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POWER

r

SYSTEM Inc.

STABILITY

VOLUME I

VOLUME 1 ELEMENTSOF STABILITYCALCULATIONS,1948, John Wiley & Sons, VOLUME II POWER CIRCUIT BREAKERSAND PROTECTIVERELAYS, 1950, John wnev & Sons,· Inc. VOLUME III SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES, ·1956, John Wiley (republished by Dover Publications, Inc., 1967) & Sons, Inc.,

Portland, Oregon . .

ELECTRICAL

TRANSMISSION

OF POWER

AND

SIGNALS;

1949,

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Also published Toppan Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, 1964)

WILBY~INTBRSCIENCB

PREFACE

t

t

Copyright © 1971 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada.

Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright Owner is unlawful. Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

!

II

.!

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 72-142717 ISBN 0·471-47580-7 Printed in the United States of America '1098765

The most exciting new technical development in electric power systems in the last two decades is direct-current transmission. From 1950 to 1970, eight direct-current links have gone into commercial operation in various parts of the world. From the first of these links to the last, the voltage has increased from 100 to 800 kV; the rated power, from 20 to 1440 MW; and the distance from 96 to 1370 km (60 to 850 miles). Several other de links are under construction or proposed. Preceding and accompanying this rapid growth of direct current transmission were developments in high-voltage, high-power valves, in control and protective systems, in de cables, and in insulation for overhead dc lines. Industrial, governmental, and academic laboratories were involved in this development. De transmission became a favored subject for research by graduate students of electrical engineering. The circumstances leading to the adoption of direct-current transmission are diverse: long water crossings requiring submarine cables, frequency changing, asynchronous operation of systems having the same nominal frequency, large hydroelectric resources remote from load centers, long interregional ties, and transmission through congested metropolitan areas. The rapid growth of de transmission, combined with the diversity of reasons for its use, assures for it a brilliant future and also points to the need for a new and better book on the subject. The art of de transmission in the past two decades has been based on the use of improved mercury arc valves. Consequently, this book, in endeavoring to describe the present state of the art, is necessarily based largely on the technology employing such valves. There are indications that mercury arc valves have reached almost the peak of their development. At least, soIidstate controllable valves (thyristors), though not yet used in any major de transmission project, are appearing as formidable contenders for future projects. Fortunately, the technology of employing thyristors for dc transmission differs more in dimensions than in principles from that of employing mercury arc valves. Hence, it is not primarily the transition to thyristors that will in

VI

PREFACE

time render this book obsolete, but rather the continuing rapid development of all phases of the art. My interest in direct current transmission was awakened in 1962 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) asked me to teach two courses in this subject for their engineers. The lack of an adequate text book for those courses determined me to write one. Since 1962, I have taught three more courses on de transmission, and have been involved in studies of various aspects of this subject. I am indebted to the BPA for the opportunity to teach these courses, to work on problems in the field, and to confer with my colleagues, as well as for access to the BPA's excellent library services. However, I wish to make clear that this book is not an official publication of the BPA nor one sponsored by it. It has been a spare-time project. I alone am responsible for its contents, including any errors which may inadvertently appear in it. . The large amount of essential information now available on direct-current transmission and the time required to organize it Jed to the decision to divide the work into two volumes of which this is the first.The proposed contents of the second volume are indicated on page xi. Units of physical quantities used herein are those of the International System (SI) recommended by the I.E.E.E. and I.E.C. I am indebted to various engineers at the BPA and elsewhere for supplying information, especially to Dr. John J. Vithayathil for many enlightening technical discussions. I am indebted to my wife, Ruth Merrick Kimbark, for typewriting much of the manuscript and pertinent correspondence and for her valued advice and encouragement.

EDWARD WILSON KIMBARK Portland, Oregon March, 1971

CONTENTS

1. GENERAL ASPECTS OF DC TRANSMISSION AND COMPARISON OF IT WITH AC TRANSMISSION 1 Historical Sketch Constitution ofEHV AC and DC Links Kinds-of DC Links HV DC Projects from 1954 to 1970 Limitations and Advantages of AC and DC Transmisslon Summary of Advantages and DisadvantagesofHv DC Transmission 1-7 Principal Applications of DC Transmission 1-8 Economic Factors 1-9 The Future of DC Transmission Bibliography 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1 9

11

12

19

32 32 33 35

36.

2.

CONVERTER CIRCUITS 2-1 Valve Characteristic 2-2 Properties of Converter Circuits 2-3 Assumptions 2-4 Single-Phase Converters 2-5 Three-Phase Converters 2-6 Pulse Number 2-7 Additional Six-Pulse Converter Circuits 2-8 Choice of Best Circuit for HV DC Converters. 2-9 Twelve-Pulse Cascade of Two Bridges Problems Bibliography

49 49 50 51 51

56 61

62 65 67

68

70

vii

viii

CONTENTS

3. ANALYSIS OF THE BRIDGE CONVERTER 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 Analysis with Grid Control but no Overlap Analysis with Grid Control and with Overlap less than 60° Analysis with Overlap Greater than 60° Complete Characteristics of Rectifier Inversion Series and Parallel Arrangements of Valves. Anodes, or Bridges Multibridge Converters 3-7 Problems Bibliography

l

i

CONTENTS

IX

6. MISOPERATION

OF CONvERTERS

198

4. CONVERTER CHARTS

'."

129

Chart 1 with Rectangular Co-ordfnatesof Direct Current and Voltage Chart 2 with Rectangular Co-ordinates of Active and Re4-2 active Power Relations between the Two Charts 4-3 Problems' Bibliography 4-1

198 Malfunctions of Mercury-Arc Valves 6-1 199 Bypass Valves 6-2 206 Arcback 6-3 220 6-4 .Short Circuit on a Rectifier . 222 Commutation Failure 6-5 227 Arcthrough 6-6 228 Misfire 6-7 229 6-8 Quenching Generalization of Inverter Faults and Certain Rectifier Faults 230 6-9 231 6-10 Consequential Faults in Rectifier . 233 Problems 234 Bibliography

7. PROTECTION 7-1 . General DC Reactors 7-2 7-3 .Voltage Oscillations and. Valve Dampers Current Oscillations and Anode Dampers 7-4 DC Line Oscillations and Line Dampers 7-5 Clearing Line Faults and Reenergizing the Line 7-6 Circuit Breakers 7-7 Overvoltage Protection 7-8 Problems Bibliography

235 235 235 247 260 270 272 280 282 291 292

5.

CONTROL 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-10 5-11 5-12

5-13

148 148 152 153 154 156 157 158 164 165 167 174 179 180 182 183

5-14 5-15

Grid Control Basic Means of Control Power Reversal Limitations of Manual Control Constant Current versus Constant Voltage Desired Features of Control Actual Control Characteristics Constant-Minimum-Ignition-Angle Control Constant-Current Control Constant-Extinction-AngleControl Stability of Control Tap-Changer Control Power Control and Current Limfts Frequency Control Multiterminal Lines

AND FILTERS

Summary Characteristic Harmonics Uncharacteristic Harmonics Troubles Caused by Harmonics Definitions of Wave Distortion or Ripple

CONTENTS

8-6 Means of Reducing Harmonics 8-7 Telephone Interference 8-8 Harmonic Filters Problems Bibliography

9.

GROUND RETURN 9-1 Advantages and Problems 9-2 The Current Field in the Earth Near an Electrode 9-3 The Current Field between the Electrodes 9-4 The Natural Current Field in the Earth 9-5 .Compatability with Other Services 9-6 Design of" Electrodes-General 9-7 Design of Land Electrodes 9-8 Design of Sea and Shore Electrodes Problems Bibliography

391 391 393 417 419 423 443 445 465 476 478 484 484 490 18. MODELS AND SIMULATION 494

11. DCCAB~ES

12. FORCED COMMUTATION

13.

OPERATION

14. lHGH-POWER

APPENDICES A. Effective Value of Alternating Current of a. Six-pulse Converter B. Fundamental Current, Power, and Reactive Power of a Six-pulse Converter C. Inclusion of Direct Voltage Drops Due to Resistance and Arcs in Converter Equations

INDEX

496

xi

ABBREVIATIONS

ac A.C.S.R. A.E.G. A.G. Ah Amer. Power Con! Proc. ASEA Assn. AWG RE. & A.I.R.A. B.l.C.C. B.l.L. BPA RT.S.

Bull.

ampere alternating-current aluminum cable, steel reinforced Allgemeine Elektricitatsgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft ampere-hour American Power Conference Proceedings (Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago) AIlmanna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget, Sweden Association American Wire Gage British Electrical and Allied Industries Research Association (later known as E.RA.) British Insulated Callenders Cables basic insulation level Bonneville Power Administration (US .. Dep't. of the Interior, Portland, Oregon) Bell Telephone System Bulletin coulomb, Celsius (temperature scale, formerly Centigrade) consequential arcback calorie per gram consequential arcthrough constant current Comite Consultatif International Telephonique (International Consultative Committee on Telephony).

Xlll

XIV

ABBREVIATIONS

ABBREVIATIONS

xv

C.C.I.T.

International

Telegraphique on Tele-

Stantsii force

(Electric

Powerplants),

Consultative

Committee

C.C.I.T.T.

Committee on Telephony Geneva, Switzerland C.E.A. C.E.G.B. C.G.E. C.I.G.R.E. constant extinction angle Central Britain Electricity

Electrical Research Association, Elektrotechnische Elektroteehnik exponential farad iron atom ferric ion ferric hydroxide feet General Electric Review gigawatt henry hydrogen atom univalent positive hydrogen ion hydrogen molecule hour high-voltage hertz Latin for "in the same place" Island International Institution Institute Electrotechnical Zeitschrift.

Great Britain

EIZ

Board, France Reseaux Electri~al (International Great E.u.M. exp

Generating

function

F

Fe Fe++ Fe(OHh ft Gen. Elee. Rev.

des Grands

Conference on Larie Systems), Paris cm Conf. i::onst. cos cosh cot coth CP csc dB dc deg. Disc. e E.E.I.

EHV

High- Voltage

centimetre Conference constant. cosine hyperbolic cotangent hyperbolic cotangent Conference Paper (A.I.E.E. or I.E.E.E.) cosecant decibel direct-current degree (of angle) discussion free electron Edison Electric Institute, extra high voltage Electrical electrical degree Electrical Engineering, formerly published by the A.LE.E. Electrical World New York cosine

GW

H H H+

H2

h

HV

Hz

ibid. Id. I.E.C. I.E.E. I.E.E.E.

Commission Engineers

(New York, U.s;A.), founded in January, by merger of the A.I.E.E. and the I.R.E. J Jour. K kA kg joule Journal Kelvin (temperature kilo ampere kilogram scale)

1964,

k$

ABBREVIATIONS

ABBREVIATIONS

xvii

.M:MF

ms mV MVA Mvar MW

N nF N.I.I.P.T.

kilohertz kilometre kilovolt kilovolt-ampere kilovar kilowatt thousands of dollars pound pounds force per square inch inductance-capacitance natural logarithm common logarithm milliampere . thousands of.circular.mils millihenry magnetohydrodynamic(s) megahertz mile millimetre magnetomotive force millisecond millivolt megavolt-ampere megavar megawatt newton nanofarad

,' ..

"I,

P.A. &S.

P.LV.

Proc.

Proceedings

L

rad/s

Ref.

Rev.

Review

i

~:.

S.LL.

sin

sinh SW tan

T.R.F.F.

' '.co

I

resistance-Inductance-capacitance root-mean-square silicon controlled rectifier second (time), secant Schweizerischer Elektrotechnischer Verein, also known as Association Suisse des Electriciens (Zurich) surge-impedance loading sine hyperbolic sine Southwest tangent telephone harmonic form factor telephone influence factor

Transactions Transmission and Distribution

Institut

Postoyannouo

(Proceedings of the Direct Current Research Institute), Leningrad. No. NW N.Z. OH~ Onto number northwest New Zealand negative hydroxyl ion Ontario

United States United States of America Union of Soviet Socialist Republics volt versus watt with respect to yard year microfarad

xviii

ABBREVIATIONS

1

DIRECT CURRENT TRANSMISSION

)(

Early Discoveries and Applications Both electrical science and the practical applications of electricity began with direct current. Alternating current came later. The basic discoveries of Galvani, Volta, Oersted, Ohm, and Ampere pertained to direct current. The firstwidespread practical application was de telegraphy powered 1:lY electrochemical batteries and using ground-return circuits. Electric lighting and power also began with direct current powered by dynamos. First came carbon arc lamps operated in series at constant current and fed from series-wound generators. Later came carbon-filament incandescent lamps operated in parallel at constant voltage and supplied with current from shunt-wound generators. The first electric central station in the world, on Pearl Street, in New York, was built by Thomas A. Edison and began operation in 1882. It supplied direct current at 110 V through underground tubular mains to an area roughly! mi (1.6 km) in radius. It hadEdison bipolar de generators driven by steam engines. Within a few years similar stations were in operation in' the central districts of most large cities throughout the world. In view of the initial supremacy of direct current it is interesting to see why it was almost completely superseded by alternating current and why direct current is again being used for some high-voltage transmission lines. .

numerals and, in some chapters, including this one, superior letters alone or ) followed by numerals refer to items orto groups of items in the bibliography at the end . of the chapter.

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* Superior

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1-1

HISTORICAL

SKETCH

The advent of the transformer, polyphase circuits, and the induction motor in the l880s and l890s led to ac electric power systems. The transformer, simple, rugged, and efficient, made possible the use of different voltage levels for generation, transmission, distribution, and use. In particular, it made long-distance, high-voltage power transmission possible. The exploitation of water power, usually available at sites distant from major load centers, gave impetus to such transmission. The induction motor, especially the polyphase induction motor, is also simple, rugged, and cheap and serves the majority of industrial and residential purposes. The commutators of de motorsand generators, in addition to requiring maintenance, impose limitations on the voltage, speed, and size of these machines. The voltage per bar of the commutator should not exceed about 22 V lest excessive sparking occur. Thus a high voltage per commutator requires many bars, resulting in a large diameter. A large diameter requires a low speed in order that the commutator and windings may withstand the centrifugal force. And a low-speed machine is heavier and more expensive than a high-speed machine of equal rating. The advent of steam turbines, which are best at high speed, gave a great advantage to ac generators. When ac systems first appeared, there were heated arguments between the proponents of dc and ac systems. Advocates of de branded ac dangerous because of the high voltages used. As a result of their advantages, however, ac electric power systems became almost universal. Power was generated, transmitted, distributed, and used as alternating current. If direct current was needed for some particular purpose, such as adjustable-speed motor dnves or electrolytic processes, alternating current was converted to direct current locally by motor-generator sets or synchronous converters or, later, by mercury-arc rectifiers. The last vestiges of de distribution were the low-voltage. networks in the. centers of large cities and electric traction (streetcar, trolley bus, rapid transit, interurban and suburban railways, and some long tunnels or mountainous sections of main-line railways). Finally, however, low-voltage ac networks replaced low-voltage de networks, diesel locomotives replaced steam locomotives and many electric locomotives, and gasoline or diesel buses replaced most of the streetcars and interurban lines. Some de rapid-transit systems still remain. The victory of alternating current over direct current, however, was almost complete.

Status of DC Transmission During the Ascendancy of AC Transmission

f,

.. They proposed, however, not to replace ac but to supplement it with dc. Specifically, they would superpose a de transmission link on an ac system or interconnect two ac systems by a dc transmission tie line. Generation, use, and even most transmission and distribution, would remain by ac. Such a de transmission scheme requires that ac be converted to de at the sending end of the de link and that de be converted to ac at the receiving end. The feasibility and advantageousness of the scheme depended on the development of suitable converters for the required high voltage and power. The development of suitable converters is considered shortly. First, however, let us turn aside to describe the Thury de system.

The Thury SystemB18

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Despite the general acceptance of ac trarismission, some engineers never forgot the obvious advantages of de transmission (discussed in Section 1-4).

1

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A system of HV de transmission designed by a French engineer, Rene Thury, came into use at a time when ac systems were in their infancy, and it persisted well into the era of ac predominance. This system is interesting both as an engineering achievement and because of certain similarities to modern HV de systems. At the sending end of the transmission line a number of series-wound de generators, driven by prime movers, were connected in series to generate the required high voltage, and at the receiving end, a comparable number of series-wound de motors, connected in series, drove lowvoltage de or ac generators. The system operated at constant current. The voltage of each machine in the HV series circuit was regulated by shifting the brushes. Since the series circuit was normally grounded at only one point, many of the machine windings:had a high potential with respect to ground. It was not feasible to provide insulation between windings and frame for such voltages; instead, the frames were insulated from ground by setting them in a floor of asphalt over asphalt concrete, and were insulated from the driving or driver machines by insulated couplings. " Switching and instrumentation were very simple. Each machine was provided with a short-circuiting switch. A machine was taken out of service by reducing its terminal voltage to zero and then short-circuiting it. It was brought into service by the reverse of this procedure. An ammeter and a voltmeter were the only instruments required. From 1880 to 1911 atleast 19 Thury systems were installed in Europe, principally for the use of water power. The most important of these was that from Moutiers,.in the French Alps, to Lyons,B3 installed in 1906 with a route length of 112 mi (I80 km) of which 2.8 mi (4.5 km) were in underground cable, the remainder being open-wire line. Initially, its rated power of 4.3 MW was transmitted at 57.6 kV, 75 A. This line was built as a reinforcement of an existing ac system and was integrated with it. The Moutiers plant

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1-1

HISTORICAL

SKETCH

had four water turbines, each driving four generators of 3.6 kVeach. At Lyons the greater part of the power received by HV direct current was converted to alternating current and the remainder to 600 V de for the street railway. The over-all efficiency was 70.5%, which was considered satisfactory for a hydroelectric system. In 1911 a second hydroelectric plant at La Bridoire, situated about halfway along the line and rated at 6 MW, was added (in series). The line current was then doubled (to 150 A). In 1912 a third hydro plant, located at Bozel, 7 mi (11 km) beyond Moutiers, and rated at 9 MW, was added, raising the total generating capability on the line to19.3 MW. The maximum circuit voltage became 125 kV and the route length 140 mi (225 km). Operation of the line continued until 1937, when it was dismantled. Thury himself died in 1938. The Thury system performed reliably in spite of the large number of commutators in series. The limitations of de machines, already mentioned, however, made it unsuitable to the larger amounts of power that had come to be required. Further development of HV dc transmission required better converters than motor-generator sets. Development of a Practical Converter

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main electrodes is ignited by a high-frequency spark getween auxiliary electrodes in the path of the main arc and is extinguished after a current zero by a blast of air or mixed gases that continually plays on the arc path. At one time such converters could handle more power (40 MW) than any other converter then available. The life of the electrodes, however, was short, and the voltage drop across the arc was high (500 V). The loss in the are, together with the power required for ignition, air blast, and cooling, amounted to 2.5 to 3% of the transmitted power at each terminal. This is considerably greater than the corresponding loss (about 0.3%) in mercury-arc converters. Valves

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A converter is basically nothing more than an assemblage of controlled switches. The commutator of a de motor, generator, or synchronous converter is such a device. The vibrating reed is an even simpler switching device, used for stepping up direct voltage from a storage battery to a value. suitable to plate supply in automobile radios or as a chopper in stabilized de amplifiers. In these two applications the input and output are de, with ac in the intermediate circuit, which is just the opposite of de transmission interconnecting two acsystems. Two of the more serious attempts to develop a switching converter suitable to HV de transmission are the transverter and the Marx atmospheric-arc converter. The transverter, patented in 1920 by two British enineers, W. E. Highfield and J. E. Calverley, consisted essentially of polyphase transformers commutated by synchronously rotating brush gear. It performed the three basic operations of voltage transformation, phase multiplication, and commutation and could be used either as a rectifier or as an inverter. Since the commutators were stationary and only the brush gear rotated, the problem of centrifugal force was mitigated. Several experimental transverters were built, the largest of which was rated at 2 MW, 20 A, 100 kV on the de side, but none has been used commercially. The atmospheric arc converter, devised by E. Marx of Braunschweig ·in 1932, is a switching device in which an arc between two like water-cooled

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The synchronously controlled switches heretofore described for use as converters can conduct in either direction, and the actual direction of current depends on the controlled instants of closing and opening and on the EMFS in the circuit. Generally, unidirectional conduction is desired. Devices having inherent unidirectional conduction are herein called valves. Among such devices are vacuum and vapor or gas-filled tubes having thermionic cathodes, the mercury-vapor tube with mercury-pool cathode, and various solid-state devices. In their simplest form, as diodes, they can be used as rectifiers but not as inverters. The mercury-arc rectifier with pool cathode is the most suitable for handling large currents. It was invented by Peter Cooper Hewitt about 1903 and initially was made with a glass envelope. The steel tank appeared about 1908 to 1910. In order for a valve to be used as an inverter, it must have a control electrode that can prevent the valve from conducting, although the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. Such an electrode (the grid) was added to the vacuum tube (Fleming valve) by de Forest in 1906. The grid was added to the mercury-vapor valve in 1928. It was then applied to the hot-cathode glass-envelope valve, and the resulting triode was called the thyratron. Later some thyratrons were made with yieel jackets. Control grids were added to mercury-arc valves with pool cathodes about 1930. Although the grid in the vacuum tube can start, stop, and modulate the current through the tube, the grid of a mercury-arc valve can only prevent conduction from starting. After it has started the control grid can neither stop the current nor control its magnitude. Conduction does not cease until the anode becomes negative. with respect to the cathode. Actually the first control element used in a mercury-arc valve with pool cathode was not a grid but an igniter, introduced in 1923. The resulting valve is called an ignitron. The igniter is a rod the end of which dips into the mercury pool. When current from an auxiliary source is sent through the igniter, an arc is started. The igniter, like the grid, cannot stop conduction.

1-1

mSTORICAL

SKETCH

Present-day mercury-arc valves for high-voltage transmission, known as excitrons, have, in addition to the anode and the mercury-pool cathode, an ignition electrode for starting the arc, one or more excitation electrodes for maintaining the arc, and a control grid that prevents the arc from reaching the anode until it is desired that the valve begin to conduct. There are also several grading electrodes placed between the control grid and the anode for obtaining a more uniform potential gradient than would otherwise exist. The grading electrodes are kept at th~desired potentials by connecting them to taps on an external resistance-capacitance potential divider the ends of which are connected to the anode and control grid. This system of grading electrodes, invented by U. Lamm in 1939, has considerably increased the peak inverse voltage that the valves can withstand. Valves for HV dc transmission are invariably of single-phase construction, in contrast to the polyphase valves with mercury-pool cathode formerly used extensively in low-voltage rectifiers for industrial and railway application. The development of valves for HV de transmissioh has been carried out since World War II principally by engineers in the U.S.S.R. and by the Swedish firm of Allmanna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget (ASEA), with which Lamm is connected. A noteworthy feature of ASEA valves is the use of several, usually four, anodes in multiple on single-phase valves. The current ratings are 200 to 300 A per anode. Russian engineers have concentrated on single-anode valves, which so far appear to have been less successful than the ASEA valves. About 1960, control electrodes were added to silicon diodes, giving siliconcontrolled rectifiers (SCRs), also called thyristors. At present these are not capable of handling the highest voltages and powers required for HV de transmission. Their ratings have increased, however, with surprising rapidity, and it seems certain that such valves will soon replace mercury-arc valves in HV de use. Experimental DC Transmission Projects and First Commercial Lines

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The initiative in exploring the use of mercury-arc valves for de transmission was taken by the General Electric Company. After two smaller experimentsB1•2 they proceeded in December 1936 to use direct current on a 17-mi (27-km) line between the Mechanicville hydroelectric plant of the New York Power & Light Corporation and the General Electric factory in Schenectady.P'f The line carried 5.25 MW at 30 kV, 175 A. The converter at each end of the line had 12 hot-cathode glass-envelope thyratrons in 6 series pairs. The ac input at Mechanicville was at a frequency of 40 Hz, and the output at Schenectady was at 60 Hz. Thus was demonstrated a feature of dc transmission that has been important in several subsequent installations: frequency conversion.

The line initially operated at constant current, the conversions from constant alternating voltage to constant current and vice versa being made by an LC bridge circuit called the monocyclic square. Constant-current operation was chosen because the hot-cathode tubes then used could not withstand the high short-circuit currents expected to occur on a constant-voltage system. After the more rugged steel-envelope mercury-pool ignitronbecame available, however, the line was converted in 1940 to constant-voltage operation. The circuitry then used was basically the same as that of modern de transmission systems, fault currents being limited by control of valve ignition. The operation of the line was discontinued in 1945 in the belief that nothing more would be learned by continuing it. Perhaps an additional belief was that there was no future in dc transmission. Meanwhile, two 25/60-Hz frequency changers using controlled mercuryarc valves were installed in steel mills in the United States in 1943. The larger of these, rated at 20 MW, was installed at the Edgar Thompson plant of the Carnegie-Illinois Steel Company near Pittsburgh. The United States was inactive in the field of de transmission, however, for nearly 20 years. A demonstration of de transmission using grid-controlled steel-tank mercury-arc conversion was given at Zurich, Switzerland, in 1939; at the Fifth Swiss National Exhibition.Pt'" Power of 0.5 MW at 50 kV, 10 A, was sent 19 mi (30 km) from Wettingen power plant near Baden to Zurich over a circuit of one conductor, partly overhead and partly in underground cable, _. .,- with earth return. In 1946, Brown-Boveri discontinued their work on HV de transmission. Two HV de experiments were conducted in Germany during World War II at the instance of the German Secretariat for Aviation.D6•19 A 400-kV three-phase line from the Alps to the Ruhr had already been planned, but the Secretariat intervened in favor of a HV de cable line, which, it felt, would be less vulnerable to air-raid damage. The Siemens-Schuckertwerke A.G. began experiments in preparation for such a line. They transmitted 4 MW at 110 kV a distance of 3 mi (5 km) over an existing line from a station in the Charlottenburg district of Berlin to one in the Moabit district.l" A second, larger experiment was to be the transmission of 60 MW by means of a 70-mi (IIO-km) 400-kV de cable from the Elbe (near Dessau) to Marienfelde (near 9 . Ber 1· ) B6 • Thi expenment was to be conducted jointly by Siemens and the Ill. rus A.E.G. The fortunes of war prevented completion of the project, and in 1945 such plant and pertinent documents as survived were taken to the U.S.S.R. as reparations. In Sweden, where the principal new hydroelectric sites are in the north and the principal loads are in the south, HV transmission is required; and, because of the development of valves by - the Swedish firm of ASEA, interest was aroused in the of a HV de transmission system asan alternative to

_ ..:,:;",-

ii

GENERAL ASPECTS OF DC TRANSMISSION

1-2

CONSTI.TUTION

ac. An experimental transmission between Mellerud and Trollhattan (36 mi) began operation in 1944. It aided further development of valves by permitting them to be tested under service conditions. The Swedish State Power Board decided to use alternating -'current for the north-to-south transmission already mentioned. The results of the MeIlerud"Trollhattan transmission, however, encouraged the Board to proceed with HV de transmission by sub" marine cable from the Swedish mainland to the island of Gotland, 96 km (60 mi) offshore." This system, built by ASEA, began service in 1954 and may be considered the first commercial HV de transmission system. The line transmits 20 MW at 100 kV through a single-conductor cable, with return path through the sea and earth. Each converter has two valve groups rated 50 kV, 200 A, 10 MW, the groups being in series on the de side. Each valve has two anodes working in parallel. Building the de link was judged more economical than constructing additional thermal power plants on the island. The distance is far too great for ac cable transmission. Power flow is normally from the mainland to Gotland but is sometimes in the opposite direction. Much of the time when power is delivered to Gotland, there are no generators in operation there, the only synchronous machine being a condenser. Power is adjusted automatically to maintain rated frequency (50 Hz) in Gotland. The link is still in operation (1970) and has a good performance record, One of the mercury-arc valves was replaced by an air-cooled thyristor assembly, which also has performed well. Plans have been announced for doubling the voltage and power on the existing cable by the addition of a new thyristor valve group to each terminal, thereby doubling the voltage. In the U.S.S.R., where even greater distances than in Sweden separate the potential hydroelectric sites from the principal industrial load areas, the use of HV dc transmission was considered necessary.I" and an extensive program of research and development was undertaken, begun as a part of the 5-yr plan of industrial development for 1946 to 1950. An experimental line between Moscow and Kashira (112. km or 60 mi, 30 MW, ± 100 kV) began operation in December 1950.B10,ll.13,16 It was basically an underground cable line, but at times sections of overhead line were put into the circuit. Both bipolar metallic operation and monopolar, ground-return operation were tried. Practical ground electrodes were developed, and various kinds of valves and converter control were tested. A Direct Current InstituteB12,14 was established in Leningrad, which since 1957 has published approximately one volume per year of articles on its researches. A3 A full-scale 474"km (294-mi) overhead line between a hydroelectric plant at Volgograd,formerly called Stalingrad, and the Donets Basin was energized

at reduced voltage and power in 1962 and, beginning in 1965, was operated at its full rating of +400 kV, 900 A, no MW.l Other de lines of lengths of ~ 2000 to 2500 km and voltage of ± 750 kV are planned.

II ,

i

I

i

!

1-2

CONSTITUTION OFEHV

AC AND DC LINKS

l.

EHV transmission links, superposed on alower-voltage ac network, or interconnecting two such networks, or connecting distant generating plants to an ac network, are compared as to their principal components and the arrangements thereof, according to whether the line operates on ac or dc. The ~hr~se "transmission link" denotes the transmission line proper together WIth Its terminal and auxiliary equipment. . Figure la shows a single-circuit three-phase ac line. In general, s~~h a h.ne in the categories already mentioned, one which might be competitive WIth a dc link, requires transformers at both ends=.step-up transformers at t~e sending end and step-down transformers at the receiving end- although III some cases they can be omitted at one or both ends. If the transformers are opera ted as an integral part of the link, only low-voltage circuit breakers are required.

