to serve a supple#ental plea&in' settin' forth transactions" occurrences or events (hich have happene& since the &ate of the plea&in' sou'ht to $e supple#ente&.4ormal amendments.8hen issues not raise& $% the plea&in's are trie& (ith the e1press or i#plie& consent of the parties" the% shall $e treate& in all respects as if the% ha& $een raise& in the plea&in'sSuch a#en&#ent of the plea&in's as #a% $e necessar% to cause the# to confor# to the evi&ence an& to raise these issues #a% $e #a&e upon #otion of an% part% at an% ti#e" even after 3u&'#ent7 $ut failure to a#en& &oes not affect the result of the trial of these issues.!f evi&ence is o$3ecte& to at the trial on the 'roun& that it is not (ithin the issues #a&e $% the plea&in's" the court #a% allo( the plea&in's to $e a#en&e& an& shall &o so (ith li$eralit% if the presentation of the #erits of the action an& the en&s of su$stantial 3ustice (ill $e su$serve& there$%.The a&verse part% #a% plea& thereto (ithin ten (.(nswer of a defendant foreign private "uridical entit%-.4.0.@.*ffect of amended pleadings.(4a) SEC.(nswer to the co#plaint-.(5a) SEC.#a% $e refuse& if it appears to the court that the #otion (as #a&e (ith intent to &ela%Or&ers of the court upon the #atters provi&e& in this section shall $e #a&e upon #otion file& in court" an& after notice to the a&verse part%" an& an opportunit% to $e hear&.(6a) SEC.5.(n) RULE 11 W EN TO FILE RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS SECT!O+ .(2a) SEC.(.5) &a%s after service of su##ons" unless a &ifferent perio& is fi1e& $% the court.B) &a%s fro# notice of the or&er a&#ittin' the supple#ental plea&in'.2 8hen an% plea&in' is a#en&e&" a ne( cop% of the entire plea&in'" incorporatin' the a#en&#ents" (hich shall $e in&icate& $% appropriate #ar/s" shall $e file&.2 A &efect in the &esi'nation of the parties an& other clearl% clerical or t%po'raphical errors #a% $e su##aril% correcte& $% the court at an% sta'e of the action" at its initiative or on #otion" provi&e& so pre3u&ice is cause& there$% to the a&verse part%.?.=o(ever" a&#issions in superse&e& plea&in's #a% $e receive& in evi&ence a'ainst the plea&er7 an& clai#s or &efenses alle'e& therein not incorporate& in the a#en&e& plea&in' shall $e &ee#e& (aive&.(?a) SEC.4iling of amended pleadings.8here the .2 An a#en&e& plea&in' superse&es the plea&in' that it a#en&s.a) SEC.

?.A.Omitted counterclaim or cross&claim.Counterclaim or cross&claim arising after answer.&efen&ant is a forei'n private 3uri&ical entit% an& service of su##ons is #a&e on the 'overn#ent official &esi'nate& $% la( to receive the sa#e" the ans(er shall $e file& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after receipt of su##ons $% such entit%.28hen a plea&er fails to set up a counterclai# or a cross<clai# throu'h oversi'ht" ina&vertence" or e1cusa$le ne'lect" or (hen 3ustice re>uires" he #a%" $% leave of court" set up the counterclai# or cross<clai# $% a#en&#ent $efore 3u&'#ent.(4) SEC.28here the plaintiff files an a#en&e& co#plaint as a #atter of ri'ht" the &efen&ant shall ans(er the sa#e (ithin fifteen (.(nswer to counterclaim or cross&claim.2 A counterclai# or cross<clai# #ust $e ans(ere& (ithin ten (.isting counterclaim or cross<clai#-<<A co#pulsor%" counterclai# or a cross<clai# that a &efen&in' part% has at the ti#e he files his ans(er shall $e containe& therein.2 Upon #otion an& on such ter#s as #a% $e 3ust" the court #a% e1ten& the ti#e to plea& provi&e& in these RulesThe court #a% also" upon li/e ter#s" allo( an ans(er or other plea&in' to $e file& after the ti#e fi1e& $% these Rules.B) &a%s fro# notice of the Or&er a&#ittin' the sa#e..(nswer to third /fourth.6.(0a) SEC.(nswer to amended complaint.(a) SEC.B) &a%s fro# service.2. etc..(6) SEC.2A supple#ental co#plaint #a% $e ans(ere& (ithin ten (.(2a) SEC.@. The ti#e to ans(er a thir& (fourth" etc-).5) &a%s after $ein' serve& (ith a cop% thereof8here its filin' is not a #atter of ri'ht" the &efen&ant shall ans(er the a#en&e& co#plaint (ithin ten (.Reply..(2a" RA) SEC.*.B) &a%s fro# service of the plea&in' respon&e& to..The ans(er to the co#plaint shall serve as the ans(er to the supple#ental co#plaint if no ne( or supple#ental ans(er is file&.5.An ans(er earlier file& #a% serve as the ans(er to the a#en&e& co#plaint" if no ne( ans(er is file&This Rule shall appl% to the ans(er to an a#en&e& counterclai# a#en&e& cross< clai#" a#en&e& thir& (fourth" etc-).tension of time to plead .*.B. part% co#plaint" an& a#en&e& co#plaint<in< intervention.part% co#plaint shall $e 'overne& $% the sa#e rule as the ans(er to the co#plaint.(@a" R6) SEC.2 A counterclai# or a cross<clai# (hich either #ature& or (as ac>uire& $% a part% after servin' his plea&in' #a%" (ith the per#ission of the court" $e presente& as a counterclai# or a cross<clai# $% supple#ental plea&in' $efore 3u&'#ent.(nswer to supplemental complaint.02party complaint .2A repl% #a% $e file& (ithin ten (.(?) .4.(A" R6) SEC.(5a) SEC.B) &a%s fro# notice of the or&er a&#ittin' the sa#e" unless a &ifferent perio& is fi1e& $% the court.2.

0.(ction by the court-.Coverage -.Filin' is the act of presentin' the plea&in' or . purpose-.B) &a%s fro# service thereof.a) SEC.1ill a part of pleading.2A $ill of particulars $eco#es part of the plea&in' for (hich it is inten&e&.RULE 12 !ILL OF PARTICULARS SECT!O+ .(n) SEC.5.!f the plea&in' is a repl%" the #otion #ust $e file& (ithin ten (.)efore respon&in' to a plea&in'" a part% #a% #ove for a &efinite state#ent or for a $ill of particulars of an% #atter (hich is not averre& (ith sufficient &efiniteness or particularit% to ena$le hi# properl% to prepare his responsive plea&in'. &efine&-.0.Upon the filin' of the #otion" the cler/ of court #ust i##e&iatel% $rin' it to the attention of the court (hich #a% either &en% or 'rant it outri'ht" or allo( the parties the opportunit% to $e hear&.DcEa) SEC.The $ill of particulars or a #ore &efinite state#ent or&ere& $% the court #a% $e file& either in a separate or in an a#en&e& plea&in'" servin' a cop% thereof on the a&verse part%..2!f the #otion is 'rante&" either in (hole or in part" the co#pliance there(ith #ust $e effecte& (ithin ten (.Compliance with order.4.4iling and service.*ffect of non&compliance.2!f the or&er is not o$e%e&" or in case of insufficient co#pliance there(ith" the court #a% or&er the stri/in' out of the plea&in' or the portions thereof to (hich the or&er (as &irecte& or #a/e such other or&er as it &ee#s 3ust.Stay of period to file responsive pleading2 After service of the $ill of particulars or of a #ore &efinite plea&in'" or after notice of &enial of his #otion" the #ovin' part% #a% file his responsive plea&in' (ithin the perio& to (hich he (as entitle& at the ti#e of filin' his #otion" (hich shall not $e less than five (5) &a%s in an% event(.(.(n) SEC.This Rule shall 'overn the filin' of all plea&in's an& other papers" as (ell as the service thereof" e1cept those for (hich a &ifferent #o&e of service is prescri$e&.2.D$Ea) SEC 6.(n) SEC.(.(.Such #otion shall point out the &efects co#plaine& of" the para'raphs (herein the% are containe&" an& the &etails &esire&.B) &a%s fro# notice of the or&er" unless a &ifferent perio& is fi1e& $% the court." #hen applied for.DaEa) RULE 13 FILING AND SERVICE OF PLEADINGS# $UDGMENTS AND OT ER PAPERS SECT!O+ .

2 Hu&'#ents" final or&ers or resolutions shall $e serve& either personall% or $% re'istere& #ail. final orders.$apers re6uired to be filed and serve&-.4.6.A.2.!f service of plea&in's" #otions" notices" resolutions" or&ers an& other papers cannot $e #a&e un&er the t(o prece&in' sections" the office an& place of resi&ence of the part% or his counsel $ein' un/no(n" service #a% $e #a&e $% &eliverin' the cop% to the cler/ of court" (ith proof of failure of $oth personal service an& service $% #ail.Service by mail-. or resolutions.(?a) .@.a) SEC.(2a) SEC.?.Substituted service-.The filin' of plea&in's" appearances" #otions" notices" or&ers" 3u&'#ents an& all other papers shall $e #a&e $% presentin' the ori'inal copies thereof" plainl% in&icate& as such" personall% to the cler/ of court or $% sen&in' the# $% re'istere& #ail.!n the secon& case" the &ate of the #ailin' of #otions" plea&in's" or an% other papers or pa%#ents or &eposits" as sho(n $% the post office sta#p on the envelope or the re'istr% receipt" shall $e consi&ere& as the &ate of their filin'" pa%#ent" or &eposit in court.other paper to the cler/ of courtService is the act of provi&in' a part% (ith a cop% of the plea&in' or paper concerne&.Service of plea&in's" #otions" notices" or&ers" 3u&'#ents an& other papers shall $e #a&e either personall% or $% #ail.!n the first case" the cler/ of court shall en&orse on the plea&in' the &ate an& hour of filin'.!f no person is foun& in his office" or his office is not /no(n" or he has no office" then $% leavin' the cop%" $et(een the hours of ei'ht in the #ornin' an& si1 in the evenin'" at the part%Gs or counselGs resi&ence" if /no(n" (ith a person of sufficient a'e an& &iscretion then resi&in' therein.(0a) SEC.!anner of filing -.$ersonal service.Service $% re'istere& #ail shall $e #a&e $% &epositin' the cop% in the office" in a seale& envelope" plainl% a&&resse& to the part% or his counsel at his office" if /no(n" other(ise at his resi&ence" if /no(n" (ith posta'e full% prepai&" an& (ith instructions to the post#aster to return the #ail to the sen&er after ten (.(5a) SEC.The envelope shall $e attache& to the recor& of the case.The service is co#plete at the ti#e of such &eliver%.5.(.!f no re'istr% service is availa$le in the localit% of either the sen&er or the a&&ressee" service #a% $e &one $% or&inar% #ail.8hen a part% su##one& $% pu$lication has faile& to appear in the action" 3u&'#ents" final or&ers or resolutions a'ainst hi# shall $e serve& upon hi# also $% pu$lication at the e1pense of the prevailin' part%.(0a) SEC.Service of "udgments.(6a) SEC.8here one counsel appears for several parties" he shall onl% $e entitle& to one cop% of an% paper serve& upon hi# $% the opposite si&e.!odes of service-. Ever% 3u&'#ent" resolution" or&er" plea&in' su$se>uent to the co#plaint" (ritten #otion" notice" appearance" &e#an&" offer of 3u&'#ent or si#ilar papers shall $e file& (ith the court" an& serve& upon the parties affecte&.!f an% part% has appeare& $% counsel" service upon hi# shall $e #a&e upon his counsel or one of the#" unless service upon the part% hi#self is or&ere& $% the court.2Service of the papers #a% $e #a&e $% &eliverin' personall% a cop% to the part% or his counsel" or $% leavin' it in his office (ith his cler/ or (ith a person havin' char'e thereof.(4a) SEC.B) &a%s if un&elivere&.

Service $% re'istere& #ail is co#plete upon actual receipt $% the a&&ressee" or after five (5) &a%s fro# the &ate he receive& the first notice of the post#aster" (hichever &ate is earlier.2!n an action affectin' the title or the ri'ht of possession of real propert%" the plaintiff an& the &efen&ant" (hen affir#ative relief is clai#e& in his ans(er" #a% recor& in the office of the re'istr% of &ee&s of the province in (hich the propert% is situate& a notice of the pen&enc% of the action.SEC.B) &a%s after #ailin'" unless the court other(ise provi&es.if it is not in the recor&" $ut is clai#e& to have $een file& personall%" the filin' shall $e prove& $% the (ritten or sta#pe& ac/no(le&'#ent of its filin' $% the cler/ of court on a cop% of the sa#e7 if file& $% re'istere& #ail" $% the re'istr% receipt an& $% the affi&avit of the person (ho &i& the #ailin'" containin' a full state#ent of the &ate an& place of &epositin' the #ail in the post office in a seale& envelope a&&resse& to the court" (ith posta'e full% prepai&" an& (ith instructions to the post#aster to return the #ail to the sen&er after ten (.Sai& notice shall contain the na#es of the parties an& the o$3ect of the action or &efense" an& a &escription of the propert% in that province affecte& there$%.(n) SEC.$roof of filing.!f the service is $% or&inar% #ail" proof thereof shall consist of an affi&avit of the person #ailin' of facts sho(in' co#pliance (ith section ? of this Rule....4.(04a" R..Service $% or&inar% #ail is co#plete upon the e1piration of ten (.Completeness of service-..8henever practica$le" the service an& filin' of plea&in's an& other papers shall $e &one personall%.B) &a%s if not &elivere&.(..E1cept (ith respect to papers e#anatin' fro# the court" a resort to other #o&es #ust $e acco#panie& $% a (ritten e1planation (h% the service or filin' (as not &one personall%A violation of this Rule #a% $e cause to consi&er the paper as not file&.The re'istr% return car& shall $e file& i##e&iatel% upon its receipt $% the sen&er" or in lieu thereof of the unclai#e& letter to'ether (ith the certifie& or s(orn cop% of the notice 'iven $% the post#aster to the a&&ressee.!f service is #a&e $% re'istere& #ail" proof shall $e #a&e $% such affi&avit an& the re'istr% receipt issue& $% the #ailin' office..%otice of lis pendens.Onl% fro# the ti#e of filin' such notice for recor& shall a purchaser" or encu#$rancer of the propert% affecte& there$%" $e &ee#e& to have constructive notice of the pen&enc% of the action" an& onl% of its pen&enc% a'ainst the parties &esi'nate& $% their real na#esThe notice of lis pendens hereina$ove #entione& #a% $e cancelle& onl% upon or&er of the court" after proper sho(in' that the notice is for the purpose of #olestin' the a&verse part%" or that it is not necessar% to protect the ri'hts of the part% (ho cause& it to $e recor&e&.Personal service is co#plete upon actual &eliver%.$riorities in modes of service and filin' .2Proof of personal service shall consist of a (ritten a&#ission of the part% serve&" or the official return of the server" or the affi&avit of the part% servin'" containin' a full state#ent of the &ate" place an& #anner of service.4) RULE 14 .$roof of service.B.(@a) SEC.Ba) SEC.2.(n) SEC. 2The filin' of a plea&in' or paper shall $e prove& $% its e1istence in the recor& of the case.0.

Issuance of alias summons.2 8hen the &efen&ant is a prisoner confine& in a 3ail or institution" service shall $e effecte& upon hi# $% the officer havin' the .5. for 3ustifia$le causes" the &efen&ant cannot $e serve& (ithin a reasona$le ti#e as provi&e& in the prece&in' section" service #a% $e effecte& (a) $% leavin' copies of the su##ons at the &efen&antGs resi&ence (ith so#e person of suita$le a'e an& &iscretion then resi&in' therein" or ($) $% leavin' the copies at &efen&antGs office or re'ular place of $usiness (ith so#e co#petent person in char'e thereof.6.(@a) SEC @.8hen the service has $een co#plete&" the server shall" (ithin five (5) &a%s therefro#" serve a cop% of the return" personall% or $% re'istere& #ail" to the plaintiffGs counsel" an& shall return the su##ons to the cler/ (ho issue& it" acco#panie& $% proof of service.2 !f a su##ons is returne& (ithout $ein' serve& on an% or all of the &efen&ants" the server shall also serve a cop% of the return on the plaintiffGs counsel" statin' the reasons for the failure of service" (ithin five (5) &a%s therefro#.Service in person on defendant.1y whom served-.?.A.2 !f.Substituted service. if an%" shall $e attache& to the ori'inal an& each cop% of the su##ons.2The su##ons shall $e &irecte& to the &efen&ant" si'ne& $% the cler/ of court un&er seal" an& contain* (a) the na#e of the court an& the na#es of the parties to the action7 ($) a &irection that the &efen&ant ans(er (ithin the ti#e fi1e& $% these Rules7 (c) a notice that unless the &efen&ant so ans(ers" plaintiff (ill ta/e 3u&'#ent $% &efault an& #a% $e 'rante& the relief applie& forA cop% of the co#plaint an& or&er for appoint#ent of 'uar&ian ad litem.The su##ons #a% $e serve& $% the sheriff" his &eput%" or other proper court officer" or for 3ustifia$le reasons $% an% suita$le person authori5e& $% the court issuin' the su##ons.Return-.(?a) SEC.)ut such service shall not $in& in&ivi&uall% an% person (hose connection (ith the entit% has" upon &ue notice" $een severe& $efore the action (as $rou'ht.a) SEC" 0.2 8hen persons associate& in an entit% (ithout 3uri&ical personalit% are sue& un&er the na#e $% (hich the% are 'enerall% or co##onl% /no(n" service #a% $e effecte& upon all the &efen&ants $% servin' upon an% one of the#" or upon the person in char'e of the office or place of $usiness #aintaine& in such na#e. 2 8henever practica$le" the su##ons shall $e serve& han&in' a cop% thereof to the &efen&ant in person" or" if he refuses to receive an& si'n for it" $% ten&erin' it to hi#.(.(4a) SEC.SUMMONS SECT!O+ .(5a) SEC." Cler) to issue summons.2.(Aa) SEC.(6a) SEC.4.2Upon the filin' of the co#plaint an& the pa%#ent of the re>uisite le'al fees" the cler/ of court shall forth(ith issue the correspon&in' su##ons to the &efen&ants.(2a) SEC.!n such a case" or if the su##ons has $een lost" the cler/" on &e#an& of the plaintiff" #a% issue an alias su##ons. Service upon prisoners.Service upon entity without "uridical personality.Contents.

.traterritorial service.8hen the &efen&ant is the Repu$lic of the Philippines" service #a% $e effecte& on the Solicitor Ceneral7 in case of a province" cit% or #unicipalit%" or li/e pu$lic corporations" service #a% $e effecte& on its e1ecutive hea&" or on such other officer or officers as the la( or the court #a% &irect..6a) SEC.Service upon minors and incompetents 2 8hen the &efen&ant is a #inor" insane or other(ise an inco#petent" service shall $e #a&e upon hi# personall% an& on his le'al 'uar&ian if he has one" or if none" upon his 'uar&ian ad litem (hose appoint#ent shall $e applie& for $% the plaintiff.5) SEC.5.0a) SEC.*.!n the case of a #inor" service #a% also $e #a&e on his father or #other.@a) .(.2 !n an% action (here the &efen&ant is &esi'nate& as an un/no(n o(ner" or the li/e" or (henever his (herea$outs are un/no(n an& cannot $e ascertaine& $% &ili'ent in>uir%" service #a%" $% leave of court" $e effecte& upon hi# $% pu$lication in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation an& in such places an& for such ti#e as the court #a% or&er.0.Service upon foreign private "uridical entity.2..2 8hen the &efen&ant is a corporation" partnership or association or'ani5e& un&er the la(s of the Philippines (ith a 3uri&ical personalit%" service #a% $e #a&e on the presi&ent" #ana'in' partner" 'eneral #ana'er" corporate secretar%" treasurer" or in<house counsel.(..(..a) SEC.(.An% or&er 'rantin' such leave shall specif% a reasona$le ti#e" (hich shall not $e less than si1t% (6B) &a%s after notice" (ithin (hich the &efen&ant #ust ans(er.B.#ana'e#ent of such 3ail or institution (ho is &ee#e& &eputi5e& as a special sheriff for sai& purpose.4.(.(.(.2a) SEC.?a) SEC.Residents temporarily out of the $hilippines .2 8hen the &efen&ant is a forei'n private 3uri&ical entit% (hich has transacte& $usiness in the Philippines" service #a% $e #a&e on its resi&ent a'ent &esi'nate& in accor&ance (ith la( for that purpose" or" if there $e no such a'ent" on the 'overn#ent official &esi'nate& $% la( to that effect" or on an% of its officers or a'ents (ithin the Philippines.Service upon domestic private "uridical entity...Service upon defendant whose identity or whereabouts are un)nown..Service upon public corporations-.4a) SEC...28hen the &efen&ant &oes not resi&e an& is not foun& in the Philippines" an& the action affects the personal status of the plaintiff or relates to" or the su$3ect of (hich is" propert% (ithin the Philippines" in (hich the &efen&ant has or clai#s a lien or interest" actual or contin'ent7 or in (hich the relief &e#an&e& consists" (holl% or in part" in e1clu&in' the &efen&ant fro# an% interest therein" or the propert% of the &efen&ant has $een attache& (ithin the Philippines" service #a%" $% leave of court" $e effecte& out of the Philippines $% personal service as un&er section 67 or $% pu$lication in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in such places an& for such ti#e as the court #a% or&er" in (hich case a cop% of the su##ons an& or&er of the court shall $e sent $% re'istere& #ail to the last /no(n a&&ress of the &efen&ant" or in an% other #anner the court #a% &ee# sufficient.Ba" .6.(.28hen an% action is co##ence& a'ainst a &efen&ant (ho or&inaril% resi&es (ithin the Philippines" $ut (ho is te#poraril% out of it" service #a%" $% leave of court" $e also effecte& out of the Philippines" as un&er the prece&in' section.

(4a) .?.4.!otion defined.The inclusion in a #otion to &is#iss of other 'roun&s asi&e fro# lac/ of 3uris&iction over the person of the &efen&ant shall not $e &ee#e& a voluntar% appearance.2The proof of service of a su##ons shall $e #a&e in (ritin' $% the server an& shall set forth the #anner" place" an& &ate of service7 shall specif% an% papers (hich have $een serve& (ith the process an& the na#e of the person (ho receive& the sa#e7 an& shall $e s(orn to (hen #a&e $% a person other than a sheriff or his &eput%.2A #otion shall state the relief sou'ht to $e o$taine& an& the 'roun&s upon (hich it is $ase&" an& if re>uire& $% these Rules or necessar% to prove facts alle'e& therein" shall $e acco#panie& $% supportin' affi&avits an& other papers(2a) SEC.!otions must be in writing..SEC.2 !f the service has $een #a&e $% pu$lication" service #a% $e prove& $% the affi&avit of the printer" his fore#an or principal cler/" or of the e&itor" $usiness or a&vertisin' #ana'er" to (hich affi&avit a cop% of the pu$lication shall $e attache&" an& $% an affi&avit sho(in' the &eposit of a cop% of the su##ons an& or&er for pu$lication in the post office" posta'e prepai&" &irecte& to the &efen&ant $% re'istere& #ail to his last /no(n a&&ress.A.) SEC.$roof of service by publication.E1cept for #otions (hich the court #a% act upon (ithout pre3u&icin' the ri'hts of the a&verse part%" ever% (ritten #otion shall $e set for hearin' $% the applicantEver% (ritten #otion re>uire& to $e hear& an& the notice of the hearin' thereof shall $e serve& in such a #anner as to ensure its receipt $% the other part% at least three (2) &a%s $efore the &ate of hearin'" unless the court for 'oo& cause sets the hearin' on shorter notice.2.2The &efen&antGs voluntar% appearance in the action shall $e e>uivalent to service of su##ons.0B.(...3earing of motion-.(.oluntary appearance..2All #otions shall $e in (ritin' e1cept those #a&e in open court or in the course of a hearin' or trial.(0.(0B) SEC.(0a) SEC.7eave of court.2An% application to the court un&er this Rule for leave to effect service in an% #anner for (hich leave of court is necessar% shall $e #a&e $% #otion in (ritin'" supporte& $% affi&avit of the plaintiff or so#e person on his $ehalf settin' forth the 'roun&s for the application.A) SEC.0.(02a) RULE 15 MOTIONS SECT!O+ .a) SEC.@.$roof of service.2A #otion is an application for relief other than $% a plea&in'.Contents..

SEC.2A #otion for leave to file a plea&in' or #otion shall $e acco#panie& $% the plea&in' or #otion sou'ht to $e a&#itte&.(Aa) RULE 16 MOTION TO DISMISS SECT!O+ .B) &a%s after the filin' of the #otion.2The Rules applica$le to plea&in's shall appl% to (ritten #otions so far as concerns caption" &esi'nation" si'nature" an& other #atters of for#.(n) SEC.@.?.2Su$3ect to the provisions of section .Omnibus motion.2+o (ritten #otion set for hearin' shall $e acte& upon $% the court (ithout proof of service thereof.%otice of hearing.-rounds.28ithin the ti#e for $ut $efore filin' the ans(er to the co#plaint or plea&in' assertin' a clai#" a #otion to &is#iss #a% $e #a&e on an% of the follo(in' 'roun&s* (a) That the court has no 3uris&iction over the person of the &efen&in' part%7 ($) That the court has no 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter of the clai#7 (c) That venue is i#properl% lai&7 (&) That the plaintiff has no le'al capacit% to sue7 (e) That there is another action pen&in' $et(een the sa#e parties for the sa#e cause7 (f) That the cause of action is $arre& $% a prior 3u&'#ent or $% the statute of li#itations7 (') That the plea&in' assertin' the clai# states no cause of action7 (h) That the clai# or &e#an& set forth in the plaintiffGs plea&in' has $een pai&" (aive&" a$an&one&" or other(ise e1tin'uishe&7 (i) That the clai# on (hich the action is foun&e& is unenforcea$le un&er the provisions of the statute of frau&s7 an& .2The notice of hearin' shall $e a&&resse& to all parties concerne&" an& shall specif% the ti#e an& &ate of the hearin' (hich #ust not $e later than ten (.(5a) SEC.!otion &a%-.(?a) SEC.B.$roof of service necessary.(@a) SEC.5.(6a) SEC..!otion for leave. of Rule A" a #otion attac/in' a plea&in'" or&er" 3u&'#ent" or procee&in' shall inclu&e all o$3ections then availa$le" an& all o$3ections not so inclu&e& shall $e &ee#e& (aive&.6.A.E1cept for #otions re>uirin' i##e&iate action" all #otions shall $e sche&ule& for hearin' on Fri&a% afternoons" or if Fri&a% is a non<(or/in' &a%" in the afternoon of the ne1t (or/in' &a%.4orm..

5.0.(n) RULE 17 DISMISSAL OF ACTIONS SECT!O+ .(3) That a con&ition prece&ent for filin' the clai# has not $een co#plie& (ith(.3earing of motion.a) SEC.Su$3ect to the ri'ht of appeal" an or&er 'rantin' a #otion to &is#iss $ase& on para'raphs (f)" (h) an& (i) of section .Upon such notice $ein' file&" the court shall issue an or&er confir#in' the &is#issal.*ffect of dismissal-.!f the plea&in' is or&ere& to $e a#en&e&" he shall file his ans(er (ithin the perio& prescri$e& $% Rule .(4a) SEC.2!f the #otion is &enie&" the #ovant shall file his ans(er (ithin the $alance of the perio& prescri$e& $% Rule .4.A co#plaint #a% $e &is#isse& $% the plaintiff $% filin' a notice of &is#issal at an% ti#e $efore service of the ans(er or of a #otion for su##ar% 3u&'#ent..6. counte& fro# service of the a#en&e& plea&in'" unless the court provi&es a lon'er perio&.Unless other(ise state& in the notice" the &is#issal is (ithout pre3u&ice" e1cept that a notice operates as an a&3u&ication upon the #erits (hen file& $% a plaintiff (ho has once &is#isse& in a co#petent court an action $ase& .. hereof shall $ar the refilin' of the sa#e action or clai#.2 !f no #otion to &is#iss has $een file&" an% of the 'roun&s for &is#issal provi&e& for in this Rule #a% $e plea&e& as an affir#ative &efense in the ans(er an&" in the &iscretion of the court" a preli#inar% hearin' #a% $e ha& thereon as if a #otion to &is#iss ha& $een file&.2At the hearin' of the #otion" the parties shall su$#it their ar'u#ents on the >uestions of la( an& their evi&ence on the >uestions of fact involve& e1cept those not availa$le at that ti#e.(n) SEC.$leading grounds as affirmative defenses.Resolution of motion.. to (hich he (as entitle& at the ti#e of servin' his #otion" $ut not less than five (5) &a%s in an% event" co#pute& fro# his receipt of the notice of the &enial.Shoul& the case 'o to trial" the evi&ence presente& &urin' the hearin' shall auto#aticall% $e part of the evi&ence of the part% presentin' the sa#e.2.(5a) The &is#issal of the co#plaint un&er this section shall $e (ithout pre3u&ice to the prosecution in the sa#e or separate action of a counterclai# plea&e& in the ans(er.+ismissal upon notice by plaintiff-.(n) SEC.Time to plead.2After the hearin'" the court #a% &is#iss the action or clai#" &en% the #otion" or or&er the a#en&#ent of the plea&in'The court shall not &efer the resolution of the #otion for the reason that the 'roun& relie& upon is not in&u$ita$le!n ever% case" the resolution shall state clearl% an& &istinctl% the reasons therefor(2a) SEC.

Unless other(ise specifie& in the or&er" a &is#issal un&er this para'raph shall $e (ithout pre3u&ice.a) SEC.+ismissal due to fault of plaintiff.2 The provisions of this Rule shall appl%.to the &is#issal of an% counterclai#" cross<clai#" or thir&<part% co#plaint.. for no 3ustifia$le cause" the plaintiff fails to appear on the &ate of the presentation of his evi&ence in chief on the co#plaint" or to prosecute his action for an unreasona$le len'th of ti#e" or to co#pl% (ith these Rules or an% or&er of the court" the co#plaint #a% $e &is#isse& upon #otion of the &efen&ant or upon the courtGs o(n #otion" (ithout pre3u&ice to the ri'ht of the &efen&ant to prosecute his counterclai# in the sa#e or in a separate action.The court shall consi&er* (a) The possi$ilit% of an a#ica$le settle#ent or of a su$#ission to alternative #o&es of &ispute resolution7 ($) The si#plification of the issues7 (c) The necessit% or &esira$ilit% of a#en&#ents to the plea&in's7 .2. parte that the case $e set for pre< trial.cept as provi&e& in the prece&in' section" a co#plaint shall not $e &is#isse& at the plaintiffGs instance save upon approval of the court an& upon such ter#s an& con&itions as the court &ee#s proper.2*.#hen conducted -.2 !f. of this Rule" shall $e #a&e $efore a responsive plea&in' or a #otion for su##ar% 3u&'#ent is serve& or" if there is none" $efore the intro&uction of evi&ence at the trial or hearin'.A class suit shall not $e &is#isse& or co#pro#ise& (ithout the approval of the court.2The pre<trial is #an&ator%.(4n) RULE 18 PRE%TRIAL SECT!O+ .This &is#issal shall have the effect of an a&3u&ication upon the #erits" unless other(ise &eclare& $% the court.The &is#issal shall $e (ithout pre3u&ice to the ri'ht of the &efen&ant to prosecute his counterclai# in a separate action unless (ithin fifteen (.(0a) SEC.After the last plea&in' has $een serve& an& file&" it shall $e the &ut% of the plaintiff to pro#ptl% #ove e.+ismissal upon motion of plaintiff.0.(2a) SEC.0.(5a" R0B) SEC.%ature and purpose.(.4.on or inclu&in' the sa#e clai#.A voluntar% &is#issal $% the clai#ant $% notice as in section . cross&claim.+ismissal of counterclaim.!f a counterclai# has $een plea&e& $% a &efen&ant prior to the service upon hi# of the plaintiffGs #otion for &is#issal" the &is#issal shall $e li#ite& to the co#plaint.5) &a%s fro# notice of the #otion he #anifests his preference to have his counterclai# resolve& in the sa#e action. or third&party complaint.

$re&trial brief.5.A si#ilar failure on the part of the &efen&ant shall $e cause to allo( the plaintiff to present his evi&ence e.%otice of pre&trial.a" R0B) SEC.2!t shall $e the &ut% of the parties an& their counsel to appear at the pre<trial.(ppearance of parties.(0a" R0B) SEC.*ffect of failure to appear.(n) SEC.2.4. parte an& the court to ren&er 3u&'#ent on the $asis thereof.The counsel serve& (ith such notice is char'e& (ith the &ut% of notif%in' the part% represente& $% hi#.2 The failure of the plaintiff to appear (hen so re>uire& pursuant to the ne1t prece&in' section shall $e cause for &is#issal of the action.The &is#issal shall $e (ith pre3u&ice" unless other(ise or&ere& $% the court.(.6.2The parties shall file (ith the court an& serve on the a&verse part%" in such #anner as shall ensure their receipt thereof at least three (2) &a%s $efore the &ate of the pre<trial" their respective pre<trial $riefs (hich shall contain" a#on' others* (a) A state#ent of their (illin'ness to enter into a#ica$le settle#ent or alternative #o&es of &ispute resolution" in&icatin' the &esire& ter#s thereof7 ($) A su##ar% of a&#itte& facts an& propose& stipulation of facts7 (c)The issues to $e trie& or resolve&7 (&) The &ocu#ents or e1hi$its to $e presente&" statin' the purpose thereof7 (e) A #anifestation of their havin' availe& or then intention to avail the#selves of &iscover% proce&ures or referral to co##issioners7 an& (f) The nu#$er an& na#es of the (itnesses" an& the su$stance of their respective testi#oniesFailure to file the pre<trial $rief shall have the sa#e effect as failure to appear at the pre<trial.2The notice of pre<trial shall $e serve& on counsel" or on the part% (ho has no counsel.(&) The possi$ilit% of o$tainin' stipulations or a&#issions of facts an& of &ocu#ents to avoi& unnecessar% proof7 (e) The li#itation of the nu#$er of (itnesses7 (f) The a&visa$ilit% of a preli#inar% reference of issues to a co##issioner7 (') The propriet% of ren&erin' 3u&'#ent on the plea&in's" or su##ar% 3u&'#ent" or of &is#issin' the action shoul& a vali& 'roun& therefor $e foun& to e1ist7 (h) The a&visa$ilit% or necessit% of suspen&in' the procee&in's7 an& (i) Such other #atters as #a% ai& in the pro#pt &isposition of the action.(n) .The non<appearance of a part% #a% $e e1cuse& onl% if a vali& cause is sho(n therefor or if a representative shall appear in his $ehalf full% authori5e& in (ritin' to enter into an a#ica$le settle#ent" to su$#it to alternative #o&es of &ispute resolution" an& to enter into stipulations or a&#issions of facts an& of &ocu#ents.(n) SEC.

Calendar of cases-IThe cler/ of court" un&er the &irect supervision of the 3u&'e" shall /eep a calen&ar of cases for pre<trial" for trial" those (hose trials (ere a&3ourne& or postpone&" an& those (ith #otions to set for hearin'..Time to intervene-IThe #otion to intervene #a% $e file& at an% ti#e $efore ren&ition of 3u&'#ent $% the trial court.A cop% of the plea&in'<in<intervention shall $e attache& to the #otion an& serve& on the ori'inal parties.0) SEC.SEC.#ho may intervene.2.The court shall consi&er (hether or not the intervention (ill un&ul% &ela% or pre3u&ice the a&3u&ication of the ri'hts of the ori'inal parties" an& (hether or not the intervenorGs ri'hts #a% $e full% protecte& in a separate procee&in'(0DaE" D$Ea" R.(5a" R0B) RULE 19 INTERVENTION SECT!O+ .The contents of the or&er shall control the su$se>uent course of the action" unless #o&ifie& $efore trial to prevent #anifest in3ustice.4.Shoul& the action procee& to trial" the or&er shall e1plicitl% &efine an& li#it the issues to $e trie&.(nswer to complaint&in&intervention-IThe ans(er to the co#plaint<in< intervention shall $e file& (ithin fifteen (.0.5) &a%s fro# notice of the or&er a&#ittin' the sa#e" unless a &ifferent perio& is fi1e& $% the court.2The procee&in's in the pretrial shall $e recor&e&Upon the ter#ination thereof" the court shall issue an or&er (hich shall recite in &etail the #atters ta/en up in the conference7 the action ta/en thereon" the a#en&#ents allo(e& to the plea&in's" an& the a'ree#ents or a&#issions #a&e $% the parties as to an% of the #atters consi&ere&.(0D&Ea" R.0) SEC.$leadings&in&intervention-IThe intervenor shall file a co#plaint<in< intervention if he asserts a clai# a'ainst either or all of the ori'inal parties" or an ans(er<in<intervention if he unites (ith the &efen&in' part% in resistin' a clai# a'ainst the latter.Preference shall $e .(n) SEC..0) RULE 20 CALENDAR OF CASES SECT!O+ .?.2A person (ho has a le'al interest in the #atter in liti'ation" or in the success of either of the parties" or an interest a'ainst $oth" or is so situate& as to $e a&versel% affecte& $% a &istri$ution or other &isposition of propert% in the custo&% of the court or of an officer thereof #a%" (ith leave of court" $e allo(e& to intervene in the action.Record of pre&trial.(0DcEa" R.

(.4orm and contents. (.2A su$poena shall state the na#e of the court an& the title of the action or investi'ation" shall $e &irecte& to the person (hose atten&ance is re>uire&" an& in the case of a su$poena duces tecum.a" R02) SEC.4.8uashing a subpoena.2 Su$poena is a process &irecte& to a person re>uirin' hi# to atten& an& to testif% at the hearin' or the trial of an action" or at an% investi'ation con&ucte& $% co#petent authorit%" or for the ta/in' of his &eposition. it shall also contain a reasona$le &escription of the $oo/s" &ocu#ents or thin's &e#an&e& (hich #ust appear to the court prima facie relevant.'iven to habeas corpus cases" election cases" special civil actions" an& those so re>uire& $% la(.a" R00) SEC.The assi'n#ent shall $e &one in open session of (hich a&e>uate notice shall $e 'iven so as to affor& intereste& parties the opportunit% to $e present (?a" R00) RULE 21 SU!POENA SECT!O+ .Subpoena and subpoena duces tecum..2The court #a% >uash a su$poena duces tecum upon #otion pro#ptl% #a&e an&" in an% event" at or $efore the ti#e specifie& therein if it is unreasona$le an& oppressive" or the relevanc% of the $oo/s" &ocu#ents or thin's .0.0.1y whom issued.(2a" R02) SEC.2The su$poena #a% $e issue& $%.(0a" R02) SEC.!t #a% also re>uire hi# to $rin' (ith hi# an% $oo/s" &ocu#ents" or other thin's un&er his control" in (hich case it is calle& a su$poena duces tecum. a) the court $efore (ho# the (itness is re>uire& to atten&7 $) the court of the place (here the &eposition is to $e ta/en7 c) the officer or $o&% authori5e& $% la( to &o so in connection (ith investi'ations con&ucte& $% sai& officer or $o&%7 or &) an% Hustice of the Supre#e Court or of the Court of Appeals in an% case or investi'ation pen&in' (ithin the Philippines8hen application for a su$poena to a prisoner is #a&e" the 3u&'e or officer shall e1a#ine an& stu&% carefull% such application to &eter#ine (hether the sa#e is #a&e for a vali& purpose+o prisoner sentence& to &eath" reclusion perpetua or life i#prison#ent an& (ho is confine& in an% penal institution shall $e $rou'ht outsi&e the sai& penal institution for appearance or atten&ance in an% court unless authori5e& $% the Supre#e Court.2.(ssignment of cases-IThe assi'n#ent of cases to the &ifferent $ranches of court shall $e &one e1clusivel% $% raffle.

The ori'inal shall $e e1hi$ite& an& a cop% thereof &elivere& to the person on (ho# it is serve&" ten&erin' to hi# the fees for one &a%Gs atten&ance an& the /ilo#etra'e allo(e& $% these Rules" e1cept that" (hen a su$poena is issue& $% or on $ehalf of the Repu$lic of the Philippines or an officer or a'enc% thereof" the ten&er nee& not $e #a&e..Contempt2Failure $% an% person (ithout a&e>uate cause to o$e% a su$poena serve& upon hi# shall &ee#e& a conte#pt of the court fro# (hich the su$poena is issue&.Service of a su$poena shall $e #a&e in the sa#e #anner as personal or su$stitute& service of su##ons.6.2Proof of service of a notice to ta/e a &eposition" as provi&e& in sections .(.(Aa" R02) .2The provisions of sections @ an& 9 this Rule shall not appl% to a (itness (ho resi&es #ore than one hun&re& (.*.(4a" R02) SEC.Subpoena for depositions.(6a" R02) SEC.?.!f the su$poena is duces tecum.(5a" R02) SEC.@.Service-.Compelling attendance. the reasona$le cost of pro&ucin' the $oo/s" &ocu#ents or thin's &e#an&e& shall also $e ten&ere&.&oes not appear" or if the person in (hose $ehalf the su$poena is issue& fails to a&vance the reasona$le cost of the pro&uction thereofThe court #a% >uash a su$poena ad testificandum on the 'roun& that the (itness is not $oun& there$%." R02) SEC.A person present in court $efore a 3u&icial officer #a% $e re>uire& to testif% as if he (ere in atten&ance upon a su$poena issue& $% such court or officer.The service #ust $e #a&e so as to allo( the (itness a reasona$le ti#e for preparation an& travel of the place of atten&ance.5 an& 05 of Rule 02" shall constitute sufficient authori5ation for the issuance of su$poenas for the persons na#e& in sai& notice $% the cler/ of the court of the place in (hich the &eposition is to $e ta/en.B.0a" R02) SEC.BB) /ilo#eters fro# his resi&ence to the place (here he is to testif% $% the or&inar% course of travel" or to a &etention prisoner if no per#ission of the court in (hich his case is pen&in' (as o$taine&.$ersonal appearance in court-.A.!n either case" the su$poena #a% $e >uashe& on the 'roun& that the (itness fees an& /ilo#etra'e allo(e& $% these Rules (ere not ten&ere& (hen the su$poena (as serve&.5..B" R02) SEC.ceptions.The cler/ shall not" ho(ever" issue a su$poena duces tecum to an% such person (ithout an or&er of the court.!f the su$poena (as not issue& $% a court" the &iso$e&ience thereto shall $e punishe& in accor&ance (ith the applica$le la( or Rule (.2!n case of failure of a (itness to atten&" the court or 3u&'e issuin' the su$poena" upon proof of the service thereof an& of the failure of the (itness" #a% issue a (arrant to the sheriff of the province" or his &eput%" to arrest the (itness an& $rin' hi# $efore the court or officer (here his atten&ance is re>uire&" an& the cost of such (arrant an& sei5ure of such (itness shall $e pai& $% the (itness if the court issuin' it shall &eter#ine that his failure to ans(er the su$poena (as (illful an& (ithout 3ust e1cuse.(.

)% leave of court after 3uris&iction has $een o$taine& over an% &efen&ant or over propert% (hich is the su$3ect of the action" (ithout such leave after an ans(er has $een serve&" the testi#on% of an% person" (hether a part% or not" #a% $e ta/en" at the instance of an% part%" $% &eposition upon oral e1a#ination or (ritten interro'atories.@ of Rule .6 or .*ffect of interruption.Unless other(ise or&ere& $% the court as provi&e& $% section .!f the last &a% of the perio&" as thus co#pute&" falls on a Satur&a%" a Sun&a%" or a le'al holi&a% in the place (here the court sits" the ti#e shall not run until the ne1t (or/in' &a%. when may be ta)en -..+epositions pending action.Shoul& an act $e &one (hich effectivel% interrupts the runnin' of the perio&" the allo(a$le perio& after such interruption shall start to run on the &a% aft notice of the cessation of the cause thereofThe &a% of the act that cause& the interruption shall $e e1clu&e& in the co#putation of the perio&.a" R04) SEC.amination -.The atten&ance of (itnesses #a% $e co#pelle& $% the use of a su$poena as provi&e& in Rule 0.(n) SEC.Scope of e.2!n co#putin' an% perio& of ti#e prescri$e& or allo(e& $% these Rules" or $% or&er the court" or $% an% applica$le statute" the &a% of the act or event fro# (hich the &esi'nate& perio& of ti#e $e'ins to run is to e1clu&e& an& the &ate of perfor#ance inclu&e&.2.(n) RULE 23 DEPOSITIONS PENDING ACTION SECT!O+ .amination and cross&e.4.*.20(2a" R04) SEC.The &eposition of a person confine& in prison #a% $e ta/en onl% $% leave of court on such ter#s as the court prescri$es.Fepositions shall $e ta/en onl% in accor&ance (ith these Rules.3ow to compute time.0.'se of depositions.E1a#ination an& cross<e1a#ination of &eponents #a% procee& as per#itte& at the trial un&er sections 2 to .RULE 22 COMPUTATION OF TIME SECT!O+ ..amination-.(.(0" R04) SEC.0.2At the trial or upon the hearin' of a #otion or an interlocutor% procee&in'" an% part or all of a &eposition" so far as a&#issi$le un&er the ..@ of this Rule" the &eponent #a% $e e1a#ine& re'ar&in' an% #atter" not privile'e&" (hich is relevant to the su$3ect of the pen&in' action" (hether relatin' to the clai# or &efense of an% other part%" inclu&in' the e1istence" &escription" nature" custo&%" con&ition" an& location of an% $oo/s" &ocu#ents" or other tan'i$le thin's an& the i&entit% an& location of persons havin' /no(le&'e of relevant facts.

) that the (itness is &ea&7 or (0) that the (itness resi&es at a &istance #ore than one hun&re& (.Ob"ections to admissibility.2At the trial or hearin'" an% part% #a% re$ut an% relevant evi&ence containe& in a &eposition (hether intro&uce& by hi# or $% an% other .2The intro&uction in evi&ence of the &eposition or an% part thereof for an% purpose other than that of contra&ictin' or i#peachin' the &eponent #a/es the &eponent the (itness of the part% intro&ucin' the &eposition" $ut this shall not appl% to the use $% an a&verse part% of a &eposition as &escri$e& in para'raph ($) of section 4 of this Rule.(6" R04) SEC.(@" R04) SEC.BB) /ilo#eters fro# the place of trial or hearin'" or is out of the Philippines" unless it appears that his a$sence (as procure& $% the part% offerin' the &eposition7 or (2) that the (itness is una$le to atten& or testif% $ecause of a'e" sic/ness" infir#it%" or i#prison#ent7 or (4) that the part% offerin' the &eposition has $een una$le to procure the atten&ance of the (itness $% su$poena7 or (5) upon application an& notice" that such e1ceptional circu#stances e1ist as to #a/e it &esira$le" in the interest of 3ustice an& (ith &ue re'ar& to the i#portance of presentin' the testi#on% of (itnesses orall% in open court" to allo( the &eposition to $e use&7 an& (&) !f onl% part of a &eposition is offere& in evi&ence $% a part%7 the a&verse part% #a% re>uire hi# to intro&uce all of it (hich is relevant to the part intro&uce&" an& an% part% #a% intro&uce an% other parts.6.2A part% shall not $e &ee#e& to #a/e a person his o(n (itness for an% purpose $% ta/in' his &eposition.*ffect of using depositions.(5" R04) SEC.*ffect of ta)ing depositions.@.Rebutting deposition.?.Su$stitution of parties &oes not affect the ri'ht to use &epositions previousl% ta/en7 an&" (hen an action has $een &is#isse& an& another action involvin' the sa#e su$3ect is after(ar& $rou'ht $et(een the sa#e parties or their representatives or successors in interest" all &epositions la(full% ta/en an& &ul% file& in the for#er action #a% $e use& in the latter as if ori'inall% ta/en therefor.*ffect of substitution of parties-.rules of evi&ence" #a% $e use& a'ainst an% part% (ho (as present or represente& at the ta/in' of the &eposition or (ho ha& &ue notice thereof" in accor&ance (ith an% one of the follo(in' provisions* (a) An% &eposition #a% $e use& $% an% part% for the purpose of contra&ictin' or i#peachin' the testi#on% of &eponent as a (itness7 ($) The &eposition of a part% or of an% one (ho at the ti#e of ta/in' the &eposition (as an officer" &irector" or #ana'in' a'ent of a pu$lic or private corporation" partnership" or association (hich is a part% #a% $e use& $% an a&verse part% for an% purpose7 (c)The &eposition of a (itness" (hether or not a part%" #a% $e use& $% an% part% for an% purpose if the court fin&s* (.2Su$3ect to the provisions of section 0A of this Rule" o$3ection #a% $e #a&e at the trial or hearin' to receivin' in evi&ence an% &eposition or part thereof for an% reason (hich (oul& re>uire the e1clusion of the evi&ence if the (itness (ere then present an& testif%in'.A.(?" R04) SEC.5.(4a" R04) SEC.

..(. time and place-.4.$ersons before whom depositions may be ta)en within the $hilippines.(.2a" R04) SEC....2 !f the parties so stipulate in (ritin'" &epositions #a% $e ta/en $efore an% person authori5e& to a&#inister oaths" at an% ti#e or place" in accor&ance (ith these Rules" an& (hen so ta/en #a% $e use& li/e other &epositions.Commission or letters rogatory.On #otion of an% part% upon (ho# the notice is serve&" the court #a% for cause sho(n enlar'e or shorten the ti#e..Officers #a% $e &esi'nate& in notices or co##issions either $% na#e or &escriptive title an& letters ro'ator% #a% $e a&&resse& to the appropriate 3u&icial authorit% in the forei'n countr%.2 8ithin the Philippines" &epositions #ust $e ta/en $efore an% 3u&'e" notar% pu$lic" on the person referre& to in section .2 !n a forei'n state or countr%" &epositions #a% $e ta/en (a) on notice $efore a secretar% of e#$ass% or le'ation" consul 'eneral" consul" vice<consul" or consular a'ent of the Repu$lic of the Philippines7 ($) $efore such person or officer as #a% $e appointe& $% co##ission or un&er letters ro'ator%7 or (c) the person referre& to in section .6.(A" R04) SEC.The notice shall state the ti#e an& place for ta/in' the &eposition an& the na#e an& a&&ress of each person to $e e1a#ine&" if /no(n" an& if the na#e is at /no(n" a 'eneral &escription sufficient to i&entif% hi# or the particular class or 'roup to (hich he $elon's.part%.Ba" R04) SEC..0n" R04) SEC.4 hereof.amination..Orders for the protection of parties and deponents.5" R04) SEC.2.B.+is6ualification by interest.2+o &eposition shall $e ta/en $efore a person (ho is a relative (ithin the si1th &e'ree of consan'uinit% or affinit%" or e#plo%ee or counsel of an% of the parties7 or (ho is a relative (ithin the sa#e &e'ree" or e#plo%ee of such counsel7 or (ho is financiall% intereste& in the action.4a" R04) SEC.(.Stipulations regarding ta)ing of depositions.0.$ersons before whom depositions may be ta)en in foreign countries.(.2A co##ission or letters ro'ator% shall $e issue& onl% (hen necessar% or convenient" on application an& notice" an& on such ter#s an& (ith such &irection as are 3ust appropriate..+eposition upon oral e.a" R04) SEC.A part% &esirin' to ta/e the &eposition of an% person upon oral e1a#ination shall 'ive reasona$le notice in (ritin' to ever% other part% to the action.4 hereof(.2 After notice is serve& for ta/in' a &eposition $% oral e1a#ination" upon #otion seasona$l% #a&e $% an% part% or $% the person to $e e1a#ine& an& for 'oo& cause sho(n" the court in (hich the action is pen&in' #a% #a/e an or&er that the &eposition shall not $e ta/en" or that it #a% $e ta/en onl% at so#e &esi'nate& place other than that state& in the notice" or that it #a% $e ta/en onl% on (ritten interro'atories" or that certain #atters shall not $e in>uire& into" or that the scope of the e1a#ination shall $e hel& (ith no one present e1cept the parties to the action an& their officers or counsel" or that after $ein' seale& the &eposition shall $ opene& onl% $% or&er of the court" or that secret processes &evelop#ents" or research nee& not $e &isclose&" or that the parties shall si#ultaneousl% file& specifie& &ocu#ents or infor#ation enclose& in seale& envelope to $e opene& as &irecte& $% the court7 or the court #a% #a/e an% other or&er (hich 3ustice ..(. notice.5.

@..!otion to terminate or limit e.?.@a" R04) SEC.Aa" R04) SEC.Certification and filing by officer.Evi&ence o$3ecte& to shall $e ta/en su$3ect to the o$3ections.(.!f the or&er #a&e ter#inates the e1a#ination" it shall $e resu#e& thereafter onl% upon the or&er of the court in (hich the action is pen&in'Upon &e#an& of the o$3ectin' part% or &eponent" the ta/in' of the &eposition shall $e suspen&e& for the ti#e necessar% to #a/e a notice for an or&er.re>uires to protect the part% or (itness fro# anno%ance" e#$arrass#ent" or oppression(.=e shall then securel% seal the &eposition in an envelope in&orse& (ith the title of the action an& #ar/e& :Feposition of (here .6a" R04) SEC.2 The officer $efore (ho# the &eposition is to $e ta/en shall put the (itness or oath an& shall personall%" or $% so#e one actin' un&er his &irection an& in his presence" recor& the testi#on% of the (itnessThe testi#on% shall $e ta/en steno'raphicall% unless the parties a'ree other(ise.2 At an% ti#e &urin' the ta/in' of the &eposition" on #otion or petition of an% part% or of the &eponent an& upon a sho(in' that the e1a#ination is $ein' con&ucte& in $a& faith or in such #anner" as unreasona$l% to anno%" e#$arrass" or oppress the &eponent or part%" the court in (hich the action is pen&in' or the Re'ional Trial Court of the place (here the &eposition is $ein' ta/en #a% or&er the officer con&uctin' the e1a#ination to cease forth(ith fro# ta/in' the &eposition" or #a% li#it the scope an& #anner of the ta/in' of the &eposition" as provi&e& in section .!n 'rantin' or refusin' such or&er" the court #a% i#pose upon either part% or upon the (itness the re>uire#ent to pa% such costs or e1penses as the court #a% &ee# reasona$le.A.All o$3ections #a&e at the ti#e of the e1a#ination to the >ualifications of the officer ta/in' the &eposition" or to the #anner of ta/in' it" or to the evi&ence presente&" or to the con&uct of an% part%" an& an% other o$3ection to the procee&in's" shall $e note& $% the officer upon the &eposition.(. oath. changes..!n lieu of participatin' in the oral e1a#ination" parties serve& (ith notice of ta/in' a &eposition #a% trans#it (ritten interro'atories to the officers" (ho shall propoun& the# to the (itness an& recor& the ans(ers verbatim.An% chan'es in for# or su$stance (hich the (itness &esires to #a/e shall $e entere& upon the &eposition $% the officer (ith a state#ent of the reasons 'iven $% the (itness for #a/in' the#. ob"ections.28hen the testi#on% is full% transcri$e&" the &eposition shall $e su$#itte& to the (itness for e1a#ination an& shall $e rea& to or $% hi#" unless such e1a#ination an& rea&in' are (aive& $% the (itness an& $% the parties.amination.6 of this Rule.The &eposition shall then $e si'ne& $% the (itness" unless the parties $% stipulation (aive the si'nin' or the (itness is ill or cannot $e foun& or refuses to si'n.2The officer shall certif% on the &eposition that the (itness (as &ul% s(orn to $% hi# an& that the &eposition is a true recor& of the testi#on% 'iven $% the (itness.?" R04) SEC. (.!f the &eposition is not si'ne& $% the (itness" the officer shall si'n it an& state on the recor& the fact of the (aiver or of the illness or a$sence of the (itness or the fact of the refusal to si'n to'ether (ith the reason 'iven therefor" if an%" an& the &eposition #a% then $e use& as full% as thou'h si'ne&" unless on a #otion to suppress un&er section 0A (f) of this Rule" the court hol&s that the reasons 'iven for the refusal to si'n re>uire re3ection Of the &eposition in (hole or in part.Record of e.Submission to witness. signing.0B.amination..

(06" R04) SEC.?" .Officers to ta)e responses and prepare record.(0.2 8hen a &eposition upon interro'atories is file&" the officer ta/in' it shall pro#ptl% 'ive notice thereof to all the parties" an& #a% furnish copies to the# or to the &eponent upon pa%#ent of reasona$le char'es therefor." R04) SEC. service of notice and of interrogatories.2 A cop% of the notice an& copies of all interro'atories serve& shall $e &elivere& $% the part% ta/in' the &eposition to the officer &esi'nate& in the notice" (ho shall procee& pro#ptl%" in the #anner provi&e& $% sections .(0B" R04) SEC.8ithin five (5) &a%s thereafter" the latter #a% serve re<&irect interro'atories upon a part% (ho has serve& cross<interro'atories.8ithin ten (..2 !f the part% 'ivin' the notice of the ta/in' of a &eposition of a (itness fails to serve a su$poena upon hi# an& the (itness $ecause of such failure &oes not atten&" an& if another part% atten&s in person or $% counsel $ecause he e1pects the &eposition of that (itness to $e ta/en" the court #a% or&er the part% 'ivin' the notice to pa% to such other part% the a#ount of the reasona$le e1penses incurre& $% hi# an& his counsel in so atten&in' inclu&in' reasona$le attorne%Gs fees. an& shall pro#ptl% file it (ith the court in (hich the action is pen&in' or sen& it $% re'istere& #ail to the cler/ thereof for filin'.%otice of filing and furnishing copies.(05" R04) SEC.2The officer ta/in' the &eposition shall 'ive pro#pt notice of its filin' to all the parties.06.0?.4ailure to attend of party giving notice.+eposition upon written interrogatories.(02a" R04) SEC.8ithin three (2) &a%s after $ein' serve& (ith re<&irect interro'atories" a part% #a% serve recross< interro'atories upon the part% proposin' to ta/e the &eposition.4urnishing copies.(00" R04) SEC.A an& 0B of this Rule" to ta/e the testi#on% of the (itness in response to the interro'atories an& to prepare" certif%" an& file& or #ail the &eposition" attachin' thereto the cop% of the notice an& the interro'atories receive& $% hi#.2A part% &esirin' to ta/e the &eposition of an% person upon (ritten interro'atories shall serve the# upon ever% other part% (ith a notice statin' the na#e an& a&&ress of the person (ho is to ans(er the# an& the na#e of &escriptive title an& a&&ress of the officer $efore (ho# the &eposition is to $e ta/en.2 !f the part% 'ivin' the notice of the ta/in' of a &eposition fails to atten& an& procee& there(ith an& another atten&s in person or $% counsel pursuant to the notice" the court #a% or&er the part% 'ivin' the notice to pa% such other part% the a#ount of the reasona$le e1penses incurre& $% hi# an& his counsel in so atten&in' inclu&in' reasona$le attorne%Gs fees.00.&&Upon pa%#ent of reasona$le char'es therefor" the officer shall furnish a cop% of the &eposition to an% part% or to the &eponent.4ailure of party giving notice to serve subpoena.2 After the service of the interro'atories an& prior to the ta/in' of the testi#on% of the &eponent" the court in (hich the action is pen&in'" on #otion pro#ptl% #a&e $% a part% or a &eponent" an& for .04.(04a" R04) SEC.Orders for the protection of parties and deponents.(0?" R04) SEC.0.B) &a%s thereafter" a part% so serve& #a% serve cross<interro'atories upon the part% proposin' to ta/e the &eposition.%otice of filing.05.0@.insert the na#e of (itness).02.

.'oo& cause sho(n" #a% #a/e an% or&er specifie& in sections . petition. .(0@a" R04) SEC.6 an& .2 (a) (s to notice-.O$3ections to the for# of (ritten interro'atories su$#itte& un&er sections 05 an& 06 of this Rule are (aive& unless serve& in (ritin' upon the part% propoun&in' the# (ithin the ti#e allo(e& for servin' succee&in' cross or other interro'atories an& (ithin three (2) &a%s after service of the last interro'atories authori5e&(f) (s to manner of preparation.Errors an& irre'ularities in the #anner in (hich the testi#on% is transcri$e& or the &eposition is prepare&" si'ne&" certifie&" seale&" in&orse&" trans#itte&" file&" or other(ise &ealt (ith $% the officer un&er sections .O$3ection to ta/in' a &eposition $ecause of &is>ualification of the officer $efore (ho# it is to $e ta/en is (aive& unless #a&e $efore the ta/in' of the &eposition $e'ins or as soon thereafter as the &is>ualification $eco#es /no(n or coul& $e &iscovere& (ith reasona$le &ili'ence(c) (s to competency or relevancy of evidence.O$3ections to the co#petenc% of a (itness or the co#petenc%" relevanc%" or #aterialit% of testi#on% are not (aive& $% failure to #a/e the# $efore or &urin' the ta/in' of the &eposition" unless the 'roun& of the o$3ection is one (hich #i'ht have $een o$viate& or re#ove& if presente& at that ti#e(&) (s to oral e.?" ..Errors an& irre'ularities occurrin' at the oral e1a#ination in the #anner of ta/in' the &eposition" in the for# of the >uestions or ans(ers" in the oath or affir#ation" or in the con&uct of the parties an& errors of an% /in& (hich #i'ht $e o$viate&" re#ove&" or cure& if pro#ptl% prosecute&" are (aive& unless reasona$le o$3ection thereto is #a&e at the ta/in' of the &eposition(e) (s to form of written interrogatories.5" .+epositions before action.All errors an& irre'ularities in the notice for ta/in' a &eposition are (aive& unless (ritten o$3ection is pro#ptl% serve& upon the part% 'ivin' the notice($) (s to dis6ualification of officer.0A.amination and other particulars. .@ of this Rule (hich is appropriate an& 3ust or an or&er that the &eposition shall not $e ta/en $efore the officer &esi'nate& in the notice or that it shall not $e ta/en e1cept upon oral e1a#ination. . .(0Aa" R04) RULE 24 DEPOSITIONS !EFORE ACTION OR PENDING APPEAL SECT!O+ .A" 0B an& 06 of this Rule are (aive& unless a #otion to suppress the &eposition or so#e part thereof is #a&e (ith reasona$le pro#ptness after such &efect is" or (ith &ue &ili'ence #i'ht have $een" ascertaine&.2( person (ho &esires to .*ffect of errors and irregularities in depositions.

0.24) SEC.24) SEC.perpetuate his o(n testi#on% or that of another person re'ar&in' an% #atter that #a% $e co'ni5a$le in an% court of the Philippines" #a% file& a verifie& petition in the court of the place of the resi&ence of an% e1pecte& a&verse part%.2!f an appeal has $een ta/en fro# a 3u&'#ent of a court" inclu&in' the Court of Appeals in proper cases" or $efore the ta/in' of an appeal if the ti#e therefor has not e1pire&" the court in (hich the 3u&'#ent (as ren&ere& #a% allo( the ta/in' of &epositions of (itnesses to perpetuate their testi#on% for use in the event of further procee&in's in the sai& court.%otice and service-.2!f a &eposition to perpetuate testi#on% is ta/en un&er this Rule" or if" althou'h not so ta/en" it (oul& $e a&#issi$le in evi&ence" it #a% $e use& in an% action involvin' the sa#e su$3ect #atter su$se>uentl% $rou'ht in accor&ance (ith the provisions of sections 4 an& 5 of Rule 02.2.(5a" R.For the purpose of appl%in' Rule 02 to &epositions for perpetuatin' testi#on%" each reference therein to the court in (hich the action is pen&in' shall $e &ee#e& to refer to the court in (hich the petition for such &eposition (as file&.24) SEC.Contents of petition-.(6a" R.a" R.(2a" R.The petitioner shall serve a notice upon each person na#e& in the petition as an e1pecte& a&verse part%" to'ether (ith a cop% of the petition" statin' that the petitioner (ill appl% to the court" at a ti#e an& place na#e& therein" for the or&er &escri$e& in the petition.Order and e.+epositions pending appeal.The &epositions #a% then $e ta/en in accor&ance (ith Rule 02 $efore the hearin'.(4a" R.5.4.2!f the court is satisfie& that the perpetuation of the testi#on% #a% prevent a failure or &ela% of 3ustice" it shall #a/e an or&er &esi'natin' or &escri$in' the persons (hose &eposition #a% $e ta/en an& specif%in' the su$3ect #atter of the e1a#ination an& (hether the &epositions shall $e ta/en upon oral e1a#ination or (ritten interro'atories.?.24) SEC.'se of deposition.(0" R.6.The petition shall $e entitle& in the na#e of the petitioner an& shall sho(* (a) that the petitioner e1pects to $e a part% to an action in a court of the Philippines $ut is presentl% una$le to $rin' it or cause it to $e $rou'ht7 ($) the su$3ect #atter of the e1pecte& action an& his interest therein7 (c) the facts (hich he &esires to esta$lish $% the propose& testi#on% an& his reasons for &esirin' to perpetuate it7 (&) the na#es or a &escription of the persons he e1pects (ill $e a&verse parties an& their a&&resses so far as /no(n7 an& (e) the na#es an& a&&resses of the persons to $e e1a#ine& an& the su$stance of the testi#on% (hich he e1pects to elicit fro# each" an& shall as/ for an or&er authori5in' the petitioner to ta/e the &epositions of the persons to $e e1a#ine& na#e& in the petition for the purpose of perpetuatin' their testi#on%.24) SEC.(.The #otion shall state (a) the na#es an& a&&resses of the persons to $e e1a#ine& an& the su$stance of the testi#on% (hich he e1pects to elicit fro# each7 .24) SEC.amination.Reference to court-.!n such case the part% (ho &esires to perpetuate the testi#on% #a% #a/e a #otion in the sai& court for leave to ta/e the &epositions" upon the sa#e notice an& service thereof as if the action (as pen&in' therein.At least t(ent% (0B) &a%s $efore the &ate of the hearin'" the court shall cause notice thereof to $e serve& on the parties an& prospective &eponents in the #anner provi&e& for service of su##ons.

6.(?a" R.(n)- RULE 26 .2+o part% #a%" (ithout leave of court" serve #ore than one set of interro'atories to $e ans(ere& $% the sa#e part%.(4) SEC.a) SEC.2O$3ections to an% interro'atories #a% $e presente& to the court (ithin ten (.0.(5a) SEC.!f the court fin&s that the perpetuation of the testi#on% is proper to avoi& a failure or &ela% of 3ustice" it #a% #a/e an or&er allo(in' the &epositions to $e ta/en" an& thereupon the &epositions #a% $e ta/en an& use& in the sa#e #anner an& un&er the sa#e con&itions as are prescri$e& in these Rules for &epositions ta/en in pen&in' actions..24) RULE 25 INTERROGATORIES TO PARTIES SECT!O+ .2 Un&er the sa#e con&itions specifie& in section .an& ($) the reason for perpetuatin' their testi#on%.(.Scope and use of interrogatories.5) &a%s after service thereof" unless the court" on #otion an& for 'oo& cause sho(n" e1ten&s or shortens the ti#e(0a) SEC.Interrogatories to parties.4.%umber of interrogatories.2The interro'atories shall $e ans(ere& full% in (ritin' an& shall $e si'ne& an& s(orn to $% the person #a/in' the#.2 !nterro'atories #a% relate to an% #atters that can $e in>uire& into un&er section 0 of Rule 02" an& the ans(ers #a% $e use& for the sa#e purposes provi&e& in section 4 of the sa#e Rule. of Rule 02" an% part% &esirin' to elicit #aterial an& relevant facts fro# an% a&verse parties shall file an& serve upon the latter (ritten interro'atories to $e ans(ere& $% the part% serve& or" if the part% serve& is a pu$lic or private corporation or a partnership or association" $% an% officer thereof co#petent to testif% in its $ehalf.The part% upon (ho# the interro'atories have $een serve& shall file an& serve a cop% of the ans(ers on the part% su$#ittin' the interro'atories (ithin fifteen (. service thereof.2 Unless thereafter allo(e& $% the court for 'oo& cause sho(n an& to prevent a failure of 3ustice" a part% not serve& (ith (ritten interro'atories #a% not $e co#pelle& $% the a&verse part% to 'ive testi#on% in open court" or to 'ive a &eposition pen&in' appeal.*ffect of failure to serve written interrogatories.(nswer to interrogatories.2.B) &a%s after service thereof" (ith notice as in case of a #otion7 an& ans(ers shall $e &eferre& until the o$3ections are resolve&" (hich shall $e at as earl% a ti#e as is practica$le.(2a) SEC.Ob"ections to interrogatories.5.

(0a) SEC.Re6uest for admission.Unless other(ise allo(e& $% the court for 'oo& cause sho(n an& to prevent a failure of 3ustice" a part% (ho fails to file an& serve a re>uest for a&#ission on the a&verse part% of #aterial an& relevant facts at issue (hich are" or ou'ht to $e" (ithin the personal /no(le&'e of the latter" shall not $e per#itte& to present evi&ence on such facts.*ffect of failure to file and serve re6uest for admission -.5.2An% a&#ission #a&e $% a part% pursuant to such re>uest is for the purpose of the pen&in' action onl% an& shall not constitute an a&#ission $% hi# for an% other purpose nor #a% the sa#e $e use& a'ainst hi# in an% other procee&in'.*ffect of admission.(n) RULE 27 PRODUCTION OR INSPECTION OF DOCUMENTS OR T INGS SECT!O+ .!otion for production or inspection. order.a) SEC.Copies of the &ocu#ents shall $e &elivere& (ith the re>uest unless copies have alrea&% $een furnishe&.(.Implied admission.4.2The court #a% allo( the part% #a/in' an a&#ission un&er this Rule" (hether e1press or i#plie&" to (ith&ra( or a#en& it upon such ter#s as #a% $e 3ust.ADMISSION !Y ADVERSE PARTY SECT!O+ .2.0.(2) SEC.2Each of the #atters of (hich an a&#ission is re>ueste& shall $e &ee#e& a&#itte& unless" (ithin a perio& &esi'nate& in the re>uest" (hich shall not $e less than fifteen (.2At an% ti#e after issues have $een 3oine&" a part% #a% file an& serve upon an% other part% a (ritten re>uest for the a&#ission $% the latter of the 'enuineness of an% #aterial an& relevant &ocu#ent &escri$e& in an& e1hi$ite& (ith the re>uest or of the truth of an% #aterial an& relevant #atter of fact set forth in the re>uest.#ithdrawal.(4) SEC.5) &a%s after service thereof" or (ithin such further ti#e as the court #a% allo( on #otion" the part% to (ho# the re>uest is &irecte& files an& serves upon the part% re>uestin' the a&#ission a s(orn state#ent either &en%in' specificall% the #atters of (hich an a&#ission is re>ueste& or settin' forth in &etail the reasons (h% he cannot truthfull% either a&#it or &en% those #attersO$3ections to an% re>uest for a&#ission shall $e su$#itte& to the court $% the part% re>ueste& (ithin the perio& for an& prior to the filin' of his s(orn state#ent as conte#plate& in the prece&in' para'raph an& his co#pliance there(ith shall $e &eferre& until such o$li'ations are resolve&" (hich resolution shall $e #a&e as earl% as practica$le. : Upon #otion of an% part% sho(in' 'oo& cause therefor" the court in (hich an action is pen&in' #a% (a) or&er an% part% to pro&uce an& per#it the inspection an& cop%in' or photo'raphin'" $% or on $ehalf of the #ovin' part%" of an% &esi'nate& &ocu#ents" papers" $oo/s" accounts" ...

#aiver of privilege.2!n an action in (hich the #ental or ph%sical con&ition of a part% is in controvers%" the court in (hich the action is pen&in' #a% in its &iscretion or&er hi# to su$#it to a ph%sical or #ental e1a#ination $% a ph%sician.The or&er shall specif% the ti#e" place an& #anner of #a/in' the inspection an& ta/in' copies an& photo'raphs" an& #a% prescri$e such ter#s an& con&itions as are 3ust.Report of findings2!f re>ueste& $% the part% e1a#ine&" the part% causin' the e1a#ination to $e #a&e shall &eliver to hi# a cop% of a &etaile& (ritten report of the e1a#inin' ph%sician settin' out his fin&in's an& conclusions.#hen e.2The or&er for e1a#ination #a% $e #a&e onl% on #otion for 'oo& cause sho(n an& upon notice to the part% to $e e1a#ine& an& to all other parties" an& shall specif% the ti#e" place" #anner" con&itions an& scope of the e1a#ination an& the person or persons $% (ho# it is to $e #a&e.a) RULE 28 P YSICAL AND MENTAL E&AMINATION OF PERSONS SECT!O+ .(4) RULE 29 REFUSAL TO COMPLY WIT MODES OF DISCOVERY .(0) SEC.2.letters" photo'raphs" o$3ects or tan'i$le thin's not privile'e&" (hich constitute or contain evi&ence #aterial to an% #atter involve& in the action an& (hich are in his possession custo&% or control7 or ($) or&er an% part% or per#it entr% upon &esi'nate& lan& or other propert% in his possession or control for the purpose of inspectin'" #easurin'" surve%in'" or photo'raphin' the propert% or an% &esi'nate& relevant o$3ect or operation thereon.) SEC.(.0.4.2)% re>uestin' an& o$tainin' a report of the e1a#ination so or&ere& or $% ta/in' the &eposition of the e1a#iner" the part% e1a#ine& (aives an% privile'e he #a% have in that action or an% other involvin' the sa#e controvers%" re'ar&in' the testi#on% of ever% other person (ho has e1a#ine& or #a% thereafter e1a#ine hi# in respect of the sa#e #ental or ph%sical e1a#ination.(2a) SEC.(.amination may be ordered.!f the part% e1a#ine& refuses to &eliver such report" the court on #otion an& notice #a% #a/e an or&er re>uirin' &eliver% on such ter#s as are 3ust" an& if a ph%sician fails or refuses to #a/e such a report the court #a% e1clu&e his testi#on% if offere& at the trial..Order for e.After such re>uest an& &eliver%" the part% causin' the e1a#ination to $e #a&e shall $e entitle& upon re>uest to receive fro# the part% e1a#ine& a li/e report of an% e1a#ination" previousl% or thereafter #a&e" of the sa#e #ental or ph%sical con&ition.amination.

2!f a part% or other &eponent refuses to ans(er an% >uestion upon oral e1a#ination" the e1a#ination #a% $e co#plete& on other #atters or a&3ourne& as the proponent of the >uestion #a% prefer.Contempt of court-.The proponent #a% thereafter appl% to the proper court of the place (here the &eposition is $ein' ta/en" for an or&er to co#pel an ans(er.2.!f a part% or other (itness refuses to $e s(orn or refuses to ans(er an% >uestion after $ein' &irecte& to &o so $% the court of the place in (hich the &eposition is $ein' ta/en" the refusal #a% $e consi&ere& a conte#pt of that court.Refusal to answer.Other conse6uences.a) SEC. of this Rule re>uirin' hi# to ans(er &esi'nate& >uestions" or an or&er un&er Rule 0? to pro&uce an% &ocu#ent or other thin' for inspection cop%in' or photo'raphin' or to per#it it to $e &one" or to per#it entr% upon lan& or other propert%" or an or&er #a&e un&er Rule 0@ re>uirin' hi# to su$#it to a ph%sical or #ental e1a#ination" the court #a% #a/e such or&ers in re'ar& to the refusal as are 3ust" an& a#on' others the follo(in'* (a) An or&er that the #atters re'ar&in' (hich the >uestions (ere as/e&" or the character or &escription of the thin' or lan&" or the contents of the paper" or the ph%sical or #ental con&ition of the part% or an% other &esi'nate& facts shall $e ta/en to $e esta$lishe& for the purposes of the action in accor&ance (ith the clai# of the part% o$tainin' the or&er7 ($) An or&er refusin' to allo( the &iso$e&ient part% to support or oppose &esi'nate& clai#s or &efenses or prohi$itin' hi# fro# intro&ucin' in evi&ence &esi'nate& &ocu#ents or thin's or ite#s of testi#on%" or fro# intro&ucin' evi&ence of ph%sical or #ental con&ition7 (c) An or&er stri/in' out plea&in's or parts thereof" or sta%in' further procee&in's until the or&er is o$e%e&" or &is#issin' the action or procee&in' or an% part thereof or ren&erin' a 3u&'#ent $% &efault a'ainst the &iso$e&ient part%7 an& (&) !n lieu of an% of the fore'oin' or&ers or in a&&ition thereto" an or&er &irectin' the arrest of an% part% or a'ent of part% for &iso$e%in' an% of such or&ers e1cept an or&er to su$#it to a ph%sical or #ental e1a#ination.(0a) SEC.0.(2a) .2!f an% part% or an officer or #ana'in' a'ent of a part% refuses to o$e% an or&er #a&e un&er section ..The sa#e proce&ure #a% $e availe& of (hen a part% or a (itness refuses to ans(er an% interro'ator% su$#itte& un&er Rules 02 or 05!f the application is 'rante&" the court shall re>uire the refusin' part% or &eponent to ans(er the >uestion or interro'ator% an& if it also fin&s that the refusal to ans(er (as (ithout su$stantial 3ustification" it #a% re>uire the refusin' part% or &eponent or the counsel a&visin' the refusal" or $oth of the#" to pa% the proponent the a#ount of the reasona$le e1penses incurre& in o$tainin' the or&er" inclu&in' attorne%Gs fees!f the application is &enie& an& the court fin&s that it (as file& (ithout su$stantial 3ustification" the court #a% re>uire the proponent or the counsel a&visin' the filin' of the application" or $oth of the#" to pa% to the refusin' part% or &eponent the a#ount of the reasona$le e1penses incurre& in opposin' the application" inclu&in' attorne%Gs fees(.SECT!O+ .

4.(d"ournments and postponements.(5) SEC.2.)ut if the a&verse part% a&#its the facts to $e 'iven in evi&ence" even if he o$3ects or reserves the ri'ht to their a&#issi$ilit%" the trial shall not $e postpone&.Re6uisites of motion to postpone trial for absence of evidence.2 !f a part% after $ein' serve& (ith a re>uest un&er Rule 06 to a&#it the 'enuineness of an% &ocu#ent or the truth of an% #atter of fact" serves a s(orn &enial thereof an& if the part% re>uestin' the a&#issions thereafter proves the 'enuineness of such &ocu#ent or the truth of an% such #atter of fact" he #a% appl% to the court for an or&er re>uirin' the other part% to pa% hi# the reasona$le e1penses incurre& in #a/in' such proof" inclu&in' attorne%Gs fees.*..Upon entr% of a case in the trial calen&ar" the cler/ shall notif% the parties of the &ate of its trial in such #anner as shall ensure his receipt of that notice at least five (5) &a%s $efore such &ate.4.(2a" R00) SEC.4ailure of party to attend or serve answers.2 !f a part% or an officer or #ana'in' a'ent of a part% (ilfull% fails to appear $efore the officer (ho is to ta/e his &eposition" after $ein' serve& (ith a proper notice" or fails to serve ans(ers to interro'atories su$#itte& un&er Rule 05 after proper service of such interro'atories" the court on #otion an& notice" #a% stri/e out all or an% part of an% plea&in' of the part%" or &is#iss the action or procee&in' or an% part thereof" or enter a 3u&'#ent $% &efault a'ainst the part%" an& in its &iscretion" or&er hi# to pa% reasona$le e1penses incurre& $% the other" inclu&in' attorne%Gs fees.2 E1penses an& attorne%Gs fees are not to $e i#pose& upon the Repu$lic of the Philippines un&er this Rule-(6) RULE 30 TRIAL SECT!O+ .2 A #otion to postpone a trial on the 'roun& of a$sence of evi&ence can $e 'rante& onl% upon affi&avit sho(in' the #aterialit% or relevanc% of such evi&ence" an& that &ue &ili'ence has $een use& to procure it.(4a) SEC.0.%otice of trial-.Re6uisites of motion to postpone trial for illness of party or counsel.2 A court #a% a&3ourn a trial fro# &a% to &a%" an& to an% state& ti#e" as the e1pe&itious an& convenient transaction of $usiness #a% re>uire" $ut shall have no po(er to a&3ourn a trial for a lon'er perio& than one #onth for each a&3ourn#ent" nor #ore than three #onths in all" e1cept (hen authori5e& in (ritin' $% the Court A&#inistrator" Supre#e Court.6.SEC.(0a" R00) SEC.penses against the Republic of the $hilippines.*.2 A #otion to postpone a trial on the 'roun& of illness of a part% or counsel #a% $e 'rante& if it appears upon affi&avit or s(orn certification that the presence of such part% or .penses on refusal to admit.Unless the court fin&s that there (ere 'oo& reasons for the &enial or that a&#issions sou'ht (ere of no su$stantial i#portance" such or&er shall $e issue&.(4a" R00) SEC.5.

(n) SEC.?.counsel at the trial is in&ispensa$le an& that the character of his illness is such as to ren&er his non<atten&ance e1cusa$le." an& unless the court for special reasons other(ise &irects" the trial shall $e li#ite& to the issues state& in the pre<trial or&er an& shall procee& as follo(s* (a) The plaintiff shall a&&uce evi&ence in support of his co#plaint7 ($) The &efen&ant shall then a&&uce evi&ence in support of his &efense" counterclai#" cross<clai# an& thir&<part% co#plaint7 (c) The thir&<part% &efen&ant" if an%" shall a&&uce evi&ence of his &efense" counterclai#" cross<clai# an& fourth<part% co#plaint7 (&) The fourth<part%" an& so forth" if an%" shall a&&uce evi&ence of the #aterial facts plea&e& $% the#7 (e) The parties a'ainst (ho# an% counterclai# or cross<clai# has $een plea&e&" shall a&&uce evi&ence in support of their &efense" in the or&er to $e prescri$e& $% the court7 (f) The parties #a% then respectivel% a&&uce re$uttin' evi&ence onl%" unless the court" for 'oo& reasons an& in the furtherance of 3ustice" per#its the# to a&&uce evi&ence upon their ori'inal case7 an& (') Upon a&#ission of the evi&ence" the case shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for &ecision" unless the court &irects the parties to ar'ue or to su$#it their respective #e#oran&a or an% further plea&in's!f several &efen&ants or thir&<part% &efen&ants" an& so forth.The cler/ of court shall have no po(er to rule on o$3ections .6. delegation to cler) of court.(greed statement of facts2The parties to an% action #a% a'ree" in (ritin'" upon the facts involve& in the liti'ation" an& su$#it the case for 3u&'#ent on the facts a'ree& upon" (ithout the intro&uction of evi&ence!f the parties a'ree onl% on so#e of the facts in issue" the trial shall $e hel& as to the &ispute& facts in such or&er as the court shall prescri$e.2The suspension of actions shall $e 'overne& $% the provisions of the Civil Co&e.(2a" R2B) SEC.A.a" R2B) SEC.=o(ever" in &efault or e .(5a" R00) SEC.Statement of 3u&'e-.5.Order of trial-.(0a" R2B) SEC.udge to receive evidence.Furin' the hearin' or trial of a case an% state#ent #a&e $% the 3u&'e (ith reference to the case" or to an% of the parties" (itnesses or counsel" shall $e #a&e of recor& in the steno'raphic notes.Suspension of actions.Su$3ect to the provisions of section 0 of Rule 2.2 The 3u&'e of the court (here the case is pen&in' shall personall% receive the evi&ence to $e a&&uce& $% the parties. parte hearin's" an& in an% case (here the parties a'ree in (ritin'" the court #a% &ele'ate the reception of evi&ence to its cler/ of court (ho is a #e#$er of the $ar.@.havin' separate &efenses appear $% &ifferent counsel" the court shall &eter#ine the relative or&er of presentation of their evi&ence.(.

Separate trials.Reference ordered on motion.(n) RULE 31 CONSOLIDATION OR SEVERANCE SECT!O+ .0.2 8hen the parties &o not consent" the court #a%" upon the application of either or of its o(n #otion) &irect a reference to a co##issioner in the follo(in' cases* (a) 8hen the trial of an issue of fact re>uires the e1a#ination of a lon' account on either si&e" in (hich case the co##issioner #a% $e &irecte& to hear an& report upon the (hole issue or an% specific >uestion involve& therein7 ($) 8hen the ta/in' of an account is necessar% for the infor#ation of the court $efore 3u&'#ent" or for carr%in' a 3u&'#ent or or&er into effect7 (c) 8hen a >uestion of fact" other than upon the plea&in's" arises upon #otion or other(ise" in an% sta'e of a case" or for carr%in' a 3u&'#ent or or&er into effect.2 8hen a reference is .As use& in these Rules" the (or& :co##issioner. powers of the commissioner.a" R22) SEC.(0a" R22) SEC.(.0.2The court" in furtherance of convenience or to avoi& pre3u&ice" #a% or&er a separate trial of an% clai#" cross<clai#" counterclai#" or thir&< part% co#plaint" or of an% separate issue or of an% nu#$er of clai#s" cross<clai#s" counterclai#s" thir&<part% co#plaint or issues.2.to an% >uestion or to the a&#ission of e1hi$its" (hich o$3ections shall $e resolve& $% the court upon su$#ission of his report an& the transcripts (ithin ten (.) SEC..Reference by consent..Consolidation-. inclu&es a referee" an au&itor an& an e1a#iner.(0a) RULE 32 TRIAL !Y COMMISSIONER SECT!O+ .2)% (ritten consent of $oth parties" the court #a% or&er an% or all of the issues in a case to $e referre& to a co##issioner to $e a'ree& upon $% the parties or to $e appointe& $% the court.Order of reference.(.B) &a%s fro# ter#ination of the hearin'.8hen actions involvin' a co##on >uestion of la( or fact are pen&in' $efore the court" it #a% or&er a 3oint hearin' or trial of an% or all the #atters in issue in the actions7 it #a% or&er all the actions consoli&ate&7 an& it #a% #a/e such or&ers concernin' procee&in's therein as #a% ten& to avoi& unnecessar% costs or &ela%.

e1hi$its" affi&avits" &epositions" papers an& the transcripts" if an%" of the testi#onial evi&ence presente& $efore hi#.Report of commissioner.2 Upon receipt of the or&er of reference an& unless other(ise provi&e& therein" the co##issioner shall forth(ith set a ti#e an& place for the first #eetin' of the parties or their counsel to $e hel& (ithin ten (.(5a" R22) SEC.4ailure of parties to appear before commissioner. Oath of commissioner.2 !t is the &ut% of the co##issioner to procee& (ith all reasona$le &ili'ence.$roceedings before commissioner.2Upon the co#pletion of the trial or hearin' or procee&in' $efore the co##issioner" he shall file (ith the court his report in (ritin' upon the #atters su$#itte& to hi# $% the or&er of reference.A. parte or" in his &iscretion" a&3ourn the procee&in's to a future &a%" 'ivin' notice to the a$sent part% or his counsel of the a&3ourn#ent.B) &a%s after the &ate of the or&er of reference an& shall notif% the parties or their counsel.(@a" R22) SEC..B.6.B) &a%s (ithin (hich to si'nif% 'roun&s of o$3ections to the fin&in's of the report" if the% so &esireO$3ections to the report $ase& upon 'roun&s (hich (ere availa$le to the parties &urin' the procee&in's $efore the co##issioner" other than o$3ections to the fin&in's an& conclusions therein set forth" shall not $e consi&ere& $% the court unless the% (ere #a&e $efore the co##issioner.2The refusal of a (itness to o$e% a su$poena issue& $% the co##issioner or to 'ive evi&ence $efore hi#" shall $e &ee#e& a conte#pt of the court (hich appointe& the co##issioner.#a&e" the cler/ shall forth(ith furnish" the co##issioner (ith a cop% of the or&er of reference. Refusal of witness.B" R22) .The or&er #a% specif% or li#it the po(ers of the co##issioner" an& #a% &irect hi# to report onl% upon particular issues" or to &o or perfor# particular acts" or to receive an& report evi&ence onl%" an& #a% fi1 the &ate for $e'innin' an& closin' the hearin's an& for the filin' of his report.Su$3ect to the specifications an& li#itations state& in the or&er" the co##issioner has an& shall e1ercise the po(er to re'ulate the procee&in's in ever% hearin' $efore hi# an& to &o all acts an& ta/e all #easures necessar% or proper for the efficient perfor#ance of his &uties un&er the or&er.=e #a% issue su$poenas an& su$poenas duces tecum.(Aa" R22) SEC.5.Commissioner shall avoid delays.2)efore enterin' upon his &uties the co##issioner shall $e s(orn to a faithful an& honest perfor#ance thereof..4" R22) SEC.8hen his po(ers are not specifie& or li#ite&" he shall set forth his fin&in's of fact an& conclusions of la( in his report. s(ear (itnesses" an& unless other(ise provi&e& in the or&er of reference" he #a% rule upon the a&#issi$ilit% of evi&ence.(6a" R22) SEC.(.2 Upon the filin' of the report" the parties shall $e notifie& $% the cler/" an& the% shall $e allo(e& ten (.Either part%" on notice to the parties an& co##issioner" #a% appl% to the court for an or&er re>uirin' the co##issioner to e1pe&ite the procee&in's an& to #a/e his report.2 !f a part% fails to appear at the ti#e an& place appointe&" the co##issioner #a% procee& e.The trial or hearin' $efore hi# shall procee& in all respects as it (oul& if hel& $efore the court..=e shall attach thereto all.%otice to parties of the filing of report.(?a" R22) SEC.@.(.<.(2a" R22) SEC.

SEC.(.a" R25) RULE 34 $UDGMENT ON T E PLEADINGS SECT!O+ .=o(ever" in actions for &eclaration of nullit% or annul#ent of #arria'e or for le'al separation" the #aterial facts alle'e& in the co#plaint shall al(a%s $e prove&.B) &a%s referre& to in the prece&in' section" the report shall $e set for hearin'" after (hich the court shall issue an or&er a&optin'" #o&if%in'" or re3ectin' the report in (hole or in part" or reco##ittin' it (ith instructions" or re>uirin' the parties to present further evi&ence $efore the co##issioner or the court.Compensation of commissioner.28here an ans(er fails to ten&er an issue" or other(ise a&#its the #aterial alle'ations of the a&verse part%Gs plea&in'" the court #a%" on #otion of that part%" &irect 3u&'#ent on such plea&in'..(.A) RULE 35 SUMMARY $UDGMENTS .2.Stipulations as to findings.(.(.+emurrer to evidence.Upon the e1piration of the perio& of ten (.3earing upon report-.....!f the #otion is 'rante& $ut on appeal the or&er of &is#issal is reverse& he shall $e &ee#e& to have (aive& the ri'ht to present evi&ence.2" R22) RULE 33 DEMURRER TO EVIDENCE SECT!O+ .28hen the parties stipulate that a co##issionerGs fin&in's of fact shall $e final" onl% >uestions of la( shall thereafter $e consi&ere&.2 The court shall allo( the co##issioner such reasona$le co#pensation as the circu#stances of the case (arrant" to $e ta1e& as costs a'ainst the &efeate& part%" or apportione&" as 3ustice re>uires.a" R.0a" R22) SEC..(...0.!f his #otion is &enie&" he shall have the ri'ht to present evi&ence.udgment on the pleadings.2After the plaintiff has co#plete& the presentation of his evi&ence" the &efen&ant #a% #ove for &is#issal on the 'roun& that upon the facts an& the la( the plaintiff has sho(n no ri'ht to relief.a" R22) SEC.

Certifie& true copies of all papers or parts thereof referre& to in the affi&avit shall $e attache& thereto or serve& there(ith.(ffidavits in bad faith-.The a&verse part% #a% serve opposin' affi&avits" &epositions" or a&#issions at least three (2) &a%s $efore the hearin'.The facts so specifie& shall $e &ee#e& esta$lishe&" an& the trial shall $e con&ucte& on the controverte& facts accor&in'l%.0.4..!t shall thereupon #a/e an or&er specif%in' the facts that appear (ithout su$stantial controvers%" inclu&in' the e1tent to (hich the a#ount of &a#a'es or other relief is not in controvers%" an& &irectin' such further procee&in's in the action as are 3ust.Summary "udgment for defending part%-.(0a" R24) SEC.2 A part% see/in' to recover upon a clai#" counterclai#" or cross<clai# or to o$tain a &eclarator% relief #a%" at an% ti#e after the plea&in' in ans(er thereto has $een serve&" #ove (ith supportin' affi&avits" &epositions or a&#issions for a su##ar% 3u&'#ent in his favor upon all or an% part thereof.(.2 !f on #otion un&er this Rule" 3u&'#ent is not ren&ere& upon the (hole case or for all the reliefs sou'ht an& a trial is necessar%" the court at the hearin' of the #otion" $% e1a#inin' the plea&in's an& the evi&ence $efore it an& $% interro'atin' counsel shall ascertain (hat #aterial facts e1ist (ithout su$stantial controvers% an& (hat are actuall% an& in 'oo& faith controverte&.SECT!O+ .2.2 Supportin' an& opposin' affi&avits shall $e #a&e on personal /no(le&'e" shall set forth such facts as (oul& $e a&#issi$le in evi&ence" an& shall sho( affir#ativel% that the affiant is co#petent to testif% to the #atters state& therein.A part% a'ainst (ho# a clai#" counterclai# or cross<clai# is asserte& or a &eclarator% relief is sou'ht #a%" at an% ti#e" #ove (ith supportin' affi&avits" &epositions or a&#issions for a su##ar% 3u&'#ent in his favor as to all or an% part thereof.Shoul& it appear to its satisfaction at an% ti#e that an% of the affi&avits presente& pursuant to this Rule are presente& in $a& faith" or solel% for the purpose of &ela%" the court shall forth(ith or&er the offen&in' part% or counsel to pa% to the other part% the a#ount of the reasona$le e1penses (hich the filin' of the affi&avits cause& hi# to incur" inclu&in' attorne%Gs fees.!otion and proceedings thereon -.(5a" R24) SEC.The #otion shall $e serve& at least ten (.a" R24) SEC.B) &a%s $efore the ti#e specifie& for the hearin'.After the hearin'" the 3u&'#ent sou'ht shall $e ren&ere& forth(ith if the plea&in's" supportin' affi&avits" &epositions" an& a&#issions on file" sho( that" e1cept as to the a#ount of &a#a'es" there is no 'enuine issue as to an% #aterial fact an& that the #ovin' part% is entitle& to a 3u&'#ent as a #atter of la(.Summary "udgment for claimant.6.(4a" R24) SEC.!t #a%" after hearin'" further a&3u&'e the offen&in' part% or counsel 'uilt% of conte#pt.(6a" R24) RULE 36 .5.(2a" R24) SEC.Case not fully ad"udicated on motion.4orm of affidavits and supporting papers.

.2 8hen 3u&'#ent is ren&ere& a'ainst t(o or #ore persons sue& as an entit% (ithout 3uri&ical personalit%" the 3u&'#ent shall set out their in&ivi&ual or proper na#es" if /no(n.(.28hen #ore than one clai# for relief is presente& in an action" the court" at an% sta'e" upon a &eter#ination of the issues #aterial to a particular clai# an& all counterclai#s arisin' out of the transaction or occurrence (hich is the su$3ect #atter of the clai#" #a% ren&er a separate 3u&'#ent &isposin' of such clai#.!n case a separate 3u&'#ent is ren&ere&" the court $% or&er #a% sta% its enforce#ent until the ren&ition of a su$se>uent 3u&'#ent or 3u&'#ents an& #a% prescri$e such con&itions as #a% $e necessar% to secure the $enefit thereof to the part% in (hose favor the 3u&'#ent is ren&ere&.The &ate of finalit% of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er shall $e &ee#e& to $e the &ate of its entr%The recor& shall contain the &ispositive part of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er an& shall $e si'ne& $% the cler/" (ith a certificate that such 3u&'#ent or final or&er has $eco#e final an& e1ecutor%.2 !f no appeal or #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration is file& (ithin the ti#e provi&e& in these Rules" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er shall forth(ith $e entere& $% the cler/ in the $oo/ of entries of 3u&'#ents.6.5.2!n an action a'ainst several &efen&ants" the court #a%" (hen a several 3u&'#ent is proper" ren&er 3u&'#ent a'ainst one or #ore of the#" leavin' the action to procee& a'ainst the others.a) SEC.The 3u&'#ent shall ter#inate the action (ith respect to the clai# so &ispose& of an& the action shall procee& as to the re#ainin' clai#s.(6a) RULE 37 NEW TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION SECT!O+ .(0a" .*ntry of "udgments and final orders.4.(4) SEC.Separate "udgments.udgment against entity without "uridical personality.2.(5a) SEC.Several "udgments.)SEC.udgment for or against one or more of several parties-.Hu&'#ent #a% $e 'iven for or a'ainst one or #ore several plaintiffs" an& for or a'ainst one or #ore of several &efen&ants.-rounds of and period for filing motion for new trial or reconsideration..Rendition of "udgments and final orders.8hen 3ustice so &e#an&s" the court #a% re>uire the parties on each si&e to file a&versar% plea&in's as $et(een the#selves an& &eter#ine their ulti#ate ri'hts an& o$li'ations.$UDGMENTS# FINAL ORDERS AND ENTRY T EREOF SECT!O+ .(2) SEC.2 A 3u&'#ent or final or&er &eter#inin' the #erits of the case shall $e in (ritin' personall% an& &irectl% prepare& $% the 3u&'e" statin' clearl% an& &istinctl% the facts an& the la( on (hich it is $ase&" si'ne& $% hi#" an& file& (ith the cler/ of the court.B" R5.0. 28ithin the perio& for ta/in' an appeal" the a''rieve& part% #a% #ove the trial court to .

5.2The trial court #a% set asi&e the 3u&'#ent or final or&er an& 'rant a ne( trial" upon such ter#s as #a% $e 3ust7 or #a% &en% the #otion.0.4.(0a) SEC.!f the court fin&s that e1cessive &a#a'es have $een a(ar&e& or that the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is contrar% to the evi&ence or la(" it #a% a#en& such 3u&'#ent or final or&er accor&in'l%.A #otion for the cause #entione& in para'raph (a) of the prece&in' section shall $e supporte& $% affi&avits of #erits (hich #a% $e re$utte& $% affi&avits.Contents of motion for new trial or reconsideration and notice thereof.(.Resolution of motion2A #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration shall $e resolve& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the ti#e it is su$#itte& for resolution.(2a) SEC.(4a" 4" !RC) .2.Second motion for new trial.2 The #otion shall $e #a&e in (ritin' statin' the 'roun& or 'roun&s therefor" a (ritten notice of (hich shall $e serve& $% the #ovant on the a&verse part%A #otion for ne( trial shall $e prove& in the #anner provi&e& for proof of #otions.A #otion for the cause #entione& in para'raph ($) shall $e supporte& $% affi&avits of the (itnesses $% (ho# such evi&ence is e1pecte& to $e 'iven" or $% &ul% authenticate& &ocu#ents (hich are propose& to $e intro&uce& in evi&enceA #otion for reconsi&eration shall point out specificall% the fin&in's or conclusions of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er (hich are not supporte& $% the evi&ence or (hich are contrar% to la(" #a/in' e1press reference to the testi#onial or &ocu#entar% evi&ence or to the provisions of la( alle'e& to $e contrar% to such fin&in's or conclusionsA pro forma #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration shall not toll the re'le#entar% perio& of appeal.2 A #otion for ne( trial shall inclu&e all 'roun&s then availa$le an& those not so inclu&e& shall $e &ee#e& (aive&.set asi&e the 3u&'#ent or final or&er an& 'rant a ne( trial for one or #ore of the follo(in' causes #ateriall% affectin' the su$stantial ri'hts of sai& part%* (a) Frau&" acci&ent" #ista/e or e1cusa$le ne'li'ence (hich or&inar% pru&ence coul& not have 'uar&e& a'ainst an& $% reason of (hich such a''rieve& part% has pro$a$l% $een i#paire& in his ri'hts7 or ($) +e(l% &iscovere& evi&ence" (hich he coul& not" (ith reasona$le &ili'ence" have &iscovere& an& pro&uce& at the trial" an& (hich if presente& (oul& pro$a$l% alter the result8ithin the sa#e perio&" the a''rieve& part% #a% also #ove for reconsi&eration upon the 'roun&s that the &a#a'es a(ar&e& are e1cessive" that the evi&ence is insufficient to 3ustif% the &ecision or final or&er" or that the &ecision or final or&er is contrar% to la(.(n) SEC.(ction upon motion for new trial or reconsideration.A secon& #otion for ne( trial" $ase& on a 'roun& not e1istin' nor availa$le (hen the first #otion (as #a&e" #a% $e file& (ithin the ti#e herein provi&e& e1clu&in' the ti#e &urin' (hich the first #otion ha& $een pen&in'+o part% shall $e allo(e& a secon& #otion for reconsi&eration of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er.a) SEC.

