Você está na página 1de 361

- 1 (Grammar Patterns 1)

, (Spoken English) "Grammar Patterns" , . . , , .

"I do a job" " . ." . ; . . "do a job" . . , " " " , 73 . . do a job 1. I do a Job. . 2. I am doing a job. .
Page 1 of 361

." " .

"

3. I did a job. . 4. I didn't do a job. . 5. I will do a job. . ( 6. I won't do a job. . 7. Usually I don't do a job. . 8. I am not doing a job. . 9. I was doing a job. . 10. I wasn't doing a job. . 11. I will be doing a job. . 12. I won't be doing a job. . 13. I am going to do a job. . 14. I was going to do a job. . 15. I can do a job. 16. I am able to do a job. ) .

17. I can't do a job. 18. I am unable to do a job. .

Page 2 of 361

19. I could do a job. 20. I was able to do a job. . 21. I couldn't do a job. 22. I was unable to do a job. . 23. I will be able to do a job. . 24. I will be unable to do a job. . 25. I may be able to do a job. . 26. I should be able to do a job.

27. I have been able to do a job. (Perfect Tense / . 28. I had been able to do a job. / . 29. I may do a job. 30. I might do a job. 31. I may be doing a job. . 32. I must do a job. ( ) 33. I must not do a job. . . 34. I should do a job. .(

.(

Page 3 of 361

35. I shouldn't do a job. . . 36. I ought to do a job. .( 37. I don't mind doing a job. . 38. I have to do a job. / 39. I don't have to do a job. / 40. I had to do a job. / 41. I didn't have to do a job. / 42. I will have to do a job. . 43. I won't have to do a job. . 44. I need do a job. ( 45. I neednt do a job. . 46. He seems to be doing a job. . 47. He doesn't seem to be doing a job. . 48. He seemed to be doing a job. . 49. He didn't seem to be doing a job. ) . )

Page 4 of 361

50. Doing a job is useful. ( ) 51. Useless doing a job. . 52. It is better to do a job. . 53. I had better do a job. . 54. I made him do a job.

. 55. I didn't make him do a job.

56. To do a job I am going to America.

57. I used to do a job. . 58. Shall I do a Job? ? 59. Lets do a job. . 60. I feel like doing a job. . 61. I don't feel like doing a job. . 62. I felt like doing a job. . 63. I didn't feel like doing a job. . 64. I have been doing a job. / .
Page 5 of 361

65. I had been doing a job. / . 66. I see him doing a job. . 67. I don't see him doing a job. . 68. I saw him doing a job. . 69. I didn't see him doing a job. . 70. If I do a job, I will get experience. . 71. If I don't do a job, I won't get experience. . 72. If I had done a job, I would have got experience. .( 73. It is time I did a job. . : "do a job" "doing a job" . . . "ing" . Verb with + ing: 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 31, 37, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69. 'ing' )

Page 6 of 361

: speak in English speaking in English. Homework: 10 . . 1. I speak in English. . 2. I write a letter. . 3. I play cricket. . 4. I fill up the form. . 5. I go to school. . 6. I do my homework. . 7. I read a book. . 8. I travel by bus. . 9. I look for a job. . 10. I ride a bike. . . 73 .

"speak in English" : I speak in English. . I am speaking in English. .


Page 7 of 361

I spoke in English. . I didn't speak in English. . I will speak in English. . , 73 . Long Forms = Sort Forms Do + not = Dont Does + not = Doesnt Did + not = Didnt Will + not = Wont Was + not = Wasnt Were + not = Werent Can + not = Cant Could + not = Couldnt Have + not = Havent Has + not = Hasnt Had + not = Hadnt Need + not = Neednt Must + not = Mustnt Should + not = Shouldnt Would + not Wouldn't .

. . Grammar Patterns 2 Grammar Patterns 3 73 ) . . . . ( .

Page 8 of 361

- 2 (Grammar Patterns 2)
. " , . I am . "Third Person Singular" . 1, 7, 8, 13, 16, 18, 27, 37, 38, 39, 56, 60, 61, 64, 71 . . "speak in English" . " in English " " (He) "He speaks in English , He wiil speak in English 73 . . speak in English 1. He speaks in English. . 2. He is speaking in English. . 3. He spoke in English. . 4. He didnt speak in English. . 5. He will speak in English. .
Page 9 of 361

-1" -

He, She, It

"is "

"

" (I) .

, , He spoke

6. He wont speak in English. . 7. Usually He doesnt speak in English. . 8. He is not speaking in English. . 9. He was speaking in English. . 10. He wasnt speaking in English. . 11. He will be speaking in English. . 12. He wont be speaking in English. . 13. He is going to speak in English. . 14. He was going to speak in English. . 15. He can speak in English. 16. He is able to speak in English. . 17. He cant speak in English. 18. He is unable to speak in English. . 19. He could speak in English. 20. He was able to speak in English. . 21. He couldnt speak in English. 22. He was unable to speak in English. . 23. He will be able to speak in English. .
Page 10 of 361

24. He will be unable to speak in English. . 25. He may be able to speak in English. . 26. He should be able to speak in English. . 27. He has been able to speak in English. / . 28. He had been able to speak in English. / . 29. He may speak in English. 30. He might speak in English. 31. He may be speaking in English. . 32. He must speak in English. .( 33. He must not speak in English. ( . 34. He should speak in English. .( 35. He shouldnt speak in English. .( . 36. He ought to speak in English. .( 37. He doesnt mind speaking in English. . 38. He has to speak in English. / ) ) ) ) )

Page 11 of 361

39. He doesnt have to speak in English. / 40. He had to speak in English. . 41. He didnt have to speak in English. . 42. He will have to speak in English. . 43. He wont have to speak in English. . 44. He need speak in English. . 45. He neednt speak in English. . 46. He seems to be speaking in English. . 47. He doesnt seem to be speaking in English.

. 48. He seemed to be speaking in English. . 49. He didnt seem to be speaking in English. . 50. Speaking in English is useful. ( ) 51. Useless speaking in English. . 52. It is better to speak in English. . 53. He had better speak in English. .

Page 12 of 361

54. He made her speak in English. . 55. He didnt make her speak in English. . 56. To speak in English.He is practicing. . 57. He used to speak in English. . 58. Shall I speak in English? ? 59. Lets speak in English. . 60. He feels like speaking in English. . 61. He doesnt feel like speaking in English. . 62. He felt like speaking in English. . 63. He didnt feel like speaking in English. . 64. He has been speaking in English. / . 65. He had been speaking in English. / . 66. I see him speak in English. . 67. I dont see him speak in English. .

Page 13 of 361

68. I saw him speak in English. . 69. I didnt see him speak in English. . 70. If he speaks in English, he will get a good job. . 71. If he doesnt speak in English, he wont get a good job. . 72. If he had spoken in English, he would have got a good job. , .( 73. It is time he spoke in English. . : 1. . "speak" . He, She, It . Third Person Singular "He, She, It: Infinitive + e, es" 2. "speak in English" . . "s" "Third Person Singular" s, es "He speaks in English" " . )

"speaking in English"

Verb with + ing: 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 31, 37, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69.

"ing" .

Page 14 of 361

: speak in English speaking in English. Homework: He drives a car.

"ing"

. She goes to school. . Sarmilan gets up early morning. . Nithya comes to the office. . He apologizes with her. . My mother opens a current account. .

73 . !

Page 15 of 361

3 (Grammar Patterns 3)
Grammar Patterns -1, Grammar Patterns -2 Grammar Petterns -3 . Grammar Patterns -1 . . . Grammar Patterns -1 . Grammar Patterns -2 . Grammar Patterns -3 , "We, They, You . "You / / " , They / . "Grammar Patterns 3" school" "are" . . "go to school" . 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 56, "We are going to 2, , "We / / "are" "You" "Plural" "Second Person Singular" , "are" He, She, It " Third Person Singular" "is" I "First Person Singular" "am" Grammar Patterns -2 "Grammar Patterns 3" 73 ,

Page 16 of 361

1. We go to school. . 2. We are going to school. . 3. We went to school. . 4. We didnt go to school. . 5. We will go to school. . 6. We wont go to school. . 7. Usually we dont go to school. . 8. We are not going to school. . 9. We were going to school.

10. We werent going to school. . 11. We will be going to school. . 12. We wont be going to school. . 13. We are going to go to school. . 14. We were going to go to school. .

15. We can go to school. 16. We are able to go to school. .


Page 17 of 361

17. We cant go to school 18. We are unable to go to school. . 19. We could go to school. 20. We were able to go to school. . 21. We couldnt go to school. 22. We were unable to go to school. . 23. We will be able to go to school. . 24. We will be unable to go to school . 25. We may be able to go to school. . 26. We should be able to go to school. . 27. We have been able to go to school / . 28. We had been able to go to school. / . 29. We may go to school. 30. We might go to school. 31. We may be going to school . 32. We must go to school. .( )

33. We must not go to school. . .( )

Page 18 of 361

34. We should go to school. .( 35. We shouldnt go to school. . ( 36. We ought to go to school. .( ) 37. We dont mind going to school. . 38. We have to go to school. . 39. We dont have to go to school. . 40. We had to go to school. / 41. We didnt have to go to school. / 42. We will have to go to school. / 43. We wont have to go to school. / 44. We need go to school. / 45. We neednt go to school. / 46. He seems to be going to school. . 47. He doesnt seem to be going to school. . 48. He seemed to be going to school. .
Page 19 of 361

49. He didnt seem to be going to school. . 50. Going to school is useful. ( ) 51. Useless going to school. . 52. It is better to go to school. . 53. We had better go to school. / 54. We made him go to school. . 55. We didnt make him go to school. . 56. To go to school we are ready. . 57. We used to go to school . 58. Shall we go to school? ? 59. Lets go to school. . 60. We feel like going to school. . 61. We dont feel like going to school. .

62. We felt like going to school. . 63. We didnt feel like going to school. .
Page 20 of 361

64. We have been going to school. / . 65. We had been going to school. / . 66. We see him going to school. . 67. We dont see him going to school. . 68. We saw him going to school. . 69. We didnt see him going to school. . 70. If we go to school, we will get good results. , . 71. If we dont go to school, we wont get good results. . 72. If we gone to school, we would have got good results. .( 73. It is time we went to school. . )

Home work: 1. We pray. . 2. We learn English. . 3. We watch movie. .


Page 21 of 361

4. We listen to songs. . 5. We have lunch. . 73 . . 73 . . aangilam.blogspot.com "ing" . Verb with + ing: 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 31, 37, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69. Example: We pray We are praying. . . ,

Page 22 of 361

4 (Simple Present Tense)


Grammar Patterns 1, Grammar Patterns 2, Grammar Patters 3 , 73 . Grammar Patters 1 , . 1. I do a job . "I do a job" Simple Present Tense . "Simple Present Tense"" . Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb 1. I/ You/ We/ They + __ + do a job. 2. He/ She/ It + __ + does a job. . Present Simple Tense . "I do a job" 73 .

"Subject" "Auxiliary verb" " .

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb 1. Do + I/ you/ we/ they + do a job? 2. Does + he/ she/ it + do a job. "Auxiliary verb" "Subject" .

. Do/ Does .

Page 23 of 361

. . 1 Do you do a job? ? Yes, I do a job , No, I dont do a job. (do + not) , Do you speak in English? ? Yes, I speak in English. , No, I dont speak in English. (do + not) , Do you go to school? ? Yes, I go to school. , No, I dont go to school. (do + not) , Do you love me? ? Yes, I love you. , No, I dontlove you. (do + not) , I( They - / . 50 . . . ) / / / " . . "You, We, . . . .

Page 24 of 361

1. I get up early at 6:30. 6:30 2. I brush my teeth. . 3. I have a bath. . 4. I have breakfast. . 5. I travel by bus. . 6. I go to school. . 7. I go to Kowloon Park every Sunday. . 8. I read the book. . 9. I write an article. . 10. I like chocolate ice-cream. . 11. I pay the loan. . 12. I borrow some books from my friend. . 13. I leave from class. . 14. I try to go. . 15. I have a rest. . 16. I answer the phone. .
Page 25 of 361

17. I watch movie. . 18. I worry about that. . 19. I drive a car. . 20. I read the news paper. . 21. I play football. . 22. I boil water. . 23. I have some tea. . 24. I do my homework. . 25. I deposit money to the bank. . 26. I wait for you. . 27. I operate the computer. . 28. I follow a computer course. . 29. I practice my religion. . 30. I listen to news. . 31. I speak in English. .

Page 26 of 361

32. I prepare tea. . 33. I help my mom. . 34. I celebrate my birthday. . 35. I enjoy Tamil songs. . 36. I negotiate my salary. . 37. I change my clothes. . 38. I go to market. . 39. I choose a nice shirt. . 40. I buy a trouser. . 41. I love Tamil. . 42. I remember this place. . 43. I take a transfer. ( ) 44. I renovate the house. . 45. I give up this habit. ( 46. I fly to America. ( 47. I solve my problems. .
Page 27 of 361

48. I improve my English knowledge. . 49. I practice English at night. . 50. I dream about my bright future. ( 2 " 1" 50 . He / She / It . : He/ She/ It "Third Person Singular" s, es . He/ She/ It Infinitive + e, es Grammar Patterns 2 . : He does a job. She does a job. It does a job. He speaks in English She speaks in English. It speaks in English. . . . . . . . 50 ).

Page 28 of 361

"Third Person Singular" . Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb 2. Does + he/ she/ it + do a job. 'Does'

"Auxiliary verb" "Subject" .

Does he do a job? ? Yes, he does a job , No, he doesnt do a job. (does + not) , Does he speak in English? ? Yes, he speaks in English. , No, he doesnt speak in English. (does + not) , Does she go to school? ? Yes, she goes to school. , No, she doesnt go to school. (does + not) , : He ' ' . She ' ' . . . . .

Page 29 of 361

It ' ' . : He/ She/ It - makes a coffee - (make) He/ She/ It - thinks about that (think) He/ She/ It - loves ice-cream. (love) Suvethine makes a coffee. Sarmilan loves his Motherland. Cat thinks about rat. : y ies ) : Try - tries Worry - worries s, x, z, ch, sh, 0" es . : do - does go - goes have - has ('have' .) : [Simple Present - Signal words] always Often Usually Sometimes Seldom Never Every day Every week Every year On Monday After school .( .

. .

'has'

Page 30 of 361

" ?" . Where do you live? ? I live in Hong Kong. . " . , . " , " . " , . " 1 1" "Simple Present tense" . . " . " " . , . " .

-2 , . 2

!
!

Page 31 of 361

5 (Present Continuous Tense)


73 Grammar Patterns 1, Grammar Patterns 2, Grammar Patterns 3 . . . . 1" . I am doing a job. . " . . . " (Present Continuous Tense) "

, . What are you doing now? ?

. , , . , . .

Page 32 of 361

. . . , . "Practical Training"

Positive (Affirmative) Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb with ing 1. I + am + doing a job 2. He/ She/ It + is + doing a job. 3. You/ We/ They + are + doing a job. . "ing" . Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Main verb with ing 1. I + am + not + doing a job 2. He/ She/ It + is + not + doing a job. 3. You/ We/ They + are + not + doing a job. Question (Interrogative) Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb with ing 1. Am + I + doing a job? 2. Is + he/ she/ It + doing a job? 3. Are + you/ we/ they + doing a job? "Auxiliary verb " . 1 : Are you doing a job? ? Yes, I am doing a job. (Im) , No, I am not doing a job. (Im not) , Are you speaking in English? ? Yes, I am speaking in English. (Im) , . .

(Subject) Form

"Subject"

Page 33 of 361

No, I am not speaking in English. (Im not) , Are you going to school? ? Yes, I am going to school. (Im) , No, I am not going to school. (Im not) , 50 . , "What are you doing now?" , . . , .
...

. . .

1. I am getting up now. . 2. I am going to toilet. . 3. I am brushing my teeth. . 4. I am having a bath. . 5. I am having some tea. . 6. I am dressing. . 7. I am practicing my religion. .

Page 34 of 361

8. I am having breakfast. . 9. I am worshiping my parents. . 10. I am leaving from home. . 11. I am traveling by bus. . 12. I am painting a picture. . 13. I am entering into the Office . 14. I am working. . 15. I am doing my duty. . 16. I am operating a computer. . 17. I am driving a car. . 18. I am asking some quesions with them. . 19. I am sharing my lunch. ( 20. I am working as a team. . 21. I am talking with my friends. . 22. I am leaving from the office to home. . ) .

Page 35 of 361

23. I am waiting for you. . 24. I am coming back to home. . 25. I am having a body wash. ( ) 26. I am changing my clothes. . 27. I am having a cup of coffee. . 28. I am going to playground. . 29. I am walking. . 30. I am smoking cigarette. . 31. I am talking with my friends. . 32. I am cracking jokes with others. . 33. I am playing football. . 34. I am answering the phone. . 35. I am having a rest. . 36. I am studying for the exam. . 37. I am reading a book. .

Page 36 of 361

38. I am watching movie. . 39. I am thinking about that. . 40. I am preparing tea. . 41. I am rectifying mistakes. . 42. I am writing an article in Tamil . 43. I am translating English to Tamil. . 44. I am improving my English knowledge. . 45. I am having dinner. ( 46. I am singing a song. . 47. I am doing my homework. . 48. I am practicing English at night. . 49. I am praying. . 50. I am sleeping. . 50 . ) .

Page 37 of 361

2 Positive Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb with ing 2. He/ She/ It + is + doing a job. Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Main verb with ing 2. He + She/ It/ is + not + doing a job? Question Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb with ing 2. Is + he/ she/ It + doing a job? 1 50 . He / She / It . : Is he doing a job? ? Yes, he is doing a job. (hes) , No, he is not doing a job. (isnt) , Is she going to school? ? Yes, she is going to school. (shes) , No, she is not going to school. (isnt) , Is it working? ? Yes, it is working. (its) , No, it is not working. (isnt) , . . . . . . 50

Page 38 of 361

Its It + is Its It + was Its been It + has been (

sort form

It's

sort form

It's

sort form .)

It's been " It's" "been"

Its Its " 3

"

50 . Positive Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb with ing 3. You/ We/ They + are + doing a job. Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb with ing 3. You/ We/ They + are + not + doing a job Question. Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb with ing 3. Are + you/ we/ they + doing a job? : Are they doing a job?

you, we, they

? Yes, they are doing a job. (theyre) , No, they are not doing a job. (arent) , Are they speaking in English? ? Yes, they are speaking in English. (theyre) , .
Page 39 of 361

. .

No, they are not speaking in English. (arent) , Are we going to school? ? Yes, we are going to school. (Were) , No, we are not going to school. (arent) , ` (Present Continuous) " . . . "

. 1. At the time of speeches : : I am reading a book at the moment. ( ). ( 2. Temporary Situations : At school, we are studying about classical languages in the week. . " " " " " . 3. Planned activities (Future Reference) .
Page 40 of 361

.) :

"

: I am coming tomorrow. coming" " . "Future Reference" . For Future Reference: tomorrow next week 4. To describe repeated action : My brother always interrupting me when I study. . Signal words (Comman expressions) now at the moment today this week ! : " , , " " . ." tomorrow " " " "I am

Page 41 of 361

6 (Grammar Patterns 4)
Grammar Patterns 1, 2, 3 . " (Noun) 32 . . " , "to be" form " (Pronoun) " , ; 73

. " " , , , . . . (Types of Nouns) (Pronouns) Sarmilan is a Manager. . ( . . " , ... , ... , ... , ... . " . " " ) . " " " (He is a Manager. . ) " . , , ... ". " " "

Page 42 of 361

.
Grammar Patterns 4...

Practice the following Grammar Patterns daily. 1. He is a Manager. . ( 2. He can be a Manager . . 3. He was a Manager. . 4. He would have been a Manager . 5. He may be a Manager . 6. He may have been a Manager . 7. He will be a Manager. . 8. He must be a Manager. . 9. He must have been a Manager. . 10. He seems to be a Manager. . 11. He doesn't seem to be a Manager. . 12. He seemed to be a Manager. . 13. He didn't seem to be a Manager. .
Page 43 of 361

14. He has to be a Manager. ( 15. He should be a Manager. ( 16. He ought to be a Manager. . 17. He doesnt have to be a Manager. ( 18. He neednt be a Manager. . 19. He has been a Manager. / . 20. He had been a Manager. / 21. He had to be a Manager. . 22. He didnt have to be a Manager. . 23. He must not be a Manager. ( ) . ) .

) .