I .~

1

~~~

c

~(d)

'I ~

~ EHV

'\;'. )

10

1-3

KINDS OF DC LINKS

(_~_~_)

Most long overhead ac lines require series compensation of part of the inductive reactance. In the figure, one bank of series capacitors for this purpose is shown at the middle of the line. Three-phase lines cannot be operated, except for a very short time (less than 1 sec) with one or two conductors open, because such operation causes unbalanced voltages in the ac system and interference in parallel telephone lines. Therefore three-pole switching is always used to clear permanent faults, although such a fault may involve only One conductor. This being so, two parallel three-phase circuits are required for reliable transmission (see Fig. Ib). Long two-circuit ac links are usually sectionalized by means of intermediate switching stations for several reasons. Among these are (a) limiting the decrease in stability power limit attributable to switching out one circuit to clear a fault or for line maintenance, (b) limiting the overvoltage when a line is energized from one end, (c) providing a place for the connection of grounding transformers to limit the overvoltages of the unfaulted phases with respect to ground when one phase is faulted to ground, and (d) for connection of intermediate loads or generation. Intermediate generation raises the stability limit of the link. On many long EHV lines, shunt reactors are required for limiting the voltage, especially at light loads, but they may be required even at full load. These reactors are usually placed at intermediate switching stations and are so indicated in Figure lb. A representative single-circuit de link is shown in Figure l c, The line itself usually has two conductors, although some lines have only one, the return path being in the earth or seawater or both. At both ends of the lines are converters, the components of which are transformers and groups of mercuryarc valves. The converter at the sending end is called a rectifier, and that at the receiving end an inverter. Either converter, however, can function as rectifier or inverter, permitting power to be transmitted in either direction. The ac line, of course, also has this reversibility. Circuit breakers are installed only on the ac sides of the converters. These breakers are not used for clearing faults on the de line or most misoperations of the valves, for these faults can be cleared more rapidly by grid control of the valves. The breakers are required, however, for clearing faults in the transformers or for taking the whole dc link out of service. Harmonic filters and shunt capacitors for supplying reactive power to the converters are connected to the ac sides of the converters. Large inductances called de smoothing reactors are connected in series with each pole of the dc line. Some writers claim that a two-conductor de line provides the same reliability as a two-circuit three-phase line having six line conductors, for either conductor of the de line can be used with ground return continuously .or for limited periods, say, a few days per year.

If higher reliability is required of a dc line than that provided by two con:ductors, three or four conductors may be provided. One pole of a fourconductor line is shown in Figure Id, with two converters per terminal. The bus-tie switches 1 are normally open. If a permanent fault occurred on the lower conductor, the converters connected to it would be controlled so as to bring the voltage and current on it to zero. Then switches 3 would be opened, isolating the faulted line. Next the converter voltages would be raised to equality with those of the respective adjacent converters, after which switches 1 would be closed. The capability of all converters would then be usable, and the power normally carried by two conductors would then be carried by one. The line loss would be four times its normal value, somewhat diminishing the delivered power. The whole switching operation would take about 0.3 sec, a time as short as that required for rapid reclosure on an ac line. Each pole would be switched independently of the other. Comparison of the ac and de links shows that (a) the de line proper is simpler, having one or two conductors instead of three, but that (b), on the other hand, the terminal equipment is more complex, having the groups of valves and some auxiliary equipment that the ac line does not need. 1-3 KiNDs OF DC LINKS Direct-current links are classified as shown in Figure:2.) The monopolar link has one conductor, usually of negative polarity, and ground or sea return. The bipolar link has two conductors-one positive.. the other negative. Each two converters of equal rated voltages in series on the de (junctions between converters) are grounded at one or neutrals are grounded, the two poles can operate independently. Normally they operate at equal current; then there is no ground .current. In the event of a fault on one conductor, the other conductor with ground return can carry up to half of the rated load. The rated voltage of a bipolar link is expressed as ± 100 kV, for example, pronounced plus and minus 100kV. The homopolar link has two or more conductors all having the same polarity, usually negative, and always operates with ground return. In the event of a fault on one conductor, the entire converter is available for connection to the remaining conductor or conductors, which, having some overload capability; can carry more than half of the rated power, and perhaps the whole rated power, at the expense of increased line loss. In a bipolar scheme reconnection of the whole converter to one pole of the line is more complicated and is usually not feasible because of graded insulation. In this respect a homo polar : line is preferable to a bipolar line in cases where continual ground current is

Ii 12

GENERAL ASPECTS OF DC TRANSMISSION Rectifier Inverter

i

:

--1~------~-------~~

(a)

r-------------~<----------------~

(b) .

g

00 00

s00 .....

~

00

000 O'INO

t--\O

r-

I' -----3>-+-----

o o

.....

(c)

00

0,,",

-=tN

....

o

00 .... 0

-H-H

..... -=t

-H-H

not deemed objectionable (see Chapter 9). An additional minor advantage is the lower power loss due to corona. Negative polarity is preferred on overhead lines because of its smaller radio interference.

Cascaded Groups

\~

I

I

In each of these kinds oflinks there areusually several converters connected in parallel on the ac side but in series on the de side for obtaining the desired level of direct voltage from pole to ground. Each such converter. consists of a transformer bank and a group of valves.

1-4 HV DC PROJECTS FROM 1954 TO 1970

Ii

The successful operation of the Gotland link awakened interest in de transmission in other countries, A list of the de links in operation or under construction in 1970 is given in Table 1. These links are situated in nine

14

1-4

nv

DC PROJECTS FROM

1954

TO

1970

15

different countries. Brief comments are made on these links, all of which except Volgograd-Donbass were based wholly or mainly on ASEA techniques. English Channel Crossing" The next link to go into service after Gotland was an interconnection between the ac systems of England (Central Electricity Generating Board) and France (Electricite de France) through two single-conductor submarine cables. The distance (42 mi or 64 km) is shorter than that of the Gotland scheme, but the rated power (160 MW) is eight times as great. Each valve has four anodes, and each of two bridges (one per pole) is rated at 800 A, 100 kV, 80 MW. Like Gotland, the Channel Crossing scheme involves crossing water; but, unlike Gotland, it does not use the sea as a return conductor. Because of concern with the effect of the direct current on ships'icompasses in a channel having much shipping, two cables wete laid close together, one operating at +100 kV with respect to ground and the other at -100 kV. The midpoint (neutral) of the converters is grounded at one terminal only, so that ground current cannot flow except briefly in the event of a cable fault. This link interconnects two large ac systems but has a small power rating compared with the capacity of either system. An ac link of this kind would have been feasible except that it would be difficult to control. The British power system has no automatic load-frequency control. Installation of such a control for the sake of the interconnection would have been very expensive. The de link is an asynchronous tie between two systems of the same nominal frequency (50 Hz). Its power flow is readily controlled to a set value. The purpose of the interconnection is to take advantage of time-zone and generation diversity. The direction of power flow varies. The French system has a considerable amount of hydroelectric generation; the British system has practically none. In seasons in which the supply of water to the hydro plants is ample, power can be exported to Great Britain. When water is scarce, power can be imported from there. The Channel link was plagued by troubles in its first few years of operation. Oneof the transformers in the French terminal failed. The submarine cables were broken several times by trawlers, and they could not be repaired soon because of bad weather and rough seas. Since then the link has operated with very little trouble. Volgograd-Donbass Liae'

in the hydro plant may be disconnected from the ac bus and connected only to a valve group of the rectifier. For power flow in the opposite direction the inverter valve groups are connected to the ac bus. It seems that the link did not offer any advantage in cost compared with an ac link, ?ut it was built to gain experience in de transmission for longer higherpower hnes that will be built in the future. Each terminal has eight valve groups (four per pole), using single-anode valves of Russian design, with two valves in series in each arm. The year 1965 was called "the de year" by the editor of Direct Current. Not only was the Volgograd-Donbass link brought up to its designed voltage and power,but also two additional de transmission schemes (New Zealand and Kon~i-Skan) a~d ~ frequency changer at Sakuma, Japan, went into operation. ~ third transmission (Sardinia) was expected to go into operation, but It was delayed . year.

New Zealand Link] To meet the growing demand for power on the North Island, either additiona~ steam-electric power plants would have to be built there, or hydroelectnc power plants would have to be built on the South Island, from which the power would be transmitted electrically to the North Island. Submarine cables.24 rni (39. km) long would be required across Cook Strait, which separates the two Islands. The hydroelectric alternative was more economical and. it was chosen. Di~ect-current transmission was selected as being more feasible than ac for this long water crossing. Three de cables are used (one for each pole and ~ s~are), but 11 ac cables would have been required (for three three-phase CIrCUItsand two spares), which would have occupied a wide belt of sea bed. The decision was made even before the English Channel scheme was in operation. The transmission system includes, in addition to the submarine cables 335 mi (535 km) of overhead bipolar transmission line on the South Island and 25 mi (40 km) on the North Island. It extends from Benmore power plant on the South Island to Haywards Substation on the North Island near the city of Wellington. The power rating of 600 MW is considerable' compared with the aggregate generation on either island then (1400 MW on the North Island and less on the South Island) and slightly exceeds the rating of the Benmore plant. The cost of the de-transmission scheme was about twothirds of that of the ac-transmission scheme that was considered as an alternative. Ground return is used in emergencies when one pole of a converter or the transmission circuit is faulted.

When built, this was the longest de line. It usually carries power from a hydroelectric power plant on the Volga River at Volgograd to an industrial and mining district in the Donets Basin. For such an operation generators

16

1-4 ~

I

HV DC PROJECTS FROM

1954 TO 1970

17

The valves, manufactured by ASEA, are rated at 1.2 leA, 125 kV, and have four anodes.

Konti-Skan LinkK

is the usual direction, although the opposite direction holds when the Sardinian plant is shut down. Power flow is regulated so as to keep constant frequency on the Sardinian ac system. The valves are similar to those of several other schemes. are rated at 1.0 kA. 100 kV, and have four anodes.

Vancouver Island Scheme"

This is an interconnection between Sweden and Denmark and thus, through previously existing ac connections, between Germany and the rest of Western Europe and the Scandinavian countries. It crosses the Kattegat by way of the island of Laesa and has two cable sections and overhead sections on the island and at each end. The de scheme was compared with an ac scheme having a shorter cable. The cost of the two schemes was approximately equal, but the de scheme presented two advantages over the ac: 1. The dc line provides an asynchronous tie. The stability limit of the ac scheme was estimated as 350 MW; the ultimate power capability of the de link was 500 MW. The need for expensive load-frequency regulation is avoided. . 2. The de scheme can be built in two stages, and thus almost half of the investment can be postponed. The first stage operates monopolarly with one submarine cable and sea return at a power capability of 250 MW. In the second stage the line will be a bipolar, metallic circuit for 500 MW, with sea return used only in emergencies. Four-anode, 1.1-kA, 125-kV valves are used.

Sakuma Frequency Changer

'l

I

This provides a dc connection between the mainland of the Canadian province of British Columbia at Arnott, south of the mouth Of the Fraser River, and Vancouver Island. It is being built in stages of 78 MWeach, with an expected final power of 312 MW. It crosses the Strait of Georgia by submarine cable .' Island by overhead line. The four-anode valves are rated at kV. This is the first which a de link. operates in parallel with an ac link.

Pacific Norrhwest-Pacific Southwest Interties'"

This station was put into operation in 1965, interconnecting the 50- and 60-Hz systems of Japan. It can transmit 300 MW in either direction. There is no de transmission line, the de circuits being confined to the station. With minor exceptions, the equipment and circuits are like those of a transmission scheme. The valves are similar to those of the New Zealand and Konti-Skan links.

Sardinian Scheme':

In order to use large deposits of low-grade coal on the Italian island of Sardinia, a thermal power plant was built there, and a de link was built connecting it, by way of the French island of Corsica, to the Italian mainland near La Spezia. This link consists mainly of submarine cable, with some overhead line on Corsica and at the ends. A peculiarity of this scheme is that the line has two conductors of the same polarity, with sea return. The polarity is negative when power is transmitted from Sardinia to the mainland, which

The purpose of this scheme is to take advantage of seasonal diversity in load and generation between the northwest area,comprising the states of Washington and Oregon, and the southwest area, comprising southern California and Arizona. The entire scheme includes two 500-kV ac circuits with a total length of 905 mi (1450 km) from the Columbia River to the vicinity of Los Angeles and two ±400-kV bipolar de circuits. The first de circuit is froin Celilo substation near The Dalles, Oregon, to Sylmar substation, near Los Angeles. The second de circuit is planned to be built from Celilo to Mead substation near Hoover Dam at Boulder City, Nevada. The power ratings of the ac lines are 1000 MW each and those of the de lines 1440 MW each. A third dc line, the so-called "de cross tie," from Sylmar to Mead, about 270 mi (430 km), has been discussed, but there is no definite plan for building it. Each of the two de lines exceeds any previous de line in length and in power rating, although the rated voltage is equal to that of the VolgogradDonbass line. The valve ratings are also greater, being 1.8 kA, 133 kV, 240 MW per group, with six anodes per valve. . The dc lines operate in parallel with a 60-Hz ac system. Because of the great length of the ac lines, the stability of the ac systemposes a considerable problem, and it was necessary to use a high degree (average 65%) of series compensation.' A permanent bipolar fault on a fully-loaded de line is one of the severest disturbances that the ac system must withstand, although .the occurrence of such afault is believed tobe very infrequent. ...

18

1-5

·LIMITATIONS

AND ADVANTAGES

OFAC

AND.DC

TRANSMISSION

19

Kingsnorth? The Central Electricity Generating Board of Great Britain is interested in the use of de links for reinforcing an ac system in areas of high load density without increasing the interrupting duty of ac circuit breakers. A trial installation of this kind is the transmission of power by underground de cable from the Kingsnorth thermal power plant, situated on the south shore of the Thames River estuary.to two substations in London. This is a bipolar scheme having three cables: one for each pole and a neutral cable. Each pole goes to a different substation, with the result that, although the whole scheme has three terminals, each pole has only two terminals. The Beddington substation is 37 mi (59 km) from Kingsnorth, and the Willesden substation is 14 mi (23 km) beyond Beddington. Whenever the loads of the two substations are unequal, there will be neutral current. This current is not allowed to flow in the ground for fear of damage by electrolytic corrosion to some of the many buried metallic structures found in a metrogplitan area. The rating of this scheme is ± 266 kV, 1.2 kA,640 MW. There are four groups of valves at Kingsnorth and two groups at each substation, each group being rated at 133 kV, 1.2 kA, 160 MW. Nelson River, Manitoba, Scheme"

other. The distinctive feature of the Eel River station is that it is the first large converter station designed to use thyristor valves initially and exclusively. The rating of the station is 320 MW, 80 kV de, 230 kVac.

OF AC AND DC TRANSMISSION

Noting the universal use of alternating current for electric power transmission, as well as for generation, distribution, and use, one naturally asks what limitations ac transmission has that have led to the use of de transmission in some projects. The limitations may beither technical-something cannot be done-or economic-it can be done more cheaply some other way. In most practical cases the technical limitations are not reached, and economic limitations dictate the final choice of design. We are interested in limitations on the amount of transmitted power and on the distance over which it can be transmitted. More exactly, we are interested in the cheapest method by which a certain amount of power at a certain load factor can be transmitted reliably over a certain distance. The power depends on the current, voltage, power factor, and number of conductors. Current Limit The temperature of a conductor must be limited in order to avoid damage to the conductor itself (permanently increased sag) or, in case of a cable, to the insulation in contact with it. Hence the current in the conductor must be limited in accordance with its duration and the ambient temperature. The limiting current is seldom reached on long overhead ac lines because of other limitations' being reached first, but on cables the current limit due to heating . as shown later. ac resistance of a conductor is somewhat higher than its de.resistance of skin effect, but the difference is not important in nonmagnetic conductors of the usual diameters at the usual power frequencies.· Voltage Limits The normal working voltage and the overvoltages caused by switching. surges and lightning must be limited to values that will not cause puncture or flashover of the insulation. On EHV overhead lines, switching surges, rather than lightning, have become the more serious transient overvoltages, and on ac lines attempts are made to limit them to peak values of two or three times normal crest voltage. Switching surges on dc lines are lower than this, say,

The Nelson River has a potential hydroelectric power development of about 6500 MW, including some diversion of water from other streams. It has been decided to develop this power and to transmit it to Winnipeg by direct current. Bipolar±4S0-kV overhead de lines were judged more economical than SOO-kVac lines. Ultimately there will be several such bipolar circuits as the development proceeds by stages. With two such lines, the transmission capacity will be 3240 MW. . In response to the invitation for bids on terminal equipment for the first stage, three proposals were received for thyristor converters and two formercury-arc-valve converters. The proposal for mercury-arc equipment by the English Electric Company was accepted. Each valve group will operate at 1.8 kA, 150 kV, 270 MW. There will be three groups in series per pole. . Eel River (New Brunswick) This station provides an asynchronous tie between the 60-Hz ac systems of Hydro Quebec and of New Brunswick. As at Sakuma, the dc circuits are confined to the station. In contrast to Sakuma, the nominal frequencies of the two. ac systems are equal, although one can drift with relation to the

1-5

LIMITATIONS

AND

ADVANTAGES

OF AC AND DC TRANSMISSION

21

1.7 times normal voltage. On overhead lines, the maximum working voltage or the minimum conductor size is limited also by loss and radio interference due to corona. In current ac practice, radio interference during foul weather (rain, snow, or fog) is usually the limiting factor. Here de lines have adistinct advantage in that radio interference is slightly decreased by foul weather, while interference due to ac lines is greatly increased by foul weather. In cables, where the limiting factor is usually the normal working voltage, the insulation will withstand a direct voltage higher than the crest of alternating voltage, which is already J.4 times the rms value of the alternating voltage. Reactive Power and Voltage Regulation On long EHV ac overhead lines and on much shorter ac cables, the produc- . tion and consumption of reactive power by the line itself constitutes a serious problem. On a line having series inductance L and shunt capacitance C per unit of length and operating voltage V and eurrent I, the line produces reactive power (1) and consumes reactive power (2) per unit of length. The reactive power produced by the line equals that consumed by it, with no net production or consumption, if

voltage (kV)

132

I.

.

130. 300..

830

700

. 1600

43

line carrying its natural load, the magnitude of voltage is the same everywhere, as shown curve 2 in Figure 3, and the reactive power is zero

in

V E

-10

20

30 terminal

wCV2 =wL/2

hence if

~=

(!-_)1/2 C

=Z

s

(3)

P+jQ

In this case the load impedance has the value Zs, known as the surge impedancecifthe line. The surge impedance of an overhead line with single conductors is about 400 n, and with bundle conductors, about 300 n; that of cables is only 15 to 25 n. The power carried by the line so loaded is p = y/= n..

- 0.5

~------L---L-____;_!__,

___J __

.0

10

20

----L,-----___J

.30

V2

Z.

(4)

and is called the surge impedance loading (SIL) or natural load. It is independent of distance and depends mainiyon the voltage. Typical values for three-phase ove~head lines are as follows:

Mostlines cannot be operated always at their natural loads, for the loads vary with time. The most economical load on an overhead line is usually greater than the natural load. If the load is greater than the naturalload, net reactive power is consumed by the line and must be supplied from one ot both ends. If equal voltages are 'maintained at both ends of the line, equal amounts ofreactive power are supplied from both ends (curve 3 in Figure 4),

·.(.

22

GENERAL

ASPECTS

OF DC TRANSMISSION

1-5

LIMITATIONS

AND

23

and the voltage elsewhere sags, being least at the center of the line (curve 3 in Figure 3). If the load on the line is less than the natural load, net reactive power is produced by the line and is delivered to one or both ends. With equal voltages at both ends, equal amounts of reactive power are delivered to both ends (curve 1 in Figure 4), and the voltage everywhere else is higher than at the ends, being greatest at the middle (curve I in Figure 3). In all cases, the flow of reactive power through series inductive reactance is "downhill," that is, in the direction of decreasing voltage. Thus, to maintain constant equalvoltages at both ends, reactive power must be absorbed at light load and supplied at heavy load. The reactive power required for a given variation of load increases with distance (see Figure 5, curves 3 and 4).

4r--.--,------.----~r_----,-----~--~ ___

to supply or consume the reactive power required for maintaining approximately constant voltages. On lines up to 250 mi long, reactive power is ordinarily supplied at the terminals. In the past, synchronous condensers were commonly used for this purpose. They can control the voltage by eith~r supplying or consuming reactive power, as required. Nowadays shunt static capacitors and reactors are found to be more economical. They are switched in blocks. Figure 5 shows some other disadvantageous characteristics of long, uncompensated transmission lines up to one-half wavelength (I BOO). One is their power limit. For any given length I the maximum power that can be transmitted on such a lineis shown by curve 1. His

(5)

where

8=lvLC=~=Pl A

rcz:

2nl

(6)

60

90

120

150

180

Fig. 5. Characteristics of Iossless line with equal terminal voltages E (except curve 2) versus length up to one-half wavelength. Curve 1. Maximum power/natural power, Pm/p rtCurve 2. Voltage at open end/sending-end voltage. Curve 3. Reactive power from both ends/natural power for P = 1.5P •. Curve 4. Reactive power from both ends/natural power for no load (P = 0). Curve 5. Voltage at middle/terminal voltage for P = I.5P •.

If we stipulate; instead of constant voltages at both ends, fixed voltage at the sending end and fixed power factor, say, unity, at the receiving end, the receiving-end voltage varies with load. For a unity-power-factor load, the voltage is high at light load and low at heavy load. The amount of variation increases with the length of line (up to a quarter wavelength). Dna long line the variation of voltage becomes intolerably great; and it becomes necessary

is the. electrical length of the line, I being the actual length and A the wavelength. For a greater load than the natural load, there is a maximum distance' , for example, for P = 1.5Pn this distance corresponds to a line angle of sec _1 (P m/Pn) = sec _1 1.5 = 41.8 and is (41.Bj360)A, or 360 mi at 60 Hz. As the length of line approaches this value, the reactive power that must be supplied to the line increases rapidly, as shown by curve 3, and the voltage at the middle of the line drops rapidly, as shown by curve 5. Another limitation of long lines is the high voltage at an open end (the Ferranti effect), shown in curve 2. This is important when a line is being put into service by first connecting one end of it to the main ac system, for it is not feasible to close both ends at exactly the same moment. Long-distance acpower transmission is feasible only with the use of series and shunt compensation, applied at intervals along the line, as illustrated in Figure 6. Series compensation of degree s reduces the effective series inductance from L by sL to (I - s)L and thus decreases the electrical length=Eq. (6)~from PI to PI"; 1 - s and at the same time decreases the surge impedance=Eq. (3)~and increases the natural load by the same factor. The reactive power produced by shunt capacitance of the line at light load may stilI be excessive, requiring shunt compensation of part h of it. The effective shunt capacitance is then reduced from C to (I - h)C, and the electrical length is reduced by the additional factor J 1 - h or by the total factor

.

0

J (1 -

s)j(1 - h)

and may be

24

GENERAL

ASPECTS

OF DC TRANSMISSION

1-5

LIMITATIONS

AND

ADVANTA.GES

OF AC AND DC TRANSMISSION

25

Fig. 6. Series and shunt reactive compensation for 750-mi (1200 km) 500-kV 60-Hz single-circuit line delivering 1000 MW and having two 1780-MCM A.C.S.R. conductors per phase. Sending-end voltage, 525 kV 10; receiving-end voltage, 500 kV /-29.5°. The series capacitors have an aggregate loading of 1507 Mvar.; shunt reactors, 1275 Mvar.; reactive power entering line from sending end, 193 Mvar.; from receiving end, 355 Mvar. Degree of series compensation, 73%; of shunt compensation, 58%. (Ref. D4, Appendix B, Figure 7.)

In Figure 6 and in similar schemes shown in the-Ref, D4 for other voltages and distances, the compensation was chosen to limit the angle between terminal voltages to 30 and to limit the voltages at the ends and at compensating points to not more than 1.05 times nominal voltage, except that the voltage .at an open end is Iimited to not more than 1.1 times normal voltage. On representative long overhead EHY. compensated lines operating at full load, the total reactive power furnished from both ends of the line and from intermediate series capacitors plus the reactive power consumed by shunt

0

however, draw reactive power from the ac systems. It varies with the transmitted power and is approximately half of the latter at each end. It is independent of the length of line. Usually shunt capacitors or synchronous condensers are installed for supplying this reactive power. Both ac and de lines have the disadvantage of requiring adjustable supplies (or sinks) of reactive power. For distances of more than 400 km (250 mi), however, Figure 7 shows that the de line requires less than the ac line. On submarine or underground cables, the situation is different from that on overhead lines. Cables are always operated at a load much below the surge impedance load in order to avoid overheating. Consequently the reactive power produced by charging the shunt capacitance greatly exceeds that COnsumed by the series inductance.Pf In a 50- or 60- Hz cable, 25 to 50 mi (40 to 80 km) long, the charging current alone equals the rated current, leaving no margin for load current. Shunt compensation theoretically could correct this situation.P'' Shunt reactors, however, would be required at, perhaps, lO-mi (16-km) intervals. Since it is difficult to lay and repair submarine cable to which shunt reactors are connected, the practical length of ac submarine cables is only about 20 mi (30 km). De cables have no such limitation. Stability By the stability of an ac system is meant its ability to operate with all synchronous machines in synchronism. If a long ac line is loaded to a certain value, known as its steady-state stability limit, the synchronous machines at the sending end accelerate and go out of synchronism with those at the receiving end. This condition is analogous to a slipping belt or clutch in a mechanical transmission system. The slipping electrodynamic system not only fails to transmit the power that it should but also gives rise to objectionable fluctuations in voltage. Even if a line is operated below its steady-state limit, the machines at the sending and receiving ends may lose synchronism after some large disturbance, notably a short circuit, unless the line is operated below its transient stability limit, which is always lower than the steady-state limit. Practically speaking, the steady-state stability limit is the transient stability limit for very small disturbances. The problem of stability or synchronous operation constitutes the most serious limitation of a long ac transmission system. The power transmitted from one machine to the other in a two-machine lossless ac power system is given by . E1E2 . P=--smc)

OJ ~

5 4 3

2

~~

OJ

'" .~-:: g~

0.8

.§

CO:c.

CQ=

~y 7~"""'-;OO

1

1500

kV 1000MW

,..,

kV 2000MW

e 8.

-g

C. :::J <II

--.¢.

-"""

/~

~I

-:

:;;.---

_..,j~

. .

-----

--- 800

Dc

-1000

200

Fig. 7. Reactive power requirements of long EHV overhead ac and dc lines at full load as a function of the length of line. (That of ac lines is from data in Ref. D4.)

reactors varies almost linearly with distance, as shown in Figure 7. It is approximately 4.4 Mvar/MW . kmi = 2.8 Mvar/Mw . Min. A dc line itself requires no reactive power, and the voltage drop on the line itself is merely the resistive drop RI. The converters at both ends. of the .line,

(7)

26

GENE"RALASPECTS

OF DC TRANSMISSION

1-5

LIMITATIONS

where E1 and E2 are the internal voltages of the two machines, 0 is the phase difference of these voltages; and X is the reactance of the architrave of the equivalent 7T. circuit of the system joining the internal points. Each machine is represented by an internal voltage "behind" an internal reactance. The reactance X is very nearly the sum of the inductive reactances inside the two machines, of the transmission line, and of the step-up and step-down transformers. An actual power system involving a long interconnecting line with many generating stations at each end of the line may be represented reasonably well by a two-machine equivalent system in which all the machines at the receiving end of the line are replaced by one equivalent machine and all those at the sending end by another. A graph of power P as a function of phase difference-d between internal voltages is a sine wave. Maximum power occurs at c5 = 90° and is

(8)

(a)

0 0

500 MW ~

(b)

AND ADVANTAGES ~ 500 MW

~.

OF AC AND DC TRANSMISSION

27

SOD MW ~

500 MW ~

500 MW

500 MW

500MW

500 MW

1000 MW

500 MW

500 MW

500 MW

1000 MW

Fig. 8. Long-distance transmission by displacement regarded (a) as several short transmission systems in tandem and (b) as a long-distance straightaway transmission system supported by several intermediate generators each having its local load. Losses are neglected.

P", is the steady-state stability limit. It is approximately equal to the square of the operating voltage divided by the series reactance. In a long-distance transmission system most of the reactance is in the line itself, and a much smaller part is in the two terminal systems, consisting of machines, transformers, and local lines. The inductive reactance of a single-circuit 60-Hz overhead line with single conductors is about 0.8 !l/mi (0.5 n/km); with double conductors, about i as great. The reactance of the line itself is proportional to the length of the line, and thus the power per circuit of a given voltage, as limited by steady-state stability, is inversely proportional to the length. The transient stability limit is lower than the steady-state limit, and, as a rough guide, we may take the former as half of the latter, corresponding to a phase difference"of sin -1 0.5 = 30° in the initial steady state. (This value was assumed in Figures 6 and 7.) In an uncompensated line operating at its natural load the phase of the voltage varies directly with the distance, going throughone cycle (360°) per wavelength. A 30° difference, then, corresponds to}2 wavelength. On a 60-Hz line this is 3100/12 = 258 mi (416 km). On a 50-Hz line it is 310 mi (500 km). A lighter load can be transmitted farther: a heavier load not So far. The distance to which the natural load can be transmitted stably can be extended considerably by placing synchronous condensers or,better yet, synchronous generators at various intermediate points of the transmission system. If both generators and loads are scattered along the transmission system, this method of long-distance transmission is called transmission by displacement. As shown in Figure 8, the over-all transmission can be regarded "

I

"~

either as several short transmission systems in tandem or as a long transmission line supported by several intermediate generating stations, each having its own local load. Perhaps the most economical method of increasing the distance of straightaway ac transmission is by use of series capacitors. whose reactance compensates a part of the series inductive reactance of the line itself. The maximum part that can be compensated feasibly or economically has not yet been determined. Probably it is about 75%. By use of this assumed maximum series compensation, the distance for stable 60-Hz transmission of the naturalload of an overhead line could be extended to 258/(1 - 0.75) = 1030 mi (1660 km), Such amounts of series compensation have not yet been used: 35 to 50% is more usual. For straightaway transmission of 1000 mi (1600 km) de transmission would prove more economical than ac. Another method of making very long ac power lines operate stably has been proposed: it is to make the line electrically somewhat longer than onehalf wavelength.D1,5 -7 It will then behave as if it were a half-wavelength shorter than it is. If the actual distance is less than one-half wavelength, the electrical length may be artificially increased in either of two ways: (a) by adding lumped LC sections at the ends or (b) by connecting shunt capacitors at intervals along the line. " A dc transmission link in itself has no stability problem. Two separate ac systems interconnected only bya de line do not operate in synchronism, even if their nominal frequencies are equal, and they can operate at different nominal frequencies, for example, one at 50 and the other at 60 Hz." Each of the separate ac systems may have its own internal stability problems. The sustained interruption of the power on the de line constitutes a mild threatto

28

1-5

OF AC AND DC TRANSMISSION

29

stability equal to that caused by loss of a large load in the sending-end system and to loss of a generator in the receiving system. Alternating-current systems are designed so as to be stable under such mild shocks. If the two ac systems are interconnected by one or more ac lines in addition to a de line of comparable rating, sudden and sustained interruption to the power on the de line may result iri a loss of synchronism between the two ac systems. Therefore parallel operation of one de lirie and one or more ac lines is inadvisable unless the ac lines are strong enoughto withstand the loss of the de line. . If, however, there are two or more de lines in parallel with one or more ac lines, the de lines can be so arranged that if one of them is lost, the other de line or lines assumes its load. In such a case, there is no great stability problem. In this regard each pole of a bipolar line may be considered a separate line.

Circuit Breakers

Short-Circuit

Current

Alternating-current circuit breakers take advantage of the current zeros that occur twice per cycle. They are designed to increase the breakdown strength of the arc path between contacts so rapidly that the arc, does not restrike. Direct-current circuit breakers do not have this natural advantage and therefore have to force the current to zero. So far no successful de circuit breaker has been built for the. high voltages and high currents used in dc transmission. In simple two-terminal dc transmission, such as all projects in operation to date have been, the lack of de circuit breakers has not been felt, because .faults on the de line or in the converters are cleared by using the control grids of the converter valves to block the direct current temporarily. Experience with ac transmission, however, has shown that most lines that initially operate radially, later became incorporated into an ac network. The lack of a de circuit breaker is a handicap to the tapping or networking of dc lines. Reasonable proposals have been made for the operation of a three- or fourterminal line in which a faulted line section can be switched out by running the voltage of the whole system to zero, opening. switches to isolate the faulted section, and then raising the voltage back to normal. The time of the whole sequence of events would be approximately equal to that now required for rapid reclosure of ac circuit breakers. Nevertheless, the lack of HV dc circuit breakers must be regarded asa present limitation of HV de transmission. It is likely that such circuit breakers will be developed.*