6. $ut the recor&e& evi&ence ta/en upon the for#er trial" insofar as the sa#e is #aterial an& co#petent to esta$lish the issues" shall $e use& at the ne( trial (ithout reta/in' the sa#e.(n) RULE 38 RELIEF FROM $UDGMENTS# ORDERS OR OT ER PROCEEDINGS SECT!O+ .SEC.?.$artial new trial or reconsideration.Remedy against order denying a motion for new trial or reconsideration.Time for filing petition.@.2.4.2 (hen less than all of the issues are or&ere& retrie&" the court #a% either enter a 3u&'#ent or final or&er as to the rest" or sta% the enforce#ent of such 3u&'#ent or final or&er until after the ne( trial.2 A petition provi&e& for in either of the prece&in' sections of this Rule #ust $e verifie&" file& (ithin si1t% (6B) &a%s after the petitioner learns of the 3u&'#ent" final or&er" or other procee&in' to $e set asi&e" an& not #ore than si1 (6) #onths after such 3u&'#ent or final or&er (as entere&" or such procee&in' (as ta/en7 an& #ust $e acco#panie& (ith affi&avits sho(in' the frau&" acci&ent" #ista/e" or e1cusa$le ne'li'ence relie& upon" an& the facts constitutin' the petitionerGs 'oo& an& su$stantial cause of action or &efense" as the case #a% $e(2) SEC.(6a) SEC.a) SEC..2 !f the 'roun&s for a #otion un&er this Rule appear to the court to affect the issues as to onl% a part" or less than all of the #atter in controvers%" or onl% one" or less than all" of the parties to it" the court #a% or&er a ne( trial or 'rant reconsi&eration as to such issues if severa$le (ithout interferin' (ith the 3u&'#ent or final or&er upon the rest.$etition for relief from "udgment.(5) SEC.Order to file an answer 2!f the petition is sufficient in for# an& su$stance to 3ustif% relief" the court in (hich it is file&" shall issue an or&er re>uirin' the a&verse . contents and verification.0.*ffect of order for partial new trial.2 An or&er &en%in' a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration is not appeala$le" the re#e&% $ein' an appeal fro# the 3u&'#ent or final or&er.2 !f a ne( trial is 'rante& in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this Rule" the ori'inal 3u&'#ent or final or&er shall $e vacate&" an& the action shall stan& for trial de novo. or other proceedings2 8hen a 3u&'#ent or final or&er is entere&" or an% other procee&in' is thereafter ta/en a'ainst a part% in an% court throu'h frau&" acci&ent" #ista/e" or e1cusa$le ne'li'ence" he #a% file a petition in such court an& in the sa#e case pra%in' that the 3u&'#ent" or&er or procee&in' $e set asi&e.A.$etition for relief from denial of appeal2 8hen a 3u&'#ent or final or&er is ren&ere& $% an% court in a case" an& a part% thereto" $% frau&" acci&ent" #ista/e" or e1cusa$le ne'li'ence" has $een prevente& fro# ta/in' an appeal" he #a% file a petition in such court an& in the sa#e case pra%in' that the appeal $e 'iven &ue course.(0a) SEC.(?a) SEC.*ffect of granting of motion for new trial.(. order.

*.5.(6a) SEC.+iscretionary e.(.$reliminary in"unction pending proceedings.The or&er shall $e serve& in such #anner as the court #a% &irect" to'ether (ith copies of the petition an& the acco#pan%in' affi&avits.2 After the filin' of the ans(er or the e1piration of the perio& therefor" the court shall hear the petition an& if after such hearin'" it fin&s that the alle'ations thereof are not true" the petition shall $e &is#isse&7 $ut if it fin&s sai& alle'ations to $e true" it shall set asi&e the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or other procee&in' co#plaine& of upon such ter#s as #a% $e 3ust.ecution upon "udgments or final orders.Thereafter the case shall stan& as if such 3u&'#ent" final or&er or other procee&in' ha& never $een ren&ere&" issue& or ta/en.(4a) SEC..0.(n) SEC.2 The court in (hich the petition is file&" #a% 'rant such preli#inar% in3unction as #a% $e necessar% for the preservation of the ri'hts of the parties" upon the filin' $% the petitioner of a $on& in favor of the a&verse part%" con&itione& that if the petition is &is#isse& or the petitioner fails on the trial of the case upon its #erits" he (ill pa% the a&verse part% all &a#a'es an& costs that #a% $e a(ar&e& to hi# $% reason of the issuance of such in3unction or the other procee&in's follo(in' the petition7 $ut such in3unction shall not operate to &ischar'e or e1tin'uish an% lien (hich the a&verse part% #a% have ac>uire& upon the propert% of the petitioner.8here the &enial of an appeal is set asi&e" the lo(er court shall $e re>uire& to 'ive &ue course to the appeal an& to elevate the recor& of the appeale& case as if a ti#el% an& proper appeal ha& $een #a&e.a) !f the appeal has $een &ul% perfecte& an& finall% resolve&" the e1ecution #a% forth(ith $e applie& for in the court of ori'in" on #otion of the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" su$#ittin' there(ith certifie& true copies of the 3u&'#ent or 3u&'#ents or final or&er or or&ers sou'ht to $e enforce& an& of the entr% thereof" (ith notice to the a&verse part%The appellate court #a%" on #otion in the sa#e case" (hen the interest of 3ustice so re>uires" &irect the court of ori'in to issue the (rit of e1ecution.2 .(?a) RULE 39 E&ECUTION# SATISFACTION AND EFFECT OF $UDGMENTS SECT!O+ . $rocedure where the denial of an appeal is set aside -.(5a) SEC.parties to ans(er the sa#e (ithin fifteen (.2 E1ecution shall issue as a #atter of ri'ht" on #otion" upon a 3u&'#ent or or&er that &isposes of the action or procee&in' upon the e1piration of the perio& to appeal therefro# if no appeal has $een &ul% perfecte&.6.$roceedings after answer is filed.ecution.?.5) &a%s fro# the receipt thereof.The court shall then procee& to hear an& &eter#ine the case as if a ti#el% #otion for a ne( trial or reconsi&eration ha& $een 'rante& $% it.

A several" separate or partial 3u&'#ent #a% $e e1ecute& un&er the sa#e ter#s an& con&itions as e1ecution of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er pen&in' appeal.ecuted "udgment -.*ffect of reversal of e.8here the e1ecute& 3u&'#ent is reverse& totall% or partiall%" or annulle&" on appeal or other(ise" the trial court #a%" on #otion" issue such or&ers of restitution or reparation of &a#a'es as e>uit% an& 3ustice #a% (arrant un&er the circu#stances.(4a) SEC.2 !n case of the &eath of a part%" e1ecution #a% issue or $e enforce& in the follo(in' #anner* (a) !n case of the &eath of the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" upon the application .(5a) SEC.On appeal therefro#" the appellate court in its &iscretion #a% #a/e an or&er suspen&in'" #o&if%in'" restorin' or 'rantin' the in3unction" receivership" accountin'" or a(ar& of supportThe sta% of e1ecution shall $e upon such ter#s as to $on& or other(ise as #a% $e consi&ere& proper for the securit% or protection of the ri'hts of the a&verse part%.The revive& 3u&'#ent #a% also $e enforce& $% #otion (ithin five (5) %ears fro# the &ate of its entr% an& thereafter $% action $efore it is $arre& $% the statute of li#itations.(6a) SEC.(0a) SEC.(a) E1ecution of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er pen&in' appeal-.2 A final an& e1ecutor% 3u&'#ent or or&er #a% $e e1ecute& on #otion (ithin five (5) %ears fro# the &ate of its entr%.udgments not stayed by appeal. *.<.4.Fiscretionar% e1ecution issue& un&er the prece&in' section #a% $e sta%e& upon approval $% the proper court of a sufficient superse&eas $on& file& $% the part% a'ainst (ho# it is &irecte&" con&itione& upon the perfor#ance of the 3u&'#ent or or&er allo(e& to $e e1ecute& in case it shall $e finall% sustaine& in (hole or in part.5. *.2 Hu&'#ents in actions for in3unction" receivership" accountin' an& support" an& such other 3u&'#ents as are no( or #a% hereafter $e &eclare& to $e i##e&iatel% e1ecutor%" shall $e enforcea$le after their ren&ition an& shall not $e sta%e& $% an appeal ta/en therefro#" unless other(ise or&ere& $% the trial court.After the lapse of such ti#e" an& $efore it is $arre& $% the statute of li#itations" a 3u&'#ent #a% $e enforce& $% action. On #otion of the prevailin' part% (ith notice to the a&verse part% file& in the trial court (hile it has 3uris&iction over the case an& is in possession of either the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal" as the case #a% $e" at the ti#e of the filin' of such #otion" sai& court #a%" in its &iscretion" or&er e1ecution of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er even $efore the e1piration of the perio& to appealAfter the trial court has lost 3uris&iction" the #otion for e1ecution pen&in' appeal #a% $e file& in the appellate courtFiscretionar% e1ecution #a% onl% issue upon 'oo& reasons to $e state& in a special or&er after &ue hearin'($) E1ecution of several" separate or partial 3u&'#ents-.=.(2a) SEC.ecution in case of death of party.The $on& thus 'iven #a% $e procee&e& a'ainst on #otion (ith notice to the suret%.ecution by motion or by independent action.Stay of discretionary e1ecution-.2.

of his e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" or successor in interest($) !n case of the &eath of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" a'ainst his e1ecutor or a&#inistrator or successor in interest" if the 3u&'#ent $e for the recover% of real or personal propert%" or the enforce#ent of a lien thereon7 (c) !n case of the &eath of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" after e1ecution is actuall% levie& upon an% of his propert%" the sa#e #a% $e sol& for the satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent o$li'ation" an& the officer #a/in' the sale shall account to the correspon&in' e1ecutor or a&#inistrator for an% surplus in his han&s.A. .@.ecution of "udgments for money.(@a) SEC.) issue in the na#e of the Repu$lic of the Philippines fro# the court (hich 'rante& the #otion7 (0) state the na#e of the court" the case nu#$er an& title" the &ispositive part of the su$3ect 3u&'#ent or or&er7 an& (2) re>uire the sheriff or other proper officer to (ho# it is &irecte& to enforce the (rit accor&in' to its ter#s" in the #anner hereinafter provi&e&* (a) !f the e1ecution $e a'ainst the propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" to satisf% the 3u&'#ent" (ith interest" out of the real or personal propert% of such 3u&'#ent o$li'or7 ($) !f it $e a'ainst real or personal propert% in the han&s of personal representatives" heirs" &evisees" le'atees" tenants" or trustees of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" to satisf% the 3u&'#ent" (ith interest" out of such propert%7 (c)!f it $e for the sale of real or personal propert%" to sell such propert%" &escri$in' it" an& appl% the procee&s in confor#it% (ith the 3u&'#ent" the #aterial parts of (hich shall $e recite& in the (rit of e1ecution7 (&) !f it $e for the &eliver% of the possession of real or personal propert%" to &eliver the possession of the sa#e" &escri$in' it" to the part% entitle& thereto" an& to satisf% an% costs" &a#a'es" rents" or profits covere& $% the 3u&'#ent out of the personal propert% of the person a'ainst (ho# it (as ren&ere&" an& if sufficient personal propert% cannot $e foun&" then out of the real propert%7 an& (e) !n all cases" the (rit of e1ecution shall specificall% state the a#ount of the interest" costs" &a#a'es" rents" or profits &ue as of the &ate of the issuance of the (rit" asi&e fro# the principal o$li'ation un&er the 3u&'#ent.The officer shall enforce an e1ecution of a 3u&'#ent for #one% $% &e#an&in' fro# the 3u&'#ent o$li'or the i##e&iate pa%#ent of the full a#ount state& in the (rit of e1ecution an& all la(ful fees.The 3u&'#ent. how enforced2 (a) Immediate payment on demand.o$li'or shall pa% in cash" certifie& $an/ chec/ pa%a$le to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" or an% other for# of pa%#ent accepta$le to the latter" the a#ount of the 3u&'#ent &e$t un&er proper receipt &irectl% to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee or his authori5e& representative if present at the ti#e of pa%#ent.2 The (rit of e1ecution shall* (.For this purpose" the #otion for e1ecution shall specif% the a#ounts of the fore'oin' reliefs sou'ht $% the #ovant.(?a) SEC. form and contents of a writ of e.*.Issuance.The la(ful fees shall $e .ecution.

!f the 3u&'#ent o$li'or &oes not e1ercise the option" the officer shall first lev% on the personal properties" if an%" an& then on the real properties if the personal properties are insufficient to ans(er for the 3u&'#entThe sheriff shall sell onl% a sufficient portion of the personal or real propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or (hich has $een levie& upon8hen there is #ore propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or than is sufficient to satisf% the 3u&'#ent an& la(ful fees" he #ust sell onl% so #uch of the personal or real propert% as is sufficient to satisf% the 3u&'#ent an& la(ful feesReal propert%" stoc/s" shares" &e$ts" cre&its" an& other personal propert%" or an% interest in either real or personal propert%" #a% $e levie& upon in li/e #anner an& (ith li/e effect as un&er a (rit of attach#ent(c) -arnishment of debts and credits.Lev% shall $e #a&e $% servin' notice upon the person o(in' such &e$ts or havin' in his possession or control such cre&its to (hich the 3u&'#ent o$li'or is entitle&..!f the 3u&'#ent o$li'or cannot pa% all or part of the o$li'ation in cash" certifie& $an/ chec/ or other #o&e of pa%#ent accepta$le to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" the officer shall lev% upon the properties of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or of ever% /in& an& nature (hatsoever (hich #a% $e &ispose& of for value an& not other(ise e1e#pt fro# e1ecution 'ivin' the latter the option to i##e&iatel% choose (hich propert% or part thereof #a% $e levie& upon" sufficient to satisf% the 3u&'#ent.The officer #a% lev% on &e$ts &ue the 3u&'#ent o$li'or an& other cre&its" inclu&in' $an/ &eposits" financial interests" ro%alties" co##issions an& other personal propert% not capa$le of #anual &eliver% in the possession or control of thir& parties.The latter shall turn over all the a#ounts co#in' into his possession (ithin the sa#e &a% to the cler/ of court of the court that issue& the (rit" or if the sa#e is not practica$le" &eposit sai& a#ounts to a fi&uciar% account in the nearest 'overn#ent &epositor% $an/ of the.han&e& un&er proper receipt to the e1ecutin' sheriff (ho shall turn over the sai& a#ount (ithin the sa#e &a% to the cler/ of court of the court that issue& the (rit!f the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee or his authori5e& representative is not present to receive pa%#ent" the 3u&'#ent o$li'or shall &eliver the aforesai& pa%#ent to the e1ecutin' sheriff.The 'arnish#ent shall cover onl% such a#ount as (ill satisf% the 3u&'#ent an& all la(ful feesThe 'arnishee shall #a/e a (ritten report to the court (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# service of the notice of 'arnish#ent statin' (hether or n6t the 3u&'#ent o$li'or has sufficient fun&s or cre&its to satisf% the a#ount of the 3u&'#ent.Re'ional Trial Court of the localit%The cler/ of sai& court shall thereafter arran'e for the re#ittance of the &eposit to the account of the court that issue& the (rit (hose cler/ of court shall then &eliver sai& pa%#ent to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee in satisfaction of the 3u&'#entThe e1cess" if an%" shall $e &elivere& to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or (hile the la(ful fees shall $e retaine& $% the cler/ of court for &isposition as provi&e& $% la(. .!n no case shall the e1ecutin' sheriff &e#an& that an% pa%#ent $% chec/ $e #a&e pa%a$le to hi#($) Satisfaction by levy.!f not" .

delivery of deeds. .(@a" .The 'arnishe& a#ount in cash" or certifie& $an/ chec/ issue& in the na#e of the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" shall $e &elivere& &irectl% to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee (ithin ten (.An% costs" &a#a'es" rents or profits a(ar&e& $% the 3u&'#ent shall $e satisfie& in the sa#e #anner as a 3u&'#ent for #one%.8hen the propert% su$3ect of the e1ecution contains i#prove#ents constructe& or plante& $% the 3u&'#ent o$li'or or his a'ent" the officer shall not &estro%" &e#olish or re#ove sai& i#prove#ents e1cept upon special or&er of the court" issue& upon #otion of the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee after &ue hearin' an& after the for#er has faile& to re#ove the sa#e (ithin a reasona$le ti#e fi1e& $% the court.The officer shall &e#an& of the person a'ainst (ho# the 3u&'#ent for the &eliver% or restitution of real propert% is ren&ere& an& all persons clai#in' ri'hts un&er hi# to peacea$l% vacate the propert% (ithin three (2) (or/in' &a%s" an& restore possession thereof to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee7 other(ise" the officer shall oust all such persons therefro# (ith the assistance" if necessar%" of appropriate peace officers" an& e#plo%in' such #eans as #a% $e reasona$l% necessar% to reta/e possession" an& place the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee in possession of such propert%.4a) . . or other specific acts.(@DcEa) (c) +elivery or restitution of real property. .!f real or personal propert% is situate& (ithin the Philippines" the court in lieu of &irectin' a conve%ance thereof #a% $% an or&er &ivest the title of an% part% an& vest it in others" (hich shall have the force an& effect of a conve%ance e1ecute& in &ue for# of la(. . !f a 3u&'#ent &irects a part% to e1ecute a conve%ance of lan& or personal propert%" or to &eliver &ee&s or other &ocu#ents" or to perfor# an% other specific act in connection there(ith" an& the part% fails to co#pl% (ithin the ti#e specifie&" the court #a% &irect the act to $e &one at the cost of the &iso$e&ient part% $% so#e other person appointe& $% the court an& the act (hen so &one shall have li/e effect as if &one $% the part%.(.the report shall state ho( #uch fun&s or cre&its the 'arnishee hol&s for the 3u&'#ent o$li'or.ecution.5a) SEC. (a) Conveyance.Ba) ($) Sale of real or personal property.(.!f the 3u&'#ent $e for the sale of real or personal propert%" to sell such propert%" &escri$in' it" an& appl% the procee&s in confor#it% (ith the 3u&'#ent. vesting title.2a) (&) Removal of improvements on property sub"ect of e.*..B.(.ecution of "udgments for specific act -.B) (or/in' &a%s fro# service of notice on sai& 'arnishee re>uirin' such &eliver%" e1cept the la(ful fees (hich shall $e pai& &irectl% to the court!n the event there are t(o or #ore 'arnishees hol&in' &eposits or cre&its sufficient to satisf% the 3u&'#ent" the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" if availa$le" shall have the ri'ht to in&icate the 'arnishee or 'arnishees (ho shall $e re>uire& to &eliver the a#ount &ue7 other(ise" the choice shall $e #a&e $% the 3u&'#ent o$li'eeThe e1ecutin' sheriff shall o$serve the sa#e proce&ure un&er para'raph (a) (ith respect to &eliver% of pa%#ent to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee.

(e) +elivery of personal property.(Aa) SEC.(@a) SEC.empt from e.6a) SEC.2E1cept as other(ise e1pressl% provi&e& $% la(" the follo(in' propert%" an& no other" shall $e e1e#pt fro# e1ecution* (a) The 3u&'#ent o$li'orGs fa#il% ho#e as provi&e& $% la(" or the ho#estea& in (hich he resi&es" an& lan& necessaril% use& in connection there(ith7 ($) Or&inar% tools an& i#ple#ents personall% use& $% hi# in his tra&e" e#plo%#ent" or livelihoo&7 (c)Three horses" or three co(s" or three cara$aos" or other $easts of $ur&en" such as the 3u&'#ent o$li'or #a% select necessaril% use& $% hi# in his or&inar% occupation7 (&) =is necessar% clothin' an& articles for or&inar% personal use" e1clu&in' 3e(elr%7 (e) =ousehol& furniture an& utensils necessar% for house</eepin'" an& use& for that purpose $% the 3u&'#ent o$li'or an& his fa#il%" such as the 3u&'#ent o$li'or #a% select" of a value not e1cee&in' one hun&re& thousan& pesos7 (f) Provisions for in&ivi&ual or fa#il% use sufficient for four #onths7 (') The professional li$raries an& e>uip#ent of 3u&'es" la(%ers" ph%sicians" phar#acists" &entists" en'ineers" surve%ors" cler'%#en" teachers" an& other professionals" not e1cee&in' three hun&re& thousan& pesos in value7 (h) One fishin' $oat an& accessories not e1cee&in' the total value of one hun&re& thousan& pesos o(ne& $% a fisher#an an& $% the la(ful use of (hich he earns his livelihoo&7 (i) So #uch of the salaries" (a'es" or earnin's of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or for his personal services (ithin the four #onths prece&in' the lev% as are necessar% for the support of his fa#il%7 (3) Lettere& 'ravestones7 .ecution of special "udgments.ecution as to third persons.*.!n 3u&'#ents for the &eliver% of personal propert%" the officer shall ta/e possession of the sa#e an& forth(ith &eliver it to the part% entitle& thereto an& satisf% an% 3u&'#ent for #one% as therein provi&e&..2 The lev% on e1ecution shall create a lien in favor of the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee over the ri'ht" title an& interest of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or in such propert% at the ti#e of the lev%" su$3ect to liens an& encu#$rances then e1istin'.$roperty e...ecution..0.(.2.*ffect of levy on e..2 8hen a 3u&'#ent re>uires the perfor#ance of an% act other than those #entione& in the t(o prece&in' sections" a certifie& cop% of the 3u&'#ent shall $e attache& to the (rit of e1ecution an& shall $e serve& $% the officer upon the part% a'ainst (ho# the sa#e is ren&ere&" or upon an% other person re>uire& there$%" or $% la(" to o$e% the sa#e" an& such part% or person #a% $e punishe& for conte#pt if he &iso$e%s such 3u&'#ent..

)efore the sale of propert% on e1ecution" notice thereof #ust $e 'iven as follo(s* (a) !n case of perisha$le propert%" $% postin' (ritten notice of the ti#e an& place of the sale in three (2) pu$lic places" prefera$l% in conspicuous areas of the #unicipal or cit% hall" post office an& pu$lic #ar/et in the #unicipalit% or cit% (here the sale is to ta/e place" for such ti#e as #a% $e reasona$le" consi&erin' the character an& con&ition of the propert%7 ($) !n case of other personal propert%" $% postin' a si#ilar notice in the three (2) pu$lic places a$ove#entione& for not less than five (5) &a%s7 (c) !n case of real propert%" $% postin' for t(ent% (0B) &a%s in the three (2) pu$lic places a$ove#entione& a si#ilar notice particularl% &escri$in' the propert% an& statin' (here the propert% is to $e sol&" an& if the assesse& value of the propert% e1cee&s fift% thousan& (P5B"BBB-BB) pesos" $% pu$lishin' a cop% of the notice once a (ee/ for t(o (0) consecutive (ee/s in one ne(spaper selecte& $% raffle" (hether in En'lish" Filipino" or an% #a3or re'ional lan'ua'e pu$lishe&" e&ite& an& circulate& or" in the a$sence thereof" havin' 'eneral circulation in the province or cit%7 (&) !n all cases" (ritten notice of the sale shall $e 'iven to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" at least three (2) &a%s $efore the sale" e1cept as provi&e& in para'raph (a) hereof (here notice shall $e 'iven at an% ti#e $efore the sale" in the sa#e #anner as personal service of plea&in's an& other papers as provi&e& $% section 6 of Rule .%otice of sale of property on e1ecution-..The officer shall #a/e a report to the court ever% thirt% (2B) &a%s on the procee&in's ta/en thereon until the 3u&'#ent is satisfie& in full" or its effectivit% e1piresThe returns or perio&ic reports shall set forth the (hole of the procee&in's ta/en" an& shall $e file& (ith the court an& copies thereof pro#ptl% furnishe& the parties.4.0a) SEC.ecution.Return of writ of e.(.2The notice shall specif% the place" &ate an& e1act ti#e of the sale (hich shoul& not $e earlier than nine oGcloc/ in the #ornin' an& not later than t(o oGcloc/ .(.a) SEC.5.) The ri'ht to receive le'al support" or #one% or propert% o$taine& as such support" or an% pension or 'ratuit% fro# the Covern#ent7 (#) Properties speciall% e1e#pte& $% la()ut no article or species of propert% #entione& in this section shall $e e1e#pt fro# e1ecution issue& upon a 3u&'#ent recovere& for its price or upon a 3u&'#ent of foreclosure of a #ort'a'e thereon.3u&'#ent has $een satisfie& in part or in full.Such (rit shall continue in effect &urin' the perio& (ithin (hich the 3u&'#ent #a% $e enforce& $% #otion..!f the 3u&'#ent cannot $e satisfie& in full (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after his receipt of the (rit" the officer shall report to the court an& state the reason therefor.(/)9onies" $enefits" privile'es" or annuities accruin' or in an% #anner 'ro(in' out of an% life insurance7 (..2 The (rit of e1ecution shall $e returna$le to the court issuin' it i##e&iatel% after the.

$enalty for selling without notice.!n the case of personal propert% capa$le of #anual &eliver%" the sale shall $e hel& in the place (here the propert% is locate&(.The place of the sale #a% $e a'ree& upon $% the parties.2 !f the propert% levie& on is clai#e& $% an% person other than the 3u&'#ent o$li'or or his a'ent" an& such person #a/es an affi&avit of his title thereto or ri'ht to the possession thereof" statin' the 'roun&s of such ri'ht or title" an& serves the sa#e upon the officer #a/in' the lev% an& a cop% thereof upon the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" the officer shall not $e $oun& to /eep the propert%" unless such 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" on &e#an& of the officer" files a $on& approve& $% the court to in&e#nif% the thir&<part% clai#ant in a su# not less than the value of the propert% levie& on..@a) SEC.2 At an% ti#e $efore the sale of propert% on e1ecution" the 3u&'#ent o$li'or #a% prevent the sale $% pa%in' the a#ount re>uire& $% the e1ecution an& the costs that have $een incurre& therein.6..?a) SEC.+othin' herein containe& shall prevent such clai#ant or an% thir& person fro# vin&icatin' his clai# to the propert% in a separate action" or prevent the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee fro# clai#in' &a#a'es in the sa#e or a separate action a'ainst a thir&<part% clai#ant (ho file& a frivolous or plainl% spurious clai#8hen the (rit of e1ecution is issue& in favor of the Repu$lic of the Philippines" or an% officer &ul% representin' it" the filin' of such $on& shall not $e re>uire&" an& in case the sheriff or lev%in' officer is sue& for &a#a'es as a result of the lev%" he shall $e represente& $% the Solicitor Ceneral an& if hel& lia$le therefor" the actual &a#a'es a&3u&'e& $% the court shall $e pai& $% the +ational Treasurer out of such fun&s as #a% $e appropriate& for the purpose.in the afternoon.@.%o sale if "udgment and costs paid.(.+o clai# for &a#a'es for the ta/in' or /eepin' of the propert% #a% $e enforce& a'ainst the $on& unless the action therefor is file& (ithin one hun&re& t(ent% (.!n the a$sence of such a'ree#ent" the sale of real propert% or personal propert% not capa$le of #anual &eliver% shall $e hel& in the office of the cler/ of court of the Re'ional Trial Court or the 9unicipal Trial Court (hich issue& the (rit or (hich (as &esi'nate& $% the appellate court.0B) &a%s fro# the &ate of the filin' of the $on&The officer shall not $e lia$le for &a#a'es for the ta/in' or /eepin' of the propert%" to an% thir&<part% clai#ant if such $on& is file&.!n case of &isa'ree#ent as to such value" the sa#e shall $e &eter#ine& $% the court issuin' the (rit of e1ecution.(0Ba) .5 of this Rule shall $e lia$le to pa% punitive &a#a'es in the a#ount of five thousan& (P5"BBB-BB) pesos to an% person in3ure& there$%" in a&&ition to his actual &a#a'es" $oth to $e recovere& $% #otion in the sa#e action7 an& a person (illfull% re#ovin' or &efacin' the notice poste&" if &one $efore the sale" or $efore the satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent if it $e satisfie& $efore the sale" shall $e lia$le to pa% five thousan& (P5"BBB-BB) pesos to an% person in3ure& $% reason thereof" in a&&ition to his actual &a#a'es" to $e recovere& $% #otion in the sa#e action.(..2 An officer sellin' (ithout the notice prescri$e& $% section .Aa) SEC. or removing or defacing notice.$roceedings where property claimed by third person.?.

8hen the sale is of personal propert% capa$le of #anual &eliver%" it #ust $e sol& (ithin vie( of those atten&in' the sa#e an& in such parcels as are li/el% to $rin' the hi'hest price.(00a) SEC.The officer #a% thereafter re3ect an% su$se>uent $i& of such purchaser (ho refuses to pa%.a) SEC.!f it &oes" he shall pa% onl% the e1cess(02a) SEC.28hen the purchaser of an% personal propert%" capa$le of #anual &eliver%" pa%s the purchase price" the officer #a/in' the sale #ust &eliver the propert% to the purchaser an&" if &esire&" e1ecute an& &eliver to hi# a certificate of sale.8hen the sale is of real propert%" consistin' of several /no(n lots" the% #ust $e sol& separatel%7 or" (hen a portion of such real propert% is clai#e& $% a thir& person" he #a% re>uire it to $e sol& separatel%.8ithout such a'ree#ent" he #a% a&3ourn the sale fro# &a% to &a% if it $eco#es necessar% to &o so for lac/ of ti#e to co#plete the sale on the &a% fi1e& in the notice or the &a% to (hich it (as a&3ourne&.Conveyance to purchaser of personal property not capable of manual delivery.udgment obligee as purchaser.(0.(04a) SEC.The sale conve%s to the purchaser all the ri'hts (hich the 3u&'#ent o$li'or ha& in such propert% as of the &ate of the lev% on e1ecution or preli#inar% attach#ent.Refusal of purchaser to pay.The a#ount of such pa%#ent shall $e* for the $enefit of the person entitle& to the procee&s of the e1ecution" unless the e1ecution has $een full% satisfie&" in (hich event such procee&s shall $e for the $enefit of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or.Such certificate conve%s to the purchaser all the ..3ow property sold on e.A.The 3u&'#ent o$li'or" if present at the sale" #a% &irect the or&er in (hich propert%" real or personal" shall $e sol&" (hen such propert% consists of several /no(n lots or parcels (hich can $e sol& to a&vanta'e separatel%.ecution.(05a) SEC.02.2)% (ritten consent of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or an& o$li'ee" or their &ul% authori5e& representatives" the officer #a% a&3ourn the sale to an% &ate an& ti#e a'ree& upon $% the#.28hen the purchaser of an% personal propert%" not capa$le of #anual &eliver%" pa%s the purchase price" the officer #a/in' the sale #ust e1ecute an& &eliver to the purchaser a certificate of sale.0.Conveyance to purchaser of personal property capable of manual delivery.0B..04.2All sales of propert% un&er e1ecution #ust $e #a&e at pu$lic auction" to the hi'hest $i&&er" to start at the e1act ti#e fi1e& in the notice.2 !f a purchaser refuses to pa% the a#ount $i& $% hi# for propert% struc/ off to hi# at a sale un&er e1ecution" the officer #a% a'ain sell the propert% to the hi'hest $i&&er an& shall not $e responsi$le for an% loss occasione& there$%7 $ut the court #a% or&er the refusin' purchaser to pa% into the court the a#ount of such loss" (ith costs" an& #a% punish hi# for conte#pt if he &iso$e%s the or&er.00.+either the officer con&uctin' the e1ecution sale" nor his &eputies" can $eco#e a purchaser" nor $e intereste& &irectl% or in&irectl% in an% purchase at such sale. who may direct manner and order of sale.(d"ournment of sale.SEC.After sufficient propert% has $een sol& to satisf% the e1ecution" no #ore shall $e sol& an& an% e1cess propert% or procee&s of the sale shall $e pro#ptl% &elivere& to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or or his authori5e& representative" unless other(ise &irecte& $% the 3u&'#ent or or&er of the court.2 8hen the purchaser is the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" an& no thir&<part% clai# has $een file&" he nee& not pa% the a#ount of the $i& if it &oes not e1cee& the a#ount of his 3u&'#ent.

(0@a) SEC.0?.Upon a sale of real propert%" the officer #ust 'ive to the purchaser a certificate of sale containin'* (a) ($) (c) A particular &escription of the real propert% sol&7 The price pai& for each &istinct lot or parcel7 The (hole price pai& $% hi#7 (&) A state#ent that the ri'ht of re&e#ption e1pires one (.(0?a) SEC.2#hen a propert% sol& $% virtue of a (rit of e1ecution has $een clai#e& $% a thir& person" the certificate of sale to $e issue& $% the sheriff pursuant to sections 02" 04 an& 05 of this Rule shall #a/e e1press #ention of the e1istence of such thir&<part% clai#.Certificate of sale where property claimed by third person.(06a) SEC. notice to be given and filed. successive redemptions.Time and manner of and amounts payable on.) %ear fro# the &ate of the re'istration of the certificate of saleSuch certificate #ust $e re'istere& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the place (here the propert% is situate&.) %ear fro# the &ate of the re'istration of the certificate of sale" $% pa%in' the purchaser the a#ount of his purchase" (ith one per centum per #onth interest thereon in a&&ition" up to the ti#e of re&e#ption" to'ether (ith the a#ount of an% assess#ents or ta1es (hich the purchaser #a% have pai& thereon after purchase" an& interest on such last na#e& a#ount at the sa#e rate7 an& if the purchaser $e also a cre&itor havin' a prior lien that of the re&e#ptioner" other than the 3u&'#ent un&er (hich such purchase (as #a&e" the a#ount of suchG other lien" (ith interestPropert% so re&ee#e& #a% a'ain $e re&ee#e& (ithin si1t% (6B) &a%s after the last re&e#ption upon pa%#ent of the su# pai& on the last re&e#ption" (ith t(o per centum thereon in a&&ition" an& the a#ount of an% assess#ents or ta1es (hich the last re&e#ptioner #a% have pai& thereon after re&e#ption $% hi#" (ith interest on such last< na#e& a#ount" an& in a&&ition" the a#ount of an% liens hel& $% sai& last re&e#ptioner .0@.06.2 Real propert% sol& as provi&e& in the last prece&in' section" or an% part thereof sol& separatel%" #a% $e re&ee#e& in the #anner hereinafter provi&e&" $% the follo(in' persons* (a) The 3u&'#ent o$li'or" or his successor in interest in the (hole or an% part of the propert%7 ($) A cre&itor havin' a lien $% virtue of an attach#ent" 3u&'#ent or #ort'a'e on the propert% sol&" or on so#e part thereof" su$se>uent to the lien un&er (hich the propert% (as sol&.#ho may redeem real property so sold.Conveyance of real property. certificate thereof given to purchaser and filed with registry of deeds -.(0Aa) SEC.Such re&ee#in' cre&itor is ter#e& a re&e#ptioner.05.ri'hts (hich the 3u&'#ent o$li'or ha& in such propert% as of the &ate of the lev% on e1ecution or preli#inar% attach#ent.2 The 3u&'#ent o$li'or" or re&e#ptioner" #a% re&ee# the propert% fro# the purchaser" at an% ti#e (ithin one (.

waste restrained.The pa%#ents #entione& in this an& the last prece&in' sections #a% $e #a&e to the purchaser or re&e#ptioner" or for hi# to the officer (ho #a&e the sale (.2 The purchaser or a re&e#ptioner shall not $e entitle& to receive the rents" earnin's an& .2 A re&e#ptioner #ust pro&uce to the officer" or person fro# (ho# he see/s to re&ee#" an& serve (ith his notice to the officer a cop% of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er un&er (hich he clai#s the ri'ht to re&ee#" certifie& $% the cler/ of the court (herein the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is entere&7 or" if he re&ee#s upon a #ort'a'e or other lien" a #e#oran&u# of the recor& thereof" certifie& $% the re'istrar of &ee&s7 or an ori'inal or certifie& cop% of an% assi'n#ent necessar% to esta$lish his clai#7 an& an affi&avit e1ecute& $% hi# or his a'ent" sho(in' the a#ount then actuall% &ue on the lien.The person to (ho# the re&e#ption pa%#ent is #a&e #ust e1ecute an& &eliver to hi# a certificate of re&e#ption ac/no(le&'e& $efore a notar% pu$lic or other officer authori5e& to ta/e ac/no(le&'#ents of conve%ances of real propert%.20.Such certificate #ust $e file& an& recor&e& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the place in (hich the propert% is situate&" an& the re'istrar of &ee&s #ust note the recor& thereof on the #ar'in of the recor& of the certificate of sale.Rents.prior to his o(n" (ith interest. to whom payments on redemption made -.$roof re6uired of redemptioner.2..(2Ba) SEC. earnings and income of property pending redemption.*ffect of redemption by "udgment obligor.2a) SEC.!anner of using premises pending redemption.0A.!f the 3u&'#ent o$li'or re&ee#s" he #ust #a/e the sa#e pa%#ents as are re>uire& to effect a re&e#ption $% a re&e#ptioner" (hereupon" no further re&e#ption shall" $e allo(e& an& he is restore& to his estate. and a certificate to be delivered and recorded thereupon.2B.(20a) SEC.The propert% #a% $e a'ain" an& as often as a re&e#ptioner is so &ispose&" re&ee#e& fro# an% previous re&e#ptioner (ithin si1t% (6B) &a%s after the last re&e#ption" on pa%in' the su# pai& on the last previous re&e#ption" (ith t(o per centum thereon in a&&ition" an& the a#ounts of an% assess#ents or ta1es (hich the last previous re&e#ptioner pai& after the re&e#ption thereon" (ith interest thereon" an& the a#ount of an% liensG hel& $% the last re&e#ptioner prior to his o(n" (ith interest8ritten notice of an% re&e#ption #ust $e 'iven to the officer (ho #a&e the sale an& a &uplicate file& (ith the re'istr% of &ee&s of the place" an& if an% assess#ents or ta1es are pai& $% the re&e#ptioner or if he has or ac>uires an% lien other than that upon (hich the re&e#ption (as #a&e" notice thereof #ust in li/e #anner $e 'iven to the officer an& file& (ith the re'istr% of &ee&s7 if such notice $e not file&" the propert% #a% $e re&ee#e& (ithout pa%in' such assess#ents" ta1es" or liens.2 Until the e1piration of the ti#e allo(e& for re&e#ption" the court #a%" as in other proper cases" restrain the co##ission of (aste on the propert% $% in3unction" on the application of the purchaser or the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" (ith or (ithout notice7 $ut it is not (aste for a person in possession of the propert% at the ti#e of the sale" or entitle& to possession after(ar&s" &urin' the perio& allo(e& for re&e#ption" to continue to use it in the sa#e #anner in (hich it (as previousl% use&7 or to use it in the or&inar% course of hus$an&r%7 or to #a/e the necessar% repairs to $uil&in's thereon (hile he occupies the propert%(22a) SEC.

inco#e of the propert% sol& on e1ecution" or the value of the use an& occupation thereof (hen such propert% is in the possession of a tenant.The possession of the propert% shall $e 'iven to the purchaser or last re&e#ptioner $% the sa#e officer unless a thir& part% is actuall% hol&in' the propert% a&versel% to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or.(26a) SEC.amination of "udgment obligor when "udgment unsatisfied.2 !f the purchaser of real propert% sol& on e1ecution" or his successor in interest" fails to recover the possession thereof" or is evicte& therefro#" in conse>uence of irre'ularities in the procee&in's concernin' the sale" or $ecause the 3u&'#ent has $een reserve& or set asi&e" or $ecause the propert% sol& (as e1e#pt fro# e1ecution" or $ecause a thir& person has vin&icate& his clai#" to the propert%" he #a% on #otion in the sa#e action or in a separate action recover fro# the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee the price pai&" (ith interest" or so #uch thereof as has not $een &elivere& to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or7 or he #a%" on #otion" have the ori'inal 3u&'#ent revive& in his na#e for the (hole price (ith interest" or so #uch thereof as has $een &elivere& to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or.26.Right to contribution or reimbursement.(25a) SEC.22.) %ear fro# the &ate of the re'istration of the sale to re&ee# the propert%.2 8hen the return of a (rit of e1ecution issue& a'ainst propert% of a 3u&'#ent o$li'or" or an% one of several o$li'ors in the sa#e 3u&'#ent" sho(s that the 3u&'#ent re#ains unsatisfie&" in (hole or in part" the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee" at an% ti#e after such return is #a&e" shall $e entitle& to an or&er fro# the court (hich ren&ere& the sai& 3u&'#ent" re>uirin' such .piration of redemption period.25.ecuted or given. revival of "udgment.Recovery of price if sale not effective.24.All rents" earnin's an& inco#e &erive& fro# the propert% pen&in' re&e#ption shall $elon' to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or until the e1piration of his perio& of re&e#ption.(2?a) SEC.2 8hen propert% lia$le to an e1ecution a'ainst several persons is sol& thereon" an& #ore than a &ue proportion of the 3u&'#ent is satisfie& out of the procee&s of the sale of the propert% of one of the#" or one of the# pa%s" (ithout a sale" #ore than his proportion" he #a% co#pel a contri$ution fro# the others7 an& (hen a 3u&'#ent is upon an o$li'ation of one of the#" as securit% for another" an& the suret% pa%s the a#ount" or an% part thereof" either $% sale of his propert% or $efore sale" he #a% co#pel repa%#ent fro# the principal.(24a) SEC.) %ear fro# the &ate of the re'istration of the certificate of sale" the purchaser is entitle& to a conve%ance an& possession of the propert%7 or" if so re&ee#e& (henever si1t% (6B) &a%s have elapse& an& no other re&e#ption has $een #a&e" an& notice thereof 'iven" an& the ti#e for re&e#ption has e1pire&" the last re&e#ptioner is entitle& to the conve%ance an& possession7 $ut in all cases the 3u&'#ent o$li'or shall have the entire perio& of one (.+eed and possession to be given at e.The 3u&'#ent so revive& shall have the sa#e force an& effect as an ori'inal 3u&'#ent (oul& have as of the &ate of the revival an& no #ore.2!f no re&e#ption $e #a&e (ithin one (.The &ee& shall $e e1ecute& $% the officer #a/in' the sale or $% his successor in office" an& in the latter case shall have the sa#e vali&it% as thou'h the officer #a/in' the sale ha& continue& in office an& e1ecute& itUn&er the e1piration of the ri'ht of re&e#ption" the purchaser or re&e#ptioner shall $e su$stitute& to an& ac>uire all the ri'hts" title" interest an& clai# of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or to the propert% as of the ti#e of the lev%.*. by whom e.

2 The court #a% or&er an% propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" or #one% &ue hi#" not e1e#pt fro# e1ecution" in the han&s of either hi#self or another person" or of a corporation or other 3uri&ical entit%" to $e applie& to the satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent" su$3ect to an% prior ri'hts over such propert%!f" upon investi'ation of his current inco#e an& e1penses" it appears that the earnin's of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or for his personal services are #ore than necessar% for the support of his fa#il%" the court #a% or&er that he pa% the 3u&'#ent in fi1e& #onthl% install#ents" an& upon his failure to pa% an% such install#ent (hen &ue (ithout 'oo& .2 8hen the return of a (rit of e1ecution a'ainst the propert% of a 3u&'#ent o$li'or sho(s that the 3u&'#ent re#ains unsatisfie&" in (hole or in part" an& upon proof to the satisfaction of the court (hich issue& the (rit" that a person" corporation" or other 3uri&ical entit% has propert% of such 3u&'#ent o$li'or or is in&e$te& to hi#" the court #a%" $% an or&er" re>uire such person" corporation" or other 3uri&ical entit%" or an% officer or #e#$er thereof" to appear $efore the court or a co##issioner appointe& $% it" at a ti#e an& place (ithin the province or cit% (here such &e$tor resi&es or is foun&" an& $e e1a#ine& concernin' the sa#e.4B.E1a#inations shall not $e un&ul% prolon'e&" $ut the procee&in's #a% $e a&3ourne& fro# ti#e to ti#e" until the% are co#plete&.2 A part% or other person #a% $e co#pelle&" $% an or&er or su$poena" to atten& $efore the court or co##issioner to testif% as provi&e& in the t(o prece&in' sections" an& upon failure to o$e% such or&er or su$poena or to $e s(orn" or to ans(er as a (itness or to su$scri$e his &eposition" #a% $e punishe& for conte#pt as in other cases.3u&'#ent o$li'or to appear an& $e e1a#ine& concernin' his propert% an& inco#e $efore such court or $efore a co##issioner appointe& $% it" at a specifie& ti#e an& place7 an& procee&in's #a% thereupon $e ha& for the application of the propert% an& inco#e of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or to(ar&s the satisfactions of the 3u&'#ent.All e1a#inations an& ans(ers $efore a court or co##issioner #ust $e un&er oath" an& (hen a corporation or other 3uri&ical entit% ans(ers" it #ust $e on the oath of an authori5e& officer or a'ent thereof.amination of obligor of "udgment obligor.(4Ba) SEC.2A.(2@a) SEC.Obligor may pay e.!f the e1a#ination is $efore a co##issioner" he #ust ta/e it in (ritin' an& certif% it to the court.ecution against obligee.*.2@.a) SEC.amination.2?.(4.Order for application of property and income to satisfaction of "udgment.The service of the or&er shall $in& all cre&its &ue the 3u&'#ent o$li'or an& all #one% an& propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or in the possession or in the control of such person" corporation" or 3uri&ical entit% fro# the ti#e of service7 an& the court #a% also re>uire notice of such procee&in's to $e 'iven to an% part% to the action in such #anner as it #a% &ee# proper.*nforcement of attendance and conduct of e.2 After a (rit of e1ecution a'ainst propert% has $een issue&" a person in&e$te& to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or #a% pa% to the sheriff hol&in' the (rit of e1ecution the a#ount of his &e$t or so #uch thereof as #a% $e necessar% to satisf% the 3u&'#ent" in the #anner prescri$e& in section A of this Rule an& the sheriffs receipt shall $e a sufficient &ischar'e for the a#ount so pai& or &irecte& to $e cre&ite& $% the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee on the e1ecution.(2Aa) SEC.)ut no 3u&'#ent o$li'or shall $e so re>uire& to appear $efore a court or co##issioner outsi&e the province or cit% in (hich such o$li'or resi&es or is foun&.

40.4?.Sale of ascertainable interest of "udgment obligor in real estate.e1cuse" #a% punish hi# for in&irect conte#pt.46.(ppointment of receiver.2 8henever a 3u&'#ent is satisfie& in fact" or other(ise than upon an e1ecution" on &e#an& of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee or his counsel #ust e1ecute an& ac/no(le&'e" or in&orse" an a&#ission of the satisfaction as provi&e& in the last prece&in' section" an& after notice an& upon #otion the court #a% or&er either the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee or his counsel to &o so" or #a% or&er the entr% of satisfaction to $e #a&e (ithout such a&#ission(4?a) SEC.4.44.(40a) SEC.Such or&er #a% $e #o&ifie& or vacate& at an% ti#e $% the court" (hich issue& it" or $% the court in (hich the action is $rou'ht" upon such ter#s as #a% $e 3ust.(44a) SEC..45.(46a) SEC.2 The effect of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er ren&ere& $% a court of the Philippines" havin' 3uris&iction to pronounce the .Satisfaction of a 3u&'#ent shall $e entere& $% the cler/ of court in the court &oc/et" an& in the e1ecution $oo/" upon the return of a (rit of e1ecution sho(in' the full satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent" or upon the filin' of an a&#ission to the satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent e1ecute& an& ac/no(le&'e& in the sa#e #anner as a conve%ance of real propert% $% the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee or $% his counsel unless a revocation of his authorit% is file&" or upon the en&orse#ent of such a&#ission $% the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee or his counsel on the face of the recor& of the 3u&'#ent.$roceedings when indebtedness denied or another person claims the property. *ffect of "udgments or final orders .(45a) SEC.2!f it appears that a person or corporation" alle'e& to have propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or or to $e in&e$te& to hi#" clai#s an interest in the propert% a&verse to hi# or &enies the &e$t" the court #a% authori5e" $% an or&er #a&e to that effect" the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee to institute an action a'ainst such person or corporation for the recover% of such interest or &e$t" for$i& a transfer or other &isposition of such interest or &e$t (ithin one hun&re& t(ent% (.(4@a) SEC.2 !f it appears that the 3u&'#ent o$li'or has an interest in real estate in the place in (hich procee&in's are ha&" as #ort'a'or or #ort'a'ee or other(ise" an& his interest therein can $e ascertaine& (ithout controvers%" the receiver #a% $e or&ere& to sell an& conve% such real estate or the interest of the o$li'or therein7 an& such sale shall $e con&ucte& in all respects in the sa#e #anner as is provi&e& for the sale of real estate upon e1ecution" an& the procee&in's thereon shall $e approve& $% the court $efore the e1ecution of the &ee&.0B) &a%s fro# notice of the or&er" an& #a% punish &iso$e&ience of such or&er as for conte#pt.42.&The court #a% appoint a receiver of the propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or7 an& it #a% also for$i& a transfer or other &isposition of" or an% interference (ith" the propert% of the 3u&'#ent o$li'or not e1e#pt fro# e1ecution.*ntry of satisfaction with or without admission.*ntry of satisfaction of "udgment by cler) of court-.#hen principal bound by "udgment against surety.2 8hen a 3u&'#ent is ren&ere& a'ainst a part% (ho stan&s as suret% for another" the latter is also $oun& fro# the ti#e that he has notice of the action or procee&in'" an& an opportunit% at the suret%Gs re>uest to 3oin in the &efense.(42a) SEC.

*ffect of foreign "udgments or final orders.4@..2 The effect of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er of a tri$unal of a forei'n countr%" havin' 3uris&iction to ren&er the 3u&'#ent or final or&er" is as follo(s* (a) !n case of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er upon a specific thin'" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is conclusive upon the title of the thin'7 an& ($) !n case of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er a'ainst a person" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is presu#ptive evi&ence of a ri'ht as $et(een the parties an& their successors in interest $% a su$se>uent title!n either case" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er #a% $e repelle& $% evi&ence of a (ant of 3uris&iction" (ant of notice to the part%" collusion" frau&" or clear #ista/e of la( or fact(5Ba) APPEALS RULE 40 APPEAL FROM MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS TO T E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS SECT!O+ .2An appeal fro# a 3u&'#ent or final or&er of a 9unicipal Trial Court #a% $e ta/en to the Re'ional Trial Court e1ercisin' 3uris&iction over the area to (hich the for#er pertains.#here to appeal.3u&'#ent or final or&er" #a% $e as follo(s* (a) !n case of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er a'ainst a specific thin'" or in respect to the pro$ate of a (ill" or the a&#inistration of the estate of a &ecease& person" or in respect to the personal" political" or le'al con&ition or status of a particular person or his relationship to another" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is conclusive upon the title to the thin'" the (ill or a&#inistration" or the con&ition" status or relationship of the person7 ho(ever" the pro$ate of a (ill or 'rantin' of letters of a&#inistration shall onl% $e pri#a facie evi&ence of the &eath of the testator or intestate7 ($) !n other cases" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is" (ith respect to the #atter &irectl% a&3u&'e& or as to an% other #atter that coul& have $een raise& in relation thereto" conclusive $et(een the parties an& their successors in interest $% title su$se>uent to the co##ence#ent of the action or special procee&in'" liti'atin' for the sa#e thin' an& un&er the sa#e title an& in the sa#e capacit%7 an& (c)!n an% other liti'ation $et(een the sa#e parties of their successors in interest" that onl% is &ee#e& to have $een a&3u&'e& in a for#er 3u&'#ent or final or&er (hich appears upon its face to have $een so a&3u&'e&" or (hich (as actuall% an& necessaril% inclu&e& therein or necessar% thereto.The title of the case shall re#ain as it (as in .(4Aa) SEC.

.The notice of appeal shall in&icate the parties to the appeal" the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or part thereof appeale& fro#" an& state the #aterial &ates sho(in' the ti#eliness of the appealA recor& on appeal shall $e re>uire& onl% in special procee&in's an& in other cases of #ultiple or separate appealsThe for# an& contents of the recor& on appeal shall $e as provi&e& in section 6" Rule 4.28ithin fifteen (.Proof of pa%#ent thereof shall $e trans#itte& to the appellate court to'ether (ith the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal" as the case #a% $e.A cop% of his letter of trans#ittal of the recor&s to the appellate court shall $e furnishe& the parties(n) SEC.8here a recor& on appeal is re>uire&" the appellant shall file a notice of appeal an& a recor& on appeal (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&erThe perio& of appeal shall $e interrupte& $% a ti#el% #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration.(n) SEC. (a) Upon receipt of the co#plete recor& or the recor& on appeal" the cler/ of court of the Re'ional Trial Court shall notif% the parties of such fact($) 8ithin fifteen (.2An appeal #a% $e ta/en (ithin fifteen (.Failure of the appellant to file a #e#oran&u# shall $e a .(ppellate court doc)et and other lawful fees.(n) SEC.Copies of the notice of appeal" an& the recor& on appeal (here re>uire&" shall $e serve& on the a&verse part%.6.5.$rocedure in the Regional Trial Court -.4.?.2 The perfection of the appeal an& the effect thereof shall $e 'overne& $% the provisions of section A" Rule 4.5) &a%s fro# the perfection of the appeal" the cler/ of court or the $ranch cler/ of court of the lo(er court shall trans#it the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal" to'ether (ith the transcripts an& e1hi$its" (hich he shall certif% as co#plete" to the proper Re'ional Trial Court.5) &a%s after notice to the appellant of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#.3ow to appeal2The appeal is ta/en $% filin' a notice of appeal (ith the court that ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#.2. effect thereof.$erfection of appeal.#hen to appeal.(n) SEC.5) &a%s fro# such notice" it shall $e the &ut% of the appellant to su$#it a #e#oran&u# (hich shall $riefl% &iscuss the errors i#pute& to the lo(er court" a cop% of (hich shall $e furnishe& $% hi# to the a&verse part%8ithin fifteen (.0.+uty of the cler) of court.2 8ithin the perio& for ta/in' an appeal" the appellant shall pa% to the cler/ of the court (hich ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro# the full a#ount of the appellate court &oc/et an& other la(ful fees.(n) SEC.the court of ori'in" $ut the part% appealin' the case shall $e further referre& to as the appellant an& the a&verse part% as the appellee.5) &a%s fro# receipt of the appellantGs #e#oran&u#" the appellee #a% file his #e#oran&u#.+o #otion for e1tension of ti#e to file a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration shall $e allo(e&.(n) SEC.

.!n case of affir#ance an& the 'roun& of &is#issal is lac/ of 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter" the Re'ional Trial Court" if it has 3uris&iction thereover" shall tr% the case on the #erits as if the case (as ori'inall% file& (ith it.'roun& for &is#issal of the appeal(c) Upon the filin' of the #e#oran&u# of the appellee" or the e1piration of the perio& to &o so" the case shall $e consi&ere& su$#itte& for &ecision.2An appeal #a% $e ta/en fro# a 3u&'#ent or final or&er that co#pletel% &isposes of the case" or of a particular #atter therein (hen &eclare& $% these Rules to $e appeala$le+o appeal #a% $e ta/en fro#* (a) An or&er &en%in' a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration7 ($) An or&er &en%in' a petition for relief or an% si#ilar #otion see/in' relief fro# 3u&'#ent7 (c) (&) An interlocutor% or&er7 An or&er &isallo(in' or &is#issin' an appeal7 (e) An or&er &en%in' a #otion to set asi&e a 3u&'#ent $% consent" confession or co#pro#ise on the 'roun& of frau&" #ista/e or &uress" or an% other 'roun& vitiatin' consent(f) An or&er of e1ecution7 .(n) SEC.Sub"ect of appeal.!n case of reversal" the case shall $e re#an&e& for further procee&in's!f the case (as trie& on the #erits $% the lo(er court (ithout 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter" the Re'ional Trial Court on appeal shall not &is#iss the case if it has ori'inal 3uris&iction thereof" $ut shall &eci&e the case in accor&ance (ith the prece&in' section" (ithout pre3u&ice to the a&#ission of a#en&e& plea&in's an& a&&itional evi&ence in the interest of 3ustice.The Re'ional Trial Court shall &eci&e the case on the $asis of the entire recor& of the procee&in's ha& in the court of ori'in an& such #e#oran&a as are file&.Appeal fro# or&ers &is#issin' case (ithout trial7 lac/ of 3uris&iction-.(n) RULE 41 APPEAL FROM T E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS SECT!O+ . shall appl% to appeals provi&e& for herein insofar as the% are not inconsistent (ith or #a% serve to supple#ent the provisions of this Rule.(pplicability of Rule .!f an appeal is ta/en fro# an or&er of the lo(er court &is#issin' the case (ithout a trial on the #erits" the Re'ional Trial Court #a% affir# or reverse it" as the case #a% $e.(n) SEC.A.2The other provisions of Rule 4.@.>.

The appeal to the Court of Appeals in cases &eci&e& $% the Re'ional Trial Court in the e1ercise of its ori'inal 3uris&iction shall $e ta/en $% filin' a notice of appeal (ith the court (hich ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro# an& servin' a cop% thereof upon the a&verse part%.(4a) SEC.$eriod of ordinary appeal.(ppellate court doc)et and other lawful fees.2 The appeal shall $e ta/en (ithin fifteen (.(n) SEC.(n) SEC..2 (a) Ordinary appeal.!odes of appeal.0..(n) SEC.+o #otion for e1tension of ti#e to file a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration shall $e allo(e&.=o(ever" an appeal in habeas corpus cases shall $e ta/en (ithin fort%<ei'ht (4@) hours fro# notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#The perio& of appeal shall $e interrupte& $% a ti#el% #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration.2 8ithin the perio& for ta/in' an appeal" the appellant shall pa% to the cler/ of the court (hich ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#" the full a#ount of the appellate court &oc/et an& other la(ful fees.2.+o recor& on appeal shall $e re>uire& e1cept in special procee&in's an& other cases of #ultiple or separate appeals (here the la( or these Rules so re>uire.(') A 3u&'#ent or final or&er for or a'ainst one or #ore of several parties or in separate clai#s" counterclai#s" cross<clai#s an& thir&<part% co#plaints" (hile the #ain case is pen&in'" unless the court allo(s an appeal therefro#7 an& (h) An or&er &is#issin' an action (ithout pre3u&ice!n all the a$ove instances (here the 3u&'#ent or final or&er is not appeala$le" the a''rieve& part% #a% file an appropriate special civil action un&er Rule 65.4. appeal in habeas corpus cases.The appeal to the Court of Appeals in cases &eci&e& $% the Re'ional Trial Court in the e1ercise of its appellate 3uris&iction shall $e $% petition for revie( in accor&ance (ith Rule 40(c) (ppeal by certiorari.Proof of pa%#ent of sai& fees shall $e trans#itte& to the appellate court to'ether (ith the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal. form and contents thereof2 The full na#es of all the parties to the procee&in's shall $e state& in the caption of the recor& on appeal an& it .6.!n such cases" the recor& <on appeal shall $e file& an& serve& in li/e #anner($) $etition for review.Record on appeal.(n) SEC.2The notice of appeal shall in&icate the parties to the appeal" specif% the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or part thereof appeale& fro#" specif% the court to (hich the appeal is $ein' ta/en" an& state the #aterial &ates sho(in' the ti#eliness of the appeal.%otice of appeal.8here a recor& on appeal is re>uire&" the appellant shall file a notice of appeal an& a recor& on appeal (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er..5.!n all cases (here onl% >uestions of la( are raise& or involve&" the appeal shall $e to the Supre#e Court $% petition for revie( on certiorari in accor&ance (ith Rule 45.5) &a%s fro# notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#.

oint record on appeal.28here $oth parties are appellants" the% #a% file a 3oint recor& on appeal (ithin the ti#e fi1e& $% section 2 of this Rule" or that fi1e& $% the court.!f the trial court or&ers the a#en&#ent of the recor&" the appellant" (ithin the ti#e li#ite& in the or&er" or such e1tension thereof as #a% $e 'rante&" or if no ti#e is fi1e& $% the or&er (ithin ten (.(6a) SEC.(Aa) .shall inclu&e the 3u&'#ent or final or&er fro# (hich the appeal is ta/en an&" in chronolo'ical or&er" copies of onl% such plea&in's" petitions" #otions an& all interlocutor% or&ers as are relate& to the appeale& 3u&'#ent or final or&er for the proper un&erstan&in' of the issue involve&" to'ether (ith such &ata as (ill sho( that the appeal (as perfecte& on ti#e.?.9.!f an issue of fact is to $e raise& on appeal" the recor& on appeal shall inclu&e $% reference all the evi&ence" testi#onial an& &ocu#entar%" ta/en upon the issue involve&.!f the (hole testi#onial an& &ocu#entar% evi&ence in the case is to $e inclu&e&" a state#ent to that effect (ill $e sufficient (ithout #entionin' the na#es of the (itnesses or the nu#$ers or letters of e1hi$its.(pproval of record on appeal 2 Upon the filin' of the recor& on appeal for approval an& if no o$3ection is file& $% the appellee (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# receipt of a cop% thereof" the trial court #a% approve it as presente& or upon its o(n #otion or at the instance of the appellee" #a% &irect its a#en&#ent $% the inclusion of an% o#itte& #atters (hich are &ee#e& essential to the &eter#ination of the issue of la( or fact involve& in the appeal. effect thereof2 A part%Gs appeal $% notice of appeal is &ee#e& perfecte& as to hi# upon the filin' of the notice of appeal in &ue ti#eA part%Gs appeal $% recor& on appeal is &ee#e& perfecte& as to hi# (ith respect to the su$3ect #atter thereof upon the approval of the recor& on appeal file& in &ue ti#e!n appeals $% notice of appeal" the court loses 3uris&iction over the case upon the perfection of the appeals file& in &ue ti#e an& the e1piration of the ti#e to appeal of the other parties!n appeals $% recor& on appeal" the court loses 3uris&iction onl% over the su$3ect #atter thereof upon the approval of the recor&s on appeal file& in &ue ti#e an& the e1piration of the ti#e to appeal of the other parties!n either case" prior to the trans#ittal of the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal" the court #a% issue or&ers for the protection an& preservation of the ri'hts of the parties (hich &o not involve an% #atter liti'ate& $% the appeal" approve co#pro#ises" per#it appeals of in&i'ent liti'ants" or&er e1ecution pen&in' appeal in accor&ance (ith section 0 of Rule 2A" an& allo( (ith&ra(al of the appeal.The reference shall specif% the &ocu#entar% evi&ence $% the e1hi$it nu#$ers or letters $% (hich it (as i&entifie& (hen a&#itte& or offere& at the hearin'" an& the testi#onial evi&ence $% the na#es of the correspon&in' (itnesses.Ever% recor& on appeal e1cee&in' t(ent% (0B) pa'es #ust contain a su$3ect in&e1.(?a) SEC.B) &a%s fro# receipt thereof" shall re&raft the recor& $% inclu&in' therein" in their proper chronolo'ical se>uence" such a&&itional #atters as the court #a% have &irecte& hi# to incorporate" an& shall thereupon su$#it the re&rafte& recor& for approval" upon notice to the appellee" in li/e #anner as the ori'inal &raft. $erfection of appeal.(@a) SEC.@.

0a) SEC.The transcripts shall $e trans#itte& to the cler/ of the trial court (ho shall thereupon arran'e the sa#e in the or&er in (hich the (itnesses testifie& at the trial" an& shall cause the pa'es to $e nu#$ere& consecutivel%...Transmittal.Transcript.SEC.2.(.2 8ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after perfection of all the appeals in accor&ance (ith the prece&in' section" it shall $e the &ut% of the cler/ of court of the lo(er court* (a) To verif% the correctness of the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal" as the case #a% $e" an& to #a/e a certification of its correctness7 ($) To verif% the co#pleteness of the recor&s that (ill $e trans#itte& to the appellate court7 (c) !f foun& to $e inco#plete" to ta/e such #easures as #a% $e re>uire& to co#plete the recor&s" availin' of the authorit% that he or the court #a% e1ercise for this purpose7 an& (&) To trans#it the recor&s to the appellate court!f the efforts to co#plete the recor&s fail" he shall in&icate in his letter of trans#ittal the e1hi$its or transcripts not inclu&e& in the recor&s $ein' trans#itte& to the appellate court" the reasons for their non<trans#ittal" an& the steps ta/en or that coul& $e ta/en to have the# availa$leThe cler/ of court shall furnish the parties (ith copies of his letter of trans#ittal of the recor&s to the appellate court.Copies of the transcripts an& certifie& true copies of the &ocu#entar% evi&ence shall re#ain in the lo(er court for the e1a#ination of the parties.+uty of cler) of court of the lower court upon perfection of appeal.(..2Prior to the trans#ittal of the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal to the appellate court" the trial court #a% motu proprio or on #otion &is#iss the appeal for havin' $een ta/en out of ti#e" or for non<pa%#ent of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees (ithin the re'le#entar% perio&.2a) .2The cler/ of the trial court shall trans#it to the appellate court the ori'inal recor& or the approve& recor& on appeal (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the perfection of the appeal" to'ether (ith the proof of pa%#ent of the appellate court &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" a certifie& true cop% of the #inutes of the procee&in's" the or&er of approval" the certificate of correctness" the ori'inal &ocu#entar% evi&ence referre& to therein" an& the ori'inal an& three (2) copies of the transcripts..2Upon the perfection of the appeal" the cler/ shall i##e&iatel% &irect the steno'raphers concerne& to attach to the recor& of the case five (5) copies of the transcripts of the testi#onial evi&ence referre& to in the recor& on appeal.+ismissal of appeal.list of the e1hi$its an& the pa'es (herein each of the# appears to have $een offere& an& a&#itte& or re3ecte& $% the trial court.(.B.a) SEC..Ba) SEC.The steno'raphers concerne& shall transcri$e such testi#onial evi&ence an& shall prepare an& affi1 to their transcripts an in&e1 containin' the na#es of the (itnesses an& the pa'es (herein their testi#onies are foun&" an& a.0..(..

RULE 42 PETITION FOR REVIEW FROM T E REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS TO T E COURT OF APPEALS SECT!O+ .The petition shall $e file& an& serve& (ithin fifteen (.2. time for filing.Upon proper #otion an& the pa%#ent of the full a#ount of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees an& the &eposit for costs $efore the e1piration of the re'le#entar% perio&" the Court of Appeals #a% 'rant an a&&itional perio& of fifteen (.4orm and contents.(n) SEC.2 The failure of the petitioner to co#pl% (ith an% of the fore'oin' re>uire#ents re'ar&in' the pa%#ent of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" the &eposit for costs" proof of service of the petition" an& the contents of an& the &ocu#ents (hich shoul& acco#pan% the petition shall $e sufficient 'roun& for the &is#issal thereof.(n) SEC.+o further e1tension shall $e 'rante& e1cept for the #ost co#pellin' reason an& in no case to e1cee& fifteen (.2The petition shall $e file& in seven (?) le'i$le copies" (ith the ori'inal cop% inten&e& for the court $ein' in&icate& as such $% the petitioner" an& shall (a) state the full na#es of the parties to the case" (ithout i#plea&in' the lo(er courts or 3u&'es thereof either as petitioners or respon&ents7 ($) in&icate the specific #aterial &ates sho(in' that it (as file& on ti#e7 (c) set forth concisel% a state#ent of the #aters involve&" the issues raise&" the specification of errors of fact or la(" or $oth" alle'e&l% co##itte& $% the Re'ional Trial Court" an& the reasons or ar'u#ents relie& upon for the allo(ance of the appeal7 (&) $e acco#panie& $% clearl% le'i$le &uplicate ori'inals or true copies of the 3u&'#ents or final or&ers of $oth lo(er courts" certifie& correct $% the cler/ of court of the Re'ional Trial Court" the re>uisite nu#$er of plain copies thereof an& of the plea&in's an& other #aterial portions of the recor& as (oul& support the alle'ations of the petitionThe petitioner shall also su$#it to'ether (ith the petition a certification un&er oath that he has not theretofore co##ence& an% other action involvin' the sa#e issues in the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals or &ifferent &ivisions thereof" or an% other tri$unal or a'enc%7 if there is such other action or procee&in'" he #ust state the status of the sa#e7 an& if he shoul& thereafter learn that a si#ilar action or procee&in' has $een file& or is pen&in' $efore the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals" or &ifferent &ivisions thereof" or an% other tri$unal or a'enc%" he un&erta/es to pro#ptl% infor# the aforesai& courts an& other tri$unal or a'enc% thereof (ithin five (5) &a%s therefro#.5) &a%s fro# notice of the &ecision sou'ht to $e revie(e& or of the &enial of petitionerGs #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration file& in &ue ti#e after 3u&'#ent.5) &a%s onl% (ithin (hich to file the petition for revie(..2 A part% &esirin' to appeal fro# a &ecision of the Re'ional Trial Court ren&ere& in the e1ercise of its appellate 3uris&iction #a% file a verifie& petition for revie( (ith the Court of Appeals" pa%in' at the sa#e ti#e to the cler/ of sai& court the correspon&in' &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" &epositin' the a#ount of P5BB-BB for costs" an& furnishin' the Re'ional Trial Court an& the a&verse part% (ith a cop% of the petition.*ffect of failure to comply with re6uirements.5) &a%s.0.3ow appeal ta)en.(n) .

Contents of comment.(n) SEC.(Aa" R4.5) &a%s fro# notice.A.*levation of record-. effect thereof 2 (a) Upon the ti#el% filin' of a petition for revie( an& the pa%#ent of the correspon&in' &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" the appeal is &ee#e& perfecte& as to the petitionerThe Re'ional Trial Court loses 3uris&iction over the case upon the perfection of the appeals file& in &ue ti#e an& the e1piration of the ti#e to appeal of the other parties=o(ever" $efore the Court of Appeals 'ives &ue course to the petition" the Re'ional Trial Court #a% issue or&ers for the protection an& preservation of the ri'hts of the parties (hich &o not involve an% #atter liti'ate& $% the appeal" approve corn<pro#ises" per#it appeals of in&i'ent liti'ants" or&er e1ecution pen&in' appeal in accor&ance (ith section 0 of Rule 2A" an& allo( (ith&ra(al of the appeal.(n) SEC.A cop% thereof shall $e serve& on the petitioner.SEC.6.2 The co##ent of the respon&ent shall $e file& in seven (?) le'i$le copies" acco#panie& $% certifie& true copies of such #aterial portions of the recor& referre& to therein to'ether (ith other supportin' papers an& shall (a) state (hether or not he accepts the state#ent of #atters involve& in the petition7 ($) point out such insufficiencies or inaccuracies as he $elieves e1ist in petitionerGs state#ent of #atters involve& $ut (ithout repetition7 an& (c) state the reasons (h% the petition shoul& not $e 'iven &ue course.5.5) &a%s fro# notice-(n) SEC.4.2The Court of Appeals #a% re>uire the respon&ent to file a co##ent on the petition" not a #otion to &is#iss" (ithin ten (.+ue course.2!f the petition is 'iven &ue course" the Court of Appeals #a% set the case for oral ar'u#ent or re>uire the parties to su$#it #e#oran&a (ithin a perio& of fifteen (.) ($) E1cept in civil cases &eci&e& un&er the Rule on Su##ar% Proce&ure" the appeal shall sta% the 3u&'#ent or final or&er unless the Court of Appeals" the la(" or these Rules shall provi&e other(ise.(ction on the petition.(n) SEC.8henever the Court of Appeals &ee#s it necessar%" it #a% or&er the cler/ of court of the Re'ional Trial Court to elevate the ori'inal recor& of the case inclu&in' the oral an& &ocu#entar% evi&ence (ithin fifteen (.$erfection of appeal.(n) SEC.@.The case shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for &ecision upon the filin' of the last plea&in' or #e#oran&u# re>uire& $% these Rules or .B) &a%s fro# notice" or &is#iss the petition if it fin&s the sa#e to $e patentl% (ithout #erit" prosecute& #anifestl% for &ela%" or that the >uestions raise& therein are too unsu$stantial to re>uire consi&eration.?. Submission for decision.2!f upon the filin' of the co##ent or such other plea&in's as the court #a% allo( or re>uire" or after the e1piration of the perio& for the filin' thereof (ithout such co##ent or plea&in' havin' $een su$#itte&" the Court of Appeals fin&s prima facie that the lo(er court has co##itte& an error of fact or la( that (ill (arrant a reversal or #o&ification of the appeale& &ecision" it #a% accor&in'l% 'ive &ue course to the petition.

665?" Covern#ent Service !nsurance S%ste#" E#plo%ees Co#pensation Co##ission" A'ricultural !nventions )oar&" !nsurance Co##ission" Philippine Ato#ic Ener'% Co##ission" )oar& of !nvest#ents" Construction !n&ustr% Ar$itration Co##ission" an& voluntar% ar$itrators authori5e& $% la(.(n) SEC.(n) SEC. Onl% one (..) #otion for reconsi&eration shall $e allo(e&.2The appeal shall $e ta/en (ithin fifteen (.+o further e1tension shall $e 'rante& e1cept for the #ost co#pellin' reason an& in no case to e1cee& fifteen (.2An appeal un&er this Rule #a% $e ta/en to the Court of Appeals (ithin the perio& an& in the #anner herein provi&e&" (hether the appeal involves >uestions of fact" of la(" or #i1e& >uestions of fact an& la(.3ow appeal ta)en.(n) SEC.0.(n) SEC.A#on' these a'encies are the Civil Service Co##ission" Central )oar& of Assess#ent Appeals" Securities an& E1chan'e Co##ission" Office of the Presi&ent" Lan& Re'istration Authorit%" Social Securit% Co##ission" Civil Aeronautics )oar&" )ureau of Patents" Tra&e#ar/s an& Technolo'% Transfer" +ational Electrification A&#inistration" Ener'% Re'ulator% )oar&" +ational Teleco##unications Co##ission" Fepart#ent of A'rarian Refor# un&er Repu$lic Act +o.This Rule shall not appl% to 3u&'#ents or final or&ers issue& un&er the La$or Co&e of the Philippines.Scope.2..5) &a%s fro# notice of the a(ar&" 3u&'#ent" final or&er or resolution" or fro# the &ate of its last pu$lication" if pu$lication is re>uire& $% la( for its effectivit%" or of the &enial of petitionerGs #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration &ul% file& in accor&ance (ith the 'overnin' la( of the court or a'enc% a 6uo.(n) RULE 43 APPEALS FROM T E COURT OF TA& APPEALS AND 'UASI% $UDICIAL AGENCIES TO T E COURT OF APPEALS SECT!O+ .5) &a%s.Upon proper #otion an& the pa%#ent of the full a#ount of the &oc/et fee $efore the e1piration of the re'le#entar% perio&" the Court of Appeals #a% 'rant an a&&itional perio& of fifteen (.2Appeal shall $e ta/en $% filin' a verifie& petition for revie( in seven (?) le'i$le copies (ith the Court of Appeals" (ith proof of service of a cop% thereof on the a&verse part% an& on the court or a'enc% a 6uo.5. $eriod of appeal.2This Rule shall appl% to appeals fro# 3u&'#ents or final or&ers of the Court of Ta1 Appeals an& fro# a(ar&s" 3u&'#ents" final or&ers or resolutions of or authori5e& $% an% >uasi<3u&icial a'enc% in the e1ercise of its >uasi< 3u&icial functions.Cases not covered-. The ori'inal cop% of the petition inten&e& for the Court of Appeals shall $e in&icate& as such $% the petitionerUpon the filin' of the petition" the petitioner shall pa% to the cler/ of court of the .4.$% the court itself.#here to appeal.5) &a%s onl% (ithin (hich to file the petition for revie(.

(0a) SEC.2!f upon the filin' of the co##ent or such other plea&in's or &ocu#ents as #a% $e re>uire& or allo(e& $% the Court of Appeals or upon the e1piration of the perio& for the filin' thereof" an& on the $asis of the petition or the recor&s the Court of Appeals fin&s prima facie that the court or a'enc% concerne& has co##itte& errors of fact or la( that (oul& (arrant reversal or #o&ification of the a(ar&" 3u&'#ent" final or&er or resolution sou'ht to $e revie(e&" it #a% 'ive &ue course to the petition7 other(ise" it shall &is#iss the sa#e.+ue course.(Aa) SEC.Contents of the petition..(n) SEC.The petition shall state the specific #aterial &ates sho(in' that it (as file& (ithin the perio& fi1e& herein.5) &a%s fro# notice that the .6.The fin&in's of fact of the court or a'enc% concerne&" (hen supporte& $% su$stantial evi&ence" shall $e $in&in' on the Court of Appeals.?..5) &a%s fro# notice of the &enial.(n) SEC..The co##ent shall (a) point out insufficiencies or inaccuracies in petitionerGs state#ent of facts an& issues7 an& ($) state the reasons (h% the petition shoul& $e &enie& or &is#isse&.Transmittal of recor&-.B) &a%s fro# notice" or &is#iss the petition if it fin&s the sa#e to $e patentl% (ithout #erit" prosecute& #anifestl% for &ela%" or that the >uestions raise& therein are too unsu$stantial to re>uire consi&eration.Court of Appeals the &oc/etin' an& other la(ful fees an& &eposit the su# of P5BB-BB for costs..(ction on the petition.8ithin fifteen (.A cop% thereof shall $e serve& on the petitioner" an& proof of such service shall $e file& (ith the Court of Appeals.2 The failure of the petitioner to co#pl% (ith an% of the fore'oin' re>uire#ents re'ar&in' the pa%#ent of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" the &eposit for costs" proof of service of the petition" an& the contents of an& the &ocu#ents (hich shoul& acco#pan% the petition shall $e sufficient 'roun& for the &is#issal thereof.A.B) &a%s fro# notice in seven (?) le'i$le copies an& acco#panie& $% clearl% le'i$le certifie& true copies of such #aterial portions of the recor& referre& to therein to'ether (ith other supportin' papers.(n) SEC.Contents of comment.@.*ffect of failure to comply with re6uirements.E1e#ption fro# pa%#ent of &oc/etin' an& other la(ful fees an& the &eposit for costs #a% $e 'rante& $% the Court of Appeals upon a verifie& #otion settin' forth vali& 'roun&s therefor.!f the Court of Appeals &enies the #otion" the petitioner shall pa% the &oc/etin' an& other la(ful fees an& &eposit for costs (ithin fifteen (.(6a) SEC.2The petition for revie( shall (a) state the full na#es of the parties to the case" (ithout i#plea&in' the court or a'encies either as petitioners or respon&ents7 ($) contain a concise state#ent of the facts an& issues involve& an& the 'roun&s relie& upon for the revie(7 (c) $e acco#panie& $% a clearl% le'i$le &uplicate ori'inal or a certifie& true cop% of the a(ar&" 3u&'#ent" final or&er or resolution appeale& fro#" to'ether (ith certifie& true copies of such #aterial portions of the recor& referre& to therein an& other supportin' papers7 an& (&) contain a s(orn certification a'ainst foru# shoppin' as provi&e& in the last para'raph of section 0" Rule 40.B.2 The co##ent shall $e file& (ithin ten (.2The Court of Appeals #a% re>uire the respon&ent to file a co##ent on the petition" not a #otion to &is#iss" (ithin ten (.

2The counsel an& 'uar&ians ad litem of the parties in the court of ori'in shall $e respectivel% consi&ere& as their counsel an& 'uar&ians ad litem in the Court of Appeals.(n) PROCEDURE IN T E COURT OF APPEALS RULE 44 ORDINARY APPEALED CASES SECT!O+ .Submission for decision.2 !f the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal is not trans#itte& to the Court of Appeals (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after the perfection of the appeal" either part% #a% file a #otion (ith the trial court" (ith notice to the other" for the trans#ittal of such recor& or recor& on appeal.B) &a%s fro# receipt of sai& notice" the appellant" in appeals $% recor& on appeal" shall file (ith the cler/ of court seven (?) clearl% le'i$le copies of the approve& recor& on appeal" to'ether (ith the proof of service of t(o (0) copies thereof upon the appellee- ..(." the title of the case shall re#ain as it (as in the court of ori'in" $ut the part% appealin' the case shall $e further referre& to as the appellant an& the a&verse part% as the appellee.2!f the petition is 'iven &ue course" the Court of Appeals #a% set the case for oral ar'u#ent or re>uire the parties to su$#it #e#oran&a (ithin a perio& of fifteen (.+oc)eting of case-.(2a" R46) SEC.a" R46) SEC.0.4.Counsel and guardians.(@a) SEC.*ffect of appeal2The appeal shall not sta% the a(ar&" 3u&'#ent" final or&er of resolution sou'ht to $e revie(e& unless the Court of Appeals shall &irect other(ise upon such ter#s as it #a% &ee# 3ust.The recor& to $e trans#itte& #a% $e a$ri&'e& $% a'ree#ent of all parties to the procee&in'.8hen others appear or are appointe&" notice thereof shall $e serve& i##e&iatel% on the a&verse part% an& file& (ith the court(0a" R46) SEC.Order of transmittal of record.(.Upon receivin' the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on appeal an& the acco#pan%in' &ocu#ents an& e1hi$its trans#itte& $% the lo(er court" as (ell as the proof of pa%#ent of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" the cler/ of court of the Court of Appeals shall &oc/et the case an& notif% the parties thereof.Ba) SEC.2.0.2..Title of cases.The Court of Appeals #a% re>uire or per#it su$se>uent correction of or a&&ition to the recor&.The case shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for &ecision upon the filin' of the last plea&in' or #e#oran&u# re>uire& $% these Rules or $% the Court of Appeals..5) &a%s fro# notice.(4a" R46) 8ithin ten (.petition has $een 'iven &ue course" the Court of Appeals #a% re>uire the court or a'enc% concerne& to trans#it the ori'inal or a le'i$le certifie& true cop% of the entire recor& of the procee&in' un&er revie(.2!n all cases appeale& to the Court of Appeals un&er Rule 4.

(.2.tension of ti#e for the filin' of $riefs (ill not $e allo(e&" e1cept for 'oo& an& sufficient cause" an& onl% if the #otion for e1tension is file& $efore the e1piration of the ti#e sou'ht to $e e1ten&e&.28here the recor& of the &oc/ete& case is inco#plete" the cler/ of court of the Court of Appeals shall so infor# sai& court an& reco##en&e& to it #easures necessar% to co#plete the recor&.(.2*..(.*.8ithin fort%<five (45) &a%s fro# receipt of the appellantGs $rief" the appellee shall file (ith the court seven (?) copies of his le'i$l% t%pe(ritten" #i#eo'raphe& or printe& $rief" (ith proof of service of t(o (0) copies thereof upon the appellant.+ispensing with complete record.(.A.2 The appellantGs $rief shall contain" in the .(ppellant?s reply $rief-...2 !n certiorari" prohi$ition" #an&a#us" 6uo warranto an& habeas corpus cases" the parties shall file" in lieu of $riefs" their respective #e#oran&a (ithin a non<e1ten&i$le perio& of thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# receipt of the notice issue& $% the cler/ that all the evi&ence" oral an& &ocu#entar%" is alrea&% attache& to the recor&.8ithin t(ent% (0B) &a%s fro# receipt of the appelleeGs $rief" the appellant #a% file a repl% $rief ans(erin' points in the appelleeGs $rief not covere& in his #ain $rief.0..B.5" R46) SEC.6.Several appellants or appellees or several counsel for each party.!t shall $e the &ut% of the appellant to file (ith the court" (ithin fort%<five (45) &a%s fro# receipt of the notice of the cler/ that all the evi&ence" oral an& &ocu#entar%" are attache& to the recor&" seven (?) copies of his le'i$l% t%pe(ritten" #i#eo'raphe& or printe& $rief" (ith proof of service of t(o (0) copies thereof upon the appellee.4a" R46) SEC.(n) SEC.a" R46) SEC.(.5.Ba" R46) SEC.tension of time for filing briefs.Contents of appellant?s brief.@..0" R46) SEC.(ppellant?s $rief-.(ppellee?s $rief.(n) SEC.(.2 #here there are several appellants or appellees" each counsel representin' one or #ore $ut not all of the# shall $e serve& (ith onl% one cop% of the $riefs.?..Completion of record.8hen several counsel represent one appellant or appellee" copies of the $rief #a% $e serve& upon an% of the#.2 8here the co#pletion of the recor& coul& not $e acco#plishe& (ithin a sufficient perio& allotte& for sai& purpose &ue to insupera$le or e1tre#el% &ifficult causes" the court" on its o(n #otion or on #otion of an% of the parties" #a% &eclare that the recor& an& its acco#pan%in' transcripts an& e1hi$its so far availa$le are sufficient to &eci&e the issues raise& in the appeal" an& shall issue an or&er e1plainin' the reasons for such &eclaration.(n) SEC.!t shall $e the &ut% of sai& court to ta/e appropriate action to(ar&s the co#pletion of the recor& (ithin the shortest possi$le ti#e.2a" R46) The failure of the appellant to file his #e#oran&u# (ithin the perio& therefor #a% $e a 'roun& for &is#issal of the appeal..An% unauthori5e& alteration" o#ission or a&&ition in the approve& recor& on appeal shall $e a 'roun& for &is#issal of the appeal.(n) SEC.Time of filing memoranda in special cases.

the appellee shall state that he accepts the state#ent of facts in the appellantGs $rief" or un&er the hea&in' :Counter<State#ent of Facts". a specification of the or&er or 3u&'#ent (hich the appellant see/s7 an& (h) !n cases not $rou'ht up $% recor& on appeal" the appellantGs $rief shall contain" as an appen&i1" a cop% of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#(.4.6a" R46) SEC.. he shall point out such insufficiencies or inaccuracies as he $elieves e1ist in the appellantGs state#ent of facts (ith references to the pa'es of the recor& in support thereof" $ut (ithout repetition of #atters in the appellantGs state#ent of facts7 an& (c) Un&er the hea&in' :Ar'u#ent".The authorities relie& upon shall $e cite& $% the pa'e of the report at (hich the case $e'ins an& the pa'e of the report on (hich the citation is foun&* (') Un&er the hea&in' :Relief".or&er herein in&icate&" the follo(in'* (a) A su$3ect in&e1 of the #atter in the $rief (ith a &i'est of the ar'u#ents an& pa'e references" an& a ta$le of cases alpha$eticall% arran'e&" te1t$oo/s an& statutes cite& (ith references to the pa'es (here the% are cite&7 ($) An assi'n#ent of errors inten&e& to $e ur'e&" (hich errors shall $e separatel%" &istinctl% an& concisel% state& (ithout repetition an& nu#$ere& consecutivel%7 (c) Un&er the hea&in' :State#ent of the Case".Contents of appellee?s brief. the appellantGs ar'u#ents on each assi'n#ent of error (ith pa'e references to the recor&. a clear an& concise state#ent in a narrative for# of the facts a&#itte& $% $oth parties an& of those in controvers%" to'ether (ith the su$stance of the proof relatin' thereto in sufficient &etail to #a/e it clearl% intelli'i$le" (ith pa'e references to the recor&7 (e) A clear an& concise state#ent of the issues of fact or la( to $e su$#itte& to the court for its 3u&'#ent7 (f) Un&er the hea&in' :Ar'u#ent".2 The appelleeGs $rief shall contain" in the or&er herein in&icate&" the follo(in'* (a) A su$3ect in&e1 of the #atter in the $rief (ith a &i'est of the ar'u#ents an& pa'e references" an& a ta$le of cases alpha$eticall% arran'e&" te1t$oo/s an& statutes cite& (ith references to the pa'es (here the% are cite&7 ($) Un&er the hea&in' :State#ent of Facts". a clear an& concise state#ent of the nature of the action" a su##ar% of the procee&in's" the appeale& rulin's an& or&ers of the court" the nature of the 3u&'#ent an& an% other #atters necessar% to an un&erstan&in' of the nature of the controvers%" (ith pa'e references to the recor&7 (&) Un&er the hea&in' :State#ent of Facts". the appellee shall set forth his ar'u#ents in the case on each assi'n#ent of error (ith pa'e references to the .

2 Unless he has theretofore &one so" the petitioner shall pa% the correspon&in' &oc/et an& other la(ful fees to the cler/ of court of the Supre#e Court an& &eposit the a#ount of P5BB-BB for costs at the ti#e of the filin' of the petition.2The petition shall $e file& (ithin fifteen (.4.5.On #otion &ul% file& an& serve&" (ith full pa%#ent of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees an& the &eposit for costs $efore the e1piration of the re'le#entar% perio&" the Supre#e Court #a% for 3ustifia$le reasons 'rant an e1tension of thirt% (2B) &a%s onl% (ithin (hich to file the petition.The petition shall raise onl% >uestions of la( (hich #ust $e &istinctl% set forth.recor&.0.Proof of service of a cop% thereof on the lo(er court concerne& an& on the a&verse part% shall $e su$#itte& to'ether (ith the petition.The authorities relie& on shall $e cite& $% the pa'e of the report at (hich the case $e'ins an& the pa'e of the report on (hich the citation is foun&.(.. e.(.8uestions that may be raised on appeal.Contents of petition2The petition shall $e file& in ei'hteen (.a) SEC.+oc)et and other lawful fees.4iling of petition with Supreme Court.?a" R46) SEC.Time for filing..@" R46) RULE 45 APPEAL !Y CERTIORARI TO T E SUPREME COURT SECT!O+ .2.a" 0a) SEC. proof of service of petition.a" 5a) SEC.5) &a%s fro# notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution appeale& fro#" or of the &enial of the petitionerGs #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration file& in &ue ti#e after notice of the 3u&'#ent.(.(.& 8hether or not the appellant has file& a #otion for ne( trial in the court $elo(" he #a% inclu&e in his assi'n#ent of errors an% >uestion of la( or fact that has $een raise& in the court $elo( an& (hich is (ithin the issues fra#e& $% the parties.@) copies" (ith the ori'inal cop% inten&e& for the court $ein' in&icate& as such $% the petitioner" an& shall (a) state the full na#e of the appealin' part% as the petitioner an& the a&verse part% as respon&ent" (ithout i#plea&in' the lo(er courts or 3u&'es thereof either as petitioners or respon&ents7 ($) in&icate the #aterial &ates sho(in' (hen notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution su$3ect thereof (as receive&" (hen a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration" if an%" (as file& an& (hen notice of the &enial thereof (as receive&7 (c) set forth concisel% a state#ent of the #atters involve&" an& the reasons or ar'u#ents relie& on for the allo(ance of the petition7 (&) $e acco#panie& $% a clearl% le'i$le &uplicate ori'inal" or a certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution certifie& $% the cler/ of court of the court a 6uo an& the re>uisite nu#$er of plain copies thereof" an& such #aterial portions of the recor& as (oul& support the .2 A part% &esirin' to appeal $% certiorari fro# a 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution of the Court of Appeals" the San&i'an$a%an" the Re'ional Trial Court or other courts (henever authori5e& $% la(" #a% file (ith the Supre#e Court a verifie& petition for revie( on certiorari.(.tension.

petition7 an& (e) contain a s(orn certification a'ainst foru# shoppin' as provi&e& in the last para'raph of section 0" Rule 40- (0a) SEC- 5- +ismissal or denial of petition.2 The failure of the petitioner to co#pl% (ith an% of the fore'oin' re>uire#ents re'ar&in' the pa%#ent of the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees" &eposit for costs" proof of service of the petition" an& the contents of an& the &ocu#ents (hich shoul& acco#pan% the petition shall $e sufficient 'roun& for the &is#issal thereofThe Supre#e Court #a% on its o(n initiative &en% the petition on the 'roun& that the appeal is (ithout #erit" or is prosecute& #anifestl% for &ela%" or that the >uestions raise& therein are too unsu$stantial to re>uire consi&eration- (2a) SEC- 6- Review discretionary.2A revie( is not a #atter of ri'ht" $ut of soun& 3u&icial &iscretion" an& (ill $e 'rante& onl% (hen there are special an& i#portant reasons therefor- The follo(in'" (hile neither controllin' nor full% #easurin' the courtGs &iscretion" in&icate the character of the reasons (hich (ill $e consi&ere&* (a) 8hen the court a >uo has &eci&e& a >uestion of su$stance" not theretofore &eter#ine& $% the Supre#e Court" or has &eci&e& it in a (a% pro$a$l% not in accor& (ith la( or (ith the applica$le &ecisions of the Supre#e Court7 or ($) 8hen the court a >uo has so far &eparte& fro# the accepte& an& usual course of 3u&icial procee&in's" or so far sanctione& such &eparture $% a lo(er court" as to call for an e1ercise of the po(er of supervision- (4a) SEC- ?- $leadings and documents that may be re6uired; sanctions.2 For purposes of &eter#inin' (hether the petition shoul& $e &is#isse& or &enie& pursuant to section 5 of this Rule" or (here the petition is 'iven &ue course un&er section @ hereof" the Supre#e Court #a% re>uire or allo( the filin' of such plea&in's" $riefs" #e#oran&a or &ocu#ents as it #a% &ee# necessar% (ithin such perio&s an& un&er such con&itions as it #a% consi&er appropriate" an& i#pose the correspon&in' sanctions in case of non< filin' or unauthori5e& filin' of such plea&in's an& &ocu#ents or nonco#pliance (ith the con&itions thereof- (n) SEC- @- +ue course; elevation of records.2 !f the petition is 'iven &ue course" the Supre#e Court #a% re>uire the elevation of the co#plete recor& of the case or specifie& parts thereof (ithin fifteen (,5) &a%s fro# notice- (0a) SEC- A- Rule applicable to both civil and criminal cases.2 The #o&e of appeal prescri$e& in this Rule shall $e applica$le to $oth civil an& cri#inal cases" e1cept in cri#inal cases (here the penalt% i#pose& is &eath" reclusion perpetua or life i#prison#ent- (n)

RULE 46

ORIGINAL CASES

SECT!O+ ,- Title of cases.2!n all cases ori'inall% file& in the Court of Appeals" the part% institutin' the action shall $e calle& the petitioner an& the opposin' part% the respon&ent- (,a) SEC- 0- To what actions applicable.2This Rule shall appl% to ori'inal actions for certiorari" prohi$ition" mandamus an& 6uo warrantoE1cept as other(ise provi&e&" the actions for annul#ent of 3u&'#ent shall $e 'overne& $% Rule 4?" for certiorari" prohi$ition an& #an&a#us $% Rule 65" an& for 6uo warranto $% Rule 66- (n) SEC- 2- Contents and filing of petition; effect of non&compliance with re6uirements. 2The petition shall contain the full na#es an& actual a&&resses of all the petitioners an& respon&ents" a concise state#ent of the #atters involve&" the factual $ac/'roun& of the case" an& the 'roun&s relie& upon for the relief pra%e& for!n actions file& un&er Rule 65" the petition shall further in&icate the #aterial &ates sho(in' (hen notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution su$3ect thereof (as receive&" (hen a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration" if an%" (as file& an& (hen notice of the &enial thereof (as receive&!t shall $e file& in seven (?) clearl% le'i$le copies to'ether (ith proof of service thereof on the respon&ent (ith the ori'inal cop% inten&e& for the court in&icate& as such $% the petitioner" an& shall $e acco#panie& $% a clearl% le'i$le &uplicate ori'inal or certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent" or&er" resolution" or rulin' su$3ect thereof" such #aterial portions of the recor& as are referre& to therein" an& other &ocu#ents relevant or pertinent thereto- The certification shall $e acco#plishe& $% the proper cler/ of court or $% his &ul% authori5e& representative" or $% the proper officer of the court" tri$unal" a'enc% or office involve& or $% his &ul% authori5e& representative- The other re>uisite nu#$er of copies of the petition shall $e acco#panie& $% clearl% le'i$le plain copies of all &ocu#ents attache& to the ori'inalThe petitioner shall also su$#it to'ether (ith the petition a s(orn certification that he has not theretofore co##ence& an% other action involvin' the sa#e issues in the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals or &ifferent &ivisions thereof" or an% other tri$unal or a'enc%7 if there is such other action or procee&in'" he #ust state the status of the sa#e7 an& if he shoul& thereafter learn that a si#ilar action or procee&in' has $een file& or is pen&in' $efore the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals" or &ifferent &ivisions thereof" or an% other tri$unal or a'enc%" he un&erta/es to pro#ptl% infor# the aforesai& courts an& other tri$unal or a'enc% thereof (ithin five (5) &a%s therefro#The petitioner shall pa% the correspon&in' &oc/et an& other la(ful fees to the cler/ of court an& &eposit the a#ount of P5BB-BB for costs at the ti#e of the filin' of the petitionThe failure of the petitioner to co#pl% (ith an% of the fore'oin' re>uire#ents shall $e sufficient 'roun& for the &is#issal of the petition- (n) SEC- 4. urisdiction over person of respondent, how ac6uired.2 The court shall ac>uire 3uris&iction over the person of the respon&ent $% the service on hi# of its or&er or resolution in&icatin' its initial action on the petition or $% his voluntar% su$#ission to

such 3uris&iction- (n) SEC- 5- (ction by the court.2The court #a% &is#iss the petition outri'ht (ith specific reasons for such &is#issal or re>uire the respon&ent to file a co##ent on the sa#e (ithin ten (,B) &a%s fro# notice- Onl% plea&in's re>uire& $% the court shall $e allo(e&- All other plea&in's an& papers" #a% $e file& onl% (ith leave of court- (n) SEC- 6- +etermination of factual issues.8henever necessar% to resolve factual issues" the court itself #a% con&uct hearin's thereon or &ele'ate the reception of the evi&ence on such issues to an% of its #e#$ers or to an appropriate court" a'enc% or office- (n) SEC- <. *ffect of failure to file comment.2 8hen no co##ent is file& $% an% of the respon&ents" the case #a% $e &eci&e& on the $asis of the recor&" (ithout pre3u&ice to an% &isciplinar% action (hich the court #a% ta/e a'ainst the &iso$e&ient part%- (n)

RULE 47

ANNULMENT OF $UDGMENTS OR FINAL ORDERS AND RESOLUTIONS
SECT!O+ ,- Coverage.2This Rule shall 'overn the annul#ent $% the Court of Appeals of 3u&'#ents or final or&ers an& resolutions in civil actions of Re'ional Trial Courts for (hich the or&inar% re#e&ies of ne( trial" appeal" petition for relief or other appropriate re#e&ies are no lon'er availa$le throu'h no fault of the petitioner- (n) SEC- 0- -rounds for annulment.2The annul#ent #a% $e $ase& onl% on the 'roun&s of e1trinsic frau& an& lac/ of 3uris&ictionE1trinsic frau& shall not $e a vali& 'roun& if it (as availe& of" or coul& have $een availe& of" in a #otion for ne( trial or petition for relief- (n) SEC- 2. $eriod for filing action.2!f $ase& on e1trinsic frau&" the action #ust $e file& (ithin four (4) %ears fro# its &iscover%7 an& if $ase& on lac/ of 3uris&iction" $efore it is $arre& $% laches or estoppel- (n) SEC- 4. 4iling and contents of petition.2The action shall $e co##ence& $% filin' a verifie& petition alle'in' therein (ith particularit% the facts an& the la( relie& upon for annul#ent" as (ell as those supportin' the petitionerGs 'oo& an& su$stantial cause of action or &efense" as the case #a% $eThe petition shall $e file& in seven (?) clearl% le'i$le copies" to'ether (ith sufficient copies correspon&in' to the nu#$er of respon&ents- A certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution shall $e attache& to the ori'inal cop% of the petition inten&e& for the court an& in&icate& as such $% the petitionerThe petitioner shall also su$#it to'ether (ith the petition affi&avits of (itnesses or &ocu#ents supportin' the cause of action or &efense an& a s(orn certification that he

has not theretofore co##ence& an% other action involvin' the sa#e issues in the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals or &ifferent &ivisions thereof" or an% other tri$unal or a'enc%7 if there is such other action or procee&in'" he #ust state the status of the sa#e" an& if he shoul& thereafter learn that a si#ilar action or procee&in' has $een file& or is pen&in' $efore the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals" or &ifferent &ivisions thereof" or an% other tri$unal or a'enc%" he un&erta/es to pro#ptl% infor# the aforesai& courts an& other tri$unal or a'enc% thereof (ithin five (5B &a%s therefro#- (n) SEC- 5- (ction by the court-.Shoul& the court fin& no su$stantial #erit in the petition" the sa#e #a% $e &is#isse& outri'ht (ith specific reasons for such &is#issalShoul& prima facie #erit $e foun& in the petition" the sa#e shall $e 'iven &ue course an& su##ons shall $e serve& on the respon&ent- (n) SEC- 6- $rocedure.2The proce&ure in or&inar% civil cases shall $e o$serve&Shoul& a trial $e necessar%" the reception of the evi&ence #a% $e referre& to a #e#$er of the court or a 3u&'e of a Re'ional Trial Court- (n) SEC- ?- *ffect of "udgment& A 3u&'#ent of annul#ent shall set asi&e the >uestione& 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution an& ren&er the sa#e null an& voi&" (ithout pre3u&ice to the ori'inal action $ein' refile& in the proper court- =o(ever" (here the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution is set asi&e on the 'roun& of e1trinsic frau&" the court #a% on #otion or&er the trial court to tr% the case as if a ti#el% #otion for ne( trial ha& $een 'rante& therein- (n) SEC- @- Suspension of prescriptive period.2 The prescriptive perio& for the refilin' of the aforesai& ori'inal action shall $e &ee#e& suspen&e& fro# the filin' of sai& ori'inal action until the finalit% of the 3u&'#ent of annul#ent- =o(ever" the prescriptive perio& shall not $e suspen&e& (here the e1trinsic frau& is attri$uta$le to the plaintiff in the ori'inal action- (n) SEC- A- Relief available.2The 3u&'#ent of annul#ent #a% inclu&e the a(ar& of &a#a'es" attorne%Gs fees an& other relief!f the >uestione& 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution ha& alrea&% $een e1ecute&" the court #a% issue such or&ers of restitution or other relief as 3ustice an& e>uit% #a% (arrant un&er the circu#stances- (n) SEC- ,B- (nnulment of "udgments or final orders of !unicipal Trial Courts.2 An action to annul a 3u&'#ent or final or&er of a 9unicipal Trial Court shall $e file& in the Re'ional Trial Court havin' 3uris&iction over the for#er- !t shall $e treate& as an or&inar% civil action an& sections 0" 2" 4" ?" @ an& A of this Rule shall $e applica$le thereto- (n)

RULE 48

PRELIMINARY CONFERENCE

SECT!O+ ,- $reliminary conference.2At an% ti#e &urin' the pen&enc% of a case" the court #a% call the parties an& their counsel to a preli#inar% conference(a) To consi&er the possi$ilit% of an a#ica$le settle#ent" e1cept (hen the case is not allo(e& $% la( to $e co#pro#ise&7 ($) To &efine" si#plif% an& clarif% the issues for &eter#ination7 (c) To for#ulate stipulations of facts an& a&#issions of &ocu#entar% e1hi$its" li#it the nu#$er of (itnesses to $e presente& in cases fallin' (ithin the ori'inal 3uris&iction of the court" or those (ithin its appellate 3uris&iction (here a #otion for ne( trial is 'rante& on the 'roun& of ne(l% &iscovere& evi&ence7 an& (&) To ta/e up such other #atters (hich #a% ai& the court in the pro#pt &isposition of the case- (Rule ?" CA !nternal Rules) (n) SEC- 0- Record of the conference.2The procee&in's at such conference shall $e recor&e& an&" upon the conclusion thereof" a resolution shall $e issue& e#$o&%in' all the actions ta/en therein" the stipulations an& a&#issions #a&e" an& the issues &efine&(n) SEC- 2- 1inding effect of the results of the conference.2 Su$3ect to such #o&ifications (hich #a% $e #a&e to prevent #anifest in3ustice" the resolution in the prece&in' section shall control the su$se>uent procee&in's in the case unless" (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# notice thereof" an% part% shall satisfactoril% sho( vali& cause (h% the sa#e shoul& not $e follo(e&- (n)

RULE 49

ORAL ARGUMENT
SECT!O+ ,- #hen allowed.2At its o(n instance or upon #otion of a part%" the court #a% hear the parties in oral ar'u#ent on the #erits of a case" or on an% #aterial inci&ent in connection there(ith- (n) The oral ar'u#ent shall $e li#ite& to such #atters as the court #a% specif% in its or&er of resolution- (,a" R4@) SEC- 0- Conduct of oral argument2 Unless authori5e& $% the court" onl% one counsel #a% ar'ue for a part%- The &uration allo(e& for each part%" the se>uence of the ar'u#entation" an& all other relate& #atters shall $e as &irecte& $% the court- (n) SEC- 2- %o hearing or oral argument for motions.2 9otions shall not $e set for hearin' an&" unless the court other(ise &irects" no hearin' or oral ar'u#ent shall $e allo(e& in support thereof- The a&verse part% #a% file o$3ections to the #otion (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# service" upon the e1piration of (hich such #otion shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for resolution- (0a" R4A)

RULE 50

DISMISSAL OF APPEAL
SECT!O+ ,- -rounds for dismissal of appeal2 An appeal #a% $e &is#isse& $% the Court of Appeals" on its o(n #otion or on that of the appellee" on the follo(in' 'roun&s* (a) Failure of the recor& on appeal to sho( on its face that the appeal (as ta/en (ithin the perio& fi1e& $% these Rules7 ($) Failure to file the notice of appeal or the recor& on appeal (ithin the perio& prescri$e& $% these Rules7 (c) Failure of the appellant to pa% the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees as provi&e& in section 4 of Rule 4,7 (&) Unauthori5e& alterations" o#issions or a&&itions in the approve& recor& on appeal as provi&e& in section 4 of Rule 447 (e) Failure of the appellant to serve an& file the re>uire& nu#$er of copies of his $rief or #e#oran&u# (ithin the ti#e provi&e& $% these Rules7 (f) A$sence of specific assi'n#ent of errors in the appellantGs $rief" or of pa'e references to the recor& as re>uire& in section ,2" para'raphs (a)" (c)" (&) an& (f) of Rule 447 (') Failure of the appellant to ta/e the necessar% steps for the correction or co#pletion of the recor& (ithin the ti#e li#ite& $% the court in its or&er7 (h) Failure of the appellant to appear at the preli#inar% conference un&er Rule 4@ or to co#pl% (ith or&ers" circulars" or &irectives of the court (ithout 3ustifia$le cause7 an& (i) (,a) SEC- 0- +ismissal of improper appeal to the Court of (ppeals.2 An appeal un&er Rule 4, ta/en fro# the Re'ional Trial Court to the Court of Appeals raisin' onl% >uestions of la( shall $e &is#isse&" issues purel% of la( not $ein' revie(a$le $% sai& court- Si#ilarl%" an appeal $% notice of appeal instea& of $% petition for revie( fro# the appellate 3u&'#ent of a Re'ional Trial Court shall $e &is#isse&- (n) An appeal erroneousl% ta/en to the Court of Appeals shall not $e transferre& to the appropriate court $ut shall $e &is#isse& outri'ht- (2a) SEC- 2- #ithdrawal of appeal.2An appeal #a% $e (ith&ra(n as of ri'ht at an% ti#e $efore the filin' of the appelleeGs $rief- Thereafter" the (ith&ra(al #a% $e allo(e& in the &iscretion of the court- (4a) The fact that or&er or 3u&'#ent appeale& fro# is not appeala$le-

RULE 51

$UDGMENT
SECT!O+ ,- #hen case deemed submitted for "udgment.2 A case shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for 3u&'#ent* A- !n or&inar% appeals-. ,) 8here no hearin' on the #erits of the #ain case is hel&" upon the filin' of the last plea&in'" $rief" or #e#oran&u# re>uire& $% the Rules or $% the court itself" or the e1piration of the perio& for its filin'0) 8here such a hearin' is hel&" upon its ter#ination or upon the filin' of the last plea&in' or #e#oran&u# as #a% $e re>uire& or per#itte& to $e file& $% the court" or the e1piration of the perio& for its filin')- !n ori'inal actions an& petitions for revie(-. ,) 8here no co##ent is file&" upon the e1piration of the perio& to co##ent0) 8here no hearin' is hel&" upon the filin' of the last plea&in' re>uire& or per#itte& to $e file& $% the court" or the e1piration of the perio& for its filin'2) 8here a hearin' on the #erits of the #ain case is hel&" upon its ter#ination or upon the filin' of the last plea&in' or #e#oran&u# as #a% $e re>uire& or per#itte& to $e file& $% the court" or the e1piration of the perio& for its filin'- (n) SEC- 0- 1y whom rendered.2The 3u&'#ent shall $e ren&ere& $% the #e#$ers of the court (ho participate& in the &eli$eration on the #erits of the case $efore its assi'n#ent to a #e#$er for the (ritin' of the &ecision- (n) SEC- 2- 8uorum and voting in the court2 The participation of all three Hustices of a &ivision shall $e necessar% at the &eli$eration an& the unani#ous vote of the three Hustices shall $e re>uire& for the pronounce#ent of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution- !f the three Hustices &o not reach a unani#ous vote" the cler/ shall enter the votes of the &issentin' Hustices in the recor&- Thereafter" the Chair#an of the &ivision shall refer the case" to'ether (ith the #inutes of the &eli$eration" to the Presi&in' Hustice (ho shall &esi'nate t(o Hustices chosen $% raffle fro# a#on' all the other #e#$ers of the court to sit te#poraril% (ith the#" for#in' a special &ivision of five Hustices- The participation of all the five #e#$ers of the special &ivision shall $e necessar% for the &eli$eration re>uire& in section 0 of this Rule an& the concurrence of a #a3orit% of such &ivision shall $e re>uire& for the pronounce#ent of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution- (0a) SEC- ;. +isposition of a case.2The Court of Appeals" in the e1ercise of its appellate 3uris&iction" #a% affir#" reverse" or #o&if% the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro#" an& #a% &irect a ne( trial or further procee&in's to $e ha&- (2a) SEC- 5- 4orm of decision.2Ever% &ecision or final resolution of the court in

6.0A) (n) SEC.ecution of 3u&'#ent-.*ntry of "udgments and final resolutions.*.$romulgation and notice of "udgment..@.2 After the 3u&'#ent or final resolution an& &issentin' or separate opinions" if an%" are si'ne& $% the Hustices ta/in' part" the% shall $e &elivere& for filin' to the cler/ (ho shall in&icate thereon the &ate of pro#ul'ation an& cause true copies thereof to $e serve& upon the parties or their counsel.(n) SEC.The recor& shall contain the &ispositive part of the 3u&'#ent or final resolution an& shall $e si'ne& $% the cler/" (ith a certificate that such 3u&'#ent or final resolution has $eco#e final an& e1ecutor%.(5a) SEC.2 !f no appeal or #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration is file& (ithin the ti#e provi&e& in these Rules" the 3u&'#ent or final resolution shall forth(ith $e entere& $% the cler/ in the $oo/ of entries of 3u&'#ents.4B" )P )l'.(?a) SEC.2+o error in either the a&#ission or the e1clusion of evi&ence an& no error or &efect in an% rulin' or or&er or in an%thin' &one or o#itte& $% the trial court or $% an% of the parties is 'roun& for 'rantin' a ne( trial or for settin' asi&e" #o&if%in'" or other(ise &istur$in' a 3u&'#ent or or&er" unless refusal to ta/e such action appears to the court inconsistent (ith su$stantial 3ustice.(6) SEC.udgment where there are several parties.3armless error.. E1cept (here the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution" or a portion thereof" is or&ere& to $e i##e&iatel% e1ecutor%" the #otion for its e1ecution #a% onl% $e file& in the proper court after its entr%!n ori'inal actions in the Court of Appeals" its (rit of e1ecution shall $e acco#panie& $% a certifie& true cop% of the entr% of 3u&'#ent or final resolution an& a&&resse& to an% appropriate officer for its enforce#ent!n appeale& cases" (here the #otion for e1ecution pen&in' appeal is file& in the Court of Appeals at a ti#e that it is in possession of the ori'inal recor& or the recor& on .A..?..8uestions that may be decided.(0a" R26) SEC.B..appeale& cases shall clearl% an& &istinctl% state the fin&in's of fact an& the conclusions of la( on (hich it is $ase&" (hich #a% $e containe& in the &ecision or final resolution itself" or a&opte& fro# those set forth in the &ecision" or&er" or resolution appeale& fro#(Sec.2 !n all actions or procee&in's" an appeale& 3u&'#ent #a% $e affir#e& as to so#e of the appellants" an& reverse& as to others" an& the case shall thereafter $e procee&e& (ith" so far as necessar%" as if separate actions ha& $een $e'un an& prosecute&7 an& e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent of affir#ance #a% $e ha& accor&in'l%" an& costs #a% $e a&3u&'e& in such cases" as the court shall &ee# proper.The court at ever% sta'e of the procee&in' #ust &isre'ar& an% error or &efect (hich &oes not affect the su$stantial ri'hts of the parties.The &ate (hen the 3u&'#ent or final resolution $eco#es e1ecutor% shall $e &ee#e& as the &ate of its entr%.2+o error (hich &oes not affect the 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter or the vali&it% of the 3u&'#ent appeale& fro# or the procee&in's therein (ill $e consi&ere& unless state& in the assi'n#ent of errors" or closel% relate& to or &epen&ent on an assi'ne& error an& properl% ar'ue& in the $rief" save as the court #a% pass upon plain errors an& clerical errors.