24. He shouldnt be a Manager. . . 25. He won't be a Manager. . 26. He can't be a Manager. . .

Page 44 of 361

27. He could have been a Manager. . 28. He should have been a Manager. . 29. He ought to have been a Manager. . 30. He needn't have been a Manager. . 31. He shouldn't have been a Manager. . 32. He being a Manager, he knows the work. . Homework:

32 . She is a nurse. . He is a teacher. . She is a domestic helper. .( Karunanithi is a Chief Minister. . Donald Tsang is a chief executive of Hong Kong.

Page 45 of 361

: "is" , . She is a nurse. She _____ a nurse. She _______ a nurse : Sarmilan is a Manager. . . " ." . , ." " , . : Sarmilan is a Manager. .( .( ) Sarmilan was a Manager. . Sarmilan will be a Manager. . ! ) , " . "

Page 46 of 361

7 (have/ have got)


Grammar Patterns 1, 2, 3 73 (Noun) 32 " Have "I have work." , , , " 23 . Grammar Patterns . , Grammar Patterns 1 . . . Practice the following Grammar Patterns Daily 1. I have work. 2. I have got work. . 3. I dont have work. 4. I haven't got work. . 5. I had work. . 6. I didn't have work. .
Page 47 of 361

(Verb) . Grammar Patterns 4 .

" (have) .

. . , ,

7. I may have work. 8. I might have work. 9. I may be having work. . 10. I must have work. . 11. I should have work. . 12. I ought to have work. . 13. I must be having work. . 14. I could have had work. . 15. I should have had work. . 16. I may have had work. . 17. I must have had work. . 18. I would have had work. . 19. I shouldn't have had work. . 20. I needn't have had work. . 21. I will have work. . 22. I won't have work. . 23. I wish I had work. .
Page 48 of 361

Homework: " . 1. I have an interview . 2. I have money . 3. I have a Tamil dictionary . 4. I have a kind heart. . 5. I have two brothers and three sisters . 6. I have fever. . 7. I have cough and cold. . 8. I have a beautiful house . 9. I have a car . 10. I have pass port. . / and Consonant : , . "have" . , have "a" "an" . . Use a/an - Vowels " 23 ,

Page 49 of 361

. 1. "Possession" : Does he have a car? ? Do you have a beautiful house? ? 2. "Relationships" : How many brothers do you have? ? 3. "Illnesses" : Do you have fever? ? Do you have cough and cold? ? 4. "Characteristics" : Do you have an interview? ? Do you have a kind heart? ? , , "Have" "have got" . .
Page 50 of 361

I have work. I have got work.

" . have/ have got . :

"

"have got" "got" "get" . have, have got . Do you have a cold? Have you got a cold? Yes, I have a cold. Yes, I have got a cold. Do you have a house in the country? Have you got a house in the country? Yes, I have a house in the country. Yes, I have got a house in the country. Do you have any brothers or sisters? Have you got any brothers or sisters? No, I dont have any brothers or sisters. No, I havent got any brothers or sisters. ! . Past Tense/Past Participle

, "got"

. . " . . "

Page 51 of 361

8 (there is)
7 . "there is" . "have" . . . There is - " 22 " . . "Well begun is half done" " . " , Patterns 1 . Practice the following grammar Patterns daily. 1. There is a book. . 2. There is not a book. (isnt) . 3. There are books. .( 4. There are not books. (arent) .( / Plural) . " Grammar . " " , " . "there is" " , "

"have/have got"

/ Plural)
Page 52 of 361

5. There can be a book. . 6. There can't be a book. . 7. There will be a book. . 8. There won't be a book. . 9. There was a book. . 10. There would have been a book. . 11. There were books. .( 12. There must be a book. ( ) 13. There must have been a book. .( 14. There may be a book. . 15. There may have been a book. . 16. There has to a book. . 17. There have to be books. .( 18. There should be a book. . 19. There ought to be a book. . / Plural) ) / Plural)

Page 53 of 361

20. There has been a book. / 21. There had been a book. / 22. There have been books. / Plural) Home work: There is a book on the table (3, 4, 11, 17, 22 Plural) There is an election in USA (3, 4, 11, 17, 22 Plural) There are two classical languages in India. (1, 2, 9, 16, 20 Singular) There are 1652 languages in India (1, 2, 9, 16, 20 Singular) 1652 There are 6760 languages in the world (1, 2, 9, 16, 20 Singular) 6760 There are hundred of vegetable items in the market (1, 2, 9, 16, 20 Singular) : 3, 4, 11, 17, 22 (Plural) .

.(

1, 2, 9, 16, 20 (Singular) .

Page 54 of 361

1: Have - There is 1. have , "have" 2. there is . : I have a book . " . "There is a book on the table " ? . ." .( ) " . 2: Here There Here and there "There" ; . . there + . . " "there is" " ." . ? " " . . "there ..."

Page 55 of 361

9 -

(Irregular verbs)
"Irregular verbs" . "

10" . "Irregular verbs" . . . http://aangilam.page.tl/Irregular-verbs.htm

.
irregular vers.mp3

Page 56 of 361

Page 57 of 361

Page 58 of 361

Page 59 of 361

"Irregular verbs" . , . (Past Tense) . "Passive Voice" . . "Irregular verbs"

. , ractice, through Tami , English listening

Page 60 of 361

10 (Simple Past Tense)


Grammar Patters 1 . . 3, 4 . 3. I did a job 4. I didnt do a job. . . "Past Simple Tense" . . "Simple Past Tense" . Positive (Affirmative) Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb I/He/She/It/You/We/They + __ + did a job. . " Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Main verb I/He/She/It/You/We/They + did + not + do a job Question (Interrogative) Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb Did + I/he/she/it/you/we/they + do a job? , (Auxiliary verb . , . : Did you do a job? ? "Simple Past Tense" 73

"Subject" (Auxiliary verb) " .

"Subject"

Page 61 of 361

Yes, I did a job , No, I didnt do a job. (did + not) , Did you speak in English? ? Yes, I spoke in English. , No, I didnt speak in English. (did + not) , Did you go to school? ? Yes, I went to school. , No, I didnt go to school. (did + not) ,

. .

. .

. 1. I answered the phone

2. I studied English for ten years. . 3. I applied for vacancies.

4. I forgave him. . 5. I travelled by MTR. MTR 6. I came back last Friday. . 7. I asked for an increment. ( .( )

Page 62 of 361

8. I bought a car. . 9. I wrote an article. . 10. I borrowed money from Sarmilan. . 11. I lent a book to Ravi. / 12. I cracked jokes with others. . 13. I boiled water. . 14. I got wet. . 15. I gave priority to my works. . 16. I got confrontation with my Boss. . 17. I got an appointment. . 18. I got into the bus. . 19. I got a loan from the bank. . 20. I read Thinakkural News paper. . 21. I escaped from the danger. . 22. I studied in Jaffna. .

Page 63 of 361

23. I ironed my clothes. . 24. I invited my friends. . 25. I deposited money to the bank. . 26. I born in 1998. 1998 27. I played football. .

28. I introduced her to my family. . 29. I inquired about this. . 30. I informed to police. . 31. I learned driving in Hong Kong.

32. I met Kavitha yesterday . 33. I married in 1995. 1995 34. I played Guitar. . 35. I visited Thailand last year. ( ) 36. I opened a current account. . 37. I sent a message. . .

Page 64 of 361

38. I paid in Installments. ( 39. I taught English. . 40. I went to university. . 41. I repaid the loan. . 42. I arrived ten minutes ago. . 43. I lived in Bangkok for two years. . 44. I worked very hard. . 45. I left from home. . 46. I sang a song. . 47. I practiced English last night. . 48. I forgot her. . 49. I decorated my house. . 50. I wrote a letter to my mother. . ) .

Page 65 of 361

Homework: 1: He, She, It, We, They Subject + Main verb + I spoke in English. You spoke in English. He spoke in English. She spoke in English. It spoke in English. We spoke in English. They spoke in English. 2: 50 "verb" Irregular verbs . 3: ' ' ' . . . ' . . , 4 / . . . . . . I( ) . You, .

Page 66 of 361

: , . . 1. Regular verbs - with regular verbs + ed 2. Irregular verbs - The past form for irregular verbs is variable. You need to learn it by heart. 1. Regular verbs ed : I played cricket I visited Japan last year I watched TV last night Study "y" . : I studied English. Live, Love " e" -d : I lived in Australia for two years. 2. Irregular verbs . Irregular verbs Irregular verbs . . I fell off a horse yesterday. I went to school I taught English I wrote a letter I slept yesterday [Simple Past - Signal words] yesterday Last night/ week/ year/century A month ago In 2007 In the past
Page 67 of 361

- ied

, .

. . . .

(Pronunciation) "regular verbs" . Agreed Loved Judged Begged Cleaned g d d d d ( D) Stopped - /t/ Laughed - /t/ Washed - /t/ Watched - /t/ Talked - /t/ ( t) Needed Collected ( d d d d) . . . d ed . .

Page 68 of 361

11 (Simple Future Tense)


Grammar Patterns -1 . .

1 . . . . 5. I will do a job . .( 6. I wont do a job. (will + not) . 5, 6 . . Form "will" Positive (Affirmative) Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb I /You /He /She /It / We / You /They + will + do a job. . Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Main verb I /You /He /She /It /You /We /They + wont + do a job Question (Interrogative) Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb Will + I /you /he /she /it /you /we /they + do a job? "Auxiliary verb" . , . "Simple Future Tense" , . , ) " "

"Subject"

"Subject"

Page 69 of 361

. Will you do a job? ? Yes, I will do a job , No, I wont do a job. (will + not) , Will you speak in English? ? Yes, I will speak in English. , No, I wont speak in English. (will + not) , Will you go to school? ? Yes, I will go to school. , No, I wont go to school. (will + not) , . .

. , . . . 1. I will open the door. . 2. I will apply for vacancies. .


Page 70 of 361

3. I will speak in English fluently. .( 4. I will ask for an increment. ( 5. I will ask for a transfer. . 6. I will celebrate my birthday. . 7. I will consult Dr. Sivaram. ( ) 8. I will control my temper. . 9. I will negotiate the auto charges. . 10. I will stop smoking. . 11. I will help him. . 12. I will open a current account. . 13. I will obey your rules and regulations. . 14. I will pick up this work. . 15. I will resign from the job. . 16. I will correct the mistakes. . 17. I will play football. . )

Page 71 of 361

18. I will do my duty. . 19. I will follow a computer course. . 20. I will forget her. . 21. I will solve problems. . 22. I will speak English in the office . 23. I will go to university. . 24. I will translate English to Tamil. . 25. I will give up these habits. . 26. I will study for the exam. . 27. I will do my homework. . 28. I will become stronger. . 29. I will become chief executive of Hong Kong. . 30. I will become prime minister of India. . 31. I will take treatment for my hand. . 32. I will introduce him to you. .

Page 72 of 361

33. I will untie this knot. . 34. I will build my dream house. / 35. I will co-operate with others. . 36. I will discuss about this problem. . 37. I will drop you in Vavuniya junction. . 38. I will buy a bens car. . 39. I will bank the money. . 40. I will come up in my life. . 41. I will draw salary US$ 100,000 monthly. . 42. I will fly to America. ( ) 43. I will go to Europe. . 44. I will invite my friends for festival. . 45. I will improve my English knowledge. . 46. I will practice English at night. . 47. I will become wealthy. . .

Page 73 of 361

48. I will get married after few months. . 49. I will become chief executive. . 50. I will become famous in the world. . Homework: A. You, He, She, It, We, You, They . B. 50 . C. (Simple Future Tense) , , "will" .

, . . .

. , . .

Page 74 of 361

"Spoken English"

. . "I am speaking in English" " , ( , . BBC . BBC Business English (Pronounciation) , . . . . . ) "

"short form" . "short form" . Affirmative short form I will - I'll You will - You'll He will - He'll She will - She'll It will - It'll We will - We'll You will - You'll They will - They'll

Page 75 of 361

Negative short forms "Sort Forms" . I will not - I'll not - I won't You will not - You'll not - You won't He will not - He'll not - He won't She will not - She'll not - She won't It will not - It'll not - It won't We will not - We'll not - We won't You will not - You'll not - You won't They will not - They'll not - They won't wont want - " will + not " .( .) : . (Short form of will + not)

: 1. Future will 2. Future going to 3. Present continuous used as future. 4. Future Continuous 5. Future perfect simple 6. Future perfect continuous Future will . . Future "will" . 1. , , .

I will come tomorrow. He will work with us. I will win. .


Page 76 of 361

2. I think the Indian cricket team will win the match.

. I think you will like her . 100% . . . prediction" . . ( "Future )

"will" 3. "will"

probably, possibly, I think, I hope.

. I will be there on time. ( ) .

(promise) ) I promise, I will be there on time, dont worry. , .

.(

Page 77 of 361

12 (Past Continuous Tense)


Grammar Patterns 1 . Grammar Patterns 2, Grammar Patterns 3 . 9. I was doing a job. . 10. I wasn't doing a job. . "Past Continuous Tense" . " " . "Past Progressive Tense" . 9 10

, . . . . 9, 10 "was" . Positive (Affirmative) Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb + ing I /He /She /It + was + doing a job. You / We /They + were + doing a job. 'Subject' Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Main verb + ing I /He /She /It + wasnt + doing a job You /We /They + werent + doing a job "Grammar Patterns"

I, He, She, It, . You, We, They . "were"

Page 78 of 361

Question (Interrogative) Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb + ing Was + I /he /she /it + doing a job? Were + you /we /they + doing a job? , Subject . . . Were you doing a job?

Auxiliary verb " " "

"

? Yes, I was doing a job. , No, I wasnt doing a job. (was + not) , Was he speaking in English? ? Yes, he was speaking in English. , No, he wasnt speaking in English. (was + not) , Were you going to school? ? Yes, we were going to school. , No, we werent going to school. (were + not) , (Affirmative Sentences) . . 1. I was reading a book. . 2. I was looking for a job. .
Page 79 of 361

. .

. . 25 .

3. I was studying. . 4. I was watching television. . 5. I was making dinner. ( 6. I was waiting in the bus stand. . 7. I was waiting for you. . 8. I was talking with my fiance / . 9. I was snowboarding. . 10. I was driving through the desert. ( ) 11. I was sitting at the class room. . 12. I was listening to the news. . 13. I was discussing with my father. . 14. I was complaining to police . 15. I was listening to my iPod. . 16. I was sleeping last night. . 17. I was writing the email. .
Page 80 of 361

18. I was working at the factory. . 19. I was eating bread. . 20. I was playing soccer. . 21. I was walking on the street. . 22. I was singing in the concert. . 23. I was wearing a full sleeves shirt. . 24. I was walking past the car. . 25. I was eating ice-cream. . Homework: 1. 25 . 2. 25 He, She, It, You, We, They . . (I/ He/ She/ It . You/ We/ They 3. were + verb with ing , ? . , .) , was + verb with ing ,

Page 81 of 361

. , , . .

Past Continuous Tense . (There are five main uses of this tense) : 1. . : I was reading a book yesterday evening. . ? , .

. (Action or situation that had already started and was still continuing at a particular time.) 25 . The sun was shining this morning. . The birds were singing. . The children were playing in the garden. .
Page 82 of 361

-1

2.

, .

Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. 6.PM , At midnight, we were driving through the desert. , . Yesterday at this time, I was talking with my family. , . -2

3. , , . "used to"

always, constantly . ,

. (Used to .)

: She was always coming to class late. .


Page 83 of 361

Karuna was always irritating me. . I didnt like him because, He was constantly talking. , . -3 ( )

1, 2, 3 . . 4. . (two actions were happening at the same time.) : Malathi was writing a letter while Pandian was reading the News paper. . Sothiya was cooking dinner while her friend was setting the table. . The baby was crying while we were having our dinner. . I was studying while she was making dinner. ( ) .

People were sleeping while army was shelling. .


Page 84 of 361

-4

5. . . (use the Past Continuous tense with the Past Simple tense) : I was walking in the park ( rain. ( )

) when it started to

I was walking in the park when it started to rain. . I was brushing my teeth when my mother called me. . I was eating dinner when somebody knocked on the door ( ) .

Ravi was sleeping last night when someone stole his car. . I was walking past the car when it exploded . I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm clock rang. .

Page 85 of 361

-5

While, When 1: Malathi was writing a letter while Pandian was reading the News paper. .

Malathi was writing a letter . while ( ) ( )

Pandian was reading the News paper. . ? . " " . 2: I was walking in the park when it started to rain. .

Page 86 of 361

. I was walking in the park when it started to rain ? . " ." . ( ) .

"background situation" : . I was studying while she was making dinner. While I was studying, she was making dinner. I was walking past the car when it exploded. When the car exploded, I was walking past it. Adverb -

always, only, never, ever, still, just , . She was coming to class late. . " " . She was always coming to class late. . Signal words while when

Page 87 of 361

13 (Future Continuous Tense)


! . Grammar Patterns -1

. Grammar Patterns-1 . . 1. I do a Job. 2. I am doing a job. 3. I did a job. 4. I didn't do a job. 5. I will do a job. 6. I won't do a job. 7. Usually I don't do a job. 8. I am not doing a job. 9. I was doing a job. 10. I wasn't doing a job. . 11. I will be doing a job. . 12. I won't be doing a job. . . "Future Continuous Tense" . "Future Progress Tense"

Page 88 of 361

. (The future continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the future.) Positive (Affirmative) Subject + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Main verb with ing I /You /He /She /It / We / You /They + will + be + doing a job. . Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + not + Main verb with ing I /You /He /She /It /You /We /They + wont + be + doing a job Question (Interrogative) Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb with ing Will + I /you /he /she /it /you /we /they + be + doing a job? : "Auxiliary verb" " . "

"Subject"

"Auxiliary verb" . "Subject" " . (invariable) . Will you be doing a job? ? Yes, I will be doing a job. , No, I wont be doing a job. , Will you be speaking in English? ? Yes, I will be speaking in English. , No, I wont be speaking in English. , . . . .

Page 89 of 361

Will you be going to school? ? Yes, I will be going to school. , No, I wont be going to school. (will + not) , . .

(Affirmative Sentence) . 1. I will be speaking in English. . 2. I will be sitting on the beach. . 3. I will be sun-bathing in Bali. . 4. I will be coming back to home . 5. I will be staying with my friend. . 6. I will be celebrating my birthday. . 7. I will be signing the contract. ( 8. I will be playing tennis at 10 am. 10 9. I will be lying on a beach tomorrow . . 10. I will be having dinner at home. ( ) 11. I will be singing in the concert on Tuesday. . 12. I will be going to Norway this summer. ( )
Page 90 of 361

13. I will be coming to work next week. . 14. I will be working this weekend. . 15. I will be sleeping in the hotel. . 16. I will be eating dinner with my friends this evening . 17. I will be dancing at the party. . 18. I will be doing my duty. . 19. I will be practicing English at night . 20. I will be speaking English in the office . 21. I will be going to university. . 22. I will be translating English to Tamil. . 23. I will be flying on the flight. . 24. I will be studying for the exam. . 25. I will be doing my homework. .

Page 91 of 361

Homework: A.

You, He, She, It, We, You, They .

B.

25 .

C.

(Future Continuous Tense) , . . : . ,

I will be waiting for you when your plane arrives tonight. . Sarmilan will be playing on the computer when his mother comes home. . I will be studying when you come. . At the same time tomorrow I will be staying in America. .

Page 92 of 361

14 (Future "going to")


Grammar Patterns -1 . " " 1 . " . 13. I am going to do a job. . . "

: 1. Future will 2. Future going to ( 3. Present continuous used as future 4. Future continuous 5. Future perfect simple 6. Future perfect continuous . "going to" ( , . (Going to is not a tense. It is a special expression to talk about the future.) going to 1. . (planned actions in the future) : I am going to buy a new car tomorrow. . 2. , .( , ) (something is going to happen in the future) . )

going to )

Page 93 of 361

: Look at that cloud. I think it is going to rain. . Positive (Affirmative) Subject + Auxiliary verb + going to + Main verb 1. I + am + going to + do a job 2. He/ She/ It + is + going to + do a job. 3. You/ We/ They + are + going to + do a job. Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + going to + Main verb 1. I + am + not + going to + do a job 2. He/ She/ It + is + not + going to + do a job. 3. You/ We/ They + are + not + going to + do a job. Question (Interrogative) Auxiliary verb + Subject + going to + Main verb 1. Am + I + going to + do a job? 2. Is + he/ she/ It + going to + do a job? 3. Are + you/ we/ they + going to + do a job? Subject . First Person Singular, Third person Singular, Second Person Singular and Plural .

