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Purpose:

To study temperature
Materials:

Safety:

Pre-Lab Exercise:

Structural Molecular Hydrogen


Substance Formula
Formula Weight Bond

Ethanol C2H5OH 46 g/mol Yes

1-propanol C3H7OH 60 g/mol Yes

1-butanol C4H9OH 74 g/mol Yes

N-pentane C5H12 72 g/mol No

Methanol CH3OH 32 g/mol Yes

N-hexane C6H14 86 g/mol No

Procedure:

Data Tables:

Substance t1 (oC) t2 (oC) Δt (t1-t2) (oC)


Ethanol 23.62 12.44 11.18
1-propanol 22.38 13.37 9.01
1-butanol 23.50 21.24 2.26
N-pentane 21.99 10.00 11.99
Methanol 23.22 9.08 14.14
N-hexane 24.27 11.20 13.07

Substance Predicted Δt (oC) Explanation


The more hydrogen present and
the higher the molecular weight of
a substance, the higher the
intermolecular forces should be.
1-butanol Lower than propanol Therefore, less butanol than
propanol should evaporate,
thereby decreasing the
temperature less, resulting in a
lower Δt.
Pentane is roughly the same
molecular weight as butanol.
Therefore, the only difference in
their intermolecular forces is due
to hydrogen bonding, and lack
thereof. Since it lacks hydrogen
Higher than butanol bonds, pentane should therefore
N-pentane have weaker intermolecular forces
and hexane
than butanol, resulting in a higher
Δt. Also, hexane also lacks
hydrogen bonding, but has a
higher molecular weight than
pentane, so pentane should have a
higher Δt that it as well.
The less hydrogen present and the
lower the molecular weight of a
substance, the higher the
intermolecular forces should be.
Methanol Higher than ethanol Therefore, more methanol than
ethanol should evaporate, thereby
decreasing the temperature more,
resulting in a higher Δt.
Hexane and propane both lack
hydrogen bonding, but hexane has
N-hexane Lower than propanol a higher molecular weight than
pentane, so it should have a lower
Δt that pentane.
Processing the Data:
1. N-pentane and 1-butanol are about the same
molecular weight and of very similar molecular
structures, so any difference in the strength of their
intermolecular forces must come from the fact that
pentane lacks hydrogen bonding, while butanol has
hydrogen bonding. The stronger a substance’s
intermolecular forces, the less will evaporate, and so
the less the temperature will change; and vice-versa.
This explains the difference between the Δt’s.
2. As said above, the stronger a substance’s
intermolecular forces, the less will evaporate, and so
the less the temperature will change; and vice-versa.
Therefore, the alcohol with the lowest Δt must have
the strongest intermolecular forces, and the one with
the highest Δt must have the weakest intermolecular
forces, so 1-butanol has the strongest intermolecular
forces of attraction and methanol has the weakest.
3. As said above, the stronger a substance’s
intermolecular forces, the less will evaporate, and so
the less the temperature will change; and vice-versa.
Therefore, the alkane with the lower Δt must have
the stronger intermolecular forces, and the one with
the higher Δt must have the weaker intermolecular
forces, so n-pentane has the stronger intermolecular
forces of attraction and n-hexane has the weaker.