2A part% #a% file a #otion for reconsi&eration of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution (ithin fifteen (.Resolution of motion2In the Court of Appeals" a #otion for ne( trial shall .2!n the Court of Appeals" a #otion for reconsi&eration shall $e resolve& (ithin ninet% (AB) &a%s fro#" the &ate (hen the court &eclares it su$#itte& for resolution.Stay of e.(n) RULE 53 NEW TRIAL SECT!O+ .appeal" the resolution 'rantin' such #otion shall $e trans#itte& to the lo(er court fro# (hich the case ori'inate&" to'ether (ith a certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er to $e e1ecute&" (ith a &irective for such court of ori'in to issue the proper (rit for its enforce#ent.5) &a%s fro# notice thereof" (ith proof of service on the a&verse part%.0.The #otion shall $e acco#panie& $% affi&avits sho(in' the facts constitutin' the 'roun&s therefor an& the ne(l% &iscovere& evi&ence.(n) SEC.2.2.4.$eriod for filing.Resolution of motion.2 At an% ti#e after the appeal fro# the lo(er court has $een perfecte& an& $efore the Court of Appeals loses 3uris&iction over the case" a part% #a% file a #otion for a ne( trial on the 'roun& of ne(l% &iscovere& evi&ence (hich coul& not have $een &iscovere& prior to the trial in the court $elo( $% the e1ercise of &ue &ili'ence an& (hich is of such a character as (oul& pro$a$l% chan'e the result.(n) SEC.Second motion for reconsideration.(n) RULE 52 MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION SECT!O+ . ground.3earing and order.(0a) SEC.2+o secon& #otion for reconsi&eration of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution $% the sa#e part% shall $e entertaine&...$eriod for filing..0.2The pen&enc% of a #otion for reconsi&eration file& on ti#e an& $% the proper part% shall sta% the e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent or final resolution sou'ht to $e reconsi&ere& unless the court" for 'oo& reasons" shall other(ise &irect.ecution.(.a) SEC.2The Court of Appeals shall consi&er the ne( evi&ence to'ether (ith that a&&uce& at the trial $elo(" an& #a% 'rant or refuse a ne( trial" or #a% #a/e such or&er" (ith notice to $oth parties" as to the ta/in' of further testi#on%" either orall% in court" or $% &epositions" or ren&er such other 3u&'#ent as ou'ht to $e ren&ere& upon such ter#s as it #a% &ee# 3ust.(n) SEC.

2 The reporter shall prepare an& pu$lish (ith each reporte& 3u&'#ent an& final resolution a concise s%nopsis of the facts necessar% for a clear un&erstan&in' of the case" the na#es of counsel" the #aterial an& controverte& points involve&" the authorities cite& therein" an& a s%lla$us (hich shall $e .0.(.9e#oran&a of all other 3u&'#ents an& final resolutions not so pu$lishe& shall $e #a&e $% the reporter an& pu$lishe& in the Official Ca5ette an& the authori5e& reports. The affir#ative votes of three #e#$ers of a &ivision shall $e necessar% for the pronounce#ent of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution" (hich shall $e reache& in consultation $efore the (ritin' of the opinion $% an% #e#$er of the &ivision.2The 3u&'#ents an& final resolutions of the court shall $e pu$lishe& in the Official Ca5ette an& in the Reports officiall% authori5e& $% the court in the lan'ua'e in (hich the% have $een ori'inall% (ritten" to'ether (ith the s%lla$i therefor prepare& $% the reporter in consultation (ith the (riters thereof.(2a) RULE 54 INTERNAL !USINESS SECT!O+ ..8uorum of the court.0.(n) SEC.(Sec.Unless the court other(ise &irects" the proce&ure in the ne( trial shall $e the sa#e as that 'rante& $% a Re'ional Trial Court.0A" as a#en&e& $% Sec.$rocedure in new trial." first par..6 of EO 22)...2A #a3orit% of the actual #e#$ers of the court shall constitute a >uoru# for its sessions en banc..of )P )l'.$reparation of opinions for publication.2All the cases of the Court of Appeals shall $e allotte& a#on' the &ifferent &ivisions thereof for hearin' an& &ecisionThe Court of Appeals" sittin' en banc.$ublication. shall #a/e proper or&ers or rules to 'overn the allot#ent of cases a#on' the &ifferent &ivisions" the constitution of such &ivisions" the re'ular rotation of Hustices a#on' the#" the filin' of vacancies occurrin' therein" an& other #atters relatin' to the $usiness of the court7 an& such rules shall continue in force until repeale& or altere& $% it or $% the Supre#e Court. Three #e#$ers shall constitute a >uoru# for the sessions of a &ivision.(2a) RULE 55 PU!LICATION OF $UDGMENTS AND FINAL RESOLUTIONS SECT!O+ .4.$e resolve& (ithin ninet% (AB) &a%s fro# the &ate (hen the court &eclares it su$#itte& for resolution.+istribution of cases among divisions.a) SEC.The affir#ative votes of the #a3orit% of the #e#$ers present shall $e necessar% to pass a resolution of the court en banc.(.a) SEC.

2 The pu$lishe& &ecisions an& final resolutions of the Supre#e Court shall $e calle& :Philippine Reports". Each volu#e thereof shall contain a ta$le of the cases reporte& an& the cases cite& in the opinions" (ith a co#plete alpha$etical in&e1 of the su$3ect #atters of the volu#e.Rules applicable.C.(n) !" A00/.+o..02a" R-A.-/1 C..0A6) (n) PROCEDURE IN T E SUPREME COURT RULE 56 ORIGINAL AND APPEALED CASES A" O()*)+.2Onl% petitions for certiorari" prohi$ition" #an&a#us" >uo (arranto" ha$eas corpus" &isciplinar% procee&in's a'ainst #e#$ers of the 3u&iciar% an& attorne%s" an& cases affectin' a#$assa&ors" other pu$lic #inisters an& consuls #a% $e file& ori'inall% in the Supre#e Court." 50 an& this Rule" su$3ect to the follo(in' provisions* a) All references in sai& Rules to the Court of Appeals shall $e un&erstoo& to also appl% to the Supre#e Court7 $) The portions of sai& Rules &ealin' strictl% (ith an& specificall% inten&e& for appeale& cases in the Court of Appeals shall not $e applica$le7 an& c) Ei'hteen (.0.(n) SEC.+o.(n) . SECT!O+ .0A6) (n) SEC.confine& to points of la(.!ode of appeal2An appeal to the Supre#e Court #a% $e ta/en onl% $% a petition for revie( on certiorari" e1cept in cri#inal cases (here the penalt% i#pose& is &eath" reclusion perpetua or life i#prison#ent.2.-eneral ma)e&up of volumes.!t shall consist of not less than seven hun&re&" pa'es printe& upon 'oo& paper" (ell $oun& an& nu#$ere& consecutivel% in the or&er of the volu#es pu$lishe&./.2A<)" as a#en&e&.(Sec.2The proce&ure in ori'inal cases for certiorari" prohi$ition" #an&a#us" >uo (arranto an& ha$eas corpus shall $e in accor&ance (ith the applica$le provisions of the Constitution" la(s" an& Rules 46" 4@" 4A" 5. SEC.2. (hile those of the Court of Appeals shall $e /no(n as the :Court of Appeals Reports-.(Sec.00a" R-A../..@) clearl% le'i$le copies of the petition shall $e file&" to'ether (ith proof of service on all a&verse partiesThe procee&in's for &isciplinar% action a'ainst #e#$ers of the 3u&iciar% shall $e 'overne& $% the la(s an& Rules prescri$e& therefor" an& those a'ainst attorne%s $% Rule .Original cases cogni5able.

" 0" an& 5 to . of Rule 5.4.$rocedure if opinion is e6ually divided.6.(n) SEC.28here the court en banc is e>uall% &ivi&e& in opinion" or the necessar% #a3orit% cannot $e ha&" the case shall a'ain $e &eli$erate& on" an& if after such &eli$eration no &ecision is reache&" the ori'inal action co##ence& in the court shall $e &is#isse&7 in appeale& cases" the 3u&'#ent or or&er appeale& fro# shall stan& affir#e&7 an& on all inci&ental #atters" the petition or #otion shall $e &enie&." 50 an& this Rule.2 The appeal #a% $e &is#isse& motu proprio or on #otion of the respon&ent on the follo(in' 'roun&s* (a) Failure to ta/e the appeal (ithin the re'le#entar% perio&7 ($) Lac/ of #erit in the petition7 (c) Failure to pa% the re>uisite &oc/et fee an& other la(ful fees or to #a/e a &eposit for costs7 (&) Failure to co#pl% (ith the re>uire#ents re'ar&in' proof of service an& contents of an& the &ocu#ents (hich shoul& acco#pan% the petition7 (e) Failure to co#pl% (ith an% circular" &irective or or&er of the Supre#e Court (ithout 3ustifia$le cause7 (f) Error in the choice or #o&e of appeal7 an& (') The fact that the case is not appeala$le to the Supre#e Court.a) PROVISIONAL REMEDIES RULE 57 PRELIMINARY ATTAC MENT SECT!O+ ..-rounds for dismissal of appeal.(.$rocedure.2 At the co##ence#ent of the action or at an% ti#e $efore entr% of 3u&'#ent" a plaintiff or an% proper part% #a% ..5.2The appeal shall $e 'overne& $% an& &ispose& of in accor&ance (ith the applica$le provisions of the Constitution" la(s" Rules 45" 4@" sections ..SEC.(n) SEC.E1cept as provi&e& in section 2" Rule .(n) SEC.00 re'ar&in' appeals in cri#inal cases (here the penalt% i#pose& is &eath" reclusion perpetua or life i#prison#ent" an appeal ta/en to the Supre#e Court $% notice of appeal shall $e &is#isse&An appeal $% certiorari ta/en to the Supre#e Court fro# the Re'ional Trial Court su$#ittin' issues of fact #a% $e referre& to the Court of Appeals for &ecision or appropriate action.-rounds upon which attachment may issue.The &eter#ination of the Supre#e Court on (hether or not issues of fact are involve& shall $e final.?.+isposition of improper appeal-.

(ffidavit and bond re6uired.2.Issuance and contents of order.Several (rits #a% $e issue& at the sa#e ti#e to the sheriffs of the courts of &ifferent 3u&icial re'ions.4. Condition of applicant?s bond2 The part% appl%in' for the or&er #ust thereafter 'ive a $on& e1ecute& to the a&verse part% in the a#ount fi1e& $% the court in .(2a) SEC.The affi&avit" an& the $on& re>uire& $% the ne1t succee&in' section" #ust $e &ul% file& (ith the court $efore the or&er issues.have the propert% of the a&verse part% attache& as securit% for the satisfaction of an% 3u&'#ent that #a% $e recovere& in the follo(in' cases* (a) !n an action for the recover% of a specifie& a#ount of #one% or &a#a'es" other than #oral an& e1e#plar%" on a cause of action arisin' fro# la(" contract" >uasi<contract" &elict or >uasi<&elict a'ainst a part% (ho is a$out to &epart fro# the Philippines (ith intent to &efrau& his cre&itors7 ($) !n an action for #one% or propert% e#$e55le& or frau&ulentl% #isapplie& or converte& to his o(n use $% a pu$lic officer" or an officer of a corporation" or an attorne%" factor" $ro/er" a'ent" or cler/" in the course of his e#plo%#ent as such" or $% an% other person in a fi&uciar% capacit%" or for a (illful violation of &ut%7 (c) !n an action to recover the possession of propert% un3ustl% or frau&ulentl% ta/en" &etaine& or converte&" (hen the propert%" or an% part thereof" has $een conceale&" re#ove&" or &ispose& of to prevent its $ein' foun& or ta/en $% the applicant or an authori5e& person7 (&) !n an action a'ainst a part% (ho has $een 'uilt% of a frau& in contractin' the &e$t or incurrin' the o$li'ation upon (hich the action is $rou'ht" or in the perfor#ance thereof7 (e) !n an action a'ainst a part% (ho has re#ove& or &ispose& of his propert%" or is a$out to &o so" (ith intent to &efrau& his cre&itors7 or (f) !n an action a'ainst a part% (ho &oes not resi&e an& is not foun& in the Philippines" or on (ho# su##ons #a% $e serve& $% pu$lication.a) SEC.2An or&er of attach#ent shall $e 'rante& onl% (hen it appears $% the affi&avit of the applicant" or of so#e other person (ho personall% /no(s the facts" that a sufficient cause of action e1ists" that the case is one of those #entione& in section . parte or upon #otion (ith notice an& hearin' $% the court in (hich the action is pen&in'" or $% the Court of Appeals or the Supre#e Court" an& #ust re>uire the sheriff of the court to attach so #uch of the propert% in the Philippines of the part% a'ainst (ho# it is issue&" not e1e#pt fro# e1ecution" as #a% $e sufficient to satisf% the applicantGs &e#an&" unless such part% #a/es &eposit or 'ives a $on& as hereinafter provi&e& in an a#ount e>ual to that fi1e& in the or&er" (hich #a% $e the a#ount sufficient to satisf% the applicantGs &e#an& or the value of the propert% to $e attache& as state& $% the applicant" e1clusive of costs. hereof that there is no other sufficient securit% for the clai# sou'ht to $e enforce& $% the action" an& that the a#ount &ue to the applicant" or the value of the propert% the possession of (hich he is entitle& to recover" is as #uch as the su# for (hich the or&er is 'rante& a$ove all le'al counterclai#s.(0a) SEC.0.2 An or&er of attach#ent #a% $e issue& either e.(.

2 The sheriff enforcin' the (rit shall (ithout &ela% an& (ith all reasona$le &ili'ence attach" to a(ait 3u&'#ent an& e1ecution in the action" onl% so #uch of the propert% in the Philippines of the part% a'ainst (ho# the (rit is issue&" not e1e#pt fro# e1ecution" as #a% $e sufficient to satisf% the applicantGs &e#an&" unless the for#er #a/es a &eposit (ith the court fro# (hich the (rit is issue&" or 'ives a counter<$on& e1ecute& to the applicant" in an a#ount e>ual to the $on& fi1e& $% the court in the or&er of attach#ent or to the value of the propert% to $e attache&" e1clusive of costs.?.Sheriff?s return.(4a) SEC. recording thereof.After enforcin' the (rit" the sheriff #ust li/e(ise (ithout &ela% #a/e a return thereon to the court fro# (hich the (rit issue&" (ith a full state#ent of his procee&in's un&er the (rit an& a co#plete inventor% of the propert% attache&" to'ether (ith an% counter<$on& 'iven $% the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent is issue&" an& serve copies thereof on the applicant.5.6.(ttachment of real and personal property. (5a) SEC.!anner of attaching property.8here the propert% has $een $rou'ht un&er the operation of either the Lan& Re'istration Act or the Propert% Re'istration Fecree" the notice shall contain a reference to the nu#$er of the certificate of title" the volu#e an& pa'e in the re'istration $oo/ (here the certificate is re'istere&" an& the re'istere& o(ner or o(ners thereof- .its or&er 'rantin' the issuance of the (rit" con&itione& that the latter (ill pa% all the costs (hich #a% $e a&3u&'e& to the a&verse part% an& all &a#a'es (hich he #a% sustain $% reason of the attach#ent" if the court shall finall% a&3u&'e that the applicant (as not entitle& thereto.(6a) SEC.+o lev% on attach#ent pursuant to the (rit issue& un&er section 0 hereof shall $e enforce& unless it is prece&e&" or conte#poraneousl% acco#panie&" $% service of su##ons" to'ether (ith a cop% of the co#plaint" the application for attach#ent" the applicantGs affi&avit an& $on&" an& the or&er an& (rit of attach#ent" on the &efen&ant (ithin the PhilippinesThe re>uire#ent of prior or conte#poraneous service of su##ons shall not appl% (here the su##ons coul& not $e serve& personall% or $% su$stitute& service &espite &ili'ent efforts" or the &efen&ant is a resi&ent of the Philippines te#poraril% a$sent therefro#" or the &efen&ant is a non<resi&ent of the Philippines" or the action is one in rem or 6uasi in rem.Real an& personal propert% shall $e attache& $% the sheriff e1ecutin' the (rit in the follo(in' #anner* (a) Real propert%" or 'ro(in' crops thereon" or an% interest therein" stan&in' upon the recor& of the re'istr% of &ee&s of the province in the na#e of the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent is issue&" or not appearin' at all upon such recor&s" or $elon'in' to the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent is issue& an& hel& $% an% other person" or stan&in' on the recor&s of the re'istr% of &ee&s in the na#e of an% other person" $% filin' (ith the re'istr% of &ee&s a cop% of the or&er" to'ether (ith a &escription of the propert% attache&" an& a notice that it is attache&" or that such real propert% an& an% interest therein hel& $% or stan&in' in the na#e of such other person are attache&" an& $% leavin' a cop% of such or&er" &escription" an& notice (ith the occupant of the propert%" if an%" or (ith such other person or his a'ent if foun& (ithin the province.

*ffect of attachment of debts.2All persons havin' in their possession or un&er their control an% cre&its or other si#ilar personal propert% $elon'in' to the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent is issue&" or o(in' an% &e$ts to hi#" at the ti#e of service upon the# of the cop% of the (rit of attach#ent an& notice as provi&e& in the last prece&in' section" shall $e lia$le to the applicant for the a#ount of such cre&its" &e$ts or other si#ilar personal propert%" until the attach#ent is &ischar'e&" or an% 3u&'#ent recovere& $% hi# is satisfie&" unless such propert% is &elivere& or transferre&" or such &e$ts are pai&" to the cler/" sheriff" or other proper officer of the court issuin' the attach#ent.*ffect of attachment of interest in property belonging to the estate of a &ece&ent.Such personal representative" ho(ever" shall report the . credits and all other similar personal property.The re'istrar of &ee&s #ust in&e1 attach#ents file& un&er this section in the na#es of the applicant" the a&verse part%" or the person $% (ho# the propert% is hel& or in (hose na#e it stan&s in the recor&s.A cop% of sai& (rit of attach#ent an& of sai& notice shall also $e file& in the office of the cler/ of the court in (hich sai& estate is $ein' settle& an& serve& upon the heir" le'atee or &evisee concerne&!f the propert% sou'ht to $e attache& is in custo&ia le'is" a cop% of the (rit of attach#ent shall $e file& (ith the proper court or >uasi<3u&icial a'enc%" an& notice of the attach#ent serve& upon the custo&ian of such propert%.A.@.(?a) SEC.The attach#ent of the interest of an heir" le'atee" or &evisee in the propert% $elon'in' to the estate of a &ece&ent shall not i#pair the po(ers of the e1ecutor" a&#inistrator" or other personal representative of the &ece&ent over such propert% for the purpose of a&#inistration.(@a) SEC.!f the attach#ent is not clai#e& on the entire area of the lan& covere& $% the certificate of title" a &escription sufficientl% accurate for the i&entification of the lan& or interest to $e affecte& shall $e inclu&e& in the re'istration of such attach#ent7 ($) Personal propert% capa$le of #anual &eliver%" $% ta/in' an& safel% /eepin' it in his custo&%" after issuin' the correspon&in' receipt therefor7 (c)Stoc/s or shares" or an interest in stoc/s or shares" of an% corporation or co#pan%" $% leavin' (ith the presi&ent or #ana'in' a'ent thereof" a cop% of the (rit" an& a notice statin' that the stoc/ or interest of the part% a'ainst (ho# the attach#ent is issue& is attache& in pursuance of such (rit7 (&) Fe$ts an& cre&its" inclu&in' $an/ &eposits" financial interest" ro%alties" co##issions an& other personal propert% not capa$le of #anual &eliver%" $% leavin' (ith the person o(in' such &e$ts" or havin' in his possession or un&er his control" such cre&its or other personal propert%" or (ith his a'ent" a cop% of the (rit" an& notice that the &e$ts o(in' $% hi# to the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent is issue&" an& the cre&its an& other personal propert% in his possession" or un&er his control" $elon'in' to sai& part%" are attache& in pursuance of such (rit7 (e) The interest of the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent is issue& in propert% $elon'in' to the estate of the &ece&ent" (hether as heir" le'atee" or &evisee" $% servin' the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator or other personal representative of the &ece&ent (ith a cop% of the (rit an& notice that sai& interest is attache&.

.The part% (hose propert% is attache& #a% also $e re>uire& to atten& for the purpose of 'ivin' infor#ation respectin' his propert%" an& #a% $e e1a#ine& on oath. delivery of property to sheriff -.The court #a%" after such e1a#ination" or&er personal propert% capa$le of #anual &eliver% $elon'in' to hi#" in the possession of the person so re>uire& to atten& $efore the court" to $e &elivere& to the cler/ of the court or sheriff on such ter#s as #a% $e 3ust" havin' reference to an% lien thereon or clai# a'ainst the sa#e" to a(ait the 3u&'#ent in the action.A notice of the &eposit shall forth(ith $e serve& on the attachin' part%....(.2 The part% (hose propert% has $een or&ere& attache& #a% file a #otion (ith the court in (hich the action is .#hen attached property may be sold after levy on attachment and before entry of "udgment28henever it shall $e #a&e to appear to the court in (hich the action is pen&in'" upon hearin' (ith notice to $oth parties" that the propert% attache& is perisha$le" or that the interests of all the parties to the action (ill $e su$serve& $% the sale thereof" the court #a% or&er such propert% to $e sol& at pu$lic auction in such #anner as it #a% &irect" an& the procee&s of such sale to $e &eposite& in court to a$i&e the 3u&'#ent in the action.0a) SEC.(.)ut if the attach#ent is sou'ht to $e &ischar'e& (ith respect to a particular propert%" the counter<$on& shall $e e>ual to the value of that propert% as &eter#ine& $% the court.2..a) SEC.+ischarge of attachment upon giving counter&bond.amination of party whose property is attached and persons indebted to him or controlling his property.2 After a (rit of attach#ent has $een enforce&" the part% (hose propert% has $een attache&" or the person appearin' on his $ehalf" #a% #ove for the &ischar'e of the attach#ent (holl% or in part on the securit% 'iven.+ischarge of attachment on other grounds.An% person o(in' &e$ts to the part% (hose propert% is attache& or havin' in his possession or un&er his control an% cre&it or other personal propert% $elon'in' to such part%" #a% $e re>uire& to atten& $efore the court in (hich the action is pen&in'" or $efore a co##issioner appointe& $% the court" an& $e e1a#ine& on oath respectin' the sa#e..B..!n either case" the cash &eposit or the counter<$on& shall secure the pa%#ent of an% 3u&'#ent that the attachin' part% #a% recover in the action.(Aa) SEC.*.The court shall" after &ue notice an& hearin'" or&er the &ischar'e of the attach#ent if the #ovant #a/es a cash &eposit" or files a counter<$on& e1ecute& to the attachin' part% (ith the cler/ of the court (here the application is #a&e" in an a#ount e>ual to that fi1e& $% the court in the or&er of attach#ent" e1clusive of costs.Upon the &ischar'e of an attach#ent in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this section" the propert% attache&" or the procee&s of an% sale thereof" shall $e &elivere& to the part% #a/in' the &eposit or 'ivin' the counter<$on&" or to the person appearin' on his $ehalf" the &eposit or counter<$on& aforesai& stan&in' in place of the propert% so release&.Ba) SEC.(.Shoul& such counter<$on& for an% reason $e foun& to $e or $eco#e insufficient" an& the part% furnishin' the sa#e fail to file an a&&itional counter<$on&" the attachin' part% #a% appl% for a ne( or&er of attach#ent.attach#ent to the court (hen an% petition for &istri$ution is file&" an& in the or&er #a&e upon such petition" &istri$ution #a% $e a(ar&e& to such heir" le'atee" or &evisee" $ut the propert% attache& shall $e or&ere& &elivere& to the sheriff #a/in' the lev%" su$3ect to the clai# of such heir" le'atee" or &evisee" or an% person clai#in' un&er hi#.0.

0B) &a%s fro# the &ate of the filin' of the $on&The sheriff shall not $e lia$le for &a#a'es for the ta/in' or /eepin' of such propert%" to an% such thir&<part% clai#ant" if such $on& shall $e file&.After &ue notice an& hearin'" the court shall or&er the settin' asi&e or the correspon&in' &ischar'e of the attach#ent if it appears that it (as i#properl% or irre'ularl% issue& or enforce&" or that the $on& is insufficient" or that the attach#ent is e1cessive" an& the &efect is not cure& forth(ith..!f the #otion $e #a&e on affi&avits on the part of the #ovant $ut not other(ise" the attachin' part% #a% oppose the #otion $% counter<affi&avits or other evi&ence in a&&ition to that on (hich the attach#ent (as #a&e.2 !f the propert% attache& is clai#e& $% an% person other than the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent ha& $een issue& or his a'ent" an& such person #a/es an affi&avit of his title thereto" or ri'ht to the possession thereof" statin' the 'roun&s of such ri'ht or title" an& serves such affi&avit upon the sheriff (hile the latter has possession of the attache& propert%" an& a cop% thereof upon the attachin' part%" the sheriff shall not $e $oun& to /eep the propert% un&er attach#ent" unless the attachin' part% or his a'ent" on &e#an& of the sheriff" shall file a $on& approve& $% the court to in&e#nif% the thir&<part% clai#ant in a su# not less than the value of the propert% levie& upon.(.!n case of &isa'ree#ent as to such value" the sa#e shall $e &eci&e& $% the court issuin' the (rit of attach#ent.pen&in'" $efore or after lev% or even after the release of the attache& propert%" for an or&er to set asi&e or &ischar'e the attach#ent on the 'roun& that the sa#e (as i#properl% or irre'ularl% issue& or enforce&" or that the $on& is insufficient.!f 3u&'#ent $e recovere& $% the attachin' part% an& e1ecution issue thereon" the sheriff #a% cause the 3u&'#ent to $e satisfie& out of the propert% attache&" if it $e sufficient for that purpose in the follo(in' #anner* (a) )% pa%in' to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee the procee&s of all sales of perisha$le or other propert% sol& in pursuance of the or&er of the court" or so #uch as shall $e necessar% to satisf% the 3u&'#ent7 ($) !f an% $alance re#ains &ue" $% sellin' so #uch of the propert%" real or personal" as #a% $e necessar% to satisf% the $alance" if enou'h for that purpose .+othin' herein containe& shall prevent such clai#ant or an% thir& person fro# vin&icatin' his clai# to the propert%" or prevent the attachin' part% fro# clai#in' &a#a'es a'ainst a thir&<part% clai#ant (ho file& a frivolous or plainl% spurious clai#" in the sa#e or a separate action8hen the (rit of attach#ent is issue& in favor of the Repu$lic of the Philippines" or an% officer &ul% representin' it" the filin' of such $on& shall not $e re>uire&" an& in case the sheriff is sue& for &a#a'es as a result of the attach#ent" he shall $e represente& $% the Solicitor Ceneral" an& if hel& lia$le therefor" the actual &a#a'es a&3u&'e& $% the court shall $e pai& $% the +ational Treasurer out of the fun&s to $e appropriate& for the purpose.$roceedings (here property claimed by third person.+o clai# for &a#a'es for the ta/in' or /eepin' of the propert% #a% $e enforce& a'ainst the $on& unless the action therefor is file& (ithin one hun&re& t(ent% (.2a) SEC.Satisfaction of "udgment out of property attached. return of sheriff .4a) SEC.!f the attach#ent is e1cessive" the &ischar'e shall $e li#ite& to the e1cess.(..4.5.

.@.2An application for &a#a'es on account of i#proper" irre'ular or e1cessive attach#ent #ust $e file& $efore the trial or $efore appeal is perfecte& or $efore the 3u&'#ent $eco#es e1ecutor%" (ith &ue notice to the attachin' part% an& his suret% or sureties" settin' forth the facts sho(in' his ri'ht to &a#a'es an& the a#ount thereofSuch &a#a'es #a% $e a(ar&e& onl% after proper hearin' an& shall $e inclu&e& in the 3u&'#ent on the #ain case- .8henever the 3u&'#ent shall have $een pai&" the sheriff" upon reasona$le &e#an&" #ust return to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or the attache& propert% re#ainin' in his han&s" an& an% procee&s of the sale of the propert% attache& not applie& to the 3u&'#ent.2 8hen the 3u&'#ent has $eco#e e1ecutor%" the suret% or sureties on an% counter<$on& 'iven pursuant to the provisions of this Rule to secure the pa%#ent of the 3u&'#ent shall $eco#e char'e& on such counter<$on& an& $oun& to pa% the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee upon &e#an& the a#ount &ue un&er the 3u&'#ent" (hich a#ount #a% $e recovere& fro# such suret% or sureties after notice an& su##ar% hearin' in the sa#e action.cessive attachment.+isposition of attached property where "udgment is for party against whom attachment was issued.ecution.?a) SEC.(.?.6.5a) SEC..(.!f the 3u&'#ent is in favor of the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent (as issue&" the (hole su# &eposite& #ust $e refun&e& to hi# or his assi'nee.(.re#ain in the sheriffGs han&s" or in those of the cler/ of the court7 (c) )% collectin' fro# all persons havin' in their possession cre&its $elon'in' to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or" or o(in' &e$ts to the latter at the ti#e of the attach#ent of such cre&its or &e$ts" the a#ount of such cre&its an& &e$ts as &eter#ine& $% the court in the action" an& state& in the 3u&'#ent" an& pa%in' the procee&s of such collection over to the 3u&'#ent o$li'eeThe sheriff shall forth(ith #a/e a return in (ritin' to the court of his procee&in's un&er this section an& furnish the parties (ith copies thereof.Aa) SEC.cess delivered to "udgment obligor.6a) SEC.A. e.2!f after reali5in' upon all the propert% attache&" inclu&in' the procee&s of an% &e$ts or cre&its collecte&" an& appl%in' the procee&s to the satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent" less the e1penses of procee&in's upon the 3u&'#ent" an% $alance shall re#ain &ue" the sheriff #ust procee& to collect such $alance as upon or&inar% e1ecution.+isposition of money deposited. irregular or e.@a) SEC.(.2!f 3u&'#ent $e ren&ere& a'ainst the attachin' part%" all the procee&s of sales an& #one% collecte& or receive& $% the sheriff" un&er the or&er of attach#ent" an& all propert% attache& re#ainin' in an% such officerGs han&s" shall $e &elivere& to the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent (as issue&" an& the or&er of attach#ent &ischar'e&.1alance due collected upon an e.(.Claim for damages on account of improper.Recovery upon the counter&bond.2 8here the part% a'ainst (ho# attach#ent ha& $een issue& has &eposite& #one% instea& of 'ivin' counter<$on&" it shall $e applie& un&er the &irection of the court to the satisfaction of an% 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in favor of the attachin' part%" an& after satisf%in' the 3u&'#ent the $alance shall $e refun&e& to the &epositor or his assi'nee..0B..

erified application and bond for preliminary in"unction or temporary restraining order.(.(0a) SEC.-rounds for issuance of preliminary in"unction.(2a) SEC..2A preli#inar% in3unction or te#porar% restrainin' or&er #a% $e 'rante& onl% (hen7 .!f the action or procee&in' is pen&in' in the Court of Appeals or in the Supre#e Court" it #a% $e issue& $% sai& court or an% #e#$er thereof.!t #a% also re>uire the perfor#ance of a particular act or acts" in (hich case it shall $e /no(n as a preli#inar% #an&ator% in3unction.(0Ba) RULE 58 PRELIMINARY IN$UNCTION SECT!O+ .$reliminary in"unction defined.0.2. classes.The appellate court #a% allo( the application to $e hear& an& &eci&e& $% the trial court+othin' herein containe& shall prevent the part% a'ainst (ho# the attach#ent (as issue& fro# recoverin' in the sa#e action the &a#a'es a(ar&e& to hi# fro# an% propert% of the attachin' part% not e1e#pt fro# e1ecution shoul& the $on& or &eposit 'iven $% the latter $e insufficient or fail to full% satisf% the a(ar&..a) SEC.2 A preli#inar% in3unction #a% $e 'rante& (hen it is esta$lishe&(a) That the applicant is entitle& to the relief &e#an&e&" an& the (hole or part of such relief consists in restrainin' the co##ission or continuance of the act or acts co#plaine& of" or in re>uirin' the perfor#ance of an act or acts" either for a li#ite& perio& or perpetuall%7 ($) That the co##ission" continuance or non<perfor#ance of the act or acts co#plaine& of &urin' the liti'ation (oul& pro$a$l% (or/ in3ustice to the applicant7 or (c) That a part%" court" a'enc% or a person is &oin'" threatenin'" or is atte#ptin' to &o" or is procurin' or sufferin' to $e &one" so#e act or acts pro$a$l% in violation of the ri'hts of the applicant respectin' the su$3ect of the action or procee&in'" an& ten&in' to ren&er the 3u&'#ent ineffectual.#ho may grant preliminary in"unction.2 A preli#inar% in3unction #a% $e 'rante& $% the court (here the action or procee&in' is pen&in'.2 A preli#inar% in3unction is an or&er 'rante& at an% sta'e of an action or procee&in' prior to the 3u&'#ent or final or&er" re>uirin' a part% or a court" a'enc% or a person to refrain fro# a particular act or acts.!f the 3u&'#ent of the appellate court $e favora$le to the part% a'ainst (ho# the attach#ent (as issue&" he #ust clai# &a#a'es sustaine& &urin' the pen&enc% of the appeal $% filin' an application in the appellate court" (ith notice to the part% in (hose favor the attach#ent (as issue& or his suret% or sureties" $efore the 3u&'#ent of the appellate court $eco#es e1ecutor%.4.

e.!n an% event" such notice shall $e prece&e&" or conte#poraneousl% acco#panie& $% service of su##ons" to'ether (ith a cop% of the co#plaint or initiator% plea&in' an& the applicantGs affi&avit an& $on&" upon the a&verse part% in the Philippines=o(ever" (here the su##ons coul& not $e serve& personall% or $% su$stitute& service &espite &ili'ent efforts" or the a&verse part% is a resi&ent of the Philippines te#poraril% a$sent therefro# or is a nonresi&ent thereof" the re>uire#ent of prior or conte#poraneous service of su##ons shall not appl%(&) The application for a te#porar% restrainin' or&er shall thereafter $e acte& upon onl% after all parties are hear& in a su##ar% hearin' (hich shall $e con&ucte& (ithin t(ent%<four (04) hours after the sheriffGs return of service an&Jor the recor&s are receive& $% the $ranch selecte& $% raffle an& to (hich the recor&s shall $e trans#itte& i##e&iatel%SEC. parte a te#porar% restrainin' or&er to $e effective onl% for a perio& of t(ent% (0B) &a%s fro# service on the part% or person sou'ht to $e en3oine&" e1cept as herein provi&e&.ception.(a) The application in the action or procee&in' is verifie&" an& sho(s facts entitlin' the applicant to the relief &e#an&e&7 an& ($) Unless e1e#pte& $% the court" the applicant files (ith the court (here the action or procee&in' is pen&in'" a $on& e1ecute& to the part% or person en3oine&" in an a#ount to $e fi1e& $% the court" to the effect that the applicant (ill pa% to such part% or person all &a#a'es (hich he #a% sustain $% reason of the in3unction or te#porar% restrainin' or&er if the court shoul& finall% &eci&e that the applicant (as not entitle& thereto.Upon approval of the re>uisite $on&" a (rit of preli#inar% in3unction shall $e issue&.2 +o preli#inar% in3unction shall $e 'rante& (ithout hearin' an& prior notice to the part% or person sou'ht to $e en3oine&.$reliminary in"unction not granted without notice.8ithin the sai& t(ent%<&a% perio&" the court #ust or&er sai& part% or person to sho( cause" at a specifie& ti#e an& place" (h% the in3unction shoul& not $e 'rante&" &eter#ine (ithin the sa#e perio& (hether or not the preli#inar% in3unction shall $e 'rante&" an& accor&in'l% issue the correspon&in' or&er=o(ever" an& su$3ect to the provisions of the prece&in' sections" if the #atter is of e1tre#e ur'enc% an& the applicant (ill suffer 'rave in3ustice an& irrepara$le in3ur%" the e1ecutive 3u&'e of a #ultiple<sala court or the presi&in' 3u&'e of a sin'le<sala court #a% issue e1 parte a te#porar% restrainin' or&er effective for onl% sevent%<t(o (?0) hours fro# issuance $ut he shall i##e&iatel% co#pl% (ith the provisions of the ne1t prece&in' section as to service of su##ons an& the &ocu#ents to $e serve& there(ithThereafter" (ithin the aforesai& sevent%<t(o (?0) hours" the 3u&'e $efore (ho# the .(4a) (c) 8hen an application for a (rit of preli#inar% in3unction or a te#porar% restrainin' or&er is inclu&e& in a co#plaint or an% initiator% plea&in'" the case" if file& in a #ultiple<sala court" shall $e raffle& onl% after notice to an& in the presence of the a&verse part% or the person to $e en3oine&.!f it shall appear fro# facts sho(n $% affi&avits or $% the verifie& application that 'reat or irrepara$le in3ur% (oul& result to the applicant $efore the #atter can $e hear& on notice" the court to (hich the application for preli#inar% in3unction (as #a&e" #a% issue e.5.

(6a) SEC.(Aa) SEC.6.Service of copies of bonds. effect of disapproval of same.udgment to include damages against party and sureties.A restrainin' or&er issue& $% the Supre#e Court or a #e#$er thereof shall $e effective until further or&ers.A.2 At the trial" the a#ount of &a#a'es to $e a(ar&e& to either part%" upon the $on& of the a&verse part%" shall $e clai#e&" ascertaine&" an& a(ar&e& un&er the sa#e proce&ure prescri$e& in section 0B of Rule 5?.(@a) SEC.The in3unction or restrainin' or&er #a% also $e &enie&" or" if 'rante&" #a% $e &issolve&" on other 'roun&s upon affi&avits of the part% or person en3oine&" (hich #a% $e oppose& $% the applicant also $% affi&avits.case is pen&in' shall con&uct a su##ar% hearin' to &eter#ine (hether the te#porar% restrainin' or&er shall $e e1ten&e& until the application for preli#inar% in3unction can $e hear&.2 !f after the trial of the action it appears that the applicant is entitle& to have the act or acts co#plaine& of per#anentl% en3oine&" the court shall 'rant a final in3unction perpetuall% restrainin' the part% or person en3oine& . or for motion of dissolution of.@.#hen final in"unction granted.!f it appears that the e1tent of the preli#inar% in3unction or restrainin' or&er 'rante& is too 'reat" it #a% $e #o&ifie&.!t #a% further $e &enie&" or" if 'rante&" #a% $e &issolve&" if it appears after hearin' that althou'h the applicant is entitle& to the in3unction or restrainin' or&er" the issuance or continuance thereof" as the case #a% $e" (oul& cause irrepara$le &a#a'e to the part% or person en3oine& (hile the applicant can $e full% co#pensate& for such &a#a'es as he #a% suffer" an& the for#er files a $on& in an a#ount fi1e& $% the court con&itione& that he (ill pa% all &a#a'es (hich the applicant #a% suffer $% the &enial or the &issolution of the in3unction or restrainin' or&er.!n no case shall the total perio& of effectivit% of the te#porar% restrainin' or&er e1cee& t(ent% (0B) &a%s" inclu&in' the ori'inal sevent%<t(o hours provi&e& herein!n the event that the application for preli#inar% in3unction is &enie& or not resolve& (ithin the sai& perio&" the te#porar% restrainin' or&er is &ee#e& auto#aticall% vacate&The effectivit% of a te#porar% restrainin' or&er is not e1ten&i$le (ithout nee& of an% 3u&icial &eclaration to that effect an& no court shall have authorit% to e1ten& or rene( the sa#e on the sa#e 'roun& for (hich it (as issue&=o(ever" if issue& $% the Court of Appeals or a #e#$er thereof" the te#porar% restrainin' or&er shall $e effective for si1t% (6B) &a%s fro# service on the part% or person sou'ht to $e en3oine&.(5a) SEC.?.The application for in3unction or restrainin' or&er #a% $e &enie&" upon a sho(in' of its insufficienc%. in"unction or restraining or&er.-rounds for ob"ection to.2 The part% filin' a $on& in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this Rule shall forth(ith serve a cop% of such $on& on the other part%" (ho #a% e1cept to the sufficienc% of the $on&" or of the suret% or sureties thereon.!f the applicantGs $on& is foun& to $e insufficient in a#ount" or if the suret% or sureties thereon fail to 3ustif%" an& a $on& sufficient in a#ount (ith sufficient sureties approve& after 3ustification is not file& forth(ith" the in3unction shall $e &issolve&.!f the $on& of the a&verse part% is foun& to $e insufficient in a#ount" or the suret% or sureties thereon fail to 3ustif% a $on& sufficient in a#ount (ith sufficient sureties approve& after 3ustification is not file& forth(ith" the in3unction shall $e 'rante& or restore&" as the case #a% $e.

(ppointment of receiver-.fro# the co##ission or continuance of the act or acts or confir#in' the preli#inar% #an&ator% in3unction.1ond on appointment of receiver-.a) SEC.Ba) RULE 59 RECEIVERS IP SECT!O+ .2 The application #a% $e .2.+enial of application or discharge of receiver..Upon a verifie& application" one or #ore receivers of the propert% su$3ect of the action or procee&in' #a% $e appointe& $% the court (here the action is pen&in'" or $% the Court of Appeals or $% the Supre#e Court" or a #e#$er thereof" in the follo(in' cases* (a) 8hen it appears fro# the verifie& application" an& such other proof as the court #a% re>uire" that the part% appl%in' for the appoint#ent of a receiver has an interest in the propert% or fun& (hich is the su$3ect of the action or procee&in'" an& that such propert% or fun& is in &an'er of $ein' lost" re#ove&" or #ateriall% in3ure& unless a receiver $e appointe& to a&#inister an& preserve it7 ($) 8hen it appears in an action $% the #ort'a'ee for the foreclosure of a #ort'a'e that the propert% is in &an'er of $ein' (aste& or &issipate& or #ateriall% in3ure&" an& that its value is pro$a$l% insufficient to &ischar'e the #ort'a'e &e$t" or that the parties have so stipulate& in the contract of #ort'a'e7 (c) After 3u&'#ent" to preserve the propert% &urin' the pen&enc% of an appeal" or to &ispose of it accor&in' to the 3u&'#ent" or to ai& e1ecution (hen the e1ecution has $een returne& unsatisfie& or the 3u&'#ent o$li'or refuses to appl% his propert% in satisfaction of the 3u&'#ent" or other(ise to carr% the 3u&'#ent into effect7 (&) 8henever in other cases it appears that the appoint#ent of a receiver is the #ost convenient an& feasi$le #eans of preservin'" a&#inisterin'" or &isposin' of the propert% in liti'ationFurin' the pen&enc% of an appeal" the appellate court #a% allo( an application for the appoint#ent of a receiver to $e file& in an& &eci&e& $% the court of ori'in an& the receiver appointe& to $e su$3ect to the control of sai& court.0.)efore issuin' the or&er appointin' a receiver the court shall re>uire the applicant to file a $on& e1ecute& to the part% a'ainst (ho# the application is presente&" in an a#ount to $e fi1e& $% the court" to the effect that the applicant (ill pa% such part% all &a#a'es he #a% sustain $% reason of the appoint#ent of such receiver in case the applicant shall have procure& such appoint#ent (ithout sufficient cause7 an& the court #a%" in its &iscretion" at an% ti#e after the appoint#ent" re>uire an a&&itional $on& as further securit% for such &a#a'es(2a) SEC.(.(.

!f the $on& of the a&verse part% is foun& to $e insufficient in a#ount or the suret% or sureties thereon fail to 3ustif%" an& a $on& sufficient in a#ount (ith sufficient sureties approve& after 3ustification is not file& forth(ith" the receiver shall $e appointe& or re< appointe&" as the case #a% $e.2 A person (ho refuses or ne'lects" upon reasona$le &e#an&" to &eliver to the receiver all the propert%" #one%" $oo/s" &ee&s" notes" $ills" &ocu#ents an& papers (ithin his po(er or control su$3ect of or involve& in the action or procee&in'" or in case of &isa'ree#ent" as &eter#ine& an& or&ere& $% the court" #a% $e punishe& for conte#pt an& shall $e lia$le to the receiver for the #one% or the value of the propert% an& other thin's so refuse& or ne'lecte& to $e surren&ere&" to'ether (ith all &a#a'es that #a% have $een sustaine& $% the part% or parties entitle& thereto as a conse>uence of such refusal or ne'lect. compensation of receiver. Oath and bond of receiver-.(6a) SEC.5.The receiver #a% also $e &ischar'e& if it is sho(n that his appoint#ent (as o$taine& (ithout sufficient cause(4a) SEC.Service of copies of bonds.(n) SEC.=o(ever.7iability for refusal or neglect to deliver property to receiver.The person filin' a $on& in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this Rule shall forth(ith serve a cop% thereof on each intereste& part%" (ho #a% e1cept to its sufficienc% or of the suret% or sureties thereon.(n) SEC.)efore enterin' upon his &uties" the receiver shall $e s(orn to perfor# the# faithfull%" an& shall file a $on&" e1ecute& to such person an& in such su# as the court #a% &irect" to the effect that he (ill faithfull% &ischar'e his &uties in the action or procee&in' an& o$e% the or&ers of the court.?.2 8henever the court" motu proprio or on #otion of either part%" shall &eter#ine that the necessit% for a ..Termination of receivership.6.-eneral powers of receiver.&enie&" or the receiver &ischar'e&" (hen the a&verse part% files a $on& e1ecute& to the applicant" in an a#ount to $e fi1e& $% the court" to the effect that such part% (ill pa% the applicant all &a#a'es he #a% suffer $% reason of the acts" o#issions" or other #atters specifie& in the application as 'roun& for such appoint#ent.fun&s in the han&s of a receiver #a% $e investe& onl% $% or&er of the court upon the (ritten consent of all the parties to the action.@..2 Su$3ect to the control of the court in (hich the action or procee&in' is pen&in'" a receiver shall have the po(er to $rin' an& &efen&" in such capacit%" actions in his o(n na#e7 to ta/e an& /eep possession of the propert% in controvers%7 to receive rents7 to collect &e$ts &ue to hi#self as receiver or to the fun&" propert%" estate" person" or corporation of (hich he is the receiver7 to co#poun& for an& co#pro#ise the sa#e7 to #a/e transfers7 to pa% outstan&in' &e$ts7 to &ivi&e the #one% an& other propert% that shall re#ain a#on' the persons le'all% entitle& to receive the sa#e7 an& 'enerall% to &o such acts respectin' the propert% as the court #a% authori5e. effect of disapproval of same-.!f either the applicantGs or the receiverGs $on& is foun& to $e insufficient in a#ount" or if the suret% or sureties thereon fail to 3ustif%" an& a $on& sufficient in a#ount (ith sufficient sureties approve& after 3ustification is not file& forth(ith" the application shall $e &enie& or the receiver &ischar'e&" as the case #a% $e.(?a) +o action #a% $e file& $% or a'ainst a receiver (ithout leave of the court (hich appointe& hi#.(5a) SEC.

(ffidavit and bond2The applicant #ust sho( $% his o(n affi&avit or that of so#e other person (ho personall% /no(s the facts* (a) That the applicant is the o(ner of the propert% clai#e&" particularl% &escri$in' it" or is entitle& to the possession thereof7 ($) That the propert% is (ron'full% &etaine& $% the a&verse part%" alle'in' the cause of &etention thereof accor&in' to the $est of his /no(le&'e" infor#ation" an& $elief7 (c)That the propert% has not $een &istraine& or ta/en for a ta1 assess#ent or a fine pursuant to la(" or sei5e& un&er a (rit of e1ecution or preli#inar% attach#ent" or other(ise place& un&er custo&ia le'is" or if so sei5e&" that it is e1e#pt fro# such sei5ure or custo&%7 an& (&) The actual #ar/et value of the propert%The applicant #ust also 'ive a $on&" e1ecute& to the a&verse part% in &ou$le the value of the propert% as state& in the affi&avit afore#entione&" for the return of the propert% to the a&verse part% if such return $e a&3u&'e&" an& for the pa%#ent to the a&verse part% of such su# as he #a% recover fro# the applicant in the action.A.(0a) SEC.Upon the filin' of such affi&avit an& approval of the $on&" the court shall issue an or&er an& the correspon&in' (rit of replevin &escri$in' the personal propert% alle'e& to $e (ron'full% &etaine& an& re>uirin' the sheriff forth(ith to ta/e such propert% into his custo&%..udgment to include recovery against sureties.(pplication.Or&er-.2.a) SEC.(@a) SEC.2A part% pra%in' for the recover% of possession of personal propert% #a%" at the co##ence#ent of the action or at an% ti#e $efore ans(er" appl% for an or&er for the &eliver% of such propert% to hi#" in the #anner hereinafter provi&e&.The court shall allo( the receiver such reasona$le co#pensation as the circu#stances of the case (arrant" to $e ta1e& as costs a'ainst the &efeate& part%" or apportione&" as 3ustice re>uires.0.(Aa) RULE 60 REPLEVIN SECT!O+ .receiver no lon'er e1ists" it shall" after &ue notice to all intereste& parties an& hearin'" settle the accounts of the receiver" &irect the &eliver% of the fun&s an& other propert% in his possession to the person a&3u&'e& to $e entitle& to receive the#" an& or&er the &ischar'e of the receiver fro# further &ut% as such.(.(2a) .2 The a#ount" if an%" to $e a(ar&e& to an% part% upon an% $on& file& in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this Rule" shall $e clai#e&" ascertaine&" an& 'rante& un&er the sa#e proce&ure prescri$e& in section 0B of Rule 5?.

(4a) SEC.(6a) SEC.$roceedings where property claimed by third person.2Upon receivin' such or&er" the sheriff #ust serve a cop% thereof on the a&verse part%" to'ether (ith a cop% of the application" affi&avit an& $on&" an& #ust forth(ith ta/e the propert%" if it $e in the possession of the a&verse part%" or his a'ent" an& retain it in his custo&%.2 !f the propert% ta/en is clai#e& $% an% person other than the part% a'ainst (ho# the (rit of replevin ha& $een issue& or his a'ent" an& such person #a/es an affi&avit of his title thereto" or ri'ht to the possession thereof" statin' the 'roun&s therefor" an& serves such affi&avit upon the sheriff (hile the latter has possession of the propert% an& a cop% thereof upon the applicant" the sheriff shall not $e $oun& to /eep the propert% un&er replevin or &eliver it to the applicant unless the applicant or his a'ent" on &e#an& of sai& sheriff" shall file a $on& approve& $% the court to in&e#nif% the thir&<part% clai#ant in a su# not less than the value of the propert% un&er replevin as provi&e& in section 0 hereof.!f for an% reason the propert% is not &elivere& to the applicant" the sheriff #ust return it to the a&verse part%..2!f the a&verse part% o$3ects to the sufficienc% of the applicantGs $on&" or of the suret% or sureties thereon" he cannot i##e&iatel% re>uire the return of the propert%" $ut if he &oes not so o$3ect" he #a%" at an% ti#e $efore the &eliver% of the propert% to the applicant" re>uire the return thereof" $% filin' (ith the court (here the action is pen&in' a $on& e1ecute& to the applicant" in &ou$le the value of the propert% as state& in the applicantGs affi&avit for the &eliver% thereof to the applicant" if such &eliver% $e a&3u&'e&" an& for the pa%#ent of such su# to hi# as #a% $e recovere& a'ainst the a&verse part%" an& $% servin' a cop% of such $on& on the applicant.0B) &a%s fro# the &ate of the filin' of the $on&The sheriff shall not $e lia$le for &a#a'es" for the ta/in' or /eepin' of such propert%" to an% such thir&<part% clai#ant if such $on& shall $e file&.5.& !f (ithin five (5) &a%s after the ta/in' of the propert% $% the sheriff" the a&verse part% &oes not o$3ect to the sufficienc% of the $on&" or of the suret% or sureties thereon7 or if the a&verse part% so o$3ects an& the court affir#s its approval of the applicantGs $on& or approves a ne( $on&" or if the a&verse part% re>uires the return of the propert% $ut his $on& is o$3ecte& to an& foun& insufficient an& he &oes not forth(ith file an approve& $on&" the propert% shall $e &elivere& to the applicant.+othin' herein containe& shall prevent such clai#ant or an% thir& person fro# vin&icatin' his clai# to the propert%" or prevent the applicant fro# clai#in' &a#a'es a'ainst a thir&<part% . +uty of the sheriff.?.!f the propert% or an% part thereof $e conceale& in a $uil&in' or enclosure" the sheriff #ust &e#an& its &eliver%" an& if it $e not &elivere&" he #ust cause the $uil&in' or enclosure to $e $ro/en open an& ta/e the propert% into his possession.+isposition of property by sheriff.(5a) SEC.!n case of &isa'ree#ent as to such value" the court shall &eter#ine the sa#e.SEC.6.After the sheriff has ta/en possession of the propert% as herein provi&e&" he #ust /eep it in a secure place an& shall $e responsi$le for its &eliver% to the part% entitle& thereto upon receivin' his fees an& necessar% e1penses for ta/in' an& /eepin' the sa#e..Return of property.+o clai# for &a#a'es for the ta/in' or /eepin' of the propert% #a% $e enforce& a'ainst the $on& unless the action therefor is file& (ithin one hun&re& t(ent% (.

(0a" 2a) SEC.Comment.2After the co##ent is file&" or after the e1piration of the perio& for its filin'" the application shall $e set for hearin' not #ore than three (2) &a%s thereafterThe facts in issue shall $e prove& in the sa#e #anner as is provi&e& for evi&ence on #otions.B.After trial of the issues" the court shall &eter#ine (ho has the ri'ht of possession to an& the value of the propert% an& shall ren&er 3u&'#ent in the alternative for the &eliver% thereof to the part% entitle& to the sa#e" or for its value in case &eliver% cannot $e #a&e" an& also for such &a#a'es as either part% #a% prove" (ith costs.Return of papers.2A cop% of the application an& all supportin' &ocu#ents shall $e serve& upon the a&verse part%" (ho shall have five (5) &a%s to co##ent thereon unless a &ifferent perio& is fi1e& $% the court upon his #otion.(@a) SEC.2The sheriff #ust file the or&er" (ith his procee&in's in&orse& thereon" (ith the court (ithin ten (.a) SEC.(.(Aa) SEC..Order.4.(.udgment to include recovery against sureties.2.@.(pplication..udgment-.2 The a#ount" if an%" to $e a(ar&e& to an% part% upon an% $on& file& in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this Rule" shall $e clai#e&" ascertaine&" an& 'rante& un&er the sa#e proce&ure as prescri$e& in section 0B of Rule 5?.The co##ent shall $e verifie& an& shall $e acco#panie& $% affi&avits" &epositions or other authentic &ocu#ents in support thereof.2At the co##ence#ent of the proper action or procee&in'" or at an% ti#e prior to the 3u&'#ent or final or&er" a verifie& application for support pendente lite #a% $e file& $% an% part% statin' the 'roun&s for the clai# an& the financial con&itions of $oth parties" an& acco#panie& $% affi&avits" &epositions or other authentic &ocu#ents in support thereof.B) &a%s after ta/in' the propert% #entione& therein.clai#ant (ho file& a frivolous or plainl% spurious clai#" in the sa#e or a separate action8hen the (rit of replevin is issue& in favor of the Repu$lic of the Philippines" or an% officer &ul% representin' it" the filin' of such $on& shall not $e re>uire&" an& in case the sheriff is sue& for &a#a'es as a result of the replevin" he shall $e represente& $% the Solicitor Ceneral" an& if hel& lia$le therefor" the actual &a#a'es a&3u&'e& $% the court shall $e pai& $% the +ational Treasurer out of the fun&s to $e appropriate& for the purpose.(?a) SEC.2The court shall &eter#ine provisionall% the pertinent facts" an& shall ren&er such or&ers as 3ustice an& e>uit% #a% re>uire" havin' &ue re'ar& to the .A.(4a) SEC.Ba) RULE 61 SUPPORT PENDENTE LITE SECT!O+ .0.3earing.

a" R62) .(n) SEC.(n) SPECIAL CIVIL ACTIONS RULE 62 INTERPLEADER SECT!O+ .*nforcement of order.Restitution-.pro$a$le outco#e of the case an& such other circu#stances as #a% ai& in the proper resolution of the >uestion involve&..?.6.The application therefor #a% $e file& successivel% $% the offen&e& part%" her parents" 'ran&parents or 'uar&ian an& the State in the correspon&in' cri#inal case &urin' its pen&enc%" in accor&ance (ith the proce&ure esta$lishe& un&er this Rule.2!f the a&verse part% fails to co#pl% (ith an or&er 'rantin' support pendente lite.8hen the 3u&'#ent or final or&er of the court fin&s that the person (ho has $een provi&in' support pendente lite is not lia$le therefor" it shall or&er the recipient thereof to return to the for#er the a#ounts alrea&% pai& (ith le'al interest fro# the &ates of actual pa%#ent" (ithout pre3u&ice to the ri'ht of the recipient to o$tain rei#$urse#ent in a separate action fro# the person le'all% o$li'e& to 'ive the supportShoul& the recipient fail to rei#$urse sai& a#ounts" the person (ho provi&e& the sa#e #a% li/e(ise see/ rei#$urse#ent thereof in a separate action fro# the person le'all% o$li'e& to 'ive such support.28henever conflictin' clai#s upon the sa#e su$3ect #atter are or #a% $e #a&e a'ainst a person (ho clai#s no interest (hatever in the su$3ect #atter" or an interest (hich in (hole or in part is not &ispute& $% the clai#ants" he #a% $rin' an action a'ainst the conflictin' clai#ants to co#pel the# to interplea& an& liti'ate their several clai#s a#on' the#selves.#hen interpleader proper.!f the application is &enie&" the principal case shall $e trie& an& &eci&e& as earl% as possi$le.(5a) SEC. the court shall" motu proprio or upon #otion" issue an or&er of e1ecution a'ainst hi#" (ithout pre3u&ice to his lia$ilit% for conte#pt.(6a) 8hen the person or&ere& to 'ive support pendente lite refuses or fails to &o so" an% thir& person (ho furnishe& that support to the applicant #a%" after &ue notice an& hearin' in the sa#e case" o$tain a (rit of e1ecution to enforce his ri'ht of rei#$urse#ent a'ainst the person or&ere& to provi&e such support.(n) SEC.Support in criminal cases-.5.(.!n cri#inal actions (here the civil lia$ilit% inclu&es support for the offsprin' as a conse>uence of the cri#e an& the civil aspect thereof has not $een (aive&" reserve& or institute& prior to its filin'" the accuse& #a% $e or&ere& to provi&e support pendente lite to the chil& $orn to the offen&e& part% alle'e&l% $ecause of the cri#e.!f the application is 'rante&" the court shall fi1 the a#ount of #one% to $e provisionall% pai& or such other for#s of support as shoul& $e provi&e&" ta/in' into account the necessities of the applicant an& the resources or #eans of the a&verse part%" an& the ter#s of pa%#ent or #o&e for provi&in' the support.

+etermination.SEC.28ithin the ti#e for filin' an ans(er" each clai#ant #a% file a #otion to &is#iss on the 'roun& of i#propriet% of the interplea&er action or on other appropriate 'roun&s specifie& in Rule .6.+oc)et and other lawful fees..(nswer and other pleadings.Su##ons shall $e serve& upon the conflictin' clai#ants" to'ether (ith a cop% of the co#plaint an& or&er.(2" R62) SEC.?.!f an% clai#ant fails to plea& (ithin the ti#e herein fi1e&" the court #a%" on #otion" &eclare hi# in &efault an& thereafter ren&er 3u&'#ent $arrin' hi# fro# an% clai# in respect to the su$3ect #atterThe parties in an interplea&er action #a% file counterclai#s" cross<clai#s" thir&< part% co#plaints an& responsive plea&in's thereto" as provi&e& $% these Rules.5) &a%s fro# service of the su##ons upon hi#" servin' a cop% thereof upon each of the other conflictin' clai#ants (ho #a% file their repl% thereto as provi&e& $% these Rules.Summons.penses as liens. costs and litigation e.2An% person intereste& un&er a &ee&" (ill" contract or other (ritten instru#ent" (hose ri'hts are affecte& $% a statute" e1ecutive or&er or re'ulation" or&inance" or an% other 'overn#ental re'ulation #a%" $efore $reach or violation thereof" $rin' an action in the appropriate Re'ional Trial Court to &eter#ine an% >uestion of construction or vali&it% arisin'" an& for a &eclaration of his ri'hts or &uties" thereun&er- ..Order.. !otion to dismiss.2Each clai#ant shall file his ans(er settin' forth his clai# (ithin fifteen (.6.(6a" R62) RULE 63 DECLARATORY RELIEF AND SIMILAR REMEDIES SECT!O+ ..The perio& to file the ans(er shall $e tolle& an& if the #otion is &enie&" the #ovant #a% file his ans(er (ithin the re#ainin' perio&" $ut (hich shall not $e less than five (5) &a%s in an% event" rec/one& fro# notice of &enial.5.0.2After the plea&in's of the conflictin' clai#ants have $een file&" an& pre<trial has $een con&ucte& in accor&ance (ith the Rules" the court shall procee& to &eter#ine their respective ri'hts an& a&3u&icate their several clai#s-(5a" R62) SEC.(4a" R62) SEC.(0a" R62) SEC.!f the interests of 3ustice so re>uire" the court #a% &irect in such or&er that the su$3ect #atter $e pai& or &elivere& to the court.2Upon the filin' of the co#plaint" the court shall issue an or&er re>uirin' the conflictin' clai#ants to interplea& (ith one another.#ho may file petition.2 The &oc/et an& other la(ful fees pai& $% the part% (ho file& a co#plaint un&er this Rule" as (ell as the costs an& liti'ation e1penses" shall constitute a lien or char'e upon the su$3ect #atter of the action" unless the court shall or&er other(ise.2.(n) SEC.

2!n an% action (hich involves the vali&it% of a statute" e1ecutive or&er or re'ulation" or an% other 'overn#ental re'ulation" the Solicitor Ceneral shall $e notifie& $% the part% assailin' the sa#e an& shall $e entitle& to $e hear& upon such >uestion.E1cept in actions fallin' un&er the secon& para'raph of section .2A 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution of the Co##ission on Elections an& the Co##ission on Au&it #a% $e $rou'ht $% the a''rieve& part% to the Supre#e Court on certiorari un&er Rule 65" e1cept as hereinafter provi&e&.2.0.5.Court action discretionary -.(4a" R64) SEC.(n) SEC.An action for the refor#ation of an instru#ent" to >uiet title to real propert% or re#ove clou&s therefro#" or to consoli&ate o(nership un&er Article .6.All persons (ho have or clai# an% interest (hich (oul& $e affecte& $% the &eclaration shall $e #a&e parties7 an& no &eclaration shall" e1cept as other(ise provi&e& in these Rules" pre3u&ice the ri'hts of persons not parties to the action..2.4.(0a" R64) SEC.Time to file petition.(n) SEC.2!f $efore the final ter#ination of the case" a $reach or violation of an instru#ent or a statute" e1ecutive or&er or re'ulation" or&inance" or an% other 'overn#ental re'ulation shoul& ta/e place" the action #a% thereupon $e converte& into an or&inar% action" an& the parties shall $e allo(e& to file such plea&in's as #a% $e necessar% or proper.0.%otice on Solicitor -eneral.2This Rule shall 'overn the revie( of 3u&'#ents an& final or&ers or resolutions of the Co##ission on Elections an& the Co##ission on Au&it.The filin' of a .(.a" R64) SEC.6B? of the Civil Co&e" #a% $e $rou'ht un&er this Rule.!ode of review.Conversion into ordinary action.Scope.(5a" R64) SEC.(6a" R64) RULE 64 REVIEW OF $UDGMENTS AND FINAL ORDERS OR RESOLUTIONS OF T E COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS AND T E COMMISSION ON AUDIT SECT!O+ .7ocal government ordinances2!n an% action involvin' the vali&it% of a local 'overn#ent or&inance" the correspon&in' prosecutor or attorne% of the local 'overn#ental unit involve& shall $e si#ilarl% notifie& an& entitle& to $e hear&.$arties-.2The petition shall $e file& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# notice of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution sou'ht to $e revie(e&. of this Rule" the court" motu proprio or upon #otion" #a% refuse to e1ercise the po(er to &eclare ri'hts an& to construe instru#ents in an% case (here a &ecision (oul& not ter#inate the uncertaint% or controvers% (hich 'ave rise to the action" or in an% case (here the &eclaration or construction is not necessar% an& proper un&er the circu#stances.!f such or&inance is alle'e& to $e unconstitutional" the Solicitor Ceneral shall also $e notifie& an& entitle& to $e hear&.(2a" R64) SEC.

Upon the filin' of the petition" the petitioner shall pa% to the cler/ of court the &oc/et an& other la(ful fees an& &eposit the a#ount of P5BB-BB for costs.(n) SEC.4.@) le'i$le copies.(n) SEC.+oc)et and other lawful fees-.Order to comment.The Court #a% also &is#iss the petition if it (as file& #anifestl% for &ela%" or the >uestions raise& are too unsu$stantial to (arrant further procee&in's.#otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration of sai& 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution" if allo(e& un&er the proce&ural rules of the Co##ission concerne&" shall interrupt the perio& herein fi1e&.The co##ents of the respon&ents shall $e file& in ei'hteen (.!f the #otion is &enie&" the a''rieve& part% #a% file the petition (ithin the re#ainin' perio&" $ut (hich shall not $e less than five (5) &a%s in an% event" rec/one& fro# notice of &enial.The re>uisite nu#$er of copies of the petition shall contain plain copies of all &ocu#ents attache& to the ori'inal cop% of sai& petitionThe petition shall state the specific #aterial &ates sho(in' that it (as file& (ithin the perio& fi1e& herein" an& shall contain a s(orn certification a'ainst foru# shoppin' as provi&e& in the thir& para'raph of section 2" Rule 46The petition shall further $e acco#panie& $% proof of service of a cop% thereof on the Co##ission concerne& an& on the a&verse part%" an& of the ti#el% pa%#ent of &oc/et an& other la(ful feesThe failure of petitioner to co#pl% (ith an% of the fore'oin' re>uire#ents shall $e sufficient 'roun& for the &is#issal of the petition.The petition shall na#e the a''rieve& part% as petitioner an& shall 3oin as respon&ents the Co##ission concerne& an& the person or persons intereste& in sustainin' the 3u&'#ent" final or&er or resolution a 6uo.4orm and contents of petition.B) &a%s fro# notice thereof" other(ise" the Court #a% &is#iss the petition outri'ht.(n) SEC.(n) SEC.5.2!f the Supre#e Court fin&s the petition sufficient in for# an& su$stance" it shall or&er the respon&ents to file their co##ents on the petition (ithin ten (.?.Comments of respondents-.The re>uisite nu#$er of copies of the co##ents shall contain plain copies of all &ocu#ents attache& to the ori'inal an& a cop% thereof shall $e serve& on the petitioner+o other plea&in' #a% $e file& $% an% part% unless re>uire& or allo(e& $% the .6.2 The petition shall $e verifie& an& file& in ei'hteen (.@) le'i$le copies.The ori'inal shall $e acco#panie& $% certifie& true copies of such #aterial portions of the recor& as are referre& to therein to'ether (ith other supportin' papers.Fin&in's of fact of the Co##ission supporte& $% su$stantial evi&ence shall $e final an& non<revie(a$leThe petition shall $e acco#panie& $% a clearl% le'i$le &uplicate ori'inal or certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent" final or&er or resolution su$3ect thereof" to'ether (ith certifie& true copies of such #aterial portions of the recor& as are referre& to therein an& other &ocu#ents relevant an& pertinent thereto. The petition shall state the facts (ith certaint%" present clearl% the issues involve&" set forth the 'roun&s an& $rief ar'u#ents relie& upon for revie(" an& pra% for 3u&'#ent annullin' or #o&if%in' the >uestione& 3u&'#ent" final or&er or resolution.

a) SEC.(n) SEC.(0a) SEC.(. Submission for decision.A.8hen an% tri$unal" $oar& or officer e1ercisin' 3u&icial or >uasi<3u&icial functions has acte& (ithout or in e1cess of its or his 3uris&iction" or (ith 'rave a$use of &iscretion a#ountin' to lac/ or e1cess of 3uris&iction" an& there is no appeal" or an% plain" spee&%" an& a&e>uate re#e&% in the or&inar% course of la(" a person a''rieve& there$% #a% file a verifie& petition in the proper court" alle'in' the facts (ith certaint% an& pra%in' that 3u&'#ent $e ren&ere& annullin' or #o&if%in' the procee&in's of such tri$unal" $oar& or officer" an& 'rantin' such inci&ental reliefs as la( an& 3ustice #a% re>uireThe petition shall $e acco#panie& $% a certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent" or&er or resolution su$3ect thereof" copies of all plea&in's an& &ocu#ents relevant an& pertinent thereto" an& a s(orn certification of non<foru# shoppin' as provi&e& in the thir& para'raph of section 2" Rule 46..28hen the procee&in's of an% tri$unal" corporation" $oar&" officer or person" (hether e1ercisin' 3u&icial" >uasi<3u&icial or #inisterial functions" are (ithout or in e1cess of its or his 3uris&iction" or (ith 'rave a$use of &iscretion a#ountin' to lac/ or e1cess of 3uris&iction" an& there is no appeal or an% other plain" spee&%" an& a&e>uate re#e&% in the or&inar% course of la(" a person a''rieve& there$% #a% file a verifie& petition in the proper court" alle'in' the facts (ith certaint% an& pra%in' that 3u&'#ent $e ren&ere& co##an&in' the respon&ent to &esist fro# further procee&in's in the action or #atter specifie& therein" or other(ise 'rantin' such inci&ental reliefs as la( an& 3ustice #a% re>uireThe petition shall li/e(ise $e acco#panie& $% a certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent" or&er or resolution su$3ect thereof" copies of all plea&in's an& &ocu#ents relevant an& pertinent thereto" an& a s(orn certification of non<foru# shoppin' as provi&e& in the thir& para'raph of section 2" Rule 46.2.0.2 8hen an% tri$unal" corporation" $oar&" officer or .$etition for certiorari-.2The filin' of a petition for certiorari shall not sta% the e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er or resolution sou'ht to $e revie(e&" unless the Supre#e Court shall &irect other(ise upon such ter#s as it #a% &ee# 3ust.2Unless the Court sets the case for oral ar'u#ent" or re>uires the parties to su$#it #e#oran&a" the case shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for &ecision upon the filin' of the co##ents on the petition" or of such other plea&in's or papers as #a% $e re>uire& or allo(e&" or the e1piration of the perio& to &o so.$etition for prohibition.(n) RULE 65 CERTIORARI# PRO I!ITION AND MANDAMUS SECT!O+ .@.*ffect of filing.$etition for mandamus.Court.(n) SEC.

(2a) SEC.Respondents and costs in certain cases28hen the petition file& relates to the acts or o#issions of a 3u&'e" court" >uasi<3u&icial a'enc%" tri$unal" corporation" $oar&" officer or person" the petitioner shall 3oin" as private respon&ent or respon&ents (ith such pu$lic respon&ent or respon&ents" the person or persons intereste& in sustainin' the procee&in's in the court7 an& it shall $e the &ut% of such private respon&ents to appear an& &efen&" $oth in his or their o(n $ehalf an& in $ehalf of the pu$lic respon&ent or respon&ents affecte& $% the procee&in's" an& the costs a(ar&e& in such procee&in's in favor of the petitioner shall $e a'ainst the private respon&ents onl%" an& not a'ainst the 3u&'e" court" >uasi<3u&icial a'enc%" tri$unal" corporation" $oar&" officer or person i#plea&e& as pu$lic respon&ent or respon&entsUnless other(ise specificall% &irecte& $% the court (here the petition is pen&in'" the pu$lic respon&ents shall not appear in or file an ans(er or co##ent to the petition or an% plea&in' therein.5) &a%sSEC.(5a) SEC.Order to comment.4.person unla(full% ne'lects the perfor#ance of an act (hich the la( specificall% en3oins as a &ut% resultin' fro# an office" trust" or station" or unla(full% e1clu&es another fro# the use an& en3o%#ent of a ri'ht or office to (hich such other is entitle&" an& there is no other plain" spee&% an& a&e>uate re#e&% in the or&inar% course of la(" the person a''rieve& there$% #a% file a verifie& petition in the proper court" alle'in' the facts (ith certaint% an& pra%in' that 3u&'#ent $e ren&ere& co##an&in' the respon&ent" i##e&iatel% or at so#e other ti#e to $e specifie& $% the court" to &o the act re>uire& to $e &one to protect the ri'hts of the petitioner" an& to pa% the &a#a'es sustaine& $% the petitioner $% reason of the (ron'ful acts of the respon&entThe petition shall also contain a s(orn certification of non<foru# shoppin' as provi&e& in the thir& para'raph of section 2" Rule 46.#hen and where petition filed.!t #a% also $e file& in the Court of Appeals (hether or not the sa#e is in ai& of its appellate 3uris&iction" or in the San&i'an$a%an if it is in ai& of its appellate 3uris&iction!f it involves the acts or o#issions of a >uasi<3u&icial a'enc%" an& unless other(ise provi&e& $% la( or these rules" the petition shall $e file& in an& co'ni5a$le onl% $% the Court of Appeals+o e1tension of ti#e to file the petition shall $e 'rante& e1cept for co#pellin' reason an& in no case e1cee&in' fifteen (.!f the case is elevate& to a hi'her court $% either part%" the pu$lic respon&ents shall $e inclu&e& therein as no#inal parties.=o(ever" unless other(ise specificall% &irecte& $% the court" the% shall not appear or participate in the procee&in's therein.!n case a #otion for reconsi&eration or ne( trial is ti#el% file&" (hether such #otion is re>uire& or not" the si1t% (6B) &a% perio& shall $e counte& fro# notice of the &enial of sai& #otionThe petition shall $e file& in the Supre#e Court or" if it relates to the acts or o#issions of a lo(er court or of a corporation" $oar&" officer or person" in the Re'ional Trial Court e1ercisin' 3uris&iction over the territorial area as &efine& $% the Supre#e Court.5.& !f the petition is sufficient in for# an& su$stance to 3ustif% such process" the court shall issue an or&er re>uirin' the respon&ent or .2The petition #a% $e file& not later than si1t% (6B) &a%s fro# notice of the 3u&'#ent" or&er or resolution.6.

(ction by -overnment against individuals.An e1ecution #a% issue for an% &a#a'es or costs a(ar&e& in accor&ance (ith section .Thereafter" the court #a% re>uire the filin' of a repl% an& such other responsive or other plea&in's as it #a% &ee# necessar% an& proper..(6a) SEC.Such or&er shall $e serve& on the respon&ents in such #anner as the court #a% &irect" to'ether (ith a cop% of the petition an& an% anne1es thereto!n petitions for certiorari $efore the Supre#e Court an& the Court of Appeals" the provisions of section 0" Rule 56" shall $e o$serve&.(@a) SEC.2The court in (hich the petition is file& #a% issue or&ers e1pe&itin' the procee&in's" an& it #a% also 'rant a te#porar% restrainin' or&er or a (rit of preli#inar% in3unction for the preservation of the ri'hts of the parties pen&in' such procee&in's.(?a) SEC.pediting proceedings.Service and enforcement of order or "udgment.2 After the co##ent or other plea&in's re>uire& $% the court are file&" or the ti#e for the filin' thereof has e1pire&" the court #a% hear the case or re>uire the parties to su$#it #e#oran&a.The petition shall not interrupt the course of the principal case unless a te#porar% restrainin' or&er or a (rit of preli#inar% in3unction has $een issue& a'ainst the pu$lic respon&ent fro# further procee&in' in the case.2An action for the usurpation of a pu$lic office" position or franchise #a% $e co##ence& $% a verifie& petition $rou'ht in the na#e of the Repu$lic of the Philippines a'ainst* (a) A person (ho usurps" intru&es into" or unla(full% hol&s or e1ercises a pu$lic office" position or franchise7 ($) A pu$lic officer (ho &oes or suffers an act (hich" $% the provision of la(" .respon&ents to co##ent on the petition (ithin ten (.*.)efore 'ivin' &ue course thereto" the court #a% re>uire the respon&ents to file their co##ent to" an& not a #otion to &is#iss" the petition.$roceedings after comment is filed.2A certifie& cop% of the 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in accor&ance (ith the last prece&in' section shall $e serve& upon the court" >uasi<3u&icial a'enc%" tri$unal" corporation" $oar&" officer or person concerne& in such #anner as the court #a% &irect" an& &iso$e&ience thereto shall $e punishe& as conte#pt.!f after such hearin' or su$#ission of #e#oran&a or the e1piration of the perio& for the filin' thereof the court fin&s that the alle'ations of the petition are true" it shall ren&er 3u&'#ent for the relief pra%e& for or to (hich the petitioner is entitle&The court" ho(ever" #a% &is#iss the petition if it fin&s the sa#e to $e patentl% (ithout #erit" prosecute& #anifestl% for &ela%" or that the >uestions raise& therein are too unsu$stantial to re>uire consi&eration. in"unctive relief.?.(Aa) RULE 66 'UO WARRANTO SECT!O+ .@. of Rule 2A.A.B) &a%s fro# receipt of a cop% thereof.

constitutes a 'roun& for the forfeiture of his office7 or (c) An association (hich acts as a corporation (ithin the Philippines (ithout $ein' le'all% incorporate& or (ithout la(ful authorit% so to act.2The Solicitor Ceneral or a pu$lic prosecutor #a%" (ith the per#ission of the court in (hich the action is to $e co##ence&" $rin' such an action at the re>uest an& upon the relation of another person7 $ut in such case the officer $rin'in' it #a% first re>uire an in&e#nit% for the e1penses an& costs of the action in an a#ount approve& $% an& to $e &eposite& in the court $% the person at (hose re>uest an& upon (hose relation the sa#e is $rou'ht.2.2An action un&er the prece&in' si1 sections can $e $rou'ht onl% in the Supre#e Court" the Court of Appeals" or in the Re'ional Trial Court e1ercisin' 3uris&iction over the territorial area (here the respon&ent or an% of the respon&ents resi&es" $ut (hen the Solicitor Ceneral co##ences the action" it #a% $e $rou'ht in a Re'ional Trial Court in the Cit% of 9anila" in the Court of Appeals" or in the Supre#e Court..28hen the action is a'ainst a person for usurpin' a pu$lic office" position or franchise" the petition shall set forth the na#e of the person (ho clai#s to $e entitle& thereto" if an%" (ith an aver#ent of his ri'ht to the sa#e an& that the respon&ent is unla(full% in possession thereof.a) SEC.#hen hearing had on application for permission to commence action.6.enue.$arties and contents of petition against usurpation.(4a) SEC.4.(@a) SEC.(5a) SEC.$eriod for pleadings and proceedings may be reduced.@.All persons (ho clai# to $e entitle& to the pu$lic office" position or franchise #a% $e #a&e parties" an& their respective ri'hts to such pu$lic office" position or franchise &eter#ine&" in the sa#e action.?.2 Upon application for per#ission to co##ence such action in accor&ance (ith the ne1t prece&in' section" the court shall &irect that notice $e 'iven to the respon&ent so that he #a% $e hear& in opposition thereto7 an& if per#ission is 'rante&" the court shall issue an or&er to that effect" copies of (hich shall $e serve& on all intereste& parties" an& the petition shall then $e file& (ithin the perio& or&ere& $% the court.Such action #a% $e 'iven prece&ence over an% other civil #atter pen&in' .(6) SEC.0.(2a) SEC.#hen Solicitor -eneral or public prosecutor must commence action -. action given precedence .A person clai#in' to $e entitle& to a pu$lic office or position usurpe& or unla(full% hel& or e1ercise& $% another #a% $rin' an action therefor in his o(n na#e.#hen Solicitor -eneral or public prosecutor may commence action with permission of court.(.#hen an individual may commence such an action -.2The court #a% re&uce the perio& provi&e& $% these Rules for filin' plea&in's an& for all other procee&in's in the action in or&er to secure the #ost e1pe&itious &eter#ination of the #atters involve& therein consistent (ith the ri'hts of the parties.The Solicitor Ceneral or a pu$lic prosecutor" (hen &irecte& $% the Presi&ent of the Philippines" or (hen upon co#plaint or other(ise he has 'oo& reason to $elieve that an% case specifie& in the prece&in' section can $e esta$lishe& $% proof" #ust co##ence such action.5.(?a) SEC.

) %ear after the entr% of the 3u&'#ent esta$lishin' the petitionerGs ri'ht to the office in >uestion.(..The person a&3u&'e& entitle& to the office #a% also $rin' action a'ainst the respon&ent to recover the &a#a'es sustaine& $% such person $% reason of the usurpation.The complaint..Ba) SEC.in the court.udgment for costs.(Aa) SEC.Rights of persons ad"udged entitled to public office.(.2!n an action $rou'ht in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this Rule" the court #a% ren&er 3u&'#ent for costs a'ainst either the petitioner" the relator" or the respon&ent" or the person or persons clai#in' to $e a corporation" or #a% apportion the costs" as 3ustice re>uires..(.2+othin' containe& in this Rule shall $e construe& to authori5e an action a'ainst a pu$lic officer or e#plo%ee for his ouster fro# office unless the sa#e $e co##ence& (ithin one (.2!f 3u&'#ent $e ren&ere& in favor of the person averre& in the co#plaint to $e entitle& to the pu$lic office he #a%" after ta/in' the oath of office an& e1ecutin' an% official $on& re>uire& $% la(" ta/e upon hi#self the e1ecution of the office" an& #a% i##e&iatel% thereafter &e#an& of the respon&ent all the $oo/s an& papers in the respon&entGs custo&% or control appertainin' to the office to (hich the 3u&'#ent relates.6a) SEC..8hen the respon&ent is foun& 'uilt% of usurpin'" intru&in' into" or unla(full% hol&in' or e1ercisin' a pu$lic office" position or franchise" 3u&'#ent shall $e ren&ere& that such respon&ent $e ouste& an& alto'ether e1clu&e& therefro#" an& that the petitioner or relator" as the case #a% $e" recover his costs.!f the respon&ent refuses or ne'lects to &eliver an% $oo/ or paper pursuant to such &e#an&" he #a% $e punishe& for conte#pt as havin' &iso$e%e& a la(ful or&er of the court. delivery of boo)s and papers.7imitations.9.(.Such further 3u&'#ent #a% $e ren&ere& &eter#inin' the respective ri'hts in an& to the pu$lic office" position or franchise of all the parties to the action as 3ustice re>uires.) %ear after the cause of such ouster" or the ri'ht of the petitioner to hol& such office or position" arose7 nor to authori5e an action for &a#a'es in accor&ance (ith the provisions of the ne1t prece&in' section unless the sa#e $e co##ence& (ithin one (.B.2The ri'ht of e#inent &o#ain shall $e e1ercise& $% the filin' of a verifie& co#plaint (hich shall state (ith certaint% the ri'ht an& purpose of e1propriation" &escri$e the real or personal propert% sou'ht to $e e1propriate&" an& 3oin as &efen&ants all persons o(nin' or clai#in' to o(n" or occup%in'" an% part thereof or interest therein" sho(in'" so far as practica$le" the separate interest of each &efen&ant!f the title to an% propert% sou'ht to $e e1propriate& appears to $e in the Repu$lic of the .5a) SEC. udgment where usurpation found-.?a) RULE 67 E&PROPRIATION SECT!O+ ..0. damages..

propriation.2Upon the filin' of the co#plaint or at an% ti#e thereafter an& after &ue notice to the &efen&ant" the plaintiff shall have the ri'ht to ta/e or enter upon the possession of the real propert% involve& if he &eposits (ith the authori5e& 'overn#ent &epositar% an a#ount e>uivalent to the assesse& value of the propert% for purposes of ta1ation to $e hel& $% such $an/ su$3ect to the or&ers of the court.2!f the o$3ections to an& the &efenses a'ainst the ri'ht of the plaintiff to e1propriate the propert% are overrule&" or (hen no part% appears to &efen& as re>uire& $% this Rule" the court #a% issue an or&er ofK e1propriation &eclarin' that the plaintiff has a la(ful ri'ht to ta/e the propert% sou'ht to $e e1propriate&" for the pu$lic use or purpose &escri$e& in the co#plaint" upon the pa%#ent of 3ust co#pensation to $e &eter#ine& as of the &ate of the ta/in' of the propert% or the filin' of the co#plaint" (hichever ca#e first- .(.(0a) SEC.B) &a%s fro# the filin' thereof.=o(ever" at the trial of the issue of 3ust co#pensation" (hether or not a &efen&ant has previousl% appeare& or ans(ere&" he #a% present evi&ence as to the a#ount of the co#pensation to $e pai& for his propert%" an& he #a% share in the &istri$ution of the a(ar&SEC.0.4.Order of e.The ans(er shall specificall% &esi'nate or i&entif% the propert% in (hich he clai#s to have an interest" state the nature an& e1tent of the interest clai#e&" an& a&&uce all his o$3ections an& &efenses to the ta/in' of his propert%.*ntry of plaintiff upon depositing value with authori5ed government depository.2!f a &efen&ant has no o$3ection or &efense to the action or the ta/in' of his propert%" he #a% file an& serve a notice of appearance an& a #anifestation to that effect" specificall% &esi'natin' or i&entif%in' the propert% in (hich he clai#s to $e intereste&" (ithin the ti#e state& in the su##ons.a) SEC.Philippines" althou'h occupie& $% private in&ivi&uals" or if the title is other(ise o$scure or &ou$tful so that the plaintiff cannot (ith accurac% or certaint% specif% (ho are the real o(ners" aver#ent to that effect shall $e #a&e in the co#plaint.Such &eposit shall $e in #one%" unless in lieu thereof the court authori5es the &eposit of a certificate of &eposit of a 'overn#ent $an/ of the Repu$lic of the Philippines pa%a$le on &e#an& to the authori5e& 'overn#ent &epositar%!f personal propert% is involve&" its value shall $e provisionall% ascertaine& an& the a#ount to $e &eposite& shall $e pro#ptl% fi1e& $% the courtAfter such &eposit is #a&e the court shall or&er the sheriff or other proper officer to forth(ith place the plaintiff in possession of the propert% involve& an& pro#ptl% su$#it a report thereof to the court (ith service of copies to the parties.Thereafter" he shall $e entitle& to notice of all procee&in's affectin' the sa#e!f a &efen&ant has an% o$3ection to the filin' of or the alle'ations in the co#plaint" or an% o$3ection or &efense to the ta/in' of his propert%" he shall serve his ans(er (ithin the ti#e state& in the su##ons.2.+efenses and ob"ections.+o counterclai#" cross<clai# or thir&<part% co#plaint shall $e alle'e& or allo(e& in the ans(er or an% su$se>uent plea&in'A &efen&ant (aives all &efenses an& o$3ections not so alle'e& $ut the court" in the interest of 3ustice" #a% per#it a#en&#ents to the ans(er to $e #a&e not later than ten (.