"Auxiliary verb " "going to"

. 1 Are you going to do a job? ? Yes, I am going to do a job. (Im) , No, I am not going to do a job. (Im not) , Are you going to speak in English? ? Yes, I am going to speak in English. (Im) , No, I am not going to speak in English. (Im not) , Are you going to learn English grammar through Tamil? ?
Page 94 of 361

. .

. .

Yes, I am going to learn English grammar through Tamil. (Im) , No, I am not going to learn English grammar through Tamil. (Im not) , 2 Is he going to do a job? ? Yes, he is going to do a job. (hes) , No, he is not going to do a job. (isnt) , Is she going to go to school? ? Yes, she is going to go to school. (shes) , No, she is not going to go to school. (isnt) , Is it going to rain? ? Yes, it is going to rain. (its) , No, it is not going to rain. (isnt) , 3 Are they going to do a job? ? Yes, they are going to do a job. (theyre) , No, they are not going to do a job. (arent) , Are they going to speak in English? ? Yes, they are going to speak in English. (theyre) , No, they are not going to speak in English. (arent) , . . . . . . . . . .

. .

Page 95 of 361

Are we going to win? ? Yes, we are going to win. (were) , No, we are not going to win. (arent) , Affirmative Sentences . 1. I am going to sing at the party. . 2. I am going to see him today evening. . 3. I am going to have lunch with my customer. ( ) 4. I am going to fly to Germany . 5. I am going to go on vacation. ( 6. I am going to see what he can do. ( 7. I am going to talk in the meeting. . 8. I am going to visit PKPs blog. PKP 9. I am going to buy a BMW car. BMW 10. I am going to help to Sensolai. . 11. I am going to write an English grammar book. . 12. I am going to go swimming. .
Page 96 of 361

. .

13. I am going to paint the house . 14. I am going to paint my bedroom tomorrow. . 15. I am going to miss the train. . 16. I am going to tell history of Tamil. . 17. I am going to help to people. . 18. I am going to get down meals from canteen. . 19. I am going to watch a movie . 20. I am going to climb that mountain one day .( 21. I am going to leave from Sri Lanka. . 22. I am going to start our own business. . 23. I am going to make jam . 24. I am going to play golf with Sarmilan . 25. I am going to win the world. . )

Page 97 of 361

Homework: 1. 2. 3. .

25 . He, She, It, You, They, We .

. 4. Good idea, I am going to bring some vine. , ( ) . .

I think it is going to rain. . Look at this car! It is going to crash into the tree. ! He is going to become a dentist when he grows up. . What are you going to do when you get your degree? ( ? What kind of jam are you going to make? ? -1: 1. . . , .
Page 98 of 361

, . ,

: I read a book. . I am reading a book. . I am going to read a book. .( .) -2: "going to go" . she is going to go to school. (She going to school) . : , "going to" shortened to 'gonna', especially in American English.) : Are you going to go soon? Are you gonna go soon? "gonna" . gonna . . ('going to' is often "going" . (Going to go' can be shortened to 'going.)

Page 99 of 361

15 (was/were going to)


Grammar Patterns -1 . " , . " . am/is/are going to . was/were going to . 14. I was going to do a job. . . . " " 1

) . The Future in the Past .

: I was going to visit to Tamil Nadu, but I couldn't get a visa. ( ) . I was going to watch a movie, but there wasn't enough time. , . ( ) , . .

Page 100 of 361

Positive (Affirmative) Subject + Auxiliary verb + going to + Main verb 1. I/ He/ She/ It + was + going to + do a job. 2. You/ We/ They + were + going to + do a job. Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + going to + Main verb 1. I/ He/ She/ It + was + not + going to + do a job. 2. You/ We/ They + were + not + going to + do a job. Question (Interrogative) Auxiliary verb + Subject + going to + Main verb 1. Was + I/ he/ she/ it + going to + do a job? 2. Were + you/ we/ they + going to + do a job? Subject . First Person Singular and Third person Singular, Second Person Singular and Plural . (Listening Practice)
Future in the Past...

"Auxiliary verb " "going to"

1 Was I going to do a job? ? Yes, I was going to do a job. , No, I was not going to do a job. (wasnt) , Was he going to go to school? ? Yes, he was going to go to school. , No, he wasnt going to go to school. (was + not) , Was she going to learn English? ? Yes, she was going to learn English. , . No, she wasnt going to learn English. (was + not) , . . . .

.
Page 101 of 361

2 Were you going to do a job? ? Yes, you were going to do a job. , . No, you werent going to do a job. (were + not) , Were we going to speak in English? ? Yes, we were going to speak in English. , No, we werent going to speak in English. (were + not) , Were they going to learn English grammar? ? Yes, they were going to learn English grammar. , No, they werent going to learn English grammar. (were + not) , Affirmative Sentences . 1. I was going to join the military. . 2. I was going to tell a lie. . 3. I was going to die in the accident. . 4. I was going to fly to Canada . 5. I was going to go on vacation. . . . . .

6. I was going to say my love. .


Page 102 of 361

7. I was going to send a SMS. . 8. I was going to go to university. . 9. I was going to buy a BMW car. BMW 10. I was going to wash the dishes. . 11. I was going to write my autobiography. . 12. I was going to go swim in the sea. . 13. I was going to play in the playground .

14. I was going to buy a motorcycle. . 15. I was going to miss the bus. . 16. I was going to fight with them. . 17. I was going to waste my time. . 18. I was going to seek political asylum in Thailand. . 19. I was going to watch a movie . 20. I was going to go to the party

21. I was going to join the gym. .

Page 103 of 361

22. I was going to die in Sri Lankan air raid . 23. I was going to kill him . 24. I was going to take some photos . 25. I was going to travel around the world. .( Homework: 1. . 2. He, She, It, You, They, We . 3. ) , , , . . 4. I was going to visit my uncle in Point Pedro last year, but I couldn't get the pass. , .( ) I was going to wash the dishes, but there wasn't enough time. , . I was going to rent a motorbike but I rented a car instead. ( . ) . ( , 25 )

Page 104 of 361

I was going to take some photos but I forgot my camera. ( ) .

I was going to go to Kowloon park but I had homework to do at home. . : (Forms) , , . went . , , ,

Page 105 of 361

16 (can /be able to)


Grammar Patterns -1 . 15, 16, 17, 18 . " , 1. . 15. I can do a job. 16. I am able to do a job. . 17. I can't do a job. 18. I am unable to do a job. . 15, 16 . able to" ( , + able to . / ) . can "can" . "+ "

, , can . . be able to

Page 106 of 361

-1 ----------------------------------------------------------------Can . (Can is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb) . 1. ( 2. 3. Positive (Affirmative) Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb 1. I / He/ She/ It/ You/ We/ They + can + do a job. Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Main verb 1. I/ He/ She/ It/ You/ We/ They + can + not + do a job. Question (Interrogative) Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb 1. Can + I/ he/ she/ it/ you/ we/ they + do a job? . You, We, They "Can" . (Can is invariable. There is only one form of can.) . Can you do a job? ? Yes, I can do a job. , No, I cant do a job. (can + not) , Can you speak in English? ( Yes, I can speak in English. , Sorry, I cant speak in English. (can + not) , Can I smoke in this room? ( ) ?
Page 107 of 361

, )

I, He, She, It,

. . ) ? . .

Yes, you can smoke in this room. , Sorry, you cant smoke in this room. (can + not) , ) :

. .(

"bare infinitive" "to" 'infinitive without "to").

. . (The main verb is always the bare infinitive.

"can"

. : Can you come with me today? ? Yes, I can come with you today. , Sorry. I cant. But I can come with you tomorrow. , . .( tomorrow . )

.(

Page 108 of 361

2 ----------------------------------------------------------------can ( . + able to . + able to . Positive (Affirmative) Subject + be + able + infinitive 1. I + am + able + to + do a job 2. He/ She/ It + is + able + to + do a job. 3. You/ We/ They + are + able + to + do a job. Negative Subject + be + able + infinitive 1. I + am not + able + to + do a job 2. He/ She/ It + is not + able + to + do a job. 3. You/ We/ They + are not + able + to + do a job. Question (Interrogative) Be + Subject + able + infinitive 1. Am + I + able + to + do a job? 2. Is + he/ she/ It + able + to + do a job? 3. Are + you/ we/ they + able + to + do a job? / ) + able to

. Are you able to do a job? ? Yes, I am able to do a job. , No, I am unable to do a job. (am not able to , Are you able to speak French? ? Yes, I am able to speak French. , , . .

) .

No, I am unable to speak French. (am not able to .

Page 109 of 361

Are you able to drive heavy vehicles? ? Yes, I am able to drive heavy vehicles , No, I am unable to drive heavy vehicles. (am not able to , : + able to , . , . + able to . Be able to . (be able to has an infinitive form) I + can He/ She/ It + can You/ We/ They + can I + am able to He/ She/ It + is able to You/ We/ They + are able to . (Listening Practice) ---------------------------------------------------------------. . to , . , . . )

Aangilam.blog.mp3

1. I can drive a car. I am able to drive a car.

2. I can swim in the sea. I am able to swim in the sea. .


Page 110 of 361

3. I can play tennis. I am able to play tennis. . 4. I can speak five languages I am able to speak five languages . 5. I can use my credit card. I am able to use my credit card ( 6. I can change my email ID. I am able to change my email ID. . 7. I can hear your heartbeat. I am able to hear your heartbeat. . 8. I can get USA citizenship I am able to get USA citizenship. USA 9. I can upload a game to my ipod. I am able to upload a game to my ipod. . 10. I can imagine I am able to imagine . 11. I can see clearly now I am able to see clearly now. . 12. I can save images from the Internet I am able to save images from the Internet . 13. I can download Tamil movies I am able to download Tamil movies . 14. I can practice my religion freely. I am able to practice my religion freely. .( )
Page 111 of 361

15. I can believe it I am able to believe it. . 16. I can become a pilot I am able to become a pilot . 17. I can change my template I am able to change my template. . 18. I can become a famous lawyer I am able to become a famous lawyer . 19. I can become an astronaut I am able to become an astronaut . 20. I can buy new products I am able to buy new products

21. I can do it alone. I am able to do it alone. . 22. I can walk slowly I am able to walk slowly . 23. I can tolerate it I am able to tolerate it . 24. I can practice English at night I am able to practice English at night

25. I can learn English in aangilam.blogspot.com. I am able to learn English in aangilam.blogspot.com. aangilam.blogspot.com

Page 112 of 361

Homework: 1. 25 . 2. 3. He, She, It, You, They, We . 4. " " . " . " .

. ; . Engliah Grammar Explanation through Tamil. Free Tamil - English - Spoken English in Tamil, Free Spoken English Through Tamil, Spoken English with Tamil Explanation ?

Page 113 of 361

17 (could, was/were able to)


19, 20, 21, 22 " , 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 . , . . 19. I could do a job. 20. I was able to do a job. . 21. I couldn't do a job. 22. I was unable to do a job. (wasn't able to) . can, am/is/are able to could, was/were able to was/were able to" . was/were able to . -1 Positive (Affirmative) Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb 1. I / He/ She/ It/ You/ We/ They + could + do a job. Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Main verb 1. I/ He/ She/ It/ You/ We/ They + could + not + do a job. Question (Interrogative) Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb 1. Could + I/ he/ she/ it/ you/ we/ they + do a job? I, He, She, It, You, We, They "Could" . (Could is invariable; there is only one form of could.)
Page 114 of 361

(could, was/were able to) .

"

. "could" could .

. Could you do a job? ? Yes, I could do a job. , No, I couldnt do a job. (could + not) , Could you come last night? ? Yes, I could come last night. , No, I couldnt come last night. (could + not) , 2 could was/were able to . + able to . Positive (Affirmative) Subject + be + able + infinitive 1. I/ He/ She/ It + was + able + to + do a job. 2. You/ We/ They + were + able + to + do a job. Negative Subject + be + able + infinitive 1. I/ He/ She/ It + was not + able + to + do a job. 2. You/ We/ They + were not + able + to + do a job. Question (Interrogative) Be + subject + able + infinitive 1. Was + I/ he/ she/ It + able + to + do a job? 2. Were + you/ we/ they + able + to + do a job? . . . .

. Were you able to do a job? ? Yes, I was able to do a job. , No, I was unable to do a job. (was not able to , . ) .

Page 115 of 361

Were they able to speak five languages? ? Yes, they were able to speak five languages. , . No, they were unable to speak five languages. (were not able to) ,

. could

was/were able to

. (You can use either "could or was/were able to" describe a general ability (but not a specific achievement) in the past.) . 1. I could swim when I was 5 years old. I was able to swim when I was 5 years old. . 2. I could run the 100 meter race very well. I was able to run the 100 meter race very well. 100 3. I could see the sun rise every morning. I was able to see the sun rise every morning. . 4. I could sing very well when I was a child. I was able to sing very well when I was a child. . 5. I could draw pictures. I was able to draw pictures . 6. I could ride a bike when I was six. I was able to ride a bike when I was six. ( )

7. I could drive my car yesterday I was able to drive my car yesterday. .


Page 116 of 361

8. I could take photographs I was able to take photographs . 9. I could climb tree. I was able to climb tree. . 10. I could read when I was five. I was able to read when I was five. ( Homework: 1. 10 . 2. 3. He, She, It, You, They, We . 4. . , . . . 5. . When we were staying at the hotel, we could see the sun rise every morning. When we were staying at the hotel, we were able to see the sun rise every morning. ( ) , ( . My brother could drive cars when he was 10 years old. My brother was able to drive cars when he was 10 years old. ( ).
Page 117 of 361

).

"

"

When I was living in Point Pedro, I could walk to work. When I was living in Point Pedro, I was able to walk to work. , .

could or was/were able to , was/were able to . (You must use was/were able to to describe a special achievement or a single event in the past.) ( .) : A man fell into the river yesterday. The police were able to save him. v A man fell into the river yesterday. The police could save him. X - ( , . couldnt able to . the negative,' wasn't able to' OR 'couldn't' are both correct.) : Sarmilan wasn't able to drive his car yesterday.V Sarmilan couldn't drive his car yesterday.V . : 1. able to . can, - am/is/are could, - was/were able to was/were . (In could" .

(
)

Page 118 of 361

2 . could, - was/were able to . was/were able to 3. could . "to" 'infinitive without "to".) 5, "be able to" . (be able to has an infinitive form.) 6. ) "managed to" use "managed to".) : She managed to delete the virus from her computer. / . : "Could" . . ( .

: could

"bare infinitive" . (The main verb is always the bare infinitive;

to

. (If it was something difficult we

Polite and More Polite

Page 119 of 361

18 (Polite and More Polite)


16 . able to . 15. I can do a job. 16. I am able to do a job. . 17. I can't do a job. 18. I am unable to do a job. . can /be able to can am/is/are

can . 17 was/were able to 19. I could do a job. 20. I was able to do a job. can

am/is/are able to

could .

. 21. I couldn't do a job. 22. I was unable to do a job. (wasn't able to) . can could , . can / could (Can and could are modal auxiliary verbs) + able to . . + able to . ,

Page 120 of 361

Can . Polite form . . . . ,

, Could More Polite form ,... ,...

(Request, Permission)

: Can you help me, please? ? (" .) . , . . . Can I ask you a question, please? ? . . ! could . Could you help me, please? ? Could I ask you a question, please? ? Can, Could , . ! . .
Page 121 of 361

"

Polite Form

can

could

can , Could .

, ,

"More Polite" Polite and More Polite 1. Can you speak in English, please? Could you speak in English, please? / 2. Can you make a cup of tea for me, please? Could you make a cup of tea for me, please? ? 3. Can you help me, please? Could you help me, please? / 4. Can I ask a question, please? Could I ask a question, please? ? 5. Can you tell me what time it is, please? Could you tell me what time it is, please? ? 6. Can I have some advice, please? Could I have some advice, please? ? 7. Can you send me a catalogue, please? Could you send me a catalogue, please? ? 8. Can you tell me where the bank is, please? Could you tell me where the bank is, please? ? ? ?

. .

Page 122 of 361

9. Can I have your opinion, please? Could I have your opinion, please? ? 10. Can you wait a moment, please? Could you wait a moment, please? ? 11. Can I ask something personal, please? Could I ask something personal, please? ? 12. Can I have a glass of water, please? Could I have a glass of water, please? ? 13. Can I have your name, please? Could I have your name, please? ? 14. Can you spell your name, please? Could you spell your name, please? ? 15. Can I smoke in this room, please? Could I smoke in this room, please? ? 16. Can you give some aspirin, please? Could you give some aspirin, please? ( 17. Can you lend me your news paper, please? Could you lend me your news paper, please? ? 18. Can I use your phone, please? Could I use your phone, please? ? 19. Can I borrow your dictionary? Could I borrow your dictionary? ? 20. Can I see your driving license, please? Could I see your driving license, please? ?
Page 123 of 361

)?

21. Can I speak to Sarmilan, please? Could I speak to Sarmilan, please? / 22. Can I have a kilo of apples, please? Could I have a kilo of apples, please? ? 23. Can I help you, Madam? Could I help you, Madam? ? 24. Can you help me with my homework? Could you help me with my homework? / 25. Can I have the bill, please? Could I have the bill, please? ? : "Polite and More Polite" , . : Can I have the bill, please? Could I have the bill, please? Certainly sir. Ill just bring it. Can you help me, please? Could you help me, please? Of course I can. Sorry, I am just too busy. " : " . ? ?

:
Page 124 of 361

, . ,

. , " " . . ( . . . . . , "Polite and More Polite" . . Good Morning! Thanks Thank you Can I help you? Excellent! Thank you How are you? I am fine, Thank you Excuse me Please sit down. Pleased to meet you. Welcome Let me show you the department Let me take your coat? Would you like cup of coffee? No, Thanks. ) ,

Page 125 of 361

. . , . . , , , , . . . Polite and More Polite , Polite language , , ,

. Polite Language . May I have . . . May I know . . . Might . . . Would you like . . . If you dont mind . . . Do you mind if . . . Excuse me, Please . . . "Polite Forms" Grammar Patterns 1 .

Page 126 of 361

19 (will be able to)


Grammar Patterns -1 23 24 . . 1 . " " . (can, am/is/are able to +) . 17 . 23. I will be able to do a job. . 24. I will be unable to do a job. . . (Simple Future Tense) , . Positive (Affirmative) Subject + be + able + infinitive I /You /He /She /It / We / You /They + will be + able + to do a job. Negative Subject + be + not + able + infinitive I /You /He /She /It /You /We /They + wont be + able + to do a job Question (Interrogative) Be + subject + be able + infinitive Will + I /you /he /she /it /you /we /they + be able + to do a job? + be able to .
Page 127 of 361

16 (could, was/were able to +) .

. (First, Second, Third person) "will be able to" . ,

to . (be able to has an infinitive form)

. Will you be able to do a job? ? Yes, I will be able to do a job. , No, I wont be able to do a job. (will + not) , Will you be able to speak perfect English very soon? ? Yes, I will be able to speak perfect English very soon. , . No, I wont be able to speak perfect English very soon. , . Will you be able to go to university next year? ? Yes, I will be able to go to university next year. , . No, I wont be able to go to university next year. (will + not) , . 25 . .
aangilam.com 19.mp...

. .

1. I will be able to study. .

Page 128 of 361

2. I will be able to study both arts and sciences. . 3. I will be able to dance. . 4. I will be able to vote. . 5. I will be able to go to China. . 6. I will be able to improve my English knowledge. . 7. I will be able to speak in English. . 8. I will be able to become a chief executive. . 9. I will be able to pass the exam. . 10. I will be able to fly to Canada . 11. I will be able to vote via internet. . 12. I will be able to solve problems . 13. I will be able to become an IPS officer. IPS 14. I will be able to receive voice-mail. . 15. I will be able to come to New York. . 16. I will be able to get my land. .
Page 129 of 361

17. I will be able to become famous in the world. . 18. I will be able to buy a submarine. . 19. I will be able to do my duty accurately. . 20. I will be able to marry next year. . 21. I will be able to swim in the sea. . 22. I will be able to solve problems. . 23. I will be able to submit to the court. . 24. I will be able to demonstrate that. . 25. I will be able to win the world . Homework: A. You, He, She, It, We, You, They . B. 25 . C. (will be able to)

, . . ,
Page 130 of 361

, . . D. , . . : .

"short form" . "short form" . I will be able to Ill be able to (wont be able to) wont will + not . .

Page 131 of 361

20.

(Parts of Speech)

. . , , , , , ; . . .

(Words) .

. of Speech in English) .