The interconnection of ac systems through an ac line raises the shortcircuit currents, sometimes to an extent that exceeds the interrupting capability of existing circuit breakers and requires their replacement by more capable breakers. The interconnection of ac systems by a de link, however, does not increase short-circuit currents of the ac systems nearly so much, for the de line contributes no current to an ac short circuit beyond its rated current. On the other hand, the proper operation of a de line terminal requires that the short-circuit power of the ac system at the point of installation be several (now at least five) times the rated power of the de line, and sometimes this requirement dictates increase of the ac short-circuit power by the provision of synchronous condensers or additional ac connections. The current in a short circuit on the de line, after a momentary transient due to a discharge of the shunt capacitance of the line, is limited by automatic grid control to twice rated current. Nor do faults on the dcline draw excessive currents from the ac systems.

Power per Conductor and per Circuit

Let us assume that an ac line and a de line using the same conductors and insulators are built. How does the power per conductor compare on the two lines? Assume that in each case the current is limited by temperature rise. Then the direct current equals the rms alternating current. Assume also that the insulators withstand the same crest voltage to ground in each case. Then the direct voltage is times the rms alternating voltage. The de power per conductor is

.../2

Pd = Vdld

(9)

=

Vala cos¢

(10)

where ld and la are the curents per conductor, Vd and Va the conductor-toground voltages, and cos ¢ the power factor. The ratio is

Pd jJa Vdld = Vd.!E ..~l_ = Vala cos ¢ Va fa cos ¢

.../"2

cos ¢

(II)

* Some

Taking cos ¢ = 0.945, Pd/Pa = 1.5. Now compare a three-phase, three-conductor ac line with a bipolar two-

30

GEl':lERAL ASPECTS

OF DC TRANSMISSION

1-5

LIMITATIONS

AND ADVANTAGES

OF ACAND

DC TRANSMISSION

>

31

conductor

Terminal Equipment

The converters required at both ends of a de transmission link have proved to be reliable but expensive. They also constitute a bottle neck to the power transmissible, for the valves have but little overload capability. Other terminal equipment on either ac or de lines may limit the voltage or current, hence the power; for example, the voltage and continuous current rating of circuit breakers and the seal-off voltage of lightning arresters.

= 2Pd =

P;

and the ratio is

3Pa

r, 2 Pd 2 -=-.-=-.-=

r,

>

»,

32

(12)

Both lines can carry the same power. The de line, however, is simpler and cheaper, having two conductors instead of three. Consequently an overhead line requires only t as many insulators, and the towers are simpler, cheaper, and narrower. A narrower right of way could be used. Both lines have the same power loss per conductor. The percentage loss of the. de line is only two-thirds that of the ac line,' If the basis of comparison is equal percentage loss, the power of the three-phase ac line is decreased to that of the two-conductor de line. If cables are used instead of overhead line, the permissible working stress (voltage per unit thickness of insulation) is higher for direct current than for alternating current, and, in addition, the power factor for direct current is unity and, for alternating current, considerably lower than that assumed above. Both changes further favor direct current over alternating current by increasing the ratio of de power to ac power per conductor. The resulting ratio might be from 5 to 10. Because the power limit of overhead ac lines is. often determined by factors other than conductor heating, the ratio of de power per conductor to ac power per conductor may be as high as 4.

Harmonics

The converters used with a dc line produce harmonic voltages and currents on both ac and de sides.These harmonics, especially in the extensive ac networks, may cause interference with audio-frequency telephone lines. Filters are required on the ac side of each converter for diminishing the magnitude of harmonics in the ac networks. These increase the cost of the converter stations. Fortunately the capacitors used in the filters also supply part of the reactive power required by the converters. The cost of the filters and of the additional reactive power supply 'should be regarded as a part of the cost of a dc line terminal.

,J 2/3

The power flow on tie lines interconnecting different areas under different ownerships must be controlled in conformity with contractual obligations. In addition, the frequency of the whole system, or the frequencies of the parts connected asynchronously, must be controlled. The control system is a little simpler if the tie lines operate on de than if on ac, but the difference is not important. This subject is discussed in Volume 2.

Ground Return

A two-conductor bipolar dc line is more reliable than a three-conductor ac line, because, in the event of a fault on one conductor, the other conductor can continue to operate with ground return during the period required for repairing the fault. The operation of an ac line with ground return is not feasible on account of the high impedance of such a circuit and the telephone interference caused by such operation. Further information on de ground return is given in Chapter 9. A monopolar de line with earth return is still simpler than a three-phase ac , line and is equally reliable. It is especially suitable to submarine cable. A line cart be built in stages with monopolar operation initially, later changed to bipolar operation with doubling of the power rating.

Generating Units

Some hydroelectric generating stations connected toa load center through long ac lines have generators with abnormally low transient reactance or abnormally high moment of inertia specified in order to raise the stability limit. These features raise the cost of the generators and would not be required if de transmission were used, for there would be no stability problem with direct current. In addition, if such a station were connected to an ac , system only through dc lines, the speed of the prime movers could be allowed to vary with the load or the head of water, perhaps giving a cheaper or a more efficient prime mover, and the nominal frequency of the generator, no longer confined to 50 or 60 Hz, could be chosen for best economy. Perhaps also, in

32

GENERAL

ASPECTS

OF DC TRANSMISSION

1-8

ECONOMIC

FACTORS

33

such a station, less harmonic filtering would be required, (The Volgograd hydroelectric plant has no filters.) Altogether, the generating plant could be designed for best economy. To date, however, no such plant has been built.

1-6 SUMMARY OF ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HV DC TRANSMISSION

Advantages Greater power per conductor. Simpler line construction. Ground return can be used. Hence each conductor can be operated as an independent circuit. No charging current. No skin effect. Cables can be worked at a higher voltage gradient. Line power factor is always unity; line does not require reactive compensation. Less corona loss and radio interference, especially in foul weather, for a certain conductor diameter and rms voltage. Synchronous operation is not required. Hence distance is not limited by stability. Mayinterconnect ac systems of different frequencies. L9* short-circuit current on de line. Does not contribute to short-circuit current of ac system. Tie-line power is easily controlled. Disadvantages Converters are expensive. Converters require much reactive power. Converters generate harmonics, requiring filters. Converters have little overload capability. Lack of HV de circuit breakers hampers multiterminalor network operation.

2. For interconnecting ac systems having different frequencies or where asynchronous operation is desired. 3. For transmitting large amounts of power over long distances by overhead lines. 4. In congested urban areas or elsewhere where it is difficult to acquire right of way for overhead lines and where the lengths involved make ac cables impractical. 5. And, of course, combinations of these factors occurring in the same project. Six of the first seven commercial installations, beginning with Gotland, involve submarine cables. All but the first two of these include great lengths of overhead line in addition to cables. In the English Channel crossing and in the Konti-Skan scheme asynchronous operation was preferred because of the simplcity and economy of control. Some installations of converters similar to those used for HV dc transmission have been installed for frequency conversion with no de line. In the United States and the U.S.S.R. the principal interest in HV de transmission is for long overhead lines. In Britain there is much interest in de transmission by underground cable through metropolitan areas, especially London. The first such scheme is Kingsnorth. It is likely that such applications will be considered in large cities in the United States in the future. -

OF DC TRANSMISSION

HV

The foregoing discussion of the advantages and shortcomings of transmission indicates the following applications:

L For cables crossing bodies of wate:i:wider than 20 mi (32 km).

de

The cost per unit length of a de line is lower than that of an ac line of the same power capability and comparable reliability, but the cost of the terminal equipment of a de line is much more than that of an ac line. If we plot the cost of transmitting a certain amount of power by one method or the other as a function of the distance over which it is transmitted, the resulting graph is similar to Figure 9. The vertical intercept of each curve is the cost of the terminal equipment alone. The slope of each curve is the cost per unit length of the line and of that accessory equipment which varies with the length. Thecurve for ac transmission intersects that for dctransmission at an abscissa called the break-even distance. If the transmission distance is shorter than the break-even distance, ac transmission is cheaper than dc; if longer, de is cheaper than ac. Estimates of the break-even distance of overhead lines, published in the technical literature, range from 500 km (310 mi) to 1500 km (930 mi). Such great variation Can be explained, at least in part, by a simple modification

34

GENERAL

ASPECTS

OF DC TRANSMISSION

I -9

Ac

THE FUTURE

OF DC TRANSMISSION

35

Distance (mil

of Figure 9, shown in Figure 10. Here the cost of each line is assumed to vary over a certain range, ± 5% for the ac line and ± 10% for the de line. The true cost of each is assumed to be within the cfgsshatched area. (Greater variation is assumed for the cost of de transmission than for that of ac because there has been less experience with de than with ac.)Itis now apparent that even such small variations in estimated costs make the estimated breakeven distance vary over a range of 2 or 3 to 1. For cables the break-even distance is, of course, much shorter than for overhead lines, lying between 15 and 30 mi (24 and 48 km) for submarine cables and, perhaps, twice as far for underground cables. The ordinate in Figures 9 and 10 might be either capital cost or annual

Ac

Range of break-even distance

cost; it might be for a given amount of power or per megawatt. In any case the curves would have the same form. In view of the relative novelty of HV de transmission, there is a prospect for a greater decrease in the unit cost of de line terminals with increasing experience and volume of production than in the cost of ac equipment. The result would be to decrease the break-even distance. An economic comparison between ac and de transmission made by an international working party of C.I.G.R.E.C7 and based on 1965 costs showed average break-even distances of 1000 km (600 mi) for transmitting 1080 or 2160 MW on two overhead circuits and 77km (48 mi) for transmitting 1080 MW on two shunt-compensated underground cable circuits. An assumed future 20% reduction in de terminal costs reduced the break-even distance to 830 km (515 mi) for the overhead lines and to 64 km (40 mi) for the underground cables. In the great majority of de transmission schemes already built, other factors than the costs assumed in such comparisions playa significant role. These other factors are long water crossings, frequency conversion, and the advantage of asynchronous ties between large ac systems.

1ii a c.:>

1 'EI 001

Ac

0 200 400

Distance (mil

I I

~I I

I

600 800

I

1000

The increasing size and load density of metropolitan areas create problems of right of way for HY overhead lines. The increased public demand for the better appearance of electric lines and for the preservation of the natural environment is putting pressure on the electric power companies for placing transmission and distribution lines underground, out of sight, even where the load density is not high. De cables are cheaper and more compact than ac cables for the same power and are not so limited in the feasible distance of transmission. As Greber discerningly points out,E3 the basic problem of ac transmission is that of inductive and capacitive reactance; the basic problem of dc transmission is switching. It is the series inductive reactance oflong overhead ac lines that causes the synchronous stability limit. It is the shunt capacitive reactance of long ac cables that overloads them with charging current. On long overhead lines, the presence of both kinds of reactance causes excessive variation of voltage with load. Series and shunt compensation of reactance are used on long ac lines, but they add to the cost and complexity of such lines. Reactive compensation is not required on a de line itself, but only on the ac side of the converters. This fact gives an advantage to long de lines over long ac Jines. If cheaper and

36

GENERAL

ASPECTS

OF DC. TRANSMISSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

37

simpler means of compensation were developed, however, the economic balance between ac and de transmission would be shifted in favor of ac. The switching problem on de lines lies not only in the need for de circuit breakers but also in the converters, which are essentially a group of'synchronously controlled switches. If cheaper, simpler, and more reliable switches (perhaps, solid-state devices) were developed, not only would dc networks be feasible, but also the converters would be cheaper than they are now and more free from misoperations, such as arcbacks. Improved switches would make the control of the reactive power of converters possible, permitting it to flow in or out of the converter, or neither, as desired. In addition, dctransformers would be possible. They could operate on either of two principles. One kind would be analogous to the vibrator power supplies now used with battery-operated radios,but, of course, at a much greater power level and with the vibrator replaced by a new kind of switch. The other kind would rapidly switch capacitors so as to be charged-in parallel and discharged in series for voltage step-up or,vice versa, for step-down. Thus the develop" ment of superior switches could give great impetus to de transmission; Other impending developments could alter the picture in favor of direct current. The new methods of power generation=thermoelectric, magneto" hydrodynamic.f" and by fuel cell-inherently generate direct current. There is some possibility that direct conversion from nuclear energy to av direct current might be developed.F' Cryogenic superconducting cables might transmit direct current long distances at low voltage and high current with no voltage drop and no power loss except that required to remove from the cable the heat that leaked into it from its surroundings.F" Superconducting dc generators and motors are being developed. E4 The future of de transmission looks bright ..

2.

Direct Current, a magazine published by Direct Current, Ltd. (a subsidiary of Garraway Ltd.), London, from June 1952 to February 1967, quarterly, except from March 1961 to October 1963, when it was monthly. New series published by Pergamon, Oxford, beginning in April 1969, with editorial office at Manchester University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics. 3. Nauchno-Izsledovatel'skii Institut Postoyannooo Toka, Iroestiya (proceedings of the Direct Current Research Institute), Leningrad. Vol. 1 is dated 1957. Approximately one volume per year has been published since then. Contains articles on both ac and dc transmission, in Russian. Cited hereinafter as N.l.I.P.T. 4. "D.C. Power Transmission," a series of six articles published in Eke. Jour. (London), Vols. 163 and 164 (1959-1960). Part I, "Historical Development," by E. Openshaw Taylor, pp. 1227-1231, Dec. 4, 1959. Part II, "Basic Principles," by E. Openshaw Taylor, pp. 22-27, Jan. 1, 1960. Part III, "Rectifiers and Inverters," by R. Feinberg, pp. 294--299, Jan. 29, 1960. Part IV, .. Transmission Circuits," by A. L. Williams, pp. 619-626, Mar. 4, 1960. Part V, .. Operation and Control," by Gunnar Engstrom, pp. 1048-1055, Apr. 8, 1960. Part VI, "Planning and Economics," by J. L. Egginton, pp. 1271-1280, May 6,1960. High Voltage Direct Current Power Transmission, by Colin Adamson and N. G. Hingorani, Garraway, London, 1960, xvi + 284 pp. High Voltage Direct Current Convertors and Systems, edited by B. J. CoryvMacdonald, London, 1965, xiii + 269 pp, Conference on High Voltage D.C. Transmission, held at Manchester, Sept. 19-23, 1966, I.E.E. Conference Publication 22, London, 2 parts. Part 1, Contributions, 454 pp. Part 2, Discussions, 143 pp. History "Constant-Current D.C. Transmission," by C. H. Willis, B. D. Bedford, andF:. R, Elder, Elec. Eng., Vol. 54, pp. 102-108, January 1935. Disc., pp. 327-329 (March), 447-449 (April), and 882-883 (August). "Power Transmission by Direct Current: Apparatus Used in 3000-kw 15,OOO-volt, 200-amp Pump-back Test," by B. D. Bedford, F. R. Elder, and D. H. Willis, Gen. Elec. Rev., Vol. 39, pp. 22{}'-224, May 1936. Tests preceding the MechanicvilleSchenectadyexperimental dc transmission. "D.C. Transmission in France," Elec. World, Vol. 106, No. 19, pp. 1341-1342, May 9, 1936. On 275-mi, 12S-kV, 20-MW line from Moutiers to Lyon. "The First Power Transmission at 50 kV D.C. with Mutators" (in French), by P. Egloff and J. J. Felix, Electricite, Vol. 23, No. 58-59, pp. 237-240, July-August 1939. Baden-Zurich transmission. "The D.C. Power Transmission at the Swiss National Exhibition" (in German), by E. Kern, Bull. de l'Assooiation Suisse des Electriciens, Vol. 30, No. 17, pp. 481-482, Aug. 18, 1939. "H.V.D.C. Transmission," by F. Busemann, Elee. Times, Vol. 111, Nos. 2881,2883, 2885, pp. 36-40, 98-101,169.,.170, Jan. 9 and 23, Feb. 6,1947. Experience in Germany during World War II, including Charlottenburg-Moabit experimentalllO-kV dctransmission and Elbe-Berlin project. English translation from German report.

B.

BIDLIOGRAPHY

A. General

1. Power Transmission by Direct Current, by Ya. M. Chervonenkis, Moscow, 1948, translated from the Russian by N.· Kaner and published for the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., by the Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, 1963. Elementary and out-of-date.

* Refrigeratedcables, either superconducting or resistive, are being actively investigated for ac underground-transmission aswell as for dC;E2.7,S;lO-16Direct current, however has aninherent advantage in such. cables.

38

7. 8. 9. 10.

GENERAL

ASPECTS

OF· DC TRANSMISSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

39

"D.C. Power Transmission Developments by the Siemens-Schuckert Concern in Germany," by F. Busemann, B.E. & A.lR.A., Report Z/T67, Nov. 24,1947,20 pp. Item Al above. "Origin of the 440 kV D.C. H.V. Transmission Line Elbe-Berlin" (in German), by R. Trager, ETZ, VoL 69, pp. 261-272, August 1948. "Experience of High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission" (in Russian), by A. M. Nekrasov and M. R. Sonin, Elek. Stantsii, Vol. 26, No.7, pp. 26-32, July 1955. Kashira-Moscow experimental cable transmission. "H.V.D.C. Transmission System" (in Russian), by V. P. Pimenov and M. R. Sonin, Elektrichestoo, No.7, pp. 93-99, 1955. Kashira-Moscow link. "Institute's Activities in the Field of High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission of Energy;' (in Russian), by V. P. Pimenov, N.I.l.P.T., Vol. I, pp. 7-20, 1957. Work of of the Institute of DC Transmission. " Results of the Operation of the Experimental Industrial Direct Current Transmission Line, Kashira-Moscow" (in Russian), by M. R.· Sonin, N.I.I.P.T., Vol. 2, pp. 5-21, 1957. Report of operating problems, December 1950 to May 1956. "The Work of the Direct Current Institute," by V-,·P. Pimenov, Direct Current, Vol. 3, No.6, pp. 185-191, September 1957. Translatedfrom N.I.I.P.T., Vol. 1. "D-C Transmission; An American Viewpoint," by G. D. Breuer, M. M. Morack, L. W. Morton, and C. A. Woodrow, A.J.E.E. Trans., Vol. 78, Part 3A, pp. 504-512, August 1959. Disc., pp. 512-515. Includes information on Mechanicville-Schenectady link. "Work Done in the Soviet Union on High-Voltage Long-Distance D-C Power Transmission," by A. M. Nekrasov and A. V. Posse, A.I.E.E. Trans., Vol. 78, Part 3A, pp. 515-521, August 1959. Disc., pp. 521-522. Kashira-Moscow experimental transmission,development work and plans for the Stalingrad-Donbass line.

3. 4.

5. 6.

11. 12..

7.

13.

Comparison of Direct and Alternating Current for High- Voltage Electric Power Transmission, Edison Electric Institute PublicationNo. 62·901, 1962. "High-Voltage DC Transmission," Advisory Committee Report No. 20, published on pp. 289-313 of National Power Survey, a report by the Federal Power Commission" part II, "Advisory Reports," U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, October 1964. "Cost of Electrical Energy Transmission by AC and DC Extra High Voltage," Advisory Committee Report No. 16, pp, 189-203, loco cit. "High Capacity D.C. Transmission in the U.S.S.R.," by A. Berkovski.rN, Chouprakov, T. Izrailevich.A, Kolpakova,and S. Rokotyan, I.E.E. Conference Publication 22, H. V.D.C. Transmission, Manchester, Sept. 19-23, 1966, Part 2, Paper No. 94, pp. 126-129. Also in Direct Current, Vol. 11, pp. 145-149, November 1966. "A Technical and Economic Comparison between A.C. and D.C. Transmission," byW. Casson, C.J.G.R.E., 1968, Report 42/43-01, 42 pp. Special Problems of AC Transmission

D.

14. 15.

16.

17. "D.C. Power Transmission," Part I of item A4 above. 18. "The History of D.C. Transmission," in Direct Current: Part I, Vol. 6, pp. 260-263, December 1961. Part 11, Vol. 7, pp. 60-63, March 1962. Part Ill, Vol. 7, pp, 228-231 and 250, September 1962. Part IV, Vol. 8, pp. 2-5 and 27, January 1963. Part V, Vol. 8, pp. 88-93 and 115, April 1963. Includes a bibliography of 160 entries. 19. "Development of High Voltage D.C. Transmission at Siemens Schuckertwerke up to 1945" (in German), by M. Bosch and O. Schiele, Siemens Zeitschrift, Vol. 40, pp. 672-681, September 1966. C.' 1. Comparison Between AC and DC Transmission "Comparison of Transmission Costs forHigh-Voltage AC and DC Power Transmission in Japan," by Sadao Saeki, Appendix II to "Report on the Work of the Study Committee No. 10; D.C. Transmission at E.H.V:," C;,I.G.R.E., 1956, Paper 507. "Comparison of Transmission Costs for High Voltage A.C. and D.C. Systems" (presented in the name of Study Committee No. 10, D.C. Transmission Lines at E.H.V.), by F. J. Lane, Bo G. Rathsman, U. Lamm, and K. S. Smedsfelt, C.I.G.R.E., 1956, Paper No; 417, 25 pp.

1. "On Normal Working Conditions of Compensated Lines with Half-Wave Characteristics" (in Russian), by A. A. Wolf and O. V. Shcherbachev, Elektrichestoo, No.1, pp. 57-60, 1940. ' 2. .. Charging Current Limitations in Operation of High-voltage Cable Lines," by C. S. Schifreen and W. C. Marble, A.I.E.E. Trans., Vol. 75, Part 3, pp. 803-812, October 1956. Disc., pp.813-817. 3. "Long Cable Lines-Alternating Current with Reactor Compensation for Direct Current," by J. J. Dougherty and C. S. Schifreen, A.I.E.E. Trans., Vol. 81, Part 3, pp. 169-178, June 1962. Disc., pp. 179-182. 4. "EHV AC Transmission Line, Compensation," Advisory Committee Report No. 14, prepared by a subcommittee of the Transmission and Interconnection Special Technical Committee, July 1963, published on pp. 141-172 of National Power Survey, a report by the Federal Power Commission, Part II, "Advisory Reports," U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, October 1964. 5. "Half-Wavelength Power Transmission Lines," by F. J. Hubert and M. R. Gent, I.E.E.E. Spectrum, VoL 2, pp. 87-92, January 1965. Also in I.E.E.E. Trans. on P.A. & S., Vol. 84, pp. 965-974, October 1965. 6. "Analysis of Natural Half-Wave-Length power Transmission Lines," by F. S. Prabhakara, K. Parthasarathy, and H. N. Ramachandra Rao, I.E.E.E. Trans. on, P.A. & S., Vol. 88, pp. 1787-1794, December 1969. Disc., p. 1794. 7. "Performance of Tuned Half-Wave-Length Power Transmission Lines," by authors of last item, ibid., pp. 1795-1800. Disc., pp. 1800-1802. E. 1. Future Prospects for DC Transmission "Foreword," by Max Hoyaux, Direct Current, Vol. 2, pp. 133-134, September 1955. "An 'Atomic Battery': Direct Conversion from Atomic Radiation to Electrical Engergy," ibid., pp. 135-137. "Applications of Superconductivity to the Generation and Distribution of Electric Power," by Richard McFee, Elec. Eng., Vol. 81, pp. 122-129, February 1962. Superconductors, heat insulation, transformers, cables, generators and motors, fuses, circuit breakers, rectifiers, and refrigeration.

2.

2.

40

3. 4. 5.

GENERAL

ASPECTS

OF DC TRANSMISSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

41

6. 7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

.. Future Developments in H.V.D.C.," letter to the editor of Direct Current from Henry Greber, published in Vol. 9, inside front cover, August 1964. "Superconducting DC Generators and Motors," by David L. Atherton, I.E.E.E. Spectrum, Vol. 1, pp. 67-71, December 1964. "Survey of MHD Research," introduced by M. W. Thring, Direct Current, Vol. 10, No.1, pp. 40-59, February 1965. Survey of research in Britain, Australia, United States, France, Japan, Switzerland, Sweden, and Poland on magnetohydrodynamics, "Future Possibilities of H.V.D.C.," by J. H. M. Sykes, Chapter 10 of Cory, Ref. A6 above, 1965. "Superconducting Power Transmission May Be a Reality Within Ten Years," by D. Atherton, Elec. News and Engg. (Don Mills, Ontario), Vol. 74, No. 11, pp. 52-55, November 1965. "Prospect of Employing Conductors at Low Temperature in Power Cables and in Power Transformers," by K. J. R. Wilkinson, I.E.E. Proc., Vol. 113, No.9, pp. 15091521, September 1966. Disc., Vol. 114, No. 12, pp.1892-1898, December 1967. Estimate of power saved if the conductor in a 760-MVA, 275-kV ac cable were, alternatively, niobium at 4°K, aluminum at 20oK, or beryllium at 77"K. Summary of this paper and of discussion of it in Elec. Times, VoLlSl, No.5, pp. 168-170, Feb. 2, 1967, under the title, "Prospect for Low Temperature. Transmission." " Superconducting Lines for the Transmission of Large Amounts of Electrical Power over Great Distances," by R. L. Garwin and J. Matisoo, LE.E.E. Proc., Vol. 55, No.4, pp. 538--545, April 1967. Preliminary design of tuoo-km, IOO-GW, 200-kV, 500-kA, de line with Nb3Sn conductors refrigerated to 4°K. "Superconducting Power Cables," by D. R. Edwards and R. J. Slaughter, Elec. Times, Vol. 152, No.5, pp. 166-169, Aug. 3, 1967. Includes summary of historical development. "Design for a 750 MVA Superconducting Power Cable," by E. C. Rogers and D. R. Edwards, Elec. Rev., Vol. 181, No. 10, pp. 348-351, Sept. 8, 1967. Study made by B.LC.C. for C.E.G.B. on design of three-phase, 33-kV, 13-kA, superconducting cable. Conductors of 0.0025-cm niobium foil on 0.25-cm aluminum tubing, vacuum dielectric, and liquid helium coolant. .

hydrogen, and helium, are compared with one another and with conventional pipetype cable. The nitrogen-cooled cable is found to be the most economical. 16. "Economic Assessment of a Liquid-Nitrogen-Cooled Cable," by S. B. Afshartous, Peter Graneau, and John Jeanmonod, I.E.E.E. Trans. on P.A. & S., Vol. 89, pp. 8-13, January 1970. Disc., pp, 14-16. Cable of tubular aluminum conductors cooled internally by liquid nitrogen and supported by dielectric spacers in high-voltage vacuum insulation. F.

1.

Bibliographies

"Direct Current Bibliography-x-I," Direct Current, Vol. 1, pp. 50-52, September 1952. Covers years 1943 to 1952. Vol. 1, p. 97, March 1953, covers rest of 1952. 2. An Annotated Bibliography of High Voltage Direct Current Transmission, 1932-1962, compiled by Eric Bromberg, I.E.E.E. Paper CP 63-388, January 1963. Also in D-C Transmission, Publication S-155, pp, 76-214, I.E.E.E., June 1963. 3. An Annotated Bibliography of High Voltage Direct Current Transmission, 1963-1965, complied by Eric Bromberg, I.E.E.E. Publication 31 S 60, iii + 113 pp., I.E.E.E., New York, 1967. 4. High Voltage Direct Current Transmission: An Annotated Bibliography,1966-68, compiled by Val S. Lava, published by the Library, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon, December 1968, ii + 90 pp. Gotland Link

G.

1. "The High Voltage D.C. Power Transmission from the Swedish Mainland to the Swedish Island of Gotland," by Ake Rusck, B. G. Rathsman, and U. Glimstedt, C.I.G.R.E., Report 406, 1950. 2. "D.C. Transmission from Swedish Mainland to Island of Gotland, by A. Rusck, B. G. Rathsrnan, and U. Glimstedt, Engineer, Vol. 190, No. 4931, pp. 92-93, July 28, 1950. "High-Voltage D.C. Power Transmission=Pioneer Project," by U. Lamm, ASEA Journal, Vol. 23, No. 12, pp. 172-174, December 1950.

"Cryogenic Power Transmission," by S. H. Minnich and G. R. Fox, Cryogenics, Vol. 9, No.3, pp. 165-176, June 1969. Based on studies by General Electric Company for Edison Electric Institute and Tennessee Valley Authority. Considers both resistive cryogenic cable with stranded aluminum conductors in liquid nitrogen or hydrogen and superconducting cable with niobium-coated tubes in liquid helium, especial1y for three-phase ac, 13. "Low Temperatures and Electric Power," by B. J. Maddock, W. T. Norris, D. A. Swift, and M. T. Taylor, Cryogenics, Vol. 9, No.4, pp. 291-297, August 1969. Report on a conference organized by the I.E.E. and held in London on March 24-26,1969. It included papers on electric power systems, refrigeration, conductor materials, dielectrics, generators and motors, transformers, cables, energy storage, and transportation. 14. "French Develop Modular HVDC Thyristor Valve," Elec. Rev., VoL 185, No. 22, pp, 790-791, Nov. 28, 1969. News item on research at C.G.E.'sMarcoussis Laboratory, which includes work on low-temperature cables. 15. "Economics of Underground Transmission with Cryogenic Cables," by Peter Graneau, LE.E.E.Trans. on P.A. & S., Vol. 89, pp. 1-7, January 1970. Disc., pp. 14-16. Three cryogenic ac transmission lines, cooled, respectively, by liquid nitrogen,

12.

3. 4.

"Submarine Cable Project Will Operate at 100 kV D.C.," by B. G. Rathsman, Electric Light and Power, Vol. 29, No.8, pp. 108-109, August 1951. 5. "Gotland H.V.D.C. Link: Present Progress," by B. G. Rathsman and U. Lamrn, Direct Current, Vol. 1, pp, 2-6, June 1952. "Gotland D.C. Link: Layout of Plant," by I. Liden, Sy Sviden and E. Uhlmann, Direct Current, Vol. 2, pp. 2-7, June, and pp. 34-39, September 1954. " The First High Voltage D.C. Transmission wigh Static Converters: Some Notes on the Development," by U. Lamm, ASEA Journal, Vol. 27, No. 10, pp. 139-140, October 1954... The Gotland D.C. Link: The Layout of the Plant," by I. Liden and E. Uhlmann, pp, 141-154. "The D.C. Transmission to Gotland: Journal, No. 10, pp. 123-126, 1956. English Channel Link Power Link between the British and French Initial Experience;" by S. Ekefalk, ASEA .

6. 7.

8.

H.

42

GENERAL

ASPECTS

OF DC TRANSMISSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

43

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Supply Systems," by D. P, Sayers, M. E. Laborde, and F. J. Lane, I.E.E. Proc., Vol. 101, Part 1, pp, 284-297, September 1954. Disc., pp. 297-308. "English Channel: Channel Cable," by J. H. M. Sykes, Engineer (London),Vol. 202, No. 5253, pp. 433-434, Sept. 28, 1956. "The Design of the D.C. Connection across the English Channel," by 1. Liden, . ASEA Journal, Vol. 36, No.6, pp. 70-74,1958. "The High Voltage D.C. Transmission Scheme across the English Channel," by 1. Liden, ASEA Journal, Vol. 33, No. 7-8, pp. 124-126, 1960. "The Cross-Channel Cable: A Preliminary Survey," by the editor, Direct Current, Vol. 6, No.4, pp. 97-109, July 1961. "D.C. Channel Link: Lydd Operational," E/ec. Times, Vol. 140, No. 23, pp. 845-848, Dec. 7, 1961. "Anglo-French Power Link," Engineer, Vol. 212, pp. 950-953, Dec. 8, 1961. "Cross Channel Power Link," Elec. Rev. (London), Vol. 169, no. 23, pp. 907~912, Dec. 8, 1961. "Some Problems in Connection with the Commissioning of the Lydd Converter Station," by L. Csuros and G. S. H. Jarrett, Direct Current, Vol. 7, No.5, pp. 114121, May 1962. " Operational Performance of the Direct Current Cross Channel Link," by J. Malaval, J. Clade, L. Csuros, and G. S. H. Jarrett, C.I.G.R.E., 1964, Paper No. 417, 11 pp. and folded chart. "Some Design Aspects of the Cross-Channel Power Link," by L. A. Harris, Chapter 8 of Cory, Ref. A6, 1965. "The Performance of the Lydd Convertor of the Cross Channel Connection," by G. S. H. Jarrett and L. Csuros, I.E.E. Conference Publication 22, H. V.D.C. Transmission, held at Manchester on Sept. 19-23, 1966, Part 1, Paper No.2, pp. 17-20

I

i! ~

.

6.

7.

:i

8.

9.

10.

11.

10.

by E; S. Groiss, A. V. Posse, and V. E. Touretski, C.I.G.R.E., 1960, Paper No. 414, 17 pp. "800 kv D.C. Transmission System Stalingrad-Donbass," by E.S. Grois, A. V. Posse, and V. E. Turetskii, Engineer, Vol. 210, No. 5450, pp. 66-:-68,July. 8, 1960. Based on C.J.G.R.E. paper. " Some Problems of the Operation of the D.C. Transmission Line, Stalin grad Hydroelectric Station to Donbass " (in Russian), byN.M. Mel'gunov and V. M. Kviatkovskii, Elektrichestoo, No.3, 1961, pp. 14-17. "The Initial Operating Stage of the Volgograd-Donbass D.C. Transmission," by E. S. Grois, N.I.I.P.T., No.9, pp. 5-28, 1962. "Initial Period of Operation of the D.C. Transmission Line between Volgograd and Donbass," by N. Chuprakov, A. Milutin, A. Posse, and V. Shashmurin, LE.E. Conference Publication No. 22, H. V.D.C. Transmission., Manchester, Sept. 19-23, 1966, Part 2, Paper No. 93, pp: 120-125. Also in Direct Current, Vol. 11, No.4, pp. 142-145 and 148, November 1966. "Operation of the Control and Protection System ofthe Volgograd-Donbass Link," by K. Gusakovsky, A. Posse, and A. Reider,I.E.E. Conference Publication No. 22, ibid., Part 2, Paper No. 95, pp. 130-135. "Operating Experience of the Volgograd-Donbass D.C. Transmission Line and Its Applications to Extra High Voltage D.C. High Capacity Transmission," byA. M. Berkovski, F. 1. Butaev, E. S. Grois, A. V. Posse, S. S. Rokotyan, and P. E. Saudler, C.I.G.R.E., Report 43-07, 1968,7 pp. .

11. 12.

J.

13.

and folded sheet. "Special Operational Tests on- the Cross Channel Connection," by J. Clade, R. M. H. Middleton, and E. Uhlmann, ibid., Paper No.3, pp. 21-25. Transient conditions, such as starting, blocking, emergency power reversal, and ac faults. 14. "Service Experience with the Anglo-French D.C. Cross Channel Cable," byP. Fourcade and C. C. Barnes, ibid., Paper No.4, pp. 26-29. Volgograd-Donbass Link

I.

1. "D.C. Transmission from Stalingrad Hydro-electric Station to Donbass " (in Russian), by V. P. Pimenov, A. V. Posse, A. M. Reider, S. S. Rokotian, and V. E. Turetskii, Elektricheskie Stantsli, No. 11, 1956, pp. 12-18. 2. "Transmission of Direct Current at High Voltage according to Present-Day Concepts and the Prospects for Their Application in the U.S.S.R." (in Russian), by N. M. Mel'gunov, N.I.I.P.T., Vol. 1, pp. 21-38, 1957. 3. "The Transmission System Stalingrad Hydro-electric Station, Donbass" (in Russian), by E. S. Grois, M. L. Zelikin, V. E. Turetskii, and E. A. Man'kin, Elektrichestvo, Vol. 77, No.9, pp. 1-10 September 1957. 4. "Design Features of Stalingrad-Donbass 800 kV D.C. Line," by F. 1. Butaev, E. S. Grois, E. CK. Levitski, E. A. Man'kin, A. V. Posse, A. A. Sakovitch, and V. E. Turetski, Direct Current, Vol. 4, No.2, pp.59-66, September 1958..

1. "Report on the Possibilities of Interconnecting the Islands of New Zealand," by F. J. Lane, Direct Current, Vol. 5, pp. 12-24, June 1960. 2. "The H.V.D.C. Interconnection between the Islands of New Zealand," Direct Current, Vol. 7~ pp. 32-38, February 1962. The following series of papers (items 3 to 17) was published in New Zealand Engineering, the journal of the N.Z. Institution of Engineers, Wellington, 1965 to 1966: 3. "Economic Aspects of the Inter-island Transmission Scheme," editorial by E. B. M., Vol. 20, No.6, p. 211, June 1965. 4. "A Significant Achievement," by P. W. Blakely, Vol. 20, No.7, pp. 255-256, July 1965. 5. " Main Generating and Electrical Equipment of Benmore Power Station," by H. C. Hitchcock, Vol. 20, No.1, pp. 3-13, January 1965. 6. "A Direct Current Transmission Line: The Design and C0l1~tmcJiQIl()(the·600 MW, 500 kV d.c. Line Between Benmore and Haywards;"by T. A. 1. Dickens;'VoL-20, . No.4, pp. 121-129, April 1965. . ""\ 7. "The Benmore Land Electrode," by D. G. Dell, Vol. 20, No.5, pp. 165-175, May) 1965. ' ' 8. "The North Island Sea Electrode," by D. G. Deli,VoLIO, No.6, pp.21l-222, June 1965. 9. "General Layout of the Haywards Terminal," by R. J. Fyfe, Vol. 20. No.8, pp. 303310, August 1965. 10. "Outdoor Direct Current Equipment at the Haywards Terminal," by J. Noble, Vol. 20, No.9, 345-354, September 1965.

44

11.

GENERAL

ASPECTS

OF DC TRANSMISSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

45

"Valves, Valve House, and Indoor Equipment at the Converter Stations," by M. A. Louden, Vol. 20, No. 10, pp. 393-402, October 1965. 12. "Layout of the Direct Current Switchyards," by D. G. Young, Vol. 20, No. n, pp, 472-478, November 1965. 13. "Harmonic Phomenena," by G. H. Robinson, Vol. 21, No.1, pp. 16-29, January 1966. 14. "Synchronous Condenser Installation at Haywards Substation," by L. S. Y. Gock, Vol. 21, No.1, pp. 29-35, January 1966. 15. "Power Line Carrier Communications," by F. R. Swan, Vol. 21, No.2, pp. 45-55, February 1966. 16. "Commissioning and Early Operating Experience," by H. R. Gunn, Vol. 21, No.3, pp. 93-101, March 1966. 17. "The ±250 kV d.c. Submarine Power-Cable Interconnection," by A. L. Williams, E. L. Davey, and J. N. Gibson, Vol. 21, No.4, pp. 145-160, Apri11966. Also published in I.E.E. Proc., Vol. 113, No. I, pp. 121-133, January 1966. 18. "The New Zealand 500 kV High-Voltage Direct-Current Project," by P. W. Blakely, Amer. Power Con! Proc., Vol. 28, pp. 850-859, April 1966. The following papers are from I.E.E. Conference Publication 22, Conference on High Voltage D.C. Transmission, Sept. 19-23, 1966, Manchester, Part 1: 19. "Commissioning. and Early Operating Experience with the New Zealand HYDC Inter-Island Transmission Scheme," by H. R. Gunn, Paper No.5, pp. 30-38. 20. "Benmore Power Station: Special Features for H.V.D.C. Transmission," by H. C. Hitchcock, Paper No. 19, pp. 101-103. 21. "The Synchronous Condenser Installation at Haywards Sub-station for the BenmoreHaywards H.V.D.C. Transmission Scheme," by L. S. Y. Gock, Paper No. 52, pp. 265-267. 22. "Communications (power Line Carrier Systems)," by F. R. Swan, Paper No. 63, pp.306-311. 23. "The Cook Strait 250·kV Cables," by E. L. Davey, Paper No. 64, pp. 312-314. 24. "A Direct Current Transmission Line: The Design and Construction of the 600 MW, 500 kV D.C. Line Between Benmore and Haywards," by T. A. J. Dickens, Paper No. 72, pp. 343-346. 25. "Some Features of New Zealand's Inter-island H.Y.D.C. Transmission," by R. J. Fyfe, M. A. Louden, J. Noble, and D. G. Young, Paper No. 78, pp. 375-383. 26. "The Benmore Land Electrodes for the Benrnore-Haywards H.V.D.C. Transmission Scheme," by D. G. Dell, Paper No. 82, pp. 415-418. 27. "The North Island Sea Electrode for the Benmore-Haywards H.V.D.C. Transmission Scheme," by D. G. Dell, Paper No. 85, pp. 427-430. 28. "Experience with Harmonics-New Zealand H.V.D.C. Transmission Scheme," by G. H. Robinson, Paper No. 89, pp, 442-444. 29. "Operational Experience of the Benmore-Haywards HVDC Transmission Scheme," by M. T. O'Brien, C.I.G.R.E., report 14·03, 1970,11 pp. K. Konti-Skan Link