)efore enterin' upon the perfor#ance of their &uties" the co##issioners shall ta/e an& su$scri$e an oath that the% (ill faithfull% perfor# their &uties as co##issioners" (hich oath shall $e file& in court (ith the other procee&in's in the case.(scertainment of compensation-.E1cept as other(ise e1pressl% or&ere& $% the court" such report shall $e file& (ithin si1t% (6B) &a%s fro# the &ate the co##issioners (ere notifie& of their appoint#ent" (hich ti#e #a% $e e1ten&e& in the &iscretion of the court.Upon the ren&ition of the or&er of e1propriation" the court shall appoint not #ore than three (2) co#petent an& &isintereste& persons as co##issioners to ascertain an& report to the court the 3ust co#pensation for the propert% sou'ht to $e ta/en.B) &a%s fro# service" an& shall $e resolve& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after all the co##issioners shall have receive& copies of the o$3ections.2 The court #a% or&er the co##issioners to report (hen an% particular portion of the real estate shall have $een passe& upon $% the#" an& #a% ren&er 3u&'#ent upon such partial report" an& &irect the co##issioners to procee& (ith their (or/ as to su$se>uent portions of the propert% sou'ht to $e e1propriate&" an& #a% fro# ti#e to ti#e so &eal (ith such propert%.The or&er of appoint#ent shall &esi'nate the ti#e an& place of the first session of the hearin' to $e hel& $% the co##issioners an& specif% the ti#e (ithin (hich their report shall $e su$#itte& to the courtCopies of the or&er shall $e serve& on the parties.The co##issioners shall #a/e a full an& accurate report to the court of all their procee&in's" an& such procee&in's shall not $e effectual until the court shall have accepte& their report an& ren&ere& 3u&'#ent in accor&ance (ith their reco##en&ations.Evi&ence #a% $e intro&uce& $% either part% $efore the co##issioners (ho are authori5e& to a&#inister oaths on hearin's $efore the#" an& the co##issioners shall" unless the parties consent to the contrar%" after &ue notice to the parties to atten&" vie( an& e1a#ine the propert% sou'ht to $e e1propriate& an& its surroun&in's" an& #a% #easure the sa#e" after (hich either part% #a%" $% hi#self or counsel" ar'ue the case.$roceedings by commissioners-.Upon the filin' of such report" the cler/ of the court shall serve copies thereof on all intereste& .5.6.?.A final or&er sustainin' the ri'ht to e1propriate the propert% #a% $e appeale& $% an% part% a''rieve& there$%.)ut in no case shall the conse>uential $enefits assesse& e1cee& the conse>uential &a#a'es assesse&" or the o(ner $e &eprive& of the actual value of his propert% so ta/en-(6a) SEC.O$3ections to the appoint#ent of an% of the co##issioners shall $e file& (ith the court (ithin ten (.Such appeal" ho(ever" shall not prevent the court fro# &eter#inin' the 3ust co#pensation to $e pai&After the ren&ition of such an or&er" the plaintiff shall not $e per#itte& to &is#iss or &iscontinue the procee&in' e1cept on such ter#s as the court &ee#s 3ust an& e>uita$le(4a) SEC.The co##issioners shall assess the conse>uential &a#a'es to the propert% not ta/en an& &e&uct fro# such conse>uential &a#a'es the conse>uential $enefits to $e &erive& $% the o(ner fro# the pu$lic use or purpose of the propert% ta/en" the operation of its franchise $% the corporation or the carr%in' on of the $usiness of the corporation or person ta/in' the propert%.Report by commissioners and "udgment thereupon.(5a) SEC.

0. by whom paid.(@a) SEC.2.)ut the 3u&'#ent shall re>uire the pa%#ent of the su# or su#s a(ar&e& to either the &efen&ant or the court $efore the plaintiff can enter upon the propert%" or retain it for the pu$lic use or purpose if entr% has alrea&% $een #a&e.Costs...a) SEC.parties" (ith notice that the% are allo(e& ten (.(Aa) SEC.(.!f the &efen&ant an& his counsel a$sent the#selves fro# the court" or &ecline to receive the a#ount ten&ere&" the sa#e shall $e or&ere& to $e &eposite& in court an& such &eposit shall have the sa#e effect as actual pa%#ent thereof to the &efen&ant or the person ulti#atel% a&3u&'e& entitle& thereto.2 !f the o(nership of the propert% ta/en is uncertain" or there are conflictin' clai#s to an% part thereof" the court #a% or&er an% su# or su#s a(ar&e& as co#pensation for the propert% to $e pai& to the court for the $enefit of the person a&3u&'e& in the sa#e procee&in' to $e entitle& thereto..2 Upon the e1piration of the perio& of ten (.9.(?a) SEC.Ba) SEC.@..2The fees of the co##issioners shall $e ta1e& as a part of the costs of the procee&in's. effect of reversal.(ction upon commissioners? report.0a) SEC. and its effect-.*ntry not delayed by appeal..B) &a%s (ithin (hich to file o$3ections to the fin&in's of the report" if the% so &esire..(.2 The ri'ht of the plaintiff to enter upon the propert% of the &efen&ant an& appropriate the sa#e for pu$lic use or purpose shall not $e &ela%e& $% an appeal fro# the 3u&'#ent.B) &a%s referre& to in the prece&in' section" or even $efore the e1piration of such perio& $ut after all the intereste& parties have file& their o$3ections to the report or their state#ent of a'ree#ent there(ith" the court #a%" after hearin'" accept the report an& ren&er 3u&'#ent in accor&ance there(ith7 or" for cause sho(n" it #a% reco##it the sa#e to the co##issioners for further report of facts7 or it #a% set asi&e the report an& appoint ne( co##issioners7 or it #a% accept the report in part an& re3ect it in part7 an& it #a% #a/e such or&er or ren&er such 3u&'#ent as shall secure to the plaintiff the propert% essential to the e1ercise of his ri'ht of e1propriation" an& to the &efen&ant 3ust co#pensation for the propert% so ta/en.Recording "udgment.All costs" e1cept those of rival clai#ants liti'atin' their clai#s" shall $e pai& $% the plaintiff" unless an appeal is ta/en $% the o(ner of the propert% an& the 3u&'#ent is affir#e&" in (hich event the costs of the appeal shall $e pai& $% the o(ner.B.2 Upon pa%#ent $% the plaintiff to the &efen&ant of the co#pensation fi1e& $% the 3u&'#ent" (ith le'al interest thereon fro# the ta/in' of the possession of the propert%" or after ten&er to hi# of the a#ount so fi1e& an& pa%#ent of the costs" the plaintiff shall have the ri'ht to enter upon the propert% e1propriate& an& to appropriate it for the pu$lic use or purpose &efine& in the 3u&'#ent" or to retain it shoul& he have ta/en i##e&iate possession thereof un&er the provisions of section 0 hereof.The 3u&'#ent entere& in e1propriation procee&in's shall state &efinitel%" $% an a&e>uate &escription" the .)ut if the appellate court &eter#ines that plaintiff has no ri'ht of e1propriation" 3u&'#ent shall $e ren&ere& or&erin' the Re'ional Trial Court to forth(ith enforce the restoration to the &efen&ant of the possession of the propert%" an& to &eter#ine the &a#a'es (hich the &efen&ant sustaine& an& #a% recover $% reason of the possession ta/en $% the plaintiff. 'ncertain ownership.Rights of plaintiff after "udgment and payment.. conflicting claims.(.

Sale of mortgaged property.2 8hen the &efen&ant" after $ein' &irecte& to &o so as provi&e& in the ne1t prece&in' section" fails to pa% the a#ount of the 3u&'#ent (ithin the perio& specifie& therein" the court" upon #otion" shall or&er the propert% to $e sol& in the #anner an& un&er the provisions of Rule 2A an& other re'ulations 'overnin' sales of real estate un&er e1ecution.4a) RULE 68 FORECLOSURE OF REAL ESTATE MORTGAGE SECT!O+ .2.0.particular propert% or interest therein e1propriate&" an& the nature of the pu$lic use or purpose for (hich it is e1propriate&.4.The 'uar&ian or 'uar&ian ad litem of a #inor or of a person 3u&iciall% &eclare& to $e inco#petent #a%" (ith the approval of the court first ha&" &o an& perfor# on $ehalf of his (ar& an% act" #atter" or thin' respectin' the e1propriation for pu$lic use or purpose of propert% $elon'in' to such #inor or person 3u&iciall% &eclare& to $e inco#petent" (hich such #inor or person 3u&iciall% &eclare& to $e inco#petent coul& &o in such procee&in's if he (ere of a'e or co#petent.(0a) SEC. effect.2a) SEC.0B) &a%s fro# the entr% of 3u&'#ent" an& that in &efault of such pa%#ent the propert% shall $e sol& at pu$lic auction to satisf% the 3u&'#ent.2 !n an action for the foreclosure of a #ort'a'e or other encu#$rance upon real estate" the co#plaint shall set forth the &ate an& &ue e1ecution of the #ort'a'e7 its assi'n#ents" if an%7 the na#es an& resi&ences of the #ort'a'or an& the #ort'a'ee7 a &escription of the #ort'a'e& propert%7 a state#ent of the &ate of the note or other &ocu#entar% evi&ence of the o$li'ation secure& $% the #ort'a'e" the a#ount clai#e& to $e unpai& thereon7 an& the na#es an& resi&ences of all persons havin' or clai#in' an interest in the propert% su$or&inate in ri'ht to that of the hol&er of the #ort'a'e" all of (ho# shall $e #a&e &efen&ants in the action..udgment on foreclosure for payment or sale.2!f upon the trial in such action the court shall fin& the facts set forth in the co#plaint to $e true" it shall ascertain the a#ount &ue to the plaintiff upon the #ort'a'e &e$t or o$li'ation" inclu&in' interest an& other char'es as approve& $% the court" an& costs" an& shall ren&er 3u&'#ent for the su# so foun& &ue an& or&er that the sa#e $e pai& to the court or to the 3u&'#ent o$li'ee (ithin a perio& of not less than ninet% (AB) &a%s nor #ore than one hun&re& t(ent% (.Complaint in action for foreclosure.(..(.(.$ower of guardian in such proceedings -.a) SEC.8hen real estate is e1propriate&" a certifie& cop% of such 3u&'#ent shall $e recor&e& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the place in (hich the propert% is situate&" an& its effect shall $e to vest in the plaintiff the title to the real estate so &escri$e& for such pu$lic use or purpose.Such sale shall not affect the ri'hts of persons hol&in' prior encu#$rances upon the propert% or a part thereof" an& (hen confir#e& $% an or&er of the court" also upon #otion" it shall operate to &ivest the ri'hts in the propert% of all the parties to the action an& to vest their ri'hts in the .

4.2!f upon the sale of an% real propert% as provi&e& in the ne1t prece&in' section there $e a $alance &ue to the plaintiff after appl%in' the procee&s of the sale" the court" upon #otion" shall ren&er 3u&'#ent a'ainst the &efen&ant for an% such $alance for (hich" $% the recor& of the case" he #a% $e personall% lia$le to the plaintiff" upon (hich e1ecution #a% issue i##e&iatel% if the $alance is all &ue at the ti#e of the ren&ition of the 3u&'#ent7 other(ise" the plaintiff shall $e entitle& to e1ecution at such ti#e as the $alance re#ainin' $eco#es &ue un&er the ter#s of the ori'inal contract" (hich ti#e shall $e state& in the 3u&'#ent.(6a) SEC.purchaser" su$3ect to such ri'hts of re&e#ption as #a% $e allo(e& $% la(Upon the finalit% of the or&er of confir#ation or upon the e1piration of the perio& of re&e#ption (hen allo(e& $% la(" the purchaser at the auction sale or last re&e#ptioner" if an%" shall $e entitle& to the possession of the propert% unless a thir& part% is actuall% hol&in' the sa#e a&versel% to the 3u&'#ent o$li'or.!f no ri'ht of re&e#ption e1ists" the certificate of title in the na#e of the #ort'a'or shall $e cancelle&" an& a ne( one issue& in the na#e of the purchaser8here a ri'ht of re&e#ption e1ists" the certificate of title in the na#e of the #ort'a'or shall not $e cancelle&" $ut the certificate of sale an& the or&er confir#in' the sale shall $e re'istere& an& a $rief #e#oran&u# thereof #a&e $% the re'istrar of &ee&s upon the certificate of title.+eficiency "udgment.(2a) SEC.!n the event the propert% is re&ee#e&" the &ee& of re&e#ption shall $e re'istere& (ith the re'istr% of &ee&s" an& a $rief #e#oran&u# thereof shall $e #a&e $% the re'istrar of &ee&s on sai& certificate of title!f the propert% is not re&ee#e&" the final &ee& of sale e1ecute& $% the sheriff in favor of the purchaser at the foreclosure sale shall $e re'istere& (ith the re'istr% of .3ow sale to proceed in case the debt is not all due.5.2The a#ount reali5e& fro# the foreclosure sale of the #ort'a'e& propert% shall" after &e&uctin' the costs of the sale" $e pai& to the person foreclosin' the #ort'a'e" an& (hen there shall $e an% $alance or resi&ue" after pa%in' off the #ort'a'e &e$t &ue" the sa#e shall $e pai& to 3unior encu#$rancers in the or&er of their priorit%" to $e ascertaine& $% the court" or if there $e no such encu#$rancers or there $e a $alance or resi&ue after pa%#ent to the#" then to the #ort'a'or or his &ul% authori5e& a'ent" or to the person entitle& to it.+isposition of proceeds of sale.Registration.The sai& purchaser or last re&e#ptioner #a% secure a (rit of possession" upon #otion" fro# the court (hich or&ere& the foreclosure.2A certifie& cop% of the final or&er of the court confir#in' the sale shall $e re'istere& in the re'istr% of &ee&s.?.6.2 !f the &e$t for (hich the #ort'a'e or encu#$rance (as hel& is not all &ue as provi&e& in the 3u&'#ent" as soon as a sufficient portion of the propert% has $een sol& to pa% the total a#ount an& the costs &ue" the sale shall ter#inate7 an& after(ar&s" as often as #ore $eco#es &ue for principal or interest an& other vali& char'es" the court #a%" on #otion" or&er #ore to $e sol&.(4a) SEC.(5a) SEC.)ut if the propert% cannot $e sol& in portions (ithout pre3u&ice to the parties" the (hole shall $e or&ere& to $e sol& in the first instance" an& the entire &e$t an& costs shall $e pai&" if the procee&s of the sale $e sufficient therefor" there $ein' a re$ate of interest (here such re$ate is proper.

5.(ssignment or sale of real estate by commissioners.Commissioners to ma)e partition when parties fail to agree.(.4.a) SEC.@.(n) SEC. and partition.Order for partition.(4a) SEC.(2a) SEC.2 8hen it is #a&e to . by agreement thereunder.2.2The provisions of sections 2.(@a) RULE 69 PARTITION SECT!O+ .!n #a/in' the partition" the co##issioners shall vie( an& e1a#ine the real estate" after &ue notice to the parties to atten& at such vie( an& e1a#ination" an& shall hear the parties as to their preference in the portion of the propert% to $e set apart to the# an& the co#parative value thereof" an& shall set apart the sa#e to the parties in lots or parcels as (ill $e #ost a&vanta'eous an& e>uita$le" havin' &ue re'ar& to the i#prove#ents" situation an& >ualit% of the &ifferent parts thereof.0.(n) SEC.(pplicability of other provisions.2 !f after the trial the court fin&s that the plaintiff has the ri'ht thereto" it shall or&er the partition of the real estate a#on' all the parties in interest.Thereupon the parties #a%" if the% are a$le to a'ree" #a/e the partition a#on' the#selves $% proper instru#ents of conve%ance" an& the court shall confir# the partition so a'ree& upon $% all the parties" an& such partition" to'ether (ith the or&er of the court confir#in' the sa#e" shall $e recor&e& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the place in (hich the propert% is situate&..&ee&s7 (hereupon the certificate of title in the na#e of the #ort'a'or shall $e cancelle& an& a ne( one issue& in the na#e of the purchaser." 20 an& 24 of Rule 2A shall $e applica$le to the 3u&icial foreclosure of real estate #ort'a'es un&er this Rule insofar as the for#er are not inconsistent (ith or #a% serve to supple#ent the provisions of the latter.2)efore #a/in' such partition" the co##issioners shall ta/e an& su$scri$e an oath that the% (ill faithfull% perfor# their &uties as co##issioners" (hich oath shall $e file& in court (ith the other procee&in's in the case.(0a) A final or&er &ecreein' partition an& accountin' #a% $e appeale& $% an% part% a''rieve& there$%.2 !f the parties are una$le to a'ree upon the partition" the court shall appoint not #ore than three (2) co#petent an& &isintereste& persons as co##issioners to #a/e the partition" co##an&in' the# to set off to the plaintiff an& to each part% in interest such part an& proportion of the propert% as the court shall &irect.Oath and duties of commissioners.Complaint in action for partition of real estate.2 A person havin' the ri'ht to co#pel the partition of real estate #a% &o so as provi&e& in this Rule" settin' forth in his co#plaint the nature an& e1tent of his title an& an ade6uate &escription of the real estate of (hich partition is &e#an&e& an& 3oinin' as &efen&ants all other persons intereste& in the propert%.

+o procee&in' ha& $efore or con&ucte& $% the co##issioners shall pass the title to the propert% or $in& the parties until the court shall have accepte& the report of the co##issioners an& ren&ere& 3u&'#ent thereon.B) &a%s (ithin (hich to file o$3ections to the fin&in's of the report" if the% so &esire.The court shall e>uita$l% ta1 an& apportion $et(een or a#on' the parties the costs an& e1penses (hich accrue in the action" inclu&in' the co#pensation of the co##issioners" havin' re'ar& to the interests of the parties" an& e1ecution #a% issue therefor as in other cases. proceedings not binding until confirmed.(6a) SEC.2 The co##issioners shall #a/e a full an& accurate report to the court of all their procee&in's as to the partition" or the assi'n#ent of real estate to one of the parties" or the sale of the sa#e. copy to be recorded in registry of deeds.(@a) SEC.B.(Aa) SEC.6.penses to be ta..The "udgment and its effect.(ction of the court upon commissioners? report.(?) SEC.2 !n an action for partition in accor&ance (ith this Rule" a part% shall recover fro# another his 3ust share of rents an& profits receive& $% such other part% fro# the real estate in >uestion" an& the 3u&'#ent shall inclu&e an allo(ance for such rents an& profits.2 !f actual partition of propert% is #a&e" the 3u&'#ent shall state &efinitel%" $% #etes an& $oun&s an& a&e>uate &escription" the particular portion of the real estate assi'ne& to each part%" an& the effect of the 3u&'#ent shall $e to vest in each part% to the action in .2 Upon the e1piration of the perio& of ten (.(.?.Upon the filin' of such report" the cler/ of court shall serve copies thereof on all the intereste& parties (ith notice that the% are allo(e& ten (.appear to the co##issioners that the real estate" or a portion thereof" cannot $e &ivi&e& (ithout pre3u&ice to the interests of the parties" the court #a% or&er it assi'ne& to one of the parties (illin' to ta/e the sa#e" provi&e& he pa%s to the other parties such a#ounts as the co##issioners &ee# e>uita$le" unless one of the intereste& parties as/s that the propert% $e sol& instea& of $ein' so assi'ne&" in (hich case the court shall or&er the co##issioners to sell the real estate at pu$lic sale un&er such con&itions an& (ithin such ti#e as the court #a% &eter#ine..Report of commissioners..(ccounting for rent and profits in action for partition.A.B) &a%s referre& to in the prece&in' section" or even $efore the e1piration of such perio& $ut after the intereste& parties have file& their o$3ections to the report or their state#ent of a'ree#ent there(ith" the court #a%" upon hearin'" accept the report an& ren&er 3u&'#ent in accor&ance there(ith7 or" for cause sho(n" reco##it the sa#e to the co##issioners for further report of facts7 or set asi&e the report an& appoint ne( co##issioners7 or accept the report in part an& re3ect it in part7 an& #a% #a/e such or&er an& ren&er such 3u&'#ent as shall effectuate a fair an& 3ust partition of the real estate" or of its value" if assi'ne& or sol& as a$ove provi&e&" $et(een the several o(ners thereof.Ba) SEC..ed and collected-.Costs and e.@.$ower of guardian in such proceedings -.The 'uar&ian or 'uar&ian ad litem of a #inor or person 3u&iciall% &eclare& to $e inco#petent #a%" (ith the approval of the court first ha&" &o an& perfor# on $ehalf of his (ar& an% act" #atter" or thin' respectin' the partition of real estate" (hich the #inor or person 3u&iciall% &eclare& to $e inco#petent coul& &o in partition procee&in's if he (ere of a'e or co#petent.(5a) SEC.

(.0.2.!f the propert% is sol& an& the sale confir#e& $% the court" the 3u&'#ent shall state the na#e of the purchaser or purchasers an& a &efinite &escription of the parcels of real estate sol& to each purchaser" an& the effect of the 3u&'#ent shall $e to vest the real estate in the purchaser or purchasers #a/in' the pa%#ent or pa%#ents" free fro# the clai#s of an% of the parties to the action..(..$artition of personal property.2 Su$3ect to the provisions of the ne1t succee&in' section" a person &eprive& of the possession of an% lan& or $uil&in' $% force" inti#i&ation" threat" strate'%" or stealth" or a lessor" ven&or" ven&ee" or other person a'ainst (ho# the possession of an% lan& or $uil&in' is unla(full% (ithhel& after the e1piration or ter#ination of the ri'ht to hol& possession" $% virtue of an% contract" e1press or i#plie&" or the le'al representatives or assi'ns of an% such lessor" ven&or" ven&ee" or other person #a% at an% ti#e (ithin one (.%either paramount rights nor amicable partition affected by this Rule-.!f the (hole propert% is assi'ne& to one of the parties upon his pa%in' to the others the su# or su#s or&ere& $% the court" the 3u&'#ent shall state the fact of such pa%#ent an& of the assi'n#ent of the real estate to the part% #a/in' the pa%#ent" an& the effect of the 3u&'#ent shall $e to vest in the part% #a/in' the pa%#ent the (hole of the real estate free fro# an% interest on the part of the other parties to the action. and when.0.) %ear after such unla(ful &eprivation or (ithhol&in' of possession" $rin' an action in the proper 9unicipal Trial Court a'ainst the person or persons unla(full% (ithhol&in' or &eprivin' of possession" or an% person or persons clai#in' un&er the#" for the restitution of such possession" to'ether (ith &a#a'es an& costs. +othin' in this Rule containe& shall $e construe& so as to pre3u&ice" &efeat" or &estro% the ri'ht or title of an% person clai#in' the real estate involve& $% title un&er an% other person" or $% title para#ount to the title of the parties a#on' (ho# the partition #a% have $een #a&e7 nor so as to restrict or prevent persons hol&in' real estate 3ointl% or in co##on fro# #a/in' an a#ica$le partition thereof $% a'ree#ent an& suita$le instru#ents of conve%ance (ithout recourse to an action..(.severalt% the portion of the real estate assi'ne& to hi#.0a) SEC.2Unless other(ise stipulate&" such action $% the lessor shall $e co##ence& onl% after &e#an& to pa% or co#pl% (ith the con&itions of the lease an& to vacate is #a&e upon the lessee" or $% ..2) RULE 70 FORCI!LE ENTRY AND UNLAWFUL DETAINER SECT!O+ .a) SEC.#ho may institute proceedings.(.A certifie& cop% of the 3u&'#ent shall in either case $e recor&e& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the place in (hich the real estate is situate&" an& the e1penses of such recor&in' shall $e ta1e& as part of the costs of the action.7essor to proceed against lessee only after demand.2The provisions of this Rule shall appl% to partitions of estates co#pose& of personal propert%" or of $oth real an& personal propert%" in so far as the sa#e #a% $e applica$le.a) SEC.

+ot later than thirt% (2B) &a%s after the last ans(er is file&" a preli#inar% conference shall $e hel&.B) &a%s fro# service of the ans(er in (hich the% are plea&e&.!f no 'roun& for &is#issal is foun&" it shall forth(ith issue su##ons.(n) SEC..(0a) SEC.2.servin' (ritten notice of such &e#an& upon the person foun& on the pre#ises" or $% postin' such notice on the pre#ises if no person $e foun& thereon" an& the lessee fails to co#pl% there(ith after fifteen (.(2a" RSP) SEC.8ithin ten (.$leadings allowed.$reliminary conference.5) &a%s in the case of lan& or five (5) &a%s in the case of $uil&in's.B) &a%s fro# service of su##ons" the &efen&ant shall file his ans(er to the co#plaint an& serve a cop% thereof on the plaintiffAffir#ative an& ne'ative &efenses not plea&e& therein shall $e &ee#e& (aive&" e1cept lac/ of 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter.4.6.The court #a% in its &iscretion re&uce the a#ount of &a#a'es an& attorne%Gs fees clai#e& for $ein' e1cessive or other(ise unconsciona$le" (ithout pre3u&ice to the applica$ilit% of section 2(c)" Rule A if there are t(o or #ore &efen&ants.?.@.(ction on complaint.Ans(er-.E1cept in cases covere& $% the a'ricultural tenanc% la(s or (hen the la( other(ise e1pressl% provi&es" all actions for forci$le entr% an& unla(ful &etainer" irrespective of the a#ount of &a#a'es or unpai& rentals sou'ht to $e recovere&" shall $e 'overne& $% the su##ar% proce&ure hereun&er provi&e&.All cross<clai#s shall $e &is#isse&.This proce&ure shall not appl% (here one Of t(o or #ore &efen&ants sue& un&er a co##on cause of action (ho ha& plea&e& a co##on &efense shall appear at the preli#inar% conference+o postpone#ent of the preli#inar% conference shall $e 'rante& e1cept for hi'hl% .The provisions of Rule .The &efen&ant (ho appears in the a$sence of the plaintiff shall $e entitle& to 3u&'#ent on his counterclai# in accor&ance (ith the ne1t prece&in' section.2The court #a%" fro# an e1a#ination of the alle'ations in the co#plaint an& such evi&ence as #a% $e attache& thereto" &is#iss the case outri'ht on an% of the 'roun&s for the &is#issal of a civil action (hich are apparent therein.5.@ on pre<trial shall $e applica$le to the preli#inar% conference unless inconsistent (ith the provisions of this RuleThe failure of the plaintiff to appear in the preli#inar% conference shall $e cause for the &is#issal of his co#plaint.(n) SEC.Cross<clai#s an& co#pulsor% counterclai#s not asserte& in the ans(er shall $e consi&ere& $arre&.Summary procedure.All plea&in's shall $e verifie&. appearance of parties-.2Shoul& the &efen&ant fail to ans(er the co#plaint (ithin the perio& a$ove provi&e&" the court" motu proprio or on #otion of the plaintiff" shall ren&er 3u&'#ent as #a% $e (arrante& $% the facts alle'e& in the co#plaint an& li#ite& to (hat is pra%e& for therein.2The onl% plea&in's allo(e& to $e file& are the co#plaint" co#pulsor% counterclai# an& cross<clai# plea&e& in the ans(er" an& the ans(ers thereto.The ans(er to counterclai#s or cross<clai#s shall $e serve& an& file& (ithin ten (.(6" RSP) SEC.(?" RSP) !f a sole &efen&ant shall fail to appear" the plaintiff shall li/e(ise $e entitle& to 3u&'#ent in accor&ance (ith the ne1t prece&in' section.*ffect of failure to answer.(5" RSP) SEC.

(n) SEC.B.8hether the parties have arrive& at an a#ica$le settle#ent" an& if so" the ter#s thereof7 0.#eritorious 'roun&s an& (ithout pre3u&ice to such sanctions as the court in the e1ercise of soun& &iscretion #a% i#pose on the #ovant..The stipulations or a&#issions entere& into $% the parties7 2.@a" RSP) SEC..(A" RSP) SEC..8ithin five (5) &a%s after the ter#ination of the preli#inar% conference" the court shall issue an or&er statin' the #atters ta/en up therein" inclu&in' $ut not li#ite& to* .0.A.9otion to &is#iss the co#plaint e1cept on the 'roun& of lac/ of 3uris&iction over the su$3ect #atter" or failure to co#pl% (ith section .Record of preliminary conference-.Such other #atters inten&e& to e1pe&ite the &isposition of the case..5) &a%s after the receipt of the last affi&avit or the e1piration of the perio& for filin' the sa#eThe court shall not resort to the fore'oin' proce&ure 3ust to 'ain ti#e for the ren&ition of the 3u&'#ent.07 09otion for a $ill of particulars7 .(@" RSP) SEC.B) &a%s fro# receipt of sai& or&er.Referral for conciliation..2 8ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s after receipt of the affi&avits an& position papers" or the e1piration of the perio& for filin' the sa#e" the court shall ren&er 3u&'#ent=o(ever" shoul& the court fin& it necessar% to clarif% certain #aterial facts" it #a%" &urin' the sai& perio&" issue an or&er specif%in' the #atters to $e clarifie&" an& re>uire the parties to su$#it affi&avits or other evi&ence on the sai& #atters (ithin ten (.Hu&'#ent shall $e ren&ere& (ithin fifteen (.2..Submission of affidavits and position papers.2Cases re>uirin' referral for conciliation" (here there is no sho(in' of co#pliance (ith such re>uire#ent" shall $e &is#isse& (ithout pre3u&ice" an& #a% $e revive& onl% after that re>uire#ent shall have $een co#plie& (ith.A clear specification of #aterial facts (hich re#ain controverte&7 an& 5.(n) SEC.$eriod for rendition of "udgment.(.B) &a%s fro# receipt of the or&er #entione& in the ne1t prece&in' section" the parties shall su$#it the affi&avits of their (itnesses an& other evi&ence on the factual issues &efine& in the or&er" to'ether (ith their position papers settin' forth the la( an& the facts relie& upon $% the#.2 The follo(in' petitions" #otions" or plea&in's shall not $e allo(e&* ..$rohibited pleadings and motions.2 8ithin ten (.8hether" on the $asis of the plea&in's an& the stipulations an& a&#issions #a&e $% the parties" 3u&'#ent #a% $e ren&ere& (ithout the nee& of further procee&in's" in (hich event the 3u&'#ent shall $e ren&ere& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# issuance of the or&er7 4.

.4.$reliminary in"unction..(2a) SEC..6.(4a) SEC..(.The court shall &eci&e the #otion (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the filin' thereof.!nterventions.udgment.2The affi&avits re>uire& to $e su$#itte& un&er this Rule shall state onl% facts of &irect personal /no(le&'e of the affiants (hich are a&#issi$le in evi&ence" an& shall sho( their co#petence to testif% to the #atters state& thereinA violation of this re>uire#ent #a% su$3ect the part% or the counsel (ho su$#its the sa#e to &isciplinar% action" an& shall $e cause to e1pun'e the ina&#issi$le affi&avit or portion thereof fro# the recor&.(ffidavits.Resolving defense of ownership-.!f it fin&s that sai& alle'ations are not true" it shall ren&er 3u&'#ent for the &efen&ant to recover his costs.Aa" RSP) SEC..Repl%7 .?.(0B" RS$0 SEC.!f a counterclai# is esta$lishe&" the court shall ren&er 3u&'#ent for the su# foun& in arrears fro# either part% an& a(ar& costs as 3ustice re>uires..0.5.Petition for certiorari" #an&a#us" or prohi$ition a'ainst an% interlocutor% or&er issue& $% the court7 @A9otion to &eclare the &efen&ant in &efault7 Filator% #otions for postpone#ent7 Petition for relief fro# 3u&'#ent7 9otion for e1tension of ti#e to file plea&in's" affi&avits or an% other .8hen the &efen&ant raises the &efense of o(nership in his plea&in's an& the >uestion of possession cannot $e resolve& (ithout &eci&in' the issue of o(nership" the issue of o(nership shall $e resolve& onl% to &eter#ine the issue of possession.29otion for ne( trial" or for reconsi&eration of a 3u&'#ent" or for reopenin' of trial7 45paper7 69e#oran&a7 ?.2!f after trial the court fin&s that the alle'ations of the co#plaint are true" it shall ren&er 3u&'#ent in favor of the plaintiff for the restitution of the pre#ises" the su# 3ustl% &ue as arrears of rent or as reasona$le co#pensation for the use an& occupation of the pre#ises" attorne%Gs fees an& costs.B.2The court #a% 'rant preli#inar% in3unction" in accor&ance (ith the provisions of Rule 5@ hereof" to prevent the &efen&ant fro# co##ittin' further acts of &ispossession a'ainst the plaintiffA possessor &eprive& of his possession throu'h forci$le entr% or unla(ful &etainer #a%" (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# the filin' of the co#plaint" present a #otion in the action for forci$le entr% or unla(ful &etainer for the issuance of a (rit of preli#inar% #an&ator% in3unction to restore hi# in his possession.Thir&<part% co#plaints7 .(6a) .

Shoul& the &efen&ant fail to #a/e the pa%#ents a$ove prescri$e& fro# ti#e to ti#e &urin' the pen&enc% of the appeal" the appellate court" upon #otion of the plaintiff" an& upon proof of such failure" shall or&er the e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent appeale& fro# (ith respect to the restoration of possession" $ut such e1ecution shall not $e a $ar to the appeal ta/in' its course until the final &isposition thereof on the #eritsAfter the case is &eci&e& $% the Re'ional Trial Court" an% #one% pai& to the court $% the &efen&ant for purposes of the sta% of e1ecution shall $e &ispose& of in accor&ance (ith the provisions of the 3u&'#ent of the Re'ional Trial Court.ecution of "udgment.0B.Upon #otion of the plaintiff" (ithin ten (.SEC.Immediate e.Such 3u&'#ent shall not $ar an action $et(een the sa#e parties respectin' title to the lan& or $uil&in'The 3u&'#ent or final or&er shall $e appeala$le to the appropriate Re'ional Trial Court (hich shall &eci&e the sa#e on the $asis of the entire recor& of the procee&in's ha& in the court of ori'in an& such #e#oran&a an&Jor $riefs as #a% $e su$#itte& $% the parties or re>uire& $% the Re'ional Trial Court.@.udgment conclusive only on possession. how to stay same.2 !f 3u&'#ent is ren&ere& a'ainst the &efen&ant" e1ecution shall issue i##e&iatel% upon #otion" unless an appeal has $een perfecte& an& the &efen&ant to sta% e1ecution files a sufficient superse&eas $on&" approve& $% the 9unicipal Trial Court an& e1ecute& in favor of the plaintiff to pa% the rents" &a#a'es" an& costs accruin' &o(n to the ti#e of the 3u&'#ent appeale& fro#" an& unless" &urin' the pen&enc% of the appeal" he &eposits (ith the appellate court the a#ount of rent &ue fro# ti#e to ti#e un&er the contract" if an%" as &eter#ine& $% the 3u&'#ent of the 9unicipal Trial Court.B) &a%s fro# the perfection of the appeal to the Re'ional Trial Court" the latter #a% issue a (rit of preli#inar% #an&ator% in3unction to restore the plaintiff in possession if the court is satisfie& that the &efen&antGs appeal is frivolous or .2The 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in an action for forci$le entr% or &etainer shall $e conclusive (ith respect to the possession onl% an& shall in no (ise $in& the title or affect the o(nership of the lan& or $uil&in'..(@a) SEC.The superse&eas $on& shall $e trans#itte& $% the 9unicipal Trial Court" (ith the other papers" to the cler/ of the Re'ional Trial Court to (hich the action is appeale&All a#ounts so pai& to the appellate court shall $e &eposite& (ith sai& court or authori5e& 'overn#ent &epositar% $an/" an& shall $e hel& there until the final &isposition of the appeal" unless the court" $% a'ree#ent of the intereste& parties" or in the a$sence of reasona$le 'roun&s of opposition to a #otion to (ith&ra(" or for 3ustifia$le reasons" shall &ecree other(ise.A.(?a) SEC.$reliminary mandatory in"unction in case of appeal-..!n the a$sence of a contract" he shall &eposit (ith the Re'ional Trial Court the reasona$le value of the use an& occupation of the pre#ises for the prece&in' #onth or perio& at the rate &eter#ine& $% the 3u&'#ent of the lo(er court on or $efore the tenth &a% of each succee&in' #onth or perio&.!n an% case (herein it appears that the &efen&ant has $een &eprive& of the la(ful possession of lan& or $uil&in' pen&in' the appeal by virtue of the e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent of the 9unicipal Trial Court" &a#a'es for such &eprivation of possession an& restoration of possession #a% $e allo(e& the &efen&ant in the 3u&'#ent of the Re'ional Trial Court &isposin' of the appeal. not conclusive in actions involving title or ownership.

The e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent shall $e suspen&e& pen&in' resolution of such petition" provi&e& such person flea a $on& fi1e& $% the court (hich ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent an& con&itione& that he (ill a$i&e $% an& perfor# the 3u&'#ent shoul& the petition $e &eci&e& a'ainst hi#.0.2The person a&3u&'e& in &irect conte#pt $% an% court #a% not appeal therefro#" $ut #a% avail hi#self of the re#e&ies of certiorari or prohi$ition.(Aa) SEC.A person 'uilt% of #is$ehavior in the presence of or so near a court as to o$struct or interrupt the procee&in's $efore the sa#e" inclu&in' &isrespect to(ar& the court" offensive personalities to(ar& others" or refusal to $e s(orn or to ans(er as a (itness" or to su$scri$e an affi&avit or &eposition (hen la(full% re>uire& to &o so" #a% $e su##aril% a&3u&'e& in conte#pt $% such court an& punishe& $% a fine not e1cee&in' t(o thousan& pesos or i#prison#ent not e1cee&in' ten (.(.Remedy therefrom.B) &a%s" or $oth" if it $e a Re'ional Trial Court or a court of e>uivalent or hi'her ran/" or $% a fine not e1cee&in' t(o hun&re& pesos or i#prison#ent net e1cee&in' (.a) SEC.ecution on appeal to Court of (ppeals or Supreme Court .2. of this Rule7 (&) An% i#proper con&uct ten&in'" &irectl% or in&irectl%" to i#pe&e" o$struct" .Immediate e.Ba) RULE 71 CONTEMPT SECT!O+ ..+irect contempt punished summarily-.0.(0a) SEC..Indirect contempt to be punished after charge and hearing.(.) &a%" or $oth" if it $e a lo(er court.2 After a char'e in (ritin' has $een file&" an& an opportunit% 'iven to the respon&ent to comment thereon (ithin such perio& as #a% $e fi1e& $% the court an& to $e hear& $% hi#self or counsel" a person 'uilt% of an% of the follo(in' acts #a% $e punishe& for in&irect conte#pt* (a) 9is$ehavior of an officer of a court in the perfor#ance of his official &uties or in his official transactions7 ($) Fiso$e&ience of or resistance to a la(ful (rit" process" or&er" or 3u&'#ent of a court" inclu&in' the act of a person (ho" after $ein' &ispossesse& or e3ecte& fro# an% real propert% $% the 3u&'#ent or process of an% court of co#petent 3uris&iction" enters or atte#pts or in&uces another to enter into or upon such real propert%" for the purpose of e1ecutin' acts of o(nership or possession" or in an% #anner &istur$s the possession 'iven to the person a&3u&'e& to $e entitle& thereto7 (c) An% a$use of or an% unla(ful interference (ith the processes or procee&in's of a court not constitutin' &irect conte#pt un&er section .&ilator%" or that the appeal of the plaintiff is prima facie #eritorious.2 The 3u&'#ent of the Re'ional Trial Court a'ainst the &efen&ant shall $e i##e&iatel% e1ecutor%" (ithout pre3u&ice to a further appeal that #a% $e ta/en therefro#.

?.5.$unishment for indirect contempt.8here such conte#pt has $een co##itte& a'ainst a lo(er court" the char'e #a% $e file& (ith the Re'ional Trial Court of the place in (hich the lo(er court is sittin'7 $ut the procee&in's #a% also $e institute& in such lo(er court su$3ect to appeal to the Re'ional Trial Court of such place in the sa#e #anner as provi&e& in section 0 of this Rule.!f he is a&3u&'e& 'uilt% of conte#pt co##itte& a'ainst a lo(er court" he #a% $e punishe& $% a fine not e1cee&in' five thousan& pesos or i#prison#ent not e1cee&in' one (.2 !f the hearin' is not or&ere& to $e ha& forth(ith" the respon&ent #a% $e release& fro# custo&% upon filin' a $on&" in an a#ount fi1e& $% the court" for his appearance at the hearin' of the char'e.On the &a% set therefor" the court shall procee& to investi'ate the char'e an& consi&er such co##ent" testi#on% or &efense as the respon&ent #a% #a/e or offer.28here the char'e for in&irect conte#pt has $een co##itte& a'ainst a Re'ional Trial Court or a court of e>uivalent or hi'her ran/" or a'ainst an officer appointe& $% it" the char'e #a% $e file& (ith such court.(4a) SEC.!f the conte#pt char'es arose out of or are relate& to a principal action pen&in' in the court" the petition for conte#pt shall alle'e that fact $ut sai& petition shall $e &oc/ete&" hear& an& &eci&e& separatel%" unless the court in its &iscretion or&ers the consoli&ation of the conte#pt char'e an& the principal action for 3oint hearin' an& &ecision.2 !f the respon&ent is a&3u&'e& 'uilt% of in&irect conte#pt co##itte& a'ainst a Re'ional Trial Court or a court of e>uivalent or hi'her ran/" he #a% $e punishe& $% a fine not e1cee&in' thirt% thousan& pesos or i#prison#ent not e1cee&in' si1 (6) #onths" or $oth.or &e'ra&e the a&#inistration of 3ustice7 (e) Assu#in' to $e an attorne% or an officer of a court" an& actin' as such (ithout authorit%7 (f) Failure to o$e% a su$poena &ul% serve&7 (') The rescue" or atte#pte& rescue" of a person or propert% in the custo&% of an officer $% virtue of an or&er or process of a court hel& $% hi#)ut nothin' in this section shall $e so construe& as to prevent the court fro# issuin' process to $rin' the respon&ent into court" or fro# hol&in' hi# in custo&% pen&in' such procee&in's.=.!f the conte#pt consists in the violation of a (rit of in3unction" te#porar% restrainin' or&er or status 6uo or&er" he #a% also $e or&ere& to #a/e co#plete restitution to the part% in3ure& $% such violation of the propert% involve& or such a#ount as #a% $e alle'e& an& .Procee&in's for in&irect conte#pt #a% $e initiate& motu proprio $% the court a'ainst (hich the conte#pt (as co##itte& $% an or&er or an% other for#al char'e re>uirin' the respon&ent to sho( cause (h% he shoul& not $e punishe& for conte#pt!n all other cases" char'es for in&irect conte#pt shall $e co##ence& $% a verifie& petition (ith supportin' particulars an& certifie& true copies of &ocu#ents or papers involve& therein" an& upon full co#pliance (ith the re>uire#ents for filin' initiator% plea&in's for civil actions in the court concerne&.(n) SEC.3ow proceedings commenced-.) #onth" or $oth.(5a) SEC.#here charge to be filed. 3earing. release on bail.(2a) SEC.4.

(@a) SEC.8hen the conte#pt consists in the refusal or o#ission to &o an act (hich is %et in the po(er of the respon&ent to perfor#" he #a% $e i#prisone& $% or&er of the court concerne& until he perfor#s it..Ba) SEC.Review of "udgment or final order.B..!f there is no a''rieve& part%" the $on& shall $e lia$le an& &ispose& of as in cri#inal cases. bond for stay.)ut e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er shall not $e suspen&e& until a $on& is file& $% the person a&3u&'e& in conte#pt" in an a#ount fi1e& $% the court front (hich the appeal is ta/en" con&itione& that if the appeal $e &eci&e& a'ainst hi# he (ill a$i&e $% an& perfor# the 3u&'#ent or final or&er.2 The court (hich issue& the or&er i#prisonin' a person for conte#pt #a% &ischar'e hi# fro# i#prison#ent (hen it appears that pu$lic interest (ill not $e pre3u&ice& $% his release. $roceeding when party released on bail fails to answer.(..Contempt against 6uasi&"udicial entities.@.28hen a respon&ent release& on $ail fails to appear on the &a% fi1e& for the hearin'" the court #a% issue another or&er of arrest or #a% or&er the $on& for his appearance to $e forfeite& an& confiscate&" or $oth7 an&" if the $on& $e procee&e& a'ainst" the #easure of &a#a'es shall $e the e1tent of the loss or in3ur% sustaine& $% the a''rieve& part% $% reason of the #iscon&uct for (hich the conte#pt char'e (as prosecute&" (ith the costs of the procee&in's" an& such recover% shall $e for the $enefit of the part% in3ure&.Imprisonment until order o$e%e&-.prove&The (rit of e1ecution" as in or&inar% civil actions" shall issue for the enforce#ent of a 3u&'#ent i#posin' a fine unless the court other(ise provi&es.The Re'ional Trial Court of the place (herein the conte#pt has $een co##itte& shall have 3uris&iction over such char'es as #a% $e file& therefor.0.Unless other(ise provi&e& $% la(" this Rule shall appl% to conte#pt co##itte& a'ainst persons" entities" $o&ies or a'encies e1ercisin' >uasi<3u&icial functions" or shall have suppletor% effect to such rules as the% #a% have a&opte& pursuant to authorit% 'rante& to the# $% la( to punish for conte#pt..(?a) SEC.2The 3u&'#ent or final or&er of a court in a case of in&irect conte#pt #a% $e appeale& to the proper court as in cri#inal cases.(6a) SEC.9.Court may release respondent.(Aa) SEC..(n) PART II SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS GENERAL PROVISIONS RULE 72 SU!$ECT MATTER AND APPLICA!ILITY OF GENERAL RULES ..

2 Rules of special procee&in's are provi&e& for in the follo(in' cases* (a) Settle#ent of estate of &ecease& persons7 ($) Escheat7 (c) Cuar&ianship an& custo&% of chil&ren7 (&) Trustees7 (e) A&option7 (f) Rescission an& revocation of a&option7 (') =ospitali5ation of insane persons7 (h) =a$eas corpus7 (i) Chan'e of na#e7 (3) oluntar% &issolution of corporations7 (/) Hu&icial approval of voluntar% reco'nition of #inor natural chil&ren7 (l) Constitution of fa#il% ho#e7 (#) Feclaration of a$sence an& &eath (n) Cancellation or correction of entries in the civil re'istr%SEC.SECT!O+ .The 3uris&iction assu#e& $% a court" so far as it &epen&s on the place of resi&ence of the .0.#here estate of deceased persons settled..The court first ta/in' co'ni5ance of the settle#ent of the estate of a &ece&ent" shall e1ercise 3uris&iction to the e1clusion of all other courts.Sub"ect matter of special proceedings.2 !f the &ece&ent is an inha$itant of the Philippines at the ti#e of his &eath" (hether a citi5en or an alien" his (ill shall $e prove&" or letters of a&#inistration 'rante&" an& his estate settle&" in the Re'ional Trial Court in the province in (hich he resi&es at the ti#e of his &eath" an& if he is an inha$itant of a forei'n countr%" the Re'ional Trial Court of an% province in (hich he ha& estate.(pplicability of rules of civil actions -..!n the a$sence of special provisions" the rules provi&e& for in or&inar% actions shall $e" as far as practica$le" applica$le in special procee&in's- SETTLEMENT OF ESTATE OF DECEASED PERSONS RULE 73 VENUE AND PROCESS SECT!O+ .

#here estate settled upon dissolution of marriage.!f a person &oes not perfor# an or&er or 3u&'#ent ren&ere& $% a court in the e1ercise of its pro$ate 3uris&iction" it #a% issue a (arrant for the apprehension an& i#prison#ent of such person until he perfor#s such or&er or 3u&'#ent" or is release&SEC.$rocess.&ece&ent" or of the location of his estate" shall not $e conteste& in a suit or procee&in'" e1cept in an appeal fro# that court" in the ori'inal case" or (hen the (ant of 3uris&iction appears on the recor&SEC.2.*.tra"udicial settlement by agreement between heirs.!f $oth spouses have &ie&" the con3u'al partnership shall $e li>ui&ate& in the testate or intestate procee&in's of eitherSEC.2 8hen the #arria'e is &issolve& $% the &eath of the hus$an& or (ife" the co##unit% propert% shall $e inventorie&" a&#inistere&" an& li>ui&ate&" an& the &e$ts thereof pai&" in the testate or intestate procee&in's of the &ecease& spouse.!t shall $e presu#e& that the &ece&ent left no &e$ts if no cre&itor files a petition for letters of a&#inistration (ithin t(o (0) %ears after the &eath of the &ece&ent- .0..The $alance #a% $e recovere& $% #otion in the sa#e procee&in'- RULE 74 SUMMARY SETTLEMENT OF ESTATES SECT!O+ .2!n the e1ercise of pro$ate 3uris&iction" Re'ional Trial Court #a% issue (arrants an& process necessar% to co#pel the atten&ance of (itnesses or to carr% into effect their or&ers an& 3u&'#ents" an& all other po(ers 'rante& the# $% la(.4.The parties to an e1tra3u&icial settle#ent" (hether $% pu$lic instru#ent or $% stipulation in a pen&in' action for partition" or the sole heir (ho a&3u&icates the entire estate to hi#self $% #eans of an affi&avit shall file" si#ultaneousl% (ith an& as a con&ition prece&ent to the filin' of the pu$lic instru#ent" or stipulation in the action for partition" or of the affi&avit in the office of the re'ister of &ee&s" a $on& (ith the sai& re'ister of &ee&s" in an a#ount e>uivalent to the value of the personal propert% involve& as certifie& to un&er oath $% the parties concerne& an& con&itione& upon the pa%#ent of an% 3ust clai# that #a% $e file& un&er section 4 of this rule.!f there is onl% one heir" he #a% a&3u&icate to hi#self the entire estate $% #eans of an affi&avit file& in the office of the re'ister of &ee&s.2 !f the &ece&ent left no (ill an& no &e$ts an& the heirs are all of a'e" or the #inors are represente& $% their 3u&icial or le'al representatives &ul% authori5e& for the purpose" the parties #a%" (ithout securin' letters of a&#inistration" &ivi&e the estate a#on' the#selves as the% see fit $% #eans of a pu$lic instru#ent file& in the office of the re'ister of &ee&s" an& shoul& the% &isa'ree" the% #a% &o so in an or&inar% action of partition.)ut if such person proves to $e alive" he shall $e entitle& to the $alance of his estate after pa%#ent of all his &e$ts. $resumption of &eath-.-For purposes of settle#ent of his estate" a person shall $e presu#e& &ea& if a$sent an& unhear& fro# for the perio&s fi1e& in the Civil Co&e.

The court shall #a/e such or&er as #a% $e 3ust respectin' the costs of the procee&in's" an& all or&ers an& 3u&'#ents #a&e or ren&ere& in the course thereof shall $e recor&e& in the office of the cler/" an& the or&er of partition or a(ar&" if it involves real estate" shall $e recor&e& in the proper re'isterGs officeSEC.Summary settlement of estates of small value.2 The court" $efore allo(in' a partition in accor&ance (ith the provisions of the prece&in' section" #a% re>uire the &istri$utees" if propert% other than real is to $e &istri$ute&" to file a $on& in an a#ount to $e fi1e& $% court" con&itione& for the pa%#ent of an% 3ust clai# (hich #a% $e file& un&er the ne1t succee&in' sectionSEC.2.) #onth nor #ore than three (2) #onths fro# the &ate of the last pu$lication of a notice (hich shall $e pu$lishe& once a (ee/ for three (2) consecutive (ee/s in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the province" an& after such other notice to intereste& persons as the court #a% &irect" the court #a% procee& su##aril%" (ithout the appoint#ent of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" an& (ithout &ela%" to 'rant" if proper" allo(ance of the (ill" if an% there $e" to &eter#ine (ho are the persons le'all% entitle& to participate in the estate an& to apportion an& &ivi&e it a#on' the# after the pa%#ent of such &e$ts of the estate as the court shall then fin& to $e &ue7 an& such persons" in their o(n ri'ht" if the% are la(ful a'e an& le'al capacit%" or $% their 'uar&ians or trustees le'all% appointe& an& >ualifie&" if other(ise" shall thereupon $e entitle& to receive an& enter into the possession of the portions of the estate so a(ar&e& to the# respectivel%.2 8henever the 'ross value of the estate of a &ecease& person" (hether he &ie& testate or intestate" &oes not e1cee& ten thousan& pesos" an& that fact if #a&e to appear to the Re'ional Trial Court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate $% the petition of an intereste& person an& upon hearin'" (hich shall $e hel& not less than one (.1ond to be filed by distributees.7iability of distributees and estate.An& if (ithin the sa#e ti#e of t(o (0) %ears" it shall appear that there are &e$ts outstan&in' a'ainst the estate (hich have not $een pai&" or that an heir or other person has $een un&ul% &eprive& of his la(ful participation pa%a$le in #one%" the court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate #a%" $% or&er for that purpose" after hearin'" settle the a#ount of such &e$ts or la(ful participation an& or&er ho( #uch an& in (hat #anner each &istri$utee shall contri$ute in the pa%#ent thereof" an& #a% issue e1ecution" if circu#stances re>uire" a'ainst the $on& provi&e& in the prece&in' section or a'ainst the real estate $elon'in' to the &ecease&" or $oth.The fact of the e1tra3u&icial settle#ent or a&#inistration shall $e pu$lishe& in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the #anner provi&e& in the ne1t succee&in' section7 $ut no e1tra3u&icial settle#ent shall $e $in&in' upon an% person (ho has not participate& therein or ha& no notice thereofSEC.2 !f it shall appear at an% ti#e (ithin t(o (0) %ears after the settle#ent an& &istri$ution of an estate in accor&ance (ith the provisions of either of the first t(o sections of this rule" that an heir or other person has $een un&ul% &eprive& of his la(ful participation in the estate" such heir or such other person #a% co#pel the settle#ent of the estate in the courts in the #anner hereinafter provi&e& for the purpose of satisf%in' such la(ful participation.4.Such $on& an& such real estate shall re#ain char'e& (ith a lia$ilit% to cre&itors" heirs" or other persons for the full perio& of t(o (0) %ears after such &istri$ution" not(ithstan&in' an% transfers of real estate that #a% have $een #a&e- .0.

.A person havin' custo&% of a (ill after the &eath of the testator (ho ne'lects (ithout reasona$le cause to &eliver the sa#e" (hen or&ere& so to &o" to the court havin' 3uris&iction" #a% $e co##itte& to prison an& there /ept until he &elivers the (ill- RULE 76 ALLOWANCE OR DISALLOWANCE OF WILL SECT!O+ .Custodian of will to deliver.2 A person (ho ne'lects an% of the &uties re>uire& in the t(o last prece&in' sections (ithout e1cuse satisfactor% to the court shall $e fine& not e1cee&in' t(o thousan& pesosSEC.(llowance necessary.ecution.Su$3ect to the ri'ht of appeal" such allo(ance of the (ill shall $e conclusive as to its &ue e1ecutionSEC.) %ear after such &isa$ilit% is re#ove&- RULE 75 PRODUCTION OF WILL" ALLOWANCE OF WILL NECESSARY SECT!O+ .SEC..0.ecutor to present will and accept or refuse trust.2 An% e1ecutor" &evisee" or le'atee na#e& in a (ill" or an% other person intereste& in the estate" #a%" at an% ti#e .ecutor sub"ect to fine for neglect.2 +o (ill shall pass either real or personal estate unless it is prove& an& allo(e& in the proper court.$eriod for claim of minor or incapacitated person. Conclusive as to e.4.2 !f on the &ate of the e1piration of the perio& of t(o (0) %ears prescri$e& in the prece&in' section the person authori5e& to file a clai# is a #inor or #entall% incapacitate&" or is in prison or outsi&e the Philippines" he #a% present his clai# (ithin one (.$erson retaining will may be co##itte&-.8ho may petition for the allowance of will.Custodian and e.5.*.2 A person na#e& as e1ecutor in a (ill shall" (ithin t(ent% (0B) &a%s after he /no(s of the &eath of the testator" or (ithin t(ent% (0B) &a%s after he /no(s that $e is na#e& e1ecutor if he o$taine& such /no(le&'e after the &eath of the testator" present such (ill to the court havin' 3uris&iction" unless the (ill has reache& the court in an% other #anner" an& shall" (ithin such perio&" si'nif% to the court in (ritin' his acceptance of the trust or his refusal to accept itSEC.2.2 The person (ho has custo&% of a (ill shall" (ithin t(ent% (0B) &a%s after he /no(s of the &eath of the testator" &eliver the (ill to the court havin' 3uris&iction" or to the e1ecutor na#e& !n the (illSEC.5.

All such testi#on% shall $e ta/en un&er oath an& re&uce& to (ritin'.B) &a%s $efore the &a% of hearin' shall $e e>uivalent to #ailin'!f the testator as/s for the allo(ance of his o(n (ill" notice shall $e sent onl% to his co#pulsor% heirsSEC.2The court shall also cause copies of the notice of the ti#e an& place fi1e& for provin' the (ill to $e a&&resse& to the &esi'nate& or other /no(n heirs" le'atees" an& &evisees of the testator resi&ent in the Philippines at their places of resi&ence" an& &eposite& in the post office (ith the posta'e thereon prepai& at least t(ent% (0B) &a%s $efore the hearin'" if such places of resi&ence $e /no(n. #hat sufficient in absence of contest -.4. and e. devisees.3eirs.ecutors to be notified by mail or personally.Court to appoint time for proving will.5.2A petition for the allo(ance of a (ill #ust sho(" so far as /no(n to the petitioner* (a) The 3uris&ictional facts7 ($) The na#es" a'es" an& resi&ences of the heirs" le'atees" an& &evisees of the testator or &ece&ent7 (c) The pro$a$le value an& character of the propert% of the estate7 (&) The na#e of the person for (ho# letters are pra%e&7 (e) !f the (ill has not $een &elivere& to the court" the na#e of the person havin' custo&% of it)ut no &efect in the petition shall ren&er voi& the allo(ance of the (ill" or the issuance of letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration (ith the (ill anne1e&SEC. %otice thereof to be published.Contents of petition.2 8hen a (ill is &elivere& to" or a petition for the allo(ance of a (ill is file& in" the court havin' 3uris&iction" such court shall fi1 a ti#e an& place for provin' the (ill (hen all concerne& #a% appear to contest the allo(ance thereof" an& shall cause notice of such ti#e an& place to $e pu$lishe& three (2) (ee/s successivel%" previous to the ti#e appointe&" in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the province)ut no ne(spaper pu$lication shall $e #a&e (here the petition for pro$ate has $een file& $% the testator hi#selfSEC.!f no person appears to contest the allo(ance of the .2.after the &eath of the testator" petition the court havin' 3uris&iction to have the (ill allo(e&" (hether the sa#e $e in his possession or not" or is lost or &estro%e&The testator hi#self #a%" &urin' his lifeti#e" petition the court for the allo(ance of his (illSEC.At the hearin' co#pliance (ith the provisions of the last t(o prece&in' sections #ust $e sho(n $efore the intro&uction of testi#on% in support of the (ill.$roof at hearing. legatees.A cop% of the notice #ust in li/e #anner $e #aile& to the person na#e& as e1ecutor" if he $e not the petitioner" also" to an% person na#e& as co<e1ecutor not petitionin'" if their places of resi&ence $e /no(n.Personal service of copies of the notice at least ten (.0.

?.2The (ill shall $e &isallo(e& in an% of the follo(in' cases* (a) !f not e1ecute& an& atteste& as re>uire& $% la(7 ($) !f the testator (as insane" or other(ise #entall% incapa$le to #a/e a (ill" at the ti#e of its e1ecution7 (c) !f it (as e1ecute& un&er &uress" or the influence of fear" or threats7 (&) !f it (as procure& $% un&ue an& i#proper pressure an& influence" on the part of the $eneficiar%" or of so#e other person for his $enefit7 (e) !f the si'nature of the testator (as procure& $% frau& or tric/" an& he &i& not inten& that the instru#ent shoul& $e his (ill at the ti#e of fi1in' his si'nature thereto- .6.@.-rounds for disallowing will.2 !f it appears at the ti#e fi1e& for the hearin' that none of the su$scri$in' (itnesses resi&es in the province" $ut that the &eposition of one or #ore of the# can $e ta/en else(here" the court #a%" on #otion" &irect !t to $e ta/en" an& #a% authori5e a photo'raphic cop% of the (ill to $e #a&e an& to $e presente& to the (itness on his e1a#ination" (ho #a% $e as/e& the sa#e >uestions (ith respect to it an& to the han&(ritin' of the testator an& others" as (oul& $e pertinent an& co#petent if the ori'inal (ill (ere presentSEC.2 !f it appears at the ti#e fi1e& for the hearin' that the su$scri$in' (itnesses are &ea& or insane" or that none of the# resi&es in the Philippines" the court #a% a&#it the testi#on% of other (itnesses to prove the sanit% of the testator" an& the &ue e1ecution of the (ill7 an& as evi&ence of the e1ecution of the (ill" it #a% a&#it proof of the han&(ritin' of the testator an& of the su$scri$in' (itnesses" or of an% of the#SEC.$roof when witnesses do not reside in province.A.!n the a$sence of an% such co#petent (itness" an& if the court &ee# it necessar%" e1pert testi#on% #a% $e resorte& toSEC.+o (ill shall $e prove& as a lost or &estro%e& (ill unless the e1ecution an& vali&it% of the sa#e $e esta$lishe& an& the (ill is prove& to have $een in e1istence at the ti#e of the &eath of the testator" or is sho(n to have $een frau&ulentl% or acci&entall% &estro%e& in the lifeti#e of the testator (ithout his /no(le&'e" nor unless its provisions are clearl% an& &istinctl% prove& $% at least t(o (0) cre&i$le (itnesses.8hen a lost (ill is prove&" the provisions thereof #ust $e &istinctl% state& an& certifie& $% the 3u&'e" un&er the seal of the court" an& the certificate #ust $e file& an& recor&e& as other (ills are file& an& recor&e&SEC.$roof of lost or destroyed will.$roof when witnesses dead or insane or do not reside in the $hilippines. Certificate thereupon. .(ill" the court #a% 'rant allo(ance thereof on the testi#on% of one of the su$scri$in' (itnesses onl%" if such (itness testif% that the (ill (as e1ecute& as is re>uire& $% la(!n the case of a holo'raphic (ill" it shall $e necessar% that at least one (itness (ho /no(s the han&(ritin' an& si'nature of the testator e1plicitl% &eclare that the (ill an& the si'nature are in the han&(ritin' of the testator.

.2 8here the testator hi#self petitions for the pro$ate of his holo'raphic (ill an& no contest is file&" the fact that he affir#s that the holo'raphic (ill an& the si'nature are in his o(n han&(ritin'" shall $e sufficient evi&ence of the 'enuineness an& &ue e1ecution thereof!f the holo'raphic (ill is conteste&" the $ur&en of &isprovin' the 'enuineness an& &ue e1ecution thereof shall $e on the contestant The testator #a%" in his turn" present such a&&itional proof as #a% $e necessar% to re$ut the evi&ence for the contestantSEC.Certificate of allowance attached to proved will.!f the court is satisfie&" upon proof ta/en an& file&" that the (ill (as &ul% e1ecute&" an& that the testator at the ti#e of its e1ecution (as of soun& an& &isposin' #in&" an& not actin' un&er &uress" #enace" an& un&ue influence" or frau&" a certificate of its allo(ance" si'ne& $% the 3u&'e" an& atteste& $% the seal of the court shall $e attache& to the (ill an& the (ill an& certificate file& an& recor&e& $% the cler/.$roof where testator petitions for allowance of holographic will.Subscribing witnesses produced or accounted for where will contested..!f all or so#e of such (itnesses are present in the Philippines $ut outsi&e the province (here the (ill has $een file&" their &eposition #ust $e ta/en... To be recorded in the Office of Register of +eeds-.2 !f the (ill is conteste&" all the su$scri$in' (itnesses" an& the notar% in the case of (ills e1ecute& un&er the Civil Co&e of the Philippines" if present in the Philippines" an& not insane" #ust $e pro&uce& an& e1a#ine&" an& the &eath" a$sence" or insanit% of an% of the# #ust $e satisfactoril% sho(n to the court.Atteste& copies of the (ill &evisin' real estate an& of certificate of allo(ance thereof" shall $e recor&e& in the re'ister of &ee&s of the province in (hich the lan&s lie- RULE 77 ALLOWANCE OF WILL PROVED OUTSIDE OF P ILIPPINES AND ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATE T EREUNDER .SEC..!f an% or all of the# testif% a'ainst the &ue e1ecution of the (ill" or &o not re#e#$er havin' atteste& to it" or are other(ise of &ou$tful cre&i$ilit%" the (ill #a%" nevertheless" $e allo(e& if the court is satisfie& fro# the testi#on% of other (itnesses an& fro# all the evi&ence presente& that the (ill (as e1ecute& an& atteste& in the #anner re>uire& $% la(!f a holo'raphic (ill is conteste&" the sa#e shall $e allo(e& if at least three (2) (itnesses (ho /no( the han&(ritin' of the testator e1plicitl% &eclare that the (ill an& the si'nature are in the han&(ritin' of the testator7 in the a$sence of an% co#petent (itness" an& if the court &ee# it necessar%" e1pert testi#on% #a% $e resorte& toSEC.B..2.2 An%one appearin' to contest the (ill #ust state in (ritin' his 'roun&s for opposin' its allo(ance" an& serve a cop% thereof on the petitioner an& other parties intereste& in the estateSEC.0.Contestant to file grounds of contest.

...2.Such estate" after the pa%#ent of 3ust &e$ts an& e1penses of a&#inistration" shall $e &ispose& of accor&in' to such (ill" so far as such (ill #a% operate upon it7 an& the resi&ue" if an%" shall $e &ispose& of as is provi&e& $% la( in cases of estates in the Philippines $elon'in' to persons (ho are inha$itants of another state or countr%- RULE 78 LETTERS TESTAMENTARY AND OF ADMINISTRATION# W EN AND TO W OM ISSUED SECT!O+ .!arried women may serve. how administered -.2.2 !f it appears at the hearin' that the (ill shoul& $e allo(e& in the Philippines" the court shall so allo( it" an& a certificate of its allo(ance" si'ne& $% the 3u&'e" an& atteste& $% the seal of the court" to (hich shall $e attache& a cop% of the (ill" shall $e file& an& recor&e& $% the cler/" an& the (ill shall have the sa#e effect as if ori'inall% prove& an& allo(e& in such courtSEC.#ill proved outside $hilippines may be allowed here -.%otice of hearing for allowance.SECT!O+ . and effect thereof..The e1ecutor of an e1ecutor shall not" as such" a&#inister the estate of the first testatorSEC.2 8hen a cop% of such (ill an& of the or&er or &ecree of the allo(ance thereof" $oth &ul% authenticate&" are file& (ith a petition for allo(ance in the Philippines" $% the e1ecutor or other person intereste& in the court havin' 3uris&iction" such court shall fi1 a ti#e an& place for the hearin'" an& cause notice thereof to $e 'iven as in case of an ori'inal (ill presente& for allo(anceSEC.#hen will allowed.ecutor of e.8hen a (ill is thus allo(e&" the court shall 'rant letters testa#entar%" or letters of a&#inistration (ith the (ill anne1e&" an& such letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration" shall e1ten& to all the estate of the testator in the Philippines.2 A #arrie& (o#an #a% serve as e1ecutri1 or a&#inistratri1" an& the #arria'e of a sin'le (o#an shall not affect her authorit% so to serve un&er a previous appoint#ent .*.ecutors or administrators. *state.#ho are incompetent to serve as a e.0.2 +o person is co#petent to serve as e1ecutor or a&#inistrator (ho* (a) !s a #inor7 ($) !s not a resi&ent of the Philippines7 an& (c) !s in the opinion of the court unfit to e1ecute the &uties of the trust $% reason of &run/enness" i#provi&ence" or (ant of un&erstan&in' or inte'rit%" or $% reason of conviction of an offense involvin' #oral turpitu&eSEC.8ills prove& an& allo(e& in a forei'n countr%" accor&in' to the la(s of such countr%" #a% $e allo(e&" file&" an& recor&e& $% the proper Re'ional Trial Court in the PhilippinesSEC 0.ecutor not to administer estate -.

#here some coe.2 !f no e1ecutor is na#e& in the (ill" or the e1ecutor or e1ecutors are inco#petent" refuse the trust" or fail to 'ive $on&" or a person &ies intestate" a&#inistration shall $e 'rante&* (a) To the survivin' hus$an& or (ife" as the case #a% $e" or ne1t of /in" or $oth" in the &iscretion of the court" or to such person as such survivin' hus$an& or (ife" or ne1t of /in" re>uests to have appointe&" if co#petent an& (illin' to serve7 ($) !f such survivin' hus$an& or (ife" as the case #a% $e" or ne1t of /in" or the person selecte& $% the#" $e inco#petent or un(illin'" or if the hus$an& or (i&o(" or ne1t of /in" ne'lects for thirt% (2B) &a%s after the &eath of the person to appl% for a&#inistration or to re>uest that a&#inistration $e 'rante& to so#e other person" it #a% $e 'rante& to one or #ore of the principal cre&itors" if co#petent an& (illin' to serve7 (c) !f there is no such cre&itor co#petent an& (illin' to serve" it #a% $e 'rante& to such other person as the court #a% select- RULE 79 OPPOSING ISSUANCE OF LETTERS TESTAMENTARY" PETITION AND CONTEST FOR LETTERS OF ADMINISTRATION SECT!O+ .0..SEC 4 7etters testamentary issued when will allowed. Simultaneous petition for administration-.An% person intereste& in a (ill #a% state in (ritin' the 'roun&s (h% letters testa#entar% shoul& not issue to the persons na#e& therein as e1ecutors" or an% of the#" an& the court" after hearin' upon notice" shall pass upon the sufficienc% of such 'roun&s.5.8hen all of the e1ecutors na#e& in a (ill can not act $ecause of inco#petenc%" refusal to accept the trust" or failure to 'ive $on&" on the part of one or #ore of the#" letters testa#entar% #a% issue to such of the# as are co#petent" accept an& 'ive $on&" an& the% #a% perfor# the &uties an& &ischar'e the trust re>uire& $% the (illSEC.6.#hen and to whom letters of administration granted.ecutors dis6ualified others may act -.A petition #a%" at the sa#e ti#e" $e file& for letters of a&#inistration (ith the (ill anne1e&SEC.2 A petition for letters of a&#inistration #ust $e file& $% an intereste& person an& #ust sho(" so far as /no(n to the petitioner(a) The 3uris&ictional facts7 .28hen a (ill has $een prove& an& allo(e&" the court shall issue letters testa#entar% thereon to the person na#e& as e1ecutor therein" if he is co#petent" accepts the trust" an& 'ives $on& as re>uire& $% these rules SEC.Contents of petition for letters of administration.Opposition to issuance of letters testamentary.

2 8hen a petition for letters of a&#inistration is file& in the court havin' 3uris&iction" such court shall fi1 a ti#e an& place for hearin' the petition" an& shall cause notice thereof to $e 'iven to the /no(n heirs an& cre&itors of the &ece&ent" an& to an% other persons $elieve& to have an interest in the estate" in the 9anner provi&e& in sections 2 an& . Opposition to petition for administration. %otice thereof.3earing and order for letters to issue-.$owers and duties of special administrator.0.At the hearin' of the petition" it #ust first $e sho(n that notice has $een 'iven as hereina$ove re>uire&" an& thereafter the court shall hear the proofs of the parties in support of their respective alle'ations" an& if satisfie& that the &ece&ent left no (ill " or that there is no co#petent an& (illin' e1ecutor" it shall or&er the issuance of letters of a&#inistration to the part% $est entitle& theretoSEC.(ppointment of special administrator.2 An% !ntereste& person #a%" $% filin' a (ritten opposition" contest the petition on the 'roun& of the inco#petenc% of the person for (hose letters are pra%e& therein" or on the 'roun& of the contestantGs o(n ri'ht to the a&#inistration" an& #a% pra% that letter issue to hi#self" or to an% co#petent person or persons na#e& !n the oppositionSEC.2 8hen there is &ela% in 'rantin' letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration $% an% cause inclu&in' an appeal fro# the allo(ance or &isallo(ance of a (ill" the court #a% appoint a special a&#inistrator to ta/e possession an& char'e of the estate of the &ecease& until the >uestions causin' the &ela% are &eci&e& an& e1ecutors or a&#inistrators appointe&SEC.Court to set time for hearing.. of Rule ?6SEC.($) The na#es" a'es" an& resi&ences of the heirs" an& the na#es an& resi&ences of the cre&itors" of the &ece&ent7 (c) The pro$a$le value an& character of the propert% of the estate7 (&) The na#e of the person for (ho# letters of a&#inistration are pra%e&)ut no &efect in the petition shall ren&er voi& the issuance of letters of a&#inistrationSEC.4.5.2 Such special a&#inistrator shall ta/e possession an& char'e of the 'oo&s" chattels" ri'hts" cre&its" an& estate of the &ecease& an& preserve the sa#e for the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator after(ar&s .2.6. ILetters of a&#inistration #a% $e 'rante& to an% >ualifie& applicant" thou'h it appears that there are other co#petent persons havin' $etter ri'ht to the a&#inistration" if such persons fail to appear (hen notifie& an& clai# the issuance of letters to the#selves- RULE 80 SPECIAL ADMINISTRATOR SECT!O+ .#hen letters of administration granted to any applicant.

28hen letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration are 'rante& on the estate of the &ecease&" the po(ers of the special a&#inistrator shall cease" an& he shall forth(ith &eliver to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator the 'oo&s" chattels" #one%" an& estate of the &ecease& in his han&s.2.=e #a% sell onl% such perisha$le an& other propert% as the court or&ers sol&.ecutor where directed in will.1onds of "oint e.ecutors and administrators.2 8hen t(o or #ore persons are appointe& e1ecutors or a&#inistrators the court #a% ta/e a separate $on& fro# each" or a 3oint $on& fro# all- .#hen powers of special administrator cease. (mount.2.2 !f the testator in his (ill &irects that the e1ecutor serve (ithout $on&" or (ith onl% his !n&ivi&ual $on&" he #a% $e allo(e& $% the court to 'ive $on& in such su# an& (ith such suret% as the court approves con&itione& onl% to pa% the &e$ts of the testator7 $ut the court #a% re>uire of the e1ecutor a further $on& in case of a chan'e in his circu#stances" or for other sufficient cause" (ith the con&itions na#e& in the last prece&in' sectionSEC.1ond of e. .1ond to be given before issuance of letters.A special a&#inistrator shall not $e lia$le to pa% an% &e$ts of the &ecease& unless so or&ere& $% the courtSEC.. Transfer of effects.) %ear" an& at an% other ti#e (hen re>uire& $% the court7 (&) To perfor# all or&ers of the court $% hi# to $e perfor#e&SEC. Conditions.appointe&" an& for that purpose #a% co##ence an& #aintain suits as a&#inistrator. )efore an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator enters upon the e1ecution of his trust" an& letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration issue" he shall 'ive a $on&" in such su# as the court &irects" con&itione& as follo(s* (a) To #a/e an& return to the court" (ithin three (2) #onths" a true an& co#plete inventor% of all 'oo&s" chattels" ri'hts" cre&its" an& estate of the &ecease& (hich shall co#e to his possession or /no(le&'e or to the possession of an% other person for hi#7 ($) To a&#inister accor&in' to these rules" an&" if an e1ecutor" accor&in' to the (ill of the testator" all 'oo&s" chattels" ri'hts" cre&its" an& estate (hich shall at an% ti#e co#e to his possession or to the possession of an% other person for hi#" an& fro# the procee&s to pa% an& &ischar'e all &e$ts" le'acies" an& char'es on the sa#e" or such &ivi&en&s thereon as shall $e &ecree& $% the court7 (c) To ren&er a true an& 3ust account of his a&#inistration to the court (ithin one (.0. $ending suits. #hen further bond re6uired.The e1ecutor or a&#inistrator #a% prosecute to final 3u&'#ent suits co##ence& $% such special a&#inistrator- RULE 81 !ONDS OF E&ECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS SECT!O+ .

ecutor or administrator. or removal to be valid -.(cts before revocation.The la(ful acts of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator $efore the revocation of his letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration" or $efore his resi'nation or re#oval" shall have the li/e vali&it% if there has $een no such revocation resi'nation" or re#ovalSEC.ecutor or administrator. resignation. or removal.0.or a&#inistrator #a% a&#inister the trust alone" unless the court 'rants letters to so#eone to act (ith hi#.Procee&in's for the issuance of letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration un&er the (ill shall $e as herein$efore provi&e&SEC.!f there is no re#ainin' e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" a&#inistration #a% $e 'rante& to an% suita$le personSEC.4. $roceedings thereupon.IThe person to (ho# letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration are 'rante& after the revocation of for#er letters" or the &eath" resi'nation" or re#oval of a for#er e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" shall have the li/e po(ers to collect an& settle the estate not a&#inistere& that the for#er e1ecutor or a&#inistrator ha&" an& #a% prosecute of &efen& actions co##ence& $% or a'ainst the for#er e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" an& have e1ecution on 3u&'#ents recovere& in the na#e of such for#er e1ecutor or a&#inistrator.8hen an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator &ies" resi'ns" or is re#ove&" the re#ainin' e1ecutor.4.2A special a&#inistrator $efore enterin' upon the &uties of his trust shall 'ive a $on&" in such su# as the court &irects" con&itione& that he (ill #a/e an& return a true inventor% of the 'oo&s" chattels" ri'hts" cre&its" an& estate of the &ecease& (hich co#e to his possession or /no(le&'e" an& that he (ill trul% account for such as are receive& $% hi# (hen re>uire& $% the court" an& (ill &eliver the sa#e to the person appointe& e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" or to such other person as #a% $e authori5e& to receive the#- RULE 82 REVOCATION OF ADMINISTRATION# DEAT # RESIGNATION# AND REMOVAL OF E&ECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS SECT!O+ .2.An authorit% 'rante& $% the court to the for#er e1ecutor a&#inistrator for .2 !f an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator ne'lects to ren&er his account an& settle the estate accor&in' to la(" or to perfor# an or&er or 3u&'#ent of the court" or a &ut% e1pressl% provi&e& $% these rule-" or a$scon&s" or $eco#es insane" or other(ise incapa$le or unsuita$le to &ischar'e the trust" the court #a% re#ove hi#" or" in its &iscretion" #a% per#it hi# to resi'n. Renewal of license to sell real estate.2 !f after letters of a&#inistration have $een 'rante& on the estate of a &ece&ent as if he ha& &ie& intestate" his (ill is prove& an& allo(e& $% the court" the letters of a&#inistration shall $e revo/e& an& all po(ers thereun&er cease an& the a&#inistrator shall forth(ith surren&er the letters to the court" an& ren&er his account (ithin such ti#e as the court &irects.(dministration revo)ed if will discovered..1ond of special administrator. $roceedings upon death. resignation.$owers of new e.SEC.Court may remove or accept resignation of e.

3ow right enforced.the sale or #ort'a'e of real estate #a% $e rene(e& in favor of such person (ithout further notice or hearin'- RULE 83 INVENTORY AND APPRAISAL" PROVISION FOR SUPPORT OF FAMILY SECT!O+ .On the (ritten application of such e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" the Court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate #a% or&er an% such survivin' partner or partners to freel% per#it the e1ercise of the ri'hts" an& to e1hi$it the $oo/s" papers" an& propert%" as in this section provi&e&" an& #a% punish an% partner failin' to &o so for conte#pt- .ecutor or administrator to have access to partnership boo)s and property.2.2The e1ecutor or a&#inistrator of the estate of a &ecease& partner shall at all ti#es have access to" an& #a% e1a#ine an& ta/e copies of" $oo/s an& papers relatin' to the partnership $usiness" an& #a% e1a#ine an& #a/e invoices of the propert% $elon'in' to such partnership7 an& the survivin' partner or partners" on re>uest" shall e1hi$it to hi# all such $oo/s" papers" an& propert% in their han&s or control.*.0.2The (i&o( an& #inor or incapacitate& chil&ren of a &ecease& person" &urin' the settle#ent of the estate" shall receive therefro#" un&er the &irection of the court" such allo(ance as are provi&e& $% la(- RULE 84 GENERAL POWERS AND DUTIES OF E&ECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS SECT!O+ .The (earin' apparel of the survivin' hus$an& or (ife an& #inor chil&ren" the #arria'e $e& an& $e&&in'" an& such provisions an& other articles as (ill necessaril% $e consu#e& in the su$sistence of the fa#il% of the &ecease&" un&er the &irection of the court" shall not $e consi&ere& as assets" nor a&#inistere& as such" an& shall not $e inclu&e& in the inventor%SEC.Certain articles not to be inventoried -.Inventory and appraisal to be returned within three months..(llowance to widow and family.2 8ithin three (2) #onths after his appoint#ent ever% e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall return to the court a true inventor% an& appraisal of all the real an& personal estate of the &ecease& (hich has co#e into his possession or /no(le&'e..!n the appraise#ent of such estate" the court #a% or&er one or #ore of the inheritance ta1 appraisers to 'ive his or their assistanceSEC.

2 8hen an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator ne'lects or unreasona$l% &ela%s to raise #one%" $% collectin' the &e$ts or sellin' the real or personal estate of the &ecease&" or ne'lects to pa% over the #one% he has in his han&s" an& the value of the estate is there$% lessene& or .*.(ccountable for income from realty used by him.ecutor or administrator to )eep buildings in repair.*.ecutor or administrator to retain whole estate to pay debts.2 +o e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall profit $% the increase" or suffer loss $% the &ecrease or &estruction" (ithout his fault" of an% part of the estate.%ot to profit by increase or lose by decrease in value.SEC.2.2 An e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall #aintain in tenanta$le repair the houses an& other structures an& fences $elon'in' to the estate" an& &eliver the sa#e in such repair to the heirs or &evisees (hen &irecte& so to &o $% the courtSEC.2 +o e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall $e accounta$le for &e$ts &ue the &ecease& (hich re#ain uncollecte& (ithout his faultSEC.(ccountable if he neglects or delays to raise or pay money.4.5.ecutor or administrator chargeable with all estate and income -. and to administer estate not willed. E1cept as other(ise e1pressl% provi&e& in the follo(in' sections" ever% e1ecutor or a&#inistrator is char'ea$le in his account (ith the (hole of the estate of the &ecease& (hich has co#e into his possession" at the value of the appraise#ent containe& in the inventor%7 (ith all the interest" profit" an& inco#e of such estate7 an& (ith the procee&s of so #uch of the estate as is sol& $% hi#" at the price at (hich it (as sol&SEC.2An e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall have the ri'ht to the possession an& #ana'e#ent of the real as (ell as the personal estate of the &ecease& so lon' as it is necessar% for the pa%#ent of the &e$ts an& the e1penses of a&#inistration- RULE 85 ACCOUNTA!ILITY AND COMPENSATION OF E&ECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS SECT!O+ .2 !f the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator uses or occupies an% part of the real estate hi#self" he shall account for it as #a% $e a'ree& upon $et(een hi# an& the parties intereste&" or a&3uste& $% the court (ith their assent7 an& if the parties &o not a'ree upon the su# to $e allo(e&" the sa#e #a% $e ascertaine& $% the court" (hose &eter#ination in this respect shall $e finalSEC.*.!f he settles an% clai# a'ainst the estate for less than its no#inal value" he is entitle& to char'e in his account onl% the a#ount he actuall% pai& on the settle#entSEC.0.=e #ust account for the e1cess (hen he sells an% part of the estate for #ore than the appraise#ent" an& if an% is sol& for less than the appraise#ent" he is not responsi$le for the loss" if the sale has $een 3ustl% #a&e.2..0.#hen not accountable for debts due estate.

#hat e.The heirs" .?.2 Ever% e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall ren&er an account of his a&#inistration (ithin one (.!f o$3ection to the fees allo(e& $e ta/en" the allo(ance #a% $e re<e1a#ine& on appeal!f there are t(o or #ore e1ecutors or a&#inistrators" the co#pensation shall $e apportione& a#on' the# $% the court accor&in' to the services actuall% ren&ere& $% the# respectivel%8hen the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator is an attorne%" he shall not char'e a'ainst the estate an% professional fees for le'al services ren&ere& $% hi#8hen the &ecease& $% (ill #a/es so#e other provision for the co#pensation of his e1ecutor" that provision shall $e a full satisfaction for his services unless $% a (ritten instru#ent file& in the court he renounces all clai# to the co#pensation provi&e& $% the (illSEC. %ot to charge for services as attorney.*.6. Compensation provided by will controls unless renounced.ecutor or administrator to render account.aminations on oath with respect to account -.@.) %ear fro# the ti#e of receivin' letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration" unless the court other(ise &irects $ecause of e1tensions of ti#e for presentin' clai#s a'ainst" or pa%in' the &e$ts of" the estate" or for &isposin' of the estate7 an& he shall ren&er such further accounts as the court #a% re>uire until the estate is (holl% settle&SEC.A.penses and fees allowed e.)ut in an% special case" (here the estate is lar'e" an& the settle#ent has $een atten&e& (ith 'reat &ifficult%" an& has re>uire& a hi'h &e'ree of capacit% on the part of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" a 'reater su# #a% $e allo(e&.2 The a#ount pai& $% an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator for costs a(ar&e& a'ainst hi# shall $e allo(e& in his a&#inistration account" unless it appears that the action or procee&in' in (hich the costs are ta1e& (as prosecute& or resiste& (ithout 3ust cause" an& not in 'oo& faithSEC.unnecessar% cost or interest accrues" or the persons intereste& suffer loss" the sa#e shall $e &ee#e& (aste an& the &a#a'e sustaine& #a% $e char'e& an& allo(e& a'ainst hi# in his account" an& he shall $e lia$le therefor on his $on&SEC.ecutor or administrator.#hen allowed money paid as costs.2 An e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall $e allo(e& the necessar% e1penses in the case" #ana'e#ent" an& settle#ent of the estate" an& for his services" four pesos per &a% for the ti#e actuall% an& necessaril% e#plo%e&" or a co##ission upon the value of so #uch of the estate as co#es into his possession an& is finall% &ispose& of $% hi# in the pa%#ent of &e$ts" e1penses" le'acies" or &istri$utive shares" or $% &eliver% to heirs or &evisees" of t(o per centum of the first five thousan& pesos of such value" one per centum of so #uch of such value as e1cee&s five thousan& pesos an& &oes not e1cee& thirt% thousan& pesos" one<half per centum of so #uch of such value as e1cee&s thirt% thousan& pesos an& &oes not e1cee& one hun&re& thousan& pesos" an& one<>uarter per centum of so #uch of such value as e1cee&s one hun&re& thousan& pesos.#hen e.The court #a% e1a#ine the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator upon oath (ith respect to ever% #atter relatin' to an% account ren&ere& $% hi#" an& shall so e1a#ine hi# as to the correctness of his account $efore the sa#e is allo(e&" e1cept (hen no o$3ection is #a&e to the allo(ance of the account an& its correctness is satisfactoril% esta$lishe& $% co#petent proof.

2 !n the notice provi&e& in the prece&in' section" the court shall state the ti#e for the filin' of clai#s a'ainst the estate" (hich shall not $e #ore than t(elve (..4.B.5..)efore the account of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator is allo(e&" notice shall $e 'iven to persons intereste& of the ti#e an& place of e1a#inin' an& allo(in' the sa#e7 an& such notice #a% $e 'iven personall% to such persons intereste& or $% a&vertise#ent in a ne(spaper or ne(spapers" or $oth" as the court &irectsSEC.2 Upon the.0) nor less than si1 (6) #onths after the &ate of the first pu$lication of the notice. e.2 Ever% e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall" i##e&iatel% alter the notice to cre&itors is issue&" cause the sa#e to $e pu$lishe& three (2) (ee/s successivel% in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the province" an& to $e poste& for the sa#e perio& in four pu$lic places in the province" an& in t(o pu$lic places in the #unicipalit% (here the &ece&ent last resi&e& SEC.4iling copy of printed notice..@.Surety on bond may be party to accounting. 2All clai#s for #one% a'ainst the &ece&ent" arisin' fro# contract" e1press or i#plie&" (hether the sa#e $e &ue" not &ue" or contin'ent" all clai#s for funeral e1penses an& .settle#ent of the account of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" a person lia$le as suret% in respect to such account #a%" upon application" $e a&#itte& as part% to such accountin'- RULE 86 CLAIMS AGAINST ESTATE SECT!O+ . If not filed.B) &a%s after the notice has $een pu$lishe& an& poste& n accor&ance (ith the prece&in' section" the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall file or cause to $e file& in the court a printe& cop% of the notice acco#panie& (ith an affi&avit settin' forth the &ates of the first an& last pu$lication thereof an& the na#e of the ne(spaper in (hich the sa#e is printe&SEC.Claims which must be filed under the notice...le'atees" &istri$utees" an& cre&itors of the estate shall have the sa#e privile'e as the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator of $ein' e1a#ine& on oath on an% #atter relatin' to an a&#inistration accountSEC..8ithin ten (.=o(ever" at an% ti#e $efore an or&er of &istri$ution is entere&" on application of a cre&itor (ho has faile& to file his clai# (ithin the ti#e previousl% li#ite&" the court #a%" for cause sho(n an& on such ter#s as are e>uita$le" allo( such clai# to $e file& (ithin a ti#e not e1cee&in' one (. Time within which claims shall be filed.%otice to creditors to be issued by court.(ccount to be settled on notice-.ceptions.2 !##e&iatel% after 'rantin' letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration" the court shall issue a notice re>uirin' all persona havin' #one% clai#s a'ainst the &ece&ent to file the# in the office of the cler/ of sai& courtSEC.$ublication of notice to creditors. barred.2.) #onthSEC.

!f the clai# $e foun&e& on a $on&" $ill" note" or an% other instru#ent" the ori'inal nee& not $e file&" $ut a cop% thereof (ith all in&orse#ents shall $e attache& to the clai# an& file& there(ith- .Claim of e.e1penses for the last sic/ness of the &ece&ent" an& 3u&'#ent for #one% a'ainst the &ece&ent" #ust $e file& (ithin the ti#e li#ite& in the notice7 other(ise the% are $arre& forever" e1cept that the% #a% $e set forth as counterclai#s in an% action that the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator #a% $rin' a'ainst the clai#ants.ecutor or administrator against an estate.8here an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator co##ences an action" or prosecutes an action alrea&% co##ence& $% the &ecease& in his lifeti#e" the &e$tor #a% set forth $% ans(er the clai#s he has a'ainst the &ece&ent" instea& of presentin' the# in&epen&entl% to the court as herein provi&e&" an& #utual clai#s #a% $e set off a'ainst each other in such action7 an& if final 3u&'#ent is ren&ere& in favor of the &efen&ant" the a#ount so &eter#ine& shall $e consi&ere& the true $alance a'ainst the estate" as thou'h the clai# ha& $een presente& &irectl% $efore the court in the a&#inistration procee&in's.!n a 3oint o$li'ation of the &ece&ent" the clai# shall $e confine& to the portion $elon'in' to hi#SEC. !ortgage debt due from estate.3ow to file a claim. Contents thereof %otice to e.8here the o$li'ation of the &ece&ent is soli&ar% (ith another &e$tor" the clai# shall $e file& a'ainst the &ece&ent as if he (ere the onl% &e$tor" (ithout pre3u&ice to the ri'ht of the estate to recover contri$ution fro# the other &e$tor.6.Clai#s not %et &ue" or contin'ent" #a% $e approve& at their present valueSEC.2If the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator has a clai# a'ainst the estate he represents" he shall 'ive notice thereof" in (ritin'" to the court" an& the court shall appoint a special a&#inistrator" (ho shall" in the a&3ust#ent of such clai#" have the sa#e po(er an& $e su$3ect to the sa#e lia$ilit% as the 'eneral a&#inistrator or e1ecutor in the settle#ent of other clai#s.ecutor or administrator.<.2 A clai# #a% $e file& $% &eliverin' the sa#e (ith the necessar% vouchers to the cler/ of court an& $% servin' a cop% thereof on the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator.Solidary obligation of decedent -.2 A cre&itor hol&in' a clai# a'ainst the &ecease& secure& $% #ort'a'e or other collateral securit%" #a% a$an&on the securit% an& prosecute his clai# in the #anner provi&e& in this rule" an& share in the 'eneral &istri$ution of the assets of the estate7 or he #a% foreclose his #ort'a'e or reali5e upon his securit%" $% action in court" #a/in' the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator a part% &efen&ant" an& if there is a 3u&'#ent for a &eficienc%" after the sale of the #ort'a'e& pre#ises" or the propert% ple&'e&" in the foreclosure or other procee&in's to reali5e upon the securit%" he #a% clai# his &eficienc% 3u&'#ent in the #anner provi&e& in the prece&in' section7 or he #a% rel% upon his #ort'a'e or other securit% alone" an& foreclose the sa#e at an% ti#e (ithin the perio& of the statute of li#itations" an& in that event he shall not $e a&#itte& as a cre&itor" an& shall receive no share in the &istri$ution of the other assets of the estate7 $ut nothin' herein containe& shall prohi$it the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator fro# re&ee#in' the propert% #ort'a'e& or ple&'e&" $% pa%in' the &e$t for (hich it is hel& as securit%" un&er the &irection of the court" if the court shall a&3u&'e it to $e for the $est interest of the estate that such re&e#ption shall $e #a&eSEC.A.@.The court #a% or&er the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to pa% to the special a&#inistrator necessar% fun&s to &efen& such clai#SEC.

Offsets..B.2(ny clai# a&#itte& entirel% $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall i##e&iatel% $e su$#itte& $% the cler/ to the court (ho #a% approve the sa#e (ithout hearin'7 $ut the court" in its &iscretion" $efore approvin' the clai#" #a% or&er that /no(n heirs" le'atees" or &evisees $e notifie& an& hear&.8hen the affi&avit is #a&e $% a person other than the clai#ant" he #ust set forth therein the reason (h% it is not #a&e $% the clai#ant.2Upon the filin' of an ans(er to a clai#" or upon the e1piration of the ti#e for such filin'" the cler/ of court shall set the clai# for trial (ith notice to $oth parties.The e1ecutor or a&#inistrator in his ans(er shall alle'e in offset an% clai# (hich the &ece&ent $efore &eath ha& a'ainst the clai#ant" an& his failure to &o so shall $ar the clai# forever.2.8here an action co##ence& a'ainst the &ecease& for #one% has $een .!f upon hearin'" an heir" le'atee" or &evisee opposes the clai#" the court #a%" in its &iscretion" allo( hi# fifteen (.8hen the clai# is &ue" it #ust $e supporte& $% affi&avit statin' the a#ount 3ustl% &ue" that no pa%#ents have $een #a&e thereon (hich are not cre&ite&" an& that there are no offsets to the sa#e" to the /no(le&'e of the affiant..28hen the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" in his ans(er" a&#its an& offers to pa% part of a clai#" an& the clai#ant refuses to accept the a#ount offere& in satisfaction of his clai#" if he fails to o$tain a #ore favora$le 3u&'#ent" he cannot recover costs" $ut #ust pa% to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator costs fro# the ti#e of the offer.!f the clai# is not &ue" or is contin'ent" (hen file&" it #ust also $e supporte& $% affi&avit statin' the particulars thereof.0.A 3u&'#ent a'ainst the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall $e that he pa%" in &ue course of a&#inistration" the a#ount ascertaine& to $e &ue" an& it shall not create an% lien upon the propert% of the estate" or 'ive to the 3u&'#ent cre&itor an% priorit% of pa%#entSEC.Costs.(nswer of e.2 8ithin fifteen (.A cop% of the ans(er shall $e serve& $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator on the clai#ant.5) &a%s to file an ans(er to the clai# in the #anner prescri$e& in the prece&in' sectionSEC..+isposition of admitted claim.4.5) &a%s after service of a cop% of the clai# on the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" he shall file his ans(er a&#ittin' or &en%in' the clai# specificall%" an& settin' forth the su$stance of the #atters (hich are relie& upon to support the a&#ission or &enial.On &e#an&" ho(ever" of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" or $% or&er of the court or 3u&'e" the ori'inal shall $e e1hi$ite&" unless it $e lost or &estro%e&" in (hich case the clai#ant #ust acco#pan% his clai# (ith affi&avit or affi&avits containin' a cop% or particular &escription of the instru#ent an& statin' its loss or &estruction.The clai# once file& shall $e attache& to the recor& of the case in (hich the letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration (ere issue&" althou'h the court" in its &iscretion" an& as a #atter of convenience" #a% or&er all the clai#s to $e collecte& in a separate fol&erSEC..udgment appealable...The court in its &iscretion #a% e1ten& the ti#e for filin' such ans(erSEC.ecutor or administrator.Trial of contested claim.The court #a% refer the clai# to a co##issionerSEC.2The 3u&'#ent of the court approvin' or &isapprovin' a clai#" shall $e file& (ith the recor& of the a&#inistration procee&in's (ith notice to $oth parties" an& is appeala$le as in or&inar% cases.!f he has no /no(le&'e sufficient to ena$le hi# to a&#it or &en% specificall%" he shall state such (ant of /no(le&'e..

&iscontinue& an& the clai# e#$race& therein presente& as in this rule provi&e&" the prevailin' part% shall $e allo(e& the costs of his action up to the ti#e of its &iscontinuance- RULE 87 ACTIONS !Y AND AGAINST E&ECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS SECT!O+ . embe55led.2 A #ort'a'e $elon'in' to the estate of a &ecease& person" as #ort'a'ee or assi'nee of the ri'ht of a #ort'a'ee" #a% $e foreclose& $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistratorSEC.ecutor or administrator may compound with debtor.2 8ith the approval of the court" an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator #a% co#poun& (ith the &e$tor of the &ecease& for a &e$t &ue" an& #a% 'ive a &ischar'e of such &e$t on receivin' a 3ust &ivi&en& of the estate of the &e$torSEC.!ortgage due estate may be foreclosed.(ctions which may and which may not be brought against e.2+o action upon a clai# for the recover% of #one% or &e$t or interest thereon shall $e co##ence& a'ainst the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator7 $ut actions to recover real or personal propert%" or an interest therein" fro# the estate" or to enforce a lien thereon" an& actions to recover &a#a'es for an in3ur% to person or propert%" real or personal" #a% $e co##ence& a'ainst hi#SEC.2.ecutor or administrator. or fraudulently conveyed.6.2!f an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" heir" le'atee" cre&itor" or other in&ivi&ual intereste& in the estate of the &ecease&" co#plains to the court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate that a person is suspecte& of havin' conceale&" e#$e55le&" or conve%e& a(a% an% of the #one%" 'oo&s" or chattels of the &ecease&" or that such person has in his possession or has /no(le&'e of an% &ee&" conve%ance" $on&" contracts" or other (ritin' (hich contains evi&ence of or ten&s to &isclose the ri'ht" title" interest" or clai# of the &ecease& to real or personal estate" or the last (ill an& testa#ent of the &ecease&" the court #a% cite such suspecte& person to appear $efore it an& #a% e1a#ine hi# on oath on the #atter of such co#plaint7 an& if the person so cite& refuses to appear" or to ans(er on such e1a#ination such interro'atories as are put to .5..$roceedings when property concealed.0.3eir may not sue until share assigned.4.For the recover% or protection of the propert% or ri'hts of the &ecease&" an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator #a% $rin' or &efen&" in the ri'ht of the &ecease&" actions for causes (hich surviveSEC.ecutor or administrator may bring or defend actions which survive -.*.*.2 8hen an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator is appointe& an& assu#es the trust" no action to recover the title or possession of lan&s or for &a#a'es &one to such lan&s shall $e #aintaine& a'ainst hi# $% an heir or &evisee until there is an or&er of the court assi'nin' such lan&s to such heir or &evisee or until the ti#e allo(e& for pa%in' &e$ts has e1pire&SEC.

$erson entrusted with estate compelled to render account.2 The court" on co#plaint of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" #a% cite a person entruste& $% an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator (ith an% part of the estate of the &ecease& to appear $efore it" an& #a% re>uire such person to ren&er a full account" on oath" of the #one%" 'oo&s" chattels" $on&s" accounts" or other papers $elon'in' to such estate as ca#e to his possession in trust for such e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" an& of his procee&in's thereon7 an& if the person so cite& refuses to appear to ren&er such account" the court #a% punish hi# for conte#pt as havin' &iso$e%e& a la(ful or&er of the courtSEC.ecutor or administrator must bring action.@.B.2 8hen there is such a &eficienc% of assets" an& the &ecease& in his lifeti#e ha& #a&e or atte#pte& such a conve%ance" as is state& in the last prece&in' section" an& the e1ecutor an& a&#inistrator has not co##ence& the action therein provi&e& for" an% cre&itor of the estate #a%" (ith the per#ission of the court" co##ence an& prosecute to final 3u&'#ent" in the na#e of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" a li/e action for the recover% of the su$3ect of the conve%ance or atte#pte& conve%ance for the $enefit of the cre&itors)ut the action shall not $e co##ence& until the cre&itor has file& in a court a $on& e1ecute& to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" in an a#ount approve& $% the 3u&'e" con&itione& to in&e#nif% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator a'ainst the costs an& e1penses incurre& $% reason of such action.Such cre&itor shall have a lien upon an% 3u&'#ent recovere& $% hi# in the action for such costs an& other e1penses incurre& therein as the court &ee#s e>uita$le.#hen creditor may bring action.A.The interro'atories put to an% such person" an& his ans(ers thereto" shall $e in (ritin' an& shall $e file& in the cler/Gs officeSEC.2 8hen there is a &eficienc% of assets in the han&s of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator for the pa%#ent of &e$ts an& e1penses of a&#inistration" an& the &ecease& in his lifeti#e ha& conve%e& real or personal propert%" or a ri'ht or interest therein" or &e$t or cre&it" (ith intent to &efrau& his cre&itors or to avoi& an% ri'ht &e$t" or &ut%7 or ha& so conve%e& such propert%" ri'ht" interest" &e$t" or cre&itors" an& the su$3ect of the atte#pte& conve%ance (oul& $e lia$le to attach#ent $% an% of the# in his lifeti#e" the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator #a% co##ence an& prosecute to final 3u&'#ent an action for the recover% of such propert%" ri'ht" interest" &e$ts" or cre&it for the $enefit of the cre&itors7 $ut he shall not $e $oun& to co##ence the action unless the cre&itors #a/in' the application pa% such part of the costs an& e1penses" or 'ive securit% therefor to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" as the court &ee#s e>uita$leSEC.8here the conve%ance or atte#pte& conve%ance has $een #a&e $% the &ecease& in his lifeti#e in favor of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" the action .2 !f a person" $efore the 'rantin' of letters testa#entar% or of a&#inistration on the estate of the &ecease&" e#$e55les or alienates an% of the #one%" 'oo&s" chattels" or effect of such &ecease&" such person shall $e lia$le to an action in favor of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator of the estate for &ou$le the value of the propert% sol&" e#$e55le&" or alienate&" to $e recovere& for the $enefit of such estateSEC.hi#" the court #a% punish hi# for conte#pt" an& #a% co##it hi# to prison until he su$#its to the or&er of the court.$roperty fraudulent conveyed by deceased may be recovered.*mbe55lement before letters issued.?. #hen e. 7ien for cost..