(Parts

(Parts of Speech in English) Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Pronouns Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections . / / /

Page 132 of 361

Nouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, , . : Manager Car England Sarmilan Tamil He is a Manager. . Verbs ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. : Do Come Speak Ask Go I do a job. . Adjectives / ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, , ( ) . : Red Yellow Big Small Beautiful She is a beautiful girl. .
Page 133 of 361

Adverbs / ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. : Usually Really Immediately Quickly Softly Usually I do a job. . Pronouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------; . : He She It him her Sarmilan speaks in English. . He speaks in English. . >>> /

Page 134 of 361

Prepositions ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. : in at on for since Do you work on Mondays? ? Conjunctions / ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. . : and but or than because I ate bread and butter. . Interjections ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. : Wow! Ha! Hi! hello! Oh! Wow! I won the match! ! , , ,

!
Page 135 of 361

Eight Parts of Speech in a Sentence -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

. Sarmilan goes to School. (Three Parts) Noun Verb Preposition Noun . Sarmilan and his sister go to school. (Five Parts) Noun Conjunction Pronoun Noun Verb Preposition Noun . Sarmilan and his little sister go to school. (Six Parts) Noun Conjunction Pronoun Adjective Noun Verb Preposition Noun . Wow! Sarmilan and his little sister go to school happily. (All Eight Parts of Speech) Interjection Noun Conjunction Pronoun Adjective Noun Verb Preposition Noun Adverb ! .

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, , , , . ; . .

, .

Page 136 of 361

21.
(Nouns) , , , " " ,

(Types of Nouns)

, .

. Common Nouns -

man, boy, girl, shop, tree, clock, actor, mobile . . Proper Nouns Peter, Sarmilan, Tamilvani, Hong Kong, Vijai, Nokia . . Countable Nouns car-cars, child-children, tree- two trees . . Uncountable Nouns water, fire, air, alcohol, blood, cotton, education .

Page 137 of 361

. Collective Nouns a group of things, a flock of birds, faculty, audience, team, crowd ( " Concrete Nouns Ford, dog, piano, herd, dancer, football, toy, White House, " . . Abstract Nouns intelligence, love, hate, bravery " Compound Nouns Blackboard, Homeland, without, wallpaper, brother-in-law . , " , " , . . ) "

. .

. .

Page 138 of 361

22 (may be able to)


Grammar Patterns 01 . 25. I may be able to do a job. . . , , . + able to . 17 able to . , Second, Third person) to" . , . , (First, "may be able . may be , 16 may be 25

Positive (Affirmative) Subject + be + able + infinitive I /You /He /She /It / We / You /They + may be + able + to do a job. Negative Subject + be + not + able + infinitive I /You /He /She /It /You /We /They + may + not + be + able + to do a job Question (Interrogative) Be + subject + be + able + infinitive May + I /you /he /she /it /you /we /they + be able + to do a job? + be able to . to . (be able to has an infinitive form) .
Page 139 of 361

May you be able to do a job? ( I may be able to do a job. / I may not be able to do a job. / May you be able to speak in English very soon? ( ? I may be able to speak in English very soon. / . I may not be able to speak in English very soon. / . May you be able to go to university? ( I may be able to go to university. / I may not be able to go to university. / 10 . . 1. I may be able to go to Australia. . 2. I may be able to read novels in the hostel. . 3. I may be able to sing in the concert. . 4. I may be able to vote next year. . 5. I may be able to go to China. . 6. I may be able to return back home tomorrow. .
Page 140 of 361

? . .

? . . .

7. I may be able to buy an iPhone. . 8. I may be able to submit to the court. . 9. I may be able to demonstrate that. . 10. I may be able to marry next year. . Homework: A.

You, He, She, It, We, You, They .

B. 10 . C. . D. . , ,

, . . . . , , . . .
Page 141 of 361

( able (Adjective) .

) . . / ,

able / / . Eat Able Eatable Love Able Loveable Use Able Usable Sale Able Salable / / / / / / / /

. .

.(

.)

Page 142 of 361

24 (should be able to)


Grammar Patterns -1 26 . .

1 . 26. I should be able to do a job. . . , (should) + able to . , . . am/is/are able to was/were able to may be able to "should be able to" Positive (Affirmative) Subject + be + able + infinitive I /You /He /She /It / We / You /They + sould + be able + to do a job. Negative Subject + be + not + able + infinitive I /You /He /She /It /You /We /They + should + not + be able + to do a job Question (Interrogative) Be + subject + be able + infinitive Should + I /you /he /she /it /you /we /they + be able + to do a job?
Page 143 of 361

should , .

(should be able to) ( )

: 1. person) , . 2. + be able to . 3. to . (be able to has an infinitive form) , , (First, Second, Third "should be able to"

. Should you be able to do a job? ? Yes, I should be able to do a job. , No, I shouldnt be able to do a job. , Should you be able to speak perfect English very soon? ? Yes, I should be able to speak perfect English very soon. , . No, I shouldnt be able to speak perfect English very soon. , . 10 . 1. I should be able to go to university. . . .

2. I should be able to speak perfect English very soon. .

Page 144 of 361

3. I should be able to improve my English knowledge. . 4. I should be able to become a chief executive. . 5. I should be able to practice English every day. . 6. I should be able to go tomorrow ( 7. I should be able to change my name. )

8. I should be able to answer. . 9. I should be able to build a house . 10. I should be able to publish an English grammar book. . Homework: A. You, He, She, It, We, You, They . B. 10 . c. , "Should be able to" .

Page 145 of 361

(Question) . ? ? ( . " " . : Should you be able to buy a ticket on the train? ? Should you be able to take your gun to work? ? Should you be able to vote without your ID card? ? Should you be able to sell your kidneys on the open market? ? Should you be able to buy a piece of the moon? ? (Positive) . , ) ,

Page 146 of 361

: Madonna should be able to adopt a child. . Two things a man should be able to do. . I think I should be able to go tomorrow. . Muslims in Britain should be able to live under Sharia law. . You should be able to post comments anonymously without your ID. . (Negative) ( . : 5 things you shouldn't be able to buy on eBay. 5 Parents shouldn't be able to name kids whatever they want. ( / ) ) ,

You shouldnt be able to buy a piece of the moon. / .

User shouldn't be able to change the metadata file name. . Some people shouldn't be able to vote in Sri Lanka. -----------------------------------------------------------------

Page 147 of 361

25 (Grammar Patterns 7)
Grammar Patterns -1 . 26 27 27 Perfect Tense ; (Grammar Patterns of Perfect Tense) . . . . .

( .

) .

1. I have done a job. (Present Perfect) . 2. I have just done a job. (

3. I had done a job. (Past Perfect) . 4. I had done a job long ago. ( 5. I wish I had done a job. . 6. I will have done a job. (Future Perfect) . 7. I have been doing a job. (Present Perfect Continuous) / . 8. I had been doing a job. (Past Perfect Continuous) / .
Page 148 of 361

9. I will have been doing a job. (Future Perfect Continuous) ( ) 10. He may have done a job. . 11. He might have done a job. . 12. He must have done a job. . 13. He would have done a job. . 14. He could have done a job. . 15. He should have done a job. . 16. He shouldnt have done a job. (should + not) . .( / )

17. He neednt have done a job. (need + not) ( . 18. He seems to have done a job.

. 19. Having done a job I have got experience. .

10 . . .

. , 19

Page 149 of 361

. 1. I have done 2. I have written 3. I have chosen 4. I have worked 5. I have watched. 6. He has spoken 7. He has started. 8. She has cooked. 9. She has visited 10. She has walked . . . . . . . . . .

"Perfect Tense" "Past Participle" . verbs" : . . Present Perfect Tense . : I have visited. . I have visited America several times. / ( : , ) . . , . , ? . "Irregular

Page 150 of 361

26 (Present Perfect Tense)


Grammar Patterns 1 Perfect Tense 26 . Grammar Patterns 7 . Grammar Patters 7 . . 1. I have done a job. (Present Perfect Simple) . . Present Perfect Tense "Present Perfect Simple Tense" . "Past Participle" . .

. .

. . . .

. , . . (It is important if we have done it in our lives or not. It is not important when we did it.)

Page 151 of 361

. I, You, We, You, They , He, She, It has Positive (Affirmative) Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb (Past participle) I/ You/ We/ They + have + done a job. He/ She/ It + has + done a job. (Auxiliary verb) "Past participle" Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Main verb (Past participle) I/ You/ We/ They + have + not + done a job. He/ She/ It + has + not + done a job. Question (Interrogative) Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb (Past participle) Have + I/ you/ we/ they + done a job? Has + he/ she/ it + done a job? Have/ Has Past participle . . 1 Have you done a job? ? Yes, I have done a job , No, I havent done a job. (have + not) , Has he lived here for 20 years? 20 Yes, He has lived here for 20 years. , 20 No, He hasnt lived here for 20 years. (has + not) , ? . 20 . . . "Subject" . . have (Third Person Singular)

Page 152 of 361

Have you seen Thesaththin puyalkal movie? ? Yes, I have seen Thesaththin puyalkal movie twenty times. , . No, I havent seen Thesaththin puyalkal movie. (have + not) , 25 . . 1. I have seen that movie many times. . .

2. I have met him once before. . 3. I have traveled by MTR . . 4. I have done my homework. . 5. I have been to England three times. . 6. I have come here many times . 7. I have worked here since 2002. 2002 8. I have studied two foreign languages . 9. I have cured many deadly diseases. . 10. I have cleaned my room. . 11. I have seen that movie six times in the last month. .
Page 153 of 361

12. I have been to Mexico in the last year. . 13. I have lived in Canada for five years . 14. I have worked at the University since 1999 1999 15. I have seen that girl before . 16. I have written some English Grammar lessons. . 17. I have worked here since June. . 18. I have written five letters. . 19. I have cooked dinner . 20. I have lived with my parents for over 10 years. 10 21. I have played outside for an hour. . 22. I have learned English since 1986. 1986 23. I have gone to the supermarket. . 24. I have played football. . 25. I have lived in that house for 2 years. 2 25 . . . .

You/ we/ they/ He / She / It .


Page 154 of 361

1. Actions which started in the past and are still continuing He has lived in America for five years. . (" ." .) , ( ( now.) ) . . ) (He started living in America five years ago, and he's still living there

( .) 2. Actions which happened at some unknown time in the past . . . . ? . I have already seen that film. .

( .)

Page 155 of 361

3. Actions which happened in the past, but have an effect in the present

. ; . . ? ! ) I have lost my keys . . ( . .

( ( .( 4. Recently completed action Grammar Patterns 7 . ( ( ) ) . . , ), ))

2. I have just done a job. .

( .)

Page 156 of 361

: Present Perfect . : Have you cooked lunch? Yes, I have. No, I havent. (Signal Words of Present Perfect) Ever Never just Yet Already So far Up to now Recently, Since For not yet till now

Ever Have you ever been to Germany? ? Have you ever met him? ? Have you ever eaten Pizza? Z Has he ever talked to you about the problem? ? Never I have never been to Australia. . I've never seen so many people like this. .
Page 157 of 361

He has never traveled by train. . ( Ever, Never .) Just I have just installed AVG anti-virus . For I have been an English teacher for more than five years. . Since I haven't seen Sarmilan since 2002. 2002 .) Yet He hasn't done it yet. . (Short Forms) I + have = Ive - ( We + have = weve - ( They + have = Theyve - ( He + has = Hes - ( She + has = Shes - ( It + has = Its - ( He + is = Hes She + is = Shes It + is = Its ) ) ) ) ) ) ) .( . . Present Perfect Tense

You + have = youve - (

Page 158 of 361

He has, She has, It has . . He is, She is, It is . . ? .

Hes, Shes, Its

Hes, Shes, Its

"+ ing" . "Present Perfect" Past Participle : Present Continuous He is doing a job. - Hes doing a job. She is doing a job. - Shes doing a job. It is doing a job. - Its doing a job. Present Perfect He has done a job. - Hes done a job. (Past participle) She has done a job. - Shes done a job. (Past participle) It has done a job. - Its done a job. (Past participle) do - did - done . done Past participle . Irregular verbs .

Page 159 of 361

27 (English Pronouns)

. .

, " : Sarmilan will come to the class. " .

He will come to the class . , . . .

. Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns Relative Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns

. .

Page 160 of 361

Subject Pronouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. IYou He She It We You They , ( , ) ( )

: Kennedy spoke about genocide war in Sri Lanka. . He spoke about genocide war in Sri Lanka. . (Kennedy .) Object Pronouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. me you him her it us you them : I love her , ( , ) ( ) He

Page 161 of 361

Reflexive Pronouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves : I cut my hair myself. ( / ) .) , ,

Possessive Pronouns ( ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

. mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs : This house is ours. ,

Page 162 of 361

Adjective my your his her its our your their : This is our house. . (Possessive - Adjective) This is our house. (Adjective) . This house is ours. (Possessive) . Demonstrative Pronouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. This That These Those , , , , ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ,

: This book is new but those books are old. . ( book books .) This is new but those are old. .

Page 163 of 361

Relative Pronouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. who whom that which whoever whomever whichever : I told you about a woman who lives next door. .

. Interrogative Pronouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Who What Where When Whom Which Whoever Whomever Whichever : Where did you go? ?

Page 164 of 361

Indefinite Pronouns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. all another every any some nothing several each many few : Each of the members has one vote . Homework: , . . . . , , ( ) , ,

Page 165 of 361

28 (Present Perfect Continuous)


26 . . Grammar Patterns 01 . 64 . 64. I have been doing a job. / . , . , . "Present Perfect" Present perfect Continuous . Present Perfect Progressive

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Positive (Affirmative) Subject + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Main verb with ing 1. I /You/ We/ They + have + been + doing a job 2. He/ She/ It + has + been + doing a job. "ing" .

Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Auxiliary verb + verb with ing 1. I /You/ We/ They + have + not + been + doing a job 2. He/ She/ It + has + not + been + doing a job. Question (Interrogative) Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb with ing 1. Have + I /you/ we/ they + been + doing a job? 2. Has + he/ she/ It + been + doing a job? . .

(Auxiliary verbs)

Page 166 of 361

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Have you been doing a job? / ? Yes, I have been doing a job. (Ive) , / . No, I have not been doing a job. (Ive not, I havent been) , / . : . . . " " ? 02. I am doing a job. . " 64. I have been doing a job. / . . / / . " . ?

, .

, . .
Page 167 of 361

" .( " / " .)

"

How long . for, since . : How long have you been doing a job? ? I have been doing a job for 12 months. 12 How long have you been studying English? ? I have been studying English since 2002. (Ive) 2002 How long have you been staying in Hong Kong? ( ) ? I have been staying in Hong Kong for 6 years. ( ) . . .

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( ) , (for, since) . .

Page 168 of 361

1. I have been waiting here for two hours. . 2. I have been working at that company for three years. . 3. I have been doing for the last 30 minutes. / 4. I have been teaching at the university since June. ( ) . 30 .

5. I have been waiting here for over two hours. . 6. I have been waiting for you for three hours. . ( .) 7. I have been watching too much television lately. . 8. I have been exercising lately. ( ) 9. I have been doing the work. . 10. I have been studying English for four years . 11. I have been living here since 1998. 1998 12. I have been working at BBC for three years BBC .
Page 169 of 361

13. I have been exporting to China since 1999. 1999 . 14. I have been studying for 3 hours. . 15. I have been watching TV since 7pm. TV 7 16. I have been playing football for a long time. . 17. I have been living in Bangkok since I left school. . 18. I have been standing here for over half an hour. . 19. I have been looking for a summer holiday job for two weeks. ( ) . 20. I have been writing novels since 1968. 1968 21. I have been getting good results over the last few years. . 22. I have been painting my house since last night. / . 23. I have been driving for 14 years ( ) 24 . I have been reading this lesson for the past 10 minutes 10 .
Page 170 of 361

14

24. I have been blogging since 2007 ( )

2007

25. I have been teaching at Hong Kong University for 6 years. 6 .

Homework: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25 . He, She, It, You, We, They . ; . How long have you been staying in your country? How long have you been going to school? How long have you been working here? How long have you been practicing English? How long have you been .? (Short Forms) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Positive Short forms I have been = I've been You have been = You've been We have been = We've been They have been = They've been He has been = He's been She has been = She's been It has been = It's been Negative Short forms

. I have not been = I've not been / I haven't been You have not been = You've not been / You haven't been We have not been = We've not been / We haven't been They have not been = They've not been / They haven't been He has not been = He's not been / He hasn't been She has not been = She's not been / She hasn't been It has not been = It's not been / It hasn't been
Page 171 of 361

" .

" .

: How long have you been studying English? ? I've been studying English for four years. . For four years. - " ." .

How long have you been living in Hong Kong? ? I've been living here since 2003. 2003 since 2003. - "2003 " . .

(Signal words) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------since for all week for days lately recently over the last few months : How long ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. . - 01 . (Actions beginning in the past and still continuing)

Page 172 of 361

- 02

. (Action that has just stopped or recently stopped)

Page 173 of 361

29 (Past Perfect Progressive)


Grammar Patterns 01 28 . . "Past perfect Continuous" Progressive" . 65. I had been doing a job. / . . 29 "Past Perfect 29

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Positive (Affirmative) Subject + Auxiliary verb + Auxiliary verb + Main verb with ing I / He/ She/ It/ You/ We/ They + had + been + doing a job . Negative Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Auxiliary verb + verb with ing I / He/ She/ It/ You/ We/ They + had + not + been + doing a job Question (Interrogative) Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb with ing Had + I / He/ She/ It/ You/ We/ They + been + doing a job? (Auxiliary verbs) . . ; , ? , . , "ing"

.
Page 174 of 361

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Had you been doing a job? / ? Yes, I had been doing a job. (Id been) , / . No, I had not been doing a job. (Id not been, I hadnt been) , / .

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. . " ? 09. I was doing a job. . . .( .) , ? ?

. (Past Perfect Continuous to show that action started in the past and continued up until another time in the past.) ; .

Page 175 of 361

: How long have you been waiting? ? I have been waiting for two hours. .

; How long had you been waiting? ? ? I had been waiting for two hours.

. ; . ? . . ( . " . ? . . " ) ?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. I had been waiting there for more than 45 minutes. 45 2. I had been working for over an hour. .

Page 176 of 361

3. I had been standing all day in the school. . 4. I had been teaching at that university for three years . 5. I had been doing the work. . 6. I had been studying English for five years . 7. I had been living there since 1997. 1997 8. I had been talking with Mr. Obama for over half an hour . 9. I had been driving for 10 years in Japan ( .

) 10

10. I had been waiting in the Hong Kong airport for two hours . . I had been waiting in the airport for more than two hours when you arrived. . I had been talking with Mr. Obama for over half an hour before you arrived. .( .) I had been learning English for two years before I left for America. .( .)
Page 177 of 361

Grandma wanted to sit down because she had been standing all day in the hospital. .( .) Sarmilan was tired because he had been exercising so hard. . Homework: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------He, She, It, You, We, They . , . (Signal words) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------since for all day the whole day : How long : How long had you been doing a job in Singapore? ? I had been doing a job for 12 months. 12 ) How long had you been studying English? ? I had been studying English since 2005. (Id been) 2005 )
Page 178 of 361

.(

.(

How long for, since (Short Forms) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Positive Short forms I had been = I'd been You had been = You'd been He had been = He'd been She had been = She'd been It had been = It'd been We had been = We'd been They had been = They'd been Negative Short forms

. .

I had not been = I'd not been / I hadn't been You had not been = You'd not been / You hadn't been He had not been = He'd not been / He hadn't been She had not been = She'd not been / She hadn't been It had not been = It'd not been / It hadn't been We have not been = We'd not been / We hadn't been They have not been = They'd not been / They hadn't been (Diagram) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. (The diagram explain to you that Past Perfect Continuous to show that action started in the past and continued up until another time in the past.)

Page 179 of 361

30.

(Passive Voice)
2010 (Passive Voice) . , . (Object) . Past Participle . (Subject) .

: Sarmilan is doing a job. . (The) Job is done by Sarmilan. . ( ! (Grammar Patterns) . .) ;

.
Passive Voice.mp3

1. It is done. . 2. It is being done. . 3. It was done. . 4. It was being done. . 5. It will be done. .
Page 180 of 361

6. It will be being done. . 7. It would be done. . 8. It would be being done. . 9. It is not done. . 10. It wasnt done. (was + not)

11. It won't be done. (will + not) . 12. It has been done. (

13. It has been being done. ( / . 14. It had been done. ( 15. It had been being done. ( 16. It will have been done. ( 17. It will have been being done. ( 18. It is to be done. . 19. It was to be done. . 20. It is going to be done. .