2.

3.

Project,"

"The Konti-Skan H.V.D.C. Project," by G. von Geijer, S. Smedsfelt, L. Ahlgren, and E. Andersen, C.I.G.R.E., 1964, Paper No. 408, 45 pp. . Direct Current, Vol. 10, pp. 10-12, February 1965. Unsigned news article. "Operational Performance and Service Experience with the Konti-Skan and Gotland H.V.D.C. Projects," by S. Srnedsfelt, L. Ahlgren, and V. Mets, I.E.E. Conference Publication 22, H.V.D.C. Transmission, held at Manchester, Sept. 19-23, 1966, Part I, Paper No.1, pp. 11-16. Sardinia. Link

4. 5.

L.

1. Direct CUrrent, Vol. 10, No.1, pp. 13-14, February 1965. 2. Elec. Engineer (Australia), Vol. 44, No.6, p. 25, June 1967. 3. Elee. Times, Vol. 151, pp. 257-259, Feb. 16, 1967. 4. Elec. World, VoL 167, p. 21, Mar. 27, 1967. 5. Trans. and Dist., Vol. 19, No.4, p. 32, April 1967.

6. 7. Elee. News and Engg. (Don Mills, OnL), VoL 76, No.4, p. 28, Apri11967. "The Sardinian-Italian Mainland H.V.D.C. Interconnection," by M. Natale, F. J. Lane, and T. B. Calverley, I.E.B. Conference Proc. 22, H. V.D.C. Transmission, held at Manchester on Sept. 19-23, 1966, Part 1, Paper No.7, pp. 42-49. "Testing and Operating Experience on the Sardinia-Italian Mainland D.C. Link," by V. CialleIla, P. Grattarola, A. Taschini, C. J. B. Martin, and D. B. Willis, C.I.G.R.E., 1968, Paper 43·09, 21 pp. Vancouver Island Link (British Columbia)

8.

M.

Unsigned news articles: 1. Direct Current, Vol. 10, No. I, p. 7, February 1965. 2. ASEA Journal, Vol. 38, No. 10-12, pp. 165-166, 1965. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Elec. News and Engg. (Don Mills, Ontario), Vol. 76, No.6, pp. 56-57, June 1967. Elec. World, Vol. 170, No.4, p. 18, July 22,1968. The Engineer, Vol. 226, No. 5871, p. 161, Aug. 2, 1968. "D.C.' First '. Provides Power for the Future," by P. J. Croft, British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, Progress, Summer 1967, pp. 8-10: " Major F~tures of the Vancounver Island ± 260·kV HYDe Submarine Link," by H. M. Ellis and W. Chin, Amer. Power Con! Proc., Vol. 30, pp. 1017-1034, April 1968. "Vancouver Island HYDC Transmission," by Gordon H. Dunn and Lars A. Bergstrom, ASEA Journal, Vol. 42, No. 2-3, pp. 29-31, 1969. . Pacific Northwest-Southwest Intertie

8.

N.

1. "The Conti-Skan HYDC Project," by G. von Geijer, S. Smedsfelt, and L. Ahlgren, I.E.B.E. Conference Paper CP 63-1056, January 1963. ..

1. "Task Force Backs ±375 kV D.C. for BPA·California Tie," Elec. World, Vol. 156,

No. 26, pp. 34-36, Dec. 25, 1961.

46

2.

GENERAL

ASPECTS

OF DC TRANSMISSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

47

3.

4.

5.

6. 7. 8.

9.

10.

11.

"Layout Arrangements for EHV.D-C TransmissionTerminids," by E. M. Hunter and W. E. Matson, Amer. Power Conf. Proc., Vol. 28, pp. 860-867, April 1966. Celilo terminal at The Dalles, Oregon. "Design of the Celilo-Sylmar 800-kV DC Line (BPA Section)," by R. F. Stevens, LE.E. Conf. Publication 22, H. VD.C. Transmission, Manchester, Sept. 19-23, 1966, Part 1, Paper No. 74, pp. 354-358. Also I.E.E.E. Trans. on P.A. & S., Vol. 86, No.7, pp. 916-920, July, 1967. Disc., pp. 921-922. "The Celilo (The Dalles) Convertor Station for the Pacific H.V.D.C. Intertie," by G. D. Breuer, E. M. Hunter, P. G. Engstrom, and R. F. Stevens, ibid., Paper No. 80, pp, 394-402. "Technology and Economics ofEHV D.C. with Application to PNW-PSW lntertie," by R. J. Mather and E. F. Weitzel, Bonneville Power Administration report, presented at the symposium of the Assn. of Amer. Railroads, Denver, Nov. 15-16, 1966. "The Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie," by E. V. Lindseth, Civil Engg., Vol. 36, No. 12, pp. 46-47, December 1966. "Long Distance Transmission of H.V.D.C. in Western U.S.A/' (in German), by H. Dommel, SE V. Bull. (Switzerland), Vol. 58, pp .. 60-68, Jan 21, 1967. "Reclamation's Mead Substation," by N. B. Bennett, Jr., Power Engg., Vol. 72, No.1, pp. 32-35, January 1968. Southern terminal ofsecond.de intertie near Hoover Dam. "Some Design Considerations of the Celilo-Sylmar 800 kY D-C Line (Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Section)," by L.L. Burnside and W. M. Mahoney, Western Water & Power Symposium Proc., Los Angeles, Apr. 8-9, 1968, pp. D25-33. "800 kV DC Transmission Lines of the Bonneville Power Administration," by S. A. Annestrand, E. J. Harrington, M. N. Marjerrison, andR. F. Stevens, Western Water & Power Symposium Proc., Los Angeles, Apr. 8-9, 1968, pp. D35-52. "Final Design Criteria Established for E.H.V. D.C. Transmission Line and Terminal Facilities," by J. L. Mulloy and Edward York, Jr., Amer. Power Conf.Proc., Vol. 30, pp. 1035-1044, Chicago, April 1968.

P.

1. "The ±450 kV Direct Current Transmission System for the Nelson River Project," by L. A. Bateman, L. S. Butler, and R. W. Haywood, C.I.G.R.E.,Report 43-02, 1966, 9 pp. 2. "The Nelson River Transmission System," by E. M. Scott, Trans. Canadian Elec. Assn., Vol. 6, Part 2, Paper No. 67-SP 131, Mar. 21, 1967, 16 pp. . "The Selection of ±450-kV HYDC Transmission for the Nelson River," by E. M. Scott,American Power Conference Proc., Vol. 29, pp. 966-977, Chicago, Apri11967. Abstracted in Elec. Rev., Vol. 180, pp. 711-712, May 12, 1967. 4. ".Why±450-kV H.V.D.C. Was Selected for the Nelson River Transmission Medium," by E. M. Scott, Elec. News and Engg., Vol. 76, No.6, pp. 50-55, June 1967. 5. "English Electric Wins Nelson River Contract," Elec. Rev; (London), Vol. 181, No.7, p. 229, Aug. 18, 1967. 6. "The ±450 kV Direct Current Transmission System for the Nelson River Project," by L. A. Bateman, R. W. Haywood, and L. S. Butler, C.I.G.R.E., Report 43-02, 1968,9 pp. 7. "Manitoba's Kettle Simmers Year 'Round," Engg; News Record, Vol. 181, No.7, pp. 34-36, 41, Aug. 15, 1967. 8. "Nelson River D.C. Transmission Project," by L. A. Bateman, R. W. Haywood, and R. F. Brooks, I.E.E.E. Trans. on P.A. & S., Vol. 88, pp. 688-693, May 1969. Disc., pp, 693-694. Also in LE.E.E. Publ. 68 C57-PWR, October 1968. 3. Q. Miscellaneous Projects 1. "The Exploitations of Yugoslav Water Resources and the Possibility of Using H.V.D.C. Transmission," by H. von Bertele, Direct Current, Vol. 2, No.5, pp. 107, 109, June 1955. 2. "The Present Status of High-Voltage D.C. Power Transmission in Japan," by Naohei Yamada, Appendix I to "Report on the Work of the Study Committee No. 10: D.C. Transmission at E.H.V.," C.I.G.R.E., 1956, Paper No. 407, pp. 2-7. 3. "Electric Power Transmission. by H.V.D.C. Submarine Cables across the Adriatic Sea from Yugoslavia to Southern Italy," by M. Visentini, A. Asta, and F. Trimani , C.l.G.R.E., Report 210,1958, Vol. 2,22 pp. 4. "The IntroductionofH.V.D.C. Transmission into a Predominantly A.C. Network," by"?,. Casson, F. H. Last, and K. W. Huddart, Elec. Rev., Vol. 178, No.8, pp. 290295, Feb. 25,1966. 5. "The Economics of D.C. Transmission Applied to .an Interconnected System," by W. Casson, F. H. Last, and K. W. Huddart, I.E.E. Conf. Publication 22, H. V.D.C. Transmission, Manchester, Sept. 19-23,1966, Part 1, Paper No. 13, pp. 75-83. Reinforcement of an ac system with de links which do not increase required circuit-breaker interrupting ratings. 6. "High Capacity D.C. Transmission in the U.S.S.R.," by A. Berkovsky, N. Chouprakov,T. Izrailevich, A. Kolpakova, and S. Rokotjan, ibid., Part 2, Paper No. 94, pp. 126-129. 7. "Introductory Lecture," by F. J. Lane, ibid., Part 2, pp. 7-25. Describes proposed transmission of 4500 MW by ±500-kV de from Churchill Falls, Labrador, to Boston and New York, U.S.A., by the Atlantic. route, comprising 1575 miles of land line and 92 miles of submarine cable. .

O. Kingsnorth Link Unsigned news articles: 1. Engineering, Vol. 201, p. 484, Mar. 11, 1966. 2. 4. 6. 7. 8. Elee. Rev., Vol. 178, No. 10, pp. 378-379, Mar. 11, 1966. Apr. 11, 1966.. 1966. Direct Current, Vol. 11, p. 53, May 1966. Elec. Times, Vol. 149, No. 10, pp. 361-362, Mar. 10, 1966. Elec. Times, Vol. 150, p. 479, Sept. 29. 1966. "Kingsnorth-London D.C. Transmission Interconnector," by W. Casson, I.E.E. Conference Publication 22, High Voltage DC Transmission, Manchester, Sept. 19;...23, 1966, Part i, Paper No.9, pp. 56~57. "The Kingsnorth, Beddington, Willesden D.C. Link" by T. E. Calverley, F. H. Last, A. Gavrilovic, and C. W. Mott, G.I.G.R.E., Report 43-04, 1968, 14pp; 3. Elec. World, Vol. 165, No. 15, pp.19-20,

9.

48

8.

GENERAL

ASPECTS

OF DC TRANSMISSION

"Preliminary Studies of Power Transmission from the Churchill Falls Dvevlel~p;e~t~' by G. W. Clayton and D. T. McGillis, Trans. Canadian Elec. Assn., o. , ar , Paper No. 67-SP 132, March, 1967. Also in Amer. Power Con! Proc., Vol. 29, pp. 954---965,Chicago, April 1967. 9. "Problems in Designing a Direct Voltage Power Transmission ~ystem," by S. P. Jackson,1.E.E.E. Region 3 Can! Record, 1967, pp. 309~314. 300-ml submanne cable network. 10. "Underwater D.C. Line Proposed in Alaska," Elec. World, VoL 169, N? 6, p. 2?, February 1968. Line from Snettisham powerplant to Juneau by submarine cable 18 proposed. 11. "Several Aspects of the System Studies of the DC Alternative forAP?WerTtrhansfedrfJro: Churchill Falls," by G. A. Baril, A. Lacoste, H. Persoz, J. D. mswor ,an .. Bowles, C.J.G.R.E., 1968, Paper No. 43-06, 18 pp. 12. "High Voltage Direct Current Plans for an Integrated Power systelm21in12th3e ~;.A.:: by D. B. Giesner,'Direct Current (new series), Vol. 1, No.3, pp, ~. ' e ruary 1970. Based on Transmission Study 190, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1968.

2 ,I

Converter Circuits

l

It was indicated in Chapter 1 that the best kind of valve for use in the converters for HV de transmission is the mercury-arc valve with control grid. In this chapter we examine various ways in which groups of such valves and transformers can be connected to form a converter, and we determine .which of several possible circuits is best for HV de transmission.

The symbol for a controlled mercury-arc valve is shown in Figure lao Symbols for uncontrolled and controlled valves of any type (mercury-arc or solid-state) are shown in Figures Ib and c, respectively,

Current

---I>

Voltage Forward

Wil

2.-/.

Anode voltage

+

Grid

o

Inverse

Current Forward

~Itage

<l---

Current (a)

(c) (d)

Fig. 1. (a) Symbol for mercury-arc valve with control grid; (b) symbol for any uncontrolled valve; (c) symbol for any controlled valve; (d) idealized valve characteristic.

49

50

CONVERTER

CIRCUITS

2-4

2-3 ASSUMPTIONS

SINGLE-PHASE

CONVERTERS

51

A valve normally conducts in only one direction, from anode to cathode; and while it is conducting there is a small drop of voltage across it. Such current and voltage are in the forward direction and are taken as positive. The forward voltage drop in a mercury-arc valve is in the range of 20 to 50 V, the higher values (40 to 50 V) pertaining to HV valves. Barring abnormal operation (arcbacks), the valve can sustain a comparatively high voltage in the negative or inverse direction without conducting, except for a negligible leakage current (milliamperes). The rated current for valves for HV de may be hundreds or thousands of amperes, and the rated peak inverse voltage, 50 to 150 kV. In comparison, the inverse leakage current and the forward voltage drop are negligible. Hence the idealized voltage-current characteristic of a diode; shown by the solid heavy line in Figure ld, is adequate. It consists of two half-axes: 1. Positive (forward) current at zero voltage 2. Negative (inverse) voltage at zero current In a valve having a control grid at a sufficiently negative voltage with respect to the cathode, the current is prevented from starting, although the anode may be positive. The valve may then operate on the branch shown as a broken heavy line in Figure Id. In this chapter, valves are assumed to have no control grids, from which it follows that the converters operate only as rectifiers with no ignition delay. This mode of operation affords a comparison of the various converter circuits that is valid also for rectifier and inverter operation with grid control. It follows from the characteristics of uncontrolled valves that (1) if the cathodes of several valves are connected together, the common potential of these cathodes is equal to that of the most positive anode, and (2) if the anodes of several valves are connected together, the common potential of these anodes is equal to that of the most negative cathode.

In addition to idealizing the valves, we idealize the ac source, the transformer, and the de sink (load), as follows: The ac source has no impedance and delivers constant voltage of sinusoidal wave form and constant frequency. If polyphase, it delivers balanced voltages. The transformers have no leakage impedance nor exciting admittance. The de load has infinite inductance, from which it follows that the direct current is constant, that is, free from ripple. This assumption is justified by the fact that HV de converters have large dc smoothing reactors (about 1 H), and it is reasonably accurate for converters having six or more pulses per cycle, as those used for HV de transmission have, although it is a poor assumption for single-phase converters. Although the current is assumed free from ripple, the direct voltage on the valve side of the smoothing reactor has ripple. The dc load is shown on our circuit diagrams as a reactor 'in series with an EMF of constant voltage, which is equal to the average value of the ripply voltage on the valve side of the reactor.

2-4 SINGLE-PHASE CONVERTERS Half-wave Rectifier

This is the simplest rectifier, having only one valve (Figure 2). The current is inherently intermittent, and therefore the circuit cannot be analyzed in

--!>

.'

For each circuit considered, we find the wave forms of the voltages and currents and their magnitudes in terms of the direct voltage Va and direct current fa. From these data we find the required volt-ampere ratings of valves and transformers in terms of the de power P a = Vdfa· The volt-ampere rating of a valve is taken as the product of its average current and its peak inverse voltage (PlV), and the rating of a transformer winding is the product of its rms voltage and rms current.

accordance with the assumption of steady current, although all other converter circuits can be and are so analyzed. Both direct current and direct voltage pulsate at the same frequency as the alternating voltage. If a transformer is placed between the ac source and the valve, as is usually necessary for obtaining the desired magnitude of direct voltage, the direct current passes through the secondary winding of the transformer, and its MMF may be sufficient to saturate the iron core and make the primary current excessive.The circuit is useful only for very small amounts of power.

'.":

52

CONVERTER CIRCUITS L

Full-wave Rectifier This has two valves and one transformer with center-tapped secondary winding (Figure 3). The wave forms are shown in Figure 4. In Figure 4a, the line-to-neutral secondary voltages e1 and ez, having a phase difference of one-half period (180°), are plotted. The anode voltages of valves 1 and 2 with respect to neutral point N are equal to el and ez, respectively. The common cathode voltage of both valves, being equal to the higher of the anode voltages, consists of the positive half waves of el and e2' This curve, redrawn in Figure lb, represents also the instantaneous direct voltage Vd on the valve side of the smoothing reactor. The average direct voltage Vd is also shown: The difference Va - Va, which appears across the reactor, is represented by the vertical shading in Figure lb. Its average value is zero, corresponding to equal positive and negative areas between the curve and the horizontal line. When valve 2 is conducting, the full secondary voltage el - ez appears across valve 1; when valve I is conducting, e2 - el appears across valve 2. Figure 4c shows the voltage V1 across valve 1. The valve currents, which are also the currents in the halves of the secondary winding, are shown in Figure 4d. They are rectangular pulses of height fa and length 180°. The MMF of the entire secondary winding is porportional to il - i2 and has an average value of zero; in other words, there is no de component of MMF, hence no tendency to saturate the core. The primary MMF must oppose the secondary MMF (Tip = il - i2), so that the primary current ip has the form shown in Figure 4e. Now let us compute the numerical values of the various circuit quantities. The filtered direct voltage Vd is the average value of Vd, and the latter consists of the positive halves of sine waves having crest value Em and frequency

Dc

....,.....-!>;

12

(a)

i

):

(b)

f =wj2n.

Let Vd

e = tot.

non

2f = - ,,/2 Em cos

e de

0

0.637Em

(1) (2)

The peak-to-peak ripple is Em = 1.571 Vd, and its frequency is 2J, where f is the frequency of the ac source. The peak inverse valve voltage is 2Em = 3.142 Vd• The transformer voltages are sinusoidal by assumption. The voltage across each half of the secondary winding has crest value Em and rms value 0.707 Em = 1.111 Vd• The primary voltage has crest value TEm and rms value 0.707TEm = 1.1l1TVa, where T is the transformer turns ratio. The crest value of current in each valve and in each half of the secondary

Fig. 4. Wave forms of the circuit of Figure 3: (a) transformer secondary voltages e an~ e 2 ; (b) unfiltered and filtered direct voltages Vd and V.; (c) voltage across valve VI, (d) valve currents or secondary currents i1 and iz; (e) primary current ip•

1:

"--~

54

CONVERTER

CIRCUITS

2-4

SINGLE-PHASE

CONVERTERS

55

winding is la, the average value is fal2, and the rms value is (la? 12 = 0.70714, The primary current is +ld/T during one half of the cycle and -:-ldlT during the other half; its rms value is 14, The aggregate volt-ampere rating of the valves is 2 x 3.142Vd X 0.5001d = 3.142Pd· The volt-ampere rating of the whole secondary winding is 2 x 1.111Vd x 0.70714 = l.571P4; that of the primary winding is l.111TVd x IdlT = l.llIPd' The foregoing values are listed in Table 1 (page 66) for comparison with other converter circuits. Bridge Rectifier

If the two valves in Figure 3 were reversed, so that the anodes instead of the cathodes were at a common potential, nothing would be changed except the direction of the direct current and voltage. Note, further, that the same transformer could feed two pairs of v~lves, one pair connected as in Figure 3 and the other pair reversed, as just discussed. Each pair of valves could feed a separate load with a common return to neutral point N; in other words, the rectifier would now be feeding a three-wire dc wire system. If the currents on the positive and negative sides were equal, the neutral conductor and the center tap on the transformer secondary winding would no longer be needed. The result of such omission is the single-phase bridge rectifier, shown in Figure 5. It is also known as a two-way circuit.

.J

The number of valves, the direct voltageFj, and the de power Pd of the full-wave rectifier have been doubled, but the P.LV. of each valve is unchanged. Two valves (1 and I') conduct in series for one-half cycle, then the other two (2 and 2') in the next half cycle. The valve and load currents are unchanged. The transformer primary current is doubled. The transformer secondary currents now have the same wave form as the primary current, and thus the required secondary volt-ampere rating is equal to that of the primary, being less thari doubled. The wave forms are shown in Figure 6, and numerical values are given in Table 1. Although the bridge circuit may appear more complicated than the fullwave circuit because it has four valves instead of two, the secondary winding is used more effectively, and the P.LY. of each valve has been halved for a given de output voltage. The former feature is important in high-power

2'

~i2

W

p

<l--

fd

L/2

---T:l

til

Vd

"2

Dc

usL _____

+i lUI

1

ut r

..

Vd

2

Vd 2

fd --l>

L/2

Fig. 5.

Fig. ·6. Wave forms of the circuit of Figure 5: (a) p~imary and secondary voltages and Vs; (b) unfiltered and filtered direct voltages Vd and Vd; (c) voltage across valve 1, Cd) valve currents il and h; (e) primary and secondarycurrents ip and is.

Vp VI;

". '"/~ .. ~.

.-. . ":-"'1

56

.CONVERTER

CIRCUITS

E _mnO

Vd _ 3 f"'/3

cosede=-

3(.

2-5 sin f

THREE-PHASE

CONVERTERS

57 (3) (4)

0

n2

2-5

THREE-PHASE

CONVERTERS

The peak-to-peak

ripple is

Large amounts of power are taken from a three-phase circuit in preference to a single-phase circuit. Besides, in polyphase converters, the ripple in direct voltage is smaller in magnitude and higher in frequency than in singlephase converters and therefore easier to filter. The same is true of harmonics on the ac side, but this is not shown until Chapter 8. Three-phase One-way Rectifier

with ripple frequency 3/

= 0.605 Va

(5)

This is the simplest three-phase converter circuit (Figure 7). It is not practical as shown, because the direct current in the secondary windings

(c) N

saturates the transformer cores. This may be avoided by replacing the Y connection by the zig-zag connection, in which the dc MMFS of the two secondary windings on the same core cancel out. The circuit as shown, however, is useful as a step in explaining several other connections, and therefore it is analyzed as it stands. The three secondary voltages ea, eb, ec form a balanced three-phase set, as shown in Figure 8a, and the anode voltages with respect to neutral point N are equal to the corresponding secondary voltages. The common cathode voltageu, coincides with the upper envelope of this set of voltages, as shown by the heavy line. The average direct voltage Va is given by

(d)

(e)

Fig. 8. Wave forms in the circuit of Figure 7, (a) secondary voltages e e e unfilt d d' t It d filtered di . , ., b, c. ere irec vo, a~e ~d' ~ filtered direct voltage V.; (b) voltage Vi across valve 1; (c) valve c~rrents 11, 12, 13, which are also t~ansformer secondary currents; (d) condensed representation of valve. currents; .(e) one pnrnary winding current ip.' ..

58

CONVERTER

CIRCUITS

2-5

THREE·PHASE

CONVERTERS

59

The wave form of voltage across valve 1, shown in Figure 8a and b, cons~~~s hree se ments each lasting one-third cycle or 120". In one segment, w I e of t valve i; conducting, the valve voltage is zero; in the other two segments, n ~~ile the valve is nonconducting, it has ~~ve;:e8:0:tt~;~:~~~1 ~~ ~:: ~!i~~~

line-to-lin~ voltaged~' fi~s~ eFob.' t~:n8~ait' is~e;;~n of the vertical sha ing; III rgu P.I.V. is

from a horizontal

axis. The

v,

(6)

3

5

1-1

_I

1

1

The transformer E

secondary

voltage

1

is

1.209V x 0.707 = 0.855Vd• • d m 'Y d duri th one-third cycle when the associate Each valve conducts unng e . t I volta e is the highest one. The wave of valve current IS a rec angu ~r s~l~:~~rKeight;d and length 120° (Figure 8c). Its average value is ~d/3, and ItS p . I /.)3 - 0 5771 The transformer secondary current IS the same rms valueI IS d t- The prid~ary current (Figure 8e) differs from the secondas the va ve curren . . I . zero Its s .h . no de component· that is, Its average va ue 1 • ary current m avmg , rrns value is (7) The aggregate valve rating is 3 x 2.094Vd The volt-ampere Secondary: Primary:

X

I 1"2 =

I L

Id

L/2

'I

I I

(S)

(9) (10)

Three~phase Two-way, or Three-phase Bridge Rectifier .' in Euro e as the Graetz circuit (Figure 9). In the circuit in This IS known IP sed the circuit operates as before except F 7 if the three va ves are rever , t~~~~~e d~rections of dire~t c~rre~:n~e~~e~~:o~:~~~:r~fr~~;::e~~~~: ;::~ transformer second~y ,,:m~~~~:e 7 ~he other connected similarly except for one group connecte as m I , feed a separate dc load, the two loads rever~al ~f the v:lves. ~ac~:~o~h:~~ neutral point connected to the transwl constituting a t ree. th two loads have equal currents, the neutral conformer neu~ral. Now, led b omitted. Since the neutral point of the ductor carnes no current an may e

transformer windings is no longer necessary, those windings can be connected in d instead of in Y ifdesired. The Y connection is shown in Figure 9. The relation between the three-phase single-way and two-way circuits (Figures 7 and 9) is like that between the single-phase single-way and two-way circuits (Figures 3 and 5). Again, for a given alternating voltage, the direct voltage and power are doubled, but the P.I.V. is not altered. In terms of Va, it is halved and becomes 1.047Vd• This makes the circuit advantageous if high direct voltage and high power are required. Other advantages appear in the transformer bank. There is no direct current in the windings, and the rms current is less than twice that of the single-way connection, giving more efficient use of the windings. The wave forms are shown in Figure 10. The transformer secondary line-toneutral voltages are shown in Figure lOa. These are also the voltages of the anodes of the lower group of valves and of the cathodes of the upper group, all with respect to neutral point N. The common cathode voltage of the lower group of valves is the upper envelope of the transformer voltages, as it was for the single-way circuit in Figure 7, The common anode voltage of the upper group of valves is the lower envelope. The difference in ordinates between the upper and lower envelopes is the instantaneous direct voltage vdon the valve side of the smoothing reactor. This is replotted in Figure lOb as the envelope of the line-to-line voltages. The voltage across valve 1 is also shown (Figure lOe). It is immediately to be noted that the ripple of the direct voltage is of frequency 6j, twice that of the one-way connection, and the magnitude of the ripple is smaller. The reason is that the scallops of the lower envelope are shifted one-sixth cycle from those of the upper envelope.

60

CONVERTER

CIRCUITS

2-6

The peak-to-peak ripple is

X

PULSE

NUMBER

61

(a)

wt

(1 - cos30oh/3 Em = 0.134

The rms line-to-neutral 0.707Em

1.047Vd

= 0.140Vd

(13)

secondary voltage is

= 0.707 x

1.047Vd .J3

= 0.428Vd•

(b) wt (c)

(d)

ld

~wt

The load current is always carried by two valves in series, one from the upper half bridge and one from the lower. Each valve conducts for one-third cycle, as in the one-way circuit. Commutation in one group, however, is staggered with respect to commutation in the other group; considering both groups, commutation occurs everyone-sixth cycle (60°). In Figure 9, as well as in the diagrams of other converter circuits, the valves are numbered in the order.in which they fire (begin to conduct). Commutation occurs from valve 1 to valve 3, then from 2 to 4, from 3 to 5; from 4 to 6, from 5 to I, and from 6 to 2. The current wave forms are shown in condensed fashion in Figure IOd. The current in each phase of the Y -connected secondary windings is the difference of the currents of two valves, the numbers of which differ by 3; for example, t, = il - i4 (Figure IOe). Its rms value is Id.J2/3 = 0.8161d• The aggregate valve rating is 6 x 1.047Vd x Id/3 = 2.094Pd' The aggregate volt-ampere rating of the transformer secondary windings is 3 x 0,428Vd X 0.8l61d = 1.047Pd• The rating of the primary windings is the same as that of the secondaries. If the secondary windings are connected in S instead of Y, the wave shape of current is different (Figure 101), and its rms value is 1/.J3 times that of current in the Y. The primary line currents have the same wave shape as secondary Y currents if the transformer connection is YY or AA, and the same wave shape as secondary A currents if the transformer connection is AY or VA. 2-6 PULSE NUMBER The pulse number of a converter is the number of pulsations (cycles of ripple) of the direct voltage per cycle of alternating voltage. The circuits so far considered in this chapter have the following pulse numbers: Circuit

Single-phase Single-phase Single-phase Three-phase Three-phase half-wave full-wave bridge one-way two-way or bridge

(e)

(f)

Fig. 10. Wave forms of the circuit of Figure 9: (a) secondary line-to-neutral voltages e. eb, ec and, in heavy lines, unfiltered voltages of positive and negative dc poles with respect to transformer neutral point; (b) secondary line-to-line voltages and, in heavy line, unfiltered direct pole-to-pole voltage Vd; (c) secondary line-to-line voltages and, in lower heavy line, voltage Vi across valve 1; (d) condensed representation of valve currents; (e) transformer secondary current i. = if - i4; (f) primary alternating line current

iA = Cic

ib)(T.

.lj~m =;

whence the P.LV. is

0 0

(11)

Pulse Number p

1

(12) /

2 2 3

6

62

CONVERTER

CIRCUITS

It is shown in Chapter 8, on harmonics, that the orders of harmonics in the direct voltage are given by pq, where q is an integer, and that the orders of harmonics in the alternating current are pq ± 1. The higher the pulse number, therefore, the higher the lowest frequencies of harmonics. As we have seen in the analyses of the foregoing circuits.fhe higher the pulse number, the lower the peak-to-peak amplitude of the ripple. The higher the frequency and the lower the amplitude of a harmonic, the easier to eliminate it substantially by filtering. The higher the pulse number of a converter, the better from the standpoint of harmonics. This advantage, however, may be offset by the increased complexity of transformer connections.

,/

We have seen that the three-phase two-way circuit may be derived by combining two one-way circuits in a particular way. There are at least two other ways in which two three-phase one-way circuits can be combined to form six-pulse circuits.

Cascade of Two Three-phase Rectifiers

Id

This connection is shown in Figure 11. As in the three-phase bridge circuit, the two three-phase groups of valves are in series on the de side, but they are not adjacent, and each group has a common cathode connection instead of one group having a common cathode connection and the other a common anode connection, as the bridge circuit has (Figure 9). The transformer secondary windings are connected in double Y with 180 phase difference between one Y and the other. This transformer connection is more complicated than that used with the three-phase bridge circuit, and the secondary windings must have a greater aggregate voltampere rating. This circuit has no advantage over the bridge unless it is desired to use valves having one mercury-pool cathode in an envelope (steel tank or glass tube) with three anodes.

0

+

Fig. 11. Cascade of two three-phase one-way rectifiers.

The two three-phase groups of valves are again fed by double-Y-connected secondary windings, but the two groups are in parallel on the dc side instead of in series (Figure 12). They cannot be paralleled directly, because the threepulse ripple of one group is staggered with respect to the ripple of the other group. Instead, one de pole of one group is connected directly to the like pole of the other group and to one pole of the de line. The opposite poles are

Fig. 12. Y-Y-interphase rectifier circuit· ,,'I T . -!. n t erp h ase transformer. . __ -

64

CONVERTER CIRCUITS

2-8

65

connected to opposite ends of an autotransformer whose center tap is connected to the other pole of the de line. The autotransformer is called an interphase transformer. It is usually connected to the neutral points of the Y's and to the negative pole of the de line so as to permit the use of a single-cathode six-anode valve. The instantaneous voltage of the center tap is, of course, equal to the average of the instantaneous voltages of the two ends of the winding. Consequently, the instantaneous direct line voltage is the average of the voltages of the two three-phase groups and has a six-pulse ripple. This connection has the same disadvantages as the preceding one and, in addition, requires the interphase transformer and gives a lower direct voltage. It is not suitable for HV de work.

At first sight it appears that this circuit (Figure 14) might give a higher direct voltage for a given P.I.V. on the valves than either the bridge circuit or the cascade of two three-phase rectifiers, but it does not. Moreover, the transformer utilization is poor.

Six-phase Diametrical

Connection

This appears similar to the preceding connection. With the interphase transformer omitted and the neutral points of the two Y's solidly connected, the transformer secondary windings form a six-phase star connection (Figure 13). This can be made up from one center-tapped winding per core instead of two separate windings per core. Now, however, each valve conducts for one-sixth of a cycle instead of one-third cycle, as in the three preceding connections. Consequently, the transformer utilization is poorer. A valve having one pool cathode and six anodes in one envelope can be used.

Dc 3rp Ac

3.~

Dc

A comparison of the nine different converter circuits discussed above is presented in Table 1. Circuits 4 to 8 are six-pulse circuits having six valves each and a three-phase ac supply. Let us confine our attention to these, because the advantages of three-phase ac circuits and a high pulse number for high-power converters are apparent. Study of Table land the circuit diagrams reveals that the best converter circuit for HV de transmission is the three-phase bridge. It has the following advantages: . .

2-9

0\

TWELVE-PULSE

CASCADE

67

-\0 \0 00 00

~ ~~

00

-000

v"S-

e

'"

(Ij.

0"'"

.... 0

;:: ~

..

-0

1:'" "<t"<t

0"":

0\ \0 \0

-~~

0000

h ...._

\0 \0

00

~~ 00

00

0""'

"';0

---.....

~;::

1. For a given direct voltage.jthe P.LV. of the valves is only half that of any of the other six-pulse circuits except 5 and 8, in which it is equal. Consequently for a givenP.I.V., the direct voltage is twice that of some other circuits. 2. For a given power throughput, the volt-ampere rating of the transformer secondary winding is less than that in any other circuit. 3. The volt-ampere rating of the transformer primary windings is equal to or less than that of the other circuits. 4. The transformer connections are the simplest. Double or center-tapped secondary windings are not required. This simplcity is important for obtaining a sturdy and reliable design for operation at very high voltages having superposed high-frequency transient voltages caused by commutation. 5. The secondary windings may be connected either in Y or in A. The advantages of this will appear in Section 2-9. 6. The aggregate volt-ampere rating of the valves is lower than that of circuit 8 and equal to that of the rest. 7. A very important property of the bridge circuit is that arcbacks* can be suppressed by grid control and a bypass valve. Arcback is a random phenomenon that is unlikely to occur in more than one valve at the same time. Thus, although grid control is ineffective in the valve with the arcback, it may reasonably be expected that in all other valves of the same bridge such control will be effective and may be used to prevent any of these valves from reigniting after the current in them has .once become zero. In the bridge connection there are two valves in series across the dc line and two in series opposition. across each pair of ac terminals. If all valves but the maloperating one are blocked by grid control, that one has no circuit through which current can.be furnished to it. This is in contrast to the six-phase star and Y-Y~interphase connections, in which there is a path through the ac source, the maloperating valve, and the de load.

00

gS;;

~~

Because of these advantages, the bridge circuit is universally used for highpower HV ac-dc converters.

"":0

.t::

.g

::;I

.... o

In this connection (Figure 15), the de ports (pairs of terminals) of two bridges are inseries, doubling the direct voltages, and the ac ports are in parallel, doubling the alternating current. If the transformer bank of one bridge is connected YY and that of the other, YA, the pulsations of direct

8 Z

* An arcback: is a malfunctioning in which a valve conducts in the reverse direction. See Chapter 6 for a discussion of its causes, and suppression.

68

CONVERTER 3ri>Ac

CIRCUITS

I

1

PROBLEMS

69

4.

5. 6. 7.

Analyze a half-wave rectifier circuit like that in Figure 2 except that it has a resistance-inductance load with no counter-EMF. Find wave shapes -and average and rms values of the current and the several voltages as functions of weR. Find the magnitudes of the harmonics, in terms of la, in the secondary currents of a single-phase full-wave rectifier (Figures 3 and 4d). Find the magnitudes of the harmonic currents, in terms of la, in the secondary current of a single-phase bridge rectifier (Figures 5 and 6e). Calculate the aggregate volt-ampere rating of zig-zag-connected secondary windings if used instead of Y -connected windings in the threephase one-way circuit in Figure 7. Analyze a three-phase one-way rectifier like that in Figure 7 except that the transformer is connected A primary.zig-zag secondary. Find wave shapes and crest, average, and rms values.

Dc -

8.

9.. Find the magnitudes of the harmonic currents, in terms of ld' in the secondary current of a three-phase one-way rectifier (Figures 'land 8e). 10. Find the wave shape and the magnitudes of the harmonic currents, in terms of ld, in the primary line current of a three-phase one-way rectifier (Figures 7 and 8e). 11. Find the magnitudes of the harmonic currents,in terms of ld' in the secondary current of a three-phase two-way rectifier (Figures 9 and We). Calculate the rms value of the primary line current in Figure 9, in terms of ld' from the wave shape in Figure 101 Find the magnitudes of harmonics in the primary line currents of a three-phase two-way rectifier having a A-Y -connected transformer by two methods: (1) analysis of the wave form of the primary line current and (2) adding the harmonics of two phases of the A-connected primary winding displaced from one another by one-sixth of the fundamental period. Analyze the cascade circuit in Figure 11. Analyze the double- Y -interphase circuit in Figure ·12. Analyze the six-phase diametrical connection in Figure 13. Analyze the cascade circuit in Figure 14. Derive the wave shape of the voltage across the interphase transformer in the double- Y connection. Which is the principal harmonic component of this voltage? Consider the frequency of the ac line to be the fundamental. . Which Of the six-pulse circuits considered in this chapter permit the use of a common-envelope common-cathode six-anode valve?

voltage in one bridge are staggered with respect to the other, giving a 12·pulse converter. Under balanced conditions, the twelfth harmonic is the lowest one in the direct voltage, and the eleventh and thirteenth are the lowest pair in the alternating current. The two bridges could be fed from one three-winding transformer bank instead of from two two-winding banks. For increasing the direct voltage further, more bridges can be added, preferably in pairs, but the pulse number is seldom, ifever, made greater than 12, because the complexity of the transformer connections is believed to offset the advantage of a higher pulse number.

12. 13.

14. PROBLEMS 1. 2. 3. Prove that the average voltage across the smoothing reactor is zero if the reactor has no resistance. Prove that the half-wave rectifier in Figure 2 can conduct only intermittently. Analyze the half-wave rectifier circuit in Figure 2, finding the wave shapes and the average and rms values of the current and the several voltages as functions of Em/Va. 15. 16. 17. 18.

19.

70

CONVERTER

CIRCUITS

Draw the circuit diagram and the wave shapes; and find the peak, rms, and average (voltages and currents and the aggregate volt-amperes of each set of transformer windings of converters described as follows: 20. Four-phase star, one-way, four valves. 21. Two-phase, center-tapped, one-way, with interphase transformer. 22. Four-phase, two-way, eight valves. 23. Cascade of two single-phase full-wave converters, fed from a two-phase line.

BmLIOGRAPHY

1. High Voltage Direct Current Power Transmission, by Colin Adamson and N. G. Hingorani, Chapter 2, "Type of Converter Circuits and Valve Connections." Power"Transmission by Direct Current, by Ya. M. Chervonenkis, 1948, translated from Russian to English by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1963. Chapter IV, "High-Voltage Rectifier Circuits," pp. 32-44. 3. "D.C. Power Transmission," Part II, .. Basic Principles," by E. Openshaw Taylor, a«. Jour. (London), Vol. 164, pp. 25-26, Jan. 1, 1960. 4. Rectifier Circuits: Theory and Design, by Johannes Schaefer, Wiley, New York, 1965. 5. High Voltage Direct Current Convertors and Systems, edited by B. J. Cory, Macdonald, London, 1965. Chapter 2, "H.V.D.C. Transmission Circuits," by B. J. Cory, pp. 14-21. 2.