$ersonalty first chargeable for debts.)ut if the clai# is not so presente&" after havin' $eco#e a$solute" (ithin sai& t(o (0) %ears" an& allo(e&" the assets retaine& in the han&s of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" not e1hauste& in the .2 !f such contin'ent clai# $eco#es a$solute an& is presente& to the court" or to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" (ithin t(o (0) %ears fro# the ti#e li#ite& for other cre&itors to present their clai#s" it #a% $e allo(e& $% the court if not &ispute& $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" an&" if &ispute&" it #a% $e prove& an& allo(e& or &isallo(e& $% the court as facts #a% (arrant..5.*state to be retained to meet contingent claims.2. then realty.(hich a cre&itor #a% $rin' shall $e in the na#e of all the cre&itors" an& per#ission of the court an& filin' of $on& as a$ove prescri$e&" are not necessar%- RULE 88 PAYMENT OF T E DE!TS OF T E STATE SECT!O+ .0.2 !f the court is satisfie& that a contin'ent clai# &ul% file& is vali&" it #a% or&er the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to retain in his han&s sufficient estate to pa% such contin'ent clai# (hen the sa#e $eco#es a$solute" or" if the estate is insolvent" sufficient to pa% a portion e>ual to the &ivi&en& of the other cre&itorsSEC.!f the contin'ent clai# is allo(e&" the cre&itor shall receive pa%#ent to the sa#e e1tent as the other cre&itors if the estate retaine& $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator is sufficient.2 The personal estate of the &ecease& not &ispose& of $% (ill shall $e first char'ea$le (ith the pa%#ent of &e$ts an& e1penses7 an& if sai& personal estate is not sufficient for that purpose" or its sale (oul& re&oun& to the &etri#ent of the participants of the estate" the (hole of the real estate not &ispose& of $% (ill" or so #uch thereof as is necessar%" #a% $e sol&" #ort'a'e&" or other(ise encu#$ere& for that purpose $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" after o$tainin' the authorit% of the court thereof.2!f" after hearin' all the #one% clai#s a'ainst the estate" an& after ascertainin' the a#ount of such clai#s" it appears that there are sufficient assets to pa% the &e$ts" the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall pa% the sa#e (ithin the ti#e li#ite& for that purposeSEC. (ction against distributes later.2 !f the testator #a/es provision $% his (ill" or &esi'nates the estate to $e appropriate& for the pa%#ent of his &e$ts" the e1penses of a&#inistration" or the fa#il% e1penses" the% shall pai& accor&in' to the provisions of the (ill7 $ut if the provision #a&e $% the (ill or the state appropriate&" is not sufficient for that purpose" such part of the state of the testator" real or personal" as is not &ispose& of $% (ill" if an%" shall $e appropriate& for that purposeSEC.+ebts paid in full if estate sufficient.An% &eficienc% shall $e #et $% contri$utions in accor&ance (ith the provisions of section 6 of this ruleSEC.$art of estate from which debt paid when provision made by will.3ow contingent claim becoming absolute in two years allowed and paid.4.

of the Civil Co&eSEC.. contributive shares where devisees.+o cre&itor of an% one class shall receive an% pa%#ent until those of the prece&in' class are pai&SEC.A.B. how disposed of.B5A an& 002A to 005.*state of insolvent nonresident. !n case a&#inistration is ta/en in the Philippines of the estate of a person (ho (as at the ti#e of his &eath an inha$itant of another countr%" an& (ho &ie& insolvent" his estate foun& in the Philippines shall" as far as practica$le" $e so &ispose& of that his cre&itors here an& else(here #a% receive each an e>ual share" in proportion to their respective cre&itsSEC. .?.Order of payment if estate insolvent.6. .Court to fi. !f there are no assets sufficient to pa% the cre&its of an% one class of cre&itors after pa%in' the cre&its entitle& to preference over it" each cre&itor (ithin such class shall $e pai& a &ivi&en& in propor< tion to his clai#. !f it appears to the court havin' 3uris&iction that clai#s have $een &ul% proven in another countr% a'ainst the estate of an insolvent (ho (as at the ti#e of his &eath an inha$itant of the Philippines" an& that the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator in the Philippines ha& /no(le&'e of the presentation of such clai#s in such countr% an& an opportunit% to contest their allo(ance" the court shall receive a certifie& list of such clai#s" (hen perfecte& in such countr%" an& a&& the sa#e to the list of clai#s prove& a'ainst the &ecease& person in the Philippines so that a 3ust &istri$ution of the (hole estate #a% $e #a&e e>uall% a#on' all its cre&itors accor&in' to their respective clai#s7 $ut the $enefit of this an& the prece&in' sections shall not $e e1ten&e& to the cre&itors in another countr% if the propert% of such &ecease& person there foun& is not e>uall% apportione& to the cre&itors resi&in' in the Philippines an& the other cre&itors" accor&in' to their respective clai#sSEC. .Order for payment of debts. ..#hen and how claim proved outside the $hilippines against insolvent residentAs estate paid. legatees. !f the assets (hich can $e appropriate& for the pa%#ent of &e$ts are not sufficient for that purpose" the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall pa% the &e$ts a'ainst the estate" o$servin' the provisions of Articles .. )efore the e1piration of the ti#e li#ite& for the pa%#ent of the &e$ts" the court shall or&er the pa%#ent thereof" an& the &istri$ution . 8here &evisees" le'atees" or heirs have entere& into possession of portions of the estate $efore the &e$ts an& e1penses have $een settle& an& pai&" an& have $eco#e lia$le to contri$ute for the pa%#ent of such &e$ts an& e1penses" the court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate #a%" $% or&er for that purpose" after hearin'" settle the a#ount of their several lia$ilities" an& or&er ho( #uch an& in (hat #anner each person shall contri$ute" an& #a% issue e1ecution as circu#stances re>uireSEC.pa%#ent of clai#s" shall $e &istri$ute& $% the or&er of the court to the persons entitle& to the sa#e7 $ut the assets so &istri$ute& #a% still $e applie& to the pa%#ent of the clai# (hen esta$lishe&" an& the cre&itor #a% #aintain an action a'ainst the &istri$utees to recover the &e$t" an& such &istri$utees an& their estates shall $e lia$le for the &e$t in proportion to the estate the% have respectivel% receive& for# the propert% of the &ecease&SEC. .+ividends to be paid in proportion to claims..@. . or heirs have been in possession.

ed. within what periods. . On 'rantin' letters testa#entar% or a&#inistration the court shall allo( to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator a ti#e for &isposin' of the estate an& pa%in' the &e$ts an& le'acies of the &ecease&" (hich shall not" in the first instance" e1cee& one (. .0.Time for paying debts and legacies fi.. !f the (hole of the &e$ts are not pai& on the first &istri$ution" an& if the (hole assets are not &istri$ute&" or other assets after(ar&s co#e to the han&s of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" the court #a% fro# ti#e to ti#e #a/e further or&ers for the &istri$ution of assetsSEC. 8hen an or&er is #a&e for the &istri$ution of assets a#on' the cre&itors" the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall" as soon as the ti#e of pa%#ent arrives" pa% the cre&itors the a#ounts of their clai#s" or the &ivi&en& thereon" in accor&ance (ith the ter#s of such or&erSEC. . .4.2.Orders relating to payment of debts where appeal is ta)en.Successor of dead e.ecutor or administrator may have time e..#hen subse6uent distribution of assets ordered.tended after notice.8hen a &ispute& clai# is finall% settle& the court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate shall or&er the sa#e to $e pai& out of the assets retaine& to the sa#e e1tent an& in the sa#e proportion (ith the clai#s of other cre&itorsSEC. .6.. 8hen an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator &ies" an& a ne( a&#inistrator of the sa#e estate is appointe&" the court #a% e1ten& the ti#e allo(e& for the pa%#ent of the &e$ts or le'acies $e%on& the ti#e allo(e& to the ori'inal e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" not e1cee&in' si1 (6) #onths at a ti#e an& not e1cee&in' si1 (6) #onths )e%on& the ti#e (hich the court #i'ht have allo(e& to such ori'inal e1ecutor or a&#inistrator7 an& notice shall $e 'iven of the ti#e an& place for hearin' such applica < tion" as re>uire& in the last prece&in' section- RULE 89 SALES# MORTGAGES# AND OT ER ENCUM!RANCES OF PROPERTY .5..) %ear7 $ut the court #a%" on application of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator an& after hearin' on such notice of the ti#e an& place therefor 'iven to all persons intereste& as it shall &irect" e1ten& the ti#e as the circu#stances of the estate re>uire not e1cee&in' si1 (6) #onths for a sin'le e1tension nor so that the (hole perio& allo(e& to the ori'inal e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall e1cee& t(o (0) %earsSEC. or e. !f an appeal has $een ta/en fro# a &ecision of the court concernin' a clai#" the court #a% suspen& the or&er for the pa%#ent of the &e$ts or #a% or&er the &istri$ution a#on' the cre&itors (hose clai#s are &efinitel% allo(e&" leavin' in the han&s of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator sufficient assets to pa% the clai# &ispute& an& appeale&.Creditors to be paid in accordance with terms of order.of the assets receive& $% the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator for that purpose a#on' the cre&itors" as the circu#stances of the estate re>uire an& in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this ruleSEC..tended on notice within certain period.

+o such authorit% to sell" #ort'a'e" or other(ise encu#$er real or personal estate shall $e 'rante& if an% person intereste& in the estate 'ives a $on&" in a su# to $e fi1e& $% the court" con&itione& to pa% the &e$ts" e1penses of a&#inistration" an& le'acies (ithin such ti#e as the court &irects7 an& such $on& shall $e for the securit% of the cre&itors" as (ell as of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" an& #a% $e prosecute& for the $enefit of eitherSEC.#hen court may authori5e sale.Order of sale of personalty. .5.4.. by giving bond.$ersons interested may prevent such sale.#hen court may authori5e sale of estate as beneficial to interested persons. mortgage. +isposal of proceeds. or other encumbrance of estate to pay debts and legacies in other countries. etc.0.hausted.Upon the application of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" an& on (ritten notice to the heirs an& other persons intereste&" the court #a% or&er the (hole or a part of the personal estate to $e sol&" if it appears necessar% for the purpose of pa%in' &e$ts" e1penses of a&#inistration" or le'acies" or for the preservation of the propert%SEC.2.OF DECEDENT SECT!O+ .!n case of such sale" the procee&s shall $e assi'ne& to the persons entitle& to the estate in the proper proportionsSEC. ..8hen the personal estate of the &ecease& is not sufficient to pa% the &e$ts" e1penses of a&#inistration" an& le'acies" or (here the sale of such personal estate #a% in3ure the $usiness or other interests of those intereste& in the estate" an& (here a testator has not other(ise #a&e sufficient provision for the pa%#ent of such &e$ts" e1penses an& le'acies" the court" on the application of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator an& on (ritten notice to the heirs" &evisees" an& le'atees resi&in' in the Philippines" #a% authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to sell" #ort'a'e" or other(ise encu#$er so #uch as #a% $e necessar% of the real estate" in lieu of personal estate" for the purpose of pa%in' such &e$ts" e1penses" an& le'acies" if it clearl% appears that such sale" #ort'a'e" or encu#$rance (oul& $e $eneficial to the persons intereste&7 an& if a part cannot $e sol&" #ort'a'e&" or other(ise encu#$ere& (ithout in3ur% to those intereste& in the re#ain&er" the authorit% #a% $e for the sale" #ort'a'e" or other encu#$rance of the (hole of such real estate" or so #uch thereof as is necessar% or $eneficial un&er the circu#stancesSEC. 8hen the sale of personal estate" or the sale" #ort'a'e" or other encu#$rance of real estate is not necessar% to pa% the &e$ts" e1penses of a&#inistration" or le'acies in the Philippines" $ut it appears fro# recor&s of procee&in's of a pro$ate court in another countr% that the estate of the &ecease& in such other countr% is not sufficient to pa% the &e$ts" e1penses an& a&#inistration" an& . ..8hen it appears that the sale of the (hole or a part of the real or personal estate" (ill $e $eneficial to the heirs" &evisees" le'atees" an& other intereste& persons" the court #a%" upon application of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator an& on (ritten notice to the heirs" &evisees" an& le'atees (ho are intereste& in the estate to $e sol&" authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to sell the (hole or a part of sai& estate" althou'h not necessar% to pa% &e$ts" le'acies" or e1penses of a&#inistration7 $ut such authorit% shall not $e 'rante& if inconsistent (ith the provisions of a (ill.#hen court may authori5e sale.. mortgage. or other encumbrance of realty to pay debts and legacies through personalty not e.

The e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall $e furnishe& (ith a certifie& cop% of such or&er7 (e) !f the estate is to $e sol& at auction" the #o&e of 'ivin' notice of the ti#e an& place of the sale shall $e 'overne& $% the provisions concernin' notice of e1ecution sale7 (f) There shall $e recor&e& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the province in (hich the real estate thus sol&" #ort'a'e&" or other(ise encu#$ere& is situate&" a certifie& cop% of the or&er of the court" to'ether (ith the &ee& of the .ecution or foreclosure. mortgage.le'acies there" the court here #a% authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to sell the personal estate or to sell" #ort'a'e" or other(ise encu#$er the real estate for the pa%#ent of &e$ts or le'acies in the other countr%" in the sa#e #anner as for the pa%#ent of &e$ts or le'acies in the PhilippinesSEC.. or otherwise encumber estates.Regulations for granting authority to sell.The court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate of the &ecease& #a% authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to sell personal estate" or to sell" #ort'a'e" or other(ise encu#$er real estate" in cases provi&e& $% these rules an& (hen it appears necessar% or $eneficial" un&er the follo(in' re'ulations* (a) The e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall file a (ritten petition settin' forth the &e$ts &ue fro# the &ecease&" the e1penses of a&#inistration" the le'acies" the value of the personal estate" the situation of the estate to $e sol&" #ort'a'e&" or other(ise encu#$ere&" an& such other facts as sho( that the sale" #ort'a'e" or other encu#$rance is necessar% or $eneficial7 ($) The court shall thereupon fi1 a ti#e an& place for hearin' such petition" an& cause notice statin' the nature of the petition" the reason for the sa#e" an& the ti#e an& place of hearin'" to $e 'iven personall% or $% #ail to the persons intereste&" an& #a% cause such further notice to $e 'iven" $% pu$lication or other(ise" as it shall &ee# proper7 (c) !f the court re>uires it" the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator shall 'ive an a&&itional $on&" in such su# as the court &irects" con&itione& that such e1ecutor or a&#inistrator (ill account for the procee&s of the sale" #ort'a'e" or other encu#$rance7 (&) !f the re>uire#ents in the prece&in' su$&ivisions of this section have $een co#plie& (ith" the court" $% or&er statin' such co#pliance" #a% authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to sell" #ort'a'e" or other(ise encu#$er" in proper cases" such part of the estate as is &ee#e& necessar%" an& in case of sale the court #a% authori5e it to $e pu$lic or private" as (oul& $e #ost $eneficial to all parties concerne&. mortgage.#hen court may authori5e sale..6. or other encumbrance of realty ac6uired on e.The court #a% authori5e an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to sell" #ort'a'e" or other(ise encu#$er real estate ac>uire& $% hi# on e1ecution or foreclosure sale" un&er the sa#e circu#stances an& un&er the sa#e re'ulations as prescri$e& in this rule for the sale" #ort'a'e" or other encu#$rance of other real estateSEC.?.

The &ee& e1ecute& $% such e1ecutor" a&#inistrator" or cler/ of court shall $e as effectual to conve% the propert% as if e1ecute& $% the &ecease& in his lifeti#e7 $ut no such conve%ance shall $e authori5e& until notice of the application for that purpose has $een 'iven personall% or $% #ail to all persons intereste&" an& such further notice has $een 'iven" $% pu$lication or other(ise" as the court &ee#s proper7 nor if the assets in the han&s of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator (ill there$% $e re&uce& so as to prevent a cre&itor fro# receivin' his full &e$t or &i#inish his &ivi&en&SEC.#hen court may authori5e conveyance of lands which deceased held in trust. . . %otice.#hen court may authori5e conveyance of realty which deceased contracted to convey.A.@.e1ecutor or a&#inistrator for such real estate" (hich shall $e as vali& as if the &ee& ha& $een e1ecute& $% the &ecease& in his lifeti#eSEC.#hen order for distribution of residue made.8here the &ecease& (as in his lifeti#e un&er contract" $in&in' in la(" to &ee& real propert%" or an interest therein" the court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate #a%" on application for that purpose" authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to conve% such propert% accor&in' to such contract" or (ith such #o&ifications as are a'ree& upon $% the parties an& approve& $% the court7 an& if the contract is to conve% real propert% to the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" the cler/ of the court shall e1ecute the &ee&... *ffect of deed.8here the &ecease& in his lifeti#e hel& real propert% in trust for another person" the court #a%" after notice 'iven as re>uire& in the last prece&in' section" authori5e the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator to &ee& such propert% to the person" or his e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" for (hose use an& $enefit it (as so hel&7 an& the court #a% or&er the e1ecution of such trust" (hether create& $% &ee& or $% la(- RULE 90 DISTRI!UTION AND PARTITION OF T E ESTATE SECT!O+ .8hen the &e$ts" funeral char'es" an& e1penses of a&#inistration" the allo(ance to the (i&o(" an& inheritance ta1" if an%" char'ea$le to the estate in accor&ance (ith la(" have $een pai&" the court" on the application of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" or of a person intereste& in the estate" an& after hearin' upon notice" shall assi'n the resi&ue of the estate to the persons entitle& to the sa#e" na#in' the# an& the proportions" or parts" to (hich each is entitle&" an& such persons #a% &e#an& an& recover their respective shares fro# the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator" or an% other person havin' the sa#e in his possession.!f there is a controvers% $efore the court as to (ho are the la(ful heirs of the &ecease& person or as to the &istri$utive shares to (hich each person is entitle& un&er the la(" the controvers% shall $e hear& an& &eci&e& as in or&inar% cases+o &istri$ution shall $e allo(e& until the pa%#ent of the o$li'ations a$ove #entione& has $een #a&e or provi&e& for" unless the &istri$utees" or an% of the#" 'ive .

2 8hen a person &ies intestate" sei5e& of real or personal propert% in the Philippines" leavin' no heir or person $% la( entitle& to the sa#e" the Solicitor Ceneral or his representative in $ehalf of the Repu$lic of the Philippines" #a% file a petition in the Re'ional Trial Court of the province (here the &ecease& last resi&e& or !n (hich he ha& estate" if he resi&e& out of the Philippines" settin' forth the facts" an& pra%in' that the estate of the &ecease& $e &eclare& escheate&SEC. .0.2.Recording the order of partition of estate..)% whom e.8uestions as to advancement to be determined.2.3earing and "udgment.Certifie& copies of final or&ers an& 3u&'#ents of the court relatin' to the real estate or the partition thereof shall $e recor&e& in the re'istr% of &ee&s of the province (here the propert% is situate&- RULE 91 ESC EATS SECT!O+ .Upon satisfactor% proof in open court on the &ate fi1e& in the or&er that such or&er has $een pu$lishe& as &irecte& an& that the person &ie& intestate" sei5e& of real or personal propert% in the Philippines" leavin' no heir or .0.Luestions as to a&vance#ent #a&e" or alle'e& to have $een #a&e" $% the &ecease& to an% heir #a% $e hear& an& &eter#ine& $% the court havin' 3uris&iction of the estate procee&in's7 an& the final or&er of the court thereon shall $e $in&in' on the person raisin' the >uestions an& on the heirSEC. .a $on&" in a su# to $e fi1e& $% the court" con&itione& for the pa%#ent of sai& o$li'ations (ithin such ti#e as the court &irectsSEC. ..4. .#hen and by whom petition filed.Order for hearing.penses of partition paid.!f at the ti#e of the &istri$ution the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator has retaine& sufficient effects in his han&s (hich #a% la(full% $e applie& for the e1penses of partition of the properties &istri$ute&" such e1penses of partition #a% $e pai& $% such e1ecutor or a&#inistrator (hen it appears e>uita$le to the court an& not inconsistent (ith the intention of the testator7 other(ise" the% shall $e pai& $% the parties in proportion to their respective shares or interest in the pre#ises" an& the apportion#ent shall $e settle& an& allo(e& $% the court" an&" if an% person intereste& in the partition &oes not pa% his proportion or share" the court #a% issue an e1ecution in the na#e of the e1ecutor or a&#inistrator a'ainst the part% not pa%in' for the su# assesse&SEC.!f the petition is sufficient in for# an& su$stance" the court" $% an or&er recitin' the purpose of the petition" shall fi1 a &ate an& place for the hearin' thereof" (hich &ate shall $e not #ore than si1 (6) #onths after the entr% of the or&er" an& shall &irect that a cop% of the or&er $e pu$lishe& $efore the hearin' at least once a (ee/ for si1 (6) successive (ee/s in so#e ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation pu$lishe& in the province" as the court shall &ee# $estSEC.

.#hen and by whom claim to estate filed.5.person entitle& to the sa#e" an& no sufficient cause $ein' sho(n to the contrar%" the court shall a&3u&'e that the estate of the &ecease& in the Philippines" after the pa%#ent of 3ust &e$ts an& char'es" shall escheat7 an& shall" pursuant to la(" assi'n the personal estate to the #unicipalit% or cit% (here he last resi&e& in the Philippines" an& the real estate to the #unicipalities or cities" respectivel%" in (hich the sa#e is situate&.!f a &evisee" le'atee" heir" (i&o(" (i&o(er" or other person entitle& to such estate appears an& files a clai# thereto (ith the court (ithin five (5) %ears fro# the &ate of such 3u&'#ent such person shall have possession of an& title to the sa#e" or if sol&" the #unicipalit% or cit% shall $e accounta$le to" hi# for the procee&s" after &e&uctin' reasona$le char'es for the care of the estate7 $ut a clai# not #a&e (ithin sai& ti#e shall $e forever $arre&SEC.#here to institute proceedings.B . .Such estate shall $e for the $enefit of pu$lic schools" an& pu$lic charita$le institutions an& centers in sai& #unicipalities or citiesThe court" at the instance of an intereste& part%" or on its o(n #otion" #a% or&er the esta$lish#ent of a per#anent trust" so that onl% the inco#e fro# the propert% shall $e use&SEC.4.!eaning of word Bincompetent.2Until other(ise provi&e& $% la(" actions for reversion or escheat of properties alienate& in violation of the Constitution or of an% statute shall $e 'overne& $% this rule" e1cept that the action shall $e institute& in the province (here the lan& lies in (hole or in part- GENERAL GUARDIANS AND GUARDIANS IP RULE 92 VENUE SECT!O+ .Cuar&ianship of the person or estate of a #inor or inco#petent #a% $e institute& in the Re'ional Trial Court of the province" or in the 3ustice of the peace court of the #unicipalit%" or in the #unicipal court of the chartere& cit% (here the #inor or inco#petent person resi&es" an& if he resi&es in a forei'n countr%" in the Re'ional Trial Court of the province (herein his propert% or part thereof is situate&7 provi&e&" ho(ever" that (here the value of the propert% of such #inor or inco#petent e1cee&s the 3uris&iction of the 3ustice of the peace or #unicipal court" the procee&in's shall $e institute& in the Re'ional Trial Court!n the Cit% of 9anila the procee&in's shall $e institute& in the Huvenile an& Fo#estic Relations CourtSEC..0.Other actions for escheat.!f the &ecease& never resi&e& in the Philippines" the (hole estate #a% $e assi'ne& to the respective #unicipalities or cities (here the sa#e is locate&.Un&er this rule" the (or& Minco#petentM inclu&es persons sufferin' the penalt% of civil inter&iction or (ho are hospitali5e& lepers" .

2..An officer of the Fe&eral A&#inistration of the Unite& States in the Philippines #a% also file a Mpetition in favor of a (ar& thereof" an& the Firector of =ealth" in favor of an insane person (ho shoul& $e hospitali5e&" or in favor of an isolate& leperSEC.2 8hen a petition for the appoint#ent of a 'eneral 'uar&ian is file&" the court shall fi1 a ti#e an& place for hearin' the sa#e" an& shall cause reasona$le notice thereof to $e 'iven to the persons #entione& in the petition resi&in' in the province" inclu&in' the #inor if a$ove .Contents of petition.2.The court ta/in' co'ni5ance of a 'uar&ianship procee&in'" #a% transfer the sa#e to the court of another province or #unicipalit% (herein the (ar& has ac>uire& real propert%" if he has transferre& thereto his bona fide resi&ence" an& the latter court shall have full 3uris&iction to continue the procee&in's" (ithout re>uirin' pa%#ent of a&&itional court fees- RULE 93 APPOINTMENT OF GUARDIANS SECT!O+ .Court to set time for hearing.4 %ears . %otice thereof.2( petition for the appoint#ent of a 'eneral 'uar&ian #ust sho(" so far as /no(n to the petitioner* (a) The 3uris&ictional facts7 ($) The #inorit% or inco#petenc% ren&erin' the appoint#ent necessar% or convenient7 (c) The na#es" a'es" an& resi&ences of the relatives of the #inor or inco#petent" an& of the persons havin' hi# in their care7 (&) (e) The pro$a$le value an& character of his estate7 The na#e of the person for (ho# letters of 'uar&ianship are pra%e&- The petition shall $e verifie&7 $ut no &efect in the petition or verification shall ren&er voi& the issuance of letters of 'uar&ianshipSEC.#ho may petition for appointment of guardian for resident.0.Transfer of venue..pro&i'als" &eaf an& &u#$ (ho are una$le to rea& an& (rite" those (ho are of unsoun& #in&" even thou'h the% have luci& intervals" an& persons not $ein' of unsoun& #in&" $ut $% reason of a'e" &isease" (ea/ #in&" an& other si#ilar causes" cannot" (ithout outsi&e ai&" ta/e care of the#selves an& #ana'e their propert%" $eco#in' there$% an eas% pre% for &eceit an& e1ploitationSEC.An% relative" frien&" or other person on $ehalf of a resi&ent #inor or inco#petent (ho has no parent or la(ful 'uar&ian" or the #inor hi#self if fourteen %ears of a'e or over" #a% petition the court havin' 3uris&iction for the appoint#ent of a 'eneral 'uar&ian for the person or estate" or $oth" of such #inor or inco#petent. .

An% intereste& person #a%" $% filin' a (ritten opposition" contest the petition on the 'roun& of #a3orit% of the alle'e& #inor" co#petenc%" of the alle'e& inco#petent" or the unsuita$ilit% of the person for (ho# letters are pra%e&" an& #a% pra% that the petition $e &is#isse&" or that letters of 'uar&ianship issue to hi#self" or to an% suita$le person na#e& in the oppositionSEC..5.. %otice.of a'e or the inco#petent hi#self" an& #a% &irect other 'eneral or special notice thereof to $e 'ivenSEC. .8hen the propert% of the chil& un&er parental authorit% is (orth t(o thousan& pesos or less" the father or the #other" (ithout the necessit% of court appoint#ent" shall $e his le'al 'uar&ian.#hen and how guardian for nonresident appointed.3earing and order for letters to issue.4.$arents as guardians.Service of "udgment. (mount. . )efore a 'uar&ian appointe& enters upon the e1ecution of his trust" or letters of 'uar&ianship issue" he shall 'ive a $on&" in such su# as the court &irects" con&itione& as follo(s* .At the hearin' of the petition the alle'e& inco#petent #ust $e present if a$le to atten&" an& it #ust $e sho(n that the re>uire& notice has $een 'iven.Final or&ers or 3u&'#ents un&er this rule shall $e serve& upon the civil re'istrar of the #unicipalit% or cit% (here the #inor or inco#petent person resi&es7 or (here his propert% or part thereof is situate&- RULE 94 !ONDS OF GUARDIANS SECT!O+ .Opposition to petition. . Conditions.8hen the propert% of the chil& is (orth #ore than t(o thousan& pesos" the father or the #other shall $e consi&ere& 'uar&ian of the chil&Ns propert%" (ith the &uties an& o$li'ation of 'uar&ians un&er these rules" an& shall file the petition re>uire& $% section 0 hereof..8hen a person lia$le to $e put un&er 'uar&ianship resi&es (ithout the Philippines $ut has estate therein" an% relative or frien& of such person" or an% one intereste& in his estate" in e1pectanc% or other(ise" #a% petition a court havin' 3uris&iction for the appoint#ent of a 'uar&ian for the estate" an& if" after notice 'iven to such person an& in such #anner as the court &ee#s proper" $% pu$lication or other(ise" an& hearin' the court is satisfie& that such nonresi&ent is a #inor or inco#petent ren&erin' a 'uar&ian necessar% or convenient" it #a% appoint a 'uar&ian for such estateSEC..For 'oo& reasons the court #a%" ho(ever" appoint another suita$le personSEC.@.?.Thereupon the court shall hear the evi&ence of the parties in support of their respective alle'ations" an&" if the person in >uestion is a #inor or inco#petent it shall appoint a suita$le 'uar&ian of his person or estate" or $oth" (ith the po(ers an& &uties hereinafter specifie&SEC.6.1ond to be given before issuance of letters.

!f it see#s pro$a$le that such sale or encu#$rance is necessar%" or (oul& $e $eneficial to the (ar&" the court shall #a/e an or&er &irectin' the ne1t of /in of the (ar&" an& all persons intereste& in the estate" to .0.(a) To #a/e an& return to the court" (ithin three (2) #onths" a true an& co#plete inventor% of all the estate" real an& personal" of his (ar& (hich shall co#e to his possession or /no(le&'e or to the possession or /no(le&'e of an% other person for hi#7 ($) To faithfull% e1ecute the &uties of his trust" to #ana'e an& &ispose of the estate accor&in' to these rules for the $est interests of the (ar&" an& to provi&e for the proper care" custo&%" an& e&ucation of the (ar&7 (c) To ren&er a true an& 3ust account of all the estate of the (ar& in his han&s" an& of all procee&s or interest &erive& therefro#" an& of the #ana'e#ent an& &isposition of the sa#e" at the ti#e &esi'nate& $% these rules an& such other ti#es as the court &irects" an& at the e1piration of his trust to settle his accounts (ith the court an& &eliver an& pa% over all the estate" effects" an& #one%s re#ainin' in his han&s" or &ue fro# hi# on such settle#ent" to the person la(full% entitle& thereto7 (&) To perfor# all or&ers of the court $% hi# to $e perfor#e&SEC.8henever it is &ee#e& necessar%" the court #a% re>uire a ne( $on& to $e 'iven $% the 'uar&ian" an& #a% &ischar'e the sureties on the ol& $on& fro# further lia$ilit%" after &ue notice to intereste& persons" (hen no in3ur% can result therefro# to those intereste& in the estateSEC.1onds to be filed.8hen the inco#e of an estate un&er 'uar&ianship is insufficient to #aintain the (ar& an& his fa#il%" or to #aintain an& e&ucate the (ar& (hen a #inor" or (hen it appears that it is for the $enefit of the (ar& that is real estate or so#e part thereof $e sol&" or #ort'a'e& or other(ise encu#$ere&" an& the procee&s thereof put out at interest" or investe& in so#e pro&uctive securit%" or in the i#prove#ent or securit% of other real estate of the (ar&" the 'uar&ian #a% present a verifie& petition to the court $% (hich he (as appointe& settin' forth such facts" an& pra%in' that an or&er issue authori5in' the sale or encu#$ranceSEC.0. (ctions thereon. .2.. .$etition of guardian for leave to sell or encumber estate..#hen new bond may be re6uired and old sureties discharged. .Ever% $on& 'iven $% a 'uar&ian shall $e file& in the office of the cler/ of the court" an&" in case of the $reach of a con&ition thereof" #a% $e prosecute& in the sa#e procee&in' or in a separate action for the use an& $enefit of the (ar& or of an% other person le'all% intereste& in the estate- RULE 95 SELLING AND ENCUM!ERING PROPERTY OF WARD SECT!O+ .Order to show cause thereupon.

. .2 A 'uar&ian appointe& shall have the care an& custo&% of the person of his (ar&" an& the #ana'e#ent of his estate" or the #ana'e#ent of his estate onl% as the case #a% $e.The court shall #a/e such or&er as to costs of the hearin' as #a% $e 3ustSEC.5.tend. !f" after full e1a#ination" it appears that it is necessar%" or (oul& $e $eneficial to the (ar&" to sell or encu#$er the estate" or so#e portion of it" the court shall or&er such sale or encu#$rance an& that the procee&s thereof $e e1pen&e& for the #aintenance of the (ar& an& his fa#il%" or the e&ucation of the (ar&" if a #inor" or for the puttin' of the sa#e out at interest" or the invest#ent of the sa#e as the circu#stances #a% re>uireThe or&er shall specif% the causes (h% the sale.The ori'inal $on& of the 'uar&ian shall stan& as securit% for the proper appropriation of the procee&s of the sale" $ut the 3u&'e #a%" if &ee#e& e1pe&ient" re>uire an a&&itional $on& as a con&ition for the 'rantin' of the or&er of sale.or encu#$rance is necessar% or $eneficial" an& #a% &irect that estate or&ere& sol& $e &ispose& of at either pu$lic or private sale" su$3ect to such con&itions as to the ti#e an& #anner of pa%#ent" an& securit% (here a part of the pa%#ent is &eferre&" as in the &iscretion of the court are &ee#e& #ost $eneficial to the (ar&.The court #a% authori5e an& re>uire the 'uar&ian to invest the procee&s of sales or encu#$rances" an& an% other of his (ar&Ns #one% in his han&s" in real estate or other(ise" as shall $e for the $est interest of all concerne&" an& #a% #a/e such other or&ers for the #ana'e#ent" invest#ent" an& &isposition of the estate an& effects" as circu#stances #a% re>uire- RULE 96 GENERAL POWERS AND DUTIES OF GUARDIANS SECT!O+ .appear at a reasona$le ti#e an& place therein specifie& to sho( cause (h% the pra%er of the petition shoul& not $e 'rante&SEC. .2.) %ear after 'rantin' the sa#e" (ithout a sale $ein' ha&SEC.The 'uar&ian of the estate of a nonresi&ent shall have the #ana'e#ent of all the estate of the (ar& (ithin the Philippines" an& no court other than that in (hich such 'uar&ian (as appointe& shall have 3uris&iction over the 'uar&ianship- .Contents of order for sale or encumbrance.4. 1ond.To what guardianship shall e.3earing on return of order. and how long effective. Costs.Court may order investment of proceeds and direct management of estate.+o or&er of sale 'rante& in pursuance of this section shall continue in force #ore than one (.At the ti#e an& place &esi'nate& in the or&er to sho( cause" the court shall hear the proofs an& alle'ations of the petitioner an& ne1t of /in" an& other persons intereste&" to'ether (ith their (itnesses" an& 'rant or refuse the pra%er of the petition as the $est interests of the (ar& re>uire. .

A 'uar&ian #ust ren&er to the court an inventor% of the estate of his (ar& (ithin three (2) #onths after his appoint#ent" an& annuall% after such appoint#ent an inventor% an& account" the ren&ition of an% of (hich #a% $e co#pelle& upon the application of an intereste& person.-uardian to settle accounts. collect debts.5. .Such inventories an& accounts shall $e s(orn to $% the 'uar&ian.0.-uardian to pay debts of ward.-uardian may be authori5ed to "oin in partition proceedings after hearing. *.#hen guardianAs accounts presented for settlement.SEC..4.All the estate of the (ar& &escri$e& in the first inventor% shall $e appraise&. and proceeds applied to maintenance of ward.2.penses and compensation allowed.Upon co#plaint of the 'uar&ian or (ar&" or of an% person havin' actual or prospective interest in the estate of the (ar& as cre&itor" heir" or other(ise" that an%one is suspecte& of havin' e#$e55le&" conceale&" or conve%e& a(a% an% #one%" 'oo&s" or interest" or a (ritten instru#ent" $elon'in' to the (ar& or his estate" the court #a% cite the suspecte& person to appear for e1a#ination touchin' such #one%" 'oo&s" interest" or instru#ent" an& #a/e such or&ers as (ill secure the estate a'ainst such e#$e55le#ent" conceal#ent or conve%anceSEC.Upon the e1piration of a %ear fro# the ti#e of his appoint#ent" . The court #a% authori5e the 'uar&ian to 3oin in an assent to a partition of real or personal estate hel& $% the (ar& 3ointl% or in co##on (ith others" $ut such authorit% shall onl% $e 'rante& after hearin'" upon such notice to relatives of the (ar& as the court #a% &irect" an& a careful investi'ation as to the necessit% an& propriet% of the propose& actionSEC.6" $roceedings when person suspected of embe55ling or concealing property of ward. .A 'uar&ian #ust #ana'e the estate of his (ar& fru'all% an& (ithout (aste" an& appl% the inco#e an& profits thereof" so far as #a% $e necessar%" to the co#forta$le an& suita$le #aintenance of the (ar& an& his fa#il%" if there $e an%7 an& if such inco#e an& profits $e insufficient for that purpose" the 'uar&ian #a% sell or encu#$er the real estate" upon $ein' authori5e& $% or&er so to &o" an& appl% so #uch of the procee&s as #a% $e necessar% to such #aintenanceSEC..*state to be managed frugally..?.@.An& (henever an% propert% of the (ar& not inclu&e& in an inventor% alrea&% ren&ere& is &iscovere&" or succee&e& to" or ac>uire& $% the (ar&" li/e procee&in's shall $e ha& for securin' an inventor% an& appraise#ent thereof (ithin three (2) #onths after such &iscover%" succession" or ac>uisitionSEC.Ever% 'uar&ian #ust pa% the (ar&Ns 3ust &e$ts out of his personal estate an& the inco#e of his real estate" if sufficient7 if not" then out of his real estate upon o$tainin' an or&er for the sale or encu#$rance thereofSEC.A 'uar&ian #ust settle all accounts of his (ar&" an& &e#an&" sue for" the receive all &e$ts &ue hi#" or #a%" (ith the approval of the court" co#poun& for the sa#e an& 'ive &ischar'es to the &e$tor" on receivin' a fair an& 3ust &ivi&en& of the estate an& effects7 an& he shall appear for an& represent his (ar& in all actions an& special procee&in's" unless another person $e appointe& for that purposeSEC. and appear in actions for ward. and appraisement of estates.Inventories and accounts of guardians...!n the appraise#ent the court #a% re>uest the assistance of one or #ore of the inheritance ta1 appraisers.

2..=e can sue an& $e sue& in court onl% (ith the assistance of his father" #other or 'uar&ian.The 'uar&ian of an% person #a% $e &ischar'e& $% the court (hen it appears" upon the application of the (ar& or other(ise" that the 'uar&ianship is no lon'er necessar%SEC.an& as often thereafter as #a% $e re>uire&" a 'uar&ian #ust present his account to the court for settle#ent an& allo(ance.#hen guardian removed or allowed to resign.Upon receivin' the petition" the court shall fi1 a ti#e for hearin' the >uestions raise& there$%" an& cause reasona$le notice thereof to $e 'iven to the 'uar&ian of the person so &eclare& inco#petent" an& to the (ar&.A person (ho has $een &eclare& inco#petent for an% reason" or his 'uar&ian" relative" or frien&" #a% petition the court to have his present co#petenc% 3u&iciall% &eter#ine&. .$etition that competency of ward be ad"udged.. .0.8hen a 'uar&ian $eco#es insane or other(ise incapa$le of &ischar'in' his trust or unsuita$le therefor" or has (aste& or #is#ana'e& the estate" or faile& for thirt% (2B) &a%s after it is &ue to ren&er an account or #a/e a return" the court #a%" upon reasona$le notice to the 'uar&ian" re#ove hi#" an& co#pel hi# to surren&er the estate of the (ar& to the person foun& to $e la(full% entitle& thereto.A 'uar&ian #a% resi'n (hen it appears proper to allo( the sa#e7 an& upon his resi'nation or re#oval the court #a% appoint another in his placeSEC.Other termination of guardianship. and proceedings thereupon.Record to be )ept by the "ustice of the peace or municipal or city "udge.On the trial" the 'uar&ian or relatives of the (ar&" an&" in the &iscretion of the court" an% other person" #a% contest the ri'ht to the relief &e#an&e&" an& (itnesses #a% $e calle& an& e1a#ine& $% the parties or $% the court on its o(n #otion. 8hen a 3ustice of the peace or #unicipal court ta/es co'ni5ance of the procee&in's in pursuance of the provisions of these rules" the recor& of the procee&in's shall $e /ept as in the Re'ional Trial Court- .!f it $e foun& that the person is no lon'er inco#petent" his co#petenc% shall $e a&3u&'e& an& the 'uar&ianship shall ceaseSEC.!n the settle#ent of the account" the 'uar&ian" other than a parent" shall $e allo(e& the a#ount of his reasona$le e1penses incurre& in the e1ecution of his trust an& also such co#pensation for his services as the court &ee#s 3ust" not e1cee&in' fifteen per centum of the net inco#e of the (ar&- RULE 97 TERMINATION OF GUARDIANS IP SECT!O+ . .The #arria'e or voluntar% e#ancipation of a #inor (ar& ter#inates the 'uar&ianship of the person of the (ar&" an& shall ena$le the #inor to a&#inister his propert% as thou'h he (ere of a'e" $ut he cannot $orro( #one% or alienate or encu#$er real propert% (ithout the consent of his father or #other" or 'uar&ian.The petition shall $e verifie& $% oath" an& shall state that such person is then co#petent. %ew appointment.4.

.Service of "udgment.2..ecutor of former trustee need not administer trust. 8hen lan& in the Philippines is hel& in trust for persons resi&ent here $% a trustee (ho &erives his authorit% fro# (ithout the Philippines" such trustee shall" on petition file& in the Re'ional Trial Court of the province (here the lan& is situate&" an& after &ue notice to all persons intereste&" $e or&ere& to appl% to the court for appoint#ent as trustee7 an& upon his ne'lect or refusal to co#pl% (ith such or&er" the court shall &eclare such trust vacant" an& shall appoint a ne( trustee in (ho# the trust estate shall vest in li/e #anner as if he ha& $een ori'inall% appointe& $% such court- .Final or&ers or 3u&'#ents un&er this rule shall $e serve& upon the civil re'istrar of the #unicipalit% or cit% (here the #inor or inco#petent person resi&es or (here his propert% or part thereof is situate&- RULE 98 TRUSTEES SECT!O+ .+o person succee&in' to a trust as e1ecutor or a&#inistrator of a for#er trustee shall $e re>uire& to accept such trustSEC.8hen a trustee un&er a (ritten instru#ent &eclines" resi'ns" &ies" or is re#ove& $efore the o$3ects of the trust are acco#plishe&" an& no a&e>uate provision is #a&e in such instru#ent for suppl%in' the vacanc%" the proper Re'ional Trial Court #a%" after &ue notice to all persons intereste&" appoint a ne( trustee to act alone or 3ointl% (ith the others" as the case #a% $e.. .SEC.0.(ppointment and powers of new trustee under written instrument.A trustee necessar% to carr% into effect the provisions of a (ill or (ritten instru#ent shall $e appointe& $% the Re'ional Trial Court in (hich the (ill (as allo(e&" if it $e a (ill allo(e& in the Philippines" other(ise $% the Re'ional Trial Court of the province in (hich the propert%" or so#e portion thereof" affecte& $% the trust is situate&SEC.4.!f a testator has o#itte& in his (ill to appoint a trustee in the Philippines" an& if such appoint#ent is necessar% to carr% into effect the provisions of the (ill" the proper Re'ional Trial Court #a%" after notice to all persons intereste&" appoint a trustee (ho shall have the sa#e ri'hts" po(ers" an& &uties" an& in (ho# the estate shall vest" as if he ha& $een appointe& $% the testator.Such ne( trustee shall have an& e1ercise the sa#e po(ers" ri'hts" an& &uties as if he ha& $een ori'inall% appointe&" an& the trust estate shall vest in hi# in li/e #anner as it ha& veste& or (oul& have veste&" in the trustee in (hose place he is su$stitute&7 an& the court #a% or&er such conve%ance to $e #a&e $% the for#er trustee or his representatives" or $% the other re#ainin' trustees" as #a% $e necessar% or proper to vest the trust estate in the ne( trustee" either alone or 3ointl% (ith the othersSEC. .5.$roceedings where trustee& appointed abroad.#here trustee appointed.(ppointment and powers of trustee under will.. *.

The co#pensation of the trustee shall $e fi1e& $% the court" if it $e not &eter#ine& in the instru#ent creatin' the trustSEC.8hen an inventor% is re>uire& to $e returne& $% a trustee" the estate an& effects $elon'in' to the trust shall $e appraise& an& the court #a% or&er one or #ore inheritance ta1 appraisers to assist in the appraise#ent.?.SEC.Removal or resignation of trustee. .6.The proper Re'ional Trial Court #a%" upon petition of the parties $eneficiall% intereste& an& after &ue notice to the trustee an& hearin'" re#ove a trustee if such re#oval appears essential in the interests of the petitioners.Such e1e#ption #a% $e cancelle& $% the court at an% ti#e" an& the trustee re>uire& to forth(ith file a $on&SEC. .The follo(in' con&itions shall $e &ee#e& to $e a part of the $on& (hether (ritten therein or not* (a) That the trustee (ill #a/e an& return to the court" at such ti#e as it #a% or&er" a true inventor% of all the real an& personal estate $elon'in' to hi# as trustee" (hich at the ti#e of the #a/in' of such inventor% shall have co#e to his possession or /no(le&'e7 ($) That he (ill #ana'e an& &ispose of all such estate" an& faithfull% &ischar'e his trust in relation thereto" accor&in' to la( an& the (ill of the testator or the provisions of the instru#ent or or&er un&er (hich he is appointe&7 (c) That he (ill ren&er upon oath at least once a %ear until his trust is fulfille&" unless he is e1cuse& therefro# in an% %ear $% the court" a true account of the propert% in his han&s an& of the #ana'e#ent an& &isposition thereof" an& (ill ren&er such other accounts as the court #a% or&er7 (&) That at the e1piration of his trust he (ill settle his accounts in court an& pa% over an& &eliver all the estate re#ainin' in his han&s" or &ue fro# hi# on such settle#ent" to the person or persons entitle& thereto)ut (hen the trustee is appointe& as a successor to a prior trustee" the court #a% &ispense (ith the #a/in' an& return of an inventor%" if one has alrea&% $een file&" an& in such case the con&ition of the $on& shall $e &ee#e& to $e altere& accor&in'l%SEC.The court #a% also" after &ue notice to all persons intereste&" re#ove a trustee (ho is insane or other(ise incapa$le of &ischar'in' his trust or evi&entl% unsuita$le therefor.(ppraisal.A trustee" (hether appointe& $% the court or un&er a (ritten instru#ent" #a% resi'n his trust if it appears to the court proper to allo( such resi'nation- . Compensation of trustee.2)efore enterin' on the &uties of his trust" a trustee shall file (ith the cler/ of the court havin' 3uris&iction of the trust a $on& in the a#ount fi1e& $% the 3u&'e of sai& court" pa%a$le to the Covern#ent of the Philippines an& sufficient an& availa$le for the protection of an% part% in interest" an& a trustee (ho ne'lects to file such $on& shall $e consi&ere& to have &ecline& or resi'ne& the trust7 $ut the court #a%" until further or&er e1e#pt a trustee un&er a (ill fro# 'ivin' a $on& (hen the testator has &irecte& or re>ueste& such e1e#ption" an& #a% so e1e#pt an% trustee (hen all persons $eneficiall% intereste& in the trust" $ein' of full a'e" re>uest the e1e#ption.Conditions included in bond.@.Trustee must file bond..5.

A.The petition" notice" hearin'" or&er of sale or encu#$rance" an& recor& of procee&in's" shall confor# as nearl% as #a% $e to the provisions concernin' the sale or encu#$rance $% 'uar&ians of the propert% of #inors or other (ar&s- RULE 99 ADOPTION AND CUSTODY OF MINORS SECT!O+ .There shall $e file& (ith the petition a (ritten consent to the a&option si'ne& $% the chil&" if fourteen %ears of a'e or over an& not inco#petent" an& $% the chil&Ns spouse" if an%" an& $% each of its /no(n livin' parents (ho is not insane or hopelessl% inte#perate or has not a$an&one& such chil&" or if there are no such parents $% the 'eneral 'uar&ian or 'uar&ian ad litem of the chil&" or if the chil& is in the custo&% of an orphan as%lu#" chil&renNs ho#e" or $enevolent societ% or person" $% the proper officer or officers of such as%lu#" ho#e" or societ%" or $% such person7 $ut if the chil& is ille'iti#ate an& has not $een reco'ni5e&" the consent of its father to the a&option shall not $e re>uire&!f the person to $e a&opte& is of a'e" onl% his or her consent an& that of the spouse" if an%" shall $e re>uire&- .Consent to adoption.2 ( person &esirin' to a&opt another or have the custo&% of a #inor shall present his petition to the Re'ional Trial Court of the province" or the cit% or #unicipal court of the cit% or #unicipalit% in (hich he resi&es!n the Cit% of 9anila" the procee&in's shall $e institute& in the Huvenile an& Fo#estic Relations CourtSEC..0.$roceedings for sale or encumbrance of trust estate.2 8hen the sale or encu#$rance of an% real or personal estate hel& in trust is necessar% or e1pe&ient" the court havin' 3uris&iction of the trust #a%" on petition an& after &ue notice an& hearin'" or&er such sale or encu#$rance to $e #a&e" an& the reinvest#ent an& application of the procee&s thereof in such #anner as (ill $est effect the o$3ects of the trust.enue..Contents of petition.2The petition for a&option shall contain the sa#e alle'ations re>uire& in a petition for 'uar&ianship" to (it* (a) The 3uris&ictional facts7 ($) The >ualifications of the a&opter7 (c) That the a&opter is not &is>ualifie& $% la(7 (&) The na#e" a'e" an& resi&ence of the person to $e a&opte& an& of his relatives or of the persons (ho have hi# un&er their care7 (e) a&opte&The pro$a$le value an& character of the estate of the person to $e SEC.SEC.2..

(ppeal. .!n case of the &eath of the a&opte& person or chil&" his parents an& relatives $% nature" an& not $% a&option" shall $e his le'al heirsSEC.8hen the parents of an% #inor chil& are &ea&" or $% reason of lon' a$sence or le'al or ph%sical &isa$ilit% have a$an&one& it" or cannot support it throu'h va'ranc%" ne'li'ence" or #iscon&uct" or ne'lect or refuse to support it" or treat it (ith e1cessive harshness or 'ive it corruptin' or&ers" counsels" or e1a#ples" or cause or allo( it to en'a'e in $e''in'" or to Co##it offenses a'ainst the la(" the proper Re'ional Trial Court" upon petition file& $% so#e reputa$le resi&ent of the province settin' forth the facts" #a% issue an or&er re>uirin' .$roceedings as to vagrant or abused child.Either parent #a% appeal fro# an or&er #a&e in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this section.5.!f" upon such hearin'" it appears that $oth parents are i#proper persons to have the care" custo&%" an& control of the chil&" the court #a% either &esi'nate the paternal or #aternal 'ran&parent of the chil&" or his ol&est $rother or sister" or so#e reputa$le an& &iscreet person to ta/e char'e of such chil&" or co##it it to an% suita$le as%lu#" chil&renNs ho#e" or $enevolent societ%.$roceedings as to child whose parents are separated.The a&opte& person or chil& shall thereupon $eco#e the le'al heir of his parents $% a&option an& shall also re#ain the le'al heir of his natural parents.+o chil& un&er seven %ears of a'e shall $e separate& fro# its #other" unless the court fin&s there are co#pellin' reasons thereforSEC..3earing and "udgment. . .?.!f the petition an& consent file& are sufficient in for# an& su$stance" the court" $% an or&er recitin' the purpose of the petition" shall fi1 a &ate an& place for the hearin' thereof" (hich &ate shall not $e #ore than si1 (6) #onths after the entr% of the or&er" an& shall &irect that a cop% of the or&er $e pu$lishe& $efore the hearin' at least once a (ee/ for three (2) successive (ee/s in so#e ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation pu$lishe& in the province" as the court shall &ee# $estSEC.Upon satisfactor% proof in open court on the &ate fi1e& in the or&er that such or&er has $een pu$lishe& as &irecte&" that the alle'ations of the petition are true" an& that it is a proper case for a&option an& the petitioner or petitioners are a$le to $rin' up an& e&ucate the chil& properl%" the court shall a&3u&'e that thenceforth the chil& is free& fro# all le'al o$li'ations of o$e&ience an& #aintenance (ith respect to its natural parents" e1cept the #other (hen the chil& is a&opte& $% her hus$an&" an& is" to all le'al intents an& purposes" the chil& of the petitioner or petitioners" an& that its surna#e is chan'e& to that of the petitioner or petitioners.8hen hus$an& an& (ife are &ivorce& or livin' separatel% an& apart fro# each other" an& the >uestion as to the care" custo&%" an& control of a chil& or chil&ren of their #arria'e is $rou'ht $efore a Re'ional Trial Court $% petition or as an inci&ent to an% other procee&in'" the court" upon hearin' the testi#on% as #a% $e pertinent" shall a(ar& the care" custo&%" an& control of each such chil& as (ill $e for its $est interest" per#ittin' the chil& to choose (hich parent it prefers to live (ith it $e over ten %ears of a'e" unless the parent so chosen $e unfit to ta/e char'e of the chil& $% reason of #oral &epravit%" ha$itual &run/enness" incapacit%" or povert%.4.Order for hearing.6.SEC.The court #a% in confor#it% (ith the provisions of the Civil Co&e or&er either or $oth parents to support or help support sai& chil&" irrespective of (ho #a% $e its custo&ian" an& #a% #a/e an% or&er that is 3ust an& reasona$le per#ittin' the parent (ho is &eprive& of its care an& custo&% to visit the chil& or have te#porar% custo&% thereof.

Final or&ers or 3u&'#ents un&er this rule shall $e serve& $% the cler/ upon the civil re'istrar of the cit% or #unicipalit% (herein the court issuin' the sa#e is situate&- RULE 100 RESCISSION AND REVOCATION OF ADOPTION SECT!O+ .Service of "udgment.Time within which to file petition.0.Order to answer.A certifie& cop% of the 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in accor&ance (ith the ne1t prece&in' section shall $e serve& upon the civil re'istrar concerne&7 (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# ren&ition thereof" (ho shall forth(ith enter the action ta/en $% the court in the re'isterSEC.Service of "udgment.A #inor or other incapacitate& person #ust file the petition for rescission or revocation of a&option (ithin the five (5) %ears .#ho may file petition..!f upon trial" on the &a% set therefor" the court fin&s that the alle'ations of the petition are true" it shall ren&er 3u&'#ent or&erin' the rescission or revocation of the a&option" (ith or (ithout costs" as 3ustice re>uiresSEC.4....5) &a%s fro# receipt of a cop% thereof.5. petition for the rescission or revocation of his or her a&option for the sa#e causes that authori5e the &eprivation of parental authorit%The a&opter #a%" li/e(ise petition the court for the rescission or revocation of the a&option in an% of these cases* (a) !f the a&opte& person has atte#pte& a'ainst the life of the a&opter7 ($) 8hen the a&opte& #inor has a$an&one& the ho#e of the a&opter for #ore than three (2) %ears7 (c) 8hen $% other acts the a&opte& person has repu&iate& the a&optionSEC.udgment.The court in (hich the petition is file& shall issue an& or&er re>uirin' the a&verse part% to ans(er the petition (ithin fifteen (....The or&er an& a cop% of the petition shall $e serve& on the a&verse part% in such #anner as the court #a% &irectSEC.A #inor or other incapacitate& person #a%" throu'h a 'uar&ian or 'uar&ian ad litem.@.2. grounds.such parents for sho( cause" or" if the parents are &ea& or cannot $e foun&" re>uirin' the fiscal of the province to sho( cause" at a ti#e an& place fi1e& in the or&er" (h% the chil& shoul& not $e ta/en fro# its parents" if livin'7 an& if upon the hearin' it appears that the alle'ations of the petition are true" an& that it is for the $est interest of the chil&" the court #a% #a/e an or&er ta/in' it fro# its parents" if livin'7 an& co##ittin' it to an% suita$le orphan as%lu#" chil&renNs ho#e" or $enevolent societ% or person to $e ulti#atel% place&" $% a&option or other(ise" in a ho#e foun& for it $% such as%lu#" chil&renNs ho#e" societ%" or personSEC.

5.0..(ssistance of fiscal in the proceeding. $etition for commitment.A petition for the co##it#ent of a person to a hospital or other place for the insane #a% $e file& (ith the Re'ional Trial Court of the province (here the person alle'e& to $e insane is foun&.Order for hearing.follo(in' his #a3orit%" or if he (as inco#petent at the ti#e of the a&option" (ithin the five (5) %ears follo(in' the recover% fro# such inco#petenc%The a&opter #ust also file the petition to set asi&e the a&option (ithin five (5) %ears fro# the ti#e the cause or causes 'ivin' rise to the rescission or revocation of the sa#e too/ place- RULE 101 PROCEEDINGS FOR OSPITALI2ATION OF INSANE PERSONS SECT!O+ .The court shall #a/e proper provisions for the custo&% of propert% or #one% $elon'in' to the insane until a 'uar&ian $e properl% appointe&SEC. .2.8hen" in the opinion of the Firector of =ealth" the person or&ere& to $e co##itte& to a hospital or other place for the insane is te#poraril% or per#anentl% cure&" or #a% $e release& (ithout &an'er he #a% file the proper petition (ith the Re'ional Trial Court (hich or&ere& the co##it#entSEC.enue.4.. .Upon satisfactor% proof" in open court on the &ate fi1e& in the or&er" that the co##it#ent applie& for is for the pu$lic (elfare or for the (elfare of the insane person" an& that his relatives are una$le for an% reason to ta/e proper custo&% an& care of hi#" the court shall or&er his co##it#ent to such hospital or other place for the insane as #a% $e reco##en&e& $% the Firector of =ealth.. .The petition shall $e file& $% the Firector of =ealth in all cases (here" in his opinion" such co##it#ent is for the pu$lic (elfare" or for the (elfare of sai& person (ho" in his 3u&'#ent" is insane" an& such person or the one havin' char'e of hi# is oppose& to his $ein' ta/en to a hospital or other place for the insaneSEC..The court shall further#ore or&er the sheriff to pro&uce the alle'e& insane person" if possi$le" on the &ate of the hearin'SEC.3earing and "udgment.+ischarge of insane.!f the petition file& is sufficient in for# an& su$stance" the court" $% an or&er recitin' the purpose of the petition" shall fi1 a &ate for the hearin' thereof" an& cop% of such or&er shall $e serve& on the person alle'e& to $e insane" an& to the one havin' char'e of hi#" or on such of his relatives resi&in' in the province or cit% as the 3u&'e #a% &ee# proper.!t shall $e the &ut% of the provincial fiscal or in the Cit% of 9anila the fiscal of the cit%" to prepare the petition for the Firector of =ealth an& represent hi# in court in all procee&in's arisin' un&er the provisions of this rule- .

0. .Re6uisites of application therefor.#hen writ not allowed or discharge authori5ed.The (rit of habeas corpus #a% $e 'rante& $% the Supre#e Court" or an% #e#$er thereof" on an% &a% an& at an% ti#e" or $% the Court of Appeals or an% #e#$er thereof in the instances authori5e& $% la(" an& if so 'rante& it shall $e enforcea$le an%(here in the Philippines7 an& #a% $e #a&e returna$le $efore the court or an% #e#$er thereof" or $efore a Re'ional Trial Court" or an% 3u&'e thereof for hearin' an& &ecision on the #erits.!f it appears that the person alle'e& to $e restraine& of his li$ert% is in the custo&% of an officer un&er process issue& $% a court or 3u&'e or $% virtue of a 3u&'#ent or or&er of a court of recor&" an& that the court or 3u&'e ha& 3uris&iction to issue the process" ren&er the 3u&'#ent" or #a/e the or&er" the (rit shall not $e allo(e&7 or if the 3uris&iction appears after the (rit is allo(e&" the person shall not $e &ischar'e& $% reason of an% infor#alit% or &efect in the process" 3u&'#ent" or or&er. .5. .4.#hen the writ must be granted and issued. .To what habeas corpus e.+or shall an%thin' in this rule $e hel& to authori5e the &ischar'e of a person char'e& (ith or convicte& of an offense in the Philippines" or of a person sufferin' i#prison#ent un&er la(ful 3u&'#entSEC.tends.E1cept as other(ise e1pressl% provi&e& $% la(" the (rit of habeas corpus shall e1ten& to all cases of ille'al confine#ent or &etention $% (hich an% person is &eprive& of his li$ert%" or $% (hich the ri'htful custo&% of an% person is (ithhel& fro# the person entitle& theretoSEC.2.!t #a% also $e 'rante& $% a Re'ional Trial Court" or a 3u&'e thereof" on an% &a% an& at an% ti#e" an& returna$le $efore hi#self" enforcea$le onl% (ithin his 3u&icial &istrictSEC.2 A court or 3u&'e authori5e& to 'rant the (rit #ust" (hen a petition therefor is presente& an& it appears that the (rit ou'ht to issue" 'rant the sa#e forth(ith" an& i##e&iatel% thereupon the cler/ of the .RULE 102 A!EAS CORPUS SECT!O+ .Application for the (rit shall $e $% petition si'ne& an& verifie& either $% the part% for (hose relief it is inten&e&" or $% so#e person on his $ehalf" an& shall set forth* (a) That the person in (hose $ehalf the application is #a&e is i#prisone& or restraine& of his li$ert%7 ($) The officer or na#e of the person $% (ho# he is so i#prisone& or restraine&7 or" if $oth are un/no(n or uncertain" such officer or person #a% $e &escri$e& $% an assu#e& appellation" an& the person (ho is serve& (ith the (rit shall $e &ee#e& the person inten&e&7 (c) The place (here he is so i#prisone& or restraine&" if /no(n7 (&) A cop% of the co##it#ent or cause of &etention of such person" if it can $e procure& (ithout i#pairin' the efficienc% of the re#e&%7 or" if the i#prison#ent or restraint is (ithout an% le'al authorit%" such fact shall appearSEC..#ho may grant the writ.

8hen the person to $e pro&uce& is i#prisone& or restraine& $% an officer" the person (ho #a/es the return shall state therein" an& in other cases the person in (hose custo&% the prisoner is foun& shall state" in (ritin' to the court or 3u&'e $efore (ho# the (rit is returna$le" plainl% an& une>uivoca$l%* (a) 8hether he has or has not the part% in his custo&% or po(er" or un&er restraint7 ($) !f he has the part% in his< custo&% or po(er" or un&er restraint" the authorit% an& the true an& (hole cause thereof" set forth at lar'e" (ith a cop% of the (rit" or&er" e1ecution" or other process" if an%" upon (hich the part% is hel&7 (c) !f the part% is in his custo&% or po(er or is restraine& $% hi#" an& is not .A.!n case of i#prison#ent or restraint $% a person not an officer" the (rit shall $e &irecte& to an officer" an& shall co##an& hi# to ta/e an& have the $o&% of the person restraine& of his li$ert% $efore the court or 3u&'e &esi'nate& in the (rit at the ti#e an& place therein specifie&" an& to su##on the person $% (ho# he is restraine& then an& there to appear $efore sai& court or 3u&'e to sho( the cause of the i#prison#ent or restraintSEC.?.court shall issue the (rit un&er the seal of the court7 or in case of e#er'enc%" the 3u&'e #a% issue the (rit un&er his o(n han&" an& #a% &epute an% officer or person to serve itSEC.+efect of form.!f that person cannot $e foun&" or has not the prisoner in his custo&%" then the service shall $e #a&e on an% other person havin' or e1ercisin' such custo&%SEC.@. ..The (rit #a% $e serve& in an% province $% the sheriff or other proper officer" or $% a person &epute& $% the court or 3u&'e.3ow prisoner designated and writ served. and what to re6uire..B Contents of return.The person to $e pro&uce& shoul& $e &esi'nate& in the (rit $% his na#e" if /no(n" $ut if his na#e is not /no(n he #a% $e other(ise &escri$e& or i&entifie&.To whom writ directed.The officer to (ho# the (rit is &irecte& shall conve% the person so i#prisone& or restraine&" an& na#e& in the (rit" $efore the 3u&'e allo(in' the (rit" or" in case of his a$sence or &isa$ilit%" $efore so#e other 3u&'e of the sa#e court" on the &a% specifie& in the (rit" unless" fro# sic/ness or infir#it% of the person &irecte& to $e pro&uce&" such person cannot" (ithout &an'er" $e $rou'ht $efore the court or 3u&'e7 an& the officer shall #a/e &ue return of the (rit" to'ether (ith the &a% an& the cause of the caption an& restraint of such person accor&in' to the co##an& thereofSEC. ..!n case of i#prison#ent or restraint $% an officer" the (rit shall $e &irecte& to hi#" an& shall co##an& hi# to have the $o&% of the person restraine& of his li$ert% $efore the court or 3u&'e &esi'nate& in the (rit at the ti#e an& place therein specifie&.+o (rit of habeas corpus can $e &iso$e%e& for &efect of for#" if it sufficientl% appears therefro# in (hose custo&% or un&er (hose restraint the part% i#prisone& or restraine& is hel& an& the court or 3u&'e $efore (ho# he is to $e $rou'htSEC.ecuted and returned.6..Service of the (rit shall $e #a&e $% leavin' the ori'inal (ith the person to (ho# it is &irecte& an& preservin' a cop% on (hich to #a/e return of service.3ow writ e.

The return or state#ent shall $e si'ne& $% the person (ho #a/es it7 an& shall also $e s(orn to $% hi# if the prisoner is not pro&uce&" an& in all other cases unless the return is #a&e an& si'ne& $% a s(orn pu$lic officer in his official capacit%SEC..4.!f he is la(full% i#prisone& or restraine& on a char'e of havin' co##itte& an offense not so punisha$le" he #a% $e reco##itte& to i#prison#ent or a&#itte& to $ail in the &iscretion of the court or 3u&'e.#hen the return evidence.pro&uce&" particularl% the nature an& 'ravit% of the sic/ness or infir#it% of such part% $% reason of (hich he cannot" (ithout &an'er" $e $rou'ht $efore the court or 3u&'e7 (&) !f he has ha& the part% in his custo&% or po(er" or un&er restraint" an& has transferre& such custo&% or restraint to another" particularl% to (ho#" at (hat ti#e" for (hat cause" an& $% (hat authorit% such transfer (as #a&eSEC.. .8hen the (rit is returne& $efore one 3u&'e" at a ti#e (hen the court is in session" he #a% forth(ith a&3ourn the case into the court" there to $e hear& an& &eter#ine&. and when only a plea.!f such $on& is not so file&" the prisoner shall $e reco##itte& to confine#entSEC.!f the person i#prisone& or restraine& is not pro&uce& $ecause of his alle'e& sic/ness or infir#it%" the court or 3u&'e #ust $e satisfie& that it is so 'rave that such person cannot $e pro&uce& (ithout &an'er" $efore procee&in' to hear an& &ispose of the #atter.Return to be signed and sworn to.On the hearin' the court or 3u&'e shall &isre'ar& #atters of for# an& technicalities in respect to an% (arrant or or&er of co##it#ent of a court or officer authori5e& to co##it $% la(SEC.#hen person lawfully imprisoned recommitted. (d"ournments. .#hen prisoner discharged if no appeal. ..2.The court or 3u&'e $efore (ho# the (rit is returne& or a&3ourne& #ust i##e&iatel% procee& to hear an& e1a#ine the return" an& such other #atters as are properl% su$#itte& for consi&eration" unless for 'oo& cause sho(n the hearin' is a&3ourne&" in (hich event the court or 3u&'e shall #a/e such or&er for the safe/eepin' of the person i#prisone& or restraine& as the nature of the case re>uires.8hen the court or 3u&'e has e1a#ine& into the cause of caption an& restraint of the prisoner" an& is satisfie& that he .. !f it appears that the prisoner is in custo&% un&er a (arrant of co##it#ent in pursuance of la(" the return shall $e consi&ere& prima facie evi&ence of the cause of restraint7 $ut if he is restraine& of his li$ert% $% an% alle'e& private authorit%" the return shall $e consi&ere& onl% as a plea of the facts therein set forth" an& the part% clai#in' the custo&% #ust prove such factsSEC. ..0.!f he $e a&#itte& to $ail" he shall forth(ith file a $on& in such su# as the court or 3u&'e &ee#s reasona$le" consi&erin' the circu#stances of the prisoner an& the nature of the offense char'e&" con&itione& for his appearance $efore the court (here the offense is properl% co'ni5a$le to a$i&e its or&er or 3u&'#ent7 an& the court or 3u&'e shall certif% the procee&in's" to'ether (ith the $on&" forth(ith to the proper court. .. and when let to bail.5..3earing on return.!f it appears that the prisoner (as la(full% co##itte&" an& is plainl% an& specificall% char'e& in the (arrant of co##it#ent (ith an offense punisha$le $% &eath" he shall not $e release&" &ischar'e&" or $aile&.

.A.A person (ho is set at li$ert% upon a (rit of habeas corpus shall not $e a'ain i#prisone& for the sa#e offense unless $% the la(ful or&er or process of a court havin' 3uris&iction of the cause or offense7 an& a person (ho /no(in'l%" contrar% to the provisions of this rule" reco##its or i#prisons" or causes to $e co##itte& or i#prisone&" for the sa#e offense" or preten&e& offense" an% person so set at li$ert%" or /no(in'l% ai&s or assists therein" shall forfeit to the part% a''rieve& the su# of one thousan& pesos" to $e recovere& in a proper action" not(ithstan&in' an% colora$le pretense or variation in the (arrant of co##it#ent" an& #a% also $e punishe& $% the court or 3u&'e 'rantin' the (rit as for conte#ptSEC.#hen prisoner may be removed from one custody to another.$erson discharged not to be again imprisoned.is unla(full% i#prisone& or restraine&" he shall forth(ith or&er his &ischar'e fro# confine#ent" $ut such &ischar'e shall not $e effective until a cop% of the or&er has $een serve& on the officer or person &etainin' the prisoner...!f the officer or person &etainin' the prisoner &oes not &esire to appeal" the prisoner shall $e forth(ith release&SEC.6.A person co##itte& to prison" or in custo&% of an officer" for an% cri#inal #atter" shall not $e re#ove& therefro# into the custo&% of another officer unless $% le'al process" or the prisoner $e &elivere& to an inferior officer to carr% to 3ail or $% or&er of the proper court or 3u&'e" $e re#ove& fro# one place to another (ithin the Philippines for trial" or in case of fire" epi&e#ic" insurrection" or other necessit% or pu$lic cala#it%7 an& a person (ho" after such co##it#ent" #a/es" si'ns" or countersi'ns an% or&er for such re#oval contrar% to this section" shall forfeit to the part% a''rieve& the su# of one thousan& pesos" to $e recovere& in a proper actionSEC.. .@.The procee&in's upon a (rit of habeas corpus shall $e recor&e& $% the cler/ of the court" an& upon the final &isposition of such procee&in's the court or 3u&'e shall #a/e such or&er as to costs as the case re>uiresThe fees of officers an& (itnesses shall $e inclu&e& in the costs ta1e&" $ut no officer or person shall have the ri'ht to &e#an& pa%#ent in a&vance of an% fees to (hich he is entitle& $% virtue of the procee&in's.?.Record of writ.8hen a person confine& un&er color of procee&in's in a cri#inal case is &ischar'e&" the costs shall $e ta1e& a'ainst the Repu$lic of the Philippines" an& pai& out of its Treasur%7 (hen a person in custo&% $% virtue or un&er color of procee&in's in a civil case is &ischar'e&" the costs shall $e ta1e& a'ainst hi#" or a'ainst the person (ho si'ne& the application for the (rit" or $oth" as the court shall &irect- . fees and costs.$enalty for refusing to issue writ. .A cler/ of a court (ho refuses to issue the (rit after allo(ance thereof an& &e#an& therefor" or a person to (ho# a (rit is &irecte&" (ho ne'lects or refuses to o$e% or #a/e return of the sa#e accor&in' to the co##an& thereof" or #a/es false return thereof" or (ho" upon &e#an& #a&e $% or on $ehalf of the prisoner" refuses to &eliver to the person &e#an&in'" (ithin si1 (6) hours after the &e#an& therefor" a true cop% of the (arrant or or&er of co##it#ent" shall forfeit to the part% a''rieve& the su# of one thousan& pesos" to $e recovere& in a proper action" an& #a% also $e punishe& $% the court or 3u&'e as for conte#ptSEC. or for disobeying the same...

.!f the petition file& is sufficient in for# an& su$stance" the court" $% an or&er recitin' the purpose of the petition" shall fi1 a &ate an& place for the hearin' thereof" an& shall &irect that a cop% of the or&er $e pu$lishe& $efore the hearin' at least once a (ee/ for three (2) successive (ee/s in so#e ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation pu$lishe& in the province" as the court shall &ee# $est.RULE 103 C ANGE OF NAME SECT!O+ .The Solicitor Ceneral or the proper provincial or cit% fiscal shall appear on $ehalf of the Covern#ent of the Repu$licSEC..2.An% intereste& person #a% appear at the hearin' an& oppose the petition.Service of "udgment.2Upon satisfactor% proof in open court on the &ate fi1e& in the or&er that such or&er has $een pu$lishe& as &irecte& an& that the alle'ations of the petition are true" the court shall" if proper an& reasona$le cause appears for chan'in' the na#e of the petitioner" a&3u&'e that such na#e $% chan'e& in accor&ance (ith the pra%er of the petitionSEC.Hu&'#ents or or&ers ren&ere& in connection (ith this rule shall $e furnishe& the civil re'istrar of the #unicipalit% or cit% (here the court issuin' the sa#e is situate&" (ho shall forth(ith enter the sa#e in the civil re'ister- RULE 104 VOLUNTARY DISSOLUTION OF CORPORATIONS ...A person &esirin' to chan'e his na#e shall present the petition to the Re'ional Trial Court of the province in (hich he resi&es" or" in the Cit% of 9anila" to the Huvenile an& Fo#estic Relations CourtESEC.Order for hearing.enue.The &ate set for the hearin' shall not $e (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s prior to an election nor (ithin four (4) #onths after the last pu$lication of the noticeSEC.6.3earing.5..4.A petition for chan'e of na#e shall $e si'ne& an& verifie& $% the person &esirin' his na#e& chan'e&" or so#e other person on his $ehalf" an& shall set forth* (a) That the petitioner has $een a bona fide resi&ent of the province (here the petition is file& for at least three (2) %ears prior to the &ate of such filin'7 ($) (c) The cause for (hich the chan'e of the petitionerNs na#e is sou'ht7 The na#e as/e& for- SEC.Contents of petition..0..udgment.

Order thereupon for filing ob"ections.D!n the Cit% of 9anila" the petition shall $e file& in the Huvenile an& Fo#estic Relations CourtE- . .4.2. Receiver.The petition" or&ers" proof of pu$lication an& postin'" o$3ections file&" &eclaration of &issolution" an& an% evi&ence ta/en" shall constitute the recor& in the case- RULE 105 $UDICIAL APPROVAL OF VOLUNTARY RECOGNITION OF MINOR NATURAL C ILDREN SECT!O+ . by whom and on what showing application made.2 !f the petition is sufficient in for# an& substance the court" $% an or&er recitin' the purpose of the petition" shall fi1 a &ate on or $efore (hich o$3ections thereto #a% $e file& $% an% person" (hich &ate shall not $e less than thirt% (2B) nor #ore than si1t% (6B) &a%s after the entr% of the or&er.0. . and disposition of assets.#hat shall constitute record.Upon five (5) &a%s notice 'iven after the &ate on (hich the ri'ht to file o$3ections as fi1e& in the or&er e1pire&" the court shall procee& to hear the petition an& tr% an% issue #a&e $% o$3ections file&7 an& if no such o$3ection is sufficient" an& the #aterial alle'ations of the petition are true" it shall ren&er 3u&'#ent &issolvin' the corporations an& &irectin' such &isposition of its assets as 3ustice re>uires" an& #a% appoint a receiver to collect such assets an& pa% the &e$ts of the corporationSEC. dissolution.)efore such &ate a cop% of the or&er shall $e pu$lishe& at least once a (ee/ for four (4) successive (ee/s in so#e ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation pu$lishe& in the #unicipalit% or cit% (here the principal office of the corporation is situate&" or" if there $e no such ne(spaper" then in so#e ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the Philippines" an& a si#ilar cop% shall $e poste& for four (4) (ee/s in three pu$lic places in such #unicipalit% or cit%SEC.A petition for &issolution of a corporation shall $e file& in the Re'ional Trial Court of the province (here the principal office of a corporation is situate&...8here 3u&icial approval of a voluntar% reco'nition of a #inor natural chil& is re>uire&" such chil& or his parents shall o$tain the sa#e $% filin' a petition to that effect (ith the Re'ional Trial Court of the province in (hich the chil& resi&es....The petition shall $e si'ne& $% a #a3orit% of its $oar& of &irectors or other officers havin' the #ana'e#ent of its affairs" verifie& $% its presi&ent or secretar% or one of its &irectors" an& shall set forth all clai#s an& &e#an&s a'ainst it" an& that its &issolution (as resolve& upon $% a #a3orit% of the #e#$ers" or" if a stoc/ corporation" $% the affir#ative vote of the stoc/hol&ers hol&in' an& representin' t(o<thir&s of all shares of stoc/ issue& or su$scri$e&" at a #eetin' of its #e#$ers or stoc/hol&ers calle& for that purposeSEC.3earing.enue.SECT!O+ .#here.

0.2.Contents of petition. The petition for 3u&icial approval of a voluntar% reco'nition of a #inor natural chil& shall contain the follo(in' alle'ations* (a) The 3uris&ictional facts7 ($) The na#es an& resi&ences of the parents (ho ac/no(le&'e& the chil&" or of either of the#" an& their co#pulsor% heirs" an& the person or persons (ith (ho# the chil& lives7 (c) The fact that the reco'nition #a&e $% the parent or parents too/ place in a state#ent $efore a court of recor& or in an authentic (ritin'" cop% of the state#ent or (ritin' $ein' attache& to the petitionSEC.Upon the filin' of the petition" the court" $% an or&er recitin' the purpose of the sa#e" shall fi1 the &ate an& place for the hearin' thereof" (hich &ate shall not $e #ore than si1 (6) #onths after the entr% of the or&er" an& shall" #oreover" cause a cop% of the or&er to $e serve& personall% or $% #ail upon the intereste& parties" an& pu$lishe& once a (ee/ for three (2) consecutive (ee/s" in a ne(spaper or ne(spapers of 'eneral circulation in the provinceSEC..SEC.!f" fro# the evi&ence presente& &urin' the hearin'" the court is satisfie& that the reco'nition of the #inor natural chil& (as (illin'l% an& voluntaril% #a&e $% the parent or parents concerne&" an& that the reco'nition is for the $est interest of the chil&" it shall ren&er 3u&'#ent 'rantin' 3u&icial approval of such reco'nitionSEC.Opposition..Order for hearing.4.#ho may constitute.Service of "udgment upon civil registrar.A cop% of the 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in accor&ance (ith the prece&in' section shall $e serve& upon the civil re'istrar (hose &ut% it shall $e to enter the sa#e in the re'ister- RULE 106 CONSTITUTION OF FAMILY OME SECT!O+ .6. An% intereste& part% #ust" (ithin fifteen (.5..2The hea& of a fa#il% o(nin' a house an& the lan& on (hich it is situate& #a% constitute the sa#e into a fa#il% ho#e $% filin' a verifie& petition to that effect (ith the Re'ional Trial Court of the province or cit% (here the propert% is locate&.D!n the Cit% of 9anila" the petition shall $e file& in the Huvenile an& Fo#estic Relations CourtE8hen there is &an'er that a person o$li'e& to 'ive support #a% lose his or her fortune $ecause of 'rave #is#ana'e#ent or on account of riotous livin'" his or her spouse" if an%" an& a #a3orit% of those entitle& to $e supporte& $% hi# or $% her #a% petition the Re'ional Trial Court for the creation of the fa#il% ho#e- ..udgment. .5) &a%s fro# service" or fro# the last &ate of pu$lication" of the or&er referre& to in the ne1t prece&in' section" file his opposition to the petition" statin' the 'roun&s or reasons thereforSEC..

SEC- 0- Contents of petition..The petition shall contain the follo(in' particulars* (a) Fescription of the propert%7 ($) An esti#ate of its actual value7 (c) A state#ent that the petitioner is actuall% resi&in' in the pre#ises7 (&) The encu#$rances thereon7 (e) The na#es an& a&&resses of all the cre&itors of the petitioner or hea& of the fa#il% an& of all #ort'a'ees an& other persons (ho have an interest in the propert%7 (f) The na#es of all the $eneficiaries of the fa#il% ho#eSEC- 2- %otice and publication..The court shall notif% the cre&itors" #ort'a'ees an& all other persons (ho have an interest in the estate" of the filin' of the petition" causin' copies thereof to $e serve& upon the#" an& pu$lishe& once a (ee/ for three (2) consecutive (ee/s in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation- The petition shall" #oreover" $e cause& to $e poste& in a conspicuous place in the parcel of lan& #entione& therein" an& also in a conspicuous place of the #unicipal $uil&in' of the #unicipalit% or cit% in (hich the lan& is situate&" for at least fourteen (,4) &a%s prior to the &a% of the hearin'SEC- 4- Ob"ection and date of hearing..!n the notice an& pu$lication re>uire& in the prece&in' section" the court shall re>uire the intereste& parties to file their o$3ection to the petition (ithin a perio& of not less than thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# receipt of notice or fro# the &ate of last pu$lication" an& shall fi1 the &ate an& ti#e of the hearin' of the petitionSEC- 5- Order..After hearin'" if the court fin&s that the actual value of the propose& fa#il% ho#e &oes not e1cee& t(ent% thousan& pesos" or thirt% thousan& pesos in chartere& cities" an& that no thir& person is pre3u&ice& there$%" or that cre&itors have $een 'iven sufficient securit% for their cre&its" the petition shall $e approve&SEC- 6- Registration of order..A certifie& cop% of the or&er of the court approvin' the esta$lish#ent of the fa#il% ho#e shall $e furnishe& the re'ister of &ee&s (ho shall recor& the sa#e in the re'istr% of propert%-

RULE 107

A!SENTEES
SECT!O+ ,- (ppointment of representative..8hen a person &isappears fro# his &o#icile" his (herea$outs $ein' un/no(n" an& (ithout havin' left an a'ent to a&#inister his propert%" or the po(er conferre& upon the a'ent has e1pire&" an% intereste& part%" relative or frien&" #a% petition the Re'ional Trial Court of the place (here the a$sentee resi&e& $efore his &isappearance" for the appoint#ent of a person

to represent hi# provisionall% in all that #a% $e necessar%- D!n the Cit% of 9anila" the petition shall $e file& in the Huvenile an& Fo#estic Relations Court-E SEC- 0- +eclaration of absence; who may petition.2 After the lapse of t(o (0) %ears fro# his &isappearance an& (ithout an% ne(s a$out the a$sentee or since the receipt of the last ne(s" or of five (5) %ears in case the a$sentee has left a person in char'e of the a&#inistration of his propert%" the &eclaration of his a$sence an& appoint#ent of a trustee or a&#inistrator #a% $e applie& for $% an% of the follo(in'* (a) The spouse present7 ($) sa#e7 (c) The relatives (ho (oul& succee& $% the la( of intestac%7 an& (&) Those (ho have over the propert% of the a$sentee so#e ri'ht su$or&inate& to the con&ition of his &eathSEC- 2- Contents of petition..The petition for the appoint#ent of a representative" or for the &eclaration of a$sence an& the appoint#ent of a trustee or an a&#inistrator" #ust sho( the follo(in'* (a) The 3uris&ictional facts7 ($) The na#es" a'es" an& resi&ences of the heirs institute& in the (ill" cop% of (hich shall $e presente&" an& of the relatives (ho (oul& succee& $% the la( of intestac%7 (c) The na#es an& resi&ences of cre&itors an& others (ho #a% have an% a&verse interest over the propert% of the a$sentee7 (&) The pro$a$le value" $elon'in' to the a$senteelocation an& character of the propert% The heirs institute& in a (ill" (ho #a% present an authentic cop% of the

SEC- 4- Time of hearing; notice and publication thereof.28hen a petition for the appoint#ent of a representative" or for the &eclaration of a$sence an& the appoint#ent of a trustee or a&#inistrator" is file&" the court shall fi1 a &ate an& place for the hearin' thereof (here all -concerne& #a% appear to contest the petitionCopies of the notice of the ti#e an& place fi1e& for the hearin' shall $e serve& upon the /no(n heirs" le'atees" &evisees" cre&itors an& other intereste& persons" at least ten (,B) &a%s $efore the &a% of the hearin'" an& shall $e pu$lishe& once a (ee/ for three (2) consecutive (ee/s prior to the ti#e &esi'nate& for the hearin'" in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the province or cit% (here a$sentee resi&es" as the court shall &ee# $estSEC- 5- Opposition-.An%one appearin' to contest the petition shall state in (ritin' his 'roun&s therefor" an& serve a cop% thereof on the petitioner an& other intereste& parties on or $efore the &ate &esi'nate& for the hearin'SEC" 6- $roof at hearing; order..At the hearin'" co#pliance (ith the provisions of section 4 of this rule #ust first $e sho(n- Upon satisfactor% proof of the alle'ations in

the petition" the court shall issue an or&er 'rantin' the sa#e an& appointin' the representative" trustee or a&#inistrator for the a$sentee- The 3u&'e shall ta/e the necessar% #easures to safe'uar& the ri'hts an& interests of the a$sentee an& shall specif% the po(ers" o$li'ations an& re#uneration of his representative" trustee or a&#inistrator" re'ulatin' the# $% the rules concernin' 'uar&ians!n case of &eclaration of a$sence" the sa#e shall not ta/e effect until si1 (6) #onths after its pu$lication in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation &esi'nate& $% the court an& the Official Ca5etteSEC- ?- #ho may be appointed. . !n the appoint#ent of a representative" the spouse present shall $e preferre& (hen there is no le'al separation- !f the a$sentee left no spouse" or if the spouse present is a #inor or other(ise inco#petent" an% co#petent person #a% $e appointe& $% the court- !n case of &eclaration of a$sence" the trustee or a&#inistrator of the a$senteeNs propert% shall $e appointe& in accor&ance (ith the prece&in' para'raphSEC- @- Termination of administration..The trusteeship or a&#inistration of the propert% of the a$sentee shall cease upon or&er of the court in an% of the follo(in' cases* (a) 8hen the a$sentee appears personall% or $% #eans of an a'ent7 ($) 8hen the &eath of the a$sentee is prove& an& his testate or intestate heirs appear7 (c) 8hen a thir& person appears" sho(in' $% a proper &ocu#ent that he has ac>uire& the a$senteeNs propert% $% purchase or other title!n these cases the trustee or a&#inistrator shall cease in the perfor#ance of his office" an& the propert% shall $e place& at the &isposal of those (ho #a% have a ri'ht thereto-

RULE 108

CANCELLATION OR CORRECTION OF ENTRIES IN T E CIVIL REGISTRY
SECT!O+ ,- #ho may file petition..An% person intereste& in an% act" event" or&er or &ecree concernin' the civil status of persons (hich has $een recor&e& in the civil re'ister" #a% file a verifie& petition for the cancellation or correction of an% entr% relatin' thereto" (ith the Re'ional Trial Court of the province (here the correspon&in' civil re'istr% is locate&SEC- 0- Entries su$3ect to cancellation or correction-.Upon 'oo& an& vali& 'roun&s" the follo(in' entries in the civil re'ister #a% $e cancelle& or correcte&* (a) $irths7 ($) #arria'es7 (c) &eaths7 (&) le'al separations7 (e) 3u&'#ents of annul#ents of

#arria'e7 (f) 3u&'#ents &eclarin' #arria'es voi& fro# the $e'innin'7 (') le'iti#ations7 (h) a&options7 (i) ac/no(le&'#ents of natural chil&ren7 (3) naturali5ation7 (/) election" loss or recover% of citi5enship7 (,) civil inter&iction7 (#) 3u&icial &eter#ination of filiation7 (n) voluntar% e#ancipation of a #inor7 an& (o) chan'es of na#eSEC- 2- $arties..8hen cancellation or correction of an entr% in the civil re'ister is sou'ht" the civil re'istrar an& all persons (ho have or clai# an% interest (hich (oul& $e affecte& there$% shall $e #a&e parties to the procee&in'SEC- 4- %otice and publication..Upon the filin' of the petition" the court shall" $% an or&er" fi1 the ti#e an& place for the hearin' of the sa#e" an& cause reasona$le notice thereof to $e 'iven to the persons na#e& in the petition- The court shall also cause the or&er to $e pu$lishe& once a (ee/ for three (2) consecutive (ee/s in a ne(spaper of 'eneral circulation in the provinceSEC- 5- Opposition..The civil re'istrar an& an% person havin' or clai#in' an% interest un&er the entr% (hose cancellation or correction is sou'ht #a%" (ithin fifteen (,5) &a%s fro# notice of the petition" or fro# the last &ate of pu$lication of such notice" file his opposition theretoSEC- 6- *,pediting proceedings-.The court in (hich the procee&in's is $rou'ht #a% #a/e or&ers e1pe&itin' the procee&in's" an& #a% also 'rant preli#inar% in3unction for the preservation of the ri'hts of the parties pen&in' such procee&in'sSEC- ?- Order-.After hearin'" the court #a% either &is#iss the petition or issue an or&er 'rantin' the cancellation or correction pra%e& for- !n either case" a certifie& cop% of the 3u&'#ent shall $e serve& upon the civil re'istrar concerne& (ho shall annotate the sa#e in his recor&-

RULE 109

APPEALS IN SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS
SECT!O+ ,- Orders or "udgments from which appeals may be ta)en. .An intereste& person #a% appeal in special procee&in's fro# an or&er or 3u&'#ent ren&ere& $% a Re'ional Trial Court Dor a Huvenile" an& Fo#estic Relations CourtE" (here such or&er or 3u&'#ent* (a) Allo(s or &isallo(s a (ill7 ($) Feter#ines (ho are the la(ful heirs of a &ecease& person" or the &istri$utive share of the estate to (hich such person is entitle&7 (c) Allo(s or &isallo(s" in (hole or in part" an% clai# a'ainst the estate of a &ecease& person" or an% clai# presente& on $ehalf of the estate in offset to a clai# a'ainst it7

(&) Settles the account of an e1ecutor" a&#inistrator" trustee or 'uar&ian7 (e) Constitutes" in procee&in's relatin' to the settle#ent of the estate of a &ecease& person" or the a&#inistration of a trustee or 'uar&ian" a final &eter#ination in the lo(er court of the ri'hts of the part% appealin'" e1cept that no appeal shall $e allo(e& fro# the appoint#ent of a special a&#inistrator7 an& (f) !s the final or&er or 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in the case" an& affects the su$stantial ri'hts of the person appealin'" unless it $e an or&er 'rantin' or &en%in' a #otion for a ne( trial or for reconsi&erationSEC- 0- (dvance distribution in special proceedings. .+ot(ithstan&in' a pen&in' controvers% or appeal in procee&in's to settle the estate of a &ece&ent" the court #a%" in its &iscretion an& upon such ter#s as it #a% &ee# proper an& 3ust" per#it that such part of the estate as #a% not $e affecte& $% the controvers% or appeal $e &istri$ute& a#on' the heirs or le'atees" upon co#pliance (ith the con&itions set forth in Rule AB of these rules-

PART III CRIMINAL PROCEDURE,

RULE 110

PROSECUTION OF OFFENSES
SECT!O+ ,- Institution of criminal actions..Cri#inal actions shall $e institute& as follo(s* (a) For offenses (here a preli#inar% investi'ation is re>uire& pursuant to section , of Rule ,,0" $% filin' the co#plaint (ith the proper officer for the purpose of con&uctin' the re>uisite preli#inar% investi'ation($) For all other offenses" $% filin' the co#plaint or infor#ation &irectl% (ith the 9unicipal Trial Courts an& 9unicipal Circuit Trial Courts" or the co#plaint (ith the office of the prosecutor- !n 9anila an& other chartere& cities" the co#plaint shall $e file& (ith the office of the prosecutor unless other(ise provi&e& in their chartersThe institution of the cri#inal action shall interrupt the runnin' of the perio& of prescription of the offense char'e& unless other(ise provi&e& in special la(s" (,a)
,

These Rules (ere revise& an& approve& on Octo$er 2" 0BBB to ta/e effect on Fece#$er ," 0BBB- The sa#e (ere pu$lishe& in the 9anila )ulletin an& the Philippine Star" Octo$er ,6 an& ,@" respectivel%-

All cri#inal actions co##ence& $% a co#plaint or infor#ation shall $e prosecute& un&er the &irection an& control of the prosecutor..0.2.Sufficiency of complaint or information.The offen&e& part% cannot institute cri#inal prosecution (ithout inclu&in' the 'uilt% parties" if $oth are alive" nor" in an% case" if the offen&e& part% has consente& to the offense or par&one& the offen&ersThe offenses of se&uction" a$&uction an& acts of lasciviousness shall not $e prosecute& e1cept upon a co#plaint file& $% the offen&e& part% or her parents" 'ran&parents or 'uar&ian" nor" in an% case" if the offen&er has $een e1pressl% par&one& $% an% of the#.=o(ever" in 9unicipal Trial Courts or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Courts (hen the prosecutor assi'ne& thereto or to the case is not availa$le" the offen&e& part%" an% peace officer" or pu$lic officer char'e& (ith the enforce#ent of the la( violate& #a% prosecute the case.(5a) The prosecution for violation of special la(s shall $e 'overne& $% the provisions thereof" (n) SEC.(0a) SEC.A co#plaint is a s(orn (ritten state#ent char'in' a person (ith an offense" su$scri$e& $% the offen&e& part%" an% peace officer" or other pu$lic officer char'e& (ith the enforce#ent of the la( violate&. .!f the offen&e& part% &ies or $eco#es incapacitate& $efore she can file the co#plaint" an& she has no /no(n parents" 'ran&parents or 'uar&ian" the State shall initiate the cri#inal action in her $ehalfThe offen&e& part%" even if a #inor" has the ri'ht to initiate the prosecution of the offenses of se&uction" a$&uction an& acts of lasciviousness in&epen&entl% of her parents" 'ran&parents" or 'uar&ian" unless she is inco#petent or incapa$le of &oin' so8here the offen&e& part%" (ho is a #inor" fails to file the co#plaint" her parents" 'ran&parents" or 'uar&ian #a% file the sa#e.SEC.2An infor#ation is an accusation in (ritin' char'in' a person (ith an offense" su$scri$e& $% the prosecutor an& file& (ith the court.6..(4a) SEC.Information defined.4.A co#plaint or infor#ation is sufficient if it states the na#e of the accuse&7 the &esi'nation of the offense 'iven $% the statute7 the acts or o#issions co#plaine& of as constitutin' the offense7 the na#e of the offen&e& part%7 the appro1i#ate &ate of the co##ission of the offense7 an& the .The co#plaint or infor#ation shall $e in (ritin'" in the na#e of the People of the Philippines an& a'ainst all persons (ho appear to $e responsi$le for the offense involve&.#ho must prosecute criminal actions.The ri'ht to file the action 'rante& to parents" 'ran&parents" or 'uar&ian shall $e e1clusive of all other persons an& shall $e e1ercise& successivel% in the or&er herein provi&e&" e1cept as state& in the prece&in' para'raph+o cri#inal action for &efa#ation (hich consists in the i#putation of an% of the offenses #entione& a$ove shall $e $rou'ht e1cept at the instance of an& upon co#plaint file& $% the offen&e& part%.The complaint or information.Complaint defined.5.This authorit% shall cease upon actual intervention of the prosecutor or upon elevation of the case to the Re'ional Trial CourtThe cri#es of a&ulter% an& concu$ina'e shall not $e prosecute& e1cept upon a co#plaint file& $% the offen&e& spouse.(2) SEC. .

.!f there is no &esi'nation of the offense" reference shall $e #a&e to the section or su$section of the statute punishin' it.(6a) SEC.$lace of commission of the offense.+ate of commission of the offense..place (here the offense (as co##itte&8hen an offense is co##itte& $% #ore than one person" all of the# shall $e inclu&e& in the co#plaint or infor#ation.%ame of the offended party.+esignation of the offense.(?a) SEC.?.@.Ba) SEC...The co#plaint or infor#ation #ust state the na#e an& surna#e of the person a'ainst (ho# or a'ainst (hose propert% the offense (as co##itte&" or an% appellation or nic/na#e $% (hich such person has $een or is /no(n.!f there is no $etter (a% of i&entif%in' hi#" he #ust $e &escri$e& un&er a fictitious na#e(a) !n offenses a'ainst propert%" if the na#e of the offen&e& part% is un/no(n" the propert% #ust $e &escri$e& (ith such particularit% as to properl% i&entif% the offense char'e&($) !f the true na#e of the person a'ainst (ho# or a'ainst (hose propert% the offense (as co##itte& is thereafter &isclose& or ascertaine&" the court #ust cause such true na#e to $e inserte& in the co#plaint or infor#ation an& the recor&- .ACause of the accusation.(@a) SEC.B.The co#plaint or infor#ation shall state the &esi'nation of the offense 'iven $% the statute" aver the acts or o#issions constitutin' the offense" an& specif% its >ualif%in' an& a''ravatin' circu#stances.The offense #a% $e alle'e& to have $een co##itte& on a &ate as near as possi$le to the actual &ate of its co##ission..The co#plaint or infor#ation is sufficient if it can $e un&erstoo& fro# its alle'ations that the offense (as co##itte& or so#e of its essential in're&ients occurre& at so#e place (ithin the 3uris&iction of the court" unless the particular place (here it (as co##itte& constitutes an essential ele#ent of the offense char'e& or is necessar% for its i&entification.a) SEC.The co#plaint or infor#ation #ust state the na#e an& surna#e of the accuse& or an% appellation or nic/na#e $% (hich he has $een or is /no(n. .(.The acts or o#issions co#plaine& of as constitutin' the offense an& the >ualif%in' an& a''ravatin' circu#stances #ust $e state& in or&inar% an& concise lan'ua'e an& not necessaril% in the lan'ua'e use& in the statute" $ut in ter#s sufficient to ena$le a person of co##on un&erstan&in' to /no( (hat offense is $ein' char'e& as (ell as its >ualif%in' an& a''ravatin' circu#stances an& for the court to pronounce 3u&'#ent..(..(Aa) SEC. .0...!f his na#e cannot $e ascertaine&" he #ust $e &escri$e& un&er a fictitious na#e (ith a state#ent that his true na#e is un/no(n!f the true na#e of the accuse& is thereafter &isclose& $% hi# or appears in so#e other #anner to the court" such true na#e shall $e inserte& in the co#plaint or infor#ation an& recor&.%ame of the accused.!t is not necessar% to state in the co#plaint or infor#ation the precise &ate the offense (as co##itte& e1cept (hen it is a #aterial in're&ient of the offense. .