Page 181 of 361

21. It was going to be done. . 22. It can be done. . 23. It can't be done. . 24. It could be done. . 25. It couldn't be done. . 26. It must be done. (

27. It must not be done. ( ) 28. It should be done. . 29. It shouldnt be done. . 30. It ought to be done.

. 31. It has to be done. . 32. It doesn't have to be done. . 33. It had to be done. / 34. It didn't have to be done. / 35. It will have to be done. / 36. It wont have to be done. /
Page 182 of 361

37. It need be done. . 38. It needn't be done. . 39. It may be done. . 40. It may have been done. . 41. It must have been done. . 42. It would have been done. . 43. It wouldn't have been done. . 44. It could have been done. .( 45. It should have been done. .( 46. It shouldn't have been done. .( 47. It ought to have been done. .( ) ) ) )

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. 2. . 3. 4. ( 5. , . , ( , ) , ...) . ,

Page 183 of 361

(Passive Voice) Hong Kong Island was occupied by British forces in 1841 1841 . ( .) A young female Tamil journalist was arrested by the Police on suspicion. . ( .) Two decomposed bodies of Tamils were discovered on Friday. . Tamils were abducted by unidentified armed persons. . ( .) An university Tamil girl was kidnapped on December 31 morning. 31 . ( .) Navanethem Pillay was appointed as new United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. . ( .) 31 1841

Page 184 of 361

Barack Hussein Obama was elected President of the United States on 5 Nov 2008. 5 (2008 5 .) Annathurai is considered an intellectual and a brilliant Tamil scholar. . ( .) " . , . Homework: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 . ; 47 . . . 1. Ravi is investigated by police. . 2. The Robot is made by Japan . 3. His interview is postponed . 4. She is appointed as Managing Director. 5. My wallet is stolen. .
Page 185 of 361

2008

"

47

. ,

6. It is made . 7. Sitha is kidnapped by Iravanan. . 8. The letter is sent by post. . 9. The man is killed by Army. . 10. It is done by Government of Sri Lanka . Direct Object - Indirect Object ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. . Direct Object . Direct Object: . Indirect Object .

. Ravi was investigated by police. . The Robot was made by Japan / Sitha was kidnapped by Iravanan. . The letter was sent by post. . The men was killed by Army. . ( ) The window was broken by Sarmilan. .
Page 186 of 361

Indirect Object: http://aangilam.blogspot.com

(Indirect Object) . , . . 1. . 2. . 3. .( Ravi was investigated. .( .) The Robot was made. .( , , .) Sitha was kidnapped. .( ) The letter was sent. .( ) The men was killed. .( .) The window was broken. .( .) .)

Page 187 of 361

: http://aangilam.blogspot.com 1. , . Grammar Patterns 01 . 2. "Past Participle" . 3. .( .) 2010 , . : . . Irregular verbs . (Main Verb) (Passive Voice)

. , (URL) .

Page 188 of 361

31. " "

(Articles)

. . . the, a, an . Definite Article Indefinite Articles (Define Article) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. The

. , . (The) . . : The car. ( / The book. ( /

The beautiful girl ( / )

Page 189 of 361

(Indefinite Articles) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------; ; , , . . a an : a car ( , ) a book ( a beautiful girl ( He is an Indian ( : 1. " , " . "a" , . " . . (Use a/an - Vowels and Consonant) 2. Define Article . Define Articles Define Article s . (The) , " "an" , . ) ) . ) ( / . ), ( / )

Page 190 of 361

Article "Article" . " . Article: Article: article: Article: , .( ( ( ) ) ) . "

Page 191 of 361

32.

(Prepositions of Time)
? . ( . + + )

.( .) Subject + to be + Preposition + Noun/Pronoun The book is + on + the table. The letter is + under + your English book. " " . : (one word) I am staying at home. I spoke to her on wednesday morning. I bought this computer in the summer. (a group of word) The cat is on the left of the dog. The driver is in front of passengers. They are at the top of stairs. ,

(at home, on water), (in it, next to me), (noun phrase) . (across from the tall building)

Page 192 of 361

. 1. 2. 3. (Time Prepositions) (Place Prepositions) (Direction Prepositions) . " " .

(Prepositions of Time) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------" " , , " "at" . (a specific time) "at" at 3 o'clock at 9:00am at noon at dinnertime at bedtime at sunrise at sunset at the moment at night at midnight at daybreak at the weekend at the same time at present at Chritmas/Easter "in" "in" in January in February in March in April in May in June in July in Augest (Months) . . . . , " ,

Page 193 of 361

"in" . in Spring in Summer in Winter in Autumn

(Season)

(Articles) "the" "autumn" . in the spring (in the springtime) in the summer (in the summertime) in the winter (in the wintertime) in autumn (in autumntime) : "fall" "in" in 2008 in 1990 in 2009 in last year, in next year, in every year . . last year next year every year "in" (Times of the Day) . in the morning in the afternoon in the evening " " .) "at night" (Years) "autumn" . , "the"

. (in night / in the night

Page 194 of 361

"in" in the next century in the Ice Age in the past in a few days in a couple of months "on" (Dates) ( .) on January 3 on January 3, 2001 on 25 Dec. 2010 on 15th Augest 2009 (Days of week) . on Sunday on Monday on Tuesday on Wednesday on Thursday on Friday on Saturday on Saturday morning on Sunday afternoon on Monday evening , "in"

"on" ,

"on"

(Holydays and Special days) "on" on Mother's day on Velentine's day on Christmas Eve/Day on Independence Day on New Year's Eve on my birthday on the first day of the school year : . "at Christmas" .
Page 195 of 361

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. . The stars shine at night In England, it often snows in December. , Do you work on Mondays? ? I will be there after work. I will be there around 3 pm 3 I will be there before I go to school. . I have been riding my bicycle for 2 hours. 2 . I will be there during your class. ( . I will be there for your birthday. ) .

I wasn't there for the past 2 months.

I didn't see her since I was 10 years old. . I will not be home until 7:00 PM. 7 I will be there within 2 hours. . !
Page 196 of 361

33. " " "

(Prepositions of Place)

. " . "Prepositions of Place" "Prepositions of Location" ' . ("Place Prepositions" means where someone or something is) "at" at home at work at the party at the corner at the top at the bus stop at the entrance at the crossroads at the theater at the beach at the top of the page - ( at the end of the road "in" , . (a place that within boundaries) : in London " " . .
Page 197 of 361

. '

(a specific place) .

in a box in Hong Kong in New York in my pocket in my wallet in a building in a car in the garden in the swiming pool in the world "on" . ( (

) ) /

" . , .

" " : " ", . , "

on the wall on the table on the ceiling on the cover on the floor on the carpet on the menu -

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------" " . : 01. Sarmilan is at home. (

02. Kavitha is waiting for you at the bus stop. . 03. Do you work in an office? ?
Page 198 of 361

04. Do you live in Hong Kong? ? 05. The book is on the table. . ( 06. Put it down on the table. . ( 07. She is aboard the boat. ( 08. The picture is above the sofa. . 09. Last year we flew to New York ( 10. I usually go to work by bus. . 11. The desk is against the wall. . 12. I sit between Mayuran and Praba . 13. The woman is among all workers. , 14. The boy is among his friends. . 15. The passangers behind the driver. . 16. The desk is below the window . 17. The car is outside the garage. . 18. There is a long line of people outside the theater. . 20. The post office is on the opposite side of the street. . ) ) . .) .)

Page 199 of 361

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(at - in - on) . at home at work at school at university at college at the top at the bottom at the side at reception in a car - ( in a taxi in a helicopter in a boat in a lift (elevator) in the newspaper in the sky in a row on a bus - ( on a train on a plane on a ship on a bicycle on a horse on the radio on television on the left on the right on the way ) ) /

Page 200 of 361

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------? " " . . next to at the back of at the top of at the bottom of in fornt of in the corner of in the middle of on the left of on the right of on the corner of on top of on the side of on the other side of to the left of to the right of " . 01. I live next to my best friend. ( 02. We are going to sit at the back of the theater. . 03. The books are at the top of the shelves. . 04. The driver is in front of passenger. . 05. We live in the middle of the street. . 06. The dog is on the right of the cat. . ) . " .

Page 201 of 361

07. We live on the corner of 3rd avenue . 08. The clown is on top of the box. . 09. There is a man on the top of the roof. . ( 10. There is a large garden in the middle of the skyscraper. . (152 " .) 01 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, . (Different words same meaning) , . : near / by = " " . next to / beside = " " . across from / opposite = " " . " (Skyscraper) .)

Page 202 of 361

02 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. . (Some prepositions are similar, but different) : below / under : below " " , . " "

The desk is below the window. under " " . above / over above " " The baloon was high above our heads. over " . . The girl is wearing scaf over her head. " , " " . " " : ,

. . .

Page 203 of 361

? - 1 (Asking the time)


. . . . , 19 , . 20 . ! . , , , . . ? , ! ,

. ! ? What is the time now? ? Do you know what time it is? ( Can you tell me the time? ? What time is it? ? )?

Page 204 of 361

. . . , . . . "Polite Language" .

. Excuse me, what is the time now, please? ,

? "Excuse me"

) . "please" ( . , (Polite Language) ) , . :

Excuse me, what is the time please? Excuse me, what time is it? Excuse me, have you got the time, please? Sorry, do you have the time, please? Can you tell me the time please? Can you please tell me what is the time? Excuse me, could you tell me the time, please? Excuse me, could you tell me what time it is? Excuse me, do you have the time? : 1:00: It's one o' clock. . 3:00: It is three o'clock. . 10:00: It is ten o'clock.
Page 205 of 361

. It's ___ o' clock.(two/there/four/five/six/seven/eight/nine/ten/eleven/twelve) . . 8:00: It's eight o'clock. . 8:05: It's five past eight. 8 5 8:10: It's ten past eight. 8 10 8:15: It's quarter past eight. . 8:20: It's twenty past eight. . 8:30: It's half past eight. . 8:40: It's twenty to nine. .( 8:45: It's quarter to nine. .( 8:50: It's ten to nine. 10. ( 8:55: It's five to nine. .( 9:00: It's nine o'clock. . 8:35: It's twenty five to nine. .( It's midnight. .( 12.00 ) . ) ) ) )

Page 206 of 361

It's noon. ( It's lunch time. . It's dinner time. . It's time to go to bed. (Good night) ( 12.00 )

) ,

. , . , , . .

: Excuse me. what is the time please? It's five o' clock. Thank you. You're welcome. Excuse me. Have you got the time? Yes, it's 5.00. Thank you. You're welcome. Excuse me. Can you tell me the time, please? Yes, of course. It's seven o'clock. Thanks. No problem. : .( .) To be on time .( / ) . We'll leave at 10:10 am sharp. ( ) 10.10 .
Page 207 of 361

"sharp" . "Sharp" . , , 10.11 ( : ! . . . . . . . . . . " . . . ! " ?" ?" , . 10:10 am Sharp" . 10.10 .) , " ( 10.09 . " )

Page 208 of 361

? - 2 (Asking for Directions)


. , , . , , ,

. , . . , ? ; . . . Do you know the way to...? Can you tell me the way to...? Can you tell me the easy way to...? Can you tell me the best way to...? Polite and More Polite ,

(More Polite)

"Could", "Would", .

Could you tell me the way to...please? Could you tell me the easy way to...please? Could you tell me the best way to...please? Would you tell me the way to...please? Could you please tell me the way to...? Would you mind telling me...please?

Page 209 of 361

. Where the nearest HSBC bank is? What the best way to get there? What the easy way is? What is the quickest way to Discovery bay? How can I get there? How to get Stanley beach? How to find nearest Welcome Shop? What the easy way to post office? , . "Polite Form" . Could you tell me where the nearest HSBC bank is? Could you tell me what the best way to get there? Could you tell me what the easy way is? Could you tell me what is the quickest way to Discovery bay? Could you tell me how can I get there? Could you tell me how to get Stanley beach? Could you tell me how to find nearest Welcome Shop? Could you tell me what the easy way to post office please? Would you mind telling me what the easy way to post office please? , " , . . : Excuse me, could you tell me the way to HSBC bank please? Certainly, go straight along this road, take the first/second/third turning on the right, HSBC bank is on your left/right/front. , . , . .
Page 210 of 361

, / , / "

, ,

Excuse me, could you tell me the way to...please? Go straight along this road/take the first turning on the right/...is on your left. Thanks, you've been very helpful. Don't mention it. Good luck. / me", "Sorry to interrupt" . Excuse me, could you tell me the way to...please? Sorry to interrupt, could you tell me the way to...please? I'm sorry to interrupt you, could you tell me the way to...please? "Giving Direction" . : . . ! "Excuse

Page 211 of 361

Aangilam Mini Lessons


! , . " , 1 "Grammar Patterns" . , . . (Simple Letters) . How To Use Capital Letters 1. . (Capital letters are always used at the beginning of a sentence.) : The car is running I am looking for a job. He doesnt understand. Do you speak in English? Where are you going? 2. , . . , , , , , , , , (CAPITAL LETTERS) . " . .

Page 212 of 361

2.

: Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday

3. : January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December 4. 5. , Kilinochchi 6. 7. 8. 9. : Ellalan, Iravanan, Sarmilan, Kavitha, Thamilovia, Tamilnenjan, Tamilselvan : Jaffna, Chennai, Point Pedro, Betticola, Tricomalee, Madurai,

: Tamileelam, India, America, British, France, Netherland, Norway, Japan : Tamil, English, Chinese, Latin, French, Indhi : Hindu, Islam, Christian, Buddhism - God, The Prophet Mohammed, Jesus " " .( "i" "I" )

10. "

" . . : : MBBS, LLB : USA, UK, UAE : MGR, MRR "Abbreviation"

. .) " .

.(

Abbreviation"

Page 213 of 361

2 (Use a/an - Vowels and Consonant)


26 - 21 . Vowels Sound aeiou=5 Consonant Sound b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z = 21 / a, an ? "an" . . ? "a" - 5,

"a" : I am a Sri Lankan . I am a student. . This is a car . This is a book. . He is a teacher. . a, e, i, o, u / .

"an"

Page 214 of 361

: This is an animal - (animal begins with a vowel sound) . I am an Indian . I am an English teacher . He is an old man ( ) .

. . a, e, i, o, u a a user a consonant 'y' sound, so 'a' is used) a university . a European country sound) an an hour with vowels 'a' sound) an honour , , ,
Page 215 of 361

. (sounds like 'yoo-zer,' i.e. begins with a

. (sounds like 'yer-o-pi-an,' i.e. begins with consonant 'y'

. . (sounds like 'a-our,' begins

hour an

our

, . . . . "Grammar Patterns"

Page 216 of 361

3 (Date and Money)


" ; . . " " . : 1954 nineteen fifty-four 1977 nineteen seventy-seven 1983 nineteen eighty-three . 2000 = two thousand 2001 = two thousand and one 2002 = two thousand and two 2009 = thousand and nine . 2010 = twenty ten 2011 = twenty eleven 2012 = twenty twelve . 2010 = twenty ten Money "two thousand and ten" . " .

,
Page 217 of 361

'

' .

'

'

: 100 $150 200 , . : 100 - Hundred rupees 150 - One hundred and fifty rupees

120.55 = One hundred and twenty rupees, fifty-five cent. ( ) .

$225.10 = Two hundred and twenty five dollars, ten cent. ( ) 450. 21 = Four hundred and fifty pounds, twenty-one pence. ( )

Page 218 of 361

4 (Abbreviations / Acronyms)
"Abbreviation" " . : : BBC : MGR : British Broadcasting Corporation. : Maruthur Gopalan Ramachandran " .

. ,

, , , " ,

, ,

" (Abbreviations) ?

1. 2. 3. .

. .

. .

"Initial Abbreviation"

"Acronym".

Page 219 of 361

Initial Abbreviations ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"Initial Abbreviations" . " " . . .

. : . . . . . - AI - Amnesty International - ABC - American Broatcasting Company - BMW - Bavarian Motor Works . DND Do Not Disturb FYI For your Information FBI - Federal Bureau of Investigation GB Great Britain IOU I Owe You LOL Laugh Out Loud ISI - Inter-Services Intelligence MP Member of Parliament UNM Under New Management VIP Very Important Person CB - Criminal Bureau CID - Criminal Investigation Department CAT - Committee against Torture
Page 220 of 361

CAT - Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. CEDAW - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. (Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women.) CERD - Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.) CESCR - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. CHR - Commission on Human Rights CMW - Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families CRC - Committee on the Rights of the Child (Convention of the Rights of the Child) CSW - Commission on the Status of Women CBI Central Bureau of Investigation or Intelligence CDC Commonwealth Development Corporation CE Civil Engineer CIA Criminal Investigation Agency CIA - Central Interlligence Agency CID Criminal Investigation Department DPI - Department of Public Information ECOSOC - United Nations Economic and Social Council FAQ - frequently asked questions GAOR - General Assembly Official Records HRC - Human Rights Committee ICC - International Criminal Court ICCPR - International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICERD - International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ICESCR - International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ICRC - International Committee of the Red Cross ILO - International Labour Organization
Page 221 of 361

IPKF - Indian Peace Keeping Forces LTTE - Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam NGO - Non-governmental organization OHCHR - Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights RAW - Research and Analysis Wing UDHR - Universal Declaration of Human Rights UN - United Nations UNAMIR - United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda UNAMSIL - United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone UNAVEM III - United Nations Angola Verification Mission III UNCLOS - United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, also known as LOS UNCRO - United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia UNCTAD - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDCP - United Nations Drug Control Programme UNDOF United Nations Disengagement Observer Force UNDP - United Nations Development Programme UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNFICYP - United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNHCRHR - United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund UNICEP - United Nations International Comparison Programme UNICRI - United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute UNIDIR - United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research
Page 222 of 361

UNIDO - United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIFIL - United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon UNIKOM - United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission UNITAR - United Nations Institute for Training and Research UNMEE - United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea UNMIBH - United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina UNMIK - United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo UNMIL - United Nations Mission in Liberia UNMIS - United Nations Mission in the Sudan UNMISET - United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor UNMOGIP - United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan UNMOP - United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka UNMOT - United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan UNMOVIC United Nations Monitoring and Verification Commission UNOMIG - United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia UNOCI - United Nations Operation in Cte d'Ivoire UNOMSIL - United Nations Mission of Observers in Sierra Leone UNOPS - United Nations Office of Project Services UNRISD - United Nations Research Institute for Social Development UNRWA - United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East UNSC - United Nations Security Council UNSMIH - United Nations Support Mission in Haiti UNSSC - United Nations System Staff College UNTAET - United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor UNTSO - United Nations Truce Supervision Organization UNU - United Nations University USA - United States of America
Page 223 of 361

USSR - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( UAE - United Arab Emirates UK - United Kingdom ( Ireland, Scotland, Wales.) -

England, Northern

NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

BA Bachelor of Arts BCL Bachelor of Civil Law BGL Bachelor of General Law B.Com., Bachelor of Commerce BD Bachelor of Divinity BDS Bachelor of Dental Surgery BL Bachelor of Law B.Lit., Bachelor of Literature BM Bachelor of Medicine B.Mus., Bachelor of Music B.Sc., Bachelor of Science BVSc., Bachelor of Veterinary Science DM Doctor of Medicine DSE Director of School Education DPH Director of Public Instruction DPH Diploma in Public Health D.Sc., - Doctor of Science MA Master of Arts

Page 224 of 361

AMD - Advanced Micro Devices API - Application Programming Interface CD - Compact Disc CD-R - CD-Recordable CD-ROM - CD Read-Only Memory CD-RW - CD Re-Writable CPU - Central Processing Unit DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory DVD - Digital Video Disc WWW - World Wide Web

'' " " . Mr - Mister (always abbreviated) Mrs - Mistress (always abbreviated) .

"

, . kg - kilogram(s) km - kilometer(s) B.C. - Before Christ A.D. - Anno Domini (in the year of the Lord) ( a.m. - Ante Meridiem p.m. - Post Meridiem (before midday) ( (after midday) ( )
Page 225 of 361

) )

etc. - et cetera ("and the others", "and other things", "and the rest") ( e.g. - exempli gratia (means "for example) ( AC - Alternating Current DC - Direct Current Ltd - Limited Acronyms ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"Acronyms" ? "Acronyms" . ; )

. (In this case the first letters from each word actually form another word) , " : LASER - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation " "Acronym" - - . . "Acronyms". " ." z " " .

SARS - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. BAFTA British Academy of Film and Television Arts. DEFRA Department for Environment Foods and Rural Affairs. JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group. SALT Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty. NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Page 226 of 361

NASA National Aeronautical and Space Administration. OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. WHO World Health Organization. RADAR - Radio Detection And Ranging. RAM Random Access Memory.

, .

(Abbreviation used in this Dictionary) .