3

Analysis of the Bridge Converter

In Chapter 2 several converter circuits, including the three-phase bridge, were analyzed under assumptions of no grid control and no overlap; and the superiority of the three-phase bridge circuit for use in HY de power transmission was shown, In the present chapter a better analysis of the bridge circuit is made in which grid control and overlap are accounted for. " The assumption made in Chapter 2 regarding the ac source must be modified thus: '

the

1. Power source (or sink) consisting of balanced sinusoidal EMFS of constant voltage and frequency in series with equal lossless inductances.

" The inductance, which really is chiefly the leakage inductance of the transformers, is the cause the overlap. The other assumptions made in Chapter 2 are retained. They are: . ""

of

2. Constant ripple-free direct current. 3. Valves which have no' forward r~sistance and infinite inverse resistance. 4. Ignition of valves at equal intervals~f one-sixth cycle (60°).

Figure 1 shows the bridge circuit with the notation adopted. The instantaneous line-to-neutral EMFS of the source are taken as ea

=

Em cos (rot

+ 60°)

(la)

ec = Em cos (rot - 180°)

(lb) (Ie)

corresponding to the horizontal projections of the rotating vectors shown in Figure 2 and to the waves shownin Figure3. The corresponding line-to-line EMFS are

eac

=

=

e~ - ec = J3Emcos

c..,..

eba" = eb ~ ea =

J3

(rot + 30°)

(rot - 90°)

Em cos

71

72

~ 1. n

.J .

Va

~r

3-1

!

73

&

l.J ~ 1

eAr;, eba, ecb.

C~ntinuity of the currents is obtained in our solution of the circuits by making the final values of currents for one form of the circuit determine the corresponding initial values of currents for the next consecutive form of the circuit.

BUT NO OVERLAP

The circuit in Figure 1, viewed in the light of assumptions 1 and 2, contains a three-phase voltage source and a de source. In our analysis of this circuit, the effects of the two sources are superposed. Superposition is valid in a linear circuit. A circuit with valves is piecewise linear. That is, with a certain set of valves conducting, it is a linear circuit; with another set of valves conducting, it is a different linear circuit. At the instant when any valve begins or ceases conducting, the circuit changes. The solutions of two consecutive circuits are pieced together at the instants of change so as to satisfy conditions of continuity, which, in this case, are the continuity of the current in the de source, because of the smoothing reactor Ld, and of the currents in the"ac source, because of the inductance L; in each phase.

The number of conducting valves may be two, three, or four according to the overlap (see Figure 4). For each of these numbers, there are six sets of conducting valves, each limited to consecutive valve numbers. Let us first analyze those cases in which only two valves conduct simultaneously (Figure 4a). Each set consists of a valve of the upper row (Figure 1) and one of the lower row. The transfer of current from one valve to another in the same row is called commutation. If no more than two valves ever conduct, commutation must occur instantly, that is, without overlap: Such commutation is im"possible if the ac source has any inductance. The case, therefore, must be regarded as a limiting one, which is approached if the product Lela becomes very small. " Figure 5 shows the circuit in Figure 1, with nonconducting valves omitted, when only valves 1 and 2 are conducting. The current source causes a steady current fd in the series circuit n2Nlpn, producing no voltage drops because "dla/dt = O. The alternating-voltage source sets up open-circuit voltages but no currents, because the application of superposition requires that current

,.

.-"

'c-

" • ':

;.,:"

".

-'<_

"-

--.'

'-,'.

.,.".t:. " ~

'\ \/

\\

74

3-1

5 4

BUT NO OVERLAP

75

(a) u

=0

~

5

I 7

1

3 2 60'-u -j u

(b) u == 20'

(e) u

= 40·

ee

~5<

_ 6

'"

~

P-r-60'~

3

I 6f

1

• wt

r1

U

Z

2

'"

3 3 ...............

7

Z

4

'"

5

(l~•

~~

»

(d) u

60'

1 2.

:;:z --s;:~ 5 4

i1 '"

(e)u=80'

sources be opened while other sources are acting. We obtain, for the instantaneous currents and voltages in Figure 1 or 5,

4=G=~=~=~=0

Va Vb Vc

(3a)

= = =

"» =

eb Vn

O~

+ 60°)

(3c)

ea = Em cos (OJt

Vn

(3d)

(3e) cos (OJt

Vd = Vp V1 V3 V4 V6

ea

ec

= eac

= )3 Em

+ 30°)

(3/)

(3g)

= V2 = 0

Equations for these other intervals may be found from Eqs. (3) by appropriate changes of subscripts and phase angles. ' It was shown in Chapter 2 that an uncontrolled valve ignites (begins to conduct) as soon as the voltage across it becomes .positive. If valves 1 and 2 have been conducting, valve 3 ignites as soon as eb becomes greater than ea; that is, at point R, Figure 3. This instant is taken as OJt = O. At the same instant, under present assumptions, valve 1is extinguished (ceases to conduct). Valves having control grids can be made to delay ignition but not to advance it. The delay angle is denoted by a and corresponds to a time delay of a/OJ sec. If delayed this long, valve 3 ignites when rot = 0::; valve 4, when OJt = a + 60°; valve 5, when rot = IX + 120°; and so on. The delay a cannot exceed 180°; for example, point T, .l80 'after R in Figure 3, marks the end of the range over which. valve 3 can ignite, for only in this range is eb greater than ea' The ignition delay affects both the direct voltage and the ac displacement factor, as will now be shown. The instantaneous direct voltage Vd across the bridge on the valve side of the de reactor is composed of 60° arcs of'the alternating line-to-line voltages, as shown by the vertical lines of the shaded area Ao in Figure 3 for the period in which valves i and ~conduct with IX = 0, or as shown in a different way in Figure 6a. The average direct voltage Vd is found by integrating the instantaneous voltages over such a period or any 60° period. For 0::= 0 (no delay) and with t»: called it is

0

e,

=

Vs ecb

(3h)

(OJt - 150°) 150°)

=

=

~Vd

.J,3 Em cos

+

(3i)

(3)

3 3 VdO = - Ao = - fO

11: 11:

-,,/3

3 eac de =-

:n:

-60.

.J3

Em cos (OJt

. = 3 .J"3 Em sm

11:

(e

+ 300)JO

The condition of this circuit endures for only one-sixth cycle (60°) at a time and is followed by one in which valves 2 and 3 conduct; then valves 3 and 4, then 4 and 5, then 5 and 6, then 6 and 1, and so back to 1 and 2. See Figure 4a.

-60.:n:

.. (4)

11: 11:

3-1

77

where Em is the crest value of line-to-neutral alternating voltage. In terms of rms line-to-neutral and line-to-line voltages (ELN and ELL, respectively),

Vda

I nstant when valve 3 ignites in an uncontrolled rectifier

3)6 = --ELN n

= 2.34ELN

= --ELL

. 3.)2

n

1.35ELL

(5)

For delay angle rx, both limits of integration are simply increased by «, as shown in Figure 6b to g, giving

(a) UJt

0:

=0

Vd

cos (8 + 30°) de = Vila sin (e + 300 1X-60· = Vaatsin(rx +30°) - sin(rx -30°)]

=

vdO

fa.

)J'"1X_60°

(6)

(b) a= 30·

Vila cos o:

wt

(c) UJt

0:

= 60·

(d) UJt

0:

== 90·

l!

\~

UJt (e)

0:

= 120·

Thus we see that one effect of delayed ignition is to reduce the average direct voltage by the factor cos a. Inasmuch as a can range from 0 to almost 180°, cos « can range from 1 to -1, and Va can range from VdO to - VdO. Since the current Id cannot reverse because of the unidirectional property of the valves, negative voltage Vd in conjunction with positive current III represents reversed power flow; that is, conversion from de power to ac power instead of from ac to de, In other words, it represents inversion as opposed to rectification. Obviously a converter cannot invert unless it has grid control. Figure 6 shows the waves of direct voltage on the valve side of the de reactor for various delay angles. It is noteworthy that the ripple and hence the harmonics in the direct voltage increase with delay up to 90° and then decrease from 90 to 180°. With losses in the converter neglected, the ac power must equal the de power; that is, (7) where hi is the rms value of the fundamental-frequency component of alternating line current. The line current has the wave shape shown in Figure 7a, consisting of positive and negative rectangular pulses of height Ia and .width 2n/3 rad. This shape is independent of a as long as there is no overlap. By Fourier analysis the crest value of the fundamental component of this wave is .J2 ILl = n

2

UJt (g)

0:

f+

== 180·

nl3

J+60

-600

n

Fig. 6. Instantaneous direct voltage (shown by heavy line) of bridge converter with ignition delay angle a but no overlap.

(8)

3-1

79

(a)

(Ii

=0

(Nt

rIal lal

in which cos 4> is the displacement factor or vector power factor and 4> is the angle by which the fundamental line current lags the line-to-neutral source voltage. From Eqs. (7) and (9) we see that the converter operates as a sort of transformer having a fixed current ratio but a voltage ratio that varies with the ignition delay imposed by grid control. With no ignition delay, the rectangular pulses of alternating line current are centered on the half sine waves of line-to-neutral voltage, as shown in Figure 7a, and the fundamental sine wave of current is in phase with that voltage wave. Ignition delay IX shifts the current wave and its fundamental component by angle ¢ = IX, as shown in Figure 7b, c, d, e, and f. Thus the converter-rectifier or inverter-draws reactive powerQ from the ac system. See the vector power diagram in Figure 8. The rectifier is said to take lagging current from the ac system, and the inverter is said either to take lagging current or to deliver leading current to the ac system. The signs of active and reactive power in a rectifier are like those in an induction motor, and, in an inverter, they are like those in an induction generator. The analogy between the inverter and the induction generator may be extended a step further: both work best in parallel with synchronous machines, but both may be made to work with shunt capacitors instead. A converter having valves with normal control circuitry can work only in the upper half of the complex power plane (Figure 8), because ignition can be delayed but not advanced from its uncontrolled position. Imagine a converter in which the valves are replaced by synchronously-controlled switches, the closing times of which can be shifted in either the lagging or the leading direction. By operating with the switches closing on negative instead of

(b) a = 30'

. .p

(0)

a = 60·

(d) a

= 90'

l

:al

..

~

lal lal la!

(f)

a =150'

Inverter

Rectifier

current is ../"6

ILl

Substitution into Eq. (7) of ILl

= -la 11:

= O.7801a

= 2.34ELN yields

(9)

cos ¢ = cos

IX

(10)

Fig. 8. Power vectors of converter.

80

3-2

60°

81

positive IX, the converter could be made to deliver instead of to consume reactive power. In other words, such a converter could operate in any quadrant in Figure 8.

N

3-2 ANALYSIS WITH GRID CONTROL AND WITH OVERLAP LESS THAN 60° Instantaneous Currents and Voltages Because the ac source, especially the transformer, has inductance, the currents in it can vary only at a finite rate,and therefore the transfer of current from one phase to another requires a finite time, called the commutation time or overlap time, uko, where u is the overlap angle. In normal operation it is less than 60°: typical full-load values are from 20 to 25°. As illustrated in Figure 4b or c, during commutation three values conduct simultaneously, but between commutations only two valves conduct. Since a new commutation begins every 60° and lasts for angle u, the angular interval when two valves conduct is 60° - u. The sequence of conducting valves is 12, 123, 23, 234, 34, 345, 45, 456, 56, 561, 61, 612. If u = 60°, as shown in Figure 4d, a new commutation begins at the same moment that an old one ends, so that some set of three valves is always conducting. This is a special1imiting case, as is also that for u = O. The valve sequence is 123, 234, 345,456, 561, 612. If 60° < u < 120°, an abnormal mode of operation occurs in which alternately three and four valves conduct. There are intervals of double overlap, in which commutations are occurring in both half bridges simultaneously, with two valves of each conducting; and between such intervals are other intervals in which commutation is in progress in only one half bridge and thus three valves are conducting in the bridge. See Figure 4e and f. The upper limit of this mode occurs with u = 120 and four valves always conducting (Figure

0

+ u.

a

eb-e

dt

dt

EMF,

(13)

The EMF in this loop, known as the commutating Eq, (2b):· . Since then

(14)

dil dt

and Eq, (14) becomes

0 _ di3 dt

J3E ft. '"2L

m

4g). But let us return to an analysis of normal operation with 0 < u < 60° and with alternately two and three valves conducting. The interval in which valves 1 and 2 conduct was analyzed in Section 3-1, with the results given by Eqs. (3). This interval ends at cot = IX, when valve 3 ignites. In the next interval, the effective circuit is that in Figure 9, with valves 1,2, and 3 conducting. During this interval the direct current is transferred from valve 1 to valve 3. Hence At beginning (OJt = IX): At end (wt i1 = Id i1

=

Di~ision by 2Lc and definite integration with respect to t, with the lower limit being set by Eq. (11) and a running upper limit, give sm cat dt =

fi

3 0

dZ3

"o:/w

Is2(cos

where

IX -

(15)

s2 -

2CiJLc

(16)

and and

(11) (12)

= IX + u

Equa~on (15) ~hows that i3, the current of the incoming valve during commutation, consists of a constant (de) term and a sinusoidalterm (see Figure

= (5):

,

~ ~_.~ ._n~n r~

"'-

82

3-2

60°

83

10). The sinusoidal term lags the commutating voltage by 90°, as it should in a purely inductive circuit, and has a crest value Is2 which is that of the current in a line-to-line short circuit on the ac source. The constant term, which serves to make i3 = 0 at the beginning of commutation, depends on ct, and for o: = 0 it shifts the sine wave upward by its crest value. The current ii of the outgoing valve has a sine term of the same amplitude as that of i3 but of opposite phase, and its constant term serves to make ii = Idatthe beginning. Currents ii and i3 would reach high peak values if the short circuit remained, as infrequently happens because of an arcback (Chapter 6). Normally, however, the short circuit is removed when the current in the outgoing valve reaches zero, for normal valve action prevents it from reversing. During commutation the line-to-line voltage of the short-circuited phase is

zero, and the two line-to-neutral voltages are equal to eaeh other and to the average of the corresponding open-circuit voltages:

(17)

for the two phases of the source have equal impedances jroLc and act as a voltage divider. During the overlap interval of valves 1 and 3 (ct < rot < ct + u), the instantaneous values of all currents and voltages are given by the following equations:

ic= -I2

= -1d

(18a)

(I8b) (18e)

90·

-90·~

/

/'

i4, = is = i6

va

Vc Va

=0

= -0.5ec = 0.5Em COS

-Em cos

rot rot

(18d)

(18e) (18!)

/ /

=

=

Vb Vn

vp

= ec =

Vn

= =

vp V2

(18g)

(18h)

rot

Vi

V3

V4 = Vs = V6

=-

Vd

-1.5Em cos

(18i)

f52 cos

__ ~~~~~+.\

u

__ ~~r--4--~--~------~wt

\ \

Id - Is2 cos

Equations (18) can be adapted to other overlap or three-valve periods (valves 234, 345, 456, 561, 612) by appropriate changes of subscripts and phase angles. For the nonoverlap or two-valve periods (12, 23, 34, 45, 56, 61), Eqs, (3) hold, with appropriate changes. From the resulting equations (Tables 1 and 2), graphs of the instantaneous currents and voltages are drawn (Figure 11). Average Direct Current and Voltage At the end of the commutating them into Eq. (15) yields period, Eqs. (12) hold, and substitution of

-0

-~~ J /

-ls2 /

\,...._ ,..../

I I

(19)

This gives the direct current in terms of the ignition and extinction angles. A similar equation will now be drived for voltage drop A Va due to overlap. In Figure12 the effect of overlap is to subtract an area A from the area Ao

Fig. 10. Currents t, and i2 during commutation of valve 1 to valve 3 as arcs of offset sinusoidal waves of line-to-line short-circuit current of amplitude 1.2, with: is lagging 90 behind the commutation voltage eba.

Q

..::: ~

I I

~

I

+8

1 I

~~o

~S ",'" 81 ..,~

'" 0

......

..

'U

"'~" I ....".~ II

U '"

Oo~

..::!

'U

'U

'U

..

'"

~

t:I..

'U

..

+ ~S

~~l I8

"'''' 8 I ..::: ~

1

~

I

'U

~ ~

....~ '"

0

·;:f

..+ .....

U

...::

~ ~8~

l:! '"

'U

..,

... ~

'U

a

'"

~ ......

on .~

..

o o

~ ......

o

~'g o

aJ, ~

'" ...."

~\O

IS

'" '"

00

tI<r:>

~ 'U ~

UU

..:::

II

o

..!:.' o

o

0

'U

.."

~ ...

~ ~

......

o o o o

..:.!

...

'U

q

~ ......

I

.. ..

q

...... I

on

<.'f

'U

'U

~ 'U ~

I

o

~

o

..

o

.~

U0 ..,0 ..._~ NO

0'"

~ ",'""

1+

.~

...::

......

~.

..:::

.-.

o

s

o

&

tI

&,

\0

&,

\0 00

"'"

++++++ ~ tI ~

00 00

o

N

~~ .... ....

o

00

'" '" ++ ~

00

&, o

GO

@

GO

fl ......

GO

o 00 ......

+ tI

GO

o 00

8 ...,

+

tI

"

~ ~~-:::.~

--"'2~~E:~'c£'~~

(a){l==!<t~\~

;1

3~2

60°

87

-jaH<'

i3

i5

ib

Id

(b)

_..:L_ _

_j

ie

(c)

(d)

every sixth of a cycle (n/3 rad). As already shown, area Ao = VdO n/3. Similady, area A = AVd n/3: . A

(e)

J: (e

3

e ;eb)dO

a

=J:

eb;

eudO

I

(20)

=

(I)

/iE T (cos

tt.

rt -

cos b) (cos

rt -

A Vd

=-A

3/3 E

2n

0:: -

. cos b)

VdO = 2 ( cos

00

<J)<J)

cos b)

O~;:j

wt

·1 1

~

;:j

~+ " ~

11

+

II ee

~'<)

++

~'<)

++

~'<>

Without overlap, the direct voltage was VdO cos o::~Eq. (6). With overlap, it is

(21)

IX

Fig. 11. Instantaneous currents and voltages of three-phase brid~e c~nverter with = 15° and u = 15°; (a) valve currents ; (b) line currents; (c) alternating line-to-neutral voltages; Cd) direct positive and negative voltages with respect to neutral point of ac source; (e) direct voltage between poles; (f) voltage across valve 1. Voltages across other valves have the same wave form but are displaced 60" apart; 4i means valve 4 ignites; 2e, valve 2 extinguishes; etc.

Comparison of Eqs, (19) and (20) shows that.the voltage drop is directly

proportional

to the .current:

(22)

>"Co.

'if

,~ .. ~.?.-.;:,.

."""

,~

88

Hence

3-2

60°

89

Vd

VdO (COS

a-

2~:J

ohms

(23)

for given values in volts and amperes, respectively. However, the ratio Vdo/I.l, which is the base de resistance, is independent of the alternating voltage, and so is the per-unit value of commutating resistance

R;.

Vd

where

= VdO cos

a - RJd

(24)

(25)

R; is called the equivalent commutating resistance. Although it is the ratio of drop of direct voltage to direct current, it consumes no power. It could be likened to the drop in terminal voltage of a de generator per ampere of current due to a differential series field winding. The equivalent circuit of the bridge rectifier, operating at constant alternating voltage and constant ignition angle, is given in Figure 13. The direct voltages and current in this circuit are average values without ripple.

Second System, A more usual base direct current than I.z, of course, is the rated or full-load current Idn. The per-unit current on this new base is I;' = Id/ldn. For reasons that will appear later, it is desirable to adopt at the same time a new base direct voltage VdOn! which is the value of VdO under normal full-load rectifier operation with terminal voltage Vd at its normal value Vdn. VdDn must be distinguished' from Vao, for only one of them can remain constant while the direct current varies. The per-unit direct voltage on this new base is V;' = Vd/Vao". We shall show that in this system there is a simple relation between the per-unit commutating resistance and the per-unit commutatingreactance based on the rated voltage and current of the converter transformer. These transformer ratings must be expressed in terms of the base voltage and current adopted for the de circuit. The rated line-to-neutral rms valve-side transformer voltage is, by Eq. (5), '

n

~J 1 I j_V~=.i7;c ~ r~ V:

He

E

OJ

LNn

== 3 .J"6 Vdon

(27)

oV'

The rated (full-load) alternating current (rms value includingharmonics) is computed, for simplicity, from the rectangular pulses of height Ia amperes and width 2nj3 rad that would exist at no overlap. This value is

It is correct within a few percent dance is then

0.816Idn

overlap.

(28)

at full-load

First System. Let VdO be chosen as the base voltage and 1.2 as the base

current of a per-unit system. Division of Eq. (23) by V,IQ yields

Ian

V; = cos a -

v:

6 Idn

(29)

(26)

reactance is

where V; = Vd/VdO is the per-unit direct voltage, and I~ = Id/Isz is the per-unit direct current on the chosen bases. On the same bases the per-unit commutating resistance is R~ = 1-. .. It may be noted that in this per-unit system the base quantities VdO and I both vary in direct proportion to the alternating voltage referred to the valve side of the transformers, which voltage is proportional to that on the other side of the transformers and to the turns ratio, which is adjustable. Hence a change in voltage affects the per-unit values of voltage and current Hence

X" = Xc = (

c

nR

Z;

c)(

6V don) n1dn

(Vdon/Idn)

2Rc

.= 2R"

C

(30)

R"=c

X"

2

(31)

* See

90

3-2

60°

91

that is, the per-unit commutating resistance on the new base is half the per-unit commutating reactance based on the transformer rating. Equation (23) becomes

Va

=

X~'

which is exact only if u = 0 but which is true with a maximum error of 4.3% at u = 60° and only 1.1 % for u ~ 30° (the normal operating range). It follows that the displacement factor is . cos 'I'

A,.

sr

(32)

cos

(X

+ cos 6

2

(40) .

V~~, (33)*

By the use ofEqs. (21) and (24), it may be written also as cos 4> ~ = cos VdO

Vd

r:l ~

ReId

-~

VdO

(41)

Relations between AC and DC Quantities Simple Approximate Relationships. These relationships hold between the ac quantities at the point where the voltage waves are sinusoidal (between the EMFS and inductances in Figure 1) and the de quantities. From Eqs. (4) and (20), we obtain the following relationship between the alternating and direct voltages, which is valid for u < 60°:

Vd=~n~

Vd ~ -~

11:

(42)

3J6

(cos

r:l

+ cos 6) ELN 2

(34)

Pa=Pd

(35) (36)

where and

(37)

The concept of the converter's having a fixed current ratio Id/ILl and an adjustable voltage ratio Vd/ELN is stilI valid. Now, however, the current ratio varies a few percent with load, and the ac displacement factor depends on load-Eq. (41)-inaddition to ignition delay angle. . Equations (35), (39), and (42) give approximate relations, not involving the converter angles IX and 6, for power, current, and voltage, respectively. These three equations, in terms of per-unit quantities on any power base equal on both sides and on any pair of current bases proportioned as in Eq. (39), become P~=P~ I~~l~

V; ~ E~ cos cp (43)

(44)

(45)

Equating the right-hand sides of Eqs. (36) and (37), substituting Eq. (34) for Vd, and solving for the active alternating current, we get

A,. ILl cos 'I' _

(46)

(J6 I )(cos

n

d

(X

+ cos 6)

2

(38)

where 4> is given by Eq. (40) or (41). Of course, there is no reactive power on the de side. Effect of Transformer Ratio. In practice, a bank of transformers is connected between the ac source and the bridge-connected valves, and the ratio of these transformers is adjustable under load by means of tap-changers. The ac quantities of most interest are those on the network side of the transformers. Let T be the ratio of line-to-line voltages on the valve side to those on the network side at no load and at any tap, and let T; be the value of T corresponding to rated voltages onboth sides. Also let T' = T/Tn be the per-unit ratio

hl ~-Id=IL10

tt

J6

(39)

* Perhaps because of neglect of the distinction between V.O and VdOn, equations similar to this except with the factor V;~omitted (assumed equal to 1) have appeared in converter literature but are not correct unless VdO is kept constant at the particular value VdOn' If, for example, a rectifier is operated at constant terminal voltage Vd or V~' but with VdO (or Vd~) increasing with la' the factor V;~ should be retained.

92

3-3

.!

A~~A~YSIS WITH OVER'LAP GREATER THAN

60°

93

of the transformers, that is, the factor by which the ratio is off its nominal value t; Then Eq. (43) is unchanged, but Eqs. (44) and (45) become Id~Tf

f

I~

(47) (48)

V~ ~ TfE~ cos cp in which the ac quantities are referred to the network side.

Exact Relations. A harmonic analysis of the current wave (Appendix B) shows that its fundamental-frequency inphase and. quadrature lagging components (with respect to ELN) are cos Ct; ILl coscp = ILlO-~2--and . ILlsmcp=ILlo 2u + sin 20: - sin 26 4( ~) cos a - cos u Id• The phasor fundamental

circuit, or low alternating voltage. Therefore, the present section may be skipped by readers interested only in the normal operation. Inspection of Figure 4e or f shows that the overlap interval u, during which current is transferred, say, from valve I to valve 3 in one half bridge, begins and ends with subintervals, each of angular span u - 60°, in which four valves are conducting, there being simultaneously with commutation from VI to V3, a commutation in the other half bridge, either from V6 to V2 or from V2 to V4. Between the beginning and ending subintervals is a middle subinterval of angular span 120° - u in which no other commutation occurs and only three valves are conducting. When four valves are conducting (Figure 14), they constitute a three-phase short circuit on the ac source and

(ia) (Va) Vb (1)

+ cos

(il)

(49)

Lc

ib

i3

Vp

Ld

(3)

(i3)

(50)

N

(eb)

Lc

(ib) (Vb)

it

(i6)

IS

current (51)

ia

Va

i4

current is

ic

~c

i2

V"

The reactive power is

(52)

Fig. 14. Bridge converter with valves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (or 6, 1, 2, and 3) conducting.

=

a pole-to-pole short circuit on the de terminals. When three valves are conducting (Figure 9),they constitute aline-to-line short circuit on the ac source, as already considered in Section 3-2, In the four-valve subintervals, the direct voltage is zero; in the three-valve intervals, it is an arc of a sine wave of amplitude 1.5Em (the altitude of the voltage triangle in Figure 2). Currents during Commutation

+ 6)

(54)

(/

3-3 ANALYSIS WITH OVERLAP GREATER THAN 60° Operation of the bridge converter with overlap angle in the range between 60 and 120° is abnormal, being encountered only under overload, de short

The current i3 in valve 3 will be traced through the three subintervals that constitute the interval of angular span u in which i3 rises from 0 to Id• During this same interval il decreases from Id to.O and is always equal to IJ - i3• First Subinterval. The first subinterval extends from rot = 0: to rot =6 - 60°, Valves 1, 2, 3, and. 6 are conducting, and the upper one of each pair of quantities in Figure 14 should be used ..

94

3-3

60°

95

dia die e - eb - 2L - - L - = 0 a C dt C dt

There is a line-to-line short circuit on phases a and b of the source through valves land 3. Hence (55) (5q) .Integration gives i3 = 2 Lm ro

(57)

~

di3

dt

= --

eb' ~ ea

2Le

= --

90°)

(63)

e - e - 2L die _ L dia

c

b

dt

dt

=0

the result is

di, dt

.j3 E

fro!

0-60'

2ea

eb

3Lc

eo

J.;

(58)

=f

ts -

(64)

dia dt

ea Em -=-=-cos(rot+600)

L; L;

=~=-dt

di,

dil

dt

(59)

to which must be added the initial value, equal to the final value in the preceding subinterval and given by Eq. (62). The sum is

i3

Similar equations hold for currents in the other two phases. Of course, these results could be obtained directly by considering a three-phase short circuit on the positive-sequence circuit of the ac source. By the integration of Eq. (59) we get i3

=-

= Is{COS

(a -

30

0 ) -

cos «(j- 90

0 )

rot]

0 )

(65)

0 )

ro

Em L

c

II

~1cos «(j-

60 = -t cos «(j+ 30

0 )

(66)

Hence i3 = Is{COS (a - 30°) +1 cos (D + 30°) At the end of the subinterval, cot = (61) i3

=

IX

= - Is3[cos

where

(rot - 30 W:/

0

(60)

cos rot]

(67)

+ 60°; hence

(a + 600)]

Is{ cos (a ~ 30

0 )

being the crest value of the alternating component of current in a three-phase short circuit. Equation (60) satisfies the initial condition that i3 = 0 when rot = a. At the end of the first subinterval rot = (j - 60° and (62) rot =

Second Subinterval. The second subinterval extends from cot = (j - 60° to IX + 60°. Valves 1,2, and 3 are conducting. The circuit in Figure 9 holds.

i3 = Is{ Third Subinterval.

rot

~7 cos

(a -

tan

_1

J3)+ -t

cos«(j+ 300)]

rot = a

(68)

+ 60° to

again, but with the lower symbol of each pair. The alternating components of the phase currents are given by the same equations as those for the first

I

I

""" ""7

96

3-3 i3

=

60°

97 (75)

subinterval except that valve 3 is now in series with phase b, so that the ac component is 90" behind Eb . The de component is different from what it was in the first subinterval. The total current in valve 3 is (69) where I~ is a constant of integration determined from the fact that, when rot = a + 60", i3 has the value given by Eq. (68):

ib = I.{cOS(a

-30°)

+t

cos Co +30") -

{!

coe cot]

4=~=4=0

VI = V2

V4

a~

=0

= V3

=

(77)

Is{

:7

= Vs = V6

= Vb

-Va

I.Sec

(78)

cos ( a - tan

~1

~1

= 1.3 cos (a -

90") +

I;

Va

Vc

"» = -0.5ec

(79) (80)

= Vn = ec =

I; = I.{ ~7

i3

= 1.3[1-

cos( a - tan

J3) -

+ 30

)J

(70) (71)

i1 =

cos (a - 30") +

(81)

iz

At the end of the subinterval and whole interval, wt = 0 and i3 = Ia. This fact enables us to obtain the direct current as a function of the ignition and extinction angles.

0

"_

(82)

=

I.3[tcos

(0: -

30°) + t cos (0

+ 30°) -

"By analogy with i3 in the first subinterval, with wt decreased by 60°, On combination of the last two terms, this simplifies to Ia

= Y.3[

(84)

(o

+ 30°)]

(85)

(87)

where a' = a-30° and 0' which is for u < 60°.

=0

1.2

(72)

Subsequent Subintervals. The equations may be obtained from those for the same number of conducting valves by appropriate changes of subscripts and phase angles. The results are shown in Tables 3 and 4. The wave forms are plotted in Figure 15 for 0: = 45° and u = 75°. Average Direct Current and Voltage

t, = fa

= t,-

cos rot

(73) (74)

Average current is given by Eq. (72). Average voltage is found by averaging the instantaneous voltage over a 60° interval comprising a subinterval in which ids zero and one in which it is an arc of a sinusoid of amplitude 1.5Em• Let the latter subinterval be the second one used in the discussion of commutation. In it the instantaneous

······/7·······/·····,··

I

I

'zu::::::::::i'"

"\

I

"

..::

I

.,!

....:j

..::

I

q

I

kI

I

..::

I

.~

..::

OJ

..::

o

N I

.~ '"

._:t

~.'

o

~

o o

o

.~.

o

U I

..::

~

I

S

II

,~

o .'0 00

o

~.

<Q

+ !:l

+ !:l.

.....

<Q

~

..

o

<Q

+

~..

;S.,

<Q

3-3 ~ ,....,

I

o

60°

101

" ~ ,.....

+

I

Jl o

..

o

o

~ ,.....

I

..

o

" ~ ,.....

II>

"! ,.....

<2

+

o

(a)

o <2

I

o

I()

II>

"

o

II>

I()

o o

I

'" o

I()

...

o

o <2

I

..

o o

"''''-------''''''

, \( /\ /"

"\.

,/

.'

/

,---/

o

I

I()

o .;;

I()

I()

o

I

II>

"

I()

o

I

'" o

I()

..

o

o

'"

...

J! o

I

(b)

~ ,.....

I

'"

o

(a)

~ ,.....

'"

o

o <2

I

I()

II>

,.....

"

"!

'"

"

o

" ~

I

"! ,..... I

~ ,..... I

'"

o

~ ,.....

..

o

~ ,...., I

,.....

I()

'"

..

o

I

I

(d)

1.5e.

-1.5e&

1.5e"

-1.5e c

I

\'

,....,

I, ~ ,.....

<-0 o

o oc

~ ,.....

<-0

o oc ,....,

<-0

·00

8 M +

Fig. 15. Instantaneous currents and voltages of three-phase bridge converter with 0;=45° and u ~75°: (a) valve and phase currents; (b) altematmgllne-to-neutraj voltage, phase a; (c) direct positive and negative voltages with respect to neutral point of ac source; (d) direct voltage between poles '(broken line) and voltage across valve 2 (solid line):'

~.:..~, ~::~:..:'~o

~~.... .

102

3-4

COMPLETE CHARACTER1S1'lCS

OF RECTIFIER

103

voltage is, by Eq. (78), va = 1.5Em cos 8. The average voltage over 60° (re/3 rad) is, 3 Va = re

f"'HO' 1.5E

J-60'

cos

9E e dO = ---'" cos (8 -

= 2VdO[cos

=

J3

(rt - 30°)

'

2re

90°) .

J"'+60'

J-60'

+ cos (0 + 30°)]

(88)

VdO(cos c/

+ cos 0')

'r

with rt' and 0' as in Eq. (72). Equation (88) for u for u < 60°.

Direct Voltage as a Function of Direct Current for Constant Ignition Angle By elimination of co.,

<5

= V 3 cos (rt - 30 ) - - '2 Is2

Va

r;

3 Ia

Vao

(89)

Fig. 16. For explaining that the minimum ignition delay angle is 30° if the overlap angle

~&oc~~

J3 cos Crt I~

=

30°) - 1.5I~

(90)

i1

Vd

J3

VdO cos

Crt -

30°) - 1.5X'~ Id

(91)

where Vd = VdlVdon, VdO = VdO/VdOn, Id = Id/Ian> and X'~ is the per-unit commutating reactance based on the rating of the converter transformer. Comparison of Eq. (90) with Eq. (26) and of Eq. (91) with Eq. (33) shows that the equivalent commutating resistance for u > 60° is three times that for u < 60°. Minimum Ignition Angle If the overlap is greater than 60°, ignition of a valve in one half bridge must begin while the preceding commutation is still under way in the other half bridge (Figure 4e), putting a line-to-line short circuit on the ac source. For example, valve 3 must fire while valves 2 and 6 are still commutating and putting a short circuit on phases band c. The anode of valve 3 is at potential vI! = (eb + ec)J2 = - ea/2, and its cathode is at potential va = ea' See Figure 16. Valve 3 cannot ignite until its anode potential becomes a little greater than its cathode potential, that is, until Vb> Va, which, for balanced alternating

voltages, occurs first at point B, where rot = 30°. If it were not for the short circuit, Vb would be eb' and ignition would occur at point A, where wt=O. ' Hence the minimum ignition delay angle is 30°. This delay occurs spontaneously even with no grid control. The same phenomenon may be seen in the voltage Vz across valve 2 in Figure 15d. This voltage becomes positive at cot = - 30°, which forvalve 2 corresponds to a = 30°.

3-4 COMPLETE CHARACTERISTICS OF RECTIFIER .' A three-phase bridge rectifier with no grid control operates successively in three different modes as the direct current .is increased from zero to the shortcircuit currerit Is3 :

,

a= O.

u increasesfrom 0 to 60°. increases from Oto 0.500. decreases linearly from 1 to 0.750.'

I;

V;

104

3-5

INVERSION

105

Second mode Three valves conducting. a increases from 0 to 30°. u = 60 increases from 0.500 to 0.866. decreases on a curve from 0.750 to 0.433.

0

from overloads, dc short circuits, or low alternating voltage. Such abnormal . operation may be studied conveniently in the laboratory by using an exaggerated value of commutating reactance.

I;

V;

3-5 INVERSION General Because the valves conduct in only one direction, the current in a converter cannot be reversed, and power reversal can be obtained only by the reversal of the average direct voltage Yd' The voltage then opposes the current, as in a de motor, and is called a counterooltage. In Section 3-1 it was shown that, if there is no overlap, Vd reverses at (X = 90°; that is, rectification occurs for 0 <: a < 90° and inversion for 90° < a < 180 Since in a practical case there is always some overlap, the value of (X at which inversion begins depends on the overlap, or on the current,and may be found from Eq. (21) or (24). From Eq. (21), the transitional value is

0 •

Third mode Alternately three and four valves conducting. a = 30°. u increases from 60° to 120 increases from 0.866 to 1.155. decreases linearly from 0.433 to O.

0

I;

V;

A rectifier with grid control set for a = C(o, where aD is between 0 and 30 has three modes similar to those of the uncontrolled rectifier: First mode Alternately

C( = ao.

0 ,

0 •

u increases from 0 to 60

(92) which is always less than 90°. Moreover, J ought to be less than n by atleastthe angle Yo corresponding to the time required for deionization of the arc, which is 1 to 8°; hence O!: ought to be less than n - u. Figure 17 shows the voltage eba causing commutation of current from valve I to valve 3. If the current has not been completely shifted to valve 3, with margin for deionization of valve 1, before rot = n, when eba reverses, the current thereafter is transferred from valve, 3 back to valve 1. This occurrence is called a commutation failure and 'is discussed in Chapter 6. The commutation voltage for BV de inverters is furnished by synchronous machines. If the ac system receiving power from the de line has no generators, or none running, a synchronous condenser is used-in Gotland, for example. Some small single-phase and polyphase inverters use tuned LC circuits instead. Notation for Ignition and Extinction Angles In rectifier theory, the ignition angle c..:: was defined as the angle by which : ignition is delayed from the instant (rot = 0 for valve 3) at which the com..mutating voltage (eba for valveB) is zero and increasing. Similarly, the

Second mode Three valves conducting. a increases from ao to 30°. u = 60°. Third mode Alternately three and four valves conducting. a = 30°. u increases from 60° to 120°. For a ~ 30°, the second mode disappears, and transition is made from the first mode directly to the third, with a = aD· The spontaneous increase of C( in the second mode is sometimes called auto phase control. The incoming valve cannot ignite until the polarity of the voltage across it is reversed by the completion of commutation in the other half bridge. The situation is similar to that already described in Section 3-3, page 102, for u > 60°. The direct current and voltage at transition points between modes can be calculated by means of the equations already given for Id and Vd as functions of a and J. The relations will be clarified by study of the first chart described in Chapter 4. Normally the rectifier operates in the first mode. The other modes occur

106

IX

INVERSION

107

= -cos

f3 and

cos

(j = -

Id

= cos Y - cos 13

(98) (99)

, _ cos y VdI

Inverter

+ cos 13

2

X~ I'd

wt ,

(100) (101)

"

+ cos 13)

2

/3,

Vd = VdO cos

Fig. 17. Showing relations among angles used in converter theory and why the curvature of the front of a current pulse of an inverter differs from that of a rectifier.

13 + ReId

V~ = cos

13 +

v:

extinction angle iJ is measured by the delay from that same instant (rot = 0 for valve 1). Althoughangles defined in the same way and having values between 90 and 180° could be used in inverter theory, commoner practice is to define ignition angle 13 and extinction angle y by their advance with respect to the instant (rot = 180 for ignition of valve 3 and extinction of valve 1) when the commutation voltage is zero and decreasing. See Figure 17. The relation among the several inverter angles is as follows:

0

Because extinction between and (97)

+ 1-X~ I'd

inverters are commonly controlled so as to operate at constant advance angle y (see Section 5-7), it is useful to have the relations Vd and Id for this condition. Elimination of cos 13 from Eqs. (96) gives (105)

f3=n-a y=n-iJ u=il-a=f3-y Equations for Average Direct Current and Voltage in Terms of

fJ

and 'Y

Inverter voltage, considered negative in the general converter equations, is usually taken as positive when written specifically for an inverter. General equations (19) and (21) are changed to inverter equations by changing the

(The corresponding equations in per-unit quantities are like (103) and (104) but with reversed sign of the last term.) Under this condition the equivalent commutation resistance is - R; and is negative. It may be likened to the voltage drop per unit of current due to the series field of a differentially compounded de motor, forced to run at constant speed by driving an induction generator. Equivalent circuits of the inverter are shown in Figure 18. Theforegoing equations are for overlap less than 60°. For greater overlap, the equations given in Section 3-3 are valid. If desired, these may be modified to change the sign convention for-Vd and to use 13 and yinstead of IX and iJ.

108

(a)

(b)