$lace where action is to be instituted..5.(..The court shall state its reasons in resolvin' the #otion an& copies of its or&er shall $e furnishe& all parties" especiall% the offen&e& part%" (n) !f it appears at an% ti#e $efore 3u&'#ent that a #ista/e has $een #a&e in char'in' the proper offense" the court shall &is#iss the ori'inal co#plaint or infor#ation upon the filin' of a ne( one char'in' the proper offense in accor&ance (ith section . .6.After the plea an& &urin' the trial" a for#al a#en&#ent #a% onl% $e #a&e (ith leave of court an& (hen it can $e &one (ithout causin' pre3u&ice to the ri'hts of the accuse&=o(ever" an% a#en&#ent $efore plea" (hich &o(n'ra&es the nature of the offense char'e& in or e1clu&es an% accuse& fro# the co#plaint or infor#ation" can $e #a&e onl% upon #otion $% the prosecutor" (ith notice to the offen&e& part% an& (ith leave of court.0a) SEC..(.2a) SEC.(.6a) . (a) Su$3ect to e1istin' la(s" the cri#inal action shall $e institute& an& trie& in the court of the #unicipalit% or territor% (here the offense (as co##itte& or (here an% of its essential in're&ients occurre&($) 8here an offense is co##itte& in a train" aircraft" or other pu$lic or private vehicle in the course of its trip" the cri#inal action shall $e institute& an& trie& in the court of an% #unicipalit% or territor% (here such train" aircraft" or other vehicle passe& &urin' its trip" inclu&in' the place of its &eparture an& arrival(c) 8here an offense is co##itte& on $oar& a vessel in the course of its vo%a'e" the cri#inal action shall $e institute& an& trie& in the court of the first port of entr% or of an% #unicipalit% or territor% (here the vessel passe& &urin' such vo%a'e" su$3ect to the 'enerall% accepte& principles of international la((&) Cri#es co##itte& outsi&e the Philippines $ut punisha$le un&er Article 0 of the Revise& Penal Co&e shall $e co'ni5a$le $% the court (here the cri#inal action is first file&.A co#plaint or infor#ation #a% $e a#en&e&" in for# or in su$stance" (ithout leave of court" at an% ti#e $efore the accuse& enters his plea..+uplicity of the offense." the offen&e& part% #a% intervene $% counsel in the prosecution of the offense(.5a) SEC.A" Rule .4a) SEC.4.A co#plaint or infor#ation #ust char'e onl% one offense" e1cept (hen the la( prescri$es a sin'le punish#ent for various offenses...8here the civil action for recover% of civil lia$ilit% is institute& in the cri#inal action pursuant to Rule ..(..2.A" provi&e& the accuse& shall not $e place& in &ou$le 3eopar&%..(mendment or substitution.Intervention of the offended party in criminal action.The court #a% re>uire the (itnesses to 'ive $ail for their appearance at the trial.(c) !f the offen&e& part% is a 3uri&ical person" it is sufficient to state its na#e" or an% na#e or &esi'nation $% (hich it is /no(n or $% (hich it #a% $e i&entifie&" (ithout nee& of averrin' that it is a 3uri&ical person or that it is or'ani5e& in accor&ance (ith la(..

RULE 111 PROSECUTION OF CIVIL ACTION SECT!O+ .Institution of criminal and civil actions.+o reservation to file such civil action separatel% shall $e allo(e&Upon filin' of the aforesai& 3oint cri#inal an& civil actions" the offen&e& part% shall pa% in full the filin' fees $ase& on the a#ount of the chec/ involve&" (hich shall $e consi&ere& as the actual &a#a'es clai#e&..a) ($) The cri#inal action for violation of )atas Pa#$ansa )l'.8here the co#plaint or infor#ation also see/s to recover li>ui&ate&" #oral" no#inal" te#perate or e1e#plar% &a#a'es" the offen&e& part% shall pa% a&&itional filin' fees $ase& on the a#ounts alle'e& therein.!f the a#ounts are not so alle'e& $ut an% of these &a#a'es are su$se>uentl% a(ar&e& $% the court" the filin' fees $ase& on the a#ount a(ar&e& shall constitute a first lien on the 3u&'#ent8here the civil action has $een file& separatel% an& trial thereof has not %et co##ence&" it #a% $e consoli&ate& (ith the cri#inal action upon application (ith the court tr%in' the latter case.!f the application is 'rante&" the trial of $oth actions shall procee& in accor&ance (ith section 0 of this Rule 'overnin' consoli&ation of the civil an& cri#inal actions.5?<A?) .(a) 8hen a cri#inal action is institute&" the civil action for the recover% of civil lia$ilit% arisin' fro# the offense char'e& shall $e &ee#e& institute& (ith the cri#inal action unless the offen&e& part% (aives the civil action" reserves the ri'ht to institute it separatel% or institutes the civil action prior to the cri#inal actionThe reservation of the ri'ht to institute separatel% the civil action shall $e #a&e $efore the prosecution starts presentin' its evi&ence an& un&er circu#stances affor&in' the offen&e& part% a reasona$le opportunit% to #a/e such reservation8hen the offen&e& part% see/s to enforce civil lia$ilit% a'ainst the accuse& $% (a% of #oral" no#inal" te#perate" or e1e#plar% &a#a'es (ithout specif%in' the a#ount thereof in the co#plaint or infor#ation" the filin' fees therefor shall constitute a first lien on the 3u&'#ent a(ar&in' such &a#a'es8here the a#ount of &a#a'es" other than actual" is specifie& in the co#plaint or infor#ation" the correspon&in' filin' fees shall $e pai& $% the offen&e& part% upon the filin' thereof in courtE1cept as other(ise provi&e& in these Rules" no filin' fees shall $e re>uire& for actual &a#a'es+o counterclai#" cross<clai# or thir&<part% co#plaint #a% $e file& $% the accuse& in the cri#inal case" $ut an% cause of action (hich coul& have $een the su$3ect thereof #a% $e liti'ate& in a separate civil action" (.(cir.00 shall $e &ee#e& to inclu&e the correspon&in' civil action. .

!t shall procee& in&epen&entl% of the cri#inal action an& shall re>uire onl% a prepon&erance of evi&ence.!n the cases provi&e& in Articles 20" 22" 24 an& 0.The suspension shall last until final 3u&'#ent is ren&ere& in the cri#inal action+evertheless" $efore 3u&'#ent on the #erits is ren&ere& in the civil action" the sa#e #a%" upon #otion of the offen&e& part%" $e consoli&ate& (ith the cri#inal action in the court tr%in' the cri#inal action.2The &eath of the accuse& after arrai'n#ent an& &urin' the pen&enc% of the cri#inal action shall e1tin'uish the civil lia$ilit% arisin' fro# the &elict=o(ever" the in&epen&ent civil action institute& un&er section 2 of this Rule or (hich thereafter is institute& to enforce lia$ilit% arisin' fro# other sources of o$li'ation #a% $e continue& a'ainst the estate or le'al representative of the accuse& after proper su$stitution or a'ainst sai& estate" as the case #a% $e.0.(2a) SEC. .SEC.!n case of consoli&ation" the evi&ence alrea&% a&&uce& in the civil action shall $e &ee#e& auto#aticall% repro&uce& in the cri#inal action (ithout pre3u&ice to the ri'ht of the prosecution to cross<e1a#ine the (itnesses presente& $% the offen&e& part% in the cri#inal case an& of the parties to present a&&itional evi&ence.(0a) SEC.The consoli&ate& cri#inal an& civil actions shall $e trie& an& &eci&e& 3ointl%Furin' the pen&enc% of the cri#inal action" the runnin' of the perio& of prescription of the civil action (hich cannot $e institute& separatel% or (hose procee&in' has $een suspen&e& shall $e tolle&" (n) The e1tinction of the penal action &oes not carr% (ith it e1tinction of the civil action=o(ever" the civil action $ase& on &elict shall $e &ee#e& e1tin'uishe& if there is a fin&in' in a final 3u&'#ent in the cri#inal action that the act or o#ission fro# (hich the civil lia$ilit% #a% arise &i& not e1ist. .#hen civil action may proceed independently.After the cri#inal action has $een co##ence&" the separate civil action arisin' therefro# cannot $e institute& until final 3u&'#ent has $een entere& in the cri#inal action!f the cri#inal action is file& after the sai& civil action has alrea&% $een institute&" the latter shall $e suspen&e& in (hatever sta'e it #a% $e foun& $efore 3u&'#ent on the #erits.4.The heirs of the accuse& #a% $e su$stitute& for the &ecease& (ithout re>uirin' the appoint#ent of an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator an& the court #a% appoint a 'uar&ian ad litem for the #inor heirsThe court shall forth(ith or&er sai& le'al representative or representatives to appear an& $e su$stitute& (ithin a perio& of thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# noticeA final 3u&'#ent entere& in favor of the offen&e& part% shall $e enforce& in the #anner especiall% provi&e& in these rules for prosecutin' clai#s a'ainst the estate of the &ecease&!f the accuse& &ies $efore arrai'n#ent" the case shall $e &is#isse& (ithout .2.*ffect of death on civil actions.!n no case" ho(ever" #a% the offen&e& part% recover &a#a'es t(ice for the sa#e act or o#ission char'e& in the cri#inal action.#hen separate civil action is suspended.?6 of the Civil Co&e of the Philippines" the in&epen&ent civil action #a% $e $rou'ht $% the offen&e& part%.

..0.The preli#inar% investi'ation shall $e con&ucte& in the follo(in' #anner* . The follo(in' #a% con&uct preli#inar% investi'ations* (a) Provincial or Cit% Prosecutors an& their assistants7 ($) Hu&'es of the 9unicipal Trial Courts an& 9unicipal Circuit Trial Courts7 (c) +ational an& Re'ional State Prosecutors7 an& (&) Other officers as #a% $e authori5e& $% la(Their authorit% to con&uct preli#inar% investi'ations shall inclu&e all cri#es co'ni5a$le $% the proper court in their respective territorial 3uris&ictions.Officers authori5ed to conduct preliminary investigations.pre3u&ice to an% civil action the offen&e& part% #a% file a'ainst the estate of the &ecease&" (n) SEC.6.2. .A petition for suspension of the cri#inal action $ase& upon the pen&enc% of a pre3u&icial >uestion in a civil action #a% $e file& in the office of the prosecutor or the court con&uctin' the preli#inar% investi'ation.$rocedure. .a) SEC. .) &a% (ithout re'ar& to the fine" (.(0a) SEC.5.Suspension by reason of pre"udicial 6uestion.8hen the cri#inal action has $een file& in court for trial" the petition to suspen& shall $e file& in the sa#e cri#inal action at an% ti#e $efore the prosecution rests.2 The ele#ents of a pre3u&icial >uestion are* (a) the previousl% institute& civil action involves an issue si#ilar or inti#atel% relate& to the issue raise& in the su$se>uent cri#inal action" an& ($) the resolution of such issue &eter#ines (hether or not the cri#inal action #a% procee&.?.(5a) RULE 112 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION SECT!O+ .$reliminary investigation defined.udgment in civil action not a bar..A final 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in a civil action a$solvin' the &efen&ant fro# civil lia$ilit% is not a $ar to a cri#inal action a'ainst the &efen&ant for the sa#e act or o#ission su$3ect of the civil action. when re6uired.(6a) SEC.Preli#inar% investi'ation is an in>uir% or procee&in' to &eter#ine (hether there is sufficient 'roun& to en'en&er a (ell<foun&e& $elief that a cri#e has $een co##itte& an& the respon&ent is pro$a$l% 'uilt% thereof" an& shoul& $e hel& for trialE1cept as provi&e& in section ? of this Rule" a preli#inar% investi'ation is re>uire& to $e con&ucte& $efore the filin' of a co#plaint or infor#ation for an offense (here the penalt% prescri$e& $% la( is at least four (4) %ears" t(o (0) #onths an& one (.(4a) SEC.*lements of pre"udicial 6uestion.

B) &a%s after the filin' of the co#plaint" the investi'atin' officer shall either &is#iss it if he fin&s no 'roun& to continue (ith the investi'ation" or issue a su$poena to the respon&ent attachin' to it a cop% of the co#plaint an& its supportin' affi&avits an& &ocu#entsThe respon&ent shall have the ri'ht to e1a#ine the evi&ence su$#itte& $% the co#plainant (hich he #a% not have $een furnishe& an& to cop% the# at his e1pense.B) &a%s after the investi'ation" the investi'atin' officer shall &eter#ine (hether or not there is sufficient 'roun& to hol& the respon&ent for trial(2a) .B) &a%s fro# su$#ission of the counter<affi&avits an& other &ocu#ents or fro# the e1piration of the perio& for their su$#ission.The% shall $e in such nu#$er of copies as there are respon&ents" plus t(o (0) copies for the official fileThe affi&avits shall $e su$scri$e& an& s(orn to $efore an% prosecutor or 'overn< #ent official authori5e& to a&#inister oath" or" in their a$sence or unavaila$ilit%" $efore a notar% pu$lic" each of (ho# #ust certif% that he personall% e1a#ine& the affiants an& that he is satisfie& that the% voluntaril% e1ecute& an& un&erstoo& their affi&avits($) 8ithin ten (.B) &a%s fro# receipt of the su$poena (ith the co#plaint an& supportin' affi&avits an& &ocu#ents" the respon&ent shall su$#it his counter<affi&avit an& that of his (itnesses an& other supportin' &ocu#ents relie& upon for his &efense.The counter<affi&avits shall $e su$scri$e& an& s(orn to an& certifie& as provi&e& in para'raph (a) of this section" (ith copies thereof furnishe& $% hi# to the co#plainant7.The% #a%" ho(ever" su$#it to the investi'atin' officer >uestions (hich #a% $e as/e& to the part% or (itness concerne&The hearin' shall $e hel& (ithin ten (.The respon&ent shall not $e allo(e& to file a #otion to &is#iss in lieu of a counter<affi&avit(&) !f the respon&ent cannot $e su$poenae&" of if su$poenae&" &oes not su$#it counter<affi&avits (ithin the ten (.B) &a% perio&" the investi'atin' officer shall resolve the co#plaint $ase& on the evi&ence presente& $% the co#plainant(e) The investi'atin' officer #a% set a hearin' if there are facts an& issues to $e clarifie& fro# a part% or a (itness.(a) The co#plaint shall state the a&&ress of the respon&ent an& shall $e acco#panie& $% the affi&avits of the co#plainant an& his (itnesses" as (ell as other supportin' &ocu#ents to esta$lish pro$a$le cause.!f the evi&ence is volu#inous" the co#plainant #a% $e re>uire& to specif% those (hich he inten&s to present a'ainst the respon&ent" an& these shall $e #a&e availa$le for e1a#ination or cop%in' $% the respon&ent at his e1penseO$3ects as evi&ence nee& not $e furnishe& a part% $ut shall $e #a&e availa$le for e1a#ination" cop%in'" or photo'raphin' at the e1pense of the re>uestin' part%(c) 8ithin ten (.!t shall $e ter#inate& (ithin five (5) &a%s(f) 8ithin ten (.The parties can $e present at the hearin' $ut (ithout the ri'ht to e1a#ine or cross<e1a#ine.

Resolution of investigating prosecutor and its review.B) &a%s after the preli#inar% investi'ation" the investi'atin' 3u&'e shall trans#it the resolution of the case to the provincial or cit% prosecutor" or to the O#$u&s#an or his &eput% in cases of offenses co'ni5a$le $% the Sandiganbayan in the e1ercise of its ori'inal 3uris&iction" for appropriate action.!f the investi'atin' prosecutor fin&s cause to hol& the respon&ent for trial" he shall prepare the resolution an& infor#ation.The resolution shall state the fin&in's of facts an& the la( supportin' his action" to'ether (ith the recor& of the case (hich" shall inclu&e* (a) the (arrant" if the arrest is $% virtue of a (arrant7 ($) the affi&avits" counter<affi&avits an& other supportin' evi&ence of the parties7 (c) the un&erta/in' or $ail of the accuse& an& the or&er for his release7 (&) the transcripts of the procee&in's &urin' the preli#inar% investi'ation7 an& (e) the or&er of cancellation of his $ail $on&" if the resolution is for the &is#issal of the co#plaint8ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# receipt of the recor&s" the provincial or cit% prosecutor" or the O#$u&s#an or his &eput%" as the case #a% $e" shall revie( the resolution of the .Other(ise" he shall reco##en& the &is#issal of the co#plaint8ithin five (5) &a%s fro# his resolution" he shall for(ar& the recor& of the case to the provincial or cit% prosecutor or chief state prosecutor" or to the O#$u&s#an or his &eput% in cases of offenses co'ni5a$le $% the Sandiganbayan in the e1ercise of its ori'inal 3uris&iction.Resolution of investigating "udge and its review.4.SEC.The% shall act on the resolution (ithin ten (.=e shall certif% un&er oath in the infor#ation that he" or as sho(n $% the recor&" an authori5e& officer" has personall% e1a#ine& the co#plainant an& his (itnesses7 that there is reasona$le 'roun& to $elieve that a cri#e has $een co##itte& an& that the accuse& is pro$a$l% 'uilt% thereof7 that the accuse& (as infor#e& of the co#plaint an& of the evi&ence su$#itte& a'ainst hi#7 an& that he (as 'iven an opportunit% to su$#it controvertin' evi&ence.5.(4a) SEC. the Secretar% of Hustice reverses or #o&ifies the resolution of the provincial or cit% prosecutor or chief state prosecutor" he shall &irect the prosecutor concerne& either to file the correspon&in' infor#ation (ithout con&uctin' another preli#inar% investi'ation" or to &is#iss or #ove for &is#issal of the co#plaint or infor#ation (ith notice to the parties. .2 8ithin ten (.B) &a%s fro# their receipt thereof an& shall i##e&iatel% infor# the parties of such action+o co#plaint or infor#ation #a% $e file& or &is#isse& $% an investi'atin' prosecutor (ithout the prior (ritten authorit% or approval of the provincial or cit% prosecutor or chief state prosecutor or the O#$u&s#an or his &eput%8here the investi'atin' prosecutor reco##en&s the &is#issal of the co#plaint $ut his reco##en&ation is &isapprove& $% the provincial or cit% prosecutor or chief state prosecutor or the O#$u&s#an or his &eput% on the 'roun& that a pro$a$le cause e1ists" the latter #a%" $% hi#self" file the infor#ation a'ainst the respon&ent" or &irect another assistant prosecutor or state prosecutor to &o so (ithout con&uctin' another preli#inar% investi'ation!f upon petition $% a proper part% un&er such rules as the Fepart#ent of Hustice #a% prescri$e or motu proprio.The sa#e rule shall appl% in preli#inar% investi'ations con&ucte& $% the officers of the Office of the O#$u&s#an.

=e #a% i##e&iatel% &is#iss the case if the evi&ence on recor& clearl% fails to esta$lish pro$a$le cause.6.=o(ever" (ithout (aitin' for the conclusion of the investi'ation" the 3u&'e #a% issue a (arrant of arrest if he fin&s after an e1a#ination in (ritin' an& un&er oath of the co#plainant an& his (itnesses in the for# of searchin' >uestions an& ans(ers" that a pro$a$le cause e1ists an& that there is a necessit% of placin' the respon&ent un&er i##e&iate custo&% in or&er not to frustrate the en&s of 3ustice(c) #hen warrant of arrest not necessary.(6a) SEC.!n case of &ou$t on the e1istence of pro$a$le cause" the 3u&'e #a% or&er the prosecutor to present a&&itional evi&ence (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# notice an& the issue #ust $e resolve& $% the court (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the filin' of the co#plaint or infor#ation($) 1y the !unicipal Trial Court.#hen warrant of arrest may issue. 8ithin ten (.Their rulin' shall e1pressl% an& clearl% state the facts an& the la( on (hich it is $ase& an& the parties shall $e furnishe& (ith copies thereof.investi'atin' 3u&'e on the e1istence of pro$a$le cause. .The% shall or&er the release of an accuse& (ho is &etaine& if no pro$a$le cause is foun& a'ainst hi#.B) &a%s fro# the filin' of the co#plaint or infor#ation" the 3u&'e shall personall% evaluate the resolution of the prosecutor an& its supportin' evi&ence. of this Rule" the preli#inar% investi'ation of cases fallin' un&er the ori'inal 3uris&iction of the 9etropolitan Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court in Cities" 9unicipal Trial Court" or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court #a% $e con&ucte& $% either the 3u&'e or the prosecutor.(a) 1y the Regional Trial Court -. .A (arrant of arrest shall not issue if the accuse& is alrea&% un&er &etention pursuant to a (arrant issue& $% the #unicipal trial court in accor&ance (ith para'raph ($) of this section" or if the co#plaint or infor#ation (as file& pursuant to section ? of this Rule or is for an offense penali5e& $% fine onl%The court shall then procee& in the e1ercise of its ori'inal 3uris&iction.?.#hen accused lawfully arrested without warrant.(5a) SEC.8hen the investi'ation is con&ucte& $% the 3u&'e hi#self" he shall follo( the proce&ure provi&e& in section 2 of this Rule.!f he fin&s pro$a$le cause" he shall issue a (arrant of arrest" or a co##it#ent or&er if the accuse& has alrea&% $een arreste& pursuant to a (arrant issue& $% the 3u&'e (ho con&ucte& the preli#inar% investi'ation or (hen the co#plaint or infor#ation (as file& pursuant to section ? of this Rule.. .8hen con&ucte& $% the prosecutor" the proce&ure for the issuance of a (arrant of arrest $% the 3u&'e shall $e 'overne& $% para'raph (a) of this section.!f his fin&in's an& reco##en&ations are affir#e& $% the provincial or cit% prosecutor" or $% the O#$u&s#an or his &eput%" an& the correspon&in' infor#ation is file&" he shall issue a (arrant of arrest.8hen a person is la(full% arreste& (ithout a (arrant involvin' an offense (hich re>uires a preli#inar% investi'ation" the co#plaint or infor#ation #a% $e file& $% a prosecutor (ithout nee& of such investi'ation provi&e& an in>uest has $een con&ucte& in accor&ance (ith e1istin' rules.!n the a$sence or unavaila$ilit% of an in>uest prosecutor" the co#plaint #a% $e file& $% the offen&e& part% or a peace officer &irectl% (ith the proper court on the $asis of the affi&avit of the offen&e& part% or arrestin' officer or person)efore the co#plaint or infor#ation is file&" the person arreste& #a% as/ for a preli#inar% investi'ation in accor&ance (ith this Rule" $ut he #ust si'n a (aiver of the .8hen re>uire& pursuant to the secon& para'raph of section .

The recor& of the preli#inar% investi'ation" (hether con&ucte& $% a 3u&'e or a prosecutor" shall not for# part of the recor& of the case.The prosecutor shall act on the co#plaint $ase& on the affi&avits an& other supportin' &ocu#ents su$#itte& $% the co#plainant (ithin ten (..B) &a%s fro# notice" to &eter#ine further the e1istence of pro$a$le cause.(Aa) RULE 113 .A.@.=o(ever" if the 3u&'e is satisfie& that there is no necessit% for placin' the accuse& un&er custo&%" he #a% issue su##ons instea& of a (arrant of arrest.0" R-A.B) &a%s fro# its su$#ission or e1piration of sai& perio&" &is#iss the case.!f the co#plaint is file& &irectl% (ith the prosecutor involvin' an offense punisha$le $% i#prison#ent of less than four (4) %ears" t(o (0) #onths an& one (.5) &a%s fro# its inceptionAfter the filin' of the co#plaint or infor#ation in court (ithout a preli#inar% investi'ation" the accuse& #a%" (ithin five (5) &a%s fro# the ti#e he learns of its filin'" as/ for a preli#inar% investi'ation (ith the sa#e ri'ht to a&&uce evi&ence in his &efense as provi&e& in this Rule.(a) Records supporting the information or complaint..?42@) SEC.(?a7 sec.An infor#ation or co#plaint file& in court shall $e supporte& $% the affi&avits an& counter< affi&avits of the parties an& their (itnesses" to'ether (ith the other supportin' evi&ence an& the resolution on the case($) Record of preliminary investigation.provisions of Article . .(@a) SEC.8hen he fin&s pro$a$le cause" he shall issue a (arrant of arrest" or a co##it#ent or&er if the accuse& ha& alrea&% $een arreste&" an& hol& hi# for trial. !f the co#plaint or infor#ation is file& (ith the 9unicipal Trial Court or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court for an offense covere& $% this section" the proce&ure in section 2(a) of this Rule shall $e o$serve&!f (ithin ten (.Cases not re>uirin' a preli#inar% investi'ation nor covere& $% the Rule on Su##ar% Proce&ure-.=e #a%" ho( ever" re>uire the su$#ission of a&&itional evi&ence" (ithin ten (.) &a%" the proce&ure outline& in section 2(a) of this Rule shall $e o$serve&.B) &a%s fro# its filin'($) If filed with the !unicipal Trial Court.+ot(ithstan&in' the (aiver" he #a% appl% for $ail an& the investi'ation #ust $e ter#inate& (ithin fifteen (.!f the 3u&'e still fin&s no pro$a$le cause &espite the a&&itional evi&ence" he shall" (ithin ten (.+o. . .=o(ever" the court" on its o(n initiative or on #otion of an% part%" #a% or&er the pro&uction of the recor& or an% of its part (hen necessar% in the resolution of the case or an% inci&ent therein" or (hen it is to $e intro&uce& as an evi&ence in the case $% the re>uestin' part%.B) &a%s after the filin' of the co#plaint or infor#ation" the 3u&'e fin&s no pro$a$le cause after personall% evaluatin' the evi&ence" or after personall% e1a#inin' in (ritin' an& un&er oath the co#plainant an& his (itnesses in the for# of searchin' >uestions an& ans(ers" he shall &is#iss the sa#e. (a) If filed with the prosecutor.Records.05 of the Revise& Penal Co&e" as a#en&e&" in the presence of his counsel.

The hea& of the office to (ho# the (arrant of arrest (as &elivere& for e1ecution shall cause the (arrant to $e e1ecute& (ithin ten (.2Arrest is the ta/in' of a person into custo&% in or&er that he #a% $e $oun& to ans(er for the co##ission of an offense.(6) SEC.+uty of arresting officer.8hen #a/in' an arrest $% virtue of a (arrant" the officer shall infor# the person to $e arreste& of the cause of the arrest an& the fact that a (arrant has $een issue& for his arrest" e1cept (hen he flees or forci$l% resists $efore the officer has opportunit% to so infor# hi#" or (hen the 'ivin' of such infor#ation (ill i#peril the arrest.*..The person arreste& shall not $e su$3ect to a 'reater restraint than is necessar% for his &etention(0a) SEC..0" (5a) SEC.A peace officer or a private person #a%" (ithout a (arrant" arrest a person* (a) 8hen" in his presence" the person to $e arreste& has co##itte&" is actuall% co##ittin'" or is atte#ptin' to co##it an offense7 ($) 8hen an offense has 3ust $een co##itte& an& he has pro$a$le cause to $elieve $ase& on personal /no(le&'e of facts or circu#stances that the person to $e arreste& has co##itte& it7 an& (c) 8hen the person to $e arreste& is a prisoner (ho has escape& fro# a penal esta$lish#ent or place (here he is servin' final 3u&'#ent or is te#poraril% confine& (hile his case is pen&in'" or has escape& (hile $ein' transferre& fro# one confine#ent to another!n cases fallin' un&er para'raphs (a) an& ($) a$ove" the person arreste& (ithout a (arrant shall $e forth(ith &elivere& to the nearest police station or 3ail an& shall $e procee&e& a'ainst in accor&ance (ith section ? of Rule .(?a) .?.2.0.5. when lawful..Time of ma)ing arrest.+efinition of arrest.(rrest.8ithin ten (..An arrest is #a&e $% an actual restraint of a person to $e arreste&" or $% his su$#ission to the custo&% of the person #a/in' the arrest+o violence or unnecessar% force shall $e use& in #a/in' an arrest.ARREST SECT!O+ .6..4. .(rrest without warrant.) SEC.ecution of warrant.B) &a%s after the e1piration of the perio&" the officer to (ho# it (as assi'ne& for e1ecution shall #a/e a report to the 3u&'e (ho issue& the (arrant.B) &a%s fro# its receipt.An arrest #a% $e #a&e on an% &a% an& at an% ti#e of the &a% or ni'ht. how made.(.!ethod of arrest by officer by virtue of warrant.!t shall $e the &ut% of the officer e1ecutin' the (arrant to arrest the accuse& an& &eliver hi# to the nearest police station or 3ail (ithout unnecessar% &ela%..The officer nee& not have the (arrant in his possession at the ti#e of the arrest $ut after the arrest" if the person arreste& so re>uires" the (arrant shall $e sho(n to hi# as soon as practica$le.!n case of his failure to e1ecute the (arrant" he shall state the reasons therefor(4a) SEC.(2a) SEC. .

Right to brea) out from building or enclosure. .Su$3ect to reasona$le re'ulations" a relative of the person arreste& can also e1ercise the sa#e ri'ht.!ethod of arrest by private person. ..2)ail is the securit% 'iven for the release of a person in custo&% of the la(" furnishe& $% hi# or a $on&s#an" to 'uarantee his appearance $efore an% court as re>uire& un&er the con&itions hereinafter specifie&.0.8hen #a/in' an arrest" a private person shall infor# the person to $e arreste& of the intention to arrest hi# an& the cause of the arrest" unless the latter is either en'a'e& in the co##ission of an offense" is pursue& i##e&iatel% after its co##ission" or has escape&" flees" or forci$l% resists $efore the person #a/in' the arrest has opportunit% to so infor# hi#" or (hen the 'ivin' of such infor#ation (ill i#peril the arrest.8henever an officer has entere& the $uil&in'" or enclosure in accor&ance (ith the prece&in' section" he #a% $rea/ out therefro# (hen necessar% to li$erate hi#self...SEC.An officer #a/in' a la(ful arrest #a% orall% su##on as #an% persons as he &ee#s necessar% to assist hi# in effectin' the arrest..!f a person la(full% arreste& escapes or is rescue&" an% person #a% i##e&iatel% pursue or reta/e hi# (ithout a (arrant at an% ti#e an& in an% place (ithin the Philippines...Ever% person so su##one& $% an officer shall assist hi# in effectin' the arrest (hen he can ren&er such assistance (ithout &etri#ent to hi#self. .An% #e#$er of the Philippine )ar shall" at the re>uest of the person arreste& or of another actin' in his $ehalf" have the ri'ht to visit an& confer privatel% (ith such person in the 3ail or an% other place of custo&% at an% hour of the &a% or ni'ht.2..(.2) SEC.4. ..(@a) SEC.4a) RULE 114 !AIL SECT!O+ .A.0a) SEC..(rrest after escape or rescue.8hen #a/in' an arrest (ithout a (arrant" the officer shall infor# the person to $e arreste& of his authorit% an& the cause of the arrest" unless the latter is either en'a'e& in the co##ission of an offense" is pursue& i##e&iatel% after its co##ission" has escape&" flees" or forci$l% resists $efore the officer has opportunit% to so infor# hi#" or (hen the 'ivin' of such infor#ation (ill i#peril the arrest.An officer" in or&er to #a/e an arrest either $% virtue of a (arrant" or (ithout a (arrant as provi&e& in section 5" #a% $rea/ into an% $uil&in' or enclosure (here the person to $e arreste& is or is reasona$l% $elieve& to $e" if he is refuse& a&#ittance thereto" after announcin' his authorit% an& purpose" (.(.Ba) SEC..Officer may summon assistance.a) SEC.(.Right of attorney or relative to visit person arrested. .@.(.Right of officer to brea) into building or enclosure.)ail #a% $e .1ail defined.(Aa) SEC..B.!ethod of arrest by officer without warrant.

Upon conviction $% the Re'ional Trial Court of an -offense not punisha$le $% &eath" reclusion perpetua.0.2 All persons in custo&% shall $e a&#itte& to $ail as a #atter of ri'ht" (ith sufficient sureties" or release& on reco'ni5ance as prescri$e& $% la( or this Rule (a) $efore or after conviction $% the 9etropolitan Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court in Cities" or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court" an& ($) $efore conviction $% the Re'ional Trial Court of an offense not punisha$le $% &eath" reclusion perpetua. .The application for $ail #a% $e file& an& acte& upon $% the trial court &espite the filin' of a notice of appeal" provi&e& it has not trans#itte& the ori'inal recor& to the appellate court. e.!n such case" the trial #a% procee& in absentia.%o release or transfer e. re6uirements. .5.1ail.'iven in the for# of corporate suret%" propert% $on&" cash &eposit" or reco'ni5ance" (.=o(ever" if the &ecision of the trial court convictin' the accuse& chan'e& the nature of the offense fro# non<$aila$le to $aila$le" the application for $ail can onl% $e file& (ith an& resolve& $% the appellate courtShoul& the court 'rant the application" the accuse& #a% $e allo(e& to continue on provisional li$ert% &urin' the pen&enc% of the appeal un&er the sa#e $ail su$3ect to the consent of the $on&s#an!f the penalt% i#pose& $% the trial court is i#prison#ent e1cee&in' si1 (6) %ears" the accuse& shall $e &enie& $ail" or his $ail shall $e cancelle& upon a sho(in' $% the prosecution" (ith notice to the accuse&" of the follo(in' or other si#ilar circu#stances* ..Photo'raphs (passport si5e) ta/en (ithin the last si1 (6) #onths sho(in' the face" left an& ri'ht profiles of the accuse& #ust $e attache& to the $ail.1ail. when discretionary.cept on court order or bail.(4a) SEC.All /in&s of $ail are su$3ect to the follo(in' con&itions* (a) The un&erta/in' shall $e effective upon approval" an& unless cancelle&" shall re#ain in for# at all sta'es of the case until pro#ul'ation of the 3u&'#ent of the Re'ional Trial Court" irrespective of (hether the case (as ori'inall% file& in or appeale& to it7 ($) The accuse& shall appear $efore the proper court (henever re>uire& $% the court or these Rules7 (c) The failure of the accuse& to appear at the trial (ithout 3ustification an& &espite &ue notice shall $e &ee#e& a (aiver of his ri'ht to $e present thereat. an& (&) The $on&s#an shall surren&er the accuse& to the court for e1ecution of the final e1ecutionThe ori'inal papers shall state the full na#e an& a&&ress of the accuse&" the a#ount of the un&erta/in' an& the con&itions re>uire& $% this section.2.+o person un&er &etention $% le'al process shall $e release& or transferre& e1cept upon or&er of the court or (hen he is a&#itte& to $ail.4.(2a) SEC. or life i#prison#ent" a&#ission to $ail is &iscretionar%. a matter of right.ception. or life i#prison#ent.a) SEC.Conditions of the bail.(0a) SEC.

guidelines.+o person char'e& (ith a capital offense" or an offense punisha$le $% reclusion perpetua or life i#prison#ent" shall $e a&#itte& to $ail (hen evi&ence of 'uilt is stron'" re'ar&less of the sta'e of the cri#inal prosecution.Capital offense..The evi&ence presente& &urin' the $ail hearin' shall $e consi&ere& auto#aticall% repro&uce& at the trial $ut" upon #otion of either part%" the court #a% recall an% (itness for a&&itional e1a#ination unless the latter is &ea&" outsi&e the Philippines" or other(ise una$le to testif%.6.(6a) SEC. .@.At the hearin' of an application for $ail file& $% a person (ho is in custo&% for the co##ission of an offense punisha$le $% &eath" reclusion perpetua. defined.?.The 3u&'e (ho issue& the (arrant or 'rante& the application shall fi1 a reasona$le a#ount of $ail consi&erin' pri#aril%" $ut not li#ite& to" the follo(in' factors* (a) Financial a$ilit% of the accuse& to 'ive $ail7 ($) +ature an& circu#stances of the offense7 (c) Penalt% for the offense char'e&7 (&) Character an& reputation of the accuse&7 (e) A'e an& health of the accuse&7 (f) 8ei'ht of the evi&ence a'ainst the accuse&7 (') Pro$a$ilit% of the accuse& appearin' at the trial7 (h) Forfeiture of other $ail7 . not bailable..Capital offense or an offense punishable by reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment..(mount of bail. or life i#prison#ent" the prosecution has the $ur&en of sho(in' that evi&ence of 'uilt is stron'.(?a) SEC.(a) That he is a reci&ivist" >uasi<reci&ivist" or ha$itual &elin>uent" or has co##itte& the cri#e a''ravate& $% the circu#stance of reiteration7 ($) That he has previousl% escape& fro# le'al confine#ent" eva&e& sentence" or violate& the con&itions of his $ail (ithout vali& 3ustification7 (c) That he co##itte& the offense (hile un&er pro$ation" parole" or con&itional par&on7 (&) That the circu#stances of his case in&icate the pro$a$ilit% of fli'ht if release& on $ail7 or (e) That there is un&ue ris/ that he #a% co##it another cri#e &urin' the pen&enc% of the appealThe appellate court #a%" motu proprio or on #otion of an% part%" revie( the resolution of the Re'ional Trial Court after notice to the a&verse part% in either case(5a) SEC.A capital offense is an offense (hich" un&er the la( e1istin' at the ti#e of its co##ission an& of the application for a&#ission to $ail" #a% $e punishe& (ith &eath.(@a) SEC.A.1urden of proof in bail application.

+o $ail shall $e approve& unless the suret% is >ualifie&.(Aa) SEC..2.=e shall &escri$e the propert% 'iven as securit%" statin' the nature of his title" its encu#$rances" the nu#$er an& a#ount of other $ails entere& into $% hi# an& still un&ischar'e&" an& his other lia$ilities..(.(.a) SEC. ..0a) SEC.Ever% suret% shall 3ustif% $% affi&avit ta/en $efore the 3u&'e that he possesses the >ualifications prescri$e& in the prece&in' section.Corporate surety.A propert% $on& is an un&erta/in' constitute& as lien on the real propert% 'iven as securit% for the a#ount of the $ail8ithin ten (..8ualifications of sureties in property bond.The court #a% e1a#ine the sureties upon oath concernin' their sufficienc% in such #anners it #a% &ee# proper.$roperty bond.(.2a) SEC...ustification of sureties. how posted.(.The >ualifications of sureties in a propert% $on& shall $e as follo(s* (a) Each #ust $e a resi&ent o(ner of real estate (ithin the Philippines7 ($) 8here there is onl% one suret%" his real estate #ust $e (orth at least the a#ount of the un&erta/in'7 (c) !f there are t(o or #ore sureties" each #a% 3ustif% in an a#ount less than that e1presse& in the un&erta/in' $ut the a''re'ate of the 3ustifie& su#s #ust $e e>uivalent to the (hole a#ount of the $ail &e#an&e&!n all cases" ever% suret% #ust $e (orth the a#ount specifie& in his o(n un&erta/in' over an& a$ove all 3ust &e$ts" o$li'ations an& properties e1e#pt fro# e1ecution..B) &a%s after the approval of the $on&" the accuse& shall cause the annotation of the lien on the certificate of title on file (ith the Re'istr% of Fee&s if the lan& is re'istere&" or if unre'istere&" in the Re'istration )oo/ on the space provi&e& therefor" in the Re'istr% of Fee&s for the province or cit% (here the lan& lies" an& on the correspon&in' ta1 &eclaration in the office of the provincial" cit% an& #unicipal assessor concerne&8ithin the sa#e perio&" the accuse& shall su$#it to the court his co#pliance an& his failure to &o so shall $e sufficient cause for the cancellation of the propert% $on& an& his re<arrest an& &etention..4..0.Ba) SEC....Upon su$#ission of a proper certificate of .B.An% &o#estic or forei'n corporation" license& as a suret% in accor&ance (ith la( an& currentl% authori5e& to act as such" #a% provi&e $ail $% a $on& su$scri$e& 3ointl% $% the accuse& an& an officer of the corporation &ul% authori5e& $% its $oar& of &irectors.The accuse& or an% person actin' in his $ehalf #a% &eposit in cash (ith the nearest collector of internal revenue or provincial" cit%" or #unicipal treasurer the a#ount of $ail fi1e& $% the court" or reco##en&e& $% the prosecutor (ho investi'ate& or file& the case.(i) The fact that the accuse& (as a fu'itive fro# 3ustice (hen arreste&7 an& (3) Pen&enc% of other cases (here the accuse& is on $ailE1cessive $ail shall not $e re>uire&.+eposit of cash as bail.

Aa) SEC.1ail.!n the application for $ail un&er section @ of this Rule" the court #ust 'ive reasona$le notice of the hearin' to the prosecutor or re>uire hi# to su$#it his reco##en&ation.8hen increase&" the .The accuse& #ust $e &ischar'e& upon approval of the $ail $% the 3u&'e (ith (ho# it (as file& in accor&ance (ith section .Release on bail.5a) SEC.+o $ail shall $e re>uire& (hen the la( or these Rules so provi&e8hen a person has $een in custo&% for a perio& e>ual to or #ore than the possi$le #a1i#u# i#prison#ent prescri$e& for the offense char'e&" he shall $e release& i##e&iatel%" (ithout pre3u&ice to the continuation of the trial or the procee&in's on appeal.%otice of application to prosecutor.& . .After the accuse& is a&#itte& to $ail" the court #a%" upon 'oo& cause" either increase or re&uce its a#ount.?a) $ail SEC..5..(...6.4a) SEC.0B. ..?.(.@.(. reduced bail or recogni5ance.!f the accuse& is arreste& in a province" cit%" or #unicipalit% other than (here the case is pen&in'" $ail #a% also $e file& (ith an% re'ional trial court of sai& place" or if no 3u&'e thereof is availa$le" (ith an% #etropolitan trial 3u&'e" #unicipal trial 3u&'e" or #unicipal circuit trial 3u&'e therein($) 8here the 'rant of $ail is a #atter of &iscretion" or the accuse& see/s to $e release& on reco'ni5ance" the application #a% onl% $e file& in the court (here the case is pen&in'" (hether on preli#inar% investi'ation" trial" or appeal(c) An% person in custo&% (ho is not %et char'e& in court #a% appl% for (ith an% court in the province" cit%" or #unicipalit% (here he is hel&.(a) )ail in the a#ount fi1e& #a% $e file& (ith the court (here the case is pen&in'" or in the a$sence or unavaila$ilit% of the 3u&'e thereof" (ith an% re'ional trial 3u&'e" #etropolitan trial 3u&'e" #unicipal trial 3u&'e" or #unicipal circuit trial 3u&'e in the province" cit%" or #unicipalit%.&eposit an& a (ritten un&erta/in' sho(in' co#pliance (ith the re>uire#ents of section 0 of this Rule" the accuse& shall $e &ischar'e& fro# custo&%.. he shall $e release& after thirt% (2B) &a%s of preventive i#prison#entA person in custo&% for a perio& e>ual to or #ore than the #ini#u# of the principal penalt% prescri$e& for the offense char'e&" (ithout application of the !n&eter#inate Sentence La( or an% #o&if%in' circu#stance" shall $e release& on a re&uce& $ail or on his o(n reco'ni5ance" at the &iscretion of the court.!f the #a1i#u# penalt% to (hich the accuse& #a% $e sentence& is destierro. where filed.(. when not re6uired.1ail.Increase or reduction of bail.? of this Rule8hen $ail is file& (ith a court other than (here the case is pen&in'" the 3u&'e (ho accepte& the $ail shall for(ar& it" to'ether (ith the or&er of release an& other supportin' papers" to the court (here the case is pen&in'" (hich #a%" for 'oo& reason" re>uire a &ifferent one to $e file&..6a) SEC.The #one% &eposite& shall $e consi&ere& as $ail an& applie& to the pa%#ent of fine an& costs (hile the e1cess" if an%" shall $e returne& to the accuse& or to (hoever #a&e the &eposit.A.@a) SEC.8henever allo(e& $% la( or these Rules" the court #a% release a person in custo&% on his o(n reco'ni5ance or that of a responsi$le person(.Recogni5ance.(..

!f the accuse& fails to appear in person as re>uire&" his $ail shall $e &eclare& forfeite& an& the $on&s#en 'iven thirt% (2B) &a%s (ithin (hich to pro&uce their principal an& to sho( cause (h% no 3u&'#ent shoul& $e ren&ere& a'ainst the# for the a#ount of their $ail.accuse& #a% $e co##itte& to custo&% if he &oes not 'ive $ail in the increase& a#ount (ithin a reasona$le perio&.!f $efore such finalit%" the accuse& applies for pro$ation" he #a% $e allo(e& te#porar% li$ert% un&er his $ail.(02a) SEC.!n no case shall $ail $e allo(e& after the accuse& has co##ence& to serve sentence.. .%o bail after final "udgment.8hen the presence of the accuse& is re>uire& $% the court or these Rules" his $on&s#en shall $e notifie& to pro&uce hi# $efore the court on a 'iven &ate an& ti#e.00.8hen no $ail (as file& or the accuse& is incapa$le of filin' one" the court #a% allo( his release on reco'ni5ance to the custo&% of a responsi$le #e#$er of the co##unit%.(rrest of accused out on bail.The court shall not re&uce or other(ise #iti'ate the lia$ilit% of the $on&s#en" unless the accuse& has $een surren&ere& or is ac>uitte&.An accuse& hel& to ans(er a cri#inal char'e" (ho is release& (ithout $ail upon filin' of the co#plaint or infor#ation" #a%" at an% su$se>uent sta'e of the procee&in's an& (henever a stron' sho(in' of 'uilt appears to the court" $e re>uire& to 'ive $ail in the a#ount fi1e&" or in lieu thereof" co##itte& to custo&%(0Ba) SEC.05.4orfeiture of bail.02.0.2The court shall e1ercise supervision over .For the purpose of surren&erin' the accuse&" the $on&s#en #a% arrest hi# or" upon (ritten authorit% en&orse& on a certifie& cop% of the un&erta/in'" cause hi# to $e arreste& $% a police officer or an% other person of suita$le a'e an& &iscretionAn accuse& release& on $ail #a% $e re<arreste& (ithout the necessit% of a (arrant if he atte#pts to &epart fro# the Philippines (ithout per#ission of the court (here the case is pen&in'.+o $ail shall $e allo(e& after a 3u&'#ent of conviction has $eco#e final..Cancellation of bail.(04a) SEC.04. .(0.Court supervision of detainees.a) SEC..8ithin the sai& perio&" the $on&s#en #ust* (a) pro&uce the $o&% of their principal or 'ive the reason for his non< pro&uction7 an& ($) e1plain (h% the accuse& &i& not appear $efore the court (hen first re>uire& to &o soFailin' in these t(o re>uisites" a 3u&'#ent shall $e ren&ere& a'ainst the $on&s#en" 3ointl% an& severall%" for the a#ount of the $ail. e.Upon application of the $on&s#en" (ith &ue notice to the prosecutor" the $ail #a% $e cancelle& upon surren&er of the accuse& or proof of his &eathThe $ail shall $e &ee#e& auto#aticall% cancelle& upon ac>uittal of the accuse&" &is#issal of the case" or e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent of conviction!n all instances" the cancellation shall $e (ithout pre3u&ice to an% lia$ilit% on the $ail(00a) SEC.ception.

The court shall resolve the #atter as earl% as practica$le $ut not later than the start of the trial of the case" (n) RULE 115 RIG TS OF ACCUSED SECT!O+ .The accuse& #a%" ho(ever" (aive his presence at the trial pursuant to the stipulations set forth in his tail" unless his presence is specificall% or&ere& $% the court for purposes of i&entification.The% shall or&er the se're'ation of se1es an& of #inors fro# a&ults" ensure the o$servance of the ri'ht of &etainees to confer privatel% (ith counsel" an& strive to eli#inate con&itions ini#ical to the &etainees!n cities an& #unicipalities to $e specifie& $% the Supre#e Court" the #unicipal trial 3u&'es or #unicipal circuit trial 3u&'es shall con&uct #onthl% personal inspections of the #unicipal 3ails in their respective #unicipalities an& su$#it a report to the e1ecutive 3u&'e of the Re'ional Trial Court havin' 3uris&iction thereinA #onthl% report of such visitation shall be su$#itte& $% the e1ecutive 3u&'es to the Court A&#inistrator (hich shall state the total nu#$er of &etainees" the na#es of those hel& for #ore than thirt% (2B) &a%s" the &uration of &etention" the cri#e char'e&" the status of the case" the cause for &etention" an& other pertinent infor#ation.06.The a$sence of the accuse& (ithout 3ustifia$le cause at the trial of (hich he ha& notice shall $e consi&ere& a (aiver of his ri'ht to $e present thereat8hen an accuse& un&er custo&% escapes" he shall $e &ee#e& to have (aive& his ri'ht to $e present on all su$se>uent trial &ates until custo&% over hi# is re'aine&- ..(05a) SEC. lac) of or irregular preliminary investigation.2 !n all cri#inal prosecutions" the accuse& shall $e entitle& to the follo(in' ri'hts* (a) To $e presu#e& innocent until the contrar% is prove& $e%on& reasona$le &ou$t($) To $e infor#e& of the nature an& cause of the accusation a'ainst hi#(c) To $e present an& &efen& in person an& $% counsel at ever% sta'e of the procee&in's" fro# arrai'n#ent to pro#ul'ation of the 3u&'#ent.all persons in custo&% for the purpose of eli#inatin' unnecessar% &etention.The e1ecutive 3u&'es of the Re'ional Trial Courts shall con&uct #onthl% personal inspections of provincial" cit%" an& #unicipal 3ails an& the prisoners (ithin their respective 3uris&ictions.Rights of accused at the trial.An application for or a&#ission to $ail shall not $ar the accuse& fro# challen'in' the vali&it% of his arrest or the le'alit% of the (arrant issue& therefor" or fro# assailin' the re'ularit% or >uestionin' the a$sence of a preli#inar% investi'ation of the char'e a'ainst hi#" provi&e& that he raises the# $efore enterin' his plea.1ail not a bar to ob"ections on illegal arrest.The% shall ascertain the nu#$er of &etainees" in>uire on their proper acco##o&ation an& health an& e1a#ine the con&ition of the 3ail facilities..

.The prosecution #a% call at the trial (itnesses other than those na#e& in the co#plaint or infor#ation($) The accuse& #ust $e present at the arrai'n#ent an& #ust personall% enter his plea.)oth arrai'n#ent an& plea shall $e #a&e of recor&" $ut failure to &o so shall not affect the vali&it% of the procee&in's(c) 8hen the accuse& refuses to plea& or #a/es a con&itional plea" a plea of not 'uilt% shall $e entere& for hi#. how made.(.(.(rraignment and plea.a) RULE 116 ARRAIGNMENT AND PLEA SECT!O+ .a) (&) 8hen the accuse& plea&s 'uilt% $ut presents e1culpator% evi&ence" his plea shall $e &ee#e& (ith&ra(n an& a plea of not 'uilt% shall $e entere& for hi#. (a) The accuse& #ust $e arrai'ne& $efore the court (here the co#plaint or infor#ation (as file& or assi'ne& for trial.The arrai'n#ent shall $e #a&e in open court $% the 3u&'e or cler/ $% furnishin' the accuse& (ith a cop% of the co#plaint or infor#ation" rea&in' the sa#e in the lan'ua'e or &ialect /no(n to hi#" an& as/in' hi# (hether he plea&s 'uilt% or not 'uilt%.Upon #otion" the accuse& #a% $e allo(e& to &efen& hi#self in person (hen it sufficientl% appears to the court that he can properl% protect his ri'hts (ithout the assistance of counsel(&) To testif% as a (itness in his o(n $ehalf $ut su$3ect to cross<e1a#ination on #atters covere& $% &irect e1a#ination.=is silence shall not in an% #anner pre3u&ice hi#(e) To $e e1e#pt fro# $ein' co#pelle& to $e a (itness a'ainst hi#self(f) To confront an& cross<e1a#ine the (itnesses a'ainst hi# at the trialEither part% #a% utili5e as part of its evi&ence the testi#on% of a (itness (ho is &ecease&" out of or can not (ith &ue &ili'ence $e foun& in the Philippines" unavaila$le" or other(ise una$le to testif%" 'iven in another case or procee&in'" 3u&icial or a&#inistrative" involvin' the sa#e parties an& su$3ect #atter" the a&verse part% havin' the opportunit% to cross<e1a#ine hi#(') To have co#pulsor% process issue& to secure the atten&ance of (itnesses an& pro&uction of other evi&ence in his $ehalf(h) To have spee&%" i#partial an& pu$lic trial(i) To appeal in all cases allo(e& an& in the #anner prescri$e& $% la(.The accuse& shall $e .(n) (e) 8hen the accuse& is un&er preventive &etention" his case shall $e raffle& an& its recor&s trans#itte& to the 3u&'e to (ho# the case (as raffle& (ithin three (2) &a%s fro# the filin' of the infor#ation or co#plaint.

0.B) &a%s fro# the &ate of the raffle. .2@<A@) SEC.4" cir.$lea of guilty to capital offense.Unless the accuse& is allo(e& to &efen& hi#self in person or has e#plo%e& counsel of his choice" the court #ust assi'n a counsel de oficio to &efen& hi#.8henever a .5. reception of evidence.The ti#e of the pen&enc% of a #otion to >uash or for a $ill of particulars or other causes 3ustif%in' suspension of the arrai'n#ent shall $e e1clu&e& in co#putin' the perio&" (sec.B) &a%s after arrai'n#ent" (n) (f) The private offen&e& part% shall $e re>uire& to appear at the arrai'n#ent for purposes of plea $ar'ainin'" &eter#ination of civil lia$ilit%" an& other #atters re>uirin' his presence..)efore arrai'n#ent" the court shall infor# the accuse& of his ri'ht to counsel an& as/ hi# if he &esires to have one. . .At an% ti#e $efore the 3u&'#ent of conviction $eco#es final" the court #a% per#it an i#provi&ent plea of 'uilt% to $e (ith&ra(n an& $e su$stitute& $% a plea of not 'uilt%.#ithdrawal of improvident plea of guilty.(sec..+o a#en&#ent of the co#plaint or infor#ation is necessar%.At arrai'n#ent" the accuse&" (ith the consent of the offen&e& part% an& the prosecutor" #a% $e allo(e& $% the trial court to plea& 'uilt% to a lesser offense (hich is necessaril% inclu&e& in the offense char'e&After arrai'n#ent $ut $efore trial" the accuse& #a% still $e allo(e& to plea& 'uilt% to sai& lesser offense after (ith&ra(in' his plea of not 'uilt%.+uty of court to inform accused of his right to counsel. 8hen the accuse& plea&s 'uilt% to a non<capital offense" the court #a% receive evi&ence fro# the parties to &eter#ine the penalt% to $e i#pose&.0" cir.2. .(2a) SEC.$lea of guilty to non&capital offense.(5) SEC.(ppointment of counsel de oficio.!n case of failure of the offen&e& part% to appear &espite &ue notice" the court #a% allo( the accuse& to enter a plea of 'uilt% to a lesser offense (hich is necessaril% inclu&e& in the offense char'e& (ith the confor#it% of the trial prosecutor alone" (cir.The court" consi&erin' the 'ravit% of the offense an& the &ifficult% of the >uestions that #a% arise" shall appoint as counsel de oficio such #e#$ers of the $ar in 'oo& stan&in' (ho" $% reason of their e1perience an& a$ilit%" can co#petentl% &efen& the accuse&.4.8hen the accuse& plea&s 'uilt% to a capital offense" the court shall con&uct a searchin' in>uir% into the voluntariness an& full co#prehension of the conse>uences of his plea an& shall re>uire the prosecution to prove his 'uilt an& the precise &e'ree of culpa$ilit%.@.Time for counsel de oficio to prepare for arraignment. reception of evidence.$lea of guilty to a lesser offense. discretionary.(4) SEC.<@A) (') Unless a shorter perio& is provi&e& $% special la( or Supre#e Court circular" the arrai'n#ent shall $e hel& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the &ate the court ac>uires 3uris&iction over the person of the accuse&.arrai'ne& (ithin ten (.(6a) SEC.The pre<trial conference of his case shall $e hel& (ithin ten (.?.(?a) SEC.The accuse& #a% present evi&ence in his $ehalf..2@<A@) SEC.)ut in localities (here such #e#$ers of the $ar are not availa$le" the court #a% appoint an% person" resi&ent of the province an& of 'oo& repute for pro$it% an& a$ilit%" to &efen& the accuse&.6. .

counsel de oficio is appointe& $% the court to &efen& the accuse& at the arrai'n#ent" he shall $e 'iven a reasona$le ti#e to consult (ith the accuse& as to his plea $efore procee&in' (ith the arrai'n#ent.0.Ba) SEC..(.(@) SEC.(.B.. The accuse& #a%" $efore arrai'n#ent" #ove for a $ill of particulars to ena$le hi# properl% to plea& an& prepare for trial.The #otion shall specif% the alle'e& &efects of the co#plaint or infor#ation an& the &etails &esire&.The court shall consi&er no 'roun& other than those state& in the #otion" e1cept lac/ of 3uris&iction over the offense char'e& (0a) SEC.A.1ill of particular ..Time to move to 6uash-IAt an% ti#e $efore enterin' his plea" the accuse& #a% #ove to >uash the co#plaint for infor#ation.!n such case" the court shall or&er his #ental e1a#ination an&" if necessar%" his confine#ent for such purpose7 ($) There e1ists a pre3u&icial >uestion7 an& (c) A petition for revie( of the resolution of the prosecutor is pen&in' at either the Fepart#ent of Hustice" or the Office of the Presi&ent7 provided" that the perio& of suspension shall not e1cee& si1t% (6B) &a%s counte& fro# the filin' of the petition (ith the revie(in' office.(.0a) RULE 117 MOTION TO 'UAS SECT!O+ .(.-rounds.a) SEC.$roduction or inspection of material evidence in p ossession of prosecution.Upon #otion of the accuse& sho(in' 'oo& cause an& (ith notice to the parties" the court" in or&er to prevent surprise" suppression" or alteration" #a% or&er the prosecution to pro&uce an& per#it the inspection an& cop%in' or photo'raphin' of an% (ritten state#ent 'iven $% the co#plainant an& other (itnesses in an% investi'ation of the offense con&ucte& $% the prosecution or other investi'atin' officers" as (ell as an% &esi'nate& &ocu#ents" papers" $oo/s" accounts" letters" photo'raphs" o$3ects" or tan'i$le thin's not other(ise privile'e&" (hich constitute or contain evi&ence #aterial to an% #atter involve& in the case an& (hich are in possession or un&er the control of the prosecution" police" or other la( investi'atin' a'encies...) SEC.IThe accuse& #a% #ove to >uash the co#plaint or infor#ation on an% of follo(in' 'roun&s* ..4orm and contents-IThe #otion to >uash shall $e in (ritin'" si'ne& $% the accuse& or his counsel an& shall &istinctl% specif% its factual an& le'al 'roun&s..2.Suspension of arraignment-IUpon #otion $% the proper part%" the arrai'n#ent shall $e suspen&e& in the follo(in' cases* (a) The accuse& appears to $e sufferin' fro# an unsoun& #ental con&ition (hich effectivel% ren&ers hi# una$le to full% un&erstan& the char'e a'ainst hi# an& to plea& intelli'entl% thereto.

An or&er sustainin' the #otion to >uash is not a $ar to another prosecution for the sa#e offense unless the #otion (as $ase& on the 'roun&s specifie& in section 2 (') an& (i) of this Rule.(2a) SEC..!f the #otion to >uash is $ase& on an alle'e& &efect of the co#plaint or infor#ation (hich can $e cure& $% a#en&#ent" the court shall or&er that an a#en&#ent $e #a&e.8hen an accuse& has $een convicte& or ac>uitte&" or the case a'ainst hi# &is#isse& or other(ise ter#inate& (ithout his e1press consent $% a court of co#petent 3uris&iction" upon a vali& co#plaint or infor#ation or other for#al char'e sufficient in for# an& su$stance to sustain a conviction an& after the accuse& ha& plea&e& to the char'e" the conviction or ac>uittal . double "eopardy.(4a)7 !f it is $ase& on the 'roun& that the facts char'e& &o not constitute an offense" the prosecution shall $e 'iven $% the court an opportunit% to correct the &efect $% a#en&#ent.The #otion shall $e 'rante& if the prosecution fails to #a/e the a#en&#ent" or the co#plaint or infor#ation still suffers fro# the sa#e &efect &espite the a#en&#ent" (n) SEC.(5a) SEC.5.(6a) SEC.!f no or&er is #a&e or if havin' $een #a&e" no ne( infor#ation is file& (ithin the ti#e specifie& in the or&er or (ithin such further ti#e as the court #a% allo( for 'oo& cause" the accuse&" if in custo&%" shall $e &ischar'e& unless he is also in custo&% for another char'e.!f the or&er is #a&e" the accuse&" if in custo&%" shall not $e &ischar'e& unless a&#itte& to $ail.ception. .(a) That the facts char'e& &o not constitute an offense7 ($) char'e&7 (c) accuse&7 so7 (e) That it &oes not confor# su$stantiall% to the prescri$e& for#7 (f) That #ore than one offense is char'e& e1cept (hen a sin'le punish#ent for various offenses is prescri$e& $% la(7 (') That the cri#inal action or lia$ilit% has $een e1tin'uishe&7 (h) That it contains aver#ents le'al e1cuse or 3ustification7 an& (hich" if true" (oul& constitute a That the court tr%in' the case has no 3uris&iction over the offense That the court tr%in' the case has no 3uris&iction over the person of the (&) That the officer (ho file& the infor#ation ha& no authorit% to &o (i) That the accuse& has $een previousl% convicte& or ac>uitte& of the offense char'e&" or the case a'ainst hi# (as &is#isse& or other(ise ter#inate& (ithout his e1press consent.Order sustaining the motion to 6uash not a bar to another prosecution.!f the #otion to >uash is sustaine&" the court #a% or&er that another co#plaint or infor#ation $e file& e1cept as provi&e& in section 6 of this Rule. e..6.(mendment of complaint or information.4ormer conviction or ac6uittal.*ffect of sustaining the motion to 6uash.4. .?.

$rovisional dismissal.A.6!n an% of the fore'oin' cases" (here the accuse& satisfies or serves in (hole or in part the 3u&'#ent" he shall $e cre&ite& (ith the sa#e in the event of conviction for the 'raver offense.(?a) SEC..A case shall not $e provisionall% &is#isse& e1cept (ith the e1press consent of the accuse& an& (ith notice to the offen&e& part%The provisional &is#issal of offenses punisha$le $% i#prison#ent not e1cee&in' si1 (6) %ears or a fine of an% a#ount" or $oth" shall $eco#e per#anent one (.. . mandatory in criminal cases.(@a) RULE 118 PRE%TRIAL SECT!O+ .The failure of the accuse& to assert an% 'roun& of a #otion to >uash $efore he plea&s to the co#plaint or infor#ation" either $ecause he &i& not file a #otion to >uash or faile& to alle'e the sa#e in sai& #otion" shall $e &ee#e& a (aiver of an% o$3ections e1cept those $ase& on the 'roun&s provi&e& for in para'raphs (a)" ($)" (')" an& (i) of section 2 of this Rule.of the accuse& or the &is#issal of the case shall $e a $ar to another prosecution for the offense char'e&" or for an% atte#pt to co##it the sa#e or frustration thereof" or for an% offense (hich necessaril% inclu&es or is necessaril% inclu&e& in the offense char'e& in the for#er co#plaint or infor#ation=o(ever" the conviction of the accuse& shall not $e a $ar to another prosecution for an offense (hich necessaril% inclu&es the offense char'e& in the for#er co#plaint or infor#ation un&er an% of the follo(in' instances* (a) the 'raver offense &evelope& &ue to supervenin' facts arisin' fro# the sa#e act or o#ission constitutin' the for#er char'e7 ($) the facts constitutin' the 'raver char'e $eca#e /no(n or (ere &iscovere& onl% after a plea (as entere& in the for#er co#plaint or infor#ation7 or (c) the plea of 'uilt% to the lesser offense (as #a&e (ithout the consent of the prosecutor an& of the offen&e& part% e1cept as provi&e& in section .8ith respect to offenses punisha$le $% i#prison#ent of #ore than si1 (6) %ears" their provisional &is#issal shall $eco#e per#anent t(o (0) %ears after issuance of the or&er (ithout the case havin' $een revive&" (n) SEC.) %ear after issuance of the or&er (ithout the case havin' $een revive&.!n all cri#inal cases co'ni5a$le $% the San&i'an$a%an" Re'ional Trial Court" 9etropolitan Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court in Cities" 9unicipal Trial Court an& 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court" the court shall" after arrai'n#ent an& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the &ate the court .$re&trial.(f) of Rule .@.. .4ailure to move to 6uash or to allege any ground therefor.

0 an& 2" cir.The a'ree#ents coverin' the #atters referre& to in section .4" cir.5) &a%s to prepare for trial.0..5" cir.Such or&er shall $in& the parties" li#it the trial to #atters not &ispose& of" an& control the course of the action &urin' the trial" unless #o&ifie& $% the court to prevent #anifest in3ustice. ..(2) RULE 119 TRIAL SECT!O+ .Time to prepare for trial. of this Rule shall $e approve& $% the court" (sec.(0a) The court" shall" after consultation (ith the prosecutor an& &efense counsel" set the case for continuous trial on a (ee/l% or other short<ter# trial calen&ar at the earliest possi$le ti#e so as to ensure spee&% trial.2@<A@) SEC.2@<A@) SEC.!t #a% $e postpone& for a reasona$le perio& of ti#e for 'oo& cause.2.2@<A@) SEC.All a'ree#ents or a&#issions #a&e or entere& &urin' the pre<trial conference shall $e re&uce& in (ritin' an& si'ne& $% the accuse& an& counsel" other(ise" the% cannot $e use& a'ainst the accuse&.Continuous trial until terminated.Trial once co##ence& shall continue fro# &a% to &a% as far as practica$le until ter#inate&.(secs.The trial shall co##ence (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# receipt of the pre<trial or&er" (sec.0.%on&appearance at pre&trial conference. postponements..$re&trial agreement.After the pre<trial conference" the court shall issue an or&er recitin' the actions ta/en" the facts stipulate&" an& evi&ence #ar/e&.!n no case shall the entire trial perio& e1cee& .4.!f the counsel for the accuse& or the prosecutor &oes not appear at the pre<trial conference an& &oes not offer an accepta$le e1cuse for his lac/ of cooperation" the court #a% i#pose proper sanctions or penalties" (sec.2After a plea of not 'uilt% is entere&" the accuse& shall have at least fifteen (..2@<A@) SEC.6" cir.$re&trial order.ac>uires 3uris&iction over the person of the accuse&" unless a shorter perio& is provi&e& for in special la(s or circulars of the Supre#e Court" or&er a pre<trial conference to consi&er the follo(in'* (a) ($) (c) (&) plea $ar'ainin'7 stipulation of facts7 #ar/in' for i&entification of evi&ence of the parties7 (aiver of o$3ections to a&#issi$ilit% of evi&ence7 (e) #o&ification of the or&er of trial if the accuse& a&#its the char'e $ut interposes a la(ful &efense7 an& (f) such #atters as (ill pro#ote a fair an& e1pe&itious trial of the cri#inal an& civil aspects of the case.

) Fela% resultin' fro# an e1a#ination of the ph%sical an& #ental con&ition of the accuse&7 (0) Fela% resultin' fro# procee&in's (ith respect to other cri#inal char'es a'ainst the accuse&7 (2) Fela% resultin' fro# e1traor&inar% re#e&ies a'ainst interlocutor% or&ers7 (4) Fela% resultin' fro# pre<trial procee&in's7 provi&e&" that the &ela% &oes not e1cee& thirt% (2B) &a%s7 (5) Fela% resultin' fro# or&ers of inhi$ition" or procee&in's relatin' to chan'e of venue of cases or transfer fro# other courts7 (6) Fela% resultin' fro# a fin&in' of the e1istence of a pre3u&icial >uestion7 an& (?) Fela% reasona$l% attri$uta$le to an% perio&" not to e1cee& thirt% (2B) &a%s" &urin' (hich an% procee&in' concernin' the accuse& is actuall% un&er a&vise#ent($) An% perio& of &ela% resultin' fro# the a$sence or unavaila$ilit% of an essential (itnessFor purposes of this su$para'raph" an essential (itness shall $e consi&ere& a$sent (hen his (herea$outs are un/no(n or his (herea$outs cannot $e &eter#ine& $% &ue &ili'ence.=e shall $e consi&ere& unavaila$le (henever his (herea$outs are /no(n $ut his presence for trial cannot $e o$taine& $% &ue &ili'ence(c) An% perio& of &ela% resultin' fro# the #ental inco#petence or ph%sical ina$ilit% of the accuse& to stan& trial(&) !f the infor#ation is &is#isse& upon #otion of the prosecution an& thereafter a char'e is file& a'ainst the accuse& for the sa#e offense" an% perio& of &ela% fro# the &ate the char'e (as &is#isse& to the &ate the ti#e li#itation (oul& co##ence to run as to the su$se>uent char'e ha& there $een no previous char'e(e) A reasona$le perio& of &ela% (hen the accuse& is 3oine& for trial (ith a .*.one hun&re& ei'ht% (.2@<A@)The ti#e li#itations provi&e& un&er this section an& the prece&in' section shall not appl% (here special la(s or circulars of the Supre#e Court provi&e for a shorter perio& of trial" (n) SEC.2.clusions.@" cir.The follo(in' perio&s of &ela% shall $e e1clu&e& in co#putin' the ti#e (ithin (hich trial #ust co##ence* (a) An% perio& of &ela% resultin' fro# other procee&in's concernin' the accuse&" inclu&in' $ut not li#ite& to the follo(in'* (.@B) &a%s fro# the first &a% of trial" e1cept as other(ise authori5e& $% the Supre#e Court" (sec..

(')" Rule . .5.6 an& the prece&in' section .A" cir." cir.Time limit following an order for new trial.!f the accuse& is to $e trie& a'ain pursuant to an or&er for a ne( trial" the trial shall co##ence (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# notice of the or&er" provi&e& that if the perio& $eco#es i#practical &ue to unavaila$ilit% of (itnesses an& other factors" the court #a% e1ten& it $ut not to e1cee& one hun&re& ei'ht% (.. .+ot(ithstan&in' the provisions of section .2@<A@) SEC." for the first t(elve<calen&ar<#onth perio& follo(in' its effectivit% on Septe#$er .!f the pu$lic attorne% assi'ne& to &efen& a person char'e& (ith a cri#e /no(s that the latter is preventivel% &etaine&" either $ecause he is char'e& (ith a $aila$le cri#e $ut has no #eans to post $ail" or" is char'e& (ith a non<$aila$le cri#e" or" is servin' a ter# of i#prison#ent in an% penal institution" it shall $e his &ut% to &o the follo(in'* (a) Shall pro#ptl% un&erta/e to o$tain the presence of the prisoner for trial or cause a notice to $e serve& on the person havin' custo&% of the prisoner re>uirin' such person to so a&vise the prisoner of his ri'ht to &e#an& trial($) Upon receipt of that notice" the custo&ian of the prisoner shall pro#ptl% ....B" cir.AA@" the ti#e li#it (ith respect to the perio& fro# arrai'n#ent to trial i#pose& $% sai& provision shall $e one hun&re& ei'ht% (.@B) &a%s fro# notice of sai& or&er for a ne( trial" (sec.@B) &a%sFor the secon& t(elve<#onth perio&" the ti#e li#it shall $e one hun&re& t(ent% (.4actors for granting continuance.$ublic attorneyAs duties where accused is imprisoned.co<accuse& over (ho# the court has not ac>uire& 3uris&iction" or" as to (ho# the ti#e for trial has not run an& no #otion for separate trial has $een 'rante&(f) An% perio& of &ela% resultin' fro# a continuance 'rante& $% an% court #otu proprio" or on #otion of either the accuse& or his counsel" or the prosecution" if the court 'rante& the continuance on the $asis of its fin&in's set forth in the or&er that the en&s of 3ustice serve& $% ta/in' such action out(ei'h the $est interest of the pu$lic an& the accuse& in a spee&% trial.2@< A@) SEC.*.0B) &a%s" an& for the thir& t(elve<#onth perio&" the ti#e li#it shall $e ei'ht% (@B) &a%s" (sec?" cir.5" .2@<A@) SEC.2@<A@) SEC..4.6.?..(sec.The follo(in' factors" a#on' others" shall $e consi&ere& $% a court in &eter#inin' (hether to 'rant a continuance un&er section 2(f) of this Rule(a) 8hether or not the failure to 'rant a continuance in the procee&in' (oul& li/el% #a/e a continuation of such procee&in' i#possi$le or result in a #iscarria'e of 3ustice7 an& ($) 8hether or not the case ta/en as a (hole is so novel" unusual an& co#ple1" &ue to the nu#$er of accuse& or the nature of the prosecution" or that it is unreasona$le to e1pect a&e>uate preparation (ithin the perio&s of ti#e esta$lishe& therein!n a&&ition" no continuance un&er section 2(f) of this Rule shall $e 'rante& $ecause of con'estion of the courtNs calen&ar or lac/ of &ili'ent preparation or failure to o$tain availa$le (itnesses on the part of the prosecutor" (sec.tended time limit.

2" cir..The accuse& shall have the $ur&en of provin' the #otion $ut the prosecution shall have the $ur&en of 'oin' for(ar& (ith the evi&ence to esta$lish the e1clusion of ti#e un&er section 2 of this Rule. .a&vise the prisoner of the char'e an& of his ri'ht to &e#an& trial.2@<A@) SEC.4" cir. pu$lic attorne%" or prosecutor a fine not e1cee&in' five thousan& pesos (P5-BBB-BB)7 an& (2) )% &en%in' an% &efense counsel or prosecutor the ri'ht to practice $efore the court tr%in' the case for a perio& not e1cee&in' thirt% (2B) &a%s..!f at an%ti#e thereafter the" prisoner infor#s his custo&ian that he &e#an&s such trial" the latter shall cause notice to that effect to $e sent pro#ptl% to the pu$lic attorne%(c) Upon receipt of such notice" the pu$lic attorne% shall pro#ptl% see/ to o$tain the presence of the prisoner for trial(&) 8hen the custo&ian of the prisoner receives fro# the pu$lic attorne% a properl% supporte& re>uest for the availa$ilit% of the prisoner for purposes of trial" the prisoner shall $e #a&e availa$le accor&in'l%" (sec.(')" Rule .Sanctions.6 an& Section .!f the accuse& is not $rou'ht to trial (ithin the ti#e li#it re>uire& $% Section .@.) )% i#posin' on a counsel privatel% retaine& in connection (ith the &efense of an accuse&" a fine not e1cee&in' t(ent% thousan& pesos (P0B"BBB-BB)7 (0) )% i#posin' on an% appointe& counsel de oficio.The &is#issal shall $e su$3ect to the rules on &ou$le 3eopar&%Failure of the accuse& to #ove for &is#issal prior to trial shall constitute a (aiver of the ri'ht to &is#iss un&er this section" (sec.0" cir.Remedy where accused is not brought to trial within the time limit..2!n an% case in (hich private counsel for the accuse&" the pu$lic attorne%" or the prosecutor* (a) Ono(in'l% allo(s the case to $e set for trial (ithout &isclosin' that a necessar% (itness (oul& $e unavaila$le for trial7 ($) Files a #otion solel% for &ela% (hich he /no(s is totall% frivolous an& (ithout #erit7 (c) 9a/es a state#ent for the purpose of o$tainin' continuance (hich he /no(s to $e false an& (hich is #aterial to the 'rantin' of a continuance7 or (&) 8illfull% fails to procee& to trial (ithout 3ustification consistent (ith the provisions hereof" the court #a% punish such counsel" attorne%" or prosecutor" as follo(s* (.." as e1ten&e& $% Section 6 of this rule" the infor#ation #a% $e &is#isse& on #otion of the accuse& on the 'roun& of &enial of his ri'ht to spee&% trial.2@<A@) SEC.A.The punish#ent provi&e& for $% this section shall $e (ithout pre3u&ice to an% appropriate cri#inal action or other sanction authori5e& un&er these rules.(sec.2@<A@) .

.4(0)" article !!!" of the . .A (ritten recor& of the testi#on% shall $e ta/en.(pplication for e..A@? Constitution" (sec.1ail to secure appearance of material witness..SEC.B.The #otion shall state* (a) the na#e an& resi&ence of the (itness7 ($) the su$stance of his testi#on%7 an& (c) that the (itness is sic/ or infir# as to affor& reasona$le 'roun& for $elievin' that he (ill not $e a$le to atten& the trial" or resi&es #ore than one hun&re& (.2The trial shall procee& in the follo(in' or&er* (a) The prosecution shall present evi&ence to prove the char'e an&" in the proper case" the civil lia$ilit%($) The accuse& #a% present evi&ence to prove his &efense an& &a#a'es" if an%" arisin' fro# the issuance of a provisional re#e&% in the case(c) The prosecution an& the &efense #a%" in that or&er" present re$uttal an& sur<re$uttal evi&ence unless the court" in furtherance of 3ustice" per#its the# to present a&&itional evi&ence $earin' upon the #ain issue(&) Upon a&#ission of the evi&ence of the parties" the case shall $e &ee#e& su$#itte& for &ecision unless the court &irects the# to ar'ue orall% or to su$#it (ritten #e#oran&a(e) 8hen the accuse& a&#its the act or o#ission char'e& in the co#plaint or infor#ation $ut interposes a la(ful &efense" the or&er of trial #a% $e #o&ifie&(2a) SEC.(4a) SEC..The #otion shall $e supporte& $% an affi&avit of the accuse& an& such other evi&ence as the court #a% re>uire.0.Order of trial.(5a) SEC...amination of witness for accused before trial.Upon refusal to post $ail" the court shall co##it hi# to prison until he .2@<A@) SEC.+o provision of la( on spee&% trial an& no rule i#ple#entin' the sa#e shall $e interprete& as a $ar to an% char'e of &enial of the ri'ht to spee&% trial 'uarantee& $% section .8hen the court is satisfie&" upon proof or oath" that a #aterial (itness (ill not testif% (hen re>uire&" it #a%" upon #otion of either part%" or&er the (itness to post $ail in such su# as #a% $e &ee#e& proper.8hen the accuse& has $een hel& to ans(er for an offense" he #a%" upon #otion (ith notice to the other parties" have (itnesses con&itionall% e1a#ine& in his $ehalf. how made.The e1a#ination shall procee& not(ithstan&in' the a$sence of the prosecutor provi&e& he (as &ul% notifie& of the hearin'.*.4..7aw on speedy trial not a bar to provision on speedy trial in the Constitution.2.5" cir. ..!f the court is satisfie& that the e1a#ination of a (itness for the accuse& is necessar%" an or&er shall $e #a&e &irectin' that the (itness $e e1a#ine& at a specific &ate" ti#e an& place an& that a cop% of the or&er $e serve& on the prosecutor at least three (2) &a%s $efore the sche&ule& e1a#ination.The e1a#ination shall $e ta/en $efore a 3u&'e" or" if not practica$le" a #e#$er of the )ar in 'oo& stan&in' so &esi'nate& $% the 3u&'e in the or&er" or if the or&er $e #a&e $% a court of superior 3uris&iction" $efore an inferior court to $e &esi'nate& therein..amination of defense witness. .BB) /ilo#eters fro# the place of trial an& has no #eans to atten& the sa#e" or that other si#ilar circu#stances e1ist that (oul& #a/e hi# unavaila$le or prevent hi# fro# atten&in' the trial.

?.#hen mista)e has been made in charging the proper offense.A.Trial of several accused.5..Failure or refusal of the accuse& to atten& the e1a#ination after notice shall $e consi&ere& a (aiver..Ba) SEC.!f the court &enies the #otion for &ischar'e of the accuse& as state (itness" his s(orn state#ent shall $e ina&#issi$le in evi&ence.*.8hen it satisfactoril% appears that a (itness for the prosecution is too sic/ or infir# to appear at the trial as &irecte& $% the court" or has to leave the Philippines (ith no &efinite &ate of returnin'" he #a% forth(ith $e con&itionall% e1a#ine& $efore the court (here the case is pen&in'Such e1a#ination" in the presence of the accuse&" or in his a$sence after reasona$le notice to atten& the e1a#ination has $een serve& on hi#" shall $e con&ucte& in the sa#e #anner as an e1a#ination of the trial. .co#plies" or is le'all% &ischar'e& after his testi#on% has $een ta/en.8hen it $eco#es #anifest at an% ti#e $efore 3u&'#ent that a #ista/e has $een #a&e in char'in' the proper offense an& the accuse& cannot $e convicte& of the offense ..+ischarge of accused operates as ac6uittal -.8hen t(o or #ore accuse& are 3ointl% char'e& (ith an offense" the% shall $e trie& 3ointl% unless the court" in its &iscretion an& upon #otion of the prosecutor or an% accuse&" or&ers separate trial for one or #ore accuse&(@a) SEC.The state#ent ta/en #a% $e a&#itte& in $ehalf of or a'ainst the accuse&...(Aa) SEC.The or&er in&icate& in the prece&in' section shall a#ount to an ac>uittal of the &ischar'e& accuse& an& shall $e a $ar to future prosecution for the sa#e offense" unless the accuse& fails or refuses to testif% a'ainst his co<accuse& in accor&ance (ith his s(orn state#ent constitutin' the $asis for his &ischar'e. .amination of witness for the prosecution..8hen t(o or #ore persons are 3ointl% char'e& (ith the co##ission of an% offense" upon #otion of the prosecution $efore restin' its case" the court #a% &irect one or #ore of the accuse& to $e &ischar'e& (ith their consent so that the% #a% $e (itnesses for the state (hen" after re>uirin' the prosecution to present evi&ence an& the s(orn state#ent of each propose& state (itness at a hearin' in support of the &ischar'e" the court is satisfie& that* (a) There is a$solute necessit% for the testi#on% of the accuse& (hose &ischar'e is re>ueste&7 ($) There is no other &irect evi&ence availa$le for the proper prosecution of the offense co##itte&" e1cept the testi#on% of sai& accuse&7 (c) The testi#on% of sai& accuse& can $e su$stantiall% corro$orate& in its #aterial points7 (&) Sai& accuse& &oes not appear to $e the #ost 'uilt%7 an& (e) Sai& accuse& has not at an% ti#e $een convicte& of an% offense involvin' #oral turpitu&eEvi&ence a&&uce& in support of the &ischar'e shall auto#aticall% for# part of the trial.6..@.(6a) SEC.(?a) SEC.(.+ischarge of accused to be state witness.

.(.*.2After the prosecution rests its case" the court #a% &is#iss the action on the 'roun& of insufficienc% of evi&ence (.0a) SEC. of Rule . e1clu&e the pu$lic fro# the courtroo# if the evi&ence to $e pro&uce& &urin' the trial is offensive to &ecenc% or pu$lic #orals..B) &a%s fro# notice.2 Char'es for offenses foun&e& on the sa#e facts or for#in' part of a series of offenses of si#ilar character #a% $e trie& 3ointl% at the &iscretion of the court.Reopening.00.8hen the &e#urrer to evi&ence is file& (ithout leave of court" the accuse& (aives the ri'ht to present evi&ence an& su$#its the case for 3u&'#ent on the $asis of the evi&ence for the prosecution.The procee&in's shall $e ter#inate& (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the or&er 'rantin' it.04.0B..(.(ppointment of acting prosecutor..!n such case" the court shall co##it the accuse& to ans(er for the proper offense an& &is#iss the ori'inal case upon the filin' of the proper infor#ation..02.=e #a% also" on #otion of the accuse&" e1clu&e the pu$lic fro# the trial e1cept court personnel an& the counsel of the parties.char'e& or an% other offense necessaril% inclu&e& therein" the accuse& shall not $e &ischar'e& if there appears 'oo& cause to &etain hi#.2a) SEC.4a) SEC.+emurrer to evidence.The prosecution #a% oppose the &e#urrer to evi&ence (ithin a si#ilar perio& fro# its receiptThe or&er &en%in' the #otion for leave of court to file &e#urrer to evi&ence or the &e#urrer itself shall not $e revie(a$le $% appeal or $% certiorari $efore 3u&'#ent" (n) SEC.5a) The #otion for leave of court to file &e#urrer to evi&ence shall specificall% state its 'roun&s an& shall $e file& (ithin a non<e1ten&i$le perio& of five (5) &a%s after the prosecution rests its case.) on its o(n initiative after 'ivin' the prosecution the opportunit% to $e hear& or (0) upon &e#urrer to evi&ence file& $% the accuse& (ith or (ithout leave of court !f the court &enies the &e#urrer to evi&ence file& (ith leave of court" the accuse& #a% a&&uce evi&ence in his &efense.(.0.(.8hen a prosecutor" his assistant or &eput% is &is>ualifie& to act &ue to an% of the 'roun&s state& in section .clusion of the public.(n) RULE 120 .The 3u&'e #a%" motu proprio.(.Consolidation of trials of related offenses.a) SEC.At an% ti#e $efore finalit% of the 3u&'#ent of conviction" the 3u&'e #a%" motu proprio or upon #otion" (ith hearin' in either case" reopen the procee&in's to avoi& a #iscarria'e of 3ustice.2? or for an% other reason" the 3u&'e or the prosecutor shall co##unicate (ith the Secretar% of Hustice in or&er that the latter #a% appoint an actin' prosecutor.The prosecution #a% oppose the #otion (ithin a non< e1ten&i$le perio& of five (5) &a%s fro# its receipt!f leave of court is 'rante&" the accuse& shall file the &e#urrer to evi&ence (ithin a non<e1ten&i$le perio& of ten (.

4. .!t #ust $e (ritten in the official lan'ua'e" personall% an& &irectl% prepare& $% the 3u&'e an& si'ne& $% hi# an& shall contain clearl% an& &istinctl% a state#ent of the facts an& the la( upon (hich it is $ase&(.) the le'al >ualification of the offense constitute& $% the acts co##itte& $% the accuse& an& the a''ravatin' or #iti'atin' circu#stances (hich atten&e& its co##ission7 (0) the participation of the accuse& in the offense" (hether as principal" acco#plice" or accessor% after the fact7 (2) the penalt% i#pose& upon the accuse&7 an& (4) the civil lia$ilit% or &a#a'es cause& $% his (ron'ful act or o#ission to $e recovere& fro# the accuse& $% the offen&e& part%" if there is an%" unless the enforce#ent of the civil lia$ilit% $% a separate civil action has $een reserve& or (aive&!n case the 3u&'#ent is of ac>uittal" it shall state (hether the evi&ence of the prosecution a$solutel% faile& to prove the 'uilt of the accuse& or #erel% faile& to prove his 'uilt $e%on& reasona$le &ou$t.8hen t(o or #ore offenses are char'e& in a sin'le co#plaint or infor#ation $ut the accuse& fails to o$3ect to it $efore trial" the court #a% convict hi# of as #an% offenses as are char'e& an& prove&" an& i#pose on hi# the penalt% for each offense" settin' out separatel% the fin&in's of fact an& la( in each offense. .8hen the 3u&'e is a$sent or outsi&e the province or cit%" the 3u&'#ent #a% $e pro#ul'ate& $% the cler/ of court!f the accuse& is confine& or &etaine& in another province or cit%" the 3u&'#ent #a% $e pro#ul'ate& $% the e1ecutive 3u&'e of the Re'ional Trial Court havin' 3uris&iction .6. . .#hen an offense includes or is included in another.Contents of the "udgment.udgment for two or more offenses.8hen there is variance $et(een the offense char'e in the co#plaint or infor#ation an& that prove&" an& the offense as char'e& is inclu&e& in or necessaril% inclu&es the offense prove&" the accuse& shall $e convicte& of the offense prove& (hich is inclu&e& in the offense char'e&" or of the offense char'e& (hich is inclu&e& in the offense prove&.!n either case" the 3u&'#ent shall &eter#ine if the act or o#ission fro# (hich the civil lia$ilit% #i'ht arise &i& not e1ist.$UDGMENT SECT!O+ .(2a) SEC.Hu&'#ent is the a&3u&ication $% the court that the accuse& is 'uilt% or not 'uilt% of the offense char'e& an& the i#position on hi# of the proper penalt% an& civil lia$ilit%" if an%.(0a) SEC.The 3u&'#ent is pro#ul'ate& $% rea&in' it in the presence of the accuse& an& an% 3u&'e of the court in (hich it (as ren&ere&=o(ever" if the conviction is for a li'ht offense" the 3u&'#ent #a% $e pronounce& in the presence of his counsel or representative.a) SEC.0.!f the 3u&'#ent is of conviction" it shall state (.5.udgment.$romulgation of "udgment.(4a) SEC.udgment in case of variance between allegation and proof.2 An offense char'e& necessaril% inclu&es the offense prove& (hen so#e of the essential ele#ents or in're&ients of the for#er" as alle'e& in the co#plaint or infor#ation" constitute the latterAn& an offense char'e& is necessaril% inclu&e& in the offense prove&" (hen the essential in're&ients of the for#er constitute or for# part of those constitutin' the latter(5a) SEC. ..2. definition and form.

E1cept (here the &eath penalt% is i#pose&" a 3u&'#ent $eco#es final after the lapse of the perio& for perfectin' an appeal" or (hen the sentence has $een partiall% or totall% satisfie& or serve&" or (hen the accuse& has (aive& in (ritin' his ri'ht to appeal" or has applie& for pro$ation.(6a) SEC.The court pro#ul'atin' the 3u&'#ent shall have authorit% to accept the notice of appeal an& to approve the $ail $on& pen&in' appeal7 provi&e&" that if the &ecision of the trial court convictin' the accuse& chan'e& the nature of the offense fro# non< $aila$le to $aila$le" the application for $ail can onl% $e file& an& resolve& $% the appellate courtThe proper cler/ of court shall 'ive notice to the accuse& personall% or throu'h his $on&s#an or (ar&en an& counsel" re>uirin' hi# to $e present at the pro#ul'ation of the &ecision.?.!odification of "udgment..=e shall state the reasons for his a$sence at the sche&ule& pro#ul'ation an& if he proves that his a$sence (as for a 3ustifia$le cause" he shall $e allo(e& to avail of sai& re#e&ies (ithin fifteen (...(?a) SEC.*ntry of "udgment.A.@.(.!f the accuse& (as trie& in absentia $ecause he 3u#pe& $ail or escape& fro# prison" the notice to hi# shall $e serve& at his last /no(n a&&ress!n case the accuse& fails to appear at the sche&ule& &ate of pro#ul'ation of 3u&'#ent &espite notice" the pro#ul'ation shall $e #a&e $% recor&in' the 3u&'#ent in the cri#inal &oc/et an& servin' hi# a cop% thereof at his last /no(n a&&ress or thru his counsel!f the 3u&'#ent is for conviction an& the failure of the accuse& to appear (as (ithout 3ustifia$le cause" he shall lose the re#e&ies availa$le in these rules a'ainst the 3u&'#ent an& the court shall or&er his arrest.isting provisions governing suspension of sentence.(@) SEC.8ithin fifteen (.+othin' in this Rule shall affect an% e1istin' provisions in the la(s 'overnin' suspension of sentence" pro$ation or parole.5) &a%s fro# notice.a) . .5) &a%s fro# pro#ul'ation of 3u&'#ent" ho(ever" the accuse& #a% surren&er an& file a #otion for leave of court to avail of these re#e&ies.%ew trial or reconsideration. probation and parole not affected by this Rule..After a 3u&'#ent has $eco#e final" it shall $e entere& in accor&ance (ith Rule 26.(Aa) RULE 121 NEW TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION SECT!O+ .*.At an% ti#e $efore a 3u&'#ent of conviction $eco#es final" the court #a%" on #otion of the accuse& or at its o(n instance $ut (ith the consent of the accuse&" 'rant a ne( trial or reconsi&eration.A 3u&'#ent of conviction #a%" upon #otion of the accuse&" $e #o&ifie& or set asi&e $efore it $eco#es final or $efore appeal is perfecte&.over the place of confine#ent or &etention upon re>uest of the court (hich ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent.

.The court shall 'rant a ne( trial on an% of the follo(in' 'roun&s* (a) That errors of la( or irre'ularities pre3u&icial to the su$stantial ri'hts of the accuse& have $een co##itte& &urin' the trial7 ($) That ne( an& #aterial evi&ence has $een &iscovere& (hich the accuse& coul& not (ith reasona$le &ili'ence have &iscovere& an& pro&uce& at the trial an& (hich if intro&uce& an& a&#itte& (oul& pro$a$l% chan'e the 3u&'#ent.SEC.(6a) RULE 122 APPEAL SECT!O+ .-rounds for a new trial..(4a) SEC...#ho may appeal..8here a #otion for ne( trial calls for resolution of an% >uestion of fact" the court #a% hear evi&ence thereon $% affi&avits or other(ise.2.3earing on motion.-round for reconsideration.The #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration shall $e in (ritin' an& shall state the 'roun&s on (hich it is $ase&.*ffects of granting a new trial or reconsideration.6.0.An% part% #a% appeal fro# a 3u&'#ent or final or&er" unless the accuse& (ill $e place& in &ou$le 3eopar&%..5.#here to appeal.For# of motion and notice PB the prosecutor.4.(0a) SEC.+otice of the #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration shall $e 'iven to the prosecutor.The appeal #a% $e ta/en as follo(s* . .(0a) SEC.The court shall 'rant reconsi&eration on the 'roun& of errors of la( or fact in the 3u&'#ent" (hich re>uires no further procee&in's(2a) SEC.. The effects of 'rantin' a ne( trial or reconsi&eration are the follo(in'* (a) 8hen a ne( trial is 'rante& on the 'roun& of errors of la( or irre'ularities co##itte& &urin' the trial" all the procee&in's an& evi&ence affecte& there$% shall $e set asi&e an& ta/en ane(.The court #a%" in the interest of 3ustice" allo( the intro&uction of a&&itional evi&ence($) 8hen a ne( trial is 'rante& on the 'roun& of ne(l%<&iscovere& evi&ence" the evi&ence alrea&% a&&uce& shall stan& an& the ne(l%<&iscovere& an& such other evi&ence as the court #a%" in the interest of 3ustice" allo( to $e intro&uce& shall $e ta/en an& consi&ere& to'ether (ith the evi&ence alrea&% in the recor&(c) !n all cases" (hen the court 'rants ne( trial or reconsi&eration" the ori'inal 3u&'#ent shall $e set asi&e or vacate& an& a ne( 3u&'#ent ren&ere& accor&in'l%.!f $ase& on a ne(l%<&iscovere& evi&ence" the #otion #ust $e supporte& $% affi&avits of (itnesses $% (ho# such evi&ence is e1pecte& to $e 'iven or $% &ul% authenticate& copies of &ocu#ents (hich are propose& to $e intro&uce& in evi&ence.(5a) SEC.0.

B of this Rule(e) E1cept as provi&e& in the last para'raph of section .$ublication of notice of appeal..04" all other appeals to the Supre#e Court shall $e $% petition for revie( on certiorari un&er Rule 45.6.5.An appeal #ust $e ta/en (ithin fifteen (. or life i#prison#ent is i#pose&" shall $e $% filin' a notice of appeal in accor&ance (ith para'raph (a) of this section(&) +o notice of appeal is necessar% in cases (here the &eath penalt% is i#pose& $% the Re'ional Trial Court.23ow appeal ta)en-.!f personal service of the cop% of the notice of appeal can not $e #a&e upon the a&verse part% or his counsel" service #a% $e &one $% re'istere& #ail or $% su$stitute& service pursuant to sections ? an& @ of Rule . (a) The appeal to the Re'ional Trial Court" or to the Court of Appeals in cases &eci&e& $% the Re'ional Trial Court in the e1ercise of its ori'inal 3uris&iction" shall $e ta/en $% filin' a notice of appeal (ith the court (hich ren&ere& the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro# an& $% servin' a cop% thereof upon the a&verse part%($) The appeal to the Court of Appeals in cases &eci&e& $% the Re'ional Trial Court in the e1ercise of its appellate 3uris&iction shall $e $% petition for revie( un&er Rule 40(c) The appeal to the Supre#e Court in cases (here the penalt% i#pose& $% the Re'ional Trial Court is &eath" reclusion perpetua..The appellee #a% (aive his ri'ht to a notice that an appeal has $een ta/en. or life i#prison#ent" or (here a lesser penalt% is i#pose& $ut for offenses co##itte& on the sa#e occasion or (hich arose out of the sa#e occurrence that 'ave rise to the #ore serious offense for (hich the penalt% of &eath" reclusion perpetua.a) SEC.(a) To the Re'ional Trial Court" in cases &eci&e& $% the 9etropolitan Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court in Cities" 9unicipal Trial Court" or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court7 ($) To the Court of Appeals or to the Supre#e Court in the proper cases provi&e& $% la(" in cases &eci&e& $% the Re'ional Trial Court7 an& (c) To the Supre#e Court" in cases &eci&e& $% the Court of Appeals" (.2-(4a) SEC.4.The sa#e shall $e auto#aticall% revie(e& $% the Supre#e Court as provi&e& in section . .(5a) SEC.The appellate court #a%" in its &iscretion" entertain an appeal not(ithstan&in' failure to 'ive such notice if the interests of 3ustice so re>uire.(6a) .#aiver of notice.5) &a%s fro# pro#ul'ation of the 3u&'#ent or fro# notice of the final or&er appeale& fro#This perio& for perfectin' an appeal shall $e suspen&e& fro# the ti#e a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration is file& until notice of the or&er overrulin' the #otion has $een serve& upon the accuse& or his counsel at (hich ti#e the $alance of the perio& $e'ins to run.(2a) SEC. to be ta)en.#hen appeal.2" Rule .