Page 227 of 361

5 (Grammatical Person in English)

. . .

" ?" ." . , . . " !

. ."

. . ,

. ." ? , , . ? SINGULAR I You (First Person Singular (Second Person Singular , , ) . .

) (Third Person Singular )


Page 228 of 361

He, She, It -

PLURAL We You They / (First Person Plural (Second Person Plural (Third Person Plural ) Third Person Singular, Second Person Singular . . . ) )

Page 229 of 361

6 (English Language: List of abbreviations)

, . , . AAAL - American Association for Applied Linguistics.

(Abbreviations) ,

ACTFL - American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. AE - American English. ARELS Association of Recognized English Language Services. BAAL - British Association of Applied Linguistics. BASELS British Association of State English Language teaching. BC - British Council. BEC - Business English Certificate. BrE - British English. BVT - Bilingual Vocational Training. CAE - Certificate of Advanced English. CALI - Computer-Assisted Language Instruction. CALL - Computer-Assisted Language Learning. CanE - Canadian English. CAT - Computer Adaptive Testing. CBT - Computer-Based Teaching. CEELT - Cambridge Examination in English for Language Teachers. (That tests the English skills of non-native teachers of English.) CEIBT - Certificate in English for International Business and Trade for advanced levels. CILTR Centre for Information in English on Language Teaching and Research. CPE - Certificate of Proficiency in English (The fifth and the most advanced of Cambridge's series of exams. (Roughly comparable to a score of 600-650 on the TOEFL))
Page 230 of 361

CELTA - Certificate in English language teaching to adults. CTEFLA Certificate in the teaching of English as a Foreign Language to Adults. DELTA - Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults. EAP - English for Academic Purposes. ECCE - Exam for the Certificate of Competency in English. (Michigan University) - lower level ECPE - Exam for the Certificate of Proficiency in English. (Michigan University) - higher level EFL - English as a Foreign Language. EGP - English for General Purposes. EIP - English as an International Language. ELICOS - English Language Intensive Courses to Overseas Students. (Australia) ELT - English Language Teaching. ESL - English as a Second Language. ESOL - English for Speakers of Other Languages. ESP - English for Special Purposes (Business English, English for tourism, etc.) ETS - Educational Testing Service. FCE - First Certificate in English. GMAT - Graduate Management Admission Test. GPA - Grade Point Average. GRE - Graduate Record Examination. IATEFL - International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language. IPA - International Phonetic Association. IELTS International English Language Testing System. KET - Key English Test. (The most elementary of Cambridge's series of exams.) LEP - Limited English Proficient. NATECLA - National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages to Adults. (UK) NATESOL - National Association of Teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages.
Page 231 of 361

NCTE - National Council of Teachers of English. NLP - Neuro Linguistic Programming. NNEST - Non-Native English Speaking Teacher. MTELP - Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency. OE - Old English. OED - Oxford English Dictionary. PET - Preliminary English Test. (The second of Cambridge's series of exams.) RP - Received Pronunciation - ('standard' British pronunciation.) RSA/Cambridge C-TEFLA - Certificate of Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults. (A professional qualification for prospective EFL teachers.) RSA/Cambridge D-TEFLA - Diploma of Teaching English as a Foreign Language. SAE - Standard American English. SAT - Scholastic Assessment (Aptitude) Test. (Pre-university entrance exam in the USA.) TEFL - Teaching English as a Foreign Language. TEFLA - Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults. TEIL - Teaching English as an International Language. TESL - Teaching English as a Second Language. TESOL - Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language. (The most common English language exam for North American universities and colleges, also accepted by some British universities and employers as proof of English proficiency.) TOEIC - Test of English for International Communication. (The TOEIC (pronounced "toe-ick") VE - Vocational English. VESL - Vocational English as a Second Language. YLE - Young Learners English Tests. (Cambridge Examinations for young learners.) " .
Page 232 of 361

"

. . , . , . , , . , . ? ; (Spoken English) . , . , 30 , 60 . . , , ,

. . . . ? . ; 30, 60 464

Page 233 of 361

. , . . TOEFL, IELTS , , . : ; , . . 'Abbreviations' ---------------------------------------'Acronyms' . ,

Page 234 of 361

7 (Year/Leap Year)

2008 Leap Year 366 365 . .

. .

28 29 .

. ." ?" . , 31 30 ? ?

. . . . "Thirty days has September, April, June and November. All the rest have thirty-one, Except February which has twenty-eight, in fine, Till leap year makes it twenty-nine". , 28 , . , 30 31 . .( 29 . )

Page 235 of 361

08 (Verb Forms)

. . 1. Base Form 2. Gerund Form 3. Third Person Form 4. Past Form 5. Participle Form : "do" doing, does, did, done . . . Forms Base Form Gerund Form Third Person Form Past Form Participle Form 1. "Base Form" base form . 3. "Third Person Form" . Form" "s, es" Third Person Singular (He, She, It: infinitive + e/es) . . , "Base "ing" Verbs do doing does did done go going goes went gone speak speaking speaks spoke spoken play playing plays played played . , do, :

2. "Gerund Form"

Page 236 of 361

4. "Past Form" Verbs" . . 5. "Participle Form" "ed" . (Irregular Verbs) . Past Form "Regular Verbs" "ed" "Irregular Verbs" (Irregular verbs)

. .

"Regular

, Irregular Verbs

Page 237 of 361

09 ( Word Stress)

; " " (Word Stress) , . , , . .

. . syllable . . ; . . , . syllable

? . . . .

Page 238 of 361

: . . PHOtograph f f . . phoTOgrapher . . photoGRAPHic . , , syllable . . . TEACHer JaPAN CHIna aBOVE converSAtion INteresting imPOrtant deMAND etCETera
Page 239 of 361

to

. TO .( TO

f ,

. "Word Stress" . . . , , , . . (Pronunciations) (Sentence Stress) (Using English Songs With Lyrics) ;

Page 240 of 361

10 (TEEN)
, . , . . TEEN ? , . . ? . 13 - thirTEEN 14 - fourTEEN 15 - fifTEEN 16 - sixTEEN 17 - sevenTEEN 18 - eighTEEN 19 - nineTEEN "TEEN" ; (Teenager) .( ) ?

Page 241 of 361

. Early teens Middle teens Late teens : 13 15 15 17 17 19 . . .

, . : thirTEEN thir . TEEN

Page 242 of 361

11 (Sentence Stress)
10 . (Word Stress) (Sentence Stress) . . ? . What is your name? ? . . . ? . . .

; , . ( . . WHAT is YOUr NAME? ? WHERE are you STAYing? ? HOW LONG have you been STAYing in HONG KONG? ? )

Page 243 of 361

. Content Words - ( Structure Words ) ( .) (Content Words) . . : I + GO + SCHOOL + BUS , , ( ) . I am GOing to SCHOOL by BUS. b

. .

. ( Pronouns It, his, her, we Prepositions At, in, on Articles A, an, the Conjunctions But, because, and Auxiliary verbs Is, are, be, can
Page 244 of 361

: Main Verbs GO, COME, GIVE Negative Auxiliary verbs DONT, DOESNT, DIDNT, CANT Nouns SARMILAN, BUS, SCHOOL, ENGLISH Adjectives BLUE, SMALL, CLAVER Adverbs USUALLY, ACTUALLY, QUICKLY, ?

. . . , .

. " " ? >>>

Page 245 of 361

12.

(Computer Acronyms)

, . . , . , . "Cc" . "Bcc" "Cc, Bcc" , . . Cc - Carbon Copy Bcc - Blind Carbon Copy "RAM, PDF" . RAM - Random Access Memory PDF - Portable Document Format ? .

.
Computer Terms.mp3

ACL - Access Control List ADC - Analog-to-Digital Converter ADF - Automatic Document Feeder ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line AGP - Accelerated Graphics Port
Page 246 of 361

AIFF - Audio Interchange File Format AIX - Advanced Interactive Executive ANSI - American National Standards Institute API - Application Program Interface ARP - Address Resolution Protocol ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange ASP - Active Server Page or Application Service Provider ATA - Advanced Technology Attachment ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode BASIC - Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code Bcc - Blind Carbon Copy BIOS - Basic Input/Output System Blob - Binary Large Object BMP - Bitmap CAD - Computer-Aided Design Cc - Carbon Copy CCD - Charged Coupled Device CD - Compact Disc CD-R - Compact Disc Recordable CD-ROM - Compact Disc Read-Only Memory CD-RW - Compact Disc Re-Writable CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access CGI - Common Gateway Interface CISC - Complex Instruction Set Computing CLOB - Character Large Object CMOS - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CMYK - Cyan Magenta Yellow Black CPA - Cost Per Action CPC - Cost Per Click CPL - Cost Per Lead CPM - Cost Per 1,000 Impressions CPS - Classroom Performance System CPU - Central Processing Unit CRM - Customer Relationship Management CRT - Cathode Ray Tube CSS - Cascading Style Sheet CTP - Composite Theoretical Performance CTR - Click-Through Rate DAC - Digital-to-Analog Converter DBMS - Database Management System DDL - Data Definition Language DDR - Double Data Rate DDR2 - Double Data Rate 2 DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DIMM - Dual In-Line Memory Module DLL - Dynamic Link Library DMA - Direct Memory Access DNS - Domain Name System DOS - Disk Operating System DPI - Dots Per Inch DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory DRM - Digital Rights Management DSL - Digital Subscriber Line
Page 247 of 361

DSLAM - Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer DTD - Document Type Definition DV - Digital Video DVD - Digital Versatile Disc DVD+R - Digital Versatile Disc Recordable DVD+RW - Digital Versatile Disk Rewritable DVD-R - Digital Versatile Disc Recordable DVD-RAM - Digital Versatile Disc Random Access Memory DVD-RW - Digital Versatile Disk Rewritable DVI - Digital Video Interface DVR - Digital Video Recorder ECC - Error Correction Code EDI - Electronic Data Interchange EIDE - Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics EPS - Encapsulated PostScript EUP - Enterprise Unified Process FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions FIFO - First In, First Out FiOS - Fiber Optic Service FLOPS - Floating Point Operations Per Second FPU - Floating Point Unit FSB - Frontside Bus FTP - File Transfer Protocol GIF - Graphics Interchange Format GIGO - Garbage In, Garbage Out GIS - Geographic Information Systems GPS - Global Positioning System GPU - Graphics Processing Unit GUI - Graphical User Interface GUID - Globally Unique Identifier HDMI - High-Definition Multimedia Interface HDTV - High Definition Televsion HDV - High-Definition Video HFS - Hierarchical File System HSF - Heat Sink and Fan HTML - Hyper-Text Markup Language HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol HTTPS - HyperText Transport Protocol Secure I/O - Input/Output ICANN - Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers ICF - Internet Connection Firewall ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol ICS - Internet Connection Sharing ICT - Information and Communication Technologies IDE - Integrated Device Electronics or Integrated Development Environment IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IGP - Integrated Graphics Processor IM - Instant Message IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol InterNIC - Internet Network Information Center IP - Internet Protocol IPX - Internetwork Packet Exchange IRC - Internet Relay Chat
Page 248 of 361

IRQ - Interrupt Request ISA - Industry Standard Architecture ISCSI - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network ISO - International Organization for Standardization ISP - Internet Service Provider IT - Information Technology IVR - Interactive Voice Response JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group JRE - Java Runtime Environment JSP - Java Server Page Kbps - Kilobits Per Second KDE - K Desktop Environment KVM Switch - Keyboard, Video, and Mouse Switch LAN - Local Area Network LCD - Liquid Crystal Display LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LED - Light-Emitting Diode LIFO - Last In, First Out LPI - Lines Per Inch LUN - Logical Unit Number MAC Address - Media Access Control Address MANET - Mobile Ad Hoc Network Mbps - Megabits Per Second MCA - Micro Channel Architecture MIDI - Musical Instrument Digital Interface MIPS - Million Instructions Per Second MP3 - MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3 MPEG - Moving Picture Experts Group MTU - Maximum Transmission Unit NAT - Network Address Translation NetBIOS - Network Basic Input/Output System NIC - Network Interface Card NNTP - Network News Transfer Protocol NOC - Network Operations Center NTFS - New Technology File System OASIS - Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards OCR - Optical Character Recognition ODBC - Open Database Connectivity OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer OLAP - Online Analytical Processing OLE - Object Linking and Embedding OOP - Object-Oriented Programming OSPF - Open Shortest Path First P2P - Peer To Peer PC - Personal Computer PCB - Printed Circuit Board PCI - Peripheral Component Interconnect PCI-X - Peripheral Component Interconnect Extended PCMCIA - Personal Computer Memory Card International Association PDA - Personal Digital Assistant PDF - Portable Document Format PHP - Hypertext Preprocessor
Page 249 of 361

PIM - Personal Information Manager PMU - Power Management Unit PNG - Portable Network Graphic POP3 - Post Office Protocol PPC - Pay Per Click PPGA - Plastic Pin Grid Array PPI - Pixels Per Inch PPL - Pay Per Lead PPM - Pages Per Minute PPP - Point to Point Protocol PPTP - Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol PRAM - Parameter Random Access Memory PROM - Programmable Read-Only Memory PS/2 - Personal System/2 QBE - Query By Example RAID - Redundant Array of Independent Disks RAM - Random Access Memory RDF - Resource Description Framework RDRAM - Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory RFID - Radio-Frequency Identification RGB - Red Green Blue RISC - Reduced Instruction Set Computing ROM - Read-Only Memory RPC - Remote Procedure Call RPM - Revenue Per 1,000 Impressions RSS - RDF Site Summary RTE - Runtime Environment RTF - Rich Text Format RUP - Rational Unified Process SAN - Storage Area Network SATA - Serial Advanced Technology Attachment SCSI - Small Computer System Interface SD - Secure Digital SDRAM - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory SDSL - Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line SEO - Search Engine Optimization SERP - Search Engine Results Page SIMM - Single In-Line Memory Module SKU - Stock Keeping Unit SLI - Scalable Link Interface SMART - Self-Monitoring Analysis And Reporting Technology SMB - Server Message Block SMS - Short Message Service SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol SO-DIMM - Small Outline Dual In-Line Memory Module SOA - Service Oriented Architecture SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol SQL - Structured Query Language SRAM - Static Random Access Memory SRGB - Standard Red Green Blue SSH - Secure Shell SSID - Service Set Identifier
Page 250 of 361

SSL - Secure Sockets Layer TCP - Transmission Control Protocol TFT - Thin-Film Transistor TIFF - Tagged Image File Format TTL - Time To Live TWAIN - Toolkit Without An Informative Name UDDI - Universal Description Discovery and Integration UDP - User Datagram Protocol UML - Unified Modeling Language UNC - Universal Naming Convention UPnP - Universal Plug and Play UPS - Uninterruptible Power Supply URI - Uniform Resource Identifier URL - Uniform Resource Locator USB - Universal Serial Bus VCI - Virtual Channel Identifier VDU - Visual Display Unit VFAT - Virtual File Allocation Table VGA - Video Graphics Array VLB - VESA Local Bus VLE - Virtual Learning Environment VoIP - Voice Over Internet Protocol VPI - Virtual Path Identifier VPN - Virtual Private Network VRAM - Video Random Access Memory VRML - Virtual Reality Modeling Language WAIS - Wide Area Information Server WAN - Wide Area Network WEP - Wired Equivalent Privacy Wi-Fi - Wireless Fidelity WPA - Wi-Fi Protected Access WWW - World Wide Web XHTML - Extensible Hypertext Markup Language XML - Extensible Markup Language XSLT - Extensible Style Sheet Language Transformation Y2K - Year 2000 ZIF - Zero Insertion Force

Page 251 of 361

13.

(Thanks)

. , . ; , , . " ? ! . 01. Thanks 02. Thanks for . . . 03. Thanks for your . . . 04. Thanks to . . . 05. Thanks a lot 06. Thanks a lot for . . . 07. Thanks so much 08. Thanks very much 09. Thank you 10. Thank you for . . . 11. Thank you kindly 12. Thank you for your . . . 13. Thank you so much 14. Thank you very much 15. Thank you very much for . . . 16. Thank you very much for your . . . 17. I can't thank you enough 18. I don't know how to thank you . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------" . How are you? Fine, thanks. I'm fine, thanks. I am very well, thank you. How is your wife? She's fine, thanks.
Page 252 of 361

, (Formal) (Informal)

, "

?" (Formal) .

"Thanks"

List of Thanks Phrases Words , " polite way of accepting sth that sb has offered you.) Would you like cup of coffee? Usage thanks and thank you Oh, thanks. Thanks very much. Thanks so much. usage of thanks " , , . (A polite way of refusing sth that sb has offered you.) Would you like some more? No, thanks. Do you want some more milk in your coffee? No that's fine, thanks. Polite ways to say thanks in aangilam , , . (Used to show that you are very grateful to sb for sth they have done.) Thanks a lot. Thanks a bunch. Thanks a million. Thanks a billion. Thanks a bundle. English polite forms Thanks a lot for your help. Thanks a lot for all youve done. . Thank you. Thank you, Mr. Obama. Thank you, Sir John. Thank you, Good question. ?" " " ?" . (A ;

Page 253 of 361

, , advice.) Shall I do that? Can I help you? I can do it myself, thank you. (Polite way) "Thank you kindly." . " !" (Informal) . I don't know how to thank you. I don't know how to thank you for your help. I don't know how to thank you for your great service. " I can't thank you enough. I can't thank you enough for your kindness. I can't thank you enough for your kind consideration. "

"

. (To tell sb firmly that you do not need their help or

" . (Informal)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Thanks for . . . Thanks for your . . . Thanks very much for . . . Thank you for . . . Thank you for your . . . Thank you so much for your . . . Thank you very much for your . . . . , . , , .
Page 254 of 361

: Thanks for coming. Thanks for your kindness. Thanks very much for your kind words Thank you for not smoking. Thank you for your comments Thank you so much for your hospitality. Thank you very much for your cooperation. . "so much / very much" . .

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, . . Thank you for your kind help. You're welcome. Thank you for your gifts Don't mention it. Thank you for a great evening I really enjoyed it. Thanks for all your help It's my pleasure. Thanks for lending me the money That's all right. : ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, . Thanks - ( Thank you. - ( Thanks a lot. - ( Thank) Thanks you) Thank you a lot) Thanks God ) Thank you indeed.)
Page 255 of 361

, .

Thank God its Friday. - ( Thank you very much indeed. - (

100 . Thank you for . . . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------01. Thank you for accepting our invitation 02. Thank you for accommodating 03. Thank you for acknowledgement 04. Thank you for agreeing 05. Thank you for agreeing to participate 06. Thank you for answering 07. Thank you for applying 08. Thank you for appreciation 09. Thank you for appreciating my work 10. Thank you for appointment letter 11. Thank you for appreciation letter 12. Thank you for arguing 13. Thank you for arguing summary 14. Thank you for arranging the interview 15. Thank you for asking 16. Thank you for assisting 17. Thank you for attending our wedding 18. Thank you for attending seminar 19. Thank you for attending interview 20. Thank you for auditioning 21. Thank you for award speech 22. Thank you for baptism 23. Thank you for barring with me 24. Thank you for being a friend 25. Thank you for birthday wishes 26. Thank you for birthday wishes comments 27. Thank you for blessing me 28. Thank you for booking with us 29. Thank you for bringing to our attention 30. Thank you for business meeting 31. Thank you for buying our product. 32. Thank you for calling me 33. Thank you for celebrating my birthday 34. Thank you for celebrating our wedding 35. Thank you for choosing our hotel 36. Thank you for clicking 37. Thank you for clapping 38. Thank you for clarifying 39. Thank you for clients 40. Thank you for coming to my party 41. Thank you for considering my application 42. Thank you for condolences 43. Thank you for contacting 44. Thank you for coming into my life 45. Thank you for dedication 46. Thank you for dedication and hard work 47. Thank you for defending our country 48. Thank you for dinner party

Page 256 of 361

49. Thank you for dinner invitation 50. Thank you for donation 51. Thank you for downloading our lessons 52. Thank you for donation to charity 53. Thank you for doing business with us 54. Thank you for driving carefully 55. Thank you for everything 56. Thank you for electing me 57. Thank you for employing me 58. Thank you for emailing me 59. Thank you for encouraging me 60. Thank you for enquiry letter 61. Thank you for eulogy 62. Thank you for explaining 63. Thank you for expressing interest 64. Thank you for excellent work 65. Thank you for facilitating 66. Thank you for feedback 67. Thank you for firing me 68. Thank you for flying with us 69. Thank you for forgiving me 70. Thank you for following up 71. Thank you for forwarding my resume 72. Thank you for funeral support 73. Thank you for good service 74. Thank you for greeting me 75. Thank you for great service 76. Thank you for guiding 77. Thank you for helping me 78. Thank you for inviting me 79. Thank you for joining 80. Thank you for job opportunity 81. Thank you for job application 82. Thank you for my birthday present 83. Thank you for not smoking 84. Thank you for new year wishes 85. Thank you for our wedding gift 86. Thank you for offering me the position 87. Thank you for participating in our event 88. Thank you for quotation 89. Thank you for quick response 90. Thank you for registering 91. Thank you for recommendation 92. Thank you for replying 93. Thank you for remembering 94. Thank you for remembering my birthday 95. Thank you for sending your photo 96. Thank you for sending your resume 97. Thank you for teaching English 98. Thank you for understanding 99. Thank you for using our service 100. Thank you for visiting our aangilam.blogspot.com
Page 257 of 361

(English Alphabet)
"English Alphabet" 26 " . abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 26 (consonants) :aeiou :bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyz 26 " "( ) . (English Capital Letters) (English Simple Letters) Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Xx Yy Zz
Page 258 of 361

. " " "

(vowels) .