WaveForms Wave forms of instantaneous voltages and currents are shown in Figure 19 for inverter operation with y = 15° and u = 15°, hence with fJ = 30°. The sinusoidal arcs of current during commutation have, for inverter operation, opposite curvature from those in rectifier operation. See Figure 17. If both current waves have the same overlap and if IX for one equals y for the other, the shape of one wave is like that of the other turned end-for-end about a vertical axis. The voltage across an inverter valve is compared with the voltage across a rectifier valve in Figure 20. Again u, = u, and CI., = ')'' with subscript r denoting i a rectifier and i an inverter. The wave form of the inverter is like that of the rectifier rotated 180 in the plane of the paper. The following similarities and dissimilarities are noteworthy: .

0

(c)

(d)

1. The average voltage across a rectifier valve is negative and is called inverse voltage; the average voltage across an inverter valve is positive; hence

the necessity for reliable grid control of inverter valves is apparent. 2. In both modes of operation, the voltage across the valve is positive just before conduction begins, but in the rectifier it is positive for a shorter while than in the inverter, approaching zero as IX approaches zero. 3. In both modes of operation, the voltage across the valve is negative immediately after extinction of the arc, but in the inverter it is negative for a much shorter while (the commutation margin) than in the rectifier. 4. Abrupt changes in voltage across the valve occur at ignition and extinction. For IX, = ')'j and equal alternating voltages, the voltage jump at .ignition is greater in the inverter than in the rectifier, but as to the voltage jump at extinction, the opposite is true. Formulas for the major voltage jumps are as follows:

Rectifier Ignition Extinction Inverter

(f)

. Vd

I· 0 N

.,

I 1-

II bb

<'0.1II

'>:l?-O

'" '" II

, , ., ,

II II

.[

'>:l.?II

NN

...,rl

'>:l.?-

be,

<.a",

00

.. II

00 0000 II

[[

'>:l?II

-tI

~j~

00

""<t N·N

.

J

0 <D

'>:l.

.. wt

'"

/3=

(106) (107)

Fig. 19. Wave forms of currents and voltages of three-phase bridge inverter with a = 150", 30°, U= 15°, and y= 15": (a) valve currents; (b) line currents; (c) line-to-neutral alternating voltages: (d) positive and negative direct voltages with respect to neutralpoint of ac source; (e) voltage across valve 2; (f) direct voltage between poles.

110

3-5

INVERSION

111

60·'-{3

(a)

. (a)

First range

Fig. 21. Relations among inverter angles right after extinction of a valve: (a) {3= 45°, u=30°, Y=S=15°; (b) {3=75", u=45°, y=30°, '=15°; (0) {3=97Y, u=52.so, y = 45°, S = 15°. A = -1.5E.o sin (wt + 30°); B = -v'3E;" sin cur; C = -1.5E.o sin (wt - 30°).

(b)

Fig. 20. Wave forms of voltage across a valve in (a) inverter and (b) rectifier: 1. inverse period; 2. blocking period; 3. conducting period.

There are also four minor voltage jumps per cycle, two of which are half as great as the jump at ignition, and the other two, half as great as the jump at extinction. These occur at moments when other valves are being ignited or extinguished -. Commutation Margin A distinction is made between extinction advance angle y and commutation margin angle (. The two are often confused, because they are equal under normal operating conditions. Extinction advance angle is the time angle between the end of conduction and the reversal of the sign of the sinusoidal commutation voltage of the source. It is given by

dent D because of the succeeding commutation. This dent normally occurs after the sinusoidal voltage on which it is superposed has becoine positive. Under this condition ( = y. With increasing current or decreasingcommutation voltage, however, the width of this dent, which is the overlap angle u, increases; and with increased overlap or earlier ignition, the dent encroaches on the period in which the valve voltage would otherwise be negative (Figure 2Ib) and thus. makes ( < y. After the front of the dent becomes entirely negative, further advance of the dent (Figure 2Ie) does not decrease the . commutation margin further. The three situations loosely described above in terms of the advance of the dent can be specified rigorously as different ranges of ignition advance angle {3. In each range the commutation margin angle follows a different law.

First Range (Figure 21a). The front of the dent is entirely above the

horizontal axis.

(108a) (108b)

Second Range (Figure 2Ib). The front of the dent is partly above and partly below the horizontal axis. . 60°

(=60°

Commutation margin angle ( is thetime angle between the end of conduction and the reversal of the sign of the nonsinusoidal voltage across the outgoing valve. The voltage across an inverter valve (Figures 20a and 21a) has a positive

(l09a) (109b)

-u

112

3-6

113

2Ie). The front of the dent is entirely below the (1lOa) (llOb)

These laws can be verified by a study of Figure 21 in the light of the following considerations. The ignition and extinction advance angles are measured back from the instant of reversal of the commutating voltage. For the commutation that results in the extinction of the arc in the valve across which the voltage is graphed in the figure, this instant is marked 0, and the extinction angle 'l' for this valve is indicated; however, the ignition of the incoming valve of the same commutation is indistinguishable in the graph. The ignition and extinction in the next commutation (occurring in the other half bridge) occur 60° later, at the front and tail of the dent D. Hence its front is 60° - f3 after (or f3 - 60° before) the reference point 0, and its tail is 60° - 'l' after the reference point. The sine wave forming the upper limit of the dent leads the main wave by 30°.

3-6

OF VALVES, ANODES,

anodes. Eitherscheme requires a current divider for forcing equal division of the current among the several parallel paths. Otherwise, the first anode to begin conduction would limit the voltage of the remaining anodes to the arc drop, which is insufficient to ignite arcs to those anodes. A precaution usually taken with multianode valves is to delay ignition by a minimum angle of about 5 to 7°, so that there is a definite and adequate voltage from each anode to the cathode just before ignition. This increases the probability that all anodes ignite simultaneously as soon as the control grids are made positive. This can be done with little effect on the average direct voltage, which varies as cos 0(; the voltage across the valve just before ignition varies as sin O(;.for example, with valves having peak inverse voltages of 100 kV, by changing 0( from 0 to 7°, the firing voltage is changed from.the bare minimum (about 2 kV)to 100 sin T" = 12.3,kV, and the no-load direct voltage is decreased from 95.5 kV to 95.5 cos 7° = 94.8 kV, or only by 0.7%. Thecurrent divider, shown in Figure 22 for a four-anode valve, consists of four current transformers of ratio 1 : 4.· It also increases the certainty of all anodes firing. If one anode fires first, the high rate of change of current in the primary windings of the transformers for the other anodes induces a high enough voltage in their open-circuited secondary windings to strike arcs almost immediately on those anodes also.

Current transformers, ratio 1:4

The current and voltage required for high-power long-distance transmission are beyond the ratings of single valves and must therefore be raised by parallel or series connections. The current can be increased by using the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Valves in parallel in each bridge arm Two or more anodes in parallel for each tank and cathode Bridges in parallel Some combination of these means

The voltage can be increased by connecting: 1. Valves in series in each bridge arm 2. Bridges in series 3. Both Anodes in parallel have an advantage over valves in parallel in that the former scheme reduces the duplication of tanks, cathodes, ignition and excitation anodes, etc., and saves space. Voltage grading and control grids are repe~ted on each anode assembly. ASEA valves have two, four, or six

Cathode

·1.

~

1

114

3-7

MULTIBRIDGE

CONVERTERS

115

The transformers and the resistors across their secondary windings maintain almost equal currents in the several anodes. At first glance, the use of transformers of direct current appears strange. It must be remembered, however, that the current in each valve (except the bypass valve, to be discussed in Section 6-2, page 199) is a train of pulses having both ac and de components. Transformation of the ac components, together with the clamping effect of the unilateral conduction of each anode, suffices to divide the de components also. The resistors further aid in maintaining equal current division by increasing the voltage on the anodes carrying less than their share of the total current and decreasing the voltage on the anodes carrying more than their share. On the assumption that each secondary winding in Figure 22 always carries onefourth of the primary current, if each anode likewise carries one-fourth, there are no currents in the resistors. If the anodes carry unequal currents, the surplus or deficit of each anode current with respect to the normal current flows through the resistor in the same or opposite direction, respectively, introducing equalizing voltages into the anode circuits. By making the resistors nonlinear they perform the additional function of limiting the voltage across each transformer winding. This voltage is adequate in amount and duration for ignition at the minimum delay angle. The product of voltage and duration equals the change of core flux and is limited by saturation. If the voltage were not limited, it would be much higher and shorter at large ignition delays (near 90 and the transformer insulation would have to withstand the higher voltage. The nonlinear resistors limit the voltage at large delays, giving a pulse of magnitude and duration not too different from that at minimum ignition angle and avoiding the need for excessive insulation. * The need for bridges in parallel has not yet developed in HV dc transmission. Two bridges could be connected through an interphase transformer in the manner shown in Figure 12 in Chapter 2 for parallel connection of two half bridges. The two bridges would probably be fed through transformers connected for a 30° phase difference between one bridge and the other so as to give 12-pulse operation of the converter. Valves in series as opposed to bridges in series have the advantages of fewer and larger transformers or transformer windings. However, they have the following disadvantages:

0 ),

With respect to misoperations of valves, which are discussed in Chapter 6, series connections greatly decrease the probability of arcbacks and fire. throughs but increase the probability of misfires: The unequal division of voltage across valves in series requires further explanation. Each valve, because of the size of its tank and the number of its auxiliaries at tank potential, has a much greater capacitance to ground than to the adjacent valves in a series chain. The result, as is well known in the case of strings of insulators, is to give more voltage across the elements remote' from ground than across those near ground. In the case of valves, the voltage of concern is that during the nonconducting period. Capacitive voltage dividers can be used to achieve equal voltage division, but they contribute more energy to the parasitic high-frequency oscillations that occur at the abrupt changes in voltage (see figure 20). The addition of resistors to the voltage dividers damps such oscillations but gives a small additional loss. The predominantpresent.practice is to use single valves with multiple anodes and to connect bridges in series..Several manufacturers, however, are trying to develop single-anode valves of high rated current.

In the present state of the' art, two or more bridges in series on the de side are usually needed for obtaining as high a direct voltage as required for economical transmission. The extension of converter theory to converters having B bridges in series on the de side requires consideration of (a) harmonics, (b) relations between ac and de quantities, and (c) the effect of mutual commutating reactance on inverter operation.

> Harmonics

As a rule, multibridge converters have an even number of bridges arranged in pairs, one bridge of each pair being supplied with three-phase voltages displaced by 30° from those supplied to the other bridge. As already illustrated in Chapter 2, this arrangement gives a 12-pulse converter instead of a 6-pulse one, and certain harmonics (fifth, seventh, seventeenth, nineteenth, ... on the ac side and sixth, eighteenth, ... on the dc side) theoretically are eliminated and practically are greatly reduced. The two sets of three-phase voltages with 30° phase displacement can be obtained from two banks of transformers, one connected YY and the other, Y A, or from one threewinding bank connected YY A

No reduction in harmonics More valve auxiliaries at more different insulation levels with respect to ground Uneven voltage distribution across the valves as a result of stray capacitances

* See

116

~ l:BrTr

3-7

MVLTIBRlDGE

CONVERTERS

117

Pi+iQi

Higher pulse numbers can be obtained in converters having more than two bridges. For example, an I8-pulse 3-bridge converter and a 24-pulse 4-bridge converter are possible. The transformer connections required, however, are more complex than those for 12-pulse converters, and most HV de engineers think that it is more practical to build a 12-pulse converter provided with additional filter capability than to reduce harmonics by use of a pulse number higher than 12. Harmonics are discussed further in Chapter 8. Modification of the Relations between AC and DC Quantities In HV de multibridge converters, the bridges are in series on the de side and in parallel on the ac side. Therefore, for a given direct current and alternating voltage, the alternating current and the direct voltage are multiplied not only by the transformer ratio T but also by the number of bridges B, and so is the power on both sides. Accordingly, Eqs. (39) and (42) for ordinary units of measure become" amperes and (111) (112) (113) The equations in per-unit quantities=eqs. (47), (48), (43)~are unchanged but must be interpreted with respect to new bases that are for the whole converter instead of for one bridge. The equivalent commutating resistance in ohms of a B-bridge converter is B times the value for one bridge, but the per-unit value of this resistance is the same for B bridges as for one bridge and gives the same per-unit voltage drop

cos a

cos 'Y

BiTi:l.~

~--------~-----------Dc-------------------~ __ Ac

Fig. 23. Equivalent circuit for steady state in two-terminal de link.

neither leakage impedance reactance in producing drop lent commutating resistance. capacitance and inductance

nor exciting admittance: the effect of leakage of direct voltage is accounted for by the equivaThe de line is represented by its resistance only, being neglected. "

Effect of Mutual Reactance on Inverter Operation "Overlap Less than JOa,Consider a two-bridge 12-pulse converter. An equivalent positive-sequence circuit of the ac network viewed from the two sets of valve-side transformer terminals is the three-branched starin Figure 24. All

Still, of course,

volts

x.t- x;

I

I

J"

'---~----OBr. Tr 1: !JQ.

~2 ~

\'Bl

RJd/VdO·

Modified Equivalent Circuit Now seems to be a good time to modify the equivalent circuits of the rectifier and the inverter (Figures 13 and 18) so as to include the transformer ratio and the number of bridges and to combine these circuits with that of the de line, thus forming an equivalent circuit of an entire two-terminal de link in the steady state. Figure 23 is such a circuit. Subscripts rand i signify rectifier and inverter, respectively, and a and d signify ac and de. The transformer symbols represent ideal transformers with

v,'J

Fig. 24. Equivalent star circuit of the ac 'circuit between two converter bridges (Br. 1, Br. 2) and a common voltage source E. " "

its branches are predominantly inductive and are assumed to be entirely so. Tr is an ideal transformer having a 30° phase shift. If the two bridges are fed by separate transformer banks having equal voltage ratios and equalleakage reactances, the two branches of the equivalent circuit adjacent to the bridges are equal, and a single equivalent EMF His adequate. The third branch has a " reactance Xm due to the reactance of the ac system beyond the transformers. It is.the effect of this branch which we investigate.

118

3-7

MULTIBRIDGE

CONVERTERS

119

In a 12-pulse converter supplied with balanced three-phase voltages, a commutation begins every twelfth of a cycle (3QO), alternately in one bridge and the other. The commutations cause line-to-line short circuits at the ac terminals of the respective bridges. Because of the mutual reactance, a commutation in one bridge causes some distortion of the voltages of the other bridge. In Figure 25a equilateral triangle abc is a phasor diagram of the source

a

represented by triangle a"b"e, whose vertex a" lies between a and a' and vertex b" lies between band b', The ratio of vertical lengths in the phasor diagram depends on th e ratio of reactances thus: aa" aa'=

bb"

bb' b'b" bb'

= Xs = k

a'b" ab

Xm

.

Xs - Xm

aa"

aa'

= -=--=

Xs

At the terminals of bridge 2 the voltages V82 would be the same as those at M if both transformers were connected alike. The effect of the actual transformer connections is to distort triangle abc in Figure 25b to a' b' c'. In both parts a and b of the figure the effect of the commutation is to shrink all vertical distances proportionally while horizontal distances are unchanged. A commutation short-circuiting phase be of bridge 2 shrinks the horizontal components of all voltage vectors, as shown in parts c and d in Figure 25, while leaving vertical components unchanged. Commutations on other phases shrink the components of the vectors parallel to other axes, there being in all six such axes spaced 30° apart, as are successive commutations. The next six commutations of one cycle use the same six axes again. As a result of the mutual reactance, commutations in one bridge cause dents in the voltage waves of the other bridge in addition to the dents caused by its own commutations. The voltage wave of most concern is that of voltage across a valve of an inverter (Figure 26). Particular attention is called

(d)

b'

b

(c)

\-".

\'\

Fig. 25. Distortion of triangles of line-to-line voltages on bridges 1 and 2 due to commutations (a), (b) on phase ab of bridge 1, (e), (d) on phase be of bridge 2.

EMFS,

\\

\\

\\

which are assumed to be constant and balanced. When no commutation is occurring, the alternating voltages VB1 across bridge 1 are the same as those of the source because constant current produces no inductive drop. The voltages V B2 across bridge 2 are likewise balanced, but because of the different transformer connection they are advanced 30° with respect to the voltages of bridge 1; they are shown as a, b, e in Figure 25b. Now assume a commutation to occur in bridge 1, placing a short circuit on phases a and b and collapsing the voltage ab to zero. The voltages on bridge 1 are then a'b' e in Figure 25a. At star point M of the equivalent circuit, the voltages are deformed to a lesser extent than at the bridge 1 terminals, being

Fig. 26. Voltage across valve of 12-pulse two-bridge inverter, showing additional dents D' and D" due to. common reactance. )' "'" 15°, U ~ 150, f3 = 30°. .

to the additional dent D' that occurs 30° sooner after the extinction of the. arc than does dentD, whose effect on commutation margin was discussed in Section 3-5, page 110. .. The effect of dent D'is shown in Figure 27. If f3 < 30°, as shown in Figure 27a, then D' does not reduce the commutation margin; that is 1'. If,

,=

.'

120

3-7

MULTIBRIDGE

CONVERTERS

121

'Y '"

(a)

'Y

r = 7.5·

= 15·

U'"

{3 '" 37.5·

22.5'

however, {3 > 30°, as in Figure 27b, then D' encroaches on the commutation margin and y. More specifically, 30° - u, and y = {3 - u. The difference y -, continues to increase with increasing {3 until the vertical front of D' all becomes negative, after which')' -, remains constant until the whole dent has passed below the horizontal axis. The decrease of commutation margin due to dent D' is objectionable because, by requiring greater extinction and ignition angles,it decreases the power capability of the inverter, increases its demand for reactive power, and increases the voltage jumps on the valves. Moreover, the effects of this dent occur at values of {3 normally reached at less than full load.

Overlap Greater than 30°. If overlap angle u

,<

,=

occurs at a time (with five valves conducting in two bridges), and there are intervals between commutations (with four valves conducting) when the voltages are undistorted. In the foregoing, such values of overlap were assumed. If u = 30°, only one commutation occurs at a time, but as soon as one is completed, another one begins. All the time five valves are conducting. If 30° < u < 60°, there are intervals in which a commutation in one bridge begins before completion of the next earlier commutation in the other bridge. This condition, in which six valves are conducting, may be called double overlap. The distortion of voltages during double overlap is worse than that during single overlap, although not so bad as during the double overlap between the halves of the same bridge (with u > 60°), which places a threephase short circuit on the valve-side transformer terminals, as described in Section 3-3. In the present case there are at the same time two line-to-line short circuits on different transformer banks (or different sets of windings of the same bank). These short circuits are on terminals at which the open-circuit voltages differ in phase by 30°. The triangle of line-to-line voltages of each bridge collapses to a straight line, which is an altitude of the equilateral opencircuit triangle. If Xm =0, hence k = O-Eq. (1l4)-the voltage line (vector) of one bridge is 30° from that of the other. As k increases, these vectors shorten, and their phase difference decreases. At k = 0.42 the magnitude has decreased from 1.50ELN to 1. 32ELN, and the phase difference, from 30 tolT. At k = 1, the two line-to-line short circuits become equivalent to a threephase short circuit, and all voltages on the valve side of the transformers vanish. The circuit analysis for finding these and other voltages is straightforward but laborious and is not presented here. Double overlap in a 12-pulse converter with mutual reactance between bridges has several objectionable effects, including a more rapid drop in direct voltage and the likelihood of commutation failure. Double overlap is not likely to occur in normal operation, for the overlap at rated voltage and current generally is less than 30°, say, 20 to 25°; however, it can occur at small overloads or at small undervoltages. For overlaps between 30 and 60° two circuit conditions occur alternately. In one, a commutation is in progress in one bridge; and, in the other, commutations are in progress in both bridges, as just described. The number of conducting valves in the two bridges is alternately five and six. With u = 60°, there are always commutationsin both bridges at the same time, and six valves are conducting. With u between 60 and 90°, there are alternately six and seven valves conducting. When seven are conducting, there is double overlap in one bridge and single overlap in the other.

122

PROBLEMS

123

With u between 90 and 120°,alternately seven and eight valves conduct. When eight conduct, there are double overlaps in both bridges. Complete analysis of all these conditions is lengthy and not of much practical interest. Such analyses have been made by Shekhtman'P and Freris.l"

Elimination of Mutual Reactance

The objectionable effects of mutual reactance in a 12-pulse two-bridge converter, especially the effect in decreasing the commutation margin of the inverter, must be eliminated; and this implies the elimination or compensation of the mutual reactance itself. There are two methods by which this can be done. Filters. The mentioned objectionable effects are due to the influence of commutations occurring in one bridge on the wave shapes of the alternating voltages appearing on the other bridge. The wave shapes are changed in six short arcs per cycle, each lasting less than one-sixth of a cycle. If the differences between voltage wave shapes of such converters with and without mutual reactance were analyzed into a Fourier series, it would be found that the differences consisted principally of certain harmonic frequencies. Harmonic filters (Chapter 8) are necessary in most converters and are usually installed on the network side of the transformers. The effect of the filters is to make the ac bus voltage substantially sinusoidal. The commutating inductance, which can be defined as the inductance between the valves and the nearest point in the ac network where the voltages are substantially sinusoidal, is then the leakage inductance of the converter transformers. If separate transformer banks are provided for each bridge, there is no mutual commutating reactance between bridges. The system reactance beyond the bus is still common to the several bridges as regards fundamental-frequency voltage drop. However, as currents of higher harmonic frequencies are effectively short-circuited by the filters and do not enter the ac network except in amounts that are negligible for the present discussion, commutation in one bridge does not alter the voltage wave forms in other bridges. The fundamental-frequency voltage drop in the ac network is calculated by ordinary phasor methods, not by converter theory. Since the filter appears as a shunt capacitance at fundamental frequency, the "drop" may actually be a rise if the reactive current furnished by the filter exceeds that consumed by the converter. The ideal no-load direct voltage VdO is proportional to the alternating voltage of the bus. The drop (or rise) of direct terminal voltage with respect to VdO is calculated by converter theory: Va = VdO cos o: - RJJ, or VdO cos y - ReId' For a given alternating voltage at the converter, this drop is independent of the power factor.

Compensation of Mutual Reactance. Another method;" used at the Gotland inverter station, is. to connect a .set of center-tapped reactors as shown for one phase in Figure 28. When commutation occurs in one bridge, the drop in voltage in that bridge caused thereby, induces, through the mutual reactance between halves of the reactor winding, a voltage rise in the other bridge that compensates for the drop in Xm• For exact compensation, the mutual reactance X~ between halves of the reactor should. be equal to. the system reactance Xm. Since the self-reactances Xa are proportional to the squares of their number of turns and the mutual reactance Xm to the product of the numberof turns of the halves, if the same flux links all turns, Xa ~ Xm, each being one-fourth of the reactance of the entire reactor. The net mutual reactance vecomes Xm - X~, and the net self-reactance (commutating reactance) becomes Xm + Xa + XT, which is greater by Xa than the selfreactance without the reactor. This increase may be offset by reducing the leakage reactance XT of each converter transformer. Since the system reactance Xm may vary, depending on the lines, transformers, and generators in service, it is advisable to make X~ equal to the greatest value of Xm• With smaller values of Xm, there is some excess of compensation, and the sign of the additional voltage dents is reversed, which is not harmful. This condition, which corresponds to a negative value of k,has been analyzed by Freris.24

yy

:1

y Ll. Fig. 28. Tapped reactor for compensating the coupling between valve groups due to power-system reactance X,.. X. is self-reactance of each half of reactor winding and Xm, mutual reactance between the halves; XT is leakage reactance of each transformer bank.

PROBLEMS 1.

OJt

Draw curves of instantaneous voltage across a valve as functions of for u = Q and Cl = 0 to 180 in increments of 30° (seven curves altogether) .

0

124

CONVERTER

PROBLEMS

125

2. Draw the wave shape of current in one phase of delta-connected transformer secondary windings feeding a bridge rectifier circuit with negligible overlap, and calculate the effective value of the current. 3. What orders of harmonics are present in the direct voltage of a six-pulse converter? In the alternating current? 4. Find the amplitude of the hth harmonic of the direct voltage of a sixpulse converter with ignition angle CI. and no overlap. Express it as a fraction of VdO • 5. Find the amplitude of the hth harmonic of the alternating current of a six-pulse converter with ignition angle CI. and no overlap. Express it in terms of the direct current. 6. What is the rms value of all the harmonics combined, excluding the fundamental, of the alternating current of a converter in terms of the direct current if the latter is free from ripple and if the overlap angle is very small? 7. Draw curves of wave forms of valve current and voltage of a threephase two-way rectifier with CI. = 150, u = 60°. 8. Draw curves of current through a valve and voltage across the same valve as functions of rut for IX = 0 and u = 30°. 9. Do Problem 8 with = 15° and u = 30°. 10. Do Problem 8 with CI. = 30° and u = 30°. 11. Do Problem 8 with CI. = 45° and u = 15°. 12. Do Problem 8 with = 120° and u = 15°. 13. Do Problem 8 with = 120° and u = 30°. 14. Do Problem 8 with IX = 135° and u = 30°. 15. Do Problem 8 with IX = 135° and u = 15°. 16. Draw curves of one cycle of instantaneous line-to-neutral and line-toline voltages at the terminals of a Y-connected secondary winding of the converter transformer feeding one bridge, with IX = 30° and u = 10°. 17. Same as Problem 16 except (X = IS° and u = 30°.

(X (X (X

(X (X

(X

=

20. Same as Problem 16 except = 30° and u = 60°. 21. Compute the rms value of the line-to-neutral voltage on the ac side of the bridge (Figure lIe). 22. Draw the voltage and current wave forms of a six-phase, one-way diametrical rectifier for 0; = 15°, u = 30°.

23. Derive equations for the average direct voltage and current of a sixphase, one-way diametrical rectifier as functions of the ac source voltage, commutating reactance, ignition delay angle; and extinction angle. Confine to overlap less than 60°. 24. Show that, in a three-phase bridge rectifier operating with no delay and with 60° overlap, the direct current is half of the crest value of the lineto-line short-circuit current on the valve side of the transformer bank. 25. Find the maximum permissible commutating reactance, in per unit based on transformer rating, to allow commutation to be completed in an overlap angle of 60° at rated direct voltage and 1.5 times rated direct current. 26. Find the ratio of the kVA rating of the transformer bank for a threephase, two-way converter to the rated de power in kW if (X = 15° and X;' = 0.15 pu based on the transformer's rating, 27. .Prove that the two expressions for tan 4> in Eq. (54) are equivalent. 28. Draw curves. as specified in Problem 30 but for (X = 30°, U = 75° (double overlap). 29. Plot pu direct current I~ versus pu direct voltage V; from open circuit to short circuit (a) for CJ. = 0, (b) for = 30°, (c) for (X = 60°. 30. Draw curves of (a) instantaneous voltage of each de pole of the bridge with respect to transformer neutral, (b) the six valve currents, (c) one transformer secondary current, Y connection, and (d) voltage across one valve for = 15°, U = 60° (auto phase control). 31. ...Find the values of V~,I~, and P~of an uncontrolled rectifier at the point of maximum power. 32. Plot a graph of reactive power versus active power on the ac side of an inverter operating at a constant extinction angle y = 15°. Use per-unit values with base power VdoI.z' Terminate the curve at u = 60°. 33. Plot y versus f3 for constant, = 15°, 34. Draw curves as specified in Problem 30 except for y = 35°, f3 = 115° (inverter with double overlap). 35. Show that, if there are stray capacitances C1 between each pair of valves and Cz from each valve to ground, the division of voltage between valves is unequal. Derive expressions for the fraction of the total voltage across each of two, three, and four valves in series, and compute the numerical values for Cz = 3e1• Find numerical values of the capacitances of a voltage divider that equalizes the voltages across four valves to within 5%.

(X (X

126

BIBLIOGRAPHY

127

36. In the current divider in Figure 22, find the voltage across the nonconducting anodes with respect to the common cathode (a) when the whole current flows in one anode and (b) when it is equally divided among two or (c) three anodes. 37. Draw curves of one cycle of instantaneous line-to-neutral voltage of one phase and of instantaneous line-to-line voltage of one phase at the terminals of a Y-connected secondary winding of the converter transformer feeding one bridge of a two-bridge 12-pulse converter with coupling coefficient k = 0.422 between bridges. Take a = 30° and

u

6. . 7.

The Transmission of Power by High Voltage Direct Current (in German), by Karl Baudisch, Springer, Berlin, 1950, pp. 116-122. "Extended Regulation Curves for 6-Phase Double-Way and Double-Wye Rectifiers," by I. K. Dortort, A.I.E.E. Trans., Vol. 72, Part I, pp. 192-198, May 1953. Disc., pp. 198-202. "The Operation of Several Phase-Displaced Inverters on the Same Receiving Network," by E. Uhlmann, Direct Current, Vol. 1, pp. 106-110, June 1953. Additional dent in voltage across valve due to common reactance decreases the commutation margin. "Influence of A-C. Reactance on Voltage Regulation of 6-Phase Rectifiers," by R. L. Witzke, J. V. Kresser, and J. K. Dillard, A.I.E.E. Trans., Vol. 72, Part I, pp. 244-252, July 1953. Disc., p. 252. "The Relations of Currents and Voltages in the Rectifier Connected in the Graetz Three-Phase Bridge" (in Italian), by Walter Dallenbach, L' Elettrotecnica, Vol. 44, No.3, pp. 133-143, March 1957.

8.

9.

= 10°.

10.

38. In a certain ac power system under light-load conditions, the reactive power produced by the shunt capacitance of the HV ac transmission lines exceeds that consumed by the series inductances of the lines and transformers and leads to undesirably high voltage at and near a rectifier station. The situation is further aggravated when the rectifier also is operating at light load, because then the reactive power consumed by the rectifier is less than that produced by its ac harmonic filters. One method proposed for improving these conditions is to make the rectifier consume additional reactive power by controlling it to operate at larger ignition delay angle than its normal value of 15° but subject to the limitation that neither the peak inverse voltage of the valves nor the greatest voltage jump across a valve should exceed their respective values at rectifier operation at rated alternating voltage, rated direct current and voltage, and normal ignition delay. Under these conditions the overlap angle is 25°. Compute and plot the additional reactive power consumption of the converter (in per unit of rated power) as a function of per-unit direct current.

Recommendations for Mercury-arc Converters, International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland, Publication No. 84, 1st ed., 1957. Definitions, symbols. 12. "The Current and Voltage Conditions in the Graetz Three-Phase Rectifier Bridge Circuit," by Walter Dallenbach, Direct Current, Vol. 4, pp. 72-80, December 1958. 13. "Operating Modes and External Characteristics of a Twelve-Pulse Cascade-Bridge Converter Circuit" (in Russian), by M. G. Shekhtman, N.I.I.P.T., Vol. 5, pp. 23-63, 1960. 14. "Bridge Rectifier and Inverter Parameters," Chapter 3 of High Voltage Direct Current Power Transmission, by Colin Adamson and N. G. Hingorani, Garraway, London, 1960. "Current and Voltage Conditions from No Load to Short Circuit in Three-Phase Bridge Circuits," by F. Hoelters, Direct Current, Vol. 5, pp. 112-121, 132, March 1961 16. .. The Universal Characteristic of the Three-Phase Bridge Converter," by L. L. Freris, Direct Current, Vol. 6, pp. 198-201, October 1961. 17. 18. "Reactance Drop in Mercury-arc Power Rectifiers," by O. E. Mainer, Direct Current Vol. 7, pp. 182-184, July 1962. Schaltungslehre der Stromrichtertechnik; (Converter Circuit Theory, in German), by Th. Wasserrab, Springer, 1962, 466 pp, Especially pp. 241-256. 15.

11.

BffiLIOGRAPHY

1. "The Current and Voltage Conditions in Large Rectifiers" (in German), by W. Dallenbach and E. Gerecke, Archio fur Elektrotechnik, Vol. 14, pp. 171-248,1924. Vogdes, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1927. 3. 4. 5. "The Current and Voltage Relations in the Graetz Three-Phase Rectifier Circuit" (in German), by K. Maier, E.u.M., Vol. 53, pp. 577-581, Dec. 8, 1935. "Three-Phase Rectifier Circuits," by A. 1. Maslin, Electronics, Vol. 9, pp. 28-31, December 1936. Comment by Dallenbach on p. 80 of Ref. 12. "The Theory of the Control Problem of H.V.D.C. Transmission with Rectifiers and Inverters in Bridge Circuit," by F. Buseman, Technical Report, reference Z/T74, B.E. & A.I.R.A. London, Mar. 2, 1948.

" An Analysis of the Three-Phase Bridge Converter," by L. L. Freris, Direct Current, Vol. 8, pp. 6-11, 19, January 1963. Discussion by 1. R. G. Schofield, p. 136, May. 20. High Voltage Direct Current Converters and Systems, edited by B. J. Cory, MacDonald, London, 1965, Chapter 4, "Analysis of Bridge Convertor Operation," by L.L. Freris. Also part of Chapter 8. 19. 21. "Analysis of a Hybrid Bridge Rectifier," by L. L. Freris, Direct Current, Vol. 11, pp. 22-33, February 1966. Bridge with three. controlled valves and three uncontrolled diodes. "Voltage Regulation in 3-Phase Bridge Rectifier Connection from No Load to Short Circuit," by J. A. Budek and A. H. Marchant, Direct Current, Vol. 11, pp. 38-41, February 1966. Experimental check. "Series Connection of Mercury Arc Valves," by G. E. Gardner, 1. H. Holliday, and D. J. Johnson, I.E.E. Conference Publication No. 22, High Voltage D.C. Transmission, Manchester, Sept. 19-23, 1966, Part 1, Paper No. 43, pp. 211-214.

22.

23.

128

24. 25.

"Effects of Interaction among Groups in a MUlti-group A.C.-D.C. Convertor," by L. L. Freris, I.E.E. Proc., Vol. 114, No.7, pp, 965-973, July 1967. "Single-phase Bridge Converter with a New Control and a Corresponding Three phase Converter; Part I, Operational Features," by N. G. Hingorani, Direct Current (new series), Vol. 1, No.1, pp. 25-30, April 1969; "Part II, Method of Control," by N. G. Hingorani and Philip Chadwick, ibid., pp. 31-35. Disc., No.3, p. 124, February 1970. "The Performance of a Convertor with Anode Reactance," by L. L. Freris, l.E.E.E. Trans. on P.A. & S., Vol. 88, pp. 1537-1544, October 1969.

4

Converter Charts

26.

Two different charts are described, both of which show relations among direct voltage Vd and current Id, the three converter angles a, c5, and u, and the ac quantities, including active power P, reactive powerQ, apparent power S, displacement factor cos 1>, and alternating current Ia. The first of these charts has rectangular coordinates x, y proportional to direct current and voltage Id and Vd• The second one has rectangular coordinates proportional to active and reactive powers P and Q. Both charts are based on the assumptions made in Chapter 3, and both use, for generality, the first system of dimensionless or per-unit variables described there. Rectifier and inverter operation are represented by different regions of the charts.

4~1 CHART 1 WITH RECTANGULAR COORDINATES OF DIRECT CURRENT AND VOLTAGE

The horizontal coordinate x is chosen as the ratio of the direct current to the crest value of symmetrical alternating current in a line-to-line short circuit: x

i,

/ X"I:'; 2wLc1d

Vio =

= 1.2 = Id=

/3E

(1)

m

It can range from zero to 2/ -J3, its value during a short circuit on the de terminals. It cannot reverse.

The vertical coordinate y is the ratio of the direct voltage under general conditions to its value with no load and no delay of ignition:

y

= VdO = V d = Vao = 3 ,J 3E

Vd

Va

nVd

(2)

Note that both coordinates vary inversely as the alternating voltage referred to the valve side of the transformers. The upper half plane, with positive Id and Vd, represents rectification. The lower half plane, with positive Id and negative Vd, represents inversion.

129

130

CONVERTER

CHARTS

4-1

CHART

Overlap Angle Less than 60° (0 ~ u ~ 60°) Loci of Constant a and O. Coordinates x and yare related to the ignition delay angle a and extinction angle 0, as shown in Eqs. (19) and (21) in Chapter 3; thus

x = cos a - cos 6

2y

(3) (4)

= cos a + cos 6

+ 2y

2 cos a 2 cos 0

-x

Rearrangement gives y

+ 2y = =

cos a -~x

(5) (6)

y = cos 6 +~x

Equation (5) represents the locus of constant ignition angle a in the xy plane. It is a straight line of slope -~, intercepting the y axis at cos a and the x axis at 2 cos a. There is a family of such parallel lines, one for each value of a (Figure 1). Similarly, Eq. (6) gives the locus of constant extinction angle 6 in the same plane. It is a straight line of slope +~, y intercept cos 0, and x intercept - 2 cos o. Again, there is a family of such lines, all parallel (Figure 2). The values of a and 6 may range from 0 to 1800• Since {3 = n - a, the loci of constant a are also loci of constant {3, although the numerical values of a and {3 differ from one another on the same locus. Similar remarks apply to ')' and b. For inverter operation, {3 and yare commonly used instead of a and b. Loci of Constant u. The overlap angle u is given by

Fig. 1. Loci of constant ignition angle IX in the l~, V~ plane for u «; 60°.

Fig. 2. Loci of constant extinction angle 8' in the I~, Vd plane for u «; 60".

Substitution

of Eqs, (3), (4), (7), and (10) into Eqs. (8) and (9) yields 2y

it u = 2 cos ~ cos -

-x

(7)

u=b-a

. ...t . u 22

The simplest way to draw a locus of constant u is to note that it is a curve passing through the points of intersection of constant a lines and constant 6 lines for which a and 0 differ by a constantarigle (Figure 3). The range of u on the part of the chart now under discussion is from 0 to 60". The locus of u = 0 is the vertical axis. The loci for other values of u appear elliptical. A proof that they are indeed ellipses follows. We begin with the trigon orne tic identities: cos 0

I

Substitution

...t;2 and

...t

sin

y

il/2

gives and

SIn -

. it

-x

(11)

• 2...t

+ cos

a = 2 cos 1(0

=

+ a) cos

+ cos - = 1 2 ..

2 A.

(12)

~(b - a) - a)

2 sin ~(b

+ a) sin 1(0

gives

o+a=it

-x ( 2 sin uj2

)2 + (

Y cos u/2

)2 . = 1

il

(13)

!~

132

CONVERTER

CHARTS

CHART

133

For this range of overlap we have from Eqs. (72) and (88) in Chapter 3, instead of Eqs. (3) and (4), the following:

30°) - cos (0

+ 30°)

+ 30°)

(16)

(17)

(J3)Y

~3=.Y

we obtain equations having the form of Eqs. (3) and (4): x' = cos a' - cos (j'

2y' = cos a'

(18)

+ cos [/ + 60°

(19)

= fJ'

- a'

= (fJ + 30°) -

(20)

Derivations like those ofEqs. (5), (6), and (13) yield y' = cos a' - tx' y' = cos fJ' + tx' -x' ( 2 sin u' (2 . . (21)

(22)

)2 + ( cos .)2 = 1

y' u'j2

,(23)

Fig. 3. Loci of constant overlap angle u in the I~, Vd plane for u < 600.

The new (primed) variable~ are now replaced by the old (unprimed) ones. Equations (21) and (22) become

y = ~3 cos (14)

'

(IX -

30°)

0

-;y

3

(24)

y=

y 3 cos

(fJ

+ 30 }+2'x

which is the standard equation of an ellipse with center at the origin, horizontal half axis a, and vertical half axis b. In the present case, a. 2 sin-2 =

u b = cos2

(25)

(15)

These represent straight lines, as before, but with different intercepts and with slopes three times as great. Figure 4 shows the lines fora= 30° in both rangesof u. The lines for IX = 30° and 0 = 150° are shown in Figure 3. They, with the elliptical arc for u = 60°, form the boundaries of the region of

134

CONVERTER

CHARTS

1.732

\

\

Q- '"

dO·

0'

Fig. 4. Broken line for following properties: Range of u 0< u «; 60° 60°

ex: = 30°

x-intercept

y- intercept

double overlap, shown in more detail in Figure 5. This region has a small area and is characterized by high current and low voltage. The loci of constant u in this region are found by replacing the primed variables in Eq, (23) with the respective unprimed ones:

2 ,u

Y

(u

+ 600)/2

J2

=1

(26)

This has the form of Eq. (14) and represents an ellipse with semiaxes

I

.J3 sin

+ 60°

2

and

b'

.J-3 cos--u

+ 60°

2

(27)

For u = 60°, which is the boundary between two regions of the chart where different equations are applicable, Eqs. (24), (25), and (27), for u~ 60°, give the same results as do Eqs. (5), (6), and (n) respectively, for u ~ 60°'.

,',.

.."

136

CONVERTER

CHARTS

4-1

+1.0

CHART

137

ac and de quantities namely, For power: For current: For inphase voltage: . are given by Eqs. (43), (47), and (48) in Chapter 3, (28) (29)

Rectification

p~ = Pd = P' = I~~

a

rt; = T'x

V'

'I'

V:ld = xy

Y

E' eosA.

= _<! =-

T'

T'

(30)

+0.4

actual turns ratio where T' IS . I . of the converter transformer, both numerator nomina turns ratio and denominator being ratios of valve-winding turns to network-winding turns. By Eq. (41) in Chapter 3, however, the displacement factor is cos¢ ~ V; Hence the per-unit alternating is

-eIII

+0.2

0 <.>

=y

(31)

~II

~

II

;.,

......

-0.2

It is independent of the direct current and voltage and, therefore, appear on the chart.

does not

-0.4

Loci. The following loci, all shown in the chart in Figure 6, are independent of transformer ratio: Approximate* Loci of Constant Displacement Factor (cos ¢) are horizontal

lines at ordinate y = cos¢ They coincide with the loci of constant direct voltage

-0.6

-0.8

Inversion

V;.

(33)

-1.0 Fig. 6. Loci of constant active power P', reactive power Q', apparent power S', and displacement factor cos 0/.

S'

x=S'

= Id'

(34)

Hence the loci are vertical lines at abscissa (35) and coincide with the loci of constant direct current I~.

'" The distinction between exact and approximate Chart 2 in Section 4·2. loci is discussed in connection with

given by xy = P' or y =-

hyperbolas

P'

x

(36)

Those in the first quadrant are for positive power (rectification), and those in the fourth quadrant are for negative power (inversion), The locus for P' = 0 consists of the y axis and the positive x axis.

138

CONVERTER

CHARTS

CHART

139

Approximate

Q'

or

= j(S

')2 _ (p')2 or

Y=

_ y2

(37) (38)

Q' x = Jl-y2

± [ 1- ( -

Q')2]1/2

x

r=S'

=-

S Pb

(43) .

These curves are of the fourth degree and are unnamed. positive, except on the vertical axis, where Q' = O. The following loci depend on the transformer ratio:

Angle <p, measured counterclockwise from the positive x axis representing the phase angle by which the fundamental alternating current lags behind the alternating source voltage E.

I;

Approximate Loci of Constant Alternating Current I~. These loci are vertical lines at abscissa

x=~

I'

T'

(39)

At nominal ratio (T' = 1) they coincide with the loci of constant S' of the same numerical value. For other values of T' they are shifted; the corresponding loci do not appear in the charts. Complete Chart Figures 3 and 6 could be superposed to form a single chart. The result, however, might be confusing unless it were drawn in two or more colors.

These loci of constant values of the foregoing coordinates are shown in Figure 7. Those of constant <p are labeled with va1ues of the displacement factor cos <p. A third set of coordinates, curvilinear ones, are the loci of constant ignition, extinction, and overlap angles, shown in Figure 9 and discussed below. Loci of Constant Converter Angles The loci of constant ignition angle a, constant extinction angle fI, and constant overlap angleu are best derived from the exact equations for perunit vector power in terms of these angles. From Appendix B the equation for 0 ~ u ~ 60° is P'

+ jQ'

=t[j2(a

= t(/2a

-/28

+ j2u)

(44)

4-2

OF ACTIVE

+ jQ'

- 30°) - /2(8

+ 30°) + j2u]

=a

The same per-unit system is used with this chart as with Chart rectangular coordinates are the following: Abscissa, per-unit active power:

1. The

Loci of Constant Overlap Angle u, By putting 8 /2a, and rearranging Eq. (44), we obtain P'

+ u,

+ JQ' =j2 +

1 -/2u 4

/2a

(46)

,P x=P =Pb

Ordinate, per-unit reactive power:

(40)

Let us first examine graphically the factor (1 - /2u). As shown in Figure 8, the vectors 1 and /2u are the two equal sides of an isosceles triangle, whose remaining side has length 2 sin u and, considered as the vector difference of the equal sides, has direction - (90° - u) referred to the positive real axis. Thus

y=Q'

where Together

=_g P

(41)

b

Pb =

v'mIs2 = --

9ELN2 nXc

(42)

---

1 - /2u 4

--(u

sin u 2

90

.°

(47)

+ jQ'.

With constant u, the only variable factor in Eq.(46) is /2a. With increasing.«,

140

CONVERTER

CHARTS

4-2

CHART

141

"

locus of constant u is the arc of a circle of radius (sin u)/2 and center at with central angle extending from u - 90° to 270° :- u. For u > 60° Eq. (45) is used instead of (44) and with a similar rearrangement. The loci of constant u are still circles, and their centers are still at o +jul2. The radius of each is given by t sin (u + 60°), and the valid arc extends from central angle u - 30° at IX = 30° to 210° - u at a; = 150° - u. The loci for u = 0 and u = 120° are single points, the former at the origin and the latter at 0 +iTt/3. .

o +jul2

locus of

IX

= O. For a; = O,Eq.

P'

(46) becomes

o

Active power (per unit) P'

+0.5

(48)

Fig. 7. Loci of constant apparent power and of constant displacement factor on Chart 2. These are also approximate loci of constant direct current and of constant direct voltage, respectively.

the vector represented by the second term of this equation rotates counterclockwise through angle 2a;, and its tip traces a circle of radius (sin u)/2. The valid arc of this. circle extends through 360° - 2u, from u - 90° at a; = 0 to 270° - u at a; = 180° - u, and is symmetrical with respect to the imaginary axis. The first term in Eq. (46) represents a vector locating the center of the circle on the imaginary axis at distance u/2 rad above the origin. Thus, the

This equation, as u increases, represents the curve generated by a point on the circumference of a circle of radius t rolling up the right-hand side of the imaginary axis, that is, a cycloid. A cusp of the cycloid occurs at the origin when u = O. The next cusp would occur at 0 +jnl2 when u :;= 180°. The only valid arc for the three-phase bridge converter, however, corresponds to that for u from 0 to 60°. . The loci for other constant values of a; are cycloids of the same size, shape, and orientation as that for a; = 0 but shifted both horizontally and vertically so that the cusp that was at the origin for a = 0 follows a cycloid like that for a = 0 but rotated a half turn aroundthe origin. Every cycloid of the family

142

CONVERTER

CHARTS

passes through the origin, which is the point corresponding to u = 0 on all of them. . h to 11 . The most practical way of constructing these loci seems to?e tela owmg, First draw the circles of constant u, and on them mark the pomt for (X = 0 and the equally spaced points for other values of a, using constant increments of The loci of constant (X may then be drawn by connecting, by a smooth curve, points for the same value of a but different values of u. Each such point, representing certain values of (X and u, als,o represents a value of b = (X + u that may be marked on each point. The lOCIof const,ant b are then drawn by connecting all points for the same value of b, The pairs of loci for a = (Xl and b = 11: - (Xl (or y == al) are mirror images with respect to the imaginary axis. Hence the loci of constant b are also arcs of cycloids,

(x,

4-2 CHART 2 . 14'3 This method of constructing the loci of constanta and those of constant b is applicable to u ;» 600 as wen as to u < 600. . All these loci are shown in Figure 9. A part of the chart is drawn to a larger scale in Figure 10.

0.3

0-

'" ~ .s

0

'c

Q-

e, u "'" 0::

Q)

0.2

~ '"

0.1

Active power (per unit) P' Fig. 10. Part of Chart 2, enlarged.

Loci of Constant Direct Current and Voltage These may be plotted from either approximate or exact equations. Loci Based on Approximate Relations. Per-unit direct current I; is approximately equal to per-unit fundamental apparent power Sf, and per-unit direct voltage' is approximately equal to displacement factor cos 1;. Hence the loci of constant direct current based on an approximate relation, are, like the loci of constant alternating current and constant apparent power, circular

I

.1

e.

p',. Qt

plane.

V;

II

II

144

CONVERTER

CHARTS

4-2

CHART2

arcs having radius I~ and their center at the origin. These loci can be drawn with a compass. The loci of constant direct voltage, based on an approximate relation, are straight lines through the origin, having slope tan cp, where cp = cos ~1 V~. These lines can be drawn with a straightedge. The two sets of loci together constitute a polar-coordinate grid (Figure 7).

Loci Based on Exact Relations.

V; + v: cos e = V;- y~

(J.

constant

(J.

and constant

(j

I; = cos

(J. -

cos (j

(j

(49) (50)

The exact loci of constant I; and constant V~can be constructed as follows: Values of and are selected, and corresponding values of and (j are calculated by Eqs. (51) and (52), and u by (j - Cot. Values of P' +jQ' are then. calculated by Eq. (44) or (45), depending on whether u is less than or greater than 60°. Finally, lines are drawn connecting points of equal I; and other lines connecting points of equal V;. The former are approximately, hut not exactly, concentric circles; the latter are. approximately, but not exactly, straight, radial lines. See Figure 11. .

I;

V;

\:

of constant direct voltage .Vd and direct current I~ in Fig. 12. Error in reactive power calculated by the approximate method.

146

CONVERTER

CHARTS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

147

Difference Between Approximate and Exact Loci. The point representing a given pair (I~,v~) in the p' + JQ' plane according to the approximate relations has the same abscissa (P' = V~I;) as the point representing the same pair according to exact relations. The approximate ordinate Q', however, given by (53)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. "The Theory of the Control Problem of H.V.D.C. Transmission with Rectifiers and Inverters in Bridge Circuit," by F. Busemann, Publication Z/T74, B.E.&A.I.R.A., Mar. 2, 1948, Figures 15,19. 2. 3. High Voltage Direct Current Power Transmission, by Colin Adamson and N. G. Hingorani, Garraway, London, 1960, Chapter 3. "A Chart Showing the Relations between Electrical Quantities on the A-C and D-C Sides of a Converter," by E. W. Kimbark, I.E.E.E. Trans on P.A.&S., Vol. 82, pp. 1050-1054, December 1963. Also in I.E.E.E. Publication S-155, D-C Transmission, June 1963, pp. 34-43, and in. Direct Current, Vol. 8, pp. 166-169, June 1963. Chart 2 with different scales than herein. Schaltunqslehre der Stromrichtertechnik (Converter Circuit Theory, in German), by Th, Wasserab, Springer, Berlin/Gottingen/Heidelberg, 1962, pp. 337~340.

is greater than the exact one by an amount that varies from 0 to nearly 8% and is greater along the outer boundaries of the chart (a = 0 and 0 = 180°) than on the vertical axis. In the normal operating range, with a = 15° or l' = 16° and u between 0 and 25°, theerror in Q' does not exceed 3 per cent. See Figure 12 for further information.

4.

(I~, V~, c, 0,

Every point on Chart 1 represents specific values of all the variables U, I~/T', P', Q', S', and cos¢). Likewise on Chart 2. Furthermore, for every point on Chart 1 there is a corresponding point on Chart 2 such that the set of values denoted by the point on Chart 1 is identical to the set denoted by the point on Chart 2. Hence we can imagine that every point on one chart could be moved to the position of the corresponding point on the other chart by a distortion similar to the unequal stretching of a sheet of rubber. The origin on Chart 2, however, does not transform to a single point on Chart 1 but, instead, becomes the whole vertical axis. The transformation is not conformal.

PROBLEMS

1. By use of'a converter chart, find the maximum power output of a bridge rectifier operated at constant ac input voltage and transformer tap. Also find the corresponding values of I~, V~, CI., and u. 2. Derive the equation of the loci of constant u in rectangular coordinates

(P',Q').

3. Show that P' =(cos2 a - cos" 0)/2 =(sin2 0 - sin2 a)/2. 4. Design and draw a converter chart on a grid of equiangular triangular coordinates representing the three converter angles a, 0, and u. Demarcate the valid area. Draw the loci of constant direct current and voltage, I~ and V~.

5-1

GRID CONTROL

149

s

Control

This chapter discusses the control of dc transmission under normal conditions. Grid control of the converter valves, however, is used not only for the control of normal transmission but also for clearing faults in the converters and on the transmission line. These aspects of protection are discussed in Chapters 6 and 7.

circuit. It would be better to say that, if the valve were not a valve but a plain conductor, the current through it would reverse. Since, however, the valve is a valve, the current through it cannot reverse but becomes and remains nil. Instead, the voltage across the valve becomes negative. Next, this voltage must remain negative long enough for the adequate deionization of the arc (requiring 50 to 400 f1$ in a HV mercury-arc valve, or 1 to 8° of a 50- or 60-Hz wave). After deionization, negative grid voltage blocks reignition, even if the anode later becomes positive. Practically, in a converter, the circuit condition that causes extinction is the firing of the next valve of the set and the completion of commutation to that valve. As we saw in.Chapter 3, the need of adequate time fordeionizationis more critical in an inverter than in a rectifier, for the anode remains negative for a much shorter time after extinction (see Figure 20 in Chapter 3). Form of Grid Pulse Critical Grid Voltage. The critical grid voltage is that which separates grid voltages which permit ignition from those which block ignition. The critical grid voltage varies oppositely from the anode voltage and is roughly proportional to it (Figure 1), but the exact value varies somewhat with temperature and vapor pressure in the valve. In addition, it depends on the geometry of the valve.

Front of pulse. For assuring ignition, the grid voltage should rise from a value well below the minimum control value to one well above the maximum critical value. For accurate timing of ignition (independent of variations of critical voltage), the grid voltage should rise very rapidly-ideally, instantly.

Valve Characteristics Let us begin the discussion by recalling the conditions under which the conduction of valves can be initiated and terminated or, in other words, under which the arc can be ignited and extinguished. In mercury-arc valves, the control grid can delay ignition but, after conduction has begun, cannot stop it. The same limitation applies to the control of thyristors by a gate signal. There are other kinds of valves, such as vacuum (or" hard") electronic tubes and transistors, in which both ignition and extinction can be controlled. Some devices that can conduct in either direction, such as mechanical switches and Marx arc switches, also can control both ignition and extinction. None of these devices, however, is commonly used in high-voltage high-power converters; therefore, we confine our attention to the kinds of values that can control ignition only and, in particular, to the mercury-arc valve. Such a valve begins to conduct if the following two conditions are satisfied: (a) if the anode voltage, with respect to the cathode, is positive and (b) if the control-grid voltage, also with respect to the cathode, is more positive than the critical value. For brevity we express the second condition by merely saying that the grid is positive. The cessation of conduction of such a valve depends primarily on the external circuit. The current must become zero through action of that

148

Fig. 1. Anode voltage V. and corresponding critical grid voltage Voe during a cycle.

150

CON1ROL

5-1

GRID CONTROL

151

Duration of Pulse. Because a valve, once ignited, normally remains conducting until completion of commutation to the next valve of the set, a short grid pulse suffices theoretically. Two practical circumstances, however, indicate the superiority of a long pulse. The first is the possibility of premature arc extinction, known as quenching (see Section 6-8). If quenching occurs, the grid pulse ought to be present to permit immediate reignition. The second practical point is that the starting up of transmission should be facilitated. This requires a continuous series circuit through two valves in each bridge of both rectifier and inverter. The least number of valves in series per pole is four in a six-pulse system or eight in a twelve-pulse system. Though all these valves are initially nonconducting, they would, if in the steady state, be in various phases of their conduction cycle; hence short pulses at the normal instants of ignition would not be effective in starting transmission. Either special short starting pulses or normal long pulses are required. The long pulses meet the need both of starting transmission and of immediate reignition after arc quenching, and, therefore, long pulses are used in practice. Each grid pulse should last until the beginning of the grid pulse of the next valve in the commutating set but no longer. Duration at least that long assures that at least one valve in each set can conduct so that, through the several sets . in series, there is always a complete path. If the pulse lasts much longer, it may lead to failure of commutation in an inverter (see Section 6-5). The grid pulses coincide with the pulses of anode current that would exist in the same valves if there were no overlap. Under balanced conditions, the length of each grid pulse is one-third cycle (120°). Under unbalanced or transient conditions, the grid pulses may all be longer or shorter than onethird cycle, or some may be longer and others shorter. Ideal Shape. The ideal grid pulse then is rectangular, vertical front and tail (Figure 2a). having a fiat top and

Practical Shape. It is difficult in practice and unnecessary to maintain a flat top, and some droop may occur. It is sufficient that the top remain above the critical grid voltage for the maximum pulse duration that may be required (200° or 0.55 cycle should be adequate). Vertical fronts and tails are impossible; however, the front should be made as steep as possible in the normal range of critical voltage. In practice, the front lasts about 100 JiB (2°), and the variation of firing time due to limited steepness is about 25 J1s (OS). Some overshoot is permissible at the ends of the front and tail. A typical pulse form is shown in Figure 2b. Current and Voltage. Typical values are 1 or 2 A and several hundred volts. Grid Bias and Blocking A constant negative bias voltage of a few hundred volts is applied to the control grids of all valves continuously. When a valve is supposed to conduct, a positive pulse is added to this negative bias. The height of the grid pulses is more than enough to overcome the bias. If,for clearing a fault in a converter bridge, it becomes necessary to block all the main valves of the bridge, the transmission of positive pulses to all their grids is interrupted, letting the ne~ative bias remain on the grids.

Transmission of Grid Bias and Pulses to Grids The bias and pulses are applied in series between cathode and grid. Difficulties arise in that the control signals and auxiliary power must originate at or near ground potential, although most of the cathodes are at different high direct voltages with respect to ground (see Figure 3). Ac power is transmitted through insulating transformers to each valve or each group of valves having a common cathode potential. This power is used to supply grid bias through an auxiliary rectifier. It is fed also to various valve auxiliaries (to be described in Volume 2, Chapter 14). Grid pulses are usually formed and amplified at potentials near ground. The amplified pulse is fed to the grid through a well-insulated pulse transformer. Pulse transformers were developed for pulsing magnetrons in microwave radar transmitters during World War II, and the principles of their design have been thoroughly studied and published.f? Another method used for transmitting grid pulses is to pulse a beam of light or infrared rays27 that impinges on photocells at cathode potentiaL The received pulses are amplified there, the amplifiers being powered through the aforementioned insulating transformers.

------~----------_--r-------~~wt

(a)

----<-1

-------6=(b)

"'wt

152

CONTROL

5-3

ReI

POWER REVERSAL

153

Rl

------~L

Une---.+<----------

0(

of cathodes

of valves in bipolar

12-pulse converter

with

The current in a de line operating in the steady state is given by Ohm's law as the difference in its terminal voltages divided by its resistance. By incorporatingthe equivalent circuits of the converters (given in Figures 13 and 18in Chapter 3) with that of the line, Ohm's law may be extended to the internal voltages, embracing the commutation drops as shown in Figure 4. The current fdin the line is then given by

fd=~~----------~-----Rc1

VdOl cos IX

Vd02 cos(p or y)

+ n, ± Rc2

(1)

In this equation cos p is used in the numerator and + Rc2 in the denominator if the inverter is operated with constant ignition angle p; cos y and - Rc2 are used if the extinction angle y is constant. For present purposes, the former mode of operation is assumed, because it is the ignition angle p that can be directly controlled; the extinction angle y is controlled indirectly through controlling P to values computed from the direct current fa, the commutating voltage, and the desired extinction angle, as discussed in Section 5-10. Direct current fd' then, depends on the voltage drop-numerator of Eq. (I)-divided by the total resistance (denominator). Since in practice the

resistances are fixed, the current is proportional to the difference of the two internal voltages and is controlled by controlling these voltages. The direct voltage at any designated point of the line, as well as the current, .can be controlled by controlling the two internal voltages; for example, if the line is uniform and if the two commutating resistances are equal, the voltage at the midpoint of the line is the average of the internal voltages. The direct voltage. at any other point of the line is a weighted average of the internal voltages. More generally, any two independent quantities, for example, power and voltage, could be controlled by the two internal voltages. Each internal voltage can be controlled by either of two different methods: grid control or control- of the alternating voltage. The internal voltage of the rectifier is written in Figure 4 and Eq. (1) as VdOl COSa. Grid control, delaying the ignition angle IX (time IX/W) , reduces the internal voltage from the ideal no-load voltage VdOl by the factor cos IX. (It will be remembered that the voltage drop due to overlap is represented by the voltage across the commutating resistance Rd') The ideal no-load voltage VdOl is directly proportional to the alternating voltage-see Eq. (5) in Chapter 3. The aiternating voltage in some exceptional cases could be controlled by generator excitation, but it is usually controlled by tap changing on the converter transformers. Grid control is rapid (1 to 10 IDS), but tap changing is slow (5 to 6 sec per step). Both these means of voltage control are applied cooperatively at each terminal. Grid control is used initially for rapid action and is followed by tap changing for restoring certain quantities (ignition angle in the rectifier or voltage in the inverter) to their normal values.

5-3

POWER REVERSAL

It should be noted that in Eq. (1), fdand hence the difference of internal voltages are always positive because of the unilateral conduction of the valves (symbolized by the diodes in Figure 4). If it is desired to reverse the direction

154

CONTROL

5-4

LIMITATIONS·OF

MANUAL CONTROL

155

of power transmission, the polarity of the direct voltages at both ends of the line must be reversed while maintaining the sign of their algebraic difference. Station 2 then becomes the rectifier and station 1 the inverter. The terminal voltage of the rectifier is always greater in absolute value than that of the inverter, although it is lesser algebraically in the event of negative voltage. In some HV de cable lines it is desired not to reverse polarity of conductor voltages (see Volume 2, Chapter 11, for further discussion). It then becomes necessary to have reversing switches between each converter and the line. A method of reversing current, sometimes used in low-voltage de industrial practice, by having two converters in parallel, one for each direction of current, is prohibitively expensive for HV dc transmission. Further discussion of power reversal by voltage reversal will be found in Section 5-7, page 163.

Va

NOrmal}

----Low -------Lower

Alternating voltage

The direct voltage at either end of a transmission line can vary in a sudden, unexpected, and undesired manner because of short circuits or other disturbances on the ac systems or because of faults in the converters. It is then the responsibility of the rapid grid control to maintain or restore the desired conditions on the dc line as far as possible with the available range of control. This use of rapid, automatic control is more important than the effecting of a rapid change of conditions on the de line. The need for rapid, automatic control will be shown by first supposing that each converter has only manual control of the ignition angle. Viewing the transmission line from its midpoint, draw a graph of the characteristic curve of voltage at this point versus current for the converter and half line on each side (Figure 5). Both characteristics are straight lines. For the left-hand (rectifier) side, the intercept on the vertical axis is the internal voltage of the rectifier, VaOl cos IX, and the slope is -(RCl + Rd2). For the right-hand (inverter) side, the intercept is the internal voltage of the inverter, Vd02 cos p, and the slope is +(Rc2 + Rd2). Since, at a given place and time, there can be only one value of voltage and one value of current and since both these values must conform to the characteristics of both converters, they must be given by the coordinates of the intersection of the two characteristic lines. Let the intercepts of the two lines be adjusted so that their intersection lies at rated current and voltage (Idn, Vdn) at point N. The slopes of the lines have been drawn on the assumption that at rated current the voltage drop due to

Fig. 5. Changes of direct current due to decreases of alternating voltage at either terminal of the de line when both converters are operating at constant ignition angles. .

commutation is 8% of rated voltage and the line drop is 9% of the same. 8 + 9/2 = 12.5%. . Now suppose that the alternating voltage at the inverter drops by 12.5% of Vdn• Then the inverter characteristic drops to that represented by the first parallel broken line below the solid line, and its intersection with the rectifier characteristic moves to point A, corresponding to 1.5Ian. A further 12.5% voltage drop increases the current to 2Jdn (point B). If the alternating voltage at the rectifier drops by 12.5% of Van while that of the inverter is normal, the rectifier characteristic drops to the first paral1el broken line below the solid line, the intersection moves to point C, and the current drops to O.5Ian. An additional 12.5% drop of alternating voltage lowers the characteristic to the second parallel broken line and moves the intersection to point D: the current becomes nil. In this example, a dip in alternating voltage produces a percentage change in direct current of four times the percentage change of voltage. Such large fluctuations of current cannot be tolerated. The high overcurrents are especially undesirable, for they may lead to arcbacks of the rectifier (Section 6-3), commutation failures of the inverter (Section 6-5), and damage to the valves. The need for rapid control of current is indicated.

156

CONTROL

I I

5-6.

157

Two obvious alternative ways of operating a dc transmission system while permitting control of transmitted power are the following: 1. Current held constant while voltage varies as the power does 2. Voltage held nearly constant while current varies as the power does The same two methods could be used for ac transmission and distribution. In the constant-current system, the various loads and one or more power sources are connected in series; a load or source is turned off by bypassing it after bringing its EMF to zero if it has one. This method has been widely used for street lighting circuits, and was used on several of the earlier de transmission projects. In the constant-voltage system, the various loads and sources are connected in parallel; a load or source is taken out of service by opening the respective branch. This system is in general use in ac transmission and distribution systems and de distribution systems. In a HV de transmission system having only two terminals (none to date have had more), the distinction between series and parallel connection of the two converters (rectifier and inverter) disappears. The choice between constant current and constant voltage must be made on other grounds. The chief differences concern the following:

1. The limitation of variation of current caused by variation of alternating voltage or by faults on the de line or in the converters 2. The energy losses and efficiency It is well known that short-circuit currents on a constant-voltage ac system can be very great although limited by system impedance, of which reactance is the major component. On a constant-voltage de system, fault currents could conceivably be much greater, being limited only by circuit resistance. On a constant-current system, however, short-circuit currents are ideally limited to the value of the load current and in practice to about twice rated current. Accidental open circuits could give rise to high voltages, but in practice open-circuit faults are much rarer than short-circuit faults. In a constant-voltage system the /2 R loss in the conductors is proportional to the square of the power transmitted; in a constant-current system, this loss always has its full-load value. If the system transmits less than rated power some of the time, as is true in nearly all transmission systems, the daily or annual energy loss is much less in a constant-voltage system than in a constantcurrent system. The opposite is true of those losses depending on voltage, such as corona loss and losses in insulation leakage. In practice, however, the

voltage-dependent losses are always much less than the current-dependent losses. Thus, consideration of losses favors the constant-voltage system, but limitation of current favors the constant-current system. In the past there was some uncertainty as to the choice, with the earlier de projects using constant current. Now, however, it is possible by the use of automatic control to combine the best features of each.

1. Limitation of the maximum current so as to avoid damage to valves and other current-carrying devices 2. Limitation of the fluctuation of current due to the fluctuation of alternating voltage 3. Keeping the power factor as high as possible 4. Prevention of commutation failures of the inverter 5. Prevention of arcback of the rectifier valves 6. in muItianode valves, providing a sufficient anode voltage before ignition occurs 7. Keeping the voltage at the sending end of the line constant at its rated value insofar as possible in order to minimize losses for a given power 8. Controlling the power delivered or, in some cases, the frequency at one end.

Many of these features have already been discussed, but others need some discussion before the scheme actually used is described so that it may better be appreciated. There are four reasons for keeping the power factor high; two concerning the converter itself and the other two concerning the ac system to which it is connected. The first reason is to keep the rated power of the converters as high as possible for given current and voltage ratings of valves and transformers. (The voltage rating of the transformer and the voltage across the valves when not conducting are both proportional to VdO ,but the power is proportional to Vd.) The second reason is to reduce the stresses on the valves and damping circuits. The third reason is to minimize the required current rating and the copper losses in the ac lines to the converter. The fourth reason is to minimize voltage drops at the ac terminals of the converter as its loading . increases. The last two reasons apply to any large ac loads. The power factor can be raised by adding shunt capacitors, and if this is

158

CONTROL

5-7

A

_/)

done, the disadvantages become the cost of the capacitors and switching them as the load on the converter varies. The power factor of the converter itself is cos ¢ ;::; for a rectifier or cos ¢ ;::;-}[cosy

Vd VdO

(2)

D G

+ cos (y + u)]

(3)

Rectifier

for an inverter. For a reasonably high power factor, 0: or y should be made as small as possible. In a rectifier, this is easy: we can make (X = 0, for which cos 0: = 1. (For multianode valves 0: should be about 5°, giving cos (X = 0.996.)* In an inverter it is more difficult. In order to avoid a commutation failure, commutation must be completed before the commutating voltage reverses at y = 0; hence y must be greater than zero by some margin. We cannot control y directly but instead must control the ignition advance angle 13 = y + u in accordance with the value of overlap u expected in view of the prevailing direct current and commutating voltage. Because of some inaccuracy in the computation of 13 and a possibility of changes in direct current and alternating voltage even after commutation has begun, sufficient commutation margin above the minimum angle required for deionization of the mercury arc must be allowed. The easy and safe way would be to choose a large value of 13. This way, however, lowers the power factor and raises the stresses on the valves. A better way is to compute the firing angle required to obtain a constant extinction angle y. How this is done is described later (Section 5-10). It is called constant-extinction angle (C.E.A.) control.t

(canst Ia)

O~-------B,L---------Id

step of explanation.

inverter be equipped with a C.E.A. regulator. Then the inverter characteristic is a line given by

(4)

These are plotted in rectangular coordinates of direct current fa and direct voltage Va at some common point, say, at the sending end of the de line. Let the rectifier be equipped with a constant-current regulator. If this regulator functions ideally, the rectifier characteristic 'is a vertical line (AB in Figure 6). In practice it is not quite vertical but does have a high negative slope. Let the

t ASEA

.. The reason is given in Section 3-6. uses the term consecutive control.

On the assumption that the commutation resistance Rc2 is somewhat greater than the line resistance R/, this line (CD in Figure 6) has a small negative slope. Since at the common point there can be only one voltage and one current, their values must be given by the coordinates of the intersection of the rectifier and inverter characteristics (E). Both characteristic lines can be shifted. The rectifier characteristic can be shifted horizontally by adjusting the current command (order or setting), which is one of the inputs to the current regulator, the other being the.measured current. If the measured current is less than the current command, the regulator advances the firing time (decreases the delay angle tx), thus raising the rectifier internal voltage in proportion to cos a and thus raising id-see Eq. (1). If the opposite is true, it increases tx, thus decreasing cos o: andL, The inverter characteristic can be raised or lowered by means of the tap changer on the transformer at the inverter station, which varies the alternating voltage on the valve side. As soon as the tap changer is moved each step, the C.E.A. regulator very quickly restores the desired value of y. The internal direct voltage at the inverter is changed in proportion to the alternating voltage; since cos y is constant, and this tends to change the direct. current, which, however, is quickly restored to the set value by the currentregulator at the