(a) An appeal ta/en $% one or #ore of several accuse& shall not affect those (ho &i& not appeal" e1cept insofar as the 3u&'#ent of the appellate court is favora$le an& applica$le to the latter- .2 (a) 8ithin five (5) &a%s fro# perfection of the appeal" the cler/ of court shall trans#it the ori'inal recor& to the appropriate Re'ional Trial Court($) Upon receipt of the co#plete recor& of the case" transcripts an& e1hi$its" the cler/ of court of the Re'ional Trial Court shall notif% the parties of such fact(c) 8ithin fifteen (.The other cop% of the transcript shall re#ain in the lo(er court.After the su$#ission of such #e#oran&a or $riefs" or upon the e1piration of the perio& to file the sa#e" the Re'ional Trial Court shall &eci&e the case on the $asis of the entire recor& of the case an& of such #e#oran&a or $riefs as #a% have $een file&.Ba) SEC.SEC.The steno'raphic reporter shall certif% to the correctness of the notes an& the transcript thereof" (hich shall consist of the ori'inal an& four copies" an& shall file sai& ori'inal an& four copies (ith the cler/ (ithout unnecessar% &ela%!f &eath penalt% is i#pose&" the steno'raphic reporter shall" (ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# pro#ul'ation of the sentence" file (ith the cler/ the ori'inal an& four copies of the &ul% certifie& transcript of his notes of the procee&in's.The transcript shall also $e for(ar&e& (ithin ten (.Transmission of records in case of death penalty.B.Effect of appeal $% an% of several accuse&-.8ithin five (5) &a%s fro# the filin' of the notice of appeal" the cler/ of the court (ith (ho# the notice of appeal (as file& #ust trans#it to the cler/ of court of the appellate court the co#plete recor& of the case" to'ether (ith sai& notice. !n all cases (here the &eath penalt% is i#pose& $% the trial court" the recor&s shall $e for(ar&e& to the Supre#e Court for auto#atic revie( an& 3u&'#ent (ithin five (5) &a%s after the fifteenth (. .5) &a% follo(in' the pro#ul'ation of the 3u&'#ent or notice of &enial of a #otion for ne( trial or reconsi&eration.8hen notice of appeal is file& $% the accuse&" the trial court shall &irect the steno'raphic reporter to transcri$e his notes of the procee&in's.5) &a%s fro# receipt of sai& notice" the parties #a% su$#it #e#oran&a or $riefs" or #a% $e re>uire& $% the Re'ional Trial Court to &o so..@.Transcribing and filing notes of stenographic reporter upon appeal.(?a) SEC.(Aa) SEC.8hen file& $% the People of the Philippines" the trial court shall &irect the steno'raphic reporter to transcri$e such portion of his notes of the procee&in's as the court" upon #otion" shall specif% in (ritin'.(@a) SEC. .A(ppeal to the Regional Trial Courts. .?.+o e1tension of ti#e for filin' of sai& transcript of steno'raphic notes shall $e 'rante& e1cept $% the Supre#e Court an& onl% upon 3ustifia$le 'roun&s..Transmission of papers to appellate court upon appeal.The ori'inal an& three copies of the transcript of steno'raphic notes" to'ether (ith the recor&s" shall also $e trans#itte& to the cler/ of the appellate court (ithout un&ue &ela%.B) &a%s after the filin' thereof $% the steno'raphic reporter..(..

a) RULE 124 PROCEDURE IN T E COURT OF APPEALS SECT!O+ .+ot(ithstan&in' perfection of the appeal" the Re'ional Trial NCourt" 9etropolitan Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court in Cities" 9unicipal Trial Court" or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court" as the case #a% $e" #a% allo( the appellant to (ith&ra( his appeal $efore the recor& has $een for(ar&e& $% the cler/ of court to the proper appellate court as provi&e& in section @" in (hich case the 3u&'#ent shall $eco#e final.Title of the case.0.($) The appeal of the offen&e& part% fro# the civil aspect shall not affect the cri#inal aspect of the 3u&'#ent or or&er appeale& fro#(c) Upon perfection of the appeal" the e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent or final or&er appeale& fro# shall $e sta%e& as to the appealin' part%" (.a) SEC.. .!n all cri#inal cases appeale& to the Court of Appeals" the part% appealin' the case shall $e calle& the MappellantM an& the a&verse .2..#ithdrawal of appeal.0a) SEC.'niform $rocedure...(ppointment of counsel de oficio for accused on appeal.(.2The proce&ure to $e o$serve& in the 9etropolitan Trial Courts" 9unicipal Trial Courts an& 9unicipal Circuit Trial Courts shall $e the sa#e as in the Re'ional Trial Courts" e1cept (here a particular provision applies onl% to either of sai& courts an& in cri#inal cases 'overne& $% the Revise& Rule on Su##ar% Proce&ure" (.2a) RULE 123 PROCEDURE IN T E MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS SECT!O+ .The Re'ional Trial Court #a% also" in its &iscretion" allo( the appellant fro# the 3u&'#ent of a 9etropolitan Trial Court" 9unicipal Trial Court in Cities" 9unicipal Trial Court" or 9unicipal Circuit Trial Court to (ith&ra( his appeal" provi&e& a #otion to that effect is file& $efore ren&ition of the 3u&'#ent in the case on appeal" in (hich case the 3u&'#ent of the court of ori'in shall $eco#e final an& the case shall $e re#an&e& to the latter court for e1ecution of the 3u&'#ent....!t shall $e the &ut% of the cler/ of the trial court" upon filin' of a notice of appeal" to ascertain fro# the appellant" if confine& in prison" (hether he &esires the Re'ional Trial Court" Court of Appeals or the Supre#e Court to appoint a counsel de oficio to &efen& hi# an& to trans#it (ith the recor& on a for# to $e prepare& $% the cler/ of court of the appellate court" a certificate of co#pliance (ith this &ut% an& of the response of the appellant to his in>uir%.(.

tension of time for filing briefs.@.+ismissal of appeal for abandonment or failure to prosecute.(@a) SEC. . reply brief of the appellant.E1tension of ti#e for the filin' of $riefs (ill not $e allo(e& e1cept for 'oo& an& sufficient cause an& onl% if the #otion for e1tension is file& $efore the e1piration of the ti#e sou'ht to $e e1ten&e&.(5a) SEC.!f it appears fro# the recor& of the case as trans#itte& that (a) the accuse& is confine& in prison" ($) is (ithout counsel de parte on appeal" or (c) has si'ne& the notice of appeal hi#self" the cler/ of court of the Court of Appeals shall &esi'nate a counsel de oficio.8ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# receipt of the $rief of the appellant" the appellee shall file seven (?) copies of the $rief of the appellee (ith the cler/ of court (hich shall $e acco#panie& $% proof of service of t(o (0) copies thereof upon the appellant8ithin t(ent% (0B) &a%s fro# receipt of the )rief of the appellee" the appellant #a% file a repl% $rief traversin' #atters raise& in the for#er $ut not covere& in the $rief of the appellant.#hen brief for appellee to be filed.2.(6a) SEC.(2a) SEC.4.2 an& .a) SEC.in len'th $% 0.(ppointment of counsel de oficio for the accused..A certifie& true cop% of the &ecision or final or&er appeale& fro# shall $e appen&e& to the $rief of the appellant(?a) SEC.*.The $riefs in cri#inal cases shall have the sa#e contents as provi&e& in sections .part% the Mappellee"M $ut the title of the case shall re#ain as it (as in the court of ori'in" (...The Court of . The Court of Appeals #a% also" upon #otion of the appellee or motu proprio.4orm of briefs.2 8ithin thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# receipt $% the appellant or his counsel of the notice fro# the cler/ of court of the Court of Appeals that the evi&ence" oral an& &ocu#entar%" is alrea&% attache& to the recor&" the appellant shall file seven (?) copies of his $rief (ith the cler/ of court (hich shall $e acco#panie& $% proof of service of t(o (0) copies thereof upon the appellee.The Court of Appeals #a%" upon #otion of the appellee or motu proprio an& (ith notice to the appellant in either case" &is#iss the appeal if the appellant fails to file his $rief (ithin the ti#e prescri$e& $% this Rule" e1cept (here the appellant is represente& $% a counsel de oficio.#hen brief for appellant to be filed.5.0.6.(4a) SEC. An appellant (ho is not confine& in prison #a%" upon re>uest" $e assi'ne& a counsel de oficio (ithin ten (.)riefs shall either $e printe&" enco&e& or t%pe(ritten in &ou$le space on le'al si5e" 'oo& >ualit% un'la5e& paper" 22B ##. .B) &a%s fro# receipt of the notice to file $rief an& he esta$lishes his ri'ht thereto.Contents of brief.6 ##in (i&th.A.?.Appeals of accuse& (ho are un&er &etention shall $e 'iven prece&ence in their &isposition over other appeals.. .4 of Rule 44.$rompt disposition of appeals. &is#iss the appeal if the appellant escapes fro# prison or confine#ent" 3u#ps $ail or flees to a forei'n countr% &urin' the pen&enc% of the appeal.(0a) SEC.

.Ba) SEC. or life i#prison#ent as the circu#stances (arrant.a) SEC.The Court of Appeals #a% reverse" affir#" or #o&if% the 3u&'#ent an& increase or re&uce the penalt% i#pose& $% the trial court" re#an& the case to the Re'ional Trial Court for ne( trial or retrial" or &is#iss the case. certification or appeal of cases to Supreme Court. Three (2) Hustices of the Court of Appeals shall constitute a >uoru# for the sessions of a &ivision.4.The Court of Appeals shall have the po(er to tr% cases an& con&uct hearin's" receive evi&ence an& perfor# an% an& all acts necessar% to resolve factual issues raise& in cases (a) fallin' (ithin its ori'inal 3uris&iction" ($) involvin' clai#s for &a#a'es arisin' fro# provisional re#e&ies" or (c) (here the court 'rants a ne( trial $ase& onl% on the 'roun& of ne(l%<&iscovere& evi&ence.(Aa) SEC.(..The #otion shall confor# (ith the provisions of section 4" Rule .#here new trial conducted.2a) SEC.The accuse& nee& not $e present in court &urin' the hearin' of the appeal...0..(.!otion for new trial.(.0 of this Rule or refer the trial to the court of ori'in.4a) SEC.5.0a) SEC..The unani#ous vote of the three (2) Hustices of a &ivision shall $e necessar% for the pronounce#ent of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution" (hich shall $e reache& in consultation $efore the (ritin' of the opinion $% a #e#$er of the &ivision....8uorum of the court..At an% ti#e after the appeal fro# the lo(er court has $een perfecte& an& $efore the 3u&'#ent of the Court of Appeals convictin' the appellant $eco#es final" the latter #a% #ove for a ne( trial on the 'roun& of ne(l%< &iscovere& evi&ence #aterial to his &efense.. .8hen a ne( trial is 'rante&" the Court of Appeals #a% con&uct the hearin' an& receive evi&ence as provi&e& in section ..udgment not to be reversed or modified e.$ower to receive evidence.=o(ever" it shall refrain fro# enterin' the 3u&'#ent an& forth(ith certif% the case an& elevate the entire recor& thereof to the Supre#e Court for revie(.Appeals shall hear an& &eci&e the appeal at the earliest practica$le ti#e (ith &ue re'ar& to the ri'hts of the parties.2..(.The &esi'nation of such a&&itional Hustices shall $e #a&e strictl% $% raffle an& rotation a#on' all other Hustices of the Court of Appeals8henever the Court of Appeals fin&s that the penalt% of &eath" reclusion perpetua.B.(.0. or life i#prison#ent shoul& $e i#pose& in a case" the court" after &iscussion of the evi&ence an& the la( involve&" shall ren&er 3u&'#ent i#posin' the penalt% of &eath" reclusion perpetua.Scope of "udgment.!n the event that the three (2) Hustices can not reach a unani#ous vote" the Presi&in' Hustice shall &irect the raffle co##ittee of the Court to &esi'nate t(o (0) a&&itional Hustices to sit te#poraril% (ith the#" for#in' a special &ivision of five (5) #e#$ers an& the concurrence of a #a3orit% of such &ivision shall $e necessar% for the pronounce#ent of a 3u&'#ent or final resolution.(.+o 3u&'#ent shall $e reverse& or #o&ifie& unless the Court of Appeals" after an e1a#ination of the recor& an& of the evi&ence a&&uce& $% the parties" is of the opinion that error (as co##itte& (hich in3uriousl% affecte& the su$stantial ri'hts of the appellant.cept for substantial error. ..5a) .

(.8hen the Supre#e Court en banc is e>uall% &ivi&e& in opinion or the necessar% #a3orit% cannot $e ha& on (hether to ac>uit the appellant" the case shall a'ain $e &eli$erate& upon an& if no &ecision is reache& after re<&eli$eration" the 3u&'#ent of conviction of the lo(er court shall $e reverse& an& the accuse& ac>uitte&.2. .5) &a%s fro# notice of the &ecision or final or&er of the Court of Appeals" (ith copies thereof serve& upon the a&verse part%" settin' forth the 'roun&s in support thereof.0..?a) SEC..8hen the entr% of 3u&'#ent of the Court of Appeals is issue&" a certifie& true cop% of the 3u&'#ent shall $e attache& to the ori'inal recor& (hich shall $e re#an&e& to the cler/ of the court fro# (hich the appeal (as ta/en.(2a) RULE 126 SEARC AND SEI2URE SECT!O+ ..@.(...6..Search warrant defined.udgment transmitted and filed in trial court.'niform procedure.Reconsideration.(0a) SEC.The provisions of Rules 40" 44 to 46 an& 4@ to 56 relatin' to proce&ure in the Court of Appeals an& in the Supre#e Court in ori'inal an& appeale& civil cases shall $e applie& to cri#inal cases insofar as the% are applica$le an& not inconsistent (ith the provisions of this Rule.(pplication of certain rules in civil procedure to criminal cases-.(....6a) SEC.The #itti#us shall $e sta%e& &urin' the pen&enc% of the #otion for reconsi&eration.a) SEC.@a) RULE 125 PROCEDURE IN T E SUPREME COURT SECT!O+ .+o part% shall $e allo(e& a secon& #otion for reconsi&eration of a 3u&'#ent or final or&er.(.?..+ecision if opinion is e6ually divided.The proce&ure for the revie( $% the Supre#e Court of &ecisions in cri#inal cases ren&ere& $% the Court of Appeals shall $e the sa#e as in civil cases.A search (arrant is an or&er in (ritin' issue& in the na#e of the People of the Philippines" si'ne& $% a 3u&'e an& &irecte& to a peace officer" co##an&in' hi# to search for personal propert% &escri$e& therein an& $rin' it $efore the court.A #otion for reconsi&eration shall $e file& (ithin fifteen (.Unless other(ise provi&e& $% the Constitution or $% la(" the proce&ure in the Supre#e Court in ori'inal an& in appeale& cases shall $e the sa#e as in the Court of Appeals" (.) .SEC.Review of decisions of the Court of (ppeals.

. .*.4. record.5.A search (arrant shall not issue e1cept upon pro$a$le cause in connection (ith one specific offense to $e &eter#ine& personall% $% the 3u&'e after e1a#ination un&er oath or affir#ation of the co#plainant an& the (itnesses he #a% pro&uce" an& particularl% &escri$in' the place to $e searche& an& the thin's to $e sei5e& (hich #a% $e an%(here in the Philippines.6.(2a) SEC.Re6uisites for issuing search warrant.(4a) SEC.(5a) Q Q Su$3ect of the offense7 Stolen or e#$e55le& an& other procee&s" or fruits of the offense7 or Use& or inten&e& to $e use& as the #eans of co##ittin' an offense- (For#* Application for Search 8arrant) PEOPLE OF T=E P=!L!PP!+ES Plaintiff" ersus A-)-" Accuse&" 1 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<1 Cri#inal Case +o-____ for PState nature of the offense) APPL!CAT!O+ FOR SEARC= 8ARRA+T The un&ersi'ne& (na#e of applicant) after havin' $een &ul% s(orn7 states* . . .2.0.The 3u&'e #ust" $efore issuin' the (arrant" personall% e1a#ine in the for# of searchin' >uestions an& ans(ers" in (ritin' an& un&er oath" the co#plainant an& the (itnesses he #a% pro&uce on facts personall% /no(n to the# an& attach to the recor& their s(orn state#ents" to'ether (ith the affi&avits su$#itte&.SEC.!f the 3u&'e is satisfie& of the e1istence of facts upon (hich the application is $ase& or that there is pro$a$le cause to $elieve that the% e1ist" he shall issue the (arrant" (hich #ust $e su$stantiall% in the for# prescri$e& $% these Rules.Court where application for search warrant shall be filed.A search (arrant #a% $e issue& for the search an& sei5ure of personal propert%* (a) ($) (c) (0a) SEC.An application for search (arrant shall $e file& (ith the follo(in'* (a) An% court (ithin (hose territorial 3uris&iction a cri#e (as co##itte&($) For co#pellin' reasons state& in the application" an% court (ithin the 3u&icial re'ion (here the cri#e (as co##itte& if the place of the co##ission of the cri#e is /no(n" or an% court (ithin the 3u&icial re'ion (here the (arrant shall $e enforce&=o(ever" if the cri#inal action has alrea&% $een file&" the application shall onl% $e #a&e in the court (here the cri#inal action is pen&in'" (n) SEC. That (na#e of the person to $e searche&)" (ho #a% $e foun& at (&escri$e pre#ises) is in possession or has in his control (na#e propert% su$3ect of the offense7 or stolen or e#$e55le& an& other .Issuance and form of search warrant.amination of complainant.$ersonal property to be sei5ed. .

room.+o search of a house" roo#" or an% other pre#ises shall $e #a&e e1cept in the presence of the la(ful occupant thereof or an% #e#$er of his fa#il% or in the a$sence of the latter" t(o (itnesses of sufficient a'e an& &iscretion resi&in' in the sa#e localit%.Search of house.?.(Cancel &escription not applica$le)0. . or premises to be made in presence of two witnesses.SEC.That a search (arrant shoul& $e issue& to ena$le an& a'ent of the la( to ta/e possession an& $rin' to his court the follo(in' &escri$e& propert%* ('ive a co#plete an& &etaile& &escription of the propert% to $e sei5e&)8herefore" the un&ersi'ne& pra%s this =onora$le Court to issue a search (arrant authori5in' an% a'ent of the la( to search the pre#ises a$ove &escri$e& an& to sei5e an& surren&er to this =onora$le Court the personal propert% #entione& a$ove to $e &ealt (ith as the la( &irects______________" Philippines"______.(?a) procee&s or fruits of the offense7 or use& or inten&e& to $e use& as the #eans of co##ittin' an offense) (hich he is /eepin' an& concealin' in pre#ises a$ove &escri$e&.(6) SEC.A____ _____________ Hu&'e Cri#inal Case +o-_______ for (State nature of the offense) ..(Cancel &escription not applica$le) Rou are here$% co##an&e& to #a/e an i##e&iate search at an% ti#e in the &a% (or ni'ht) of the pre#ises a$ove &escri$e& an& forth(ith sei5e an& ta/e possession of the follo(in' personal propert%" to (it* ('ive a co#plete an& &etaile& &escription of the propert% to $e sei5e&) an& $rin' sai& propert% to the un&ersi'ne& to $e &ealt (ith as the la( &irects8itness #% han& this_____&a% of_______________" .The officer" if refuse& a&#ittance to the place of &irecte& search after 'ivin' notice of his purpose an& authorit%" #a% $rea/ open an% outer or inner &oor or (in&o( of a house or an% part of a house or an%thin' therein to e1ecute the (arrant or li$erate hi#self or an% person la(full% ai&in' hi# (hen unla(full% &etaine& therein.Right to brea) door or window to effect search.A______ ______________ Applicant (For#* Search 8arrant) PEOPLE OF T=E P=!L!PP!+ES Plaintiff" ersus A-)-" Accuse&" 1 <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<1 TO A+R PEACE OFF!CER Creetin's* !t appearin' to the satisfaction of the un&ersi'ne& after e1a#inin' un&er oath (na#e of applicant) an& his (itness (na#e of (itness) that there is pro$a$le cause to $elieve that (&escri$e the act char'e&) has $een co##itte& or is a$out to $e co##itte& an& that there are 'oo& an& sufficient reasons to $elieve that (na#e of person or persons to $e searche&) has in his possession or control in (&escri$e pre#ises) in (na#e of street)" &istrict of_______________________" (na#e of propert% su$3ect of the offense" or stolen or e#$e55le& an& other procee&s or fruits of the offense or use& or inten&e& to $e use& as a #eans of co##ittin' an offense) (hich shoul& $e sei5e& an& $rou'ht to the un&ersi'ne&.@.

The officer sei5in' propert% un&er the (arrant #ust 'ive a &etaile& receipt for the sa#e to the la(ful occupant of the pre#ises in (hose presence the search an& sei5ure (ere #a&e" or in the a$sence of such occupant" #ust" in the presence of at least t(o (itnesses of sufficient a'e an& &iscretion resi&in' in the sa#e localit%" leave a receipt in the place in (hich he foun& the sei5e& propert%.alidity of search warrant...A person la(full% arreste& #a% $e searche& for &an'erous (eapons or an%thin' (hich #a% have $een use& or constitute proof in the co##ission of an offense (ithout a search (arrant...Thereafter" it shall $e voi&..A.A #otion to >uash a search (arrant an&Jor to suppress evi&ence o$taine& thereof #a% $e file& in an& acte& upon onl% $% the court (here the action has $een institute&. ...B) &a%s fro# its &ate.(a) The officer #ust forth(ith &eliver the propert% sei5e& to the 3u&'e (ho issue& the (arrant" to'ether (ith a true inventor% thereof &ul% verifie& un&er oath($) Ten (.(.B.+elivery of property and inventory thereof to court. of this Rule has $een co#plie& (ith an& shall re>uire that the propert% sei5e& $e &elivere& to hi#. return and proceedings thereon...(Aa) SEC.SEC.(@) SEC.Receipt for the property sei5ed.!f the return has $een #a&e" the 3u&'e shall ascertain (hether section .A search (arrant shall $e vali& for ten (.2.!f no cri#inal action has $een institute&" the #otion #a% $e file& in an& resolve& $% the court that issue& the search (arrant.The 3u&'e shall see to it that su$section (a) hereof has $een co#plie& (ith(c) The return on the search (arrant shall $e file& an& /ept $% the custo&ian of the lo' $oo/ on search (arrants (ho shall enter therein the &ate of the return" the result" an& other actions of the 3u&'eA violation of this section shall constitute conte#pt of court.(.a) SEC..B) &a%s after issuance -of the search (arrant" the issuin' 3u&'e shall ascertain if the return has $een #a&e" an& if none" shall su##on the person to (ho# the (arrant (as issue& an& re>uire hi# to e1plain (h% no return (as #a&e.Search incident to lawful arrest...0.Time of ma)ing search.!otion to 6uash a search warrant or to suppress evidence.0a) SEC.(.. where to file.Ba) SEC.(n) RULE 127 PROVISIONAL REMEDIES IN CRIMINAL CASES . .The (arrant #ust &irect that it $e serve& in the &a% ti#e" unless the affi&avit asserts that the propert% is on the person or in the place or&ere& to $e searche&" in (hich case a &irection #a% $e inserte& that it $e serve& at an% ti#e of the &a% or ni'ht.4.=o(ever" if such court faile& to resolve the #otion an& a cri#inal case is su$se>uentl% file& in another court" the #otion shall $e resolve& $% the latter court..

. Evi&ence is the #eans" sanctione& $% these rules" of ascertainin' in a 3u&icial procee&in' the truth respectin' a #atter of fact-(. .(vailability of provisional remedies.(ttachment.0.4..Relevancy.." .4" .(dmissibility of evidence.SECT!O+ ." the offen&e& part% #a% have the propert% of the accuse& attache& as securit% for the satisfaction of an% 3u&'#ent that #a% $e recovere& fro# the accuse& in the follo(in' cases* (a) 8hen the accuse& is a$out to a$scon& fro# the Philippines7 ($) 8hen the cri#inal action is $ase& on a clai# for #one% or propert% e#$e55le& or frau&ulentl% #isapplie& or converte& to the use of the accuse& (ho is a pu$lic officer" officer of a corporation" attorne%" factor" $ro/er" a'ent or cler/" in the course of his e#plo%#ent as such" or $% an% other person in a fi&uciar% capacit%" or for a (illful violation of &ut%7 (c) 8hen the accuse& has conceale&" re#ove&" or &ispose& of his propert%" or is a$out to &o so7 an& (&) 8hen the accuse& resi&es outsi&e the Philippines.A@A an& too/ effect Hul% ... collateral matters.The rules of evi&ence shall $e the sa#e in all courts an& in all trials an& hearin's" e1cept as other(ise provi&e& $% la( or these rules-(0a) SEC.(.Evi&ence #ust have such a relation to the fact in issue as to in&uce $elief in its e1istence or non<e1istence..0.*vidence defined.Evi&ence on collateral #atters shall not $e allo(e&" e1cept (hen it ten&s in an% reasona$le &e'ree to esta$lish Q As a#en&e& per Resolution a&opte& on 9arch .) SEC.. .A@A- .(0a) PART IV RULES ON EVIDENCE 3 RULE 128 GENERAL PROVISIONS SECT!O+ .2.Evi&ence is a&#issi$le (hen it is relevant to the issue an& is not e1clu&e& $% the la( or these rules-(2a) SEC..The provisional re#e&ies in civil actions" insofar as the% are applica$le" #a% $e availe& of in connection (ith the civil action &ee#e& institute& (ith the cri#inal action.Scope.8hen the civil action is properl% institute& in the cri#inal action as provi&e& in Rule .a) SEC.

a) SEC..udicial notice.An a&#ission" ver$al or (ritten" #a&e $% a part% in the course of the procee&in's in the sa#e case" &oes not re>uire proof.Furin' the trial" the court" on its o(n initiative" or on re>uest of a part%" #a% announce its intention to ta/e 3u&icial notice of an% #atter an& allo( the parties to $e hear& thereonAfter the trial" an& $efore 3u&'#ent or on appeal" the proper court" on its o(n initiative or on re>uest of a part%" #a% ta/e 3u&icial notice of an% #atter an& allo( the parties to $e hear& thereon if such #atter is &ecisive of a #aterial issue in the case-(n) SEC.4. when mandatory.udicial admissions. when hearing necessary.8hen an o$3ect is relevant to the fact in issue" it #a% $e e1hi$ite& to" e1a#ine& or vie(e& $% the court-(.A court shall ta/e 3u&icial notice" (ithout the intro&uction of evi&ence" of the e1istence an& territorial e1tent of states" their political histor%" for#s of 'overn#ent an& s%#$ols of nationalit%" the la( of nations" the a&#iralt% an& #ariti#e courts of the (orl& an& their seals" the political constitution an& histor% of the Philippines" the official acts of the le'islative" e1ecutive an& 3u&icial &epart#ents of the Philippines" the la(s of nature" the #easure of ti#e" an& the 'eo'raphical &ivisions-(.The a&#ission #a% $e contra&icte& onl% $% sho(in' that it (as #a&e throu'h palpa$le #ista/e or that no such a&#ission (as #a&e-(0a) RULE 130 RULES OF ADMISSI!ILITY A" O!$ECT 4REAL5 EVIDENCE SECT!O+ .Ob"ect as evidence..O$3ects as evi&ence are those a&&resse& to the senses of the court.A court #a% ta/e 3u&icial notice of #atters (hich are of pu$lic /no(le&'e" or are capa$le of un>uestiona$le &e#onstration" or ou'ht to $e /no(n to 3u&'es $ecause of their 3u&icial functions-(..udicial notice. when discretionary..a) ..the pro$a$ilit% or i#pro$a$ilit% of the fact in issue-(4a) RULE 129 W AT NEED NOT !E PROVED SECT!O+ .a) SEC.udicial notice. .2.0..

8hen the su$3ect of in>uir% is the contents of a &ocu#ent" no evi&ence shall $e a&#issi$le other than the ori'inal &ocu#ent itself" e1cept in the follo(in' cases* (a) 8hen the ori'inal has $een lost or &estro%e&" or cannot $e pro&uce& in court" (ithout $a& faith on the part of the offeror7 ($) 8hen the ori'inal is in the custo&% or un&er the control of the part% a'ainst (ho# the evi&ence is offere&" an& the latter fails to pro&uce it after reasona$le notice7 (c) 8hen the ori'inal consists of nu#erous accounts or other &ocu#ents (hich cannot $e e1a#ine& in court (ithout 'reat loss of ti#e an& the fact sou'ht to $e esta$lishe& fro# the# is onl% the 'eneral result of the (hole7 an& (&) 8hen the ori'inal is a pu$lic recor& in the custo&% of a pu$lic officer or is recor&e& in a pu$lic office-(0a) SEC. .*vidence admissible when original document is a public record.Original document must be produced.!f after such notice an& after satisfactor% proof of its e1istence" he fails to pro&uce the &ocu#ent" secon&ar% evi&ence #a% $e presente& as in the case of its loss-(5a) SEC.?.2. .#hen original document is in adverse partyAs custody or control. .+ocumentary evidence.0. .#hen original document is unavailable.2 !f the &ocu#ent is in the custo&% or un&er the control of the a&verse part%" he #ust have reasona$le notice to pro&uce it.Focu#ents as evi&ence consist of (ritin's or an% #aterial containin' letters" (or&s" nu#$ers" fi'ures" s%#$ols or other #o&es of (ritten e1pressions offere& as proof of their contents-(n) 1" !EST EVIDENCE RULE SEC.ceptions.8hen the ori'inal &ocu#ent has $een lost or &estro%e&" or cannot $e pro&uce& in court" the offeror" upon proof of its e1ecution or e1istence an& the cause of its unavaila$ilit% (ithout $a& faith on his part" #a% prove its contents $% a cop%" or $% a recital of its contents in so#e authentic &ocu#ent" or $% the testi#on% of (itnesses in the or&er state&-(4a) SEC.4.Original of document.6.!" DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE SEC.5.8hen the ori'inal of a &ocu#ent is in the custo&% of a pu$lic officer or is recor&e& in a pu$lic . e. (a) The ori'inal of a &ocu#ent is one the contents of (hich are the su$3ect of in>uir%($) 8hen a &ocu#ent is in t(o or #ore copies e1ecute& at or a$out the sa#e ti#e" (ith i&entical contents" all such copies are e>uall% re'ar&e& as ori'inals(c) 8hen an entr% is repeate& in the re'ular course of $usiness" one $ein' copie& fro# another at or near the ti#e of the transaction" all the entries are li/e(ise e>uall% re'ar&e& as ori'inals-(2a) 2" SECONDARY EVIDENCE SEC..

.@.The ter#s of a (ritin' are presu#e& to have $een use& in their pri#ar% an& 'eneral acceptation" $ut evi&ence is a&#issi$le to sho( that the% have a local" technical" or other(ise peculiar si'nification" an& (ere so use& an& un&erstoo&" in the particular instance" in (hich case the a'ree#ent #ust $e .A part% (ho calls for the pro&uction of a &ocu#ent an& inspects the sa#e is not o$li'e& to offer it as evi&ence-(6a) 3" PAROL EVIDENCE RULE SEC.4..2.Interpretation according to circumstances.$eculiar signification of terms. . general and particular provisions.) SEC.. .0.office" its contents #a% $e prove& $% a certifie& cop% issue& $% the pu$lic officer in custo&% thereof-(0a) SEC.$arty who calls for document not bound to offer it..Interpretation of a writing according to its legal meaning.*vidence of written agreements.The lan'ua'e of a (ritin' is to $e interprete& accor&in' to the le'al #eanin' it $ears in the place of its e1ecution" unless the parties inten&e& other(ise-(@) SEC.Interpretation according to intention.Instrument construed so as to give effect to all provisions.!n the construction of an instru#ent" the intention of the parties is to $e pursue&7 an& (hen a 'eneral an& a particular provision are inconsistent" the latter is para#ount to the for#er.. .B.B) SEC..!n the construction of an instru#ent (here there are several provisions or particulars" such a construction is" if possi$le" to $e a&opte& as (ill 'ive effect to all-(A) SEC.A.. ..For the proper construction of an instru#ent" the circu#stances un&er (hich it (as #a&e" inclu&in' the situation of the su$3ect thereof an& of the parties to it" #a% $e sho(n" so that the 3u&'e #a% $e place& in the position of those (hose lan'ua'e he is to interpret-(.So a particular intent (ill control a 'eneral one that is inconsistent (ith it-(. ..8hen the ter#s of an a'ree#ent have $een re&uce& to (ritin'" it is consi&ere& as containin' all the ter#s a'ree& upon an& there can $e" $et(een the parties an& their successors in interest" no evi&ence of such ter#s other than the contents of the (ritten a'ree#ent=o(ever" a part% #a% present evi&ence to #o&if%" e1plain or a&& to the ter#s of the (ritten a'ree#ent if he puts in issue in his plea&in'* (a) An intrinsic a#$i'uit%" #ista/e or i#perfection in the (ritten a'ree#ent7 ($) The failure of the (ritten a'ree#ent to e1press the true intent an& a'ree#ent of the parties thereto7 (c) The vali&it% of the (ritten a'ree#ent7 or (&) The e1istence of other ter#s a'ree& to $% the parties or their successors in interest after the e1ecution of the (ritten a'ree#entThe ter# Ma'ree#entM inclu&es (ills-(?a) 4" INTERPRETATION OF DOCUMENTS SEC. .

#ritten words control printed..#itnesses. .An instru#ent #a% $e construe& accor&in' to usa'e" in or&er to &eter#ine its true character-(.8hen an instru#ent is e>uall% suscepti$le of t(o interpretations" one in favor of natural ri'ht an& the other a'ainst it" the for#er is to $e a&opte&-(.construe& accor&in'l%-(.@a) SEC.Furin' their #arria'e" neither the hus$an& nor the (ife #a% testif% for or a'ainst the other (ithout the consent of the affecte& spouse" e1cept in a civil case $% one a'ainst the other" or in a cri#inal case for a cri#e co##itte& $% one a'ainst the other or the latterNs &irect &escen&ants or ascen&ants-(0Ba) .*.+is6ualification by reason of mental incapacity or immaturity..8hen an instru#ent consists partl% of (ritten (or&s an& partl% of a printe& for#" an& the t(o are inconsistent" the for#er controls the latter-(.4) SEC.5) SEC.6) SEC.00...Construction in favor of natural right.?.. their 6ualifications.A.. .2) SEC.The follo(in' persons cannot $e (itnesses* (a) Those (hose #ental con&ition" at the ti#e of their pro&uction for e1a#ination" is such that the% are incapa$le of intelli'entl% #a/in' /no(n their perception to others7 ($) Chil&ren (hose #ental #aturit% is such as to ren&er the# incapa$le of perceivin' the facts respectin' (hich the% are e1a#ine& an& of relatin' the# truthfull%-(.5..0.Interpretation according to usage.8hen the ter#s of an a'ree#ent have $een inten&e& in a &ifferent sense $% the &ifferent parties to it" that sense is to prevail a'ainst either part% in (hich he suppose& the other un&erstoo& it" an& (hen &ifferent constructions of a provision are other(ise e>uall% proper" that is to $e ta/en (hich is the #ost favora$le to the part% in (hose favor the provision is #a&e-(.8hen the characters in (hich an instru#ent is (ritten are &ifficult to $e &eciphere&" or the lan'ua'e is not un&erstoo& $% the court" the evi&ence of persons s/ille& in &ecipherin' the characters" or (ho un&erstan& the lan'ua'e" is a&#issi$le to &eclare the characters or the #eanin' of the lan'ua'e-(.?) C" TESTIMONIAL EVIDENCE 1" 'UALIFICATION OF WITNESSES SEC.Aa) SEC.+is6ualification by reason of marriage. .Of two constructions.0B. .plaining certain writings. ...perts and interpreters to be used in e. which preferred.0) SEC.E1cept as provi&e& in the ne1t succee&in' section" all persons (ho can perceive" an& perceivin'" can #a/e /no(n their perception to others" #a% $e (itnessesReli'ious or political $elief" interest in the outco#e of the case" or conviction of a cri#e unless other(ise provi&e& $% la(" shall not $e a 'roun& for &is>ualification-(.6.@.

+o person #a% $e co#pelle& to testif% a'ainst his parents" other &irect ascen&ants" chil&ren or other &irect &escen&ants-(0Ba) 3" ADMISSIONS AND CONFESSIONS SEC.+is6ualification by reason of privileged communication.. .05.(dmissions of a party.!n civil cases" an offer of co#pro#ise is not an a&#ission of an% lia$ilit%" an& is not a&#issi$le in evi&ence a'ainst the offeror- .The act" &eclaration or o#ission of a part% as to a relevant fact #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence a'ainst hi#-(00) SEC.04.a) 2" TESTIMONIAL PRIVILEGE SEC. .SEC.$arental and filial privilege.The follo(in' persons cannot testif% as to #atters learne& in confi&ence in the follo(in' cases* (a) The hus$an& or the (ife" &urin' or after the #arria'e" cannot $e e1a#ine& (ithout the consent of the other as to an% co##unication receive& in confi&ence $% one fro# the other &urin' the #arria'e e1cept in a civil case $% one a'ainst the other" or in a cri#inal case for a cri#e co##itte& $% one a'ainst the other or the latterNs &irect &escen&ants or ascen&ants7 ($) An attorne% cannot" (ithout the consent of his client" $e e1a#ine& as to an% co##unication #a&e $% the client to hi#" or his a&vice 'iven thereon in the course of" or (ith a vie( to" professional e#plo%#ent" nor can an attorne%Ns secretar%" steno'rapher" or cler/ $e e1a#ine&" (ithout the consent of the client an& his e#plo%er" concernin' an% fact the /no(le&'e of (hich has $een ac>uire& in such capacit%7 (c) A person authori5e& to practice #e&icine" sur'er% or o$stetrics cannot in a civil case" (ithout the consent of the patient" $e e1a#ine& as to an% a&vice or treat#ent 'iven $% hi# or an% infor#ation (hich he #a% have ac>uire& in atten&in' such patient in a professional capacit%" (hich infor#ation (as necessar% to ena$le hi# to act in that capacit%" an& (hich (oul& $lac/en the reputation of the patient7 (&) A #inister or priest cannot" (ithout the consent of the person #a/in' the confession" $e e1a#ine& as to an% confession #a&e to or an% a&vice 'iven $% hi# in his professional character in the course of &iscipline en3oine& $% the church to (hich the #inister or priest $elon's7 (e) A pu$lic officer cannot $e e1a#ine& &urin' his ter# of office or after(ar&s" as to co##unications #a&e to hi# in official confi&ence" (hen the court fin&s that the pu$lic interest (oul& suffer $% the &isclosure-(0. .06.0?.02.+is6ualification by reason of death or insanity of adverse party.Parties or assi'nors of parties to a case" or persons in (hose $ehalf a case is prosecute&" a'ainst an e1ecutor or a&#inistrator or other representative of a &ecease& person" or a'ainst a person of unsoun& #in&" upon a clai# or &e#an& a'ainst the estate of such &ecease& person or a'ainst such person of unsoun& #in&" cannot testif% as to an% #atter of fact occurrin' $efore the &eath of such &ecease& person or $efore such person $eca#e of unsoun& #in&-(0Ba) SEC.Offer of compromise not admissible..

The act or &eclaration of a partner or a'ent of the part% (ithin the scope of his authorit% an& &urin' the e1istence of the partnership or a'enc%" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence a'ainst such part% after the partnership or a'enc% is sho(n $% evi&ence other than such act or &eclaration.0A..(dmission by privies. .The ri'hts of a part% cannot $e pre3u&ice& $% an act" &eclaration" or o#ission of another" e1cept as hereinafter provi&e&-(05a) SEC.2.The &eclaration of an accuse& ac/no(le&'in' his 'uilt of the offense char'e&" or of an% offense necessaril% inclu&e& therein" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence a'ainst hi#-(0Aa) 4" PREVIOUS CONDUCT AS EVIDENCE SEC..20.(dmission by third party.Similar acts as evidence.An act or &eclaration #a&e in the presence an& (ithin the hearin' or o$servation of a part% (ho &oes or sa%s nothin' (hen the act or &eclaration is such as naturall% to call for action or co##ent if not true" an& (hen proper an& possi$le for hi# to &o so" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence a'ainst hi#-(02a) SEC..The act or &eclaration of a conspirator relatin' to the conspirac% an& &urin' its e1istence" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence a'ainst the co< conspirator after the conspirac% is sho(n $% evi&ence other than such act or &eclaration-(0?) SEC.An offer in (ritin' to pa% a particular su# of #one% or to &eliver a (ritten instru#ent or specific personal propert% is" if re3ecte& (ithout vali& cause" e>uivalent to the actual pro&uction an& ten&er of the #one%" instru#ent" or propert%-(4Aa) . .24.8here one &erives title to propert% fro# another" the act" &eclaration" or o#ission of the latter" (hile hol&in' the title" in relation to the propert%" is evi&ence a'ainst the for#er-(0@) SEC.0@.Confession..25..'naccepted offer.(dmission by conspirator.22.2B.The sa#e rule applies to the act or &eclaration of a 3oint o(ner" 3oint &e$tor" or other person 3ointl% intereste& (ith the part%-(06a) SEC.(dmission by co&partner or agent..!n cri#inal cases" e1cept those involvin' >uasi<offenses (cri#inal ne'li'ence) or those allo(e& $% la( to $e co#pro#ise&" an offer of co#pro#ise $% the accuse& #a% $e receive& in evi&ence as an i#plie& a&#ission of 'uiltA plea of 'uilt% later (ith&ra(n" or an unaccepte& offer of a plea of 'uilt% to a lesser offense" is not a&#issi$le in evi&ence a'ainst the accuse& (ho #a&e the plea or offerAn offer to pa% or the pa%#ent of #e&ical" hospital or other e1penses occasione& $% an in3ur% is not a&#issi$le in evi&ence as proof of civil or cri#inal lia$ilit% for the in3ur%-(04a) SEC.(dmission by silence.Evi&ence that one &i& or &i& not &o a certain thin' at one ti#e is not a&#issi$le to prove that he &i& or &i& not &o the sa#e or a si#ilar thin' at another ti#e7 $ut it #a% $e receive& to prove a specific intent or /no(le&'e" i&entit%" plan" s%ste#" sche#e" ha$it" custo# or usa'e" an& the li/e-(4@a) SEC..

2?.Entries #a&e at" or near the ti#e of the transactions to (hich the% refer" $% a person &ecease&" or una$le to testif%" (ho (as in a position to /no( the facts therein state&" #a% $e receive& as prima facie .(26a) SEC.a) SEC..Common reputation.A (itness can testif% onl% to those facts (hich he /no(s of his personal /no(le&'e7 that is" (hich are &erive& fro# his o(n perception" e1cept as other(ise provi&e& in these rules-(2Ba) 6" E&CEPTIONS TO T E EARSAY RULE SEC.+ying declaration. . hearsay e.Entries in fa#il% $i$les or other fa#il% $oo/s or charts" en'ravin' on rin's" fa#il% portraits an& the li/e" #a% $e receive& as evi&ence of pe&i'ree-(24a) SEC.The &eclaration of a &%in' person" #a&e un&er the consciousness of an i#pen&in' &eath" #a% $e receive& in an% case (herein his &eath is the su$3ect of in>uir%" as evi&ence of the cause an& surroun&in' circu#stances of such &eath-(2.40.*ntries in the course of business.The (or& Mpe&i'reeM inclu&es relationship" fa#il% 'enealo'%" $irth" #arria'e" &eath" the &ates (hen an& the places (here these facts occurre&" an& the na#es of the relatives..Co##on reputation e1istin' previous to the controvers%" respectin' facts of pu$lic or 'eneral interest #ore than thirt% %ears ol&" or respectin' #arria'e or #oral character" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence" 9onu#ents an& inscriptions in pu$lic places #a% $e receive& as evi&ence of co##on reputation-(25) SEC.The act or &eclaration of a person &ecease&" or una$le to testif%" in respect to the pe&i'ree of another person relate& to hi# $% $irth or #arria'e" #a% $e receive& in evi&ence (here it occurre& $efore the controvers%" an& the relationship $et(een the t(o persons is sho(n $% evi&ence other than such act or &eclaration. .4amily reputation or tradition regarding pedigree.(ct or declaration about pedigree.42. .The &eclaration #a&e $% a person &ecease&" or una$le to testif%" a'ainst the interest of the &eclarant" if the fact asserte& in the &eclaration (as at the ti#e it (as #a&e so far contrar% to &eclarantNs o(n interest" that a reasona$le #an in his position (oul& not have #a&e the &eclaration unless he $elieve& it to $e true" #a% $e receive& in evi&ence a'ainst hi#self or his successors in interest an& a'ainst thir& persons-(20a) SEC..2A.2@.4B.State#ents #a&e $% a person (hile a startlin' occurrence is ta/in' place or i##e&iatel% prior or su$se>uent thereto (ith respect to the circu#stances thereof" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence as part of the res gestae.. So" also" state#ents acco#pan%in' an e>uivocal act #aterial to the issue" an& 'ivin' it a le'al si'nificance" #a% $e receive& as part of the res gestae.26.Testimony generally confined to personal )nowledge.4.+eclaration against interest.5" TESTIMONIAL KNOWLEDGE SEC.. The reputation or tra&ition e1istin' in a fa#il% previous to the controvers%" in respect to the pe&i'ree of an% one of its #e#$ers" #a% $e receive& in evi&ence if the (itness testif%in' thereon $e also a #e#$er of the fa#il%" either $% consan'uinit% or affinit%.cluded.!t e#$races also facts of fa#il% histor% inti#atel% connecte& (ith pe&i'ree-(22a) SEC.$art of the res gestae..

e.44.A pu$lishe& treatise" perio&ical or pa#phlet on a su$3ect of histor%" la(" science or art is a&#issi$le as ten&in' to prove the truth of a #atter state& therein if the court ta/es 3u&icial notice" or a (itness e1pert in the su$3ect testifies" that the (riter of the state#ent in the treatise" perio&ical or pa#phlet is reco'ni5e& in his profession or callin' as e1pert in the su$3ect-(4Ba) SEC.4@.5..4A.The opinion of a (itness is not a&#issi$le" e1cept as in&icate& in the follo(in' sections-(40) SEC.7earned treatises.Commercial lists and the li)e. (a) The i&entit% of a person a$out (ho# he has a&e>uate /no(le&'e7 ($) A han&(ritin' (ith (hich he has sufficient fa#iliarit%7 an& (c) The #ental sanit% of a person (ith (ho# he is sufficientl% ac>uainte&The (itness #a% also testif% on his i#pressions of the #otion" $ehavior" con&ition or appearance of a person-(44a) 8" C ARACTER EVIDENCE SEC.Character evidence not generally admissible.45.The opinion of a (itness on a #atter re>uirin' special /no(le&'e" s/ill" e1perience or trainin' (hich he is sho(n to possess" #a% $e receive& in evi&ence-(42a) SEC.) The accuse& #a% prove his 'oo& #oral character (hich is pertinent .Evi&ence of state#ents of #atters of interest to persons en'a'e& in an occupation containe& in a list" re'ister" perio&ical" or other pu$lishe& co#pilations a&#issi$le as ten&in' to prove the truth of an% relevant #atter so state& if that co#pilation is pu$lishe& for use $% persons en'a'e& in that occupation an& is 'enerall% use& an& relie& upon $% the# therein-(2A) SEC.Entries in official recor&s #a&e in the perfor#ance of his &ut% $% a pu$lic officer of the Philippines" or $% a person in the perfor#ance of a &ut% speciall% en3oine& $% la(" are prima facie evi&ence of the facts therein state&-(2@) SEC...ceptionsC2 (a) !n Cri#inal Cases* (.a) 7" OPINION RULE SEC.46.5B.Opinion of ordinary witnesses.The opinion of a (itness for (hich proper $asis is 'iven" #a% $e receive& in evi&ence re'ar&in'... .The testi#on% or &eposition of a (itness &ecease& or una$le to testif%" 'iven in a for#er case or procee&in'" 3u&icial or a&#inistrative" involvin' the sa#e parties an& su$3ect #atter" #a% $e 'iven in evi&ence a'ainst the a&verse part% (ho ha& the opportunit% to cross< e1a#ine hi#-(4. .evi&ence" if such person #a&e the entries in his professional capacit% or in the perfor#ance of &ut% an& in the or&inar% or re'ular course of $usiness or &ut%-(2?a) SEC.*ntries in official records.Testimony or deposition at a former proceeding.-eneral rule..4?.pert witness.Opinion of e.

.+isputable presumptions.The follo(in' are instances of conclusive presu#ptions* (a) 8henever a part% has" $% his o(n &eclaration" act" or o#ission" intentionall% an& &eli$eratel% le& another to $elieve a particular thin' true" an& to act upon such $elief" he cannot" in an% liti'ation arisin' out of such &eclaration" act or o#ission" $e per#itte& to falsif% it* ($) The tenant is not per#itte& to &en% the title of his lan&lor& at the ti#e of the co##ence#ent of the relation of lan&lor& an& tenant $et(een the#-(2a) SEC.The follo(in' presu#ptions are satisfactor% if uncontra&icte&" $ut #a% $e contra&icte& an& overco#e $% other evi&ence* (a) That a person is innocent of cri#e or (ron'7 ($) That an unla(ful act (as &one (ith an unla(ful intent7 (c) That a person inten&s the or&inar% conse>uences of his voluntar% act7 (&) That a person ta/e or&inar% care of his concerns7 (e) That evi&ence (illfull% suppresse& (oul& $e a&verse if pro&uce&7 (f) That #one% pai& $% one to another (as &ue to the latter7 (') That a thin' &elivere& $% one to another $elon'e& to the latter7 (h) That an o$li'ation &elivere& up to the &e$tor has $een pai&7 .a" 0a) SEC.Conclusive presumptions.2)ur&en of proof is the &ut% of a part% to present evi&ence on the facts in issue necessar% to esta$lish his clai# or &efense $% the a#ount of evi&ence re>uire& $% la(-(...20" Section .4.1urden of proof.(46a" 4?a) RULE 131 !URDEN OF PROOF AND PRESUMPTIONS SECT!O+ .to the #oral trait involve& in the offense char'e&(0) Unless in re$uttal" the prosecution #a% not prove his $a& #oral character (hich is pertinent to the #oral trait involve& in the offense char'e&(2) The 'oo& or $a& #oral character of the offen&e& part% #a% $e prove& if it ten&s to esta$lish in an% reasona$le &e'ree the pro$a$ilit% or i#pro$a$ilit% of the offense char'e&($) !n Civil Cases* Evi&ence of the #oral character of a part% in a civil case is a&#issi$le onl% (hen pertinent to the issue of character involve& in the case(c) !n the case provi&e& for in Rule .0.2.

!f he &isappeare& after the a'e of sevent%<five %ears" an a$sence of five %ears shall $e sufficient in or&er that his succession #a% $e opene&The follo(in' shall $e consi&ere& &ea& for all purposes inclu&in' the &ivision of the estate a#on' the heirs* (.) A person on $oar& a vessel lost &urin' a sea vo%a'e" or an aircraft (hich is #issin'" (ho has not $een hear& of for four %ears since the loss of the vessel or aircraft7 .(i) That prior rents or install#ents ha& $een pai& (hen a receipt for the later ones is pro&uce&7 (3) That a person foun& in possession of a thin' ta/en in the &oin' of a recent (ron'ful act is the ta/er an& the &oer of the (hole act7 other(ise" that thin's (hich a person possesses" or e1ercises acts of o(nership over" are o(ne& $% hi#7 (/) That a person in possession of an or&er on hi#self for the pa%#ent of the #one%" or the &eliver% of an%thin'" has pai& the #one% or &elivere& the thin' accor&in'l%7 (l) That a person actin' in a pu$lic office (as re'ularl% appointe& or electe& to it7 (#) That official &ut% has $een re'ularl% perfor#e&7 (n) That a court" or 3u&'e actin' as such" (hether in the Philippines or else(here" (as actin' in the la(ful e1ercise of 3uris&iction7 (o) That all the #atters (ithin an issue raise& in a case (ere lai& $efore the court an& passe& upon $% it7 an& in li/e #anner that all #atters (ithin an issue raise& in a &ispute su$#itte& for ar$itration (ere lai& $efore the ar$itrators an& passe& upon $% the#7 (p) That private transactions have $een fair an& re'ular7 (>) That the or&inar% course of $usiness has $een follo(e&7 (r) That there (as a sufficient consi&eration for a contract7 (s) That a ne'otia$le instru#ent (as 'iven or in&orse& for a sufficient consi&eration7 (t) That an in&orse#ent of a ne'otia$le instru#ent (as #a&e $efore the instru#ent (as over&ue an& at the place (here the instru#ent is &ate&7 (u) That a (ritin' is trul% &ate&7 (v) That a letter &ul% &irecte& an& #aile& (as receive& in the re'ular course of the #ail7 (() That after an a$sence of seven %ears" it $ein' un/no(n (hether or not the a$sentee still lives" he is consi&ere& &ea& for all purposes" e1cept for those of successionThe a$sentee shall not $e consi&ere& &ea& for the purpose of openin' his succession till after an a$sence of ten %ears.

=o(ever" in an% case" $efore #arr%in' a'ain" the spouse present #ust institute a su##ar% procee&in' as provi&e& in the Fa#il% Co&e an& in the rules for a &eclaration of presu#ptive &eath of the a$sentee" (ithout pre3u&ice to the effect of reappearance of the a$sent spouse(1) That ac>uiescence resulte& fro# a $elief that the thin' ac>uiesce& in (as confor#a$le to the la( or fact7 (%) That thin's have happene& accor&in' to the or&inar% course of nature an& the or&inar% ha$its of life7 (5) That persons actin' as copartners have entere& into a contract of copartnership7 (aa) That a #an an& (o#an &eportin' the#selves as hus$an& an& (ife have entere& into a la(ful contract of #arria'e7 ($$) That propert% ac>uire& $% a #an an& (o#an (ho are capacitate& to #arr% each other an& (ho live e1clusivel% (ith each other as hus$an& an& (ife (ithout the $enefit of #arria'e or un&er a voi& #arria'e" has $een o$taine& $% their 3oint efforts" (or/ or in&ustr%(cc) That in cases of coha$itation $% a #an an& a (o#an (ho are not capacitate& to #arr% each other an& (ho have ac>uire& propert% throu'h their actual 3oint contri$ution of #one%" propert% or in&ustr%" such contri$utions an& their correspon&in' shares inclu&in' 3oint &eposits of #one% an& evi&ences of cre&it are e>ual(&&) That if the #arria'e is ter#inate& an& the #other contracte& another #arria'e (ithin three hun&re& &a%s after such ter#ination of the for#er #arria'e" these rules shall 'overn in the a$sence of proof to the contrar%* (.!n case of &isappearance" (here there is &an'er of &eath un&er the circu#stances hereina$ove provi&e& an a$sence of onl% t(o %ears shall $e sufficient for the purpose of contractin' a su$se>uent #arria'e.) A chil& $orn $efore one hun&re& ei'ht% &a%s after the sole#ni5ation of the su$se>uent #arria'e is consi&ere& to have $een conceive& &urin' the for#er #arria'e" provi&e& it $e $orn (ithin three hun&re& &a%s after the ter#ination of the for#er #arria'e7 (0) A chil& $orn after one hun&re& ei'ht% &a%s follo(in' the cele$ration of the su$se>uent #arria'e is consi&ere& to have $een conceive& &urin' such #arria'e" even thou'h it $e $orn (ithin the three hun&re& &a%s after the .(0) A #e#$er of the ar#e& forces (ho has ta/en part in ar#e& hostilities" an& has $een #issin' for four %ears7 (2) A person (ho has $een in &an'er of &eath un&er other circu#stances an& (hose e1istence has not $een /no(n for four %ears7 (4) !f a #arrie& person has $een a$sent for four consecutive %ears" the spouse present #a% contract a su$se>uent #arria'e if he or she has a (ell< foun&e& $elief that the a$sent spouse is alrea&% &ea&.

!f one $e un&er fifteen or over si1t%" an& the other $et(een those a'es" the latter is &ee#e& to have survive&(//) That if there is a &ou$t" as $et(een t(o or #ore persons (ho are calle& to succee& each other" as to (hich of the# &ie& first" (hoever alle'es the &eath of one prior to the other" shall prove the sa#e7 in the a$sence of proof" the% shall $e consi&ere& to have &ie& at the sa#e ti#e-(5a) SEC. .%o presumption of legitimacy or illegitimacy.!f $oth (ere un&er the a'e of fifteen %ears" the ol&er is &ee#e& to have survive&7 0.!f $oth $e over fifteen an& un&er si1t%" an& the se1 $e &ifferent" the #ale is &ee#e& to have survive&7 if the se1 $e the sa#e" the ol&er7 5.!f one is un&er fifteen an& the other a$ove si1t%" the for#er is &ee#e& to have survive&7 4.4.8hoever alle'es the le'iti#ac% or ille'iti#ac% of such chil& #ust prove his alle'ation-(6) RULE 132 .There is no presu#ption of le'iti#ac% or ille'iti#ac% of a chil& $orn after three hun&re& &a%s follo(in' the &issolution of the #arria'e or the separation of the spouses.ter#ination of the for#er #arria'e(ee) That a thin' once prove& to e1ist continues as lon' as is usual (ith thin's of that nature7 (ff) That the la( has $een o$e%e&7 ('') That a printe& or pu$lishe& $oo/" purportin' to $e printe& or pu$lishe& $% pu$lic authorit%" (as so printe& or pu$lishe&7 (hh) That a printe& or pu$lishe& $oo/" purportin' to contain reports of cases a&3u&'e& in tri$unals of the countr% (here the $oo/ is pu$lishe&" contains correct reports of such cases7 (ii) That a trustee or other person (hose &ut% it (as to conve% real propert% to a particular person has actuall% conve%e& it to hi# (hen such presu#ption is necessar% to perfect the title of such person or his successor in interest7 (33) That e1cept for purposes of succession" (hen t(o persons perish in the sa#e cala#it%" such as (rec/" $attle" or confla'ration" an& it is not sho(n (ho &ie& first" an& there are no particular circu#stances fro# (hich it can $e inferre&" the survivorship is &eter#ine& fro# the pro$a$ilities resultin' fro# the stren'th an& a'e of the se1es" accor&in' to the follo(in' rules* .!f $oth (ere a$ove the a'e of si1t%" the %oun'er is &ee#e& to have survive&7 2..

amination of an individual witness.A (itness #ust ans(er >uestions" althou'h his ans(er #a% ten& to esta$lish a clai# a'ainst hi#..) To $e protecte& fro# irrelevant" i#proper" or insultin' >uestions" an& fro# harsh or insultin' &e#eanor7 (0) +ot to $e &etaine& lon'er than the interests of 3ustice re>uire7 (2) +ot to $e e1a#ine& e1cept onl% as to #atters pertinent to the issue7 (4) +ot to 'ive an ans(er (hich (ill ten& to su$3ect hi# to a penalt% for an offense unless other(ise provi&e& $% la(7 or (5) +ot to 'ive an ans(er (hich (ill ten& to &e'ra&e his reputation" unless it $e to the ver% fact at issue or to a fact fro# (hich the fact in issue (oul& $e presu#e&. The or&er in (hich an in&ivi&ual (itness #a% $e e1a#ine& is as follo(s* (a) Firect e1a#ination $% the proponent7 ($) Cross<e1a#ination $% the opponent7 (c) Re<&irect e1a#ination $% the proponent7 (&) Re<cross<e1a#ination $% the opponent-(4) SEC..tent.amination.PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE A" E&AMINATION OF WITNESSES SECT!O+ .amination to be done in open court.0. .=o(ever" it is the ri'ht of a (itness* (. its purpose and e.Order in the e.The e1a#ination of (itnesses presente& in a trial or hearin' shall $e &one in open court" an& un&er oath or affir#ationUnless the (itness is incapacitate& to spea/" or the >uestion calls for a &ifferent #o&e of ans(er" the ans(ers of the (itness shall $e 'iven orall%-(.)ut a (itness #ust ans(er to the fact of his previous final conviction for an offense-(2a" .$roceedings to be recorded.The entire procee&in's of a trial or hearin'" inclu&in' the >uestions propoun&e& to a (itness an& his ans(ers thereto" the state#ents #a&e $% the 3u&'e or an% of the parties" counsel" or (itnesses (ith reference to the case" shall $e recor&e& $% #eans of shorthan& or stenot%pe or $% other #eans of recor&in' foun& suita$le $% the courtA transcript of the recor& of the procee&in's #a&e $% the official steno'rapher" stenot%pist or recor&er an& certifie& as correct $% hi# shall $e &ee#e& prima facie a correct state#ent of such procee&in's-(0a) SEC.4.amination. .Aa) SEC.a) SEC.2..Rights and obligations of a witness.6.+irect e.5.Upon the ter#ination of the &irect e1a#ination" the (itness #a% $e cross<e1a#ine& $% the a&verse part% as to an% #atters state& in the &irect e1a#ination" or connecte& there(ith" (ith sufficient fullness . .*.Firect e1a#ination is the e1a#ination<in<chief of a (itness $% the part% presentin' hi# on the facts relevant to the issue-(5a) SEC. .Cross&e.

.Re&direct e.Upon the conclusion of the re<&irect e1a#ination" the a&verse part% #a% re<cross<e1a#ine the (itness on #atters state& in his re<&irect e1a#ination" an& also on such other #atters as #a% $e allo(e& $% the court in its &iscretion-(.0.amination.E1cept (ith respect to (itnesses referre& to in para'raphs (&) an& (e) of Section .After the e1a#ination of a (itness $% $oth si&es has $een conclu&e&" the (itness cannot $e recalle& (ithout leave of the court.. .!t is not allo(e&-(5a" 6a" an& @a) SEC..amination..The court (ill 'rant or (ithhol& leave in its &iscretion" as the interests of 3ustice #a% re>uire& . .tent.!t is not allo(e&" e1cept* (a) On cross e1a#ination7 ($) On preli#inar% #atters7 (c) 8hen there is &ifficult% in 'ettin' &irect an& intelli'i$le ans(ers fro# a (itness (ho is i'norant" or a chil& of ten&er %ears" or is of fee$le #in&" or a &eaf< #ute7 (&) Of an un(illin' or hostile (itness7 or (e) Of a (itness (ho is an a&verse part% or an officer" &irector" or #ana'in' a'ent of a pu$lic or private corporation or of a partnership or association (hich is an a&verse part%A #islea&in' >uestion is one (hich assu#es as true a fact not %et testifie& to $% the (itness" or contrar% to that (hich he has previousl% state&. its purpose and e.an& free&o# to test his accurac% an& truthfulness an& free&o# fro# interest or $ias" or the reverse" an& to elicit all i#portant facts $earin' upon the issue-(@a) SEC.$arty may not impeach his own witness.2) SEC.B" the part% pro&ucin' a (itness is not allo(e& to i#peach his cre&i$ilit%A (itness #a% $e consi&ere& as un(illin' or hostile onl% if so &eclare& $% the court .. .A.After the cross< e1a#ination of the (itness has $een conclu&e&" he #a% $e re<e1a#ine& $% the part% callin' hi#" to e1plain or supple#ent his ans(ers 'iven &urin' the cross<e1a#inationOn re<&irect e1a#ination" >uestions on #atters not &ealt (ith &urin' the cross< e1a#ination" #a% $e allo(e& $% the court in its &iscretion-(.@.A (itness #a% $e i#peache& $% the part% a'ainst (ho# he (as calle&" $% contra&ictor% evi&ence" $% evi&ence that his 'eneral reputation for truth" honest%" or inte'rit% is $a&" or $% evi&ence that he has #a&e at other ti#es state#ents inconsistent (ith his present testi#on%" $ut not $% evi&ence of particular (ron'ful acts" e1cept that it #a% $e sho(n $% the e1a#ination of the (itness" or the recor& of the 3u&'#ent" that he has $een convicte& of an offense(.5) SEC.Re&cross&e..A >uestion (hich su''ests to the (itness the ans(er (hich the e1a#inin' part% &esires is a lea&in' >uestion.4) SEC.7eading and misleading 6uestions.0) SEC..?..Recalling witness.B.Impeachment of adverse partyAs witness.

.Evi&ence of the 'oo& character of a (itness is not a&#issi$le until such character has $een i#peache&-( . . .*vidence of good character of witness.*.?) SEC...!f the state#ents $e in (ritin' the% #ust $e sho(n to the (itness $efore an% >uestion is put to hi# concernin' the#-(.upon a&e>uate sho(in' of his a&verse interest" un3ustifie& reluctance to testif%" or his havin' #isle& the part% into callin' hi# to the (itness stan&The un(illin' or hostile (itness so &eclare&" or the (itness (ho is an a&verse part%" #a% $e i#peache& $% the part% presentin' hi# in all respects as if he ha& $een calle& $% the a&verse part%" e1cept $% evi&ence of his $a& character.6.3ow witness impeached by evidence of inconsistent statements. the remainder admissible.. .Right to inspect writing shown to witness.#hen part of transaction.4.8hen part of an act" &eclaration" conversation" (ritin' or recor& is 'iven in evi&ence $% one part%" the (hole of the sa#e su$3ect #a% $e in>uire& into $% the other" an& (hen a &etache& act" &eclaration" conversation" (ritin' or recor& is 'iven in evi&ence" an% other act" &eclaration" conversation" (ritin' or recor& necessar% to its un&erstan&in' #a% also $e 'iven in evi&ence-(..#hen witness may refer to memorandum.A (itness #a% $e allo(e& to refresh his #e#or% respectin' a fact" $% an%thin' (ritten or recor&e& $% hi#self or un&er his &irection at the ti#e (hen the fact occurre&" or i##e&iatel% thereafter" or at an% other ti#e (hen the fact (as fresh in his #e#or% an& he /ne( that the sa#e (as correctl% (ritten or recor&e&7 $ut in such case the (ritin' or recor& #ust $e pro&uce& an& #a% $e inspecte& $% the a&verse part%" (ho #a%" if he chooses" cross<e1a#ine the (itness upon it" an& #a% rea& it in evi&ence.(6a" ?a) SEC.On an% trial or hearin'" the 3u&'e #a% e1clu&e fro# the court an% (itness not at the ti#e un&er e1a#ination" so that he #a% not hear the testi#on% of other (itnesses..Ba) SEC.6) SEC...So" also" a (itness #a% testif% fro# such a (ritin' or recor&" thou'h he retain no recollection of the particular facts" if he is a$le to s(ear that the (ritin' or recor& correctl% state& the transaction (hen #a&e7 $ut such evi&ence #ust $e receive& (ith caution-(.2.=e #a% also $e i#peache& an& cross<e1a#ine& $% the a&verse part%" $ut such cross<e1a#ination #ust onl% $e on the su$3ect #atter of his e1a#ination<in<chief. writing or record given in evidence.@) SEC.@. .The 3u&'e #a% also cause (itnesses to $e /ept separate an& to $e prevente& fro# conversin' (ith one another until all shall have $een e1a#ine&-(. .clusion and separation of witnesses.5.Classes of documents.For the purpose of their presentation in evi&ence" &ocu#ents are either pu$lic or private- .a) SEC.A.8henever a (ritin' is sho(n to a (itness" it #a% $e inspecte& $% the a&verse part%-(Aa) !" AUT ENTICATION AND PROOF OF DOCUMENTS SEC..?.)efore a (itness can $e i#peache& $% evi&ence that he has #a&e at other ti#es state#ents inconsistent (ith his present testi#on%" the state#ents #ust $e relate& to hi#" (ith the circu#stances of the ti#es an& places an& the persons present" an& he #ust $e as/e& (hether he #a&e such state#ents" an& if so" allo(e& to e1plain the#..

8here a private &ocu#ent is #ore than thirt% %ears ol&" is pro&uce& fro# a custo&% in (hich it (oul& naturall% $e foun& if 'enuine" an& is un$le#ishe& $% an% alterations or circu#stances of suspicion" no other evi&ence of its authenticit% nee& $e 'iven-(00a) SEC.. .$roof of official record.Pu$lic &ocu#ents are* (a) The (ritten official acts" or recor&s of the official acts of the soverei'n authorit%" official $o&ies an& tri$unals" an& pu$lic officers" (hether of the Philippines" or of a forei'n countr%7 ($) Focu#ents ac/no(le&'e& $efore a notar% pu$lic e1cept last (ills an& testa#ents7 an& (c) Pu$lic recor&s" /ept in the Philippines" of private &ocu#ents re>uire& $% la( to $e entere& thereinAll other (ritin's are private-(0Ba) SEC.All other pu$lic &ocu#ents are evi&ence" even a'ainst a thir& person" of the fact (hich 'ave rise to their e1ecution an& of the &ate of the latter-(04a) SEC.)efore an% private &ocu#ent offere& as authentic is receive& in evi&ence" its &ue e1ecution an& authenticit% #ust $e prove& either* (a) )% an%one (ho sa( the &ocu#ent e1ecute& or (ritten7 or ($) #a/er)% evi&ence of the 'enuineness of the si'nature or han&(ritin' of the An% other private &ocu#ent nee& onl% $e i&entifie& as that (hich it is clai#e& to $e(0..$roof of private document.Evi&ence respectin' the han&(ritin' #a% also $e 'iven $% a co#parison" #a&e $% the (itness or the court" (ith (ritin's a&#itte& or treate& as 'enuine $% the part% a'ainst (ho# the evi&ence is offere&" or prove& to $e 'enuine to the satisfaction of the 3u&'e-(02a) SEC.A" (hen a&#issi$le for an% purpose" #a% $e evi&ence& $% an official pu$lication thereof or $% a cop% atteste& $% the officer havin' the le'al custo&% of the recor&" or $% his &eput%" an& acco#panie&" if the recor& is not /ept in the Philippines" (ith a certificate that such officer has the custo&%.Focu#ents consistin' of entries in pu$lic recor&s #a&e in the perfor#ance of a &ut% $% a pu$lic officer are prima facie evi&ence of the facts therein state&..04.The recor& of pu$lic &ocu#ents referre& to in para'raph (a) of Section .0B.a) SEC.$ublic documents as evidence.The han&(ritin' of a person #a% $e prove& $% an% (itness (ho $elieves it to $e the han&(ritin' of such person $ecause he has seen the person (rite" or has seen (ritin' purportin' to $e his upon (hich the (itness has acte& or $een char'e&" an& has thus ac>uire& /no(le&'e of the han&(ritin' of such person.3ow genuineness of handwriting proved.00.#hen evidence of authenticity of private document not necessary.02.!f the office in (hich the recor& is /ept is in a forei'n countr%" the certificate #a% $e #a&e $% a secretar% of the e#$ass% or le'ation" consul 'eneral" consul" vice consul" or consular a'ent or $% an% .0.. .

An% pu$lic recor&" an official cop% of (hich is a&#issi$le in evi&ence" #ust not $e re#ove& fro# the office in (hich it is /ept" e1cept upon or&er of a court (here the inspection of the recor& is essential to the 3ust &eter#ination of a pen&in' case-(0?a) SEC.22.There shall $e no &ifference $et(een seale& an& unseale& private &ocu#ents insofar as their a&#issi$ilit% as evi&ence is concerne&-(22a) SEC. .Irremovability of public record.2.To avoi& interruption of procee&in's" parties or their attorne%s are &irecte& to have such translation prepare& $efore trial-(24a) .2B.8henever a cop% of a &ocu#ent or recor& is atteste& for the purpose of evi&ence" the attestation #ust state" in su$stance" that the cop% is a correct cop% of the ori'inal" or a specific part thereof" as the case #a% $e..Seal.Ever% instru#ent &ul% ac/no(le&'e& or prove& an& certifie& as provi&e& $% la(" #a% $e presente& in evi&ence (ithout further proof" the certificate of ac/no(le&'#ent $ein' prima facie evi&ence of the e1ecution of the instru#ent or &ocu#ent involve&-(2.06.plain. .A (ritten state#ent si'ne& $% an officer havin' the custo&% of an official recor& or $% his &eput% that after &ili'ent search no recor& or entr% of a specifie& tenor is foun& to e1ist in the recor&s of his office" acco#panie& $% a certificate as a$ove provi&e&" is a&#issi$le as evi&ence that the recor&s of his office contain no such recor& or entr%-(0A) SEC.!f he fails to &o that" the &ocu#ent shall not $e a&#issi$le in evi&ence-(20a) SEC.20. .a) SEC.3ow "udicial record impeached.An authori5e& pu$lic recor& of a private &ocu#ent #a% $e prove& $% the ori'inal recor&" or $% a cop% thereof" atteste& $% the le'al custo&ian of the recor&" (ith an appropriate certificate that such officer has the custo&% -(0@a) SEC. .The attestation #ust $e un&er the official seal of the attestin' officer" if there $e an%" or if he $e the cler/ of a court havin' a seal" un&er the seal of such court-(06a) SEC.The part% pro&ucin' a &ocu#ent as 'enuine (hich has $een altere& an& appears to have $een altere& after its e1ecution" in a part #aterial to the >uestion in &ispute" #ust account for the alteration=e #a% sho( that the alteration (as #a&e $% another" (ithout his concurrence" or (as #a&e (ith the consent of the parties affecte& $% it" or (as other(ise properl% or innocentl% #a&e" or that the alteration &i& not chan'e the #eanin' or lan'ua'e of the instru#ent.#hat attestation of copy must state.0A.officer in the forei'n service of the Philippines statione& in the forei'n countr% in (hich the recor& is /ept" an& authenticate& $% the seal of his office-(05a) SEC. how to e.$roof of notarial documents.(lterations in document..$ublic record of a private document.$roof of lac) of record.0?.0@.05.Focu#ents (ritten in an unofficial lan'ua'e shall not $e a&#itte& as evi&ence" unless acco#panie& (ith a translation into En'lish or Filipino.+ocumentary evidence in an unofficial language... ..An% 3u&icial recor& #a% $e i#peache& $% evi&ence of* (a) (ant of 3uris&iction in the court or 3u&icial officer" ($) collusion $et(een the parties" or (c) frau& in the part% offerin' the recor&" in respect to the procee&in's-(2Ba) SEC.

.Such offer shall $e &one orall% unless allo(e& $% the court to $e &one in (ritin'" (n) SEC.Ruling..2?.Shoul& a (itness ans(er the >uestion $efore the a&verse part% ha& the opportunit% to voice full% its o$3ection to the sa#e" an& such o$3ection is foun& to $e #eritorious" the court shall sustain the o$3ection an& or&er the ans(er 'iven to $e stric/en off the recor&On proper #otion" the court #a% also or&er the stri/in' out of ans(ers (hich are inco#petent" irrelevant" or other(ise i#proper-(n) SEC. .(26a) SEC.The rulin' of the court #ust $e 'iven i##e&iatel% after the o$3ection is #a&e" unless the court &esires to ta/e a reasona$le ti#e to infor# itself on the >uestion presente&7 $ut the rulin' shall al(a%s $e #a&e &urin' the trial an& at such ti#e as (ill 'ive the part% a'ainst (ho# it is #a&e an opportunit% to #eet the situation presente& $% the rulin'The reason for sustainin' or overrulin' an o$3ection nee& not $e state&.O$3ection to evi&ence offere& orall% #ust $e #a&e i##e&iatel% after the offer is #a&eO$3ection to a >uestion propoun&e& in the course of the oral e1a#ination of a (itness shall $e #a&e as soon as the 'roun&s therefor shall $eco#e reasona$l% apparentAn offer of evi&ence in (ritin' shall $e o$3ecte& to (ithin three (2) &a%s after notice of the offer unless a &ifferent perio& is allo(e& $% the court!n an% case" the 'roun&s for the o$3ections #ust $e specifie&.8hen it $eco#es reasona$l% apparent in the course of the e1a#ination of a (itness that the >uestions $ein' propoun&e& are of the sa#e class as those to (hich o$3ection has $een #a&e" (hether such o$3ection (as sustaine& or overrule&" it shall not $e necessar% to repeat the o$3ection" it $ein' sufficient for the a&verse part% to recor& his continuin' o$3ection to such class of >uestions-(2?a) SEC..Tender of e..cluded evidence.C" OFFER AND O!$ECTION SEC.26.2@.Offer of evidence.4B..2A.Ob"ection.!f the evi&ence e1clu&e& is oral" the offeror #a% state for the recor& the .#hen repetition of ob"ection unnecessary.The court shall consi&er no evi&ence (hich has not $een for#all% offere&.=o(ever" if the o$3ection is $ase& on t(o or #ore 'roun&s" a rulin' sustainin' the o$3ection on one or so#e of the# #ust specif% the 'roun& or 'roun&s relie& upon-(2@a) SEC.(s re'ar&s the testi#on% of a (itness" the offer #ust $e #a&e at the ti#e the (itness is calle& to testif%Focu#entar% an& o$3ect evi&ence shall $e offere& after the presentation of a part%Ns testi#onial evi&ence..Stri)ing out answer.The purpose for (hich the evi&ence is offere& #ust $e specifie&(25) SEC.#hen to ma)e offer.25.!f &ocu#ents or thin's offere& in evi&ence are e1clu&e& $% the court" the offeror #a% have the sa#e attache& to or #a&e part of the recor&.24.

sa#e an& other personal circu#stances of the (itness an& the su$stance of the propose& testi#on%-(n)

RULE 133

WEIG T AND SUFFICIENCY OF EVIDENCE
SECT!O+ ,- $reponderance of evidence, how determined. . !n civil cases" the part% havin' the $ur&en of proof #ust esta$lish his case $% a prepon&erance of evi&ence- !n &eter#inin' (here the prepon&erance or superior (ei'ht of evi&ence on the issues involve& lies" the court #a% consi&er all the facts an& circu#stances of the case" the (itnessesG #anner of testif%in'" their intelli'ence" their #eans an& opportunit% of /no(in' the facts to (hich the% are testif%in'" the nature of the facts to (hich the% testif%" the pro$a$ilit% or i#pro$a$ilit% of their testi#on%" their interest or (ant of interest" an& also their personal cre&i$ilit% so far as the sa#e #a% le'iti#atel% appear upon the trial- The court #a% also consi&er the nu#$er of (itnesses" thou'h the prepon&erance is not necessaril% (ith the 'reater nu#$er-(,a) SEC- 0- $roof beyond reasonable doubt..!n a cri#inal case" the accuse& is entitle& to an ac>uittal" unless his 'uilt is sho(n $e%on& reasona$le &ou$t- Proof $e%on& reasona$le &ou$t &oes not #ean such a &e'ree of proof as" e1clu&in' possi$ilit% of error" pro&uces a$solute certaint%- 9oral certaint% onl% is re>uire&" or that &e'ree of proof (hich pro&uces conviction in an unpre3u&ice& #in&-(0a) SEC- 2- *,tra"udicial confession, not sufficient ground for conviction. .An e1tra3u&icial confession #a&e $% an accuse&" shall not $e sufficient 'roun& for conviction" unless corro$orate& $% evi&ence of corpus delicti./D0 SEC- 4- Circumstantial evidence, when sufficient. .Circu#stantial evi&ence is sufficient for conviction if* (a) There is #ore than one circu#stance7 ($) The facts fro# (hich the inferences are &erive& are proven7 an& (c) The co#$ination of all the circu#stances is such as to pro&uce a conviction $e%on& reasona$le &ou$t-(5) SEC- 5- Substantial evidence..!n cases file& $efore a&#inistrative or >uasi<3u&icial $o&ies" a fact #a% $e &ee#e& esta$lishe& if it is supporte& $% su$stantial evi&ence" or that a#ount of relevant evi&ence (hich a reasona$le #in& #i'ht accept as a&e>uate to 3ustif% a conclusion-(n) SEC- 6- $ower of the court to stop further evidence. .The court #a% stop the intro&uction of further testi#on% upon an% particular point (hen the evi&ence upon it is alrea&% so full that #ore (itnesses to the sa#e point cannot $e reasona$l% e1pecte& to $e a&&itionall% persuasive- )ut this po(er shoul& $e e1ercise& (ith caution-(6)

SEC- ?- *vidence on motion..8hen a #otion is $ase& on facts not appearin' of recor& the court #a% hear the #atter on affi&avits or &epositions presente& $% the respective parties" $ut the court #a% &irect that the #atter $e hear& (holl% or partl% on oral testi#on% or &epositions-(?)

RULE 1341

PERPETUATION OF TESTIMONY
SECT!O+ ,- $etition..A person (ho &esires to perpetuate his o(n testi#on% or that of another person re'ar&in' an% #atter that #a% $e co'ni5a$le in an% court of the Philippines" #a% file a verifie& petition in the court of the province of the resi&ence of an% e1pecte& a&verse part%SEC- 0- Contents of petition.2The petition shall $e entitle& in the na#e of the petitioner an& shall sho(* (a) that the petitioner e1pects to $e a part% to an action in a court of the Philippines $ut is presentl% una$le to $rin' it or cause it to $e $rou'ht7 ($) the su$3ect #atter of the e1pecte& action an& his interest therein7 (c) the facts (hich he &esires to esta$lish $% the propose& testi#on% an& his reasons for &esirin' to perpetuate it7 (&) the na#es or a &escription of the persons he e1pects (ill $e a&verse parties an& their a&&resses so far as /no(n7 an& (e) the na#es an& a&&resses of the persons to $e e1a#ine& an& the su$stance of the testi#on% (hich he e1pects to elicit fro# each" an& shall as/ for an or&er authori5in' the petitioner to ta/e the &epositions of the persons to $e e1a#ine& na#e& in the petition for the purpose of perpetuatin' their testi#on%SEC- 2- %otice and service..The petitioner shall thereafter serve a notice upon each person na#e& in the petition as an e1pecte& a&verse part%" to'ether (ith a cop% of the petition" statin' that the petitioner (ill appl% to the court" at a ti#e an& place na#e& therein" for the or&er &escri$e& in the petition- At least t(ent% (0B) &a%s $efore the &ate of hearin' the notice shall $e serve& in the #anner provi&e& for service of su##onsSEC- 4- Order of e,amination..!f the court is satisfie& that the perpetuation of the testi#on% #a% prevent a failure or &ela% of 3ustice" it shall #a/e an or&er &esi'natin' or &escri$in' the persons (hose &eposition #a% $e ta/en an& specif%in' the su$3ect #atter of the e1a#ination" an& (hether the &epositions shall $e ta/en upon oral e1a#ination or (ritten interro'atories- The &epositions #a% then $e ta/en in accor&ance (ith Rule 04 $efore the hearin'SEC- 5- Reference to court..For the purpose of appl%in' Rule 04 to &eposition for perpetuatin' testi#on%" each reference therein to the court in (hich the action is pen&in' shall $e &ee#e& to refer to the court in (hich the petition for such &eposition
,

This rule (ill $e transpose& to Part ! of the Rules of Court on Fepositions an& Fiscover%- (Rule 04)

(as file&SEC- 6- 'se of deposition..!f a &eposition to perpetuate testi#on% is ta/en un&er this rule" or if" althou'h not so ta/en" it (oul& $e a&#issi$le in evi&ence" it #a% $e use& in an% action involvin' the sa#e su$3ect #atter su$se>uentl% $rou'ht in accor&ance (ith the provisions of Sections 4 an& 5 of Rule 04SEC- ?- +epositions pending appeal..!f an appeal has $een ta/en fro# a 3u&'#ent of the Re'ional Trial Court or $efore the ta/in' of an appeal if the ti#e therefor has not e1pire&" the Re'ional Trial Court in (hich the 3u&'#ent (as ren&ere& #a% allo( the ta/in' of &epositions of (itnesses to perpetuate their testi#on% for use in the event of further procee&in's in the sai& court- !n such case the part% (ho &esires to perpetuate the testi#on% #a% #a/e a #otion in the sai& Re'ional Trial Court for leave to ta/e the &epositions" upon the sa#e notice an& service thereof as if the action (as pen&in' therein- The #otion shall sho( (a) the na#es an& a&&resses of the persons to $e e1a#ine& an& the su$stance of the testi#on% (hich he e1pects to elicit fro# each7 an& ($) the reason for perpetuatin' their testi#on%- !f the court fin&s that the perpetuation of the testi#on% is proper to avoi& a failure or &ela% of 3ustice" it #a% #a/e an or&er allo(in' the &epositions to $e ta/en" an& thereupon the &epositions #a% $e ta/en an& use& in the sa#e #anner an& un&er the sa#e con&itions as are prescri$e& in these rules for &epositions ta/en in actions pen&in' in the Re'ional Trial Court-(?)

PART V LEGAL ET ICS

RULE 135

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COURTS AND $UDICIAL OFFICERS
SECT!O+ ,- Courts always open; "ustice to be promptly and impartially administered..Courts of 3ustice shall al(a%s $e open" e1cept on le'al holi&a%s" for the filin' of an% plea&in's" #otion or other papers" for the trial of cases" hearin' of #otions" an& for the issuance of or&ers or ren&ition of 3u&'#ents- Hustice shall $e i#partiall% a&#inistere& (ithout unnecessar% &ela%SEC- 0- $ublicity of proceedings and records..The sittin' of ever% court of 3ustice shall $e pu$lic" $ut an% court #a%" in its &iscretion" e1clu&e the pu$lic (hen the evi&ence to $e a&&uce& is of such nature as to re>uire their e1clusion in the interest of #oralit% or &ecenc%- The recor&s of ever% court of 3ustice shall $e pu$lic recor&s an& shall $e availa$le for the inspection of an% intereste& person" at all proper $usiness hours" un&er the supervision of the cler/ havin' custo&% of such recor&s" unless the

court shall" in an% special case" have for$i&&en their pu$licit%" in the interest of #oralit% or &ecenc%SEC- 2- $rocess of superior courts enforced throughout the $hilippines. .Process issue& fro# a superior court in (hich a case is pen&in' to $rin' in a &efen&ant" Or for the arrest of an% accuse& person" or to e1ecute an% or&er or 3u&'#ent of the court" #a% $e enforce& in an% part of the PhilippinesSEC- 4- $rocess of inferior courts..The process of inferior courts shall $e enforcea$le (ithin the province (here the #unicipalit% or cit% lies- !t shall not $e serve& outsi&e the $oun&aries of the province in (hich the% are co#prise& e1cept (ith the approval of the 3u&'e of the Re'ional Trial Court of sai& province" an& onl% in the follo(in' cases* (a) 8hen an or&er for the &eliver% of personal propert% l%in' outsi&e the province is to $e co#plie& (ith7 ($) 8hen an attach#ent of real or personal propert% l%in' outsi&e the province is to $e #a&e7 (c) 8hen the action is a'ainst t(o or #ore &efen&ants resi&in' in &ifferent provinces7 an& (&) 8hen the place (here the case has $een $rou'ht is that specifie& in a contract in (ritin' $et(een the parties" or is the place of the e1ecution of such contract as appears therefro#8rits of e1ecution issue& $% inferior courts #a% $e enforce& in an% part of the Philippines (ithout an% previous approval of the 3u&'e of first instanceCri#inal process #a% $e issue& $% a 3ustice of the peace or other inferior court" to $e serve& outsi&e his province" (hen the &istrict 3u&'e" or in his a$sence the provincial fiscal" shall certif% that in his opinion the interests of 3ustice re>uire such serviceSEC- 5- Inherent powers of courts..Ever% court shall have po(er* (a) To preserve an& enforce or&er in its i##e&iate presence7 ($) To enforce or&er in procee&in's $efore it" or $efore a person or persons e#po(ere& to con&uct a 3u&icial investi'ation un&er its authorit%7 (c) To co#pel o$e&ience to its 3u&'#ents" or&ers an& processes" an& to the la(ful or&ers of a 3u&'e out of court" in a case pen&in' therein7 (&) To control" in furtherance of 3ustice" the con&uct of its #inisterial officers" an& of all other persons in an% #anner connecte& (ith a case $efore it" in ever% #anner appertainin' thereto7 (e) therein7 To co#pel the atten&ance of persons to testif% in a case pen&in'

(f) To a&#inister or cause to $e a&#inistere& oaths in a case pen&in' therein" an& in all other cases (here it #a% $e necessar% in the e1ercise of its po(ers7

(') To a#en& an& control its process an& or&ers so as to #a/e the# confor#a$le to la( an& 3ustice7 (h) To authori5e a cop% of a lost or &estro%e& plea&in' or other paper to $e file& an& use& instea& of the ori'inal" an& to restore" an& suppl% &eficiencies in its recor&s an& procee&in'sSEC- 6- !eans to carry "urisdiction into effect. .8hen $% la( 3uris&iction is conferre& on a court or 3u&icial officer" all au1iliar% (rits" processes an& other #eans necessar% to carr% it into effect #a% $e e#plo%e& $% such court or officer7 an& if the proce&ure to $e follo(e& in the e1ercise of such 3uris&iction is not specificall% pointe& out $% la( or $% these rules" an% suita$le process or #o&e of procee&in' #a% $e a&opte& (hich appears confor#a$le to the spirit of sai& la( or rulesSEC- ?- Trials and hearings; orders in chambers. .All trials upon the #erits shall $e con&ucte& in open court an& so far as convenient in a re'ular court roo#- All other acts or procee&in's #a% $e &one or con&ucte& $% a 3u&'e in cha#$ers" (ithout the atten&ance of the cler/ or other court officialsSEC- @- Interlocutory orders out of province. .A 3u&'e of Re'ional Trial Court shall have po(er to hear an& &eter#ine" (hen (ithin the &istrict thou'h (ithout his province" an% interlocutor% #otion or issue after &ue an& reasona$le notice to the parties- On the filin' of a petition for the (rit of habeas corpus or for release upon $ail or re&uction of $ail in an% Re'ional Trial Court" the hearin's #a% $e ha& at an% place in the 3u&icial &istrict (hich the 3u&'e shall &ee# convenientSEC- A- Signing "udgments out of province. .8henever a 3u&'e appointe& or assi'ne& in an% province or $ranch of a Re'ional Trial Court in a province shall leave the province $% transfer or assi'n#ent to another court of e>ual 3uris&iction" or $% e1piration of his te#porar% assi'n#ent" (ithout havin' &eci&e& a case totall% hear& $% hi# an& (hich (as ar'ue& or an opportunit% 'iven for ar'u#ent to the parties or their counsel" it shall $e la(ful for hi# to prepare an& si'n his &ecision in sai& case an%(here (ithin the Philippines- =e shall sen& the sa#e $% re'istere& #ail to the cler/ of the court (here the case (as hear& or ar'ue& to $e file& therein as of the &ate (hen the sa#e (as receive& $% the cler/" in the sa#e #anner as if he ha& $een present in court to &irect the filin' of the 3u&'#ent- !f a case has $een onl% in part" the Supre#e Court" upon petition of an% of the parties to the case an& the reco##en&ation of the respective &istrict 3u&'e" #a% also authori5e the 3u&'e (ho has partl% hear& the case" if no other 3u&'e ha& hear& the case in part" to continue hearin' an& to &eci&e sai& case not(ithstan&in' his transfer or appoint#ent to another court of e>ual 3uris&iction-

RULE 136

COURT RECORD AND GENERAL DUTIES OF CLERKS AND STENOGRAP ERS

0. >9=<.Process shall $e un&er the seal of the court fro# (hich it issues" $e st%le& MRepu$lic of the Philippines" Province of_____________________M to $e si'ne& $% the cler/ an& $ear &ate the &a% it actuall% issue&SEC.+uties of the cler) in the absence or by direction of the "udge.Cler) shall receive papers and prepare minutes.Ar#s and great seal of court. .2The cler/Ns office" (ith the cler/ or his &eput% in atten&ance" shall $e open &urin' $usiness hours on all &a%s e1cept Sun&a%s an& le'al holi&a%sThe cler/ of the Supre#e Court an& that of the Court of Appeals shall /eep office at 9anila an& all papers authori5e& or re>uire& to $e file& therein shall $e file& at 9anilaSEC.5. aroun& the 'arlan& the te1t MSupre#e Court" Repu$lic of the Philippines-M :The ar#s an& seal of the Court of Appeals shall $e the sa#e as that of the Supre#e Court (ith the onl% &ifference that in the seal shall $ear aroun& the 'arlan& the te1t MCourt of Appeals" Repu$lic of the Philippines-M :The ar#s an& seal of the Re'ional Trial Court shall $e the sa#e as that of the Supre#e Court (ith the onl% &ifference that the seal shall $ear aroun& the 'arlan& the te1t MRe'ional Trial Court" the na#e of the province" Repu$lic of the Philippines-M ( (s amended by Resolution of the Supreme Court.Issuance by cler) of process.The ar#s an& 'reat seal of the Supre#e Court are these* :Ar#s.SECT!O+ .Cler)As office...The cler/ of a superior court shall issue un&er the seal of the court all or&inar% (rits an& process inci&ent to pen&in' cases" the issuance of (hich &oes not involve the e1ercise of functions appertainin' to the court or 3u&'e onl%7 an& #a%" un&er the &irection of the court or 3u&'e" #a/e out an& si'n letters of a&#inistration" appoint#ents of 'uar&ians" trustees an& receivers" an& all (rits an& process issuin' fro# the courtSEC. The cler/ of each superior court shall receive an& file all plea&in's an& other papers properl% presente&" . ) SEC.2.4.6. >E.Pale(a%s of t(o pieces a5ure an& gules super<i#pose& a $alance or center (ith t(o ta$lets containin' the co##an&#ents of Co& or on either si&e7 a chief argent (ith three #ullets or e>ui&istant fro# each other" in point of honor" avoi& argent over all the sun ra%onnant or (ith ei'ht #a3or an& #inor ra%s-. dated %ov. ..Style of process.!n the a$sence of the 3u&'e" the cler/ #a% perfor# all the &uties of the 3u&'e in receivin' applications" petitions" inventories" reports" an& the issuance of all or&ers an& notices that follo( as a #atter of course un&er these rules" an& #a% also" (hen &irecte& so to &o $% the 3u&'e" receive the accounts off e1ecutors" a&#inistrators" 'uar&ians" trustees" an& receivers" an& all evi&ence relatin' to the#" or to the settle#ent of the estates of &ecease& persons" or to 'uar&ianships" trusteeships" or receiverships an& forth(ith trans#it such reports" accounts" an& evi&ence to the 3u&'e" to'ether (ith his fin&in's in relation to the sa#e" if the 3u&'e shall &irect hi# to #a/e fin&in's an& inclu&e the sa#e in his reportSEC. :The 'reat seal of the Supre#e Court shall $e circular in for#" (ith the ar#s as &escri$e& in the last prece&in' para'raph an& a scroll ar'ent (ith the follo(in' inscriptions* Le1 Populus>ue" an& surroun&in' the (hole a 'arlan& of laurel leaves in or..

?.@.The cler/ shall /eep a 'eneral &oc/et" each pa'e of (hich shall $e nu#$ere& an& prepare& for receivin' all the entries in a sin'le case" an& shall enter therein all cases" nu#$ere& consecutivel% in the or&er in (hich the% (ere receive&" an&" un&er the hea&in' of each case an& a co#plete title thereof" the &ate of each paper file& or issue&" of each or&er or 3u&'#ent entere&" an& of each other step ta/en in the case" so that $% reference to a sin'le pa'e the histor% of the case #a% $e seenSEC.Inde.....*.Certified copies.The cler/ shall prepare" for an% person &e#an&in' the sa#e" a cop% certifie& un&er the seal of the court of an% paper" recor&" or&er" 3u&'#ent" or entr% in his office" proper to $e certifie&" for the fees prescri$e& $% these rulesSEC. ..The cler/ shall /eep a 3u&'#ent $oo/ containin' a cop% of each 3u&'#ent ren&ere& $% the court in or&er of its &ate" an& a $oo/ of entries of 3u&'#ents containin' at len'th in chronolo'ical or&er entries of all final 3u&'#ents or or&ers of the courtSEC.0.5..2The cler/ shall /eep such other $oo/s an& perfor# such other &uties as the court #a% &irectSEC.-eneral doc)et.B..The cler/ shall safel% /eep all recor&s" papers" files" e1hi$its an& pu$lic propert% co##itte& to his char'e" inclu&in' the li$rar% of the court" an& the seal an& furniture $elon'in' to his officeSEC.A.The 'eneral &oc/et" 3u&'#ent $oo/" entries $oo/ an& e1ecution $oo/ shall each $e in&e1e& in alpha$etical or&er in the na#es of the parties" an& each of the#.Ta)ing of record from the cler)As office.2....ecution boo)..All unprinte& &ocu#ents presente& to the superior courts of the Philippines shall $e (ritten on paper of 'oo& >ualit% t(elve an& three ei'ht inches in len'th $% ei'ht an& one<half inches in (i&th" leavin' a #ar'in at the top an& at the left<han& si&e not less than one inch an& one<half in (i&th.4.+o recor& shall $e ta/en fro# the cler/Ns office (ithout an or&er of the court e1cept as other(ise provi&e& $% these rules...Safe)eeping of property.en&orsin' on each such paper the ti#e (hen it (as file&" an& shall atten& all of the sessions of the court an& enter its procee&in's for each &a% in a #inute $oo/ to $e /ept $% hi#SEC..=o(ever" the Solicitor Ceneral or an% of his assistants" the provincial fiscal or his &eput%" an& the attorne%s de oficio shall $e per#itte&" upon proper receipt" to (ith&ra( fro# the cler/Ns office the recor& of an% cases in (hich the% are intereste&SEC. .$apel catalan. separating cases..The cler/ shall /eep an e1ecution $oo/ in (hich he or his &eput% shall recor& at len'th in chronolo'ical or&er each e1ecution" an& the officerNs return thereon" $% virtue of (hich real propert% has $een sol&SEC.Other boo)s and duties. of the first an& secon& classes" le'al cap" an& t%pe(ritin' paper of such (ei'ht as not to per#it the (ritin' of #ore than one ori'inal an& t(o car$ons at one ti#e" (ill $e accepte&" .'nprinted papers.!f the court so &irects" the cler/ shall /eep t(o or #ore of either or all of the $oo/s an& &oc/ets a$ove #entione&" separatin' civil fro# cri#inal cases" or actions fro# special procee&in's" or other(ise /eepin' cases separate& $% classes as the court shall &ee# $estSEC.udgment and entries boo).

The t%pe use& shall not $e s#aller than t(elve point.The cler/ of court shall sta#p the &ate on (hich notes are receive& $% hi#.Focu#ents (ritten (ith in/ shall not $e of #ore than t(ent%<five lines to one pa'e.Ever% #unicipal or cit% 3u&'e shall /eep a (ell<$oun& $oo/ la$ele& M&oc/et"M in (hich he shall enter for each case* (a) The title of the case inclu&in' the na#es of all the parties7 ($) The nature of the case" (hether civil or cri#inal" an& if the latter" the offense char'e&7 (c) The &ate of issuin' preli#inar% an& inter#e&iate process inclu&in' or&ers of arrest an& su$poenas" an& the &ate an& nature of the return thereon7 (&) The &ate of the appearance or &efault of the &efen&ant7 (e) The &ate of presentin' the plea" ans(er" or #otion to >uash" an& the nature of the sa#e7 (f) The #inutes of the trial" inclu&in' the &ate thereof an& of all a&3ourn#ents7 (') The na#es an& a&&resses of all (itnesses7 (h) The &ate an& nature of the 3u&'#ent" an&" in a civil case" the relief 'rante&7 (i) An ite#i5e& state#ent of the costs7 (3) The &ate of an% e1ecution issue&" an& the &ate an& contents of the return thereon7 (/) The &ate of an% notice of appeal file&" an& the na#e of the part% filin' .$rinted papers.2!t shall $e the &ut% of the steno'rapher (ho has atten&e& a session of a court either in the #ornin' or in the afternoon" to &eliver to the cler/ of court" i##e&iatel% at the close of such #ornin' or afternoon session" all the notes he has ta/en" to $e attache& to the recor& of the case7 an& it shall li/e(ise $e the &ut% of the cler/ to &e#an& that the steno'rapher co#pl% (ith sai& &ut%...The paper use& shall $e of sufficient (ei'ht to prevent the printin' upon one si&e fro# $ein' visi$le upon the otherSEC.8hen such notes are transcri$e& the transcript shall $e &elivere& to the cler/" &ul% initiale& on each pa'e thereof" to $e attache& to the recor& of the case8henever re>ueste& $% a part%" an% state#ent #a&e $% a 3u&'e of first instance" or $% a co##issioner" (ith reference to a case $ein' trie& $% hi#" or to an% of the parties thereto" or to an% (itness or attorne%" &urin' the hearin' of such case" shall $e #a&e of recor& in the steno'raphic notesSEC.?.@...+oc)et and other records of inferior courts -. an& the% #ust not $e &ou$le&SEC.pedients.T%pe(ritten &ocu#ents shall $e (ritten &ou$le<space&.One si&e onl% of the pa'e (ill $e (ritten upon" an& the &ifferent sheets (ill $e se(n to'ether" fir#l%" $% five stitches in the left<han& $or&er in or&er to facilitate the for#ation of the e.provi&e& that such paper is of the re>uire& si5e an& of 'oo& >ualit%.Stenographer.6.All papers re>uire& $% these rules to $e printe& shall $e printe& (ith $lac/ in/ on un'la5e& paper" (ith pa'es si1 inches in (i&th $% nine inches in len'th" in pa#phlet for#.

the sa#eA #unicipal or cit% 3u&'e #a% /eep t(o &oc/ets" one for civil an& one for cri#inal cases.. .!f it $e clai#e& that an official is &is>ualifie& fro# sittin' as a$ove provi&e&" the part% o$3ectin' to his co#petenc% #a%" in (ritin'" file (ith the official his o$3ection" statin' the 'roun&s therefor" an& the official shall thereupon procee& (ith the trial" or (ith&ra(" therefro# in accor&ance (ith his &eter#ination of the >uestion of his &is>ualification..=e shall also /eep all the plea&in' an& other papers an& e1hi$its in cases pen&in' in his court" an& shall certif% copies of his &oc/et entries an& other recor&s proper to $e certifie&" for the fees prescri$e& $% these rules.=is &ecision shall $e forth(ith #a&e in (ritin' an& file& (ith the other papers in the case" $ut no .+o 3u&'e or 3u&icial officer shall sit in an% case in (hich he" or his (ife or chil&" is pecuniaril% intereste& as heir" le'atee" cre&itor or other(ise" or in (hich he is relate& to either part% (ithin the si1th &e'ree of consan'uinit% or affinit%" or to counsel (ithin the fourth &e'ree" co#pute& accor&in' to the rules of the civil la(" or in (hich he has $een e1ecutor" a&#inistrator" 'uar&ian" trustee or counsel" or in (hich he has presi&e& in an% inferior court (hen his rulin' or &ecision is the su$3ect of revie(" (ithout the (ritten consent of all parties in interest" si'ne& $% the# an& entere& upon the recor&A 3u&'e #a%" in the e1ercise of his soun& &iscretion" &is>ualif% hi#self fro# sittin' in a case" for 3ust or vali& reasons other than those #entione& a$oveSEC.!t shall not $e necessar% for the #unicipal or cit% 3u&'e to re&uce to (ritin' the testi#on% of (itnesses" e1cept that of the accuse& in preli#inar% investi'ationsSEC.Each 9etropolitan Trial 3u&'e shall" at the $e'innin' an& in front of all his entries in his &oc/et" #a/e an& su$scri$e su$stantiall% the follo(in' entr%* MA &oc/et of procee&in's in cases $efore ______________________-" ___________________________ (#etropolitan trial 3u&'e) of the #unicipalit% (or cit%) of ________________________________________ in the province of _____________________________________" Repu$lic of the Philippines8itness #% si'nature" __________________________ !unicipal /or !etropolitan Trial udge0B RULE 137 DIS'UALIFICATION OF $UDICIAL OFFICERS SECT!O+ .0.+is6ualification of "udges.Ob"ection that "udge dis6ualified. . how made and effect..A.*ntry on doc)et of inferior courts.

Re6uirements for lawyers who are citi5ens of the 'nited States of (merica.appeal or sta% shall $e allo(e& fro#" or $% #eans of" his &ecision in favor of his o(n co#petenc%" until after final 3u&'#ent in the case- RULE 138 ATTORNEYS AND ADMISSION TO !AR SECT!O+ ..Re6uirements for all applicants for admission to the bar.Citi5ens of the Unite& States of A#erica (ho" $efore Hul% 4" .0. .2.Applicants for a&#ission (ho" $ein' Filipino citi5ens" are enrolle& attorne%s in 'oo& stan&in' in the Supre#e Court of the Unite& States or in an% circuit Court of Appeals or &istrict court therein" or in the hi'hest court of an% State or Territor% of the Unite& States" an& (ho can sho( $% satisfactor% certificates that the% have practice& at least five %ears in an% of sai& courts" that such practice $e'an $efore Hul% 4" .4.So help #e Co&-M SEC.A46" (ere &ul% license& #e#$ers of the Philippine )ar" in active practice in the courts of the Philippines an& in 'oo& an& re'ular stan&in' as such #a%" upon satisfactor% proof of those facts $efore the Supre#e Court" $e allo(e& to continue such practice after ta/in' the follo(in' oath of office* M!"_____________" havin' $een per#itte& to continue in the practice of la( in the Philippines" &o sole#nl% s(ear that ! reco'ni5e the supre#e authorit% of the Repu$lic of the Philippines7 ! (ill support its Constitution an& o$e% the la(s as (ell as the le'al or&ers of the &ul% constitute& authorities therein7 ! (ill &o no falsehoo&" nor consent to the &oin' of an% in court7 ! (ill not (ittin'l% or (illin'l% pro#ote or sue an% 'roun&less" false or unla(ful suit" nor 'ive ai& nor consent to the sa#e7 ! (ill &ela% no #an for #one% or #alice" an& (ill con&uct #%self as a la(%er accor&in' to the $est of #% /no(le&'e an& &iscretion (ith all 'oo& fi&elit% as (ell to the courts as to #% clients7 an& ! i#pose upon #%self this voluntar% o$li'ation (ithout an% #ental reservation or purpose of evasion.A46" an& that the% have never $een suspen&e& or &is$arre&" #a%" in the &iscretion of the Court" $e a&#itte& (ithout e1a#ination- .Ever% applicant for a&#ission as a #e#$er of the $ar #ust $e a citi5en of the Philippines" at least t(ent%<one %ears of a'e" of 'oo& #oral character" an& a resi&ent of the Philippines7 an& #ust pro&uce $efore the Supre#e Court satisfactor% evi&ence of 'oo& #oral character" an& that no char'es a'ainst hi#" involvin' #oral turpitu&e" have $een file& or are pen&in' in an% court in the PhilippinesSEC. .An% person heretofore &ul% a&#itte& as a #e#$er of the $ar" or thereafter a&#itte& as such in accor&ance (ith the provisions of this rule" an& (ho is in 'oo& an& re'ular stan&in'" is entitle& to practice la(SEC.. .#ho may practice law.Re6uirements for applicants from other "urisdictions.