"

"(

26 , . . ? ? , ? . . , . ! 26 ? ? ? 26 26 . , , ,

"Pangram" . (A pangram is a sentence that contains every letter of the alphabet.) . "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog." : http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/page/138 : 44 "Pangram" :

. !
Page 259 of 361

16 (The vs Thee)
; "The" . "The" , . . . The apple The ball The computer The dog The elephant The fish The great Tamil scholar The higher education The hill The honest woman The honorable man The hours The house The independent newspaper The jam bottle The kinder garden The laptop The map The national park The one The orange The picture The Quran The restaurant The student The tournament The ugly fruit The umbrella The United States The university The vote The world map The x files The young ones The zone
Page 260 of 361

" " " ?( .) (Consonants) b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z = 21 (Vowels) aeiou=5 : "

, , . . ?

"The "The "

"

, , . : "The . The ball The computer The dog The fish The great Tamil scholar The higher education The hill The house The jam bottle The kinder garden The laptop The map
Page 261 of 361

"

The national park The one The picture The Quran The restaurant The student The tournament The united states The university The vote The world map The young ones The zone "The . The apple. The elephant. The honest woman. The honorable man. The hours. The independent news paper. The orange. The ugly fruit. The umbrella. The x files. : The Article Use a/an - Vowels and Consonant "

Page 262 of 361

17 (Most Definitions)

. . , , . , ? , ,

SET
, "Set" Oxford English Dictionary.) . 464 . ("SET" has 464 definitions in the

: RUN - 396 GO - 368 TAKE - 343 STAND - 334 GET - 289 TURN - 288 PUT - 268 FALL - 264 STRIKE - 250

Page 263 of 361

18 (Common Mistakes in English - have vs has)


have, has . . , " . (Grammatical Person in English) . , . . : I have a computer. .( You have a computer. / ) He has a computer. . She has a computer. . It has a computer. . "He, She, and It" "has" . , "She" , "It" ( ) . "He" . ) , "

.(

Page 264 of 361

"have" We have a computer.

.( They have a computer. (

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------? Do you have a computer? Yes, I have a computer. No, I dont have a computer. Do we have a computer? Yes, we have a computer. No, we dont have a computer. Do they have a computer? Yes, they have a computer. No, they dont have a computer.

: Does he have an iphone? Yes, he has an iphone. No, he doesn't have an iphone. " " , . he, she, it "have vs has" . . has .

Page 265 of 361

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------: //I have a doubt in using Have / Has in some places, could you please clarify me. I have done / he has done / kumar has done - i am OK with this now my doubt is how to use have /has in the following situations & why? who have asked ? - should i use have / has ? who have the iphone - should i use have/ has ? School have changed a lot - should i use have/ has? his poem has selected for the first price - should i use have/ has? his poems has selected for the first price - should i use have/ has? students has the power to change the country - should i use have/ has?// ... School have changed a lot - should i use have/ has? . " . School has changed a lot. + ( " "has" . "school" , "It"

+ .)

his poem has selected for the first prize - should i use have/ has? "poem" . His poem has selected for the first prize. . his poems has selected for the first prize - should i use have/ has? "poems" "have" His poems have selected for the first prize. . . . "it" .

Page 266 of 361

students has the power to change the country - should i use have/ has? . "Students" "have" .

Students have the power to change the country. + + + ( .)

. . who have asked ? - should i use have / has ? who have the iphone - should i use have/ has ? Who asked? ? "who have asked" . "have" . : There is a user who has asked. ( There are users who have asked. ( ) ) , . : (Passive Voice) (Grammar Patterns of Perfect Tense) (have/ have got) (Grammatical Person in English) "has" . ? :

Page 267 of 361

(To, Two and Too)


, "homophone words" " " . .

. To Two Too

. . . "To" I walked to the school. . My first visit to America. . It's seven to ten. .( "Two" . One, two, three... , I have two cars . He has two children. . " "(2) .) .

...

Page 268 of 361

"Too"

"

, ...

, .

"

The shirt is too tight. . This question is too hard for me. . I have two computers; My wife has two computers too. . . (homophone words) , , . . . (List of homophones) . .

Page 269 of 361

20 (tw)
"to, too and two" (homophones) . . "two" "o" " . . : Twain: Twins: Twice: " . Twilight: Twelve: Twenty: " Twig: Tweezers: " Between: " Tweedledum: " , " " . (two people or things that are not different from each other.) " " " " " . . " " " " " (10+2=12) (10x2=20) . . . . . " " " " . " . ." " " , "tw" , . "Two"

Page 270 of 361

21 (Like vs Like)

. like . . Like Like / ,

Do you like Hong Kong? ? Yes, I like Hong Kong. / Yes, I do. ,

. , "Yes, I do." ;

"Yes, I like."

. .

Whats the weather like? ( Its cold and cloudy.

) ? .

Its awful. . What are the people like? ? Theyre friendly. ( What was the weather like? ( ? It was freezing. . What were the people like? ?
Page 271 of 361

) )

They were very nice. . : What + (be) + noun + like? "be" "like" " " " " , . . ,

Whats your flat like? ? Its old and cheap. . . . " . Do you like your flat? ? Yes, very much. , ( : . . . . . . , ) "like" " like " "

!
Page 272 of 361

22 (Hear and Listen)


"Hear and Listen" ?

. . , , . (noise)

"Listen" ,

"hear" . Hear = ( .) Listen = " ( " ) ( .) . ,

Do you hear the bird singing? ? Do you hear the sound? ? I listen to news. . I listen to it. . : Listen + to .

Page 273 of 361

"Listen to me!", "Listen to me!!" , ,

; (hear) . . , ; (listen) " ." " . Are you listening to me? ! ... ! " hearing ; listening . , . (hear) .

Page 274 of 361

23 (Day, Date and Dating)


Date . . Day Day " . . Day . " Date date , . Date, Day , .

Day ( ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"Day" 24 " " " Today Tomorrow Day after tomorrow Yesterday Day before Yesterday Another day Midday Midnight Next day Sunny day Rainy day Lovely day Winter day Summer day Page 275 of 361

. " / / / /

. .

/ (

( )

Every day Someday One day Good day Holiday Special day Wedding day Birth day Anniversary day Remembrance day Full moon day Unforgettable day Day to day Day to day work Day to day activities Day by day "Days" Coming days Working days Office days School days Three days before Nowadays One of these days One of those days /

/ /

/ / :

week . , . "day" ( .
Page 276 of 361

. ,

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Weekdays Weekend days / /

/ / / / /

( / (Special days)

) ( , )

, April Fool's Day Christmas Day Human Rights Day Labor Day Mothers day Valentine's Day National heros day -

. ? Date ( ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"Date" " " . , " . Date Dateless Date seal Page 277 of 361

"

Date of birth Fix a date Set a date Date of arrival Closing date Date of renewal After date - ( Base date Date of departure Out of date Expiry date At a future date Day Date , "What day is it today?" . : What day is it today? Monday. "What is the date today?" . : What is the date today? Today is 27th of December, twenty ten. : )

. : 27th December, 2010 : The twenty seventh of December, twenty ten.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Page 278 of 361

. : : 28th December, 2010 : The twenty eighth of December, twenty ten. : : December, 28th 2010. : December, the twenty eighth twenty ten. : / / / . , . : 8/12/2010 - ( 2010 8/12/2010 - ( 12 ! "Date" . , . ! " " ? . 2010 ) . . "Dating" "Dating" ) . . . / / " / " .

Page 279 of 361

(Common Nouns/Proper Nouns)


, " , . , . " ,

. a, an, the . Common Nouns No: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Common Nouns actor actresssuhashuhasi student river holiday religion month day boy girl school car store shop language dog

Page 280 of 361

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

city man coffeeshop waiter jeans mobile book building country

Proper Nouns , " , " .

. No: Proper Nouns 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Kamalahasan Suhashini Sarmilan Mississippi river 4th of July Hindu November Monday Sarmilan Tamilovia Kilinochchi central college
Page 281 of 361

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

BMW Pandian store Wal-Mart Tamil Puppy Chennai Uruththiran Starbuks Peter Levi's Nokia Thirukkural IFC Tower Hong Kong

Common Nouns and Proper Nouns . , . , , . : " " " . " . , , , ' , , '

Page 282 of 361

No: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Common Nouns actor actresssshuhashishi student river holiday religion month day boy girl school car store shop language dog city man coffeeshop waiter jeans mobile book building country

Proper Nouns Kamalahasan Suhashini Sarmilan Mississippi river 4th of July Hindu November Monday Sarmilan Tamilovia Kilinochchi central college BMW Pandian stores Wal-Mart Tamil Puppy Chennai Uruththiran Starbuks Peter Levi's Nokia Thirukkural IFC Tower Hong Kong . (Nouns)

Page 283 of 361

Third Person Singular (He, She, It: infinitive + e/ es)


He, She, It es . Third Person Singular (He, She, It: infinitive + e/ es) I/We/They apply come bring begin drive do draw drink eat forget feel fight fly give get go have keep know lie look He/She/It applies comes brings begins drives does draws drinks eats forgets feels fights flies gives gets goes has keeps knows lies looks
Page 284 of 361

(Third Person Singular) s, .

make meet ride play put say sell send shake sing speak spit steal take tell think understand wear write watch : He speaks in English.

makes meets rides plays puts says sells sends shakes sings speaks spits steals takes tells thinks understands wears writes watches

. She speaks in English. . It speaks in English. . Grammar Patterns 2 .

Page 285 of 361

y ies ) : Try - tries Worry - worries s, x, z, ch, sh, o" es : do - does go - goes 'have' have - has : He , It ( s, es . ) , She 'has' . . .(

Page 286 of 361

(Countable Nouns/Uncountable Nouns)

, . Countable Nouns . . ( Countable nouns can be "counted".) No: Countable Nouns 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 bookbookbookbookbook applesshuhashishi dog cat animal man person bottle box coin computer shirt trouser cup plate spoon fork table chair
Page 287 of 361

20 21 22 23 24 25

bag carton bowl calendar house people : , ? ? , ! . , , .

a book, two books, three books. an apple, two apples, three apples

. (Countable nouns can be singular or plural.) book books apple apples

. My dog is playing. My dogs are playing. , an) indefinite article a/an with countable nouns) My wife is a Doctor. Sarmilan is an English Teacher. , any, a few, may) . (We can use some, any, a few, many with countable nouns.) , , , , (Some, (a/

. (We can use the

Page 288 of 361

I need to buy some new trousers Have you got any pens? I've got a few dollars. I haven't got many pens. Uncountable Nouns Mass Nouns : No: Uncountable Nouns 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 adviceadviceadviceadvice bread sshuhashishi rice sugar sand flour powder dust jelly oil water juice milk gas butter music furniture coffee wet messy
Page 289 of 361

. (Uncountable nouns cannot be counted.) .

21 22 23 24 25

rain knowledge electricity power news

. (We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular.) : Milk . , . , , . . a liter of milk a bottle of milk ,

. ? : . a glass of water two glass of water three glass of water ? . . .


Page 290 of 361

. . ( ( ( ) ) ) , ,

water, wine, sugar, cheese, meat, butter, ketchup, mustard, rice, etc., a glass of water a bottle of wine a spoon of sugar a jug of water a slice of cheese a chunk of cheese a piece of cheese a piece of meat a slice of meat a pound of meat a bar of butter a bottle of ketchup a tube of mustard a kilo of rice a plate of rice

. . , ,

? , . .

( .)

. .

Page 291 of 361

: 1. , (a/ an)

. (They do not take a/an before them.) 2. . . Usually I have two coffees a day. . . (two coffees) , . . (Here coffees refers to the number of cups of coffee.) . Usually I have two cups of coffee a day. ( . . Can/Could I have some coffee, please? Can/Could I have a cup of coffee, please? ) .

. , . . 3. some, any, a little, much .

Page 292 of 361

I have got some money. Have you got any rice? I have got a little money. I haven't got much rice. 4. . (Some uncountable nouns in English are countable in other languages including Tamil. ) . . Accommodation advice baggage bread equipment furniture garbage information knowledge luggage money news progress research travel work , , . . , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Page 293 of 361

, . : accommodation - a place to stay advice - a piece of advice baggage - a piece of baggage bread - a slice of bread, a loaf of bread equipment - a piece of equipment furniture - a piece of furniture garbage - a piece of garbage information - a piece of information knowledge - a fact luggage - a piece of luggage, a bag, a suitcase money - a note, a coin news - a piece of news research - a piece of research, a research project travel - a journey, a trip work - a job, a position .

. (Types of Nouns) . .

Page 294 of 361

(Punctuation Marks)

? " .) ! . " .(

, . , , . . . , . . (.,;;'?""!''-_/\&#*()[]{}<>) , , . , , . , , ! .
Page 295 of 361

, .

, ,

; " . . , . . , " .

Summary of Punctuation Mark


Punctuation Marks Full stop/Period Colon Semicolon Comma Apostropheaangilam.blog Hyphen Dash (Long hyphen) Underscore Underline Question Mark Exclamation Mark Forward slash Backslash Double quotation marks Single quotation marks Pound sign ? ! / \ "" '' #
Page 296 of 361

Symbols aangilam.blogspot . : ; , ' _

Ampersand/and Asterisk Ellipsis Brackets : " "

& * ... (){}[]<>

; . .

. , . .

. .

Page 297 of 361

(Apostrophe)

"Apostrophe"

" .

. .

" .

. 01. . : This is Sarmilan's bicycle. . Emperor Raja Raja Cholans crown. . My sister's pen. . The dog's tail. . The student's book. . : "student's" "Student's" " " ( .
Page 298 of 361

"s" . )

"students'" " "( . : The students' book. . The dogs' tails. . The girls' dresses. . )

"s"

. 02. : I am = Im He is = Hes She is = Shes It is = Its We are = Were They are = Theyre You are = Youre I am not = Im not He is not = He isnt She is not = She isnt It is not = It isnt You are not = You arent They are not = They arent We are not = We arent Can not = Cant Could not = Couldnt We have = Weve They have = Theyve I would = Id Who is = Whos :
Page 299 of 361

Hes Shes . Its Its Its been ( . I would Id 03. . 1942 42 The summer of 87 (1987) " / . : During the 1997s. 1997 " I had . ) It is It was It has been . "Its" , Its .

Do you like movies from the 1980s? 1980 04. , , . :

? ,

Page 300 of 361

Influenza Telephone (phone

flu phone .)

. .

. . , .

My sister's friend's books. . My sister's friends' books. . My sisters' friend's books. . My sisters' friends' books. .

. . .

Page 301 of 361

(comma)

"Aristophanes of Byzantium" , , ( . () . . , , . , , . )

. . :

"No more freedom."


.

"No, more freedom."


, .

. Page 302 of 361

. . . , . . 1. , . : Apple, orange, mango, pineapple, grapes, jumbo, pears, figs Tiger, deer, jaguar, horse, zebra, giraffe, donkey, kangaroo 2. , 19

, (Separate the elements in a list of three or more items.) and .

My favourite actors are Kamalahasan, Vikaram, Surya, Raguwaran and Prakashraj. This fruit basket contained apples, grapes and oranges. Sarmilan is wearing blue jeans, Nike shoes, light green shirt and dark blue cap. : , "and" . : We need to buy books, magazines, video cassettes, and other learning materials for our library.

Page 303 of 361

3. . (Between three or more adjectives.) I like old, brown, wooden chair. Sarmilan is tall, small, skinny and handsome. He brought an old, blue, Volkswagen car. 4. . (Between three or more adverbs.) Sarmilan ran quickly, quietly and effortlessly. 5. , "and" . "and"

. (For two adjectives.) It was a short, simple film. It was a short and simple film. ( 6. .(To separate the three digits of numbers over 999.) .)

. : 5,527 3,983,849 89,883,000 : , . $4.49 HK$8,550.00

. Page 304 of 361

7.

I am originally from Jaffna, Sri Lanka. His address is 56 Larch Street, London, NW3 2LK, England. Chung King Mansion, 36-44 Nathan road, Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong 8. .( .) June 21, 2010 Thursday, July 22, 2010 My father was born on November 19, 1942. : , , . (Don't use a comma if only two elements of the date.) : My father was born in November 1942. 9. . . John Kennedy, Ph.D Saththivel Nirmal, Professor of English Kanagaraththinam Veluppillai, B.A Hons., Dip.Lib.Sc., Ph.D 10. , (Direct speech) . She said, I love you. I love you, she said. "I don't think so," she said, "but I can try." (Indirect speech) . , ,

Page 305 of 361

: She told him that she loved him. 11. "please" Can you help me, please? Could you send me a email, please? Send me a email, please. : "Please" . : Please send me a email. 12. , " " (Tag Questions) . You like me, don't you? You don't love me, do you? Muththaiya Muralidaran is a Sri Lankan cricketer, isn't he? 13. . Yes, I can help you. No, I didn't. Sorry, I can't. 14. "Sincerely" . . Sincerely, Sincerely Page 306 of 361 . "Yes, No, Sorry" . , , .

15. (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) . (before a coordinating conjunction to join two independent clauses.) I want to work as an interpreter, so I am studying English grammar. Sarmilan wanted to buy a new computer, but he didn't have any money. The teacher explained his question, yet the student still didn't seem to understand. :

, . : Kavitha is kind so she helps people. Kavitha is kind, so she helps people. 16. ,

. Sarmilan, the most intelligent student in the class, is always late for school. The Peruvudaiyar Temple, one of the wonders of the ancient world, is in Tamil Nadu. Bill Gates, CEO of Microsoft, was the developer of the operating system known as Windows. 17. , . (To separate introductory elements.) As the year came to end, I realised the days were getting shorter. Rushing to catch the bus, she forgot to take her money purse. Having mastered the use of the comma, it is important to make it work for you in your writing. :

Page 307 of 361

: Inside, the house was a total mess. Shortly, we will be leaving for the playground. Inside the house was a total mess. Shortly we will be leaving for the playground. 18. .( . (obviously, however, unfortunately, in face, surprisingly)) Obviously, I can't do everything. However, I didn't see him again. Sadly, the whole building was to crumble. 19. . If I do a job, I will get experience. If he invited her, she really should go. If she had time, she might come to the party. : ,

. : I will get experience if I do a job. She really should go if he invited her. She might come to the party if she had time. . . , . . ! Page 308 of 361

(semi-colon)

. "colon" . . .

01. , . : Sarmilan is a good English teacher; he teaches very easily. Kavitha wants to go out; Sarmilan wants to stay home. Some people write with a word processor; others write with a pen or pencil. 02. , on the other hand) , , . : Sarmilan is a good English teacher; therefore, he teaches very easily. Kavitha drives a car all week; in addition, she drives a bus at the weekends. You should always eat healthily; otherwise, you might get ill. 03. (comma) , .
Page 309 of 361

"

" (therefore, however, otherwise, therefore, in addition,

: I like cows: they give us milk, which tastes good; they give us beef, which also tastes good; and they give us leather, which is used for shoes and coats. The honorary key note speakers were Dr. Swaminathan, India; Dr. Rand, United Kingdom; Dr. Brandt, Germany and Dr. Roger, Australia. Some of the most well-known cities in the United States include Chicago, Illinois; New York City, New York; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Los Angeles, California. 04. , . : int main(void) { int x, y; x = 1; y = 2; std::cout <<>

"Aldus Manutius" . 1560 . . "Ben Johnson" . , . . 1591

. . .
Page 310 of 361

; ; . : ; ; . ! . : (Punctuation Marks) (Full Stop & Period) (colon) (semi-colon) , , , ,

Page 311 of 361

(Colon)

"

" (:) "colon" . .