160

CONTROL

5-7

ACTUAL

CONTROL

CHARActERISTICS

161

rectifier station. The de reactors at both ends of the line tend to prevent rapid changes of current, thus easing the duty of the current regulator. It may be said with fair accuracy that the rectifier controls the direct current and that the inverter controls the direct voltage. The statement would be exact only if the rectifier characteristic were truly vertical and if the inverter characteristic were truly horizontal. Otherwise, each control affects both current and voltage, although it affects one of them but slightly and the other greatly. If the inverter voltage is raised, as described, the rectifier voltage must be raised by an equal amount in order to keep the current constant. This can be done quickly only by the current regulator, which increases cos IX by electronic control. This can continue only until IX = 0 and cos IX = 1. The valve cannot be ignited earlier, and so it is spared the vain effort of trying to increase cos IX by making IX negative. The rectifier voltage can be increased further only by changing taps on the rectifier transformer. If the inverter voltage is being increased by its tap changer, the rectifier voltage can be increased just as rapidly by its, assuming that both tap changers are of similar design. The rapid electronic current regulator need only be able to raise the rectifier voltage by as much as, or a little more than, it is raised by one step of the inverter tap changer. In practice, the rectifier tap changer is automatically controlled so as to bring IX into the range between 10° and 20°. These values represent a compromise between (a) keeping the power factor high, which requires small a, and (b) having a margin for quick increases in rectifier voltage, which requires great IX. In the foregoing we have considered the behavior of the control system for slow changes of voltage. Equally important is its behavior for rapid changes of voltage, especially for rapid decreases of voltage due to short circuits on the ac systems, to electromechanical oscillations ("swings") between ac generators, or collapse of the voltage of one valve group (bridge). These changes may occur at either end or both ends simultaneously, usually in unequal degrees. Consider first a reduction of inverter voltage. The inverter characteristic is shifted downward (from CD to FG in Figure 6). The new operating point is H. The line then operates at reduced voltage but at substantially the same current as before; the power is reduced in proportion to the voltage. The dip in voltage may be of short duration, in which case operating conditions are restored to substantially the initial ones. If the low alternating voltage is maintained, the inverter tap changer raises the direct voltage until either it becomes normal or the limit of the tap-changer range is reached. Now consider a decrease of alternating voltage at the rectifier. If cos IX were constant, the direct voltage at the rectifier would decrease proportionally.

The rapid current regulator, however, trying to maintain constant current, raises the direct rectifier voltage either to its initial value or until a = 0 (or 5°). If the voltage dip is more than a few percent, the minimum IX limit is reached first. The rectifier characteristic really consists of two line segments: one of constant minimum ignition angle ao and one of constant current, as shown in Figure 7 by ABH~ The inverter characteristic is assumed to be CD, as before.

Now a big dip in rectifier voltage shifts the rectifier characteristic down to

A'B' H, which does not intersect the inverter characteristic. Consequently,

the current and power drop to zero after a short delay due to the de reactors. In order to avoid such a .great change of current and power caused by a moderate dip in alternating voltage (exaggerated in Figure 7), the inverter is also equipped with a fast current regulator, but it is set at a lower current than the rectifier's regulator. The inverter characteristic is now DFG, consisting of two segments, one of C.E.A. (y = Yn) as before, and one of constant current. It intersects the new rectifier characteristic at L. It may now be said that the inverter is controlling the direct current, and the rectifier, the direct voltagean interchange of functions from those pertaining to normal voltage conditions. (More generally, the station having the lower value of Vd01 cos (to Relld or Vd02 cos Yn - (Rc2 - Rl)(ld - AId) controls the voltage and the other station the current.) The difference between the current command of the rectifier and that of the inverter is called the current margin and is denoted by Ald' It is generally 15% of the rated current, although it could be made smaller. It must be great

162

CONTROL

5-7

Combined Characteristic

ACTUAL

CONTROL

CHARACTERISTICS

163

enough so that the two steep constant-current lines do not cross each other in spite of errors of current measurement. During a large dip in rectifier voltage, the power is reduced not only in proportion to the voltage but also because of the reduction in current t1Id• Thus a voltage dip at the rectifier end reduces the power more than does an equal dip at the inverter end. This, however, is much better than having the power suddenly become zero. Moreover, if the dip in power is objectionable, a supplementary current control can be added, which, whenever the current command exceeds the measured current by approximately the magnitude of the current margin, automatically increases the current command first to the rectifier and a little later to the inverter by the amount of the current margin, and thus restores the current to its correct value in a few tenths of a second. Later, if the measured current exceeds the new current command by a similar amount, that command is reduced by that amount first at the inverter and a little later at the rectifier. Under the abnormal condition just considered (low rectifier voltage with current controlled by the inverter), the rectifier current regulator sees that the current is too low and tries to raise it by raising the rectifier voltage by decreasing the ignition delay. It is unable to do so, however, either because the delay is already zero or because the minimum o: control overrides the current control. The inverter, in order to control the current, is operating at a greater extinction angle than the minimum specified value. This occurs because the current regulator fires the inverter valves before the C.E.A. control has a chance to do so. Under normal voltage conditions or low inverter voltage, the inverter current regulator sees that the current is too high according to its own setting. It tries to lower the current by raising the inverter voltage. To do so, it must decrease the extinction angle y by decreasing the ignition advance angle p. It cannot do so because the C.E.A. regulator is already igniting the valves before the current regulator would do so. Suppose that, when a change of current is desired, the new current commands are to be set manually in response, perhaps, to telephoned orders. The setting at one station must be changed before that at the either station. If the current is to be increased, the current setting is raised first at the rectifier and second at the inverter. But if the current is to be decreased, the current setting should be lowered first at the inverter and second at the rectifier. In either case, the current margin is first increased and later decreased to its normal value. In this way there is no danger of accidentally changing the sign of the current margin and thus suddenly reversing the power. If the change of current is to be made automatically, the order of events is the same as described, but the changes can be accomplished more quickly.

In many de transmission links each converter inust function sometimes as a rectifier and at other times as an inverter. At times both converters are called on to work as inverters in order to deenergize the line rapidly. Therefore each converter is given a combined characteristic, as shown in Figure 8,

Converter 1

I

Vd

fJ

Converter 2

Id-"<> V~+

(a)

Converter 2

(b)

Fig. 8, Control characteristics permitting reversal of power flow: C.I.A., constant ignition angle; C.c., constant current; C.B.A., constant extinction angle.

consisting of three linear portions: C.I.A., C.C., and C.RA. With the characteristics shown by solid lines, poweris transmitted from converter I to converter 2. If the characteristics are changed to those shown by the broken lines, the direction of transmission is reversed by the reversal of direct voltage with no change in direct current. Both stations are given the same current command, but, at the station designated as inverter, a signal

164

CONTROL

5,.9

CONSTANT-CURRENT

CONTROL

165

representing the current margin is subtracted from that current command, giving a smaller net current command. When it is desired to reverse the direction of power, the margin signal must be transferred to the station that becomes the inverter station. During the reversal of power and voltage the shunt capacitance of the line must be first discharged and then recharged with the opposite polarity. This process implies a greater current at the end of the line initially the inverter than at the end initially the rectifier. The difference of terminal currents cannot exceed the current margin. Hence the shortest time of voltage reversal is

LlVd T=C ~ seconds

si,

(5)

where C is the line capacitance, LlVd the algebraic change of direct voltage, and Llld the current margin. The current margin signal corresponds to the horizontal separation !:1Id of the constant-current characteristics of the two converters along the horizontal axis or between the corners P 1 and P 2 in Figure 8. Because of the slope of these C.C. characteristics, the actual separation between them varies with Vd, being least at the normal working point. The margin signal must be great enough to maintain a positive margin there in spite of errors in the current measurement and regulation. Operation at the intersection of the two steep C.C. characteristics, with both current regulators operating, would be erratic. The necessity for the slope of the C.C. characteristics is explained in Section 5-11.

specified value=-forexample, .)3 Vmsin 5°~the constant-current control is prevented from igniting the valve. Since the purpose of the delay is to ensure a certain voltage across the valve before igniting it, the method is logical, although it allows some variation ina to opposite changes in magnitude Vm of alternating voltage. .-In practice, the voltages across the valves would not be used, but ratherthe secondary voltages of a control transformer. In order to meet the requirements of other control circuits, these voltages must be sinusoidal (free of notches caused by commutation). The primary windings of the control transformer must be connected to the network side of the main converter transformer in order to obtain sinusoidal control voltages, and both transformers must be similarly connected=-for example, in YA~so that the control voltages are in phase with the commutating voltages.

The second segment of the converter characteristic (Figure 8) is one of constant current. Constant-current control involves the following:

1. Measurement of the direct current Id 2. Comparison of Id with the set value Ids (also called reference value, current order, or currerit command) 3. Amplification of the difference Ids - Id, called the error 4. Application of the output signal of the amplifier to a phase-shift circuit that alters the ignition angle a of the valves in the proper direction for reducing the error

5-8 CONSTANT-MINIMUM-IGNITION

-ANGLE CONTROL

The next step in our study of the control of a converter is to examine in more detail how each of the three straight-line segments of the combined characteristic (Figure 8) can be obtained. 1. Constant minimum ignition angle 2. Constant current 3. Constant minimum extinction angle If the constant minimum ignition delay angle ao is to be zero, no special provision need be made for it because zero is inherently the minimum possible delay. If, however, the use of multianode valves requires a greater minimum delay=-for example, ao = 5 -control is required. The following method could be used. The voltage across each valve is measured, and if it is less than a

0

If the measured current in a rectifier is less than the set current, a must be decreased in order to increase cos a and thus raise the internal voltage of the rectifier VdO cos a. The difference between the internal voltages of the rectifier and the inverter is thereby increased, and the direct current is increased pro" portionally=see Eq. (1). If the measured current exceeds the set current, a must be increased instead of decreased, and all the quantities mentioned above are changed in the opposite sense. In the inverter, if the measured current is too low, the internal voltage must be decreased instead of being increased as in the rectifier in order to increase the difference of internal voltages. This refers, however, to the absolute value of the inverter voltage, If we consider the inverter voltage to be negative, which is usual if the same converter sometimes rectifies and at other times inverts, the algebraic value of inverter voltage must be increased, as in a rectifier; and to accomplishthis,a must be decreased, as in a rectifier. The curve

/:

166

CONTROL

5-10

CONSTANT

EXTINCTION-ANGLE

CONTROL

167

of cos ct versus ct in the range from 0 to n is monotonic (Figure 9); anywhere in this range, a decrease of o: increases the algebraic internal voltage VdO cos ct. This means that the same constant-current controller can be used on a given converter without change of connections during both rectification and inversion. (In practice, however, the same current setting is transmitted to both terminals of a de line, and the current margin is subtracted from the current setting of the inverter; that is, the error signal for the inverter's current regulator is s = las - AId - Id') This prevents the current regulators at both terminals from functioning simultaneously.

'.

Fig. to. Schematic diagram of constant-current regulator i.L,; current command signal; AId, current margin signal; I«, line current and signal; R1, input resistor; R2, feedback resistor; C, feedback capacitor; A, high-gain amplifier; PS, phase-shift circuit; Con., converter; Vd, direct voltage of converter; Ld·, de reactor; Tr, de current transformer. 2:, summer; E, error signal.>. . . '

The slope of the" constant-current" segment in the Vd, Idplant:in the steady state maybe found by putting into Eq. (7) s = 0, V ='Vd + <ReId; and e = Ids - Ia and then taking the derivative (8) Usually K'}> Rc. In order to obtain a true constant-current characteristic represented by a vertical line, the gain K of this kind of regulator would have to be infinite. As shown in Section 5-11, however, the gain cannot be made too great without producing instability. Only one current regulator per pole per terminalis required: it can control all the valves in the several bridges. In bipolar schemes,the current regulators of the two poles are normally given equal settings, so that the neutral current is small if both poles are in operation. Where· ground-return current is objectionable, the neutral currentcan put <in additional signal into the regulators in the proper sense to better equalize the currents of the two poles.

<X

versus

<X.

The current regulator (Figure 10) is a simple kind of feedback amplifier characterized by a gain and a time constant. Its differential equation is

v

where

+T

dv dt

= Ke

(6)

v = instantaneous value of VdO cos ex T = R2 C = time constant K = gain of amplifier and phase-shift circuit s = error signal

transfer function is v s Ts

5-10

CONSTANT-EXTINCTION-ANGLE

CONTROL

The corresponding

K + l'

where s is the variable of the Laplace transform. In practice, function may be more complicated than that of Eq. (7).

The third segment of the combined control characteristic is one of constant extinction angle (C.E.A.). The necessity for C.E.A. control of inverters has been shown already, but it remains to be explained how such control can be accomplished. Each inverter valve must be ignited at such a time that extinction occurs at a later time, which, however, must be earlier by an adequate margin than

168

CONTROL

the time when the commutation voltage reverses. Furthermore, after conduction ceases, the voltage across the outgoing valve must be negative and must remain so long enough for adequate deionization of the arc path. Let both time t and the corresponding time angle OJtbe measured from the instant when the commutation voltage of the valve in question first turns positive. The instantaneous value of the commutation voltage is then

5-10

and the required firing angle

CONSTANT

EXTINCTION-ANGLE

CONTROL

fJ

is given by

- )3 E;"

or

cos cot, =

/3 Em

cos )In-

2Xc1d

volts

(12)

(9)

Commutation can begin after OJt = 0 and must be completed before OJt = n. Let it be required that, under normal conditions, commutation be completed at OJt = n - )In' where Yn is the normal extinction advance angle. For accomplishing this, commutation must begin at an ignition angle OJI = 0: = n - {J, which depends on the commutation voltage (crest value Em), the direct current Id to be commutated, the commutation inductance Lc, and the desired )In' For the present, all four of these are assumed to remain constant during a particular commutation, but the voltage and current can vary from one commutation to the next. The relation among the five quantities (0:, )In' Em, Id, and LJ was derived in Chapter 3. It depends OL the fact that the time integral of the commutation voltage is equal to the change of magnetic flux linkages produced. The latter is -2LJd' The former is

(13)

The required ignition time t1 can be found by a real-time analog computer functioning in accordance with Eq. (12) and shown in Figure II. Each term

/3

t2 f heba dt

where

)3 Em

h

= )3 Em

- cos OJtJI2 .

OJ

h

(10)

Valve

"""'--t

cot,

wt2

0::

= n - Yn

extinction angle

Fig. 11. Schematic circuit of analog computer for C.E.A. control, Pot., potentiometer. The signal dld/dt is explained in connection with Figure 15.

Then the integral becomes of the equation is represented on a greatly reduced scale. One input signal is a voltage proportional to the direct current Id in the main converter circuit. This can be realized by using the voltage across a shunt through which Id or

= ---(

Equating the two quantities,

)3

Em

to

.

w(1)

volt-seconds

(11)

we get

- )3 Em(cos

= - 2Xc1d

volts

a known fraction of Id passes. Another input voltage Em cos )I" is a direct voltage that is proportional both to 'thedesired COS)ln (a constannand to the crest value of the commutation voltage. This signal may be derived from a direct voltage obtained by full-wave rectification of the single-phase commutation voltage for the valve in question. These two inputs are summed algebraically, and the sum is compared with the instantaneous value of the third input, which is an alternating voltage with a crest value proportional to

J3

170

CONTROL

5~10 .

CONS~ANT~EXTINCTION-ANGLE

CONTROL

171

that of the commutation voltage and a phase 90° behind that voltage. When the two quantities become equal, a pulse is generated that initiates the grid pulse to ignite the valve in question. The quantities involved in the analog comparison are shown in Figure 12. The wave of commutation voltage is obtained from one phase of a bank of control transformers (potential transformers) connected to the ac bus. The control voltage should be proportional to the open-circuit ac voltage on the valve side of the main converter transformers, but it cannot be obtained from the valve side because of the objectionable notches in the voltage wave caused by commutations. The ac bus voltage has a good wave form if adequate ac harmonic filters are provided. It does not remain proportional to the valveside open-circuit voltage, however, when the tap changers are operated. A solution to this dilemma, if the taps are on the winding on the network side, is to have the control transformers connected to a fixed tap on that winding.l"

(a)

Eo"t L ~--~.~O-----~

R

jR

(b)

_jR=_I_

jWC

- .{3Em cos wt Fig. 12. Wave forms of voltages in C.E.A. analog computer.

A is a high-gain amplifier.

The negative cosine voltage wave required for C.E.A. control can be derived from the sine wave of commutation voltage in either of two ways. One way is to use an RC or RL phase-shift circuit adjusted for an output lagging the input by 90° (Figure 13). The other way is to integrate the commutation voltage.19,36 The analog integrator (Figure 14) yields the negative of the time integral of the input voltage. For the correct operation of the C.E.A. control under unbalanced alternating voltages, such as may occur during short circuits on the ac system, each valve should have its own analog computer. The negative cosine wave is derived from the sine wave of commutation voltage for the valve in question

taken from the secondary winding of the control transformer. The proper phases are shown in the following table: Outgoing valve (to be extinguished) Commutation voltage Incoming valve (to be ignited)

1 eo. 3 2 e-, 4 3 eco 5 5 e.o 6 eoc 2

ea. 6

172

CONTROL

5-lO

CONSTANT-EXTINCTION-ANGLE

CONTROL

173

It would be easy to obtain the negative cosine waves from the polyphase supply, but with unbalanced voltages these waves would JJe incorrect in both magnitude and phase. The signal .)3 Em cos I'n should likewise be taken. from a rectifier connected to the phase listed above. From the two waves derived from the same phase, a three-phase voltage can be obtained for feeding a six-pulse rectifier, whose output can be better filtered than that of a single-phase two-pulse rectifier. This signal from one phase can be used for the computers of the two valves of a pair. The signal proportional to Idcan be used for all the valves of the converter. Up to now we have assumed that Em and Id were constant during a single commutation, although they might vary between successive commutations of the same valve. Now let us briefly consider the effect of their varying while a commutation is in progress. Increased direct current requires more voltagetime integral for commutation, and decreased commutation voltage provides less voltage-time integral between the same angular limits. Obviously, after commutation has begun, its time of beginning carinot be altered by anything that might happen afterward. Increased direct current, or decreased commutation voltage, or both together, require more time (and time angle) for completion of commutation, and if enough time is not available.for completion and deionization before the sign of the commutation voltage reverses, the direct current that began to be shifted from one valve to another is shifted back to the valve it came from. This result is called a commutation failure and is discussed further in Section 6-5. Decreased alternating voltage, caused, perhaps, by a short circuit on the ac network, lowers the direct voltage of the inverter proportionally. Consequently the direct current through the inverter increases at a rate determined principally by the inductance of the de reactor. The chief purpose of this reactor is to decrease the probability of commutation failure of the inverter caused by a disturbance occurring too late for making the necessary correction in firing angle. For further discussion see Section 7-2, page 236. Some commutation failures can be prevented by the introduction of a supplementary input signal proportional to the rate of cha~ge of direct current, dId/dt. This can be obtained in several ways, two of which are shown in Figure 15. The method thus modified, however, is ~till ineffective unless ~he increase of current occurs long enough before the time when commutation otherwise would begin. This control should be arranged so that, although increasing current advances the firing angle, decreasing current does not retard it. The diodes in Figure 15 accomplish this. The usual value of I'n is 16°. Only 1 to 8° of this is required for deionization the larger angles applying to the higher-power valves."? The remainder is margin for variations in direct current and in commutating voltage occurring too late to permit adequate correction of {3.

(b)

The C.E.A. control system should be modified so that at high values of I; it functions to increase ')' and to attain approximately constant commutation margin (. It may be noted that the C.E.A. control as usually performed and as described above is not a feedback control system as is the constant-current control. A method of control based on the measurement of the extinction angle, comparison of the measured angle with the desired angle, and alteration of the ignition angle in the direction to decrease the error has been proposed.P" It has the obvious shortcoming that, after sudden changes of circuit conditions, the correction is made too late. The standard method described is superior in that it can prevent most commutation failures that would occur without it. Another proposed method is to superpose a correction based on measurement upon the standard method. 19 .. Isochronous Control. In both C.C. and C.E.A.control it is likelythat, because of unbalances or harmonic distortion of the ac voltages used for commutation, "the six valves of a bridge are not ignited at exactly equal intervals of time. Then the result, explained in Section 8-3, is thatthe converter generates uncharacteristic harmonics that are undesirable. The uncharacteristic harmonics may be almost completely suppressed by the adoption of a

The foregoing discussion has neglected the effect, described in Section 3-5, page 110, of the dent in the wave of voltage across the outgoing valve due to the subsequent commutation. At large values of which is proportional to Id/Em in Eq. (12), this dent decreases the commutation margin for a given extinction angle. Hence, in order to prevent commutation failures at high direct currents or low alternating voltages or both, the extinction advance angle I' must be greater than its normal value Yn' and the ignition advance angle P must be made accordingly greater. Curves of required {3 and I' as functions of for constant commutation margin angle ( = 15° are shown in Figure 16.

I;,

I;

iJ

II

/"'

I!

'.' /I

!I

'I

.J

174

CONTROL

5-11

STABILITY OF CONTROL

175

120·

105"

*"

«

<;;

'"

75"

60"

One method of increasing the damping of oscillations is to add damper circuits either across the de reactor (Figure 17a) or across the end of the dc line (Figure 17b). Such circuits are discussed in Section 7-5. The control system for normal operation of the de line, comprising constant-current control of the rectifier and C.E.A. control of the inverter, if properly designed and adjusted, can provide suitable damping of line oscillations and can do so more economically than the above-mentioned damper circuits. If, however, the controls are improperly designed or adjusted, they can cause oscillations to grow. This condition is called instability= '

Dc reactor

Line

45"

30"

15" . O·

Damper

(a) 0 0.5 Per-unit direct current

Ii

(b)

Fig, 16. Ignition advance angle f3 and extinction advance angle y versus per-unit direct current 1~in an inverter operated at constant commutation margin angle , ::: 1S°. Broken line shows.B for y = 15°. .

modified form of controf":" in which the valves are ignited at equal time intervals and the ignition angles of all valves are retarded or advanced equally so as to obtain the desired current, in C.C. control, or the desired minimum extinction angle in the valve for which that angle is least, in C.E.A. control.

5-11 STABILITY OF CONTROL

Fig. 17. Circuits for damping line oscillations: shunt with de line.

(a) in parallel

with de reactor;

(b) in

The de line, together with the de reactors at each end, constitutes a lightly damped system that can be set into oscillation by various disturbances, such as line-to-ground short circuits, converter faults, and improperly controlled energization of the line. The natural frequencies of these oscillations usually lie in the range of 10 to 100 Hz. Overvoltages on the line insulation may result from improper energization or from converter faults that impress a component of power-frequency alternating voltage on the de line. It is desirable that the oscillations be rapidly damped so as to limit the overshoot of voltage to a moderate value.

Following is an approximate analysis of the stability of a de link comprising the line, the de reactors, the rectiiier under constant-current control and the inverter under C.E.A. control." . , It is assumed at the outset that both of these controls are instantaneous. Each converter may then be represented bya direct EMF in series with a resistance. The rectifier on C.c. control displays a high positive resistance K + Re1, which depends principally on the gain of the C.C. regulator. The inverter on C.E.A. control displays a low negative resistance, - Rc2' See Figure 18. The transmission line may be represented, to a first approximation, by its equivalent or nominal T circuit. This circuit is shown in Figure 19a together with circuits representing the de reactors and the converters. All these circuits are then combined to form a single T as in Figure 19b.

* The term used here as in the theory offeedback control systems has a somewhat different meaning from that of the terms "power system stability" or "synchronous stability."

176

CONTROL

5-11

STABILITY OF CONTROL

117 .

The characteristic equation of the circuit is found by setting the determinant of the impedances equal to zero: (16)

Rectifier Dc reactor Dc transmission line

Id

Substitution

plane.

Inverter

After performing the indicated multiplications, and clearing of fractions, we have

=0

(18)

± (1/ CS)2.

El

(a) Ll L;:

R2

I

(b)

Fig. 19. Equivalent circuit oj de link for analysis of stability of control (a) before combination of line with terminal equipment; (b) after combination.

The equations

£1

(14a) (14b)

This is a cubic equation in s, and its roots are values of s that characterize the transient phenomena. A cubic equation with real coefficients has three roots, at least 'one of which is real. The other two may be real or a conjugate complex pair. From our knowledge of the nature of the circuit, we know that the latter alternative is more probable. The corresponding solution in the. time domain, found from the inverse Laplace transform of Eq. (19), would have a damped direct current and a damped oscillatory current', If is, negative, one or both of these terms may have negative damping; it is more likely that only the oscillatory term has it. If numerical values of the coefficients were given, the cubic polynomial could be factored into a linear one and a quadratic, Factoring of the algebraic cubic is very cumbersome. So let us make another simplifying assumption, Since we know that ordinarily Rl '?> L1s, let us put L1 = O. Equation(19),then simplifies to the following quadratic: .. .

R2

+ Z212 = £z

L2Rl Cs

+ (Rl

2

Ra C + Lz}s

(R2 1··). L2

Rz

(20)

(15b)

(ISe)

S

(lSd)

= 0 and

Ll = 0,

178

CONTROL

may further simplify Equation (20) by putting Rz = then becomes llLze. Equation (20) has the form

SZ

. 5-12

in the last term, which (21) (22)

TAP-CHANGER

CONTROL

179

+ 2(JS +

S2

(WZ

+ aZ) =

or The undamped

+ 2(wns + ronZ = 0

natural frequency is

(23)

and the damping coefficient is

(J

=I'w

':. n

= !(Rz +

2 Lz

RIC-

_1_)

(24)

It is the average of two reciprocal time constants, the first of which, containing Rz, may be negative. For positive damping a > 0; hence, if Rz < 0,

is fired; accordingly, the firing' of that valve is delayed. This correction is likewise made rapidly, resulting in the current's becoming too low before the next valve fires, and the firing of that valve is advanced. This process, continued, produces an oscillation of firing angle and direct current and voltage at a frequency three times that of the ac line and also produces even harmonics in the alternating current (see Section 8-3, page 318). Such oscillations are prevented by making the time constant of the current regulator long, or the gain small, so that overcorrection cannot occur, or else by isochronous control. It is desirable that the steady-state gain of the current regulator be made so high that the constant-current portions of the control characteristics shown in Figure 8 are almost vertical, that is, so that the current changes by only a few percent for a voltage change equal to rated voltage. If this gain is high, . a long time constant (about 5 sec) must be used to make the control stable. For small changes of current, corrections are still made rapidly, because the speed of correction depends onthe ratio KIT, gain divided by time constantEq. (6).

R1 < (-Rz)C

Since RI

(Z5)

,,5-12 TAP-CHANGER CONTROL

+ Rd1 + Rd2,

= K + Re1 + Rd1 + RI/Z (Figure 19a) and since usually K p. ReI if Rz < 0, there is a maximum value of K for which the system

is stable. In practice it is desirable to have considerable positive damping, but somewhat less than critical damping = 1). Assuming that ( = 0.7, . which corresponds to 5% overshoot in response to a step input, we get

«(

,.." R 1-

1.4 J LzC

Lz - CRz

(Z6)

The foregoing theory gives pessimistic results if dc resistances are used, because some of the power losses are higher at the frequency of hunting than at zero frequency. Temporary operation with the inverter on constant-current control and the rectifier on constant a control is more stable than that described above, because then both converters have positive-resistance characteristics. Another form of instability or hunting can occur in the rectifier, even if the inverter operates at constant ignition angle and thus has a positive resistance, because of the intermittent operation of the current control." This control operates only at the firing of each valve; that is, six times per cycle in a threephase bridge and not in between. With high gain and short time constant, this control may overcorrect deviations of the current from the set value. If the current is too low, the firing of the next valve is advanced. If the correction is made too rapidly, the current becomes too high before the next valve

The rectifier tap changer is controlled so that if a becomes less than 10°, it raises the direct voltage by .raising. the transformer ratio T; and if IX becomes greater than 20°, it lowers the direct voltage by lowering T. As a result, a lies between 10 and 20° in the steady state unless the tap changer has reached one of its limits. The inverter tap changer is controlled so that the direct voltage at some designated point of the line, preferably the sending end, is close to its rated value. More precisely stated, the tap changer raises the direct voltage by raising Tifthat voItageis lower than the desired value by more than a specified amount and lowers the direct voltage by lowering T if the voltage is higher than the desired value by a specified amount. The direct voltage at the point of the line where it is to be held constant is computed by adding to the direct voltage measured atthe inverter station the R,Id drop in the de line, obtained. to scale by sending the current output of the de current transformer through a resistor representing the line resistance to scale. This arrangement may be called a line-drop compensator. It is subject to some error attributable to changes in the line resistance with ambient teinperature and current. In order to avoid hunting of the tap changer, the dead band must be wider than the size of the tap step. Otherwise, the voltage might be too high on one

.,

"?;

180

CONTROL

5-13

POWER

CONTROL

AND CURRENT

LIMITS

181

tap step and too Iowan the adjacent step, with the result that the control would force the tap changer to oscillate between the two adjacent steps. In the rectifier, the voltage band between a = 10 and 20° is VdO(cos 10° _ cos 20°) = 0.045VdO, or 4.5% of VdO' An allowance of ± 2° in measurement of the angles reduces the voltage band to V,w(cos 12° - cos 18°) = 0.027VdO = 2.7% of VdO' Hence the tap step must be less than 2.7%, say, 1.3 to 2.0%. In other words, the dead band is approximately 1.3 to 2 tap steps. The inverter transformers have the same tap step as the rectifier transformer, especially because most de lines are intended to transmit in either direction. With due allowance for errors in voltage measurement and in linedrop compensation, the voltage band should be at least ± 1.3 to 2.0%, depending on the size of tap step.

It is necessary to put several limits on the current control (Figure 21). 1. Maximum Current Limit. The purpose of this limit, which might be from 1.0 to 1.2 times rated current, is to avoid thermal damage, especially to the valves. 2. Minimum Current Limit. The purpose of this limit, which is usually 0.1 of rated current, is to avoid operation with very short overlap, which increases the probability of arcbacks (see Section 7-4, page 266) or with. discontinuous current, which leads to overvoltages (see Section 7~2, page 240 and 7-8, page 286). . 3. Voltage-Dependent Current Limit. The same power can be obtained wit~ a high voltage and low current or with a low voltage and high current (points A and B or C and D in Figure 21). Operation at the latter condition is objectionable not only because of higher power losses and higher reactivepower demand but also because of voltage instability. Such operation is likely to occur on starting transmission, while the direct voltage is being raised slowly. It is prevented by the use of the limit represented by the sloping line OE in Figure 21. The slope of this line must exceed the (negative) slope of the constant a lines, which depends on both thecommutating resistance of the converter and the impedance of the ac system feeding the converter.

I

I

1

I

I

!'

A common requirement is that a dc line deliver a scheduled value of power. Although constant-current control comes near to meeting this requirement if the direct voltage remains reasonably constant, more accurate power control can be obtained by automatically varying the direct current so as to compensate for changes in direct voltage caused by variation of line resistance, variation of alternating voltage beyond that which can be corrected by tap changers or grid control, and by outages of one or more valve groups. Power control could be accomplished in either of two ways. The first and most obvious way would be to measure the power on either the ac or de circuit, to compare it with a power command, and to use the difference (error signal) to advance or retard the ignition of the valves. In order to retain the advantages of current control, however, including its speed and the inclusion of current limits (to be discussed later), the power control does not replace current control but supplements it. The power command and the measured direct voltage are fed into an analog divider, whose output signal represents the direct current fJ = P/Vd• This becomes the current command, which is one of the input signals to the current control. The voltage measurements at both terminals must be corrected by current compensation to a common point so that equal power commands at both terminals result in equal current commands. The current margin signal is still subtracted from the current command of the inverter. Increase and decrease of power command, if made manually, should be executed at the two stations in the order already described for current control.

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