$re&7aw.!f not e#$race& (ithin sections 2 an& 4 of this rule the% shall also file (ithin the sa#e perio& the affi&avit an& certificate re>uire& $% section 5" an& if e#$race& (ithin sections 2 an& 4 the% shall e1hi$it a license evi&encin' the fact of their a&#ission to practice" satisfactor% evi&ence that the sa#e has not $een revo/e&" an& certificates as to their professional stan&in'Applicants shall also file at the sa#e ti#e their o(n affi&avits as to their a'e" resi&ence" an& citi5enshipSEC..Applicants" not other(ise provi&e& for in sections 2 an& 4 of this rule" shall $e su$3ecte& to e1a#inations in the follo(in' su$3ects* Civil Q Resolution of the Court en banc &ate& Hul% 0?" .6.AA2" provi&es that $e'innin' ne1t %ear (.SEC.2@ (Rules of Court) in or&er to ta/e the $ar e1a#inations.Res.issue& Au'ust 2" .5) &a%s $efore the $e'innin' of the e1a#ination. .?.amination.(dditional re6uirements for other applicants..AA@" issue& Hanuar% 0B" .@.S.+otice of applications for a&#ission shall $e pu$lishe& $% the cler/ of the Supre#e Court in ne(spapers pu$lishe& in Filipino" En'lish an& Spanish" for at least ten (.%otice of applications..(S-C.The affi&avit of the can&i&ate" acco#panie& $% a certificate fro# the universit% or school of la(" shall $e file& as evi&ence of such facts" an& further evi&ence #a% $e re>uire& $% the court+o applicant shall $e a&#itte& to the $ar e1a#ination unless he has satisfactoril% co#plete& the follo(in' courses in a la( school or universit% &ul% reco'ni5e& $% the 'overn#ent* civil la(" co##ercial la(" re#e&ial la(" cri#inal la(" pu$lic an& private international la(" political la(" la$or an& social le'islation" #e&ical 3urispru&ence" ta1ation an& le'al ethicsSEC.See PRC Resolution +o.AA2-) Re* Cui&elines for the re'istration of forei'n professionals allo(e& $% la( to practice the re'istere& professions in the Philippines..All applicants for a&#ission other than those referre& to in the t(o prece&in' sections shall" $efore $ein' a&#itte& to the e1a#ination" satisfactoril% sho( that the% have re'ularl% stu&ie& la( for four %ears" an& successfull% co#plete& all prescri$e& courses" in a la( "school or universit%" officiall% approve& an& reco'ni5e& $% the Secretar% of E&ucation.An applicant (ho &esires to ta/e the $ar e1a#inations #ust not onl% have stu&ie& la( in a local school $ut has to present the certifications re>uire& un&er Sections 5 an& 6 of Rule .All applicants for a&#ission shall file (ith the cler/ of the Supre#e Court the evi&ence re>uire& $% section 0 of this rule at least fifteen (.+o applicant for a&#ission to the $ar e1a#ination shall $e a&#itte& unless he presents a certificate that he has satisfie& the Secretar% of E&ucation that" $efore he $e'an the stu&% of la(" he ha& pursue& an& satisfactoril% co#plete& in an authori5e& an& reco'ni5e& universit% or colle'e" re>uirin' for a&#ission thereto the co#pletion of a four<%ear hi'h school course" the course of stu&% prescri$e& therein for a $achelorNs &e'ree in arts or sciences (ith an% of the follo(in' su$3ects as #a3or or fiel& of concentration* political science" lo'ic" En'lish" Spanish" histor% an& econo#ics∗ SEC.5.Since 'ra&uates of forei'n la( schools cannot su$#it sai& certifications" the% shall henceforth not $e allo(e& to ta/e the $ar e1a#inations..A@<54?.AA@- .A.AA4)" the Court (ill not allo( 'ra&uates of forei'n la( schools to ta/e the $ar e1a#inations.Time for filing proof of 6ualifications. sub"ects.*.B) &a%s $efore the $e'innin' of the e1a#inationSEC.

aminers..(nnual e.amination.5 per cent7 Ta1ation" .!n or&er that a can&i&ate #a% $e &ee#e& to have passe& his e1a#inations successfull%" he #ust have o$taine& a 'eneral avera'e of ?5 per cent in all su$3ects" (ithout fallin' $elo( 5B per cent in an% su$3ect.+o oral e1a#ination shall $e 'ivenSEC.Onl% noiseless t%pe(riters shall $e allo(e& to $e use&The co##ittee of $ar e1a#iners shall ta/e such precautions as are necessar% to prevent the su$stitution of papers or co##ission of other frau&s.B per cent7 Re#e&ial La(" 0B per cent7 Le'al Ethics an& Practical E1ercises" ..This co##ittee shall $e co#pose& of a Hustice of the Supre#e Court" (ho shall act as chair#an" an& (ho shall $e &esi'nate& $% the court to serve for one %ear" an& ei'ht #e#$ers of the $ar of the Philippines" (ho shall hol& office for a perio& of one %ear....The% shall $e hel& in four &a%s to $e &esi'nate& $% the chair#an of the co##ittee on $ar e1a#iners. and in writing.The su$3ect shall $e &istri$ute& as follo(s* First &a%* Political an& !nternational La( (#ornin') an& La$or an& Social Le'islation (afternoon)7 Secon& &a%* Civil La( (#ornin') an& Ta1ation (afternoon)7 Thir& &a%* 9ercantile La( (#ornin') an& Cri#inal La( (afternoon)7 Fourth &a%* Re#e&ial La( (#ornin') an& Le'al Ethics an& Practical E1ercises (afternoon)SEC.E1a#inees shall not place their na#es on the e1a#ination papers.1ar e.0.B per cent* Political an& !nternational La(" .$assing average. by 6uestions and answers.5 per cent7 La$or an& Social Le'islation" ..B..4.+isciplinary measures.+o can&i&ate shall en&eavor to influence an% #e#$er of the co##ittee" an& &urin' e1a#ination the can&i&ates shall not co##unicate (ith each other nor shall the% 'ive or receive an% assistance.!n &eter#inin' the avera'e" the su$3ects in the e1a#ination shall $e 'iven the follo(in' relative (ei'hts* Civil La(" .2..La(7 La$or an& Social Le'islation7 9ercantile La(7 Cri#inal La(7 Political La( (Constitutional La(" Pu$lic Corporations" an& Pu$lic Officers)7 !nternational La( (Private an& Pu$lic)7 Ta1ation* Re#e&ial La( (Civil Proce&ure" Cri#inal Proce&ure" an& Evi&ence)7 Le'al Ethics an& Practical E1ercises (in Plea&in' an& Conve%ancin')SEC.E1a#inees shall ans(er the >uestions personall% (ithout help fro# an%oneUpon verifie& application #a&e $% an e1a#inee statin' that his pen#anship is so poor that it (ill $e &ifficult to rea& his ans(ers (ithout #uch loss of ti#e" the Supre#e Court #a% allo( such e1a#inee to use a t%pe(riter in ans(erin' the >uestions..The na#es of the #e#$ers of this co##ittee shall $e pu$lishe& in each volu#e of the official reportsSEC.The can&i&ate (ho violates this provision" or an% other provision of this rule" shall $e $arre& fro# the e1a#ination" an& the sa#e to count as a failure a'ainst hi#" an& further &isciplinar% action" inclu&in' per#anent &is>ualification" #a% $e ta/en in the &iscretion of the courtSEC. ..E1a#inations for a&#ission to the $ar of the Philippines shall ta/e place annuall% in the Cit% of 9anila..Persons ta/in' the e1a#ination shall not $rin' papers" $oo/s or notes into the e1a#ination roo#s.The >uestions shall $e the sa#e for all e1a#inees an& a cop% thereof" in En'lish or Spanish" shall $e 'iven to each e1a#inee.E1a#inations shall $e con&ucte& $% a co##ittee of $ar e1a#iners to $e appointe& $% the Supre#e Court.Committee of e.5 per cent7 Cri#inal La(" .B per cent7 9ercantile La(" .amination.

6.2The Supre#e Court shall thereupon a&#it the applicant as a #e#$er of the $ar for all the courts of the Philippines" an& shall &irect an or&er to $e entere& to that effect upon its recor&s" an& that a certificate of such recor& $e 'iven to hi# $% the cler/ of court" (hich certificate shall $e his authorit% to practiceSEC.@..?. .5.The e1a#ination papers an& notes of the co##ittee shall $e file& (ith the cler/ an& #a% there $e e1a#ine& $% the parties in interest" after the court has approve& the reportSEC. filing of e..(ttorneysA roll..Can&i&ates (ho have faile& the $ar e1a#inations for three ti#es shall $e &is>ualifie& fro# ta/in' another e1a#ination unless the% sho( to the satisfaction of the court that the% have enrolle& in an& passe& re'ular fourth %ear revie( classes as (ell as atten&e& a pre<$ar revie( course in a reco'ni5e& la( schoolThe professors of the in&ivi&ual revie( su$3ects atten&e& $% the can&i&ates un&er this rule certif% un&er oath that the can&i&ates have re'ularl% atten&e& classes an& passe& the su$3ects un&er the sa#e con&itions as or&inar% stu&ents an& the ratin's o$taine& $% the# in the particular su$3ectSEC.Report of the committee.0B.amination papers. .+ot later than Fe$ruar% .Certificate..5th after the e1a#ination" or as soon thereafter as #a% $e practica$le" the co##ittee shall file its report on the result of such e1a#ination.5 per centSEC.. .+uties of attorneys.An applicant (ho has passe& the re>uire& e1a#ination" or has $een other(ise foun& to $e entitle& to a&#ission to the $ar" shall ta/e an& su$scri$e $efore the Supre#e Court the correspon&in' oath of officeSEC.A..!t is the &ut% of an attorne%* (a) To #aintain alle'iance to the Repu$lic of the Philippines an& to support the Constitution an& o$e% the la(s of the Philippines($) To o$serve an& #aintain the respect &ue to the courts of 3ustice an& 3u&icial officers7 (c) To counsel or #aintain such actions or procee&in's onl% as appear to hi# to $e 3ust" an& such &efenses onl% as he $elieves to $e honestl% &e$ata$le un&er the la(7 (&) To e#plo%" for the purpose of #aintainin' the causes confi&e& to hi#" such #eans onl% as are consistent (ith truth an& honor" an& never see/ to #islea& the 3u&'e or an% 3u&icial officer $% an artifice or false state#ent of fact or la(7 (e) To #aintain inviolate the confi&ence" an& at ever% peril to hi#self" to preserve the secrets of his client" an& to accept no co#pensation in connection (ith his clientNs $usiness e1cept fro# hi# or (ith his /no(le&'e an& approval7 ..4ailing candidates to ta)e review course.(dmission and oath of successful applicants.The cler/ of the Supre#e Court shall /eep a roll of all attorne%s a&#itte& to practice" (hich roll shall $e si'ne& $% the person a&#itte& (hen he receives his certificateSEC.

04.(f) To a$stain fro# all offensive personalit% an& to a&vance no fact pre3u&icial to the honor or reputation of a part% or (itness" unless re>uire& $% the 3ustice of the cause (ith (hich he is char'e&7 (') +ot to encoura'e either the co##ence#ent or the continuance of an action or procee&in'" or &ela% an% #anNs cause" fro# an% corrupt #otive or interest7 (h) +ever to re3ect" for an% consi&eration personal to hi#self" the cause of the &efenseless or oppresse&7 (i) !n the &efense of a person accuse& of cri#e" $% all fair an& honora$le #eans" re'ar&less of his personal opinion as to the 'uilt of the accuse&" to present ever% &efense that the la( per#its" to the en& that no person #a% $e &eprive& of life or li$ert%" $ut $% &ue process of la(SEC. agreement as to fees.Attorne%s have authorit% to $in& their clients in an% case $% an% a'ree#ent in relation thereto #a&e in (ritin'" an& in ta/in' appeals" an& in all #atters of or&inar% 3u&icial proce&ure.An attorne% shall $e entitle& to have an& recover fro# his client no #ore than a reasona$le co#pensation for his services" (ith a vie( to the i#portance of the su$3ect #atter of the controvers%" the e1tent of the services ren&ere&" an& the professional stan&in' of the attorne%. contempt.A (ritten contract for services shall control the a#ount to $e pai& therefor unless foun& $% the court to $e unconsciona$le or unreasona$leSEC. .'nlawful retention of clientAs funds.0..An attorne% (ilfull% appearin' in court for a person (ithout $ein' e#plo%e&" unless $% leave of the court" #a% $e punishe& for conte#pt as an officer of the court (ho has #is$ehave& in his official transactionsSEC.00. .(uthority of attorney to appear.Compensation of attorneys.An attorne% is presu#e& to $e properl% authori5e& to represent an% cause in (hich he appears" an& no (ritten po(er of attorne% is re>uire& to authori5e hi# to appear in court for his client" $ut the presi&in' 3u&'e #a%" on #otion of either part% an& on reasona$le 'roun&s therefor $ein' sho(n" re>uire an% attorne% (ho assu#es the ri'ht to appear in a case to pro&uce or prove the authorit% un&er (hich he appears" an& to &isclose" (henever pertinent to an% issue" the na#e of the person (ho e#plo%e& hi#" an& #a% thereupon #a/e such or&er as 3ustice re>uires..8hen an attorne% un3ustl% retains in his han&s #one% of his client after it has $een &e#an&e& he #a% $e punishe& for conte#pt as an officer of the Court (ho has #is$ehave& in his official transactions7 $ut procee&in's un&er this section shall not $e a $ar to a cri#inal prosecution- .)ut the% cannot" (ithout special authorit%" co#pro#ise their clientNs liti'ation" or receive an%thin' in &ischar'e of a clientNs clai# $ut the full a#ount in cashSEC.(ttorney who appears in lower court presumed to represent client on appeal. .An attorne% (ho appears de parte in a case $efore a lo(er court shall $e presu#e& to continue representin' his client on appeal" unless he files a for#al petition (ith&ra(in' his appearance in the appellate courtSEC..+o court shall $e $oun& $% the opinion of attorne%s as e1pert (itnesses as to the proper co#pensation" $ut #a% &isre'ar& such testi#on% an& $ase its conclusion on its o(n professional /no(le&'e.02.05.(uthority of attorneys to bind clients.

Change of attorneys. grounds therefor.0A.0@.SEC. .(As amended by SC Res.!n case of su$stitution" the na#e of the attorne% ne(l% e#plo%e& shall $e entere& on the &oc/et of the court in place of the for#er one" an& (ritten notice of the chan'e shall $e 'iven to the a&verse part%A client #a% at an% ti#e &is#iss his attorne% or su$stitute another in his place" $ut if the contract $et(een client an& attorne% has $een re&uce& to (ritin' an& the &is#issal of the attorne% (as (ithout 3ustifia$le cause" he shall $e entitle& to recover fro# the client the full co#pensation stipulate& in the contract. further proceedings in Supreme Court. =D=.Suspension of attorney by the Court of (ppeals or a Regional Trial Court.A #e#$er of the $ar #a% $e &is$arre& or suspen&e& fro# his office as attorne% $% the Supre#e Court for an% &eceit" #alpractice" or other 'ross #iscon&uct in such office" 'rossl% i##oral con&uct" or $% reason of his conviction of a cri#e involvin' #oral turpitu&e" or for an% violation of the oath (hich he is re>uire& to ta/e $efore a&#ission to practice" or for a (ilful &iso$e&ience appearin' as an attorne% for a part% to a case (ithout authorit% so to &o.(As amended by Rep.The practice of solicitin' cases at la( for the purpose of 'ain" either personall% or throu'h pai& a'ents or $ro/ers" constitutes #alpracticeThe &is$ar#ent or suspension of a #e#$er of the Philippine )ar $% a co#petent court or other &isciplinator% a'enc% in a forei'n 3uris&iction (here he has also $een a&#itte& as an attorne% is a 'roun& for his &is$ar#ent or suspension if the $asis of such action inclu&es an% of the acts hereina$ove enu#erate&The 3u&'#ent" resolution or or&er of the forei'n court or &isciplinar% a'enc% shall $e prima facie evi&ence of the 'roun& for &is$ar#ent or suspension.+isbarment or suspension of attorneys by Supreme Court.Upon such suspension" the Court of Appeals or the Re'ional Trial Court shall forth(ith trans#it to the Supre#e Court a certifie& cop% of the or&er of suspension an& a full state#ent of the facts upon (hich the sa#e (as $ase&Upon the receipt of such certifie& cop% an& state#ent" the Supre#e Court shall #a/e full investi'ation of the facts involve& an& #a/e such or&er revo/in' or e1ten&in' the suspension" or re#ovin' the attorne% fro# his office as such" as the facts (arrant- .0 SEC.0 SEC.For the pa%#ent of such co#pensation the attorne% shall have a lien upon all 3u&'#ents for the pa%#ent of #one%" an& e1ecution issue& in pursuant of such 3u&'#ents" ren&ere& in the case (herein his services ha& $een retaine& $% the client.06.0?. dated 4eb... .An attorne% #a% retire at an% ti#e fro# an% action or special procee&in'" $% the (ritten consent of his client file& in court.=e #a% also retire at an% ti#e fro# an action or special procee&in'" (ithout the consent of his client" shoul& the court" on notice to the client an& attorne%" an& on hearin'" &eter#ine that he ou'ht to $e allo(e& to retire. >99@. (ct %o. >D.The Court of Appeals or a Re'ional Trial Court #a% suspen& an attorne% fro# practice for an% of the causes na#e& in the last prece&in' section" an& after such suspension such attorne% shall not practice his profession until further action of the Supre#e Court in the pre#isesSEC.'pon suspension by Court of (ppeals or Regional Trial Court.

8henever such co#pensation is allo(e&" it shall not $e less than thirt% pesos (P2B) in an% case" nor #ore than the follo(in' a#ounts* (.) Fift% pesos (P5B) in li'ht felonies7 (0) One hun&re& pesos (P.Certain attorneys not to practice.!n an% other court" a part% #a% con&uct his liti'ation personall% or $% ai& of an attorne%" an& his appearance #ust $e either personal or $% a &ul% authori5e& #e#$er of the $arSEC.25.2. >9=F.Standing in court of persons authori5ed to appear for -overnment.+o attorne% shall $e re#ove& or suspen&e& fro# the practice of his profession" until he has ha& full opportunit% upon reasona$le notice to ans(er the char'es a'ainst hi#" to pro&uce (itnesses in his o(n $ehalf" an& to $e hear& $% hi#self or counsel..(ttorneys for destitute litigants.)ut if upon reasona$le notice he fails to appear an& ans(er the accusation" the court #a% procee& to &eter#ine the #atter e..22.26.A court #a% assi'n an attorne% to ren&er professional ai& free of char'e to an% part% in a case" if upon investi'ation it appears that the part% is &estitute an& una$le to e#plo% an attorne%" an& that the services of counsel are necessar% to secure the en&s of 3ustice an& to protect the ri'hts of the part%.24.BB) in less 'rave felonies7 (2) T(o hun&re& pesos (P0BB) in 'rave felonies other than capital offenses7 (4) Five hun&re& pesos (P5BB) in capital offensesSEC. ..0 SEC..!n the court of a #unicipalit% a part% #a% con&uct his liti'ation in person" (ith the ai& of an a'ent or frien& appointe& $% hi# for that purpose" or (ith the ai& of an attorne%.(micus curiae.+o 3u&'e or other official or e#plo%ee of the superior courts or of the Office of the Solicitor Ceneral" shall en'a'e in private practice as a #e#$er of the $ar or 'ive professional a&vice to clientsSEC.Su$3ect to availa$ilit% of fun&s as #a% $e provi&e& $% la( the court #a%" in its &iscretion" or&er an attorne% e#plo%e& as counsel de oficio to $e co#pensate& in such su# as the court #a% fi1 in accor&ance (ith section 04 of this rule.2?.20. .An attorne% shall have a lien upon the fun&s" &ocu#ents an& papers of his client" (hich have la(full% co#e into his possession an& #a% retain the sa#e until his la(ful fees an& &is$urse#ents have $een pai&" an& #a% appl% such fun&s to the satisfaction thereof. parte.(ttorney to be heard before removal or suspension.(ttorneysA liens.An% official or other person appointe& or &esi'nate& in accor&ance (ith la( to appear for the Covern#ent of the Philippines shall have all the ri'hts of a &ul% authori5e& #e#$er of the $ar to appear in an% case in (hich sai& 'overn#ent has an interest &irect or in&irectSEC. .=e shall also have a lien to the sa#e e1tent upon all 3u&'#ents for the pa%#ent of #one%" an& e1ecutions issue& in pursuance of such 3u&'#ents" (hich he has secure& in a liti'ation of his client" fro# an& after the ti#e (hen he shall have cause& a state#ent of his clai# of such lien to $e entere& upon the . . dated !ay @E.2B.Compensation for attorneys de oficio..SEC.1y whom litigation conducted. SEC.E1perience& an& i#partial attorne%s #a% $e invite& $% the Court to appear as amid curiae to help in the &isposition of issues su$#itte& to it(As amended by Resolution of the Supreme Court.!t shall $e the &ut% of the attorne% so assi'ne& to ren&er the re>uire& service" unless he is e1cuse& therefro# $% the court for sufficient cause sho(nSEC.

+ec.Failure of an attorne% to provi&e a&e>uate supervision of stu&ent practice #a% $e a 'roun& for &isciplinar% action.Conditions for Student $ractice.(ppearance.The Rules safe'uar&in' privile'e& co##unications $et(een attorne% an& client shall appl% to si#ilar co##unications #a&e to or receive& $% the la( stu&ent" actin' for the le'al clinicSEC. >9.recor&s of the court ren&erin' such 3u&'#ent" or issuin' such e1ecution" an& shall have cause& (ritten notice thereof to $e &elivere& to his client an& to the a&verse part%7 an& he shall have the sa#e ri'ht an& po(er over such 3u&'#ents an& e1ecutions as his client (oul& have to enforce his lien an& secure the pa%#ent of his 3ust fees an& &is$urse#ents- RULE 138%A LAW STUDENT PRACTICE RULE SECT!O+ ./SC Circular %o.Standards of conduct and supervision.The appearance of the la( stu&ent authori5e& $% this rule" shall $e un&er" the &irect supervision an& control of a #e#$er of the !nte'rate& )ar of the Philippines &ul% accre&ite& $% the la( school. >9. >9F=.The co#plaint shall set out &istinctl%" clearl%" an& concisel% the facts co#plaine& of" supporte& $% affi&avits" if an%" of persons havin' Q Superse&e& $% Sec.. prom.$rivileged communications.0.!otion or complaint.4.0 RULE 139 DIS!ARMENT OR SUSPENSION OF ATTORNEYS Q SECT!O+ . .An% an& all plea&in's" #otions" $riefs" #e#oran&a or other papers to $e file&" #ust $e si'ne& $% the supervenin' attorne% for an& in $ehalf of the le'al clinicSEC.2.0B" Rule ..The la( stu&ent shall co#pl% (ith the stan&ar&s of professional con&uct 'overnin' #e#$ers of the )ar...Procee&in's for the re#oval or suspension of attorne%s #a% $e ta/en $% the Supre#e Court on its o(n #otion or upon the co#plaint un&er oath of another in (ritin'.2A la( stu&ent (ho has successfull% co#plete& his 2r& %ear of the re'ular four<%ear prescri$e& la( curriculu# an& is enrolle& in a reco'ni5e& la( schoolNs clinical le'al e&ucation pro'ra# approve& $% the Supre#e Court" #a% appear (ithout co#pensation in an% civil" cri#inal or a&#inistrative case $efore an% trial court" tri$unal" $oar& or officer" to represent in&i'ent clients accepte& $% the le'al clinic of the la( schoolSEC..2A<)- .

2.!f the co#plaint appears to #erit action" a cop% thereof shall $e serve& upon the respon&ent" re>uirin' hi# to ans(er the sa#e (ithin ten (.5.!f in the respon&entNs ans(er no state#ent is #a&e as to an% intention of intro&ucin' a&&itional evi&ence" the case shall $e set &o(n for hearin'" upon the filin' of such ans(er or upon the e1piration of the ti#e to file the sa#eSEC. (nswer of respondent.personal /no(le&'e of the facts therein alle'e& an& shall $e acco#panie& (ith copies of such &ocu#ents as #a% su$stantiate sai& factsSEC.Upon the issues raise& $% the co#plaint an& ans(er" or upon failure of the respon&ent to ans(er" the case shall $e referre& to the Solicitor Ceneral for investi'ation to &eter#ine if there is sufficient 'roun& to procee& (ith the prosecution of the respon&ent. parte. .5) &a%sSEC.Upon receipt of the respon&entNs ans(er" (herein a state#ent is #a&e as to his &esire to intro&uce a&&itional evi&ence" the case shall $e referre& to a co##issioner (ho" in the &iscretion of the court" #a% $e the cler/ of the Supre#e Court" a 3u&'e of the Re'ional Trial Court" or an attorne%<at<la( for investi'ation" report" an& reco##en&ation.Service or dismissal.=o(ever" if upon reasona$le notice" the respon&ent fails to appear" the investi'ation shall procee& e..6. parte.!f the Solicitor Ceneral fin&s sufficient 'roun& to procee& a'ainst the respon&ent" he shall file the correspon&in' co#plaint" acco#panie& (ith all the evi&ence intro&uce& in his investi'ation" (ith the Supre#e Court" an& the respon&ent shall $e serve& $% the cler/ of the Supre#e Court (ith a cop% of the co#plaint (ith &irection to ans(er the sa#e (ithin fifteen (..)ase& upon the evi&ence a&&uce& at the hearin'" if the Solicitor Ceneral fin&s no sufficient 'roun& to procee& a'ainst the respon&ent" he shall su$#it a report to the Supre#e Court containin' his fin&in's of fact an& conclusion" (hereupon the respon&ent shall $e e1onerate& unless the court or&ers &ifferentl%SEC.Report of the Solicitor -eneral.*vidence produced before Solicitor -eneral available.B) &a%s fro# the &ate of service. The rules of evi&ence shall $e applica$le to procee&in's of this nature- .The respon&ent shall $e 'iven full opportunit% to &efen& hi#self" to pro&uce a&&itional evi&ence in his o(n $ehalf" an& to $e hear& $% hi#self an& counsel=o(ever" if upon reasona$le notice the respon&ent fails to appear" the investi'ation shall procee& e. Rules of evidence. . .!f the co#plaint &oes not #erit action" or if the ans(er sho(s to the satisfaction of the Supre#e Court that the co#plaint is not #eritorious" the sa#e shall $e &is#isse&SEC.The Solicitor Ceneral or his representative shall appear $efore the co##issioner to con&uct the prosecution.Commissioner to investigate and recommend.!n the investi'ation con&ucte& $% the Solicitor Ceneral" the respon&ent shall $e 'iven full opportunit% to &efen& hi#self" to pro&uce (itnesses on his o(n $ehalf" an& to $e hear& $% hi#self an& counsel.?.Complaint of the Solicitor -eneral.0. SEC.4.Investigation by Solicitor -eneral.The evi&ence pro&uce& $efore the Solicitor Ceneral in his investi'ation #a% $e consi&ere& $% the Supre#e Court in the final &ecision of the case" if the respon&ent ha& an opportunit% to o$3ect an& cross<e1a#ine. .

Regions. .Upon receipt of the report of the co##issioner" copies of (hich shall $e furnishe& the Solicitor Ceneral an& the respon&ent" the case shall $e set &o(n for hearin' $efore the court" follo(in' (hich the case shall $e consi&ere& su$#itte& to the court for its final &eter#inationSEC. !nserte& $% Repu$lic Act +o.Confidential. co#pose& of all persons (hose na#es no( appear or #a% hereafter $e inclu&e& in the Roll of Attorne%s of the Supre#e CourtSEC.Organi5ation.B.$rocedure in Court of (ppeals or Regional Trial Court..!n case of suspension of the respon&ent" the 3u&'e of Re'ional Trial Court or Hustice of the Court of Appeals shall forth(ith trans#it to the Supre#e Court a certifie& cop% of the or&er of suspension an& a full state#ent of the facts upon (hich sa#e is $ase&SEC..The Philippines is here$% &ivi&e& into nine Re'ions of the !nte'rate& )ar" to (it* (a) +orthern Lu5on" consistin' of the provinces of A$ra" )atanes" )en'uet" Ca'a%an" !fu'ao" !locos +orte" !locos Sur" !sa$ela" Oalin'a<Apa%ao" La Union" 9ountain Province" +ueva i5ca%a" an& Luirino7 ($) Central Lu5on" consistin' of the province of )ataan" )ulacan" +ueva Eci3a" Pa#pan'a" Pan'asinan" Tarlac" an& Sa#$ales7 (c) Creater 9anila" consistin' of the Cit% of 9anila an& Lue5on Cit%7 (&) Southern Lu5on" consistin' of the provinces of )atan'as" Cavite" La'una" 9arin&u>ue" Occi&ental 9in&oro" Oriental 9in&oro" Lue5on" an& Ri5al7 (e) )icolan&ia" consistin' of the provinces of Al$a%" Ca#arines +orte" ..2.The fun&a#ental purposes of the !nte'rate& )ar shall $e to elevate the stan&ar&s of the le'al profession" i#prove the a&#inistration of 3ustice" an& ena$le the )ar to &ischar'e its pu$lic responsi$ilit% #ore effectivel%SEC.SEC.$urposes.There is here$% or'ani5e& an official national $o&% to $e /no(n as the :!nte'rate& )ar of the Philippines"..A.@..As far as #a% $e applica$le" the proce&ure a$ove outline& shall li/e(ise 'overn the filin' an& investi'ation of co#plaints a'ainst attorne%s in the Court of Appeals or in Re'ional Trial Court. .62A?" it too/ effect on Hanuar% .Report of commissioner and hearing.A?2- .6" ..0.Procee&in's a'ainst attorne%s shall $e private an& confi&ential" e1cept that the final or&er of the court shall $e #a&e pu$lic as in other cases co#in' $efore the court- RULE 139%A INTEGRATED !AR OF T E P ILIPPINES 1 SECT!O+ .

.E1cept as herein$elo( provi&e&" ever% cit% shall $e consi&ere& part of the province (ithin (hich it is 'eo'raphicall% situate&A separate Chapter shall $e or'ani5e& in each of follo(in' political su$&ivisions or areas* (a) The su$province of Aurora7 ($) Each con'ressional &istrict of the Cit% of 9anila7 (c) Lue5on Cit%7 (&) Caloocan Cit%" 9ala$on an& +avotas7 (e) Pasa% Cit%" 9a/ati" 9an&alu%on' an& San Huan &el 9onte7 (f) Ce$u Cit%7 an& (') Sa#$oan'a Cit% an& )asilan Cit%Unless he other(ise re'isters his preference for a particular Chapter" a la(%er shall $e consi&ere& a #e#$er of the Chapter of the Province" cit%" political su$&ivision or area (here his office or" in the a$sence thereof" his resi&ence is locate&.A Chapter of the !nte'rate& )ar shall $e or'ani5e& in ever% province.4.5..The !nte'rate& )ar shall have a =ouse of Fele'ates of not #ore than one hun&re& t(ent% #e#$ers (ho shall $e apportione& a#on' all the .A of this Rule not(ithstan&in'Chapters $elon'in' to the sa#e Re'ion #a% hol& re'ional conventions on #atters an& pro$le#s of co##on concernSEC.3ouse of +elegates.Ca#arines Sur" Catan&uanes" 9as$ate" an& Sorso'on7 (f) Eastern isa%as" consistin' of the provinces of )ohol" Ce$u" Eastern Sa#ar" Le%te" +orthern Sa#ar" Sa#ar" an& Southern Le%te7 (') 8estern isa%as" Consistin' of the provinces of A/lan" Anti>ue" Capi5" !loilo" +e'ros Occi&ental" +e'ros Oriental" Pala(an" Ro#$lon" an& Si>ui3or7 (h) Eastern 9in&anao" consistin' of the provinces of A'usan &el +orte" A'usan &el Sur" )u/i&non" Ca#i'uin" Favao &el +orte" Favao &el Sur" Favao Oriental" 9isa#is Oriental" Suri'ao &el +orte" an& Suri'ao &el Sur7 an& (i) 8estern 9in&anao" consistin' of the cities of )asilan an& Sa#$oan'a" an& the provinces of Cota$ato" Lanao &el +orte" Lanao &el Sur" 9isa#is Occi&ental" South Cota$ato" Sulu" Sa#$oan'a &el +orte" an& Sa#$oan'a &el Sur!n the event of the creation of an% ne( province" the )oar& of Covernors shall" (ith the approval of the Supre#e Court &eter#ine the Re'ion to (hich the sai& province shall $elon'SEC.Chapters.!n no case shall an% la(%er $e a #e#$er of #ore than one ChapterEach Chapter shall have its o(n local 'overn#ent as provi&e& for $% unifor# rules to $e prescri$e& $% the )oar& of Covernors an& approve& $% the Supre#e Court" the provisions of Section .

The !nte'rate& )ar shall have a Presi&ent an& an E1ecutive ice Presi&ent (ho shall $e chosen $% the Covernors i##e&iatel% after the latterNs election" either fro# a#on' the#selves or fro# other #e#$ers of the !nte'rate& )ar $% the vote .6.?.On or $efore Fece#$er 2.A #a3orit% of the Fele'ates (ho have re'istere& for a convention" (hether annual or special" shall constitute a >uoru# to &o $usinessSEC.Officers.+o person #a% $e a Covernor for #ore than t(o ter#sThe )oar& shall #eet re'ularl% once ever% three #onths" on such &ate an& at such ti#e an& place as it shall &esi'nate.2The !nte'rate& )ar shall $e 'overne& $%<a )oar& of Covernors.Each Covernor shall $e chosen fro# a list of no#inees su$#itte& $% the Fele'ates fro# the Re'ion" provi&e& that no #ore than one no#inee shall co#e fro# an% Chapter.1oard of -overnors.+o person #a% $e a Fele'ate for #ore than t(o ter#sThe =ouse shall hol& an annual convention at the call of the )oar& of Covernors at an% ti#e &urin' the #onth of April of each %ear for the election of Covernors" the rea&in' an& &iscussion of reports inclu&in' the annual report of the )oar& of Covernors" the transaction of such other $usiness as #a% $e referre& to it $% the )oar&" an& the consi&eration of such a&&itional #atters as #a% $e re>ueste& in (ritin' $% at least t(ent% Fele'ates.A?4" an& ever% four %ears thereafter" the )oar& of Covernors shall #a/e an apportion#ent of Fele'atesThe ter# of the office of Fele'ate shall $e'in on the &ate of the openin' of the annual convention of the =ouse an& shall en& on the &a% i##e&iatel% prece&in' the &ate of the openin' of the ne1t succee&in' annual convention.." .Special conventions of the =ouse #a% $e calle& $% the )oar& of Covernors to consi&er onl% such #atters as the )oar& shall in&icate.Special #eetin's #a% $e calle& $% the Presi&ent or $% five #e#$ers of the )oar&Su$3ect to the approval of the Supre#e Court" the )oar& shall a&opt )%<La(s an& pro#ul'ate Canons of Professional Responsi$ilit% for all #e#$ers of the !nte'rate& )arThe )%<La(s an& the Canons #a% $e a#en&e& $% the Supre#e Court motu proprio or upon the reco##en&ation of the )oar& of CovernorsThe )oar& shall prescri$e such other rules an& re'ulations as #a% $e necessar% an& proper to carr% out the purposes of the !nte'rate& )ar as (ell as the provisions of this RuleSEC.+ine Covernors shall $e electe& $% the =ouse of Fele'ates fro# the nine Re'ions on the representation $asis of one Covernor fro# each Re'ion.Chapters as nearl% as #a% $e accor&in' to the nu#$er of their respective #e#$ers" $ut each Chapter shall have at least one Fele'ate.The Presi&ent an& the E1ecutive ice Presi&ent" if chosen $% the Covernors fro# outsi&e of the#selves as provi&e& in Section ? of this Rule" shall ipso facto $eco#e #e#$ers of the )oar&The #e#$ers of the )oar& shall hol& office for a ter# of one %ear fro# the &ate of their election an& until their successors shall have $een &ul% electe& an& >ualifie&.A #a3orit% of all the #e#$ers of the )oar& shall constitute a >uoru# to &o $usiness.

.B.. officio ice Presi&ent for the Re'ion (hich he representsThe Presi&ent an& the E1ecutive ice Presi&ent shall hol& office for a ter# of one %ear fro# the &ate of their election an& until their successors shall have &ul% >ualifie&The E1ecutive ice Presi&ent shall auto#aticall% $eco#e the Presi&ent for the ne1t succee&in' full ter#..0.Ever% #e#$er of the !nte'rate& shall pa% such annual &ues as the )oar& of Covernors shall &eter#ine (ith the approval of the Supre#e Court.A.A #e#$er #a% ter#inate his #e#$ership $% filin' a (ritten notice to that effect (ith the Secretar% of the !nte'rate& )ar" (ho shall i##e&iatel% $rin' the #atter to the attention of the Supre#e Court..@. reinstatement.The Presi&enc% shall rotate fro# %ear to %ear a#on' all the nine Re'ions in such or&er of rotation as the )oar& of Covernors shall prescri$e..+o person shall $e Presi&ent or E1ecutive ice Presi&ent of the !nte'rate& )ar for #ore than one ter#The !nte'rate& )ar shall have a Secretar%" a Treasurer" an& such other officer an& e#plo%ees as #a% $e re>uire& $% the )oar& of Covernors" to $e appointe& $% the Presi&ent (ith the consent of the )oar&" an& to hol& office at the pleasure of the )oar& or for such ter# as it #a% fi1.!n the event of the &eath" resi'nation" re#oval" or &isa$ilit% of $oth the Presi&ent an& the E1ecutive ice Presi&ent" the )oar& of Covernors shall elect an Actin' Presi&ent to hol& office until the ne1t succee&in' election or &urin' the perio& of &isa$ilit%The fillin' of vacancies in the =ouse of Fele'ates" )oar& of Covernors" an& all other positions of Officers of the !nte'rate& )ar shall $e as provi&e& in the )%<La(s8henever the ter# of an office or position is for a fi1e& perio&" the person chosen to fill a vacanc% therein shall serve onl% for the une1pire& ter#SEC.Su$3ect to the provisions of Section ..BT) of the collections fro# each Chapter shall $e set asi&e as a 8elfare Fun& for &isa$le& #e#$ers of the Chapter an& the co#pulsor% heirs of &ecease& #e#$ers thereofSEC.Sai& officers an& e#plo%ees nee& not $e #e#$ers of the !nte'rate& )arSEC.*ffect of non&payment of dues.-rievance procedures.oluntary termination of membership..of at least five Covernors..!n the event the Presi&ent is a$sent or una$le to act" his &uties shall $e perfor#e& $% the E1ecutive ice Presi&ent7 an& in the event of the &eath" resi'nation" or re#oval of the Presi&ent" the E1ecutive ice Presi&ent shall serve as Actin' Presi&ent &urin' the re#ain&er of the ter# of the office thus vacate&.acancies.0 of this Rule" &efault in the pa%#ent of annual &ues for si1 #onths shall (arrant suspension of #e#$ers in the !nte'rate& )ar" an& &efault in such pa%#ent for one %ear shall $e a 'roun& for the re#oval of the na#e of &elin>uent #e#$er fro# the Roll of Attorne%sSEC.A fi1e& su# e>uivalent to ten percent (...Forth(ith he shall cease to $e a #e#$er an& his na#e shall $e stric/en $% the Court in accor&ance (ith rules an& re'ulations prescri$e& $% the )oar& of Covernors an& approve& $% the CourtSEC..Each of the re'ional #e#$ers of the )oar& shall $e e.!embership dues.The )oar& of Covernors shall provi&e in the )%< La(s for 'rievance proce&ures for the enforce#ent an& #aintenance of &iscipline ..

All voluntar% )ar associations no( e1istin' or (hich #a% hereafter $e for#e& #a% co<e1ist (ith the !nte'rate& )ar $ut shall not operate at cross<purposes there(ithSEC.@.4iscal matters..A Fele'ate" Covernor" Officer or e#plo%ee of the !nte'rate& )ar" or an officer or e#plo%ee of an% Chapter thereof shall $e consi&ere& ipso facto resi'ne& fro# his position as of the #o#ent he files his certificate of can&i&ac% for an% elective pu$lic office or accepts appoint#ent to an% 3u&icial" >uasi<3u&icial" or prosecutor% office in the Covern#ent or an% political su$&ivision or instru#entalit% thereofSEC..All Chapter or'ani5ational #eetin's shall $e hel& on Satur&a%" Fe$ruar% .The la(%ers present at the #eetin' calle& to or'ani5e a Chapter shall constitute a >uoru# for the purpose" inclu&in' the election of a Presi&ent" ice Presi&ent" Secretar%" Treasurer" an& five Firectors- .6..?" .The )oar& of Covernors shall cause to $e pu$lishe& a >uarterl% Hournal of the !nte'rate& )ar" free copies of (hich shall $e &istri$ute& to ever% #e#$er of the !nte'rate& )arSEC.....4.A?2.E1cept as #a% $e specificall% authori5e& or allo(e& $% the Supre#e Court" no Fele'ate or Covernor an& no national or local Officer or co##ittee #e#$er shall receive an% co#pensation" allo(ance or e#olu#ent fro# the fun&s of the !nte'rate& )ar for an% service ren&ere& therein or $e entitle& to rei#$urse#ent for an% e1pense incurre& in the &ischar'e of his functionsSEC....The )oar& of Covernors shall a&#inister the fun&s of the !nte'rate& )ar an& shall have the po(er to #a/e appropriations an& &is$urse#ents therefro#.Organi5ational period.a#on' all the #e#$ers of the !nte'rate& )ar" $ut no action involvin' the suspension or &is$ar#ent of a #e#$er or the re#oval of his na#e fro# the Roll of Attorne%s shall $e effective (ithout the final approval of the Supre#e CourtSEC.oluntary 1ar associations.2.!n ever% case" the Co##ission shall cause proper notice of the &ate" ti#e an& place of the #eetin' to $e serve& upon all the la(%ers concerne& at their a&&resses appearin' in the recor&s of the Co##ission...%on&political 1ar-.The Co##ission on )ar !nte'ration shall or'ani5e the local Chapters an& to(ar& this en& shall secure the assistance of the Fepart#ent of Hustice an& of all Hu&'es throu'hout the Philippines.$ositions honorary.!t shall cause proper )oo/s of Accounts to $e /ept an& Financial State#ents to $e ren&ere& an& shall see to it that the proper au&it is #a&e of all accounts of the !nte'rate& )ar an& all the Chapters thereofSEC..+o la(%er hol&in' an elective" 3u&icial" >uasi<3u&icial" or prosecutor% office in the Covern#ent or an% political su$&ivision or instru#entalit% thereof shall $e eli'i$le for election or appoint#ent to an% position in the !nte'rate& )ar or an% Chapter thereof..(mendments.5.A.ournal.This Rule #a% $e a#en&e& $% the Supre#e Court motu proprio or upon the reco##en&ation of the )oar& of Covernors or an% Chapter of the !nte'rate& )arSEC.?.The !nte'rate& )ar shall $e strictl% non<political" an& ever% activit% ten&in' to i#pair this $asic feature is strictl% prohi$ite& an& shall $e penali5e& accor&in'l%.

2Procee&in's for the &is$ar#ent" suspension" or &iscipline of attorne%s #a% $e ta/en $% the Supre#e Court motu proprio. That char'es file& a'ainst Hustices an& Hu&'es $efore the !)P" inclu&in' those file& prior to their appoint#ent in the Hu&iciar%" shall i##e&iatel% $e for(ar&e& to the Supre#e Court for &isposition an& a&3u&ication.6".0. @EEE. That all char'es a'ainst Hustices of the Court of Appeals an& the Sandiganbayan.. >9=E..The co#plaint shall state clearl% an& concisel% the facts co#plaine& of an& shall $e supporte& $% affi&avits of persons havin' personal /no(le&'e of the facts therein alle'e& an&Jor $% such &ocu#ents as #a% su$stantiate sai& factsThe !)P )oar& of Covernors #a%" motu proprio or upon referral $% the Supre#e Court or $% a Chapter )oar& of Officers" or at the instance of an% person" initiate an& prosecute proper char'es a'ainst an% errin' attorne%s inclu&in' those in the 'overn#ent service* $rovided. or $% the !nte'rate& )ar of the Philippines (!)P) upon the verifie& co#plaint of an% person.2This Rule shall ta/e effect on Hanuar% .The Co##ission shall initiall% fi1 the nu#$er of Fele'ates an& apportion the sa#e a#on' all the Chapters as nearl% as #a% $e in proportion to the nu#$er of their respective #e#$ers" $ut each chapter shall have at least one Fele'ate.The Covernors shall i##e&iatel% assu#e office an& forth(ith #eet to elect the Officers of the !nte'rate& )arThe Officers so chosen shall i##e&iatel% assu#e their respective positionsSEC. an& Hu&'es of the Court of Ta1 Appeals an& lo(er courts" even if la(%ers are 3ointl% char'e& (ith the#" shall $e file& (ith the Supre#e Court* $rovided.?" .A?2 for the purpose of electin' a )oar& of Covernors.0 Si1 (6) copies of the verifie& co#plaint shall $e file& (ith the Secretar% of the !)P or the Secretar% of an% of its chapters (ho shall forth(ith trans#it the sa#e to the !)P )oar& of Covernors for assi'n#ent to an investi'ator- A" PROCEEDINGS IN T E INTEGRATED !AR OF T E P ILIPPINES SEC.3ow Instituted. further.The )oar& of Covernors shall appoint fro# a#on' !)P #e#$ers an !nvesti'ator or" (hen special circu#stances so (arrant" a .The )oar& of Firectors of the Chapter shall in proper cases elect a&&itional as (ell as alternative Fele'atesThe =ouse of Fele'ates shall convene in the Cit% of 9anila on Satur&a%" 9arch .*ffectivity. however.%ational -rievance Investigators.The ice Presi&ent shall $e his alternate" e1cept (here the Chapter is entitle& to have #ore than one Fele'ate" in (hich case the ice Presi&ent shall also $e a Fele'ate.( (s amended by 1ar !atter %o.0B.The Presi&ent of each Chapter shall concurrentl% $e its Fele'ate to the =ouse of Fele'ates.A?2- RULE 139%! DIS!ARMENT AND DISCIPLINE OF ATTORNEYS SECT!O+ . !ay >.

..The proper !)P Chapter #a% assist the co#plainants) in the preparation an& filin' of his co#plaint(s)SEC.+uties of the %ational -rievance Investigator.@.The ori'inal an& five (5) le'i$le copies of the ans(er shall $e file& (ith the !nvesti'ator" (ith proof of service of a cop% thereof on the co#plainant or his counselSEC.!f the co#plaint &oes not #erit action" or if the ans(er sho(s to the satisfaction of the !nvesti'ator that the co#plaint is not #eritorious" the sa#e #a% $e &is#isse& $% the )oar& of Covernors upon his reco##en&ation.5.5 &a%s fro# notice of the &is#issal of the co#plaint+o investi'ation shall $e interrupte& or ter#inate& $% reason of the &esistance" settle#ent" co#pro#ise" restitution" (ith&ra(al of the char'es" or failure of the co#plainant to prosecute the sa#eSEC..The ans(er shall $e verifie&.=o(ever" if upon reasona$le notice" the respon&ent fails to appear" the investi'ation shall procee& e.Chapter assistance to complainant...=e shall have the po(er to issue su$poenas an& a&#inister oaths.(dministrative counsel. .Service or dismissal.A cop% of the !nvesti'atorNs appoint#ent an& oath shall $e trans#itte& to the Supre#e CourtAn !nvesti'ator #a% $e &is>ualifie& $% reason of relationship (ithin the fourth &e'ree of consan'uinit% or affinit% to an% of the parties or their counsel" pecuniar% interest" personal $ias" or his havin' acte& as counsel for either part%" unless the parties si'n an& enter upon the recor& their (ritten consent to his actin' as such !nvesti'ator8here the !nvesti'ator &oes not &is>ualif% hi#self" a part% #a% appeal to the !)P )oar& of Covernors" (hich $% #a3orit% vote of the #e#$ers present" there $ein' a >uoru#" #a% or&er his &is>ualificationAn% !nvesti'ator #a% also $e re#ove& for cause" after the hearin'" $% the vote of at least si1 (6) #e#$ers of the !)P )oar& of Covernors.?.4. parte.The +ational Crievance !nvesti'ators shall investi'ate all co#plaints a'ainst #e#$ers of the !nte'rate& )ar referre& to the# $% the !)P )oar& of CovernorsSEC. .panel of three (2) investi'ators to investi'ate the co#plaint.!f the co#plaint appears to $e #eritorious" the !nvesti'ator shall &irect that a cop% thereof $e serve& upon the respon&ent" re>uirin' hi# to ans(er the sa#e (ithin fifteen (.The respon&ent shall $e 'iven full opportunit% to &efen& hi#self" to present (itnesses on his $ehalf" an& $e hear& $% hi#self an& counsel.Upon 3oin&er of issues or upon failure of the respon&ent to ans(er" the !nvesti'ator shall" (ith &eli$erate spee&" procee& (ith the investi'ation of the case.A cop% of the resolution of &is#issal shall $e furnishe& the co#plainant an& the Supre#e Court (hich #a% revie( the case motu proprio or upon ti#el% appeal of the co#plainant file& (ithin .erification and service of answer.6.Investigation.The &ecision of the )oar& of Covernors in all cases of &is>ualification or re#oval shall $e finalSEC. .5) &a%s fro# the &ate of service.The !)P )oar& of Covernors shall appoint a suita$le #e#$er of the !nte'rate& )ar as counsel to assist the co#plainant or the respon&ent &urin' the investi'ation in case of nee& for such assistanceSEC.All !nvesti'ators shall ta/e an oath of office in the for# prescri$e& $% the )oar& of Covernors.2.

The &ecision of the )oar& upon such revie( shall $e in (ritin' an& shall .2+ot later than thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the ter#ination of the investi'ation" the !nvesti'ator shall su$#it a report containin' his fin&in's of fact an& reco##en&ations to the !)P )oar& of Covernors" to'ether (ith the steno'raphic notes an& the transcript thereof" an& all the evi&ence presente& &urin' the investi'ationThe su$#ission of the report nee& not a(ait the transcription of the steno'raphic notes" it $ein' sufficient that the report repro&uce su$stantiall% fro# the !nvesti'atorNs personal notes an% relevant an& pertinent testi#oniesSEC.Thereafter" the !)P )oar& of Covernors shall (ithin a li/e perio& of fifteen (.5) &a%s fro# its co##ence#ent.Such hearin' shall as far as practica$le $e ter#inate& (ithin fifteen (.5) &a%s issue a resolution settin' forth its fin&in's an& reco##en&ations" (hich shall forth(ith $e trans#itte& to the Supre#e Court for final action an& if (arrante&" the i#position of penalt%SEC.. (a) Ever% case hear& $% an investi'ator shall $e revie(e& $% the !)P )oar& of Covernors upon the recor& an& evi&ence trans#itte& to it $% the !nvesti'ator (ith his report.The !nvesti'ator shall ter#inate the investi'ation (ithin three (2) #onths fro# the &ate of its co##ence#ent" unless e1ten&e& for 'oo& cause $% the )oar& of Covernors upon prior application8illful failure to refusal to o$e% a su$poena or an% other la(ful or&er issue& $% the !nvesti'ator shall $e &ealt (ith as for in&irect conte#pt of court.A.The correspon&in' char'e shall $e file& $% the !nvesti'ator $efore the !)P )oar& of Covernors (hich shall re>uire the alle'e& conte#nor to sho( cause (ithin ten (.+epositions.0..B) &a%s fro# notice..+efects..Fepositions #a% $e ta/en in accor&ance (ith the Rules of Court (ith leave of the investi'ators)8ithin the Philippines" &epositions #a% $e ta/en $efore an% #e#$er of the )oar& of Covernors" the Presi&ent of an% Chapter" or an% officer authori5e& $% la( to a&#inister oathsFepositions #a% $e ta/en outsi&e the Philippines $efore a &iplo#atic or consular representative of the Philippine Covern#ent or $efore an% person a'ree& upon $% the parties or &esi'nate& $% the )oar& of CovernorsAn% suita$le #e#$er of the !nte'rate& )ar in the Place (here a &eposition shall $e ta/en #a% $e &esi'nate& $% the !nvesti'ator to assist the co#plainant or the respon&ent in ta/in' a &epositionSEC....+o &efect in a co#plaint" notice" ans(er" or in the procee&in' or the !nvesti'atorNs Report shall $e consi&ere& as su$stantial unless the )oar& of Covernors" upon consi&erin' the (hole recor&" fin&s that such &efect has resulte& or #a% result in a #iscarria'e of 3ustice" in (hich event the )oar& shall ta/e such re#e&ial action as the circu#stances #a% (arrant" inclu&in' invali&ation of the entire procee&in'sSEC.Report of Investigator.B.Review and decision by the 1oard of -overnors.The !)P )oar& of Covernors #a% thereafter con&uct hearin's" if necessar%" in accor&ance (ith the proce&ure set forth in this Rule for hearin's $efore the !nvesti'ator..

!n procee&in's initiate& motu proprio $% the Supre#e Court or in other procee&in's (hen the interest of 3ustice so re>uires" the Supre#e Court #a% refer the case for investi'ation to the Solicitor Ceneral or to an% officer of the Supre#e Court or 3u&'e of a lo(er court" in (hich case the investi'ation shall procee& in the sa#e #anner provi&e& in sections 6 to . 2The Court of Appeals or Re'ional Trial Court #a% suspen& an attorne% fro# practice for an% of the causes na#e& in Rule ..After receipt of respon&entNs ans(er or lapse of the perio& therefor" the Supre#e Court" motu proprio..The case shall $e &ee#e& ter#inate& unless upon petition of the co#plainant or other intereste& part% file& (ith the Supre#e Court (ithin fifteen (.5.Suspension of attorney by Supreme Court.A cop% of the sa#e shall $e trans#itte& to the Supre#e Court- !" PROCEEDINGS IN T E SUPREME COURT SEC.2@" Section 0?" until further action of the Supre#e Court in the case- . hereof" save that the revie( of the report of investi'ation shall $e con&ucte& &irectl% $% the Supre#e CourtSEC. .. .6..!t shall $e pro#ul'ate& (ithin a perio& not e1cee&in' thirt% (2B) &a%s fro# the ne1t #eetin' of the )oar& follo(in' the su$#ittal of the !nvesti'atorNs Report($) !f the )oar&" $% the vote of a #a3orit% of its total #e#$ership" &eter#ines that the respon&ent shoul& $e suspen&e& fro# the practice of la( or &is$arre&" it shall issue a resolution settin' forth its fin&in's an& reco##en&ations (hich" to'ether (ith the (hole recor& of the case" shall forth(ith $e trans#itte& to the Supre#e Court for final action(c) !f the respon&ent is e1onerate& $% the )oar& or the &isciplinar% sanction i#pose& $% it is less than suspension or &is$ar#ent (such as a&#onition" repri#an&" or fin&) it shall issue a &ecision e1oneratin' respon&ent or i#posin' such sanction.Supreme Court Investigators.4.2.Suspension of attorney by the Court of (ppeals or a Regional Trial Court.Report of the Solicitor -eneral or other Court designated Investigator.clearl% an& &istinctl% state the facts an& the reasons on (hich it is $ase&.. or at the instance of the !)P )oar& of Covernors upon the reco##en&ation of the !nvesti'ators" #a% suspen& an attorne% fro# the practice of his profession for an% of the causes specifie& in Rule .2@" Section 0?" &urin' the pen&enc% of the investi'ation until such suspension is lifte& $% the Supre#e CourtSEC. )ase& upon the evi&ence a&&uce& at the investi'ation" the Solicitor Ceneral or other !nvesti'ator &esi'nate& $% the Supre#e Court shall su$#it to the Supre#e Court a report containin' his fin&in's of fact an& reco##en&ations to'ether (ith the recor& an& all the evi&ence presente& in the investi'ation for the final action of the Supre#e Court- C" COMMON PROVISIONS SEC..5) &a%s fro# notice of the )oar&Ns resolution" the Supre#e Court or&ers other(ise(&) +otice of the resolution or &ecision of the )oar& shall $e 'iven to all parties throu'h their counsel.

The co#plaint shall $e in (ritin' an& shall state clearl% an& concisel% the acts an& o#issions constitutin' violations of stan&ar&s of con&uct prescri$e& for Hu&'es $% la(" the Rules of Court" or the Co&e of Hu&icial Con&uctSEC.2A entitle& MF!S)AR9E+T OR SUSPE+S!O+ OF ATTOR+ERS-M All cases pen&in' investi'ation $% the Office of the Solicitor Ceneral shall $e transferre& to the !nte'rate& )ar of the Philippines )oar& of Covernors for investi'ation an& &isposition as provi&e& in this Rule e1cept those cases (here the investi'ation has $een su$stantiall% co#plete&.All reasona$le an& necessar% e1penses incurre& in relation to &isciplinar% an& &is$ar#ent procee&in's are la(ful char'es for (hich the parties #a% $e ta1e& as costsSEC.Upon such suspension" the Court of Appeals or a Re'ional Trial Court shall forth(ith trans#it to the Supre#e Court a certifie& cop% of the or&er of suspension an& a full state#ent of the facts upon (hich the sa#e (as $ase&Upon receipt of such certifie& cop% an& state#ent" the Supre#e Court shall #a/e a full investi'ation of the case an& #a% revo/e" shorten or e1ten& the suspension" or &is$ar the attorne% as the facts #a% (arrantSEC.=o(ever" the final or&er of the Supre#e Court shall $e pu$lishe& li/e its &ecisions in other casesSEC..0B.Confidentiality.2..SEC..A.penses. >9FF.@. .. Resolution (pril >D.(ction on the complaint..?.Other(ise" the sa#e shall $e &is#isse&SEC../1ar !atter %o.!f the co#plaint is sufficient in for# an& su$stance" a cop% thereof shall $e serve& upon the respon&ent" an& he shall $e re>uire& to co##ent (ithin ten (.B) &a%s fro# the &ate of service. DG=.0.Procee&in's a'ainst attorne%s shall $e private an& confi&ential.2This Rule shall ta/e effect on Hune .0 RULE 140 DISCIPLINE OF $UDGES OF REGULAR AND SPECIAL COURTS AND $USTICES OF T E COURT OF APPEALS AND T E SANDIGAN!AYAN SECT!O+ .*ffectivity and Transitory $rovision.3ow instituted..A@@ an& shall superse&e the present Rule ..*.. further proceedings in Supreme Court." .1y whom complaint investigated.Upon the filin' of the respon&entNs co##ent" or upon the e1piration of the ti#e for filin' the sa#e an& unless other .'pon suspension by Court of (ppeals or Regional Trial Court.Procee&in's for the &iscipline of Hu&'es of re'ular an& special courts an& Hustices of the Court of Appeals an& the San&i'an$a%an #a% $e institute& motu proprio $% the Supre#e Court or upon a verifie& co#plaint" supporte& $% affi&avits of persons (ho have personal /no(le&'e of the facts alle'e& therein or $% &ocu#ents (hich #a% su$stantiate sai& alle'ations" or upon an anon%#ous co#plaint" supporte& $% pu$lic recor&s of in&u$ita$le inte'rit%.

.The investi'atin' Hustice or Hu&'e shall set a &a% for the hearin' an& sen& notice thereof to $oth patties.2B.The report shall $e confi&ential an& shall $e for e1clusive use of the CourtSEC.At such hearin'" the parties #a% present oral an& &ocu#entar% evi&ence..Classification of charges.5.!##oralit%7 A.Cross #iscon&uct constitutin' violations of the Co&e of Hu&icial Con&uct7 4..A)7 2.?.Conviction of a cri#e involvin' #oral turpitu&e7 6.)orro(in' #one% or propert% fro# la(%ers an& liti'ants in a case pen&in' $efore the court7 @.Fishonest% an& violations of the Anti<Craft an& Corrupt Practices La( (R-A.Serious charges.!f" after &ue notice" the respon&ent fails to appear" the investi'ation shall" procee& e.(ction.6.8ithin thirt% (2B) fro# the ter#ination of the investi'ation" the investi'atin' Hustice or Hu&'e shall su$#it to the Supre#e Court a report containin' fin&in's of fact an& reco##en&ation..plea&in's or &ocu#ents are re>uire&" the Court shall refer the #atter to the Office of the Court A&#inistrator for evaluation" report" an& reco##en&ation or assi'n the case for investi'ation" report" an& reco##en&ation to a retire& #e#$er of the Supre#e Court" if the respon&ent is a Hustice of the Court of Appeals an& the Sandiganbayan" or to a Hustice of the Court of Appeals" if the respon&ent is a Hu&'e of a Re'ional Trial Court or of a special court of e>uivalent ran/ or" to a Hu&'e of the Re'ional Trial Court if the respon&ent is a Hu&'e of an inferior courtSEC 4. The !nvesti'atin' Hustice or Hu&'e shall ter#inate the investi'ation (ithin ninet% (AB) &a%s fro# the &ate of its co##ence#ent or (ithin such e1tension as the Supre#e Court #a% 'rantSEC.3earing..A&#inistrative char'es are classifie& as serious" less serious" or li'htSEC..+o.Partisan political activities7 an& Alcoholis# an&Jor vicious ha$its- .Serious char'es inclu&e* .Cross i'norance of the la( or proce&ure7 . parte.Ono(in'l% ren&erin' an un3ust 3u&'#ent or or&er as &eter#ine& $% a co#petent court in an appropriate procee&in'7 5..B.@.Report.)ri$er%" &irect or in&irect7 0.8illful failure to pa% a 3ust &e$t7 ?.The Court shall ta/e such action on the report as the facts an& the la( #a% (arrantSEC.The report shall $e acco#panie& $% the recor& containin' the evi&ence an& the plea&in's file& $% the parties.

!f the respon&ent is 'uilt% of a li'ht char'e" an% of the follo(in' sanctions shall $e i#pose&* .A.B"BBB-BB $ut not e1cee&in' P0B"BBB-BBC.) nor #ore than three (2) #onths7 or 0.A fine of #ore than P.B.Un&ue &ela% in the su$#ission of #onthl% reportsSEC.Less serious char'es inclu&e* .Suspension fro# office (ithout salar% an& other $enefits for #ore than three (2) $ut not e1cee&in' si1 (6) #onths7 or 2.A..Fis#issal fro# the service" forfeiture of all or part of the $enefits as the Court #a% &eter#ine" an& &is>ualification fro# reinstate#ent or appoint#ent to an% pu$lic office" inclu&in' 'overn#ent<o(ne& or controlle& corporations* Provi&e&" ho(ever" that the forfeiture of $enefits shall in no case inclu&e accrue& leave cre&its7 0.Un&ue &ela% in ren&erin' a &ecision or or&er" or in trans#ittin' the recor&s of a case7 0.Si#ple 9iscon&uctSEC.Fraterni5in' (ith la(%ers an& liti'ants (ith pen&in' caseJcases in his court7 an& 4..Fre>uent an& un3ustifie& a$sences (ithout leave or ha$itual tar&iness7 2.Suspension fro# office (ithout salar% an& other $enefits for not less than one (.Li'ht char'es inclu&e* ..Unauthori5e& practice of la(7 4iolation of Supre#e Court rules" &irectives" an& circulars7 a&&itional or &ou$le co#pensation unless specificall% 5..A fine of not less than P."BBB-BB $ut not e1cee&in' P.SEC.Untruthful state#ents in the certificate of service7 an& ?...!f the respon&ent is 'uilt% of a less serious char'e" an% of the follo(in' sanctions shall $e i#pose&* .Ca#$lin' in pu$lic7 2...B"BBB-BB an&Jor7 0....ul'ar an& un$eco#in' con&uct7 0.Censure7 .Receivin' authori5e& $% la(7 6.7ight Charges.Sanctions.7ess Serious Charges.A fine of #ore than P0B"BBB-BB $ut not e1cee&in' P4B-BBB-BB).!f the respon&ent is 'uilt% of a serious char'e" an% of the follo(in' sanctions #a% $e i#pose&* .

All fees so collecte& shall $e forth(ith re#itte& to the Supre#e Court.E1cept as other(ise provi&e& in this rule" the officers an& persons hereinafter #entione&" to'ether (ith their assistants an& &eputies" #a% &e#an&" receive" an& ta/e the several fees hereinafter #entione& an& allo(e& for an% $usiness $% the# respectivel% &one $% virtue of their several offices" an& no #ore.st &a% of 9arch .2.Cler)s of the Court of (ppeals and of the Supreme Court.$ersons authori5ed to collect legal fees.a) SEC.Confidentiality of proceedings.A&#onition (ith (arnin'SEC.(.. (a) For filin' an action" procee&in'" appeal $% notice or recor& on appeal (hen re>uire&" enterin' appearance of the parties" enterin' or&ers of the court" filin' an& &oc/etin' all #otions" &oc/etin' of case on all proper &oc/ets" an& in&e1in' the sa#e" enterin'" recor&in' an& certification of 3u&'#ent an& re#an&in' of recor&s to the lo(er court" ta1in' an& costs" a&#inisterin' all necessar% oaths or affir#ations in the action or procee&in'" recor&in' the opinion of the court" an& issuin' all necessar% process in the action or procee&in' not herein other(ise provi&e& for" each action or special procee&in'" five hun&re& (P5BB-BB) pesos7 Q As a#en&e& $% A-9.The fees collecte& shall accrue to the 'eneral fun&.Procee&in's a'ainst Hu&'es of re'ular an& special courts an& Hustices of the Court of Appeals an& the San&i'an$a%an shall $e private an& confi&ential" $ut a cop% of the &ecision or resolution of the Court shall $e attache& to the recor& of the respon&ent in the Office of the Court A&#inistrator- RULE 141 3 LEGAL FEES SECT!O+ .The cler/ of court shall assess an& collect the correspon&in' fees. .4ees as lien..2.+o.. .2Upon the filin' of the plea&in' or other application (hich initiates an action or procee&in'" the fees prescri$e& therefor shall $e pai& in full(n) SEC.0.28here the court in its final 3u&'#ent a(ar&s a clai# not alle'e&" or a relief &ifferent fro# or #ore than that clai#e& in the plea&in'" the part% concerne& shall pa% the a&&itional fees (hich shall constitute a lien on the 3u&'#ent in satisfaction of sai& lien.The persons herein authori5e& to collect le'al fees shall $e accounta$le officers an& shall $e re>uire& to post $on& in such a#ount as prescri$e& $% la(.=o(ever" all increases in the le'al fees prescri$e& in a#en&#ents to this rule as (ell as ne( le'al fees prescri$e& herein shall pertain to the Hu&iciar% Fevelop#ent Fun& as esta$lishe& $% la(.<SC" (hich too/ effect on the .Repri#an&7 4.4.BB<0<B." 0BBB- .$ayment of fees.(n) SEC.0.

P 5B-BB 0. ....(2a) SEC.6.(0a) SEC.-5T) percent upon all su#s in e1cess of four thousan& P4"BBB-BB pesos an& one (."?5B-BB) pesos for ne( applicants an& for repeaters" plus the a&&itional a#ount of t(o hun&re& (P0BB-BB) pesos #ultiplie& $% the nu#$er of ti#es the applicant has faile& in the $ar e1a#inations7 ($) For a&#ission to the $ar" inclu&in' oath ta/in'" si'nin' of the roll of attorne%s" the issuance of &iplo#a of a&#ission to the Philippine )ar" one thousan& an& seven hun&re& fift% (P.4ees to be paid by the advancing party."?5B-BB) pesos7 (c) Other )ar Fees. (a) For filin' the application for a&#ission to the $ar" (hether a&#itte& to the e1a#ination or not" one thousan& seven hun&re& fift% (P.BB-BB 4.erification of #e#$ership in the $ar------------------------------------------ .4ees of bar candidates. For the issuance of* .5-BB) pesos7 (f) For a co##ission on all #one% co#in' into his han&s $% these rules or or&er of the court an& carin' for the sa#e" t(o an& one<half (0-5T) percent on all su#s not e1cee&in' four thousan& (P4"BBB-BB) pesos an& one an& one<half (.Certification of a&#ission to the Philippine )arU----------------.T) percent on all su#s in e1cess of fort% thousan& (P4B-BBB-BB) pesos.($) For the perfor#ance of #arria'e cere#on%" inclu&in' issuance of certificate of #arria'e" three hun&re& (P2BB-BB) pesos7 (c) For furnishin' transcripts of the recor& or copies of an% recor&" 3u&'#ent" or entr% of (hich an% person is entitle& to &e#an& an& receive a cop%" for each pa'e" four (P4-BB) pesos7 (&) For each certificate not on process" thirt% (P2B-BB) pesos7 (e) For ever% search for an%thin' a$ove a %earNs stan&in' an& rea&in' the sa#e" fifteen (P.Certificate of 'oo& stan&in' (forei'n) --------------------------------------.5.!f the fees are not pai&" the court #a% refuse to procee& (ith the action until the% are pai& an& #a% &is#iss the appeal or the action or procee&in'.Certificate of 'oo& stan&in' (local) ------------------------------------------5B-BB 2.The fees of the cler/ of the Court of Appeals or of the Supre#e Court shall $e pai& hi# at the ti#e of the entr% of the action or procee&in' in the court $% the part% (ho enters the sa#e $% appeal" or other(ise" an& the cler/ shall in all cases 'ive a receipt for the sa#e an& shall enter the a#ount receive& upon his $oo/" specif%in' the &ate (hen receive&" person fro# (ho# receive&" na#e of action in (hich receive&" an& a#ount receive&.

P..P05B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P2BB-BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU-------------.BB"BBB-BB --------------------------------------------------------.P.Certificate of 'ra&es in the $ar e1a#inations ----------------------------5B-BB 6.?Cler)s of Regional Trial Courts.P25B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut not #ore than .5-BB ?-A &uplicate &iplo#a of a&#ission to the Philippine )ar .BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P.(6a) SEC.5B-BB 5.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5BB-BB For services in connection (ith the return of e1a#ination note$oo/s to e1a#inees" a fee of thirt% (P2B-BB) pesos shall also $e char'e&.."?5B-BB 6.Other certification of recor&s at the )ar Office" per pa'e ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.P0BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P05B"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU----------------.co#plaint" or a co#plaint in intervention" an& for all clerical services in the sa#e" if the total<su# clai#e&" e1clusive of interest" or the state& value of the propert% in liti'ation" is* . (a) For filin' an action or a per#issive counter<clai# or #one% clai# a'ainst an estate not $ase& on 3u&'#ent" or for filin' (ith leave of court a thir&<part%" fourth< part%" etc..5B"BBB-BB -------------@BB-BB 2...P2BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P25B"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU---------------0"BBB-BB ?.Less than P.5B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P0BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU-------------.P 5BB-BB 0."BBB-BB 4."5BB-BB 5.

Special civil actions e1cept 3u&icial foreclosure of #ort'a'e (hich shall $e 'overne& $% para'raph (a) a$ove --------------------------------------------6BB-BB 2..All other actions not involvin' propert% --------------------------------------6BB-BB !n a real action" the assesse& value of the propert%" or if there is none" the esti#ate& value" thereof shall $e alle'e& $% the clai#ant an& shall $e the $asis in co#putin' the fees(c) For filin' re>uests for e1tra3u&icial foreclosure of real estate or chattel #ort'a'e" if the a#ount of the in&e$te&ness" or the #ort'a'eeNs clai#" is* .P0BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P05B"BBB-BB----------------------------------------------------------------------."05B-BB .Less than P5B"BBB-BB ------------------------------------------------------."BBB-BB in e1cess of P4BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU-------------------..P 0?5-BB 0..P5B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P.65B-BB 5.BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P."BBB-BB 6.B-BB ($) For filin'* .P4BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU---------------0"05B-BB @.Actions (here the value of the su$3ect #atter cannot $e esti#ate& UUU--------------------------------------------------------------------..P 6BB-BB 0.P.5BB-BB 4.BB"BBB-BB---------------------------------------------------------------------------4BB-BB 2.5B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P0BB"BBB-BB------------------------------------------------------------------------..P05B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P2BB"BBB-BB ---------------------------------------------------------------------.P.For each P.5B"BBB-BB-------------------------------------------------------------------------.

B-BB !f the value of the estate as &efinitel% appraise& $% the courts is #ore than .0"5BB-BB 4.?.P0BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P05B"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU---.For each P."5BB-BB @."BBB"BBB-BB---------------------------------------------------------------------------."BBB-BB in e1cess of P4BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUU--UUUUUU------------------.P.5B"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU-UU-U-P0"BBB-BB 0.P.0"?5B-BB 5.BB"BBB-BB $ut less than P.P4BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than 5BB"BBB-BB--------------------------------------------------------------------------."BBB-BB in e1cess of P.0"BBB-BB .2"BBB-BB 6.P05B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P2BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU---."BBB"BBB-BB-------------------------------------------------------------------.05B-BB 2.B-BB (&) For initiatin' procee&in's for the allo(ance of (ills" 'rantin' letters of a&#inistration" appoint#ent of 'uar&ians" trustees" an& other special procee&in's" the fees pa%a$le shall $e collecte& in accor&ance (ith the value of the propert% involve& in the procee&in's" (hich #ust $e state& in the application or petition" as follo(s* .BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut not #ore than P4BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU--U--U 2"05B-BB ?..5B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P0BB"BBB-BB UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU----------.B."?5B-BB A..9ore than P.P2BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P25B-BBB-BBUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU-U---.P2BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P4BB"BBB-BB ---------------------------------------------------------------------.P5BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P.For each P.

+ot #ore than P0B"BBB-BB U---------------------------------------------P .(?a) SEC..5B-BB 0.5BB-BB 2.5-BB) pesos for certification7 (/) For a co##ission on all #one% co#in' into the cler/sN han&s $% la(" rule" or&er or (rit of court an& carin' for the sa#e" one an& one<half (.BB"BBB-BB -------------------------------------------------------------------------.Cler)s of Courts of the 4irst 7evel."05B-BB .@.9ore than P0B"BBB-BB $ut not #ore than P.5B-BB) pesos shall $e collecte&.9ore than P.T) per centu# on all su#s in e1cess of fort% thousan& (P4B"BBB-BB) pesos7 (l) For an% other services as cler/ not provi&e& in this section" one hun&re& an& fift% (.2 (a) For each civil action or procee&in'" (here the value of the su$3ect #atter involve&" or the a#ount of the &e#an&" inclusive of interest" &a#a'es of (hatever /in&" attorne%Ns fees" liti'ation e1penses" an& costs" is* .BB"BBB-BB $ut not #ore than P0BB"BBB-BBU---------------------------------------------------------------------.-5T) per centu# on all su#s not e1cee&in' fort% thousan& (P4B"BBB-BB) pesos" an& one (.the value &eclare& in the application" the &ifference of fee shall $e pai&7 provi&e&" that a certificate fro# the cler/ of court that the proper fees have $een pai& shall $e re>uire& prior to the closure of the procee&in's(e) For filin' petitions for naturali5ation or other #o&es of ac>uisition of citi5enship" t(o thousan& (P0"BBB-BB) pesos7 (f) For filin' petitions for a&option" support" annul#ent of #arria'e" le'al separation an& other actions or procee&in's un&er the Fa#il% Co&e" t(o hun&re& (P0BB-BB) pesos7 !f the procee&in's involve separation of propert%" an a&&itional fee correspon&in' to the value of the propert% involve& shall $e collecte&" co#pute& in accor&ance (ith the rates for special procee&in's(') For all other special procee&in's not concernin' propert% t(o hun&re& (P0BB-BB) pesos7 (h) For the perfor#ance of #arria'e cere#on% inclu&in' issuance of certificate of #arria'e" three hun&re& (P2BB-BB) pesos7 (i) For filin' an application for co##ission as notar% pu$lic" five hun&re& (P5BB-BB) pesos7 (3) For certifie& copies of an% paper" recor&" &ecree" 3u&'#ents or entr% thereof for each pa'e" four (P4-BB) pesos an& fifteen (P.

BB"BBB-BB $ut not #ore than P0BB"BBB-BB -------------------------------------------------------------------------0"BBB-BB 4.9ore than P0B"BBB-BB $ut not #ore than P.9ore than P0BB"BBB-BB $ut not #ore than 2BB"BBB-BB U-----------------------------------------------------------------------..4.+ot #ore than P0B"BBB-BB -------------------------------------------------.9ore than P2BB"BBB-BB $ut not #ore than P4BB"BBB-BB U------------------------------------------------------------------."?5B-BB 5.BB"BBB-BB -------------------------------------------------------------------------.9ore than P.B-BB) pesos7 For sta#pin' an& re'isterin' $oo/s as re>uire& $% Articles nineteen ."25B-BB 2.P 05B-BB 0.5B-BB) pesos7 (&) For appeals in all actions or procee&in's" inclu&in' forci$le entr% an& &etainer cases" ta/en fro# courts of first level" t(o hun&re& (P0BB-BB) pesos7 (e) For the perfor#ance of #arria'e cere#on%" inclu&in' issuance of certificate of #arria'e" three hun&re& (P2BB-BB) pesos7 (f) (') For ta/in' affi&avit" t(ent%<five (P05-BB) pesos7 For ta/in' ac/no(le&'#ent" thirt% (P2B-BB) pesos7 (h) For ta/in' an& certif%in' &epositions" inclu&in' oath" per pa'e" ei'ht (P@-BB) pesos7 (i) (3) For certifie& copies of an% recor&" per pa'e" ten (P.For each procee&in' other than the allo(ance of (ills (pro$ate)" 'rantin' a letter of a&#inistration" settle#ent of estate of s#all value" t(o hun&re& (P0BB-BB) pesos- (c) For forci$le entr% an& unla(ful &etainer cases" one hun&re& an& fift% (P.0"5BB-BB !n a real action" other than for forci$le entr% an& unla(ful &etainer" the assesse& value of the propert% or if not &eclare& for ta1ation purposes" the assesse& value of the a&3acent lots" or if there is none" the esti#ate& value thereof shall $e alle'e& $% the clai#ant an& shall $e the $asis in co#putin' the fees($) For initiatin' procee&in's for the allo(ance of (ills" 'rantin' of letters of a&#inistration an& settle#ent of estates of s#all value" (here the value of the estate is* .

5B-BB) pesos per &a% of actual inventor% (or/7 (3) For lev%in' on e1ecution on personal or real propert%" sevent%<five (P?5-BB) pesos7 (/) pesos7 (l) For #one% collecte& $% hi# $% or&er" e1ecution" attach#ent" or an% other process" 3u&icial or e1tra3u&icial" the follo(in'" to (it* .A.On the first four thousan& (P4"BBB-BB) pesos" five (5T) per centu#7 0. officio sheriff" (ho shall &is$urse the sa#e to the For issuin' a notice of 'arnish#ent" for each notice" thirt% (P2B-BB) ..On all su#s in e1cess of four thousan& (P4"BBB-BB) pesos" t(o an& one< half (0-5T) per centu#!n a&&ition to the fees hereina$ove fi1e&" the part% re>uestin' the process of an% court" preli#inar%" inci&ental" or final" shall pa% the sheriffs e1penses in servin' or e1ecutin' the process" or safe'uar&in' the propert%" levie& upon" attache& or sei5e&" inclu&in' /ilo#etra'e for each /ilo#eter of travel" 'uar&sN fees" (arehousin' an& si#ilar char'es" in an a#ount esti#ate& $% the sheriff" su$3ect to the approval of the courtUpon approval of sai& esti#ate& e1penses" the intereste& part% shall &eposit such a#ount (ith the cler/ of court an& e.5B-BB) pesos7 (h) For a&vertisin' a sale" $esi&es cost of pu$lication" sevent%<five (P?5-BB) pesos7 (i) For ta/in' inventor% of 'oo&s levie& upon (hen the inventor% is or&ere& $% the court" one hun&re& an& fift% (P.. (a) For servin' su##ons an& cop% of co#plaint" for each &efen&ant" si1t% (P6B-BB) pesos7 ($) For servin' su$poenas in civil action or procee&in'" for each (itness to $e serve&" t(ent%<four (04-BB) pesos7 (c) For e1ecutin' a (rit of attach#ent a'ainst the propert% of &efen&ant" si1t% (P6B-BB) pesos7 (&) For servin' a te#porar% restrainin' or&er" or (rit of in3unction" preli#inar% or final" of an% court" si1t% (P6B-BB) pesos7 (e) For e1ecutin' a (rit of replevin" si1t% (P6B-BB) pesos7 (f) For filin' $on&s or other instru#ents or securit% in provisional re#e&ies" for each $on& or instru#ent" fift% (P5B-BB) pesos7 (') For e1ecutin' a (rit or process to place a part% in possession of real estates" one hun&re& an& fift% (P.(@a) SEC.an& thirt%<si1 of the Co&e of Co##erce" each $oo/" thirt% (P2B-BB) pesos7 (/) For perfor#in' notarial acts for (hich fees are not specificall% fi1e& in this section" the sa#e fees (hich notaries pu$lic are entitle& to receive.Sheriffs and other persons serving processes.

Other officers ta)ing depositions.Stenographers. however...(.A full report shall $e su$#itte& $% the &eput% sheriff assi'ne& (ith his return" an& the sheriffs e1penses shall $e ta1e& as costs a'ainst the 3u&'#ent &e$tor-(Aa) SEC.0...Ba) SEC..2. That one<thir& of the total char'es shall $e pai& to the court an& the re#ainin' t(o<thir&s to the steno'rapher concerne&-(.Other officers ta/in' &epositions shall receive the sa#e co#pensation as a$ove provi&e& for notaries pu$lic for ta/in' an& certif%in' &epositions..(.Steno'raphers shall 'ive certifie& transcript of notes ta/en $% the# to ever% person re>uestin' the sa#e upon pa%#ent of (a) si1 (P6-BB) pesos for each pa'e of not less than t(o hun&re& an& fift% (or&s $efore the appeal is ta/en an& ($) three pesos an& si1t% centavos (P2-6B) for the sa#e pa'e" after the filin' of the appeal* $rovided..%otaries...BB-BB) pesos per &a% inclusive of travel ti#e7 ($) 8itnesses $efore courts of the first level shall $e allo(e& fift% (P5B-BB) pesos per &a%7 (c) Fees to (hich (itnesses #a% $e entitle& in a civil action shall $e allo(e&" on the For ta/in' &epositions" for each pa'e" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 .An% unspent a#ount shall $e refun&e& to the part% #a/in' the &eposit.&eput% sheriff assi'ne& to effect the process" su$3ect to li>ui&ation (ithin the sa#e perio& for ren&erin' a return on the process..+o notar% pu$lic shall char'e or receive for an% service ren&ere& $% hi# an% fee" re#uneration or co#pensation in e1cess of those e1pressl% prescri$e& in the follo(in' sche&ule* (a) For protests of &rafts" $ills of e1chan'e" or pro#issor% notes for nonacceptance or nonpa%#ent" an& for notice thereof" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 ($) For the re'istration of such protest an& filin' or safe/eepin' of the sa#e" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 (c) For authenticatin' po(ers of attorne%" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 (&) For s(orn state#ent concernin' correctness of an% account for other &ocu#ent" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 (e) For each oath of affir#ation" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 (f) For receivin' evi&ence of in&e$te&ness to $e sent outsi&e" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 (') For issuin' a certifie& cop% of all or part of his notarial re'ister or notarial recor&s" for each pa'e" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos7 (h) an& (i) For ac/no(le&'in' other &ocu#ents not enu#erate& in this section" thirt%<si1 (P26-BB) pesos..a) SEC.B) SEC.#itness fees.B.(a) 8itnesses in the Supre#e Court" in the Court of Appeals an& in the Re'ional Trial Courts" either in actions or special procee&in's" shall $e entitle& to one hun&re& (P.

(.?..a) SEC.A (itness shall not $e allo(e& co#pensation for his atten&ance in #ore than one case or #ore then one si&e of the sa#e case at the sa#e ti#e" $ut #a% elect in (hich of several cases or on (hich si&e of a case" (hen he is su##one& $% $oth si&es" to clai# his atten&anceA person (ho is co#pelle& to atten& court on other $usiness shall not $e pai& as (itness..(.5..2a) SEC.Appraisers appointe& to appraise the estate of a (ar& or of a &ecease& person shall each receive a co#pensation of one hun&re& (P.4ees of appraisers.The $oo/ of fees /ept $% the cler/ shall $e su$3ect to the inspection of au&itin' officers an& others intereste& therein..certification of the cler/ of court or 3u&'e of his appearance in the case. and the account thereof.4ees.5) SEC.Indigent litigants e.4.!n&i'ent liti'ants (a) (hose 'ross inco#e an& that of their i##e&iate fa#il% &o not e1cee& four thousan& (P4"BBB-BB) pesos a #onth if resi&in' in 9etro 9anila" an& three thousan& (P2"BBB-BB) pesos a #onth if resi&in' outsi&e 9etro 9anila" an& ($) (ho &o not o(n real propert% (ith an assesse& value of #ore than fift% thousan& (P5B"BBB-BB) pesos shall $e e1e#pt fro# the pa%#ent of le'al feesThe le'al fees shall $e a lien on an% 3u&'#ent ren&ere& in the case favora$l% to the in&i'ent liti'ant" unless the court other(ise provi&esTo $e entitle& to the e1e#ption herein provi&e&" the liti'ant shall e1ecute an affi&avit that he an& his i##e&iate fa#il% &o not earn a 'ross inco#e a$ove#entione&" nor the% o(n an% real propert% (ith the assesse& value afore#entione&" supporte& $% an affi&avit of a &isintereste& person attestin' to the truth of the liti'antNs affi&avit- . ..The co##issioners appointe& to appraise lan& sou'ht to $e con&e#ne& for pu$lic uses in accor&ance (ith these rules shall each receive a co#pensation of one hun&re& (P.@.(.Receipts shall $e 'iven for all fees receive& an& the% shall $e accounte& for in the #anner provi&e& in relation to the fees of cler/s of court in actions.0a) SEC..An% actual an& necessar% travelin' e1penses incurre& in the perfor#ance of the &uties of such appraisers #a% li/e(ise $e allo(e& an& pai& out of the estate..4ees of commissioners in eminent domain proceedings.6.(..BB-BB) pesos per &a% for the ti#e actuall% an& necessaril% e#plo%e& in the perfor#ance of their &uties an& in #a/in' their report to the court" (hich fees shall $e ta1e& as a part of the costs of the procee&in's.empt from payment of legal fees.4ees of commissioners in proceedings for partition of real estate.BB-BB) pesos per &a% for the ti#e actuall% an& necessaril% e#plo%e& in the perfor#ance of their &uties an& in #a/in' their report to the court" (hich fees shall $e ta1e& as a part of the costs of the procee&in's.4a) SEC. .BB-BB) pesos per &a% for the ti#e actuall% an& necessaril% e#plo%e& in the perfor#ance of then &uties an& in #a/in' their reports" (hich fees" in each instance" shall $e pai& out of the estate of the (ar& or &ecease& person" as the case #a% $e.The co##issioners appointe& to #a/e partition of real estate shall each receive a co#pensation of one hun&re& (P.The cler/" un&er the &irection of the 3u&'e" shall /eep a $oo/ in (hich shall $e entere& the ite#s of fees (hich have accrue& for the transaction of $usiness covere& $% the provisions of this rule" for (hich fees are pa%a$le" specif%in' for (hat $usiness each ti#e of fees has accrue&.(. .

.2The follo(in' fees shall also $e collecte& $% the cler/s of Re'ional Trial Courts or courts of the first level" as the case #a% $e* (a) !n estafa cases (here the offen&e& part% fails to #anifest (ithin fifteen (.Act +o.@<A) /Read R( <DE9."?5B-BB 6P2BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P25B"BBB-BB------------------------------------------------------------------------------.BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P.0"05B-BB ($) For #otions for postpone#ent after co#pletion of the pre<trial ." Revise& Rules of Cri#inal Proce&ure (here a filin' fee is li/e(ise collecte&. (pp."5BB-BB 5P05B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P2BB"BBB-BB-----------------------------------------------------------------------------..0Less than P..!n a&&ition to the fees i#pose& in the prece&in' sections" a victi# co#pensation fee of five (P5-BB) pesos pursuant to Rep..0 SEC.6a) (Rea& also RAs 6B24 an& 6B25" App-) SEC.5) &a%s follo(in' the filin' of the infor#ation that the civil lia$ilit% arisin' fro# the cri#e has $een or (oul& $e separatel% prosecute&* ."BBB-BB 4P0BB"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P05B"BBB-BB-----------------------------------------------------------------------------.P 5BB-BB P.0"BBB-BB ?P25B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut no #ore than P4BB"BBB-BB------------------------------------------------------------------------------..(.?2BA shall $e assesse& an& collecte& for the filin' of ever% co#plaint or petition initiatin' an or&inar% civil action" special civil action or special procee&in' in the trial courts inclu&in' civil actions i#plie&l% institute& (ith cri#inal actions un&er Rule .Other fees.A.0B.@BB-BB 2P.An% falsit% in the affi&avit of a liti'ant or &isintereste& person shall $e sufficient cause to stri/e out the plea&in' of that part%" (ithout pre3u&ice to (hatever cri#inal lia$ilit% #a% have $een incurre&.5B"BBB-BB-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------..All su#s collecte& shall $e re#itte& to the Fepart#ent of Hustice ever% >uarter $% the Cler/ of Court concerne&(.BB"BBB-BB--------------------------------------------.5B"BBB-BB or #ore $ut less than P0BB"BBB-BB-----------------------------------------------------------------------------.

0.BB-BB) pesos for the first" an& an a&&itional fift% (P5B-BB) pesos for ever% postpone#ent thereafter $ase& on that for the i##e&iatel% procee&in' #otion* Provi&e&" ho(ever" That no fee shall $e i#pose& (hen the #otion is foun& to $e $ase& on 3ustifia$le an& co#pellin' reason7 (c) For $on&s $% sureties in cri#inal an& civil cases" three hun&re& (P2BB-BB) pesos7 (&) For applications for an& entries of certificates of sale an& final &ee&s of sale in e1tra3u&icial foreclosures of #ort'a'es" three hun&re& (P2BB-BB) pesos7 (e) For applications for an& certificates of sale in notarial foreclosures* .4alse allegations.On all su#s in e1cess of four thousan& (P4-BBB-BB) pesos" t(o an& one< half (0-5T) percent.Costs ordinarily follow results of suit2'nless other(ise provi&e& in these rules" costs shall $e allo(e& to the prevailin' part% as a #atter of course" $ut the court shall have po(er" for special reasons" to a&3u&'e that either part% shall pa% the costs of an action" or that the sa#e $e &ivi&e&" as #a% $e e>uita$le..0 SEC. >999. and it too) effect on the >st day of !arch @EEE. %o.Costs when appeal frivolous.2The Repu$lic of the Philippines" its a'encies an& instru#entalities" are e1e#pt fro# pa%in' the le'al fees provi&e& in this rule.!o.. EE&@&E>&SC.On the first four thousan& (P4-BBB-BB) pesos" five (5T) percent7 0. !emo.Local 'overn#ents an& 'overn#ent<o(ne& or controlle& corporations (ith or (ithout in&epen&ent charters are not e1e#pt fro# pa%in' such fees.#hen action or appeal dismissed.0.An aver#ent in a plea&in' #a&e (ithout reasona$le cause an& foun& untrue shall su$3ect the offen&in' part% to the pa%#ent of such reasona$le e1penses as #a% have $een necessaril% incurre& $% the other part% $% reason of such untrue plea&in'.!f an action or appeal is &is#isse& for (ant of 3uris&iction or other(ise" the court nevertheless shall have the po(er to ren&er 3u&'#ent for costs" as 3ustice #a% re>uireSEC.sta'e" one hun&re& (P..0 RULE 142 COSTS SECT!O+ . >.-overnment e.4.A) /(s amended by (dm.2... Sept.+o costs shall $e allo(e& a'ainst the Repu$lic of the Philippines unless other(ise provi&e& $% la(SEC..The a#ount of e1penses so pa%a$le shall $e fi1e& $% the 3u&'e in the trial" an& ta1e& as costs- . 99&F&E>&SC.8here an action or an appeal is foun& to $e frivolous" &ou$le or tre$le costs #a% $e i#pose& on the plaintiff or appellant" (hich shall $e pai& $% his attorne%" if so or&ere& $% the courtSEC.(A9..(.empt.

SEC..)ut this section shall have no relation to the fees to $e char'e& $% an attorne% as a'ainst his clientSEC. .!n inferior courts" the costs shall $e ta1e& $% the #unicipal or cit% 3u&'e an& inclu&e& in the 3u&'#ent. how ta.5.+o attorne%Ns fees shall $e ta1e& as costs a'ainst the a&verse part%" e1cept as provi&e& $% the rules of civil la(. .Restriction of costs.?.Costs in municipal or city courts.!n superior courts" costs shall $e ta1e& $% the cler/ of the correspon&in' court on five &a%sN (ritten notice 'iven $% the prevailin' part% to the a&verse part%.@.!f the plaintiff in an% action shall recover a su# not e1cee&in' ten pesos as &e$t or &a#a'es" he shall recover no #ore costs than &e$t or &a#a'es" unless the court shall certif% that the action involve& a su$stantial an& i#portant ri'ht to the plaintiff in (hich case full costs #a% $e allo(e&SEC.8ith this notice shall $e serve& a state#ent of the ite#s of costs clai#e& $% the prevailin' part%" verifie& $% his oath or that of his attorne%O$3ections to the ta1ation shall $e #a&e in (ritin'" specif%in' the ite#s o$3ecte& toEither part% #a% appeal to the court fro# the cler/Ns ta1ation..The costs shall $e inserte& in the 3u&'#ent if ta1e& $efore its entr%" an& pa%#ent thereof shall $e enforce& $% e1ecutionSEC.6.%o costs for irrelevant matters.!n an action or procee&in' pen&in' $efore a #unicipal or cit% 3u&'e" the prevailin' part% #a% recover the follo(in' costs" an& no other* (a) For the co#plaint or ans(er" t(o pesos7 ($) For the atten&ance of hi#self" or his counsel" or $oth" on the &a% of trial" five pesos7 (c) For each a&&itional &a%Ns atten&ance re>uire& in the actual trial of the case" one peso7 (&) For each (itness pro&uce& $% hi#" for each &a%Ns necessar% atten&ance at the trial" one peso" an& his la(ful travelin' fees7 (e) For each &eposition la(full% ta/en $% hi# an& pro&uce& in evi&ence" five pesos7 (f) nothin'7 For ori'inal &ocu#ents" &ee&s" or papers of an% /in& pro&uce& $% hi#" (') For official copies of such &ocu#ents" &ee&s or papers" the la(ful fees necessaril% pai& for o$tainin' such copies7 (h) The la(ful fees pai& $% hi# for service of the su##ons an& other process in the action7 (i) The la(ful fees char'e& a'ainst hi# $% the 3u&'e of the court in enterin' an& &oc/etin' an& tr%in' the action or procee&in'- . .(ttorneyAs fees as costs.A.Costs.ed.8hen the recor& contains an% unnecessar%" irrelevant" or i##aterial #atter" the part% at (hose instance the sa#e (as inserte& or at (hose instance the sa#e (as printe&" shall not $e allo(e& as costs an% &is$urse#ent for preparin'" certif%in'" or printin' such #atterSEC.

.B.!f a (itness fails to appear at the ti#e an& place specifie& in the su$poena issue& $% an% inferior court" the costs of the .Costs in Regional Trial Courts.Costs in Court of (ppeals and in Supreme Court.. . ..Costs when witness fails to appear. !n an action or procee&in' pen&in' in the Court of Appeals or in the Supre#e Court" the prevailin' part% #a% recover the follo(in' costs" an& no other* (a) For his o(n atten&ance" an& that of his attorne%" &o(n to an& inclu&in' final 3u&'#ent" thirt% pesos in the Court of Appeals an& fift% pesos in the Supre#e Court7 ($) For official copies of recor& on appeal an& the printin' thereof" an& all other copies re>uire& $% the Rules of Court the su# actuall% pai& for the sa#e7 (c) All la(ful fees char'e& a'ainst hi# $% the cler/ of the Court of Appeals or of the Supre#e Court" in enterin' an& &oc/etin' the action an& recor&in' the procee&in's an& 3u&'#ent therein an& for the issuin' of all process7 (&) +o allo(ance shall $e #a&e to the prevailin' part% in the Supre#e Court or Court of Appeals for the $rief or (ritten or printe& ar'u#ents of his attorne%" or copies thereof" asi&e fro# the thirt% or fift% pesos a$ove state&7 (e) !f testi#on% is receive& in the Supre#e Court or Court of Appeals not ta/en in another court an& trans#itte& thereto" the prevailin' part% shall $e allo(e& the sa#e costs for (itness fees" &epositions" an& process an& service thereof as he (oul& have $een allo(e& for such ite#s ha& the testi#on% $een intro&uce& in a Re'ional Trial Court7 (f) The la(ful fees of a co##issioner in an action #a% also $e ta1e& a'ainst the &efeate& part%" or apportione& as 3ustice re>uiresSEC.SEC.!n an action or procee&in' pen&in' in a Re'ional Trial Court" the prevailin' part% #a% recover the follo(in' costs" an& no other* (a) For the co#plaint or ans(er" fifteen pesos7 ($) For his o(n atten&ance" an& that of his attorne%" &o(n to an& inclu&in' final 3u&'#ent" t(ent% pesos7 (c) For each (itness necessaril% pro&uce& $% hi#" for each &a%Ns necessar% atten&ance of such (itness at the trial" t(o pesos" an& his la(ful travelin' fees7 (&) For each &eposition la(full% ta/en $% hi#" an& pro&uce& in evi&ence" five pesos7 (e) For ori'inal &ocu#ents" &ee&s" or papers of an% /in& pro&uce& $% hi#" nothin'7 (f) For official copies of such &ocu#ents" &ee&s" or papers" the la(ful fees necessaril% pai& for o$tainin' such copies7 (') The la(ful fees pai& $% hi# in enterin' an& &oc/etin' the action or recor&in' the procee&in's" for the" service of an% process in action" an& all la(ful cler/Ns fees pai& $% hi#SEC... .0.

2.8hen a person is cite&" on #otion of another" to appear $efore the court to $e e1a#ine& in pro$ate procee&in's" the court #a%" in its &iscretion" ta1 costs for the person so cite& an& issue e1ecution therefor" allo(in' the sa#e fees as for (itnesses in Re'ional Trial Court- RULE 143 APPLICA!ILITY OF T E RULES These rules shall not appl% to lan& re'istration" ca&astral an& election cases" naturali5ation an& insolvenc% procee&in's" an& other cases not herein provi&e& for" e1cept $% analo'% or in a suppletor% character an& (henever practica$le an& convenient- RULE 144 EFFECTIVENESS These rules shall ta/e effect on Hanuar% ." .(arrant of arrest an& of the arrest of the (itness shall $e pai& $% the (itness if the court shall &eter#ine that his failure to ans(er the su$poena (as (illful or (ithout 3ust e1cuseSEC.A64.The% shall 'overn all cases $rou'ht after the% ta/e effect" an& also all further procee&in's in cases then pen&in'" e1cept to the e1tent that in the opinion of the court their application (oul& not $e feasi$le or (oul& (or/ in3ustice" in (hich event the for#er proce&ure shall appl%- .Costs when person cited for e.. .amination in probate proceedings.

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