. .

, , , . 01. , , . : She needed to buy three things: milk, eggs and bread. The compass had four directions: north, south, east and west. The plans include the following: writing, implementing and evaluating information. Remember what the declaration of independence says: "All men are created equal". The car was beautifully painted: it had a union jack on its roof and stripes down each side. "A boy can learn a lot from a dog: obedience, loyalty, and the importance of turning around three times before lying down." 02. . : Sarmilan: Did you miss me? Kavitha: Yes, of course, I really missed you so much!
Page 312 of 361

Sarmilan: Really? Kavitha: Certainly. Sarmilan: I feel the same way about you. Kavitha: That is such a nice thing to say. 03. ;

. (Specially chapters and verses of the Bible or Qu'ran) : Genesis 17: 26 ( Sura 65:04 ( 04. , ) , . : The concert finished at 11:45 This file was last modified today at 12:28:03 05. . " , " . . : Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope Famous 5: On the Case
Page 313 of 361

" . "

06. . : http://aangilam.blogspot.com , , ,

. :) :\ :3 D: :D :O :x :P :B ! . . :

(Full Stop or Period)

Page 314 of 361

(Full Stop or Period)

"Full stop" "Full point" "Period" . .

01. : I can speak in English.

.
Tamil is a classical language.

.
02. (Abbreviations) . : Jan. e.g. a.m. p.m. etc. 03. . "dot" : aangilam.blogspot.com arunhk.infoATgmail.com 08.07.2010 , " " " . " .

Page 315 of 361

Aristophanes of Byzantium . . . , .

; "" "") . (Urdu uses ")" . (Chinese and Japanese, a small circle is used instead of a solid dot:

Page 316 of 361

(Computer Terms in Tamil)


" , ; . . , . , . , , . , , , . , , " . ,

. 635 .

.( ) No: English Terms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Access Accuracy Action Activate Active cell Active file Activity
Page 317 of 361

8. 9.

Adapter card Adaptor

10. Address 11. Address bus 12. Address modification 13. Addressing 14. Administrator 15. Album 16. Algorithm language 17. Algorithm 18. Alignment 19. Allocation 20. Alpha testing 21. Alphabet 22. Alphabetical 23. Alphanumeric 24. Ambiguation 25. Amplified 26. Analog representation 27. Analog 28. Analytical Engine 29. Animation 30. Anonymous 31. Anti-virus 32. Appearance 33. Append 34. Applet 35. Application level 36. Application programmer
Page 318 of 361

37. Application programming 38. Application programs 39. Application service provider 40. Application software 41. Application 42. Architecture 43. Archive file 44. Archive gateway 45. Archive 46. Archiving 47. Area search 48. Arithmetic 49. Array processor 50. Array 51. Arrow key 52. Artificial intelligence 53. Assembler 54. Assembly Language 55. Audio blog 56. Audio 57. Auto block 58. Auto restart 59. Automated data processing 60. Automatic 61. Auxiliary equipments 62. Auxiliary function 63. Auxiliary memory 64. Auxiliary operation 65. Auxiliary storage
Page 319 of 361

66. Availability 67. Axes 68. Back up 69. Background 70. Backspace 71. Bar chart 72. Bar code 73. Bar code scanner 74. Bar printer 75. Basic 76. Batch processing 77. Beta 78. Binary Code 79. Binary device 80. Binary digit 81. Binary number 82. Binary operation 83. Binary system 84. Bit map display 85. Bit map scanning 86. Bit mapped screen 87. Bit values 88. Bit 89. Bitmap 90. Bit-mapped font 91. Blank character 92. Blank page 93. Blanking 94. Block
Page 320 of 361

95. Blog 96. Blog info 97. Blog tools 98. Blogger 99. Blogger circle 100. Blogging 101. Bookmark 102. Boot 103. Border 104. Branching 105. Bridge 106. Broadband 107. Browser 108. Browsing 109. Buddy 110. Bug 111. Bug report 112. Bus 113. Cache 114. Calculating 115. Calculation 116. Calculator mode 117. Calculator 118. Cancel 119. Capacity 120. Carriage return 121. Catalog 122. Category 123. CD burning
Page 321 of 361

124. CD player 125. Center 126. Central processing unit (CPU) 127. Central processor 128. Chain printer 129. Change 130. Channel 131. Character 132. Character code 133. Character map 134. Character recognition 135. Character set 136. Character string 137. Chart 138. chat 139. Checkbox 140. Chips 141. Clear 142. Click 143. Clipboard 144. Close 145. Closed file 146. Cloud computing 147. Collection 148. Color coding 149. Color graphics 150. Color 151. Column split 152. Column
Page 322 of 361

153. Command key 154. Command 155. Comment 156. Comments moderation 157. Common storage 158. Common 159. Communication link 160. Communication processor 161. Communication satellite 162. Communication software 163. Communication protocols 164. Community portal 165. Compact disc (CD) 166. Comparative operator 167. Compare 168. Comparison 169. Compilation 170. Compiler 171. Complier language 172. Component 173. Compress 174. Computer engineer 175. Computer game 176. Computer graphic 177. Computer language 178. Computer motherboard 179. Computer network 180. Computer operation 181. Computer program
Page 323 of 361

/ / /

182. Computer resources 183. Computer user 184. Computer utility 185. Computer 186. Computerization 187. Computerized data base 188. Computerized data processing 189. Computing 190. Condition 191. Configuration 192. Connectors 193. Console 194. Constants 195. Content policy 196. Contributions 197. Contributor 198. Control key 199. Control panel 200. Control program 201. Control statement 202. Control structure 203. Control system 204. Control unit 205. Conversion 206. Convert 207. Cookie 208. Copy protection 209. Copy 210. Copyright status
Page 324 of 361

211. Copyright 212. Core storage 213. Cost analysis 214. Cost benefit analysis 215. Cost effectiveness 216. Create 217. Crop 218. Current events 219. Cursor 220. Curve fitting 221. Custom software 222. Customize 223. Cut 224. Cyber 225. Dashboard 226. Data 227. Data catalog 228. Data flow 229. Data processing 230. Database 231. Decimal digit 232. Decimal number 233. Decimal point 234. Decimal 235. Decode 236. Decompress 237. Default 238. Definite 239. Delete
Page 325 of 361

/ /

240. Deletion 241. Description 242. Design 243. Desktop computer 244. Desktop 245. Destination 246. Developer 247. Device 248. Diagram 249. Digital 250. Disambiguated 251. Disambiguation 252. Discovery 253. Discuss 254. Disk drive 255. Display name 256. Distribute 257. DNS 258. Document 259. Documentation 260. Domain 261. Domain Name System 262. Double click 263. Download 264. Drag 265. Driver 266. Drum plotter 267. Drum printer
Page 326 of 361

/ / /

[(

( )

( )]

268. Drum scanner 269. E-book 270. Edit 271. Edit profile 272. Editor 273. Educational software 274. Effective 275. Effects 276. E-governance 277. Electrical signal 278. Electronic 279. E-mail 280. Embedded 281. Emulation 282. Encoding 283. Encyclopedia 284. End 285. Equation 286. Erase 287. Eraser 288. Expansion slots 289. Expiry 290. Extended info 291. External links 292. External search engine 293. FAQ 294. Features 295. Field 296. File
Page 327 of 361

297. File management 298. File share 299. File sharing 300. Find 301. Firewall 302. Firmware 303. Flat monitor 304. Floppy drive 305. Flow chart 306. Folder 307. Font 308. Font and word processor 309. Font name 310. Footer 311. Formal language 312. Format 313. Formatting 314. Formula 315. Free software 316. Function 317. Gallery 318. Gateway 319. Global dashboard 320. Global Positioning system 321. Grammar checker 322. Graphic 323. Group 324. Guest 325. Hand held devices
Page 328 of 361

326. Hand held Scanner 327. Handwriting recognition 328. Hard disc 329. Hardware 330. Header 331. Help center 332. Help group 333. High speed computer 334. Higher level language 335. Home 336. Homepage 337. Horizontal line 338. Host computer 339. Hyphenation 340. Icon 341. Identity 342. iDNS 343. iDomain 344. Ignore 345. Image 346. Import 347. Incompatible 348. Indefinite 349. Index 350. Index variable 351. Information 352. Information data 353. Information super highways 354. Information technology
Page 329 of 361

355. Input unit 356. Insert 357. Install 358. Installation 359. Integrated chips 360. Integrated circuit chips 361. Inter language 362. Interactive sites 363. Interests 364. Interface 365. Internal 366. Internal error 367. International 368. International (DNS) 369. Internet 370. Internet protocol address 371. Internet protocol (IP) 372. Internet service provider (ISP) 373. Interpreter 374. Invalid 375. Invention 376. Italic text 377. Iteration 378. Java script 379. Key 380. Keyboard 381. Keypad 382. Keyword 383. Landscape
Page 330 of 361

/ /

384. Laptop computer 385. Layout 386. LCD Monitor (Liquid Crystal Display)

387. Left click 388. Lexing error 389. License 390. Light pen 391. Line 392. Link 393. List 394. Live 395. Log in 396. Log out 397. Machine language 398. Machine translation 399. Magnetic disk 400. Magnetic tape 401. Main Page 402. Maintenance page 403. Management 404. Mechanical calculator 405. Media 406. Media player 407. Memory unit 408. Memory 409. Menu 410. Metadata 411. Micro processor 412. Microphone
Page 331 of 361

/ /

/ /

413. Modem 414. Moderation 415. Moderator 416. Monetize 417. Monitor 418. More features 419. Motherboard 420. Mouse 421. Multimedia 422. Multitasking 423. My account 424. Natural language 425. Navigation 426. Negative 427. Network 428. Networking 429. Neutral point of view 430. New post 431. Non-terminals 432. Notation 433. Note 434. Number 435. Numeral 436. Object 437. Offline 438. Online 439. Operating system 440. Option 441. Orphaned pages
Page 332 of 361

442. Other languages 443. Outsourcing 444. Package 445. Packets 446. Page layout 447. Page views 448. Page 449. Panel 450. Paperless office 451. Paragraph 452. Parallel processing computers 453. Parent category 454. Password 455. Paste 456. Patch 457. Peripherals 458. Permission 459. Personal Computer 460. Photograph 461. Picture 462. Piracy 463. Plug in 464. Pointer 465. Portable Printer 466. Portal 467. Post 468. Posting 469. Posts 470. Preferences /

Page 333 of 361

471. Presentation 472. Press 473. Preview 474. Principals 475. Print 476. Printer 477. Privacy 478. Problem 479. Processor 480. Program 481. Programmers 482. Programming language 483. Prompt 484. Protect 485. Protection log 486. Protocols 487. Proxy Server 488. Public domain 489. Publications 490. Publish 491. Publisher 492. Publishing 493. Query 494. RAM (Random access memory) 495. Random Page 496. Recent changes 497. Recovery tool 498. Redirects 499. Redo /
Page 334 of 361

/ /

500. Reference desk 501. Reference 502. Refresh 503. Reinstall 504. Release 505. Remember me 506. Removal 507. Remove 508. Replace 509. Reprogramming 510. Required 511. Reset 512. Restore 513. Result 514. Review 515. Revision 516. Right click 517. Root 518. Root directory 519. Router 520. Row 521. Rule 522. Save 523. Save as 524. Scanner 525. Screensaver 526. Search 527. Search engine 528. Search query
Page 335 of 361

/ /

529. Search 530. Section 531. See also 532. Select 533. Sensor 534. Server 535. Sessions 536. Setting 537. Share my profile 538. Shared files 539. Shareware 540. Shortcut 541. Show all 542. Shutdown 543. Sign in 544. Sign off 545. Sign out 546. Single click 547. Sister Projects 548. Site feed 549. Socket 550. Software 551. Software package 552. Sorting algorithms 553. Sorting and searching 554. Sound Card 555. Source code 556. Source 557. Space /

/ / /

Page 336 of 361

558. Spacing 559. Spam 560. Speaker 561. Special pages 562. Specification 563. Spell checker 564. Split 565. Spooler 566. Spreadsheet 567. Standard 568. Standardisation 569. Stats 570. String literals 571. Structured programming 572. Stub 573. Subtitle 574. Suffix 575. Super Computer 576. Support 577. Syntax error 578. Sysop 579. System operator 580. System programmer 581. System 582. Tab 583. Technology 584. Template 585. Terminal 586. Terms of service
Page 337 of 361

587. Text formatting 588. Text to speech 589. Text to voice 590. Theme 591. Theory 592. Thesis 593. Time zone 594. Title 595. Toolbar 596. Top level domain 597. Transistor 598. Trash 599. Uncategorized 600. Undo 601. Unit 602. Update 603. Upgrade 604. Upload 605. URL 606. User 607. User account 608. Users guide 609. Utility 610. Vandalism 611. Variable 612. Version 613. Video blog 614. Video 615. View profile
Page 338 of 361

616. View 617. Viewer 618. Virtual server 619. Virus 620. Visitor 621. Voice mail 622. Voice recognition 623. Volume 624. Watch list 625. Watch 626. Website 627. Window 628. Wireless 629. Wish list 630. Wizard 631. Word processor 632. Working environment 633. Worksheet 634. Workstation 635. World Wide Web (WWW) /

. . . : Application =
Page 339 of 361

Architecture = Home = : Application = Architecture = Home =

, . . . . : "Blog = " "Comment = " , " , , " . , , . , , " , "

. . .

, . " "
Page 340 of 361

"

" "Emperor" . ;

"The great King"

"Maharaja" . , . Google = Yahoo = = Maharaja (Organization Limited)

. , Customize = )" , . : Moderation = Post = Comment = System = Domain = . , . / (

"Branching = . .

. . .
Page 341 of 361

. . : : http://valavu.blogspot.com/

. . . . ! ,

Page 342 of 361

(Parts of the human body)

. , . .

.
Aangilam. Body par...

No: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8A 9 9A 10 11 12 13

English Head Eyes Ears Cheek Nose Mouth Neck Nipple Shoulder Chest Rib Breast Arm Elbow Abdomen / ( ( ) ) /

Page 343 of 361

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20A 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Umblicus/Bellybutton Groins Wrist Palm Fingers Vegina/Vulva Penis Testicle/scrotum Thigh Knee Calf Leg Ankle Foot Toes /

No: English 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Wrist Palm Thumb Little Finger Ring Finger Middle Finger Index Finger Knee Calf Leg Lowerleg Ankle
Page 344 of 361

40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 52A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67

Toes Toenails Foot heel Fist Nail Knuckle Muscle Skin Hair Forehead Eyebrow Eyelash Eyelid Eyeball Nose Nostril Face Chin Adam's apple Mustache Beard Lip Uvula Throat Molars Premolars Canine incisors
Page 345 of 361

/ / /

/ /

68 69

Gum Tongue

. No: 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 English Belly Back Backbone Rib bone Buttock Anus/asshole Skull Muscular Nerve Endocrine Hip Lung Heart Kidney Brain / / ( )

Page 346 of 361

(List of Provisions)
, . , " " " , . , ( ) , . . " . .

, .
List of Provisions...

: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Acorus calamus Almondsuhashuhasi Anise seed Asafetida Basil leaves Bay leaves Bishops weed Black cumin Black pepper Butter /

Page 347 of 361

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Butter milk Capsicum Cardamom Cashew nut Cheese Chili powder Chilies Cinnamon Sticks Cloves Coconut milk Coriander leaves Coriander powder Crumb powder Cubes Cumin Curds Curry leaves Curry powder (Masala) Daun Pandan leaves Dried chilies Dried ginger Dried hottest chilies Dried shrimp Fennel Fenugreek Gallnut Garlic Ghee Gingelly oil
Page 348 of 361

40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68

Ginger Gingili (seasame seeds) Green cardamom Green chilli Ground nut oil Honey Jaggery Lemon Lemongrass Lemongrass powder Licorice Long pepper Mace Milk Mint leaves Musk Mustard Nigella-seeds Nutmeg Oil Onion Palm jiggery Pepper Phaenilum Pithecellobium dulce (Madras thorn) Poppy Raisin Red chilli Rolong
Page 349 of 361

69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86

Rose water Saffron Sago Salad onion Salt Sarsaparilla Small chilli Small onion Star anise Sugar Tail pepper Tamarind Tomato Turmeric Turmeric powder Vermicelli Vinegar White onion ( )

: 1. Cumin seeds Black pepper seeds Cumin seeds, Black pepper seeds " . . 2. Cinnamon sticks , " , " . "seeds" . "

/
Page 350 of 361

"Cinnamon Sticks" .

"Sticks" " . "

3. Coriander leaves Curry leaves Leaf Leaves Leaves . , . 4. " , , " + = . " . . . " . " " " " " "

Page 351 of 361

(List of Fruits)

. . , .

.
List of Fruits.mp3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Apple Ambarella Annona Annona muricata Apricot Avocado Banana Batoko Plum Bell fruit Bilberry Blackberry Black currant Blueberry Bread fruit Butter fruit Cantaloupe Cashew fruit Cherimoya

Page 352 of 361

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Cherry Chickoo Citron Citrus aurantium Citrus reticulata Citrus sinensis Clementine Cocoa fruit Cranberry Cucumber Custard apple Damson Date fruit Devilfig Dragon fruit Duku Durian Emblica Eugenia rubicunda Feijoi/Pinealle guava Fig Persimmon fruit Gooseberry Grapefruit Grapes Guava Honeydew melon Huckle berry ( )
Page 353 of 361

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

Jack fruit Jumbu fruit Jamun fruit Kiwi fruit Kumquat Kundang Lansium Lemon Lime Loganberry Longan Louvi fruit Lychee Mandarin Mango Mangosteen Melon Morus macroura Mulberry Muscat grape Orange Palm fruit Papaya Passion fruit Peach Pear Pine apple Plum Pomegranate ,
Page 354 of 361

76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

Pomelo Pulasan Quince Rambutan Rasberry Red banana Red Currant Sapodilla Satsuma Sour sop/ Guanabana Strawberry Syzygium Tamarillo Tamarind Tangerine Tomato Ugli fruit Water melon Wax jumbu Resberry Woodapple : , , ( )

. . , / .
Page 355 of 361

: Lychee ( " Lychee" . "Mandarin" . ( ) . . " " . "Mango" , "Mandarin" .

. ? , . " " . , . "Apple"

, .

. ?
, , , , , , Fruits Tamil Glossary, 96 Fruit Names, Names of Fruits in Tamil and English, Glossary of Modern Tamil Names of Fruits

Page 356 of 361

(List of Vegetables)

. .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Alfalfa Sprouts Artichoke Arugula Asparagus Aubergines/Eggplant avocado Bamboo Shoots Bean Sprouts Beet Greens Beetroot Bell Peppers/ Capsicum Bitter Gourd Bitter Cucumber Bok Choi/ Chinese Cabbage Borlotti Beans Bottle Gourd bread fruit Brinjal Brocoli Broccoli Rape/ Rapini
Page 357 of 361

/ / ( )

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

Brussels Sprouts Butter Head Lettuce Cabbage Caigua Carrot Cassava/ Tapioca Cauliflower Celery Celtuce Ceylon Spinach Chayote Cherry Tomatoes Cilantro/ Coriander Cluster Beans Collards Cress Cucumber Daikon radish Endive Fava bean/ Broad bean Fiddlehead Florence Fennel Flowering Cabbage French bean Golden Nuggest Squash Green Onions/ Spring Onoins Humberg parsley Haricot Beans Drum stick /
Page 358 of 361

( ( )

) ( )

( ( )

50

Ironbark Pumpkin Kai-Lan

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77

Kale Kohlrabi Kohlrabi Purple Kohila Lady's Finger/ Okra Leeks Lettuce Lettuce Red Lotus root Marrow Minikin Pumpkin Mint Mizuna Pak Choi Parsley Pasnips Parwal Plantain Potato Pumpkin Radicchio/ Red chicory Red Carrot Radish Rainbow Chard Ridge Gourd/Luffa Ribbed Courd / /
Page 359 of 361

/ /

78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105

Rhubarb Romanesco Broccoli Samphire Savoy Cabbage Shallot Snake bean/ Long bean Snake Gourd Snow Pea Solanum/ Tinda Solanum torvom/ Pea aubergines Squash Spaghetti Squash Spinach Sweet Potato Banana Flower Tatsoi Tomato Tomato Cherry Tomato Hybrid Turnip Water Chestnut Water Spinach/ Kang Kung Wax bean West Indian Gherkin White Bitter gourd White Eggplant White globe radish Zucchini
Page 360 of 361

/ /

. . .

, .

. , .

Page 361 of 361