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HiUnDr iH:Ul.1ho.J5 ~h:::l! I hie Fcspotus<iltllc ~iUT :in)" errors, om~S;S~(ID:!I,. Of Itlalitl~-cs .m£irl$ ,oot Qf , Il!!C of Ibus in~(Ji!lnaliml.ni~ ~r!k. is pllIbiu!;;OCd wii:~b '!hc unden;!lIIooil"g that Tatl'l Md}~a"".flil~. nd lis amllilors am' iuppllying ilnf()nfIiI~li(m hill .... nO"l3It~mpthlglorelilde:r e1iIgirnttrlnS or a It: nther prurc:s:;itll'la! ~crvicc.~" If :;,ul::h:s.t~F'>'ice.~12!OC: rcquiiffilk ~1iI~ac'\:sii~mrn.ce of .. I apJI~opriatc H I'.rofe~:sional s!.hj)u~.d csoliIgl"lt 00 Typcs.cl at B:ukprint h1l£i!ia,9-1.&OA,. rGL!lnJ .Nanuk. Pam, buni NIl.!laT::"DIll[hi.I.1 n 092 arid rri:r:l!~>.Ja1 G~!paI.jI~ ~ntC;':rprism •• I9fJlSM.:ain Ru:ad. Mai.!jili:rur.Delhi ! MmSl

Copyriphted

materia'

Pre(ac"€,

List ·olRepje:w'Crs
r;,'{Ufll' lr!aik.1l1.ffwgl'l 1'. Mec.I~ilJ9Isms aDd Mathj'itefi I,] Mcclliaanis:m {I!!]dMachine i l,l. T}'P(l~ (lifCo!:!8<tmlii!ned MOllO]! 1 l ,3 R~gid 3tid Rer.::~$t3[l,tBodh,'ll!: 3
~4
W

;"{vii
"l'vHi

mi,nl;

S; lr,;;hli~lWl:tir Pv,jr ru,:Q types of'Joints

.~

5
6

~,7 [)cg~ees ofF:rccdom 5 ~I8 Gla$\lvllcrutiQ:!'l IOf K!tlem;.l:l'lc Bale>

rug

KiioemMic

Clilaig

].10 1.,h~~kag'C:. Mech,m!srn <lndiS~n.lcn~re 7 1,]1 M()huHI!1 of Mec.nailll,isms 7


! 13 n" 'E'mlf-OOttf"h:lin f8 ] .1.4 ,M.ech~l}i!c<li,Ad'Van~..ge :13 I. t5 Tnm5r1,~~~"i,QiI1 At~g~~ 23 Ii 6: The. S]jdCW::IDU:k f;hain ';Z I ..~, DflUlblb S'HrlCHtfmk Ch.,!n '~()

1.12 §gjaivalcJl1itMecl:m;n]sm5i N

LiS

Miscellaneous Mec:niI~llsru:s Sun:mlonJ 34


E,wn;·jlrfr£

:12

2:., V~lai:ityA.llnlysii~
'I
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38
38 i9

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Vpt"!ON

J8

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A,Mlh'.mIl'ndS'llh~lmr~ion V.,d~)rs of ",4 M)J:lrion oe;ll "uk 4rJ ?::; E'-:lli.t ..Unk M..\(_~hallisLH 41

2,:6 \ie.I.QC~tLI:m;'!ges

4:1'
I..lf

2.7 Anguiar Velooily


., 5)

U:nk:-;
4J

4.;t
54

2.,.8 Velocht of Ruillbing


'10 2,] 1 it !]; z" 1:1

81 ider-crnnk M,cchanlsUl

4'4' CrJllk., ... StQlkld!.Ic:vC:1i' Mechanism 111[1 Algebl:!'lIicM.elhoo:l62


Ins!tall:U1I1l~Ol!~ f:b'liMlit': (I.Centre)

64

Ke;jI.]'l(,'tl.y's flIco;t'~nl

65

Copyrighled materia

2",4

Locali:n'i:!: m",Centres U

66

"2. 'I S, An~ll~t~r~"'e.~{)!L!i~'i,H"d~~O Thenrell,l


2, 1 p CmajnOOc
Ex(!,!riwl"r

68

5~lJImral"'!r 76, :76


,AII~~~~5irn:5

3. ,AcC:!!l:l~rntion

79

I, Apcch:::r:;;l!!lf)!rl

72
i'1!od Olfs;cd Ppints:83
8~,

J.:2

p(mr-~inkM",cb::U!'llsm 81 :303 ACCIllet.ufOi)J oflnlwnodklw

:;4
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S~ide:r-cf'.fJuk Mec.;h;!liliml

ConQI is AOQC~ef;~Uot!)Qffi.p9!l~,~~ 9'f' " 3.(, Cru,l,lik IJiI~d S:!,t;l~~J.:id.-~,e"lncr ~vlla!l!i~IJI,99 M :1. '1 AIl?:eibr.'ll!~I(}Melllm~ 11()
j;;.:

Klein's

Constnl!:crinTH

It ~

3.9

\!i"~l'li)t,.~i lY1indt\(ll:eWewtio]l

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121 122

4. COlltl,pl~h.l~~li'Iihl(~d AI~IlJjI",sh'\ Mel1ll~I!I~I,I:~~I,'S 4,1

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fU

4.2 1li'~ofO]lm!):le'xAlgcbm i 3d 41UH,:; 5,[cc,lm: Method 112 4: ,4 51.dcT-Ci;!n[l;_ M.ooh!i'l!IlIL!'l!u lJ(j


4..:9 Coupl~~r CliJrVil~
,,'ijlm~1Wf~'

/4,0

.141
14~.

fi.wrciyA'S

144
SOl Pole i? R!.i;.~iiyepo~e 14rii

53 :54 55 :5 6

FUI~ctio[! ene:rot:1on by Re];)!thi(l Pole Method G U·iS hwers~:QI1J MClhoo. HI F'unctluo[l Ge:rn.enH~onbv I~nve:rs,ionMdhocl 1.51 Patl) (!i(~rlOml ipu~ lt5 I ).7 .~'1~0'IiQn Ge~.lc!~mion(Rjlgid!~body Gu:udam::e) 158

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5,3

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Pll~~l G@oerMku]

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5.9 CI1Ubrclh:n.!

:Spac:iDlE!, Hi6 Ui9

Copyrighled materia

5.11 Molionuenet!ui.on (Rigid':bOOy Guiliaru'!(i}


SlJU1mary
FOJUttCirrf/i

175

179
l79

6. Lower Pairs
6,'] Pmltosmph 181 6,,2, Strnight';I~l1c Mechll[l]sms 6,] BDlgim.: Indh::!ltoi:8 ,190 1,82

lSI

6,4 AutQm(!:bJ~~ Stcm!:m: OeM,!/j 194 6...5 TYiPGS of StGcring (i,~a:t5 19566 Hooke'\$ Joint 19'8'
61
DOllihle Hooke's loint 21lS'

.smnma~y 206

wtt'rses

107

" C!jIms 7.1 'Types orfCarms 209 7.2:D:p!~$ of F,oH()!w~ 212 73 De'Jini'linns Zl J, Vi FOUOWe'l UisiJ,laeemelltPoog!<lmming ,214 7:5 DerivatjYes; nHc)i]ow:erMo,t.loll 215
7.0 H:iglli·~flecHJaml.:!ii 216

:~1119

7.1 Ululer:clltling:

.216

W "/,9 LEli.!i!'QY,t 'QfCrun Profiles 22'3 1 J 0 Ca'lThS with Spec[ti.~. C'O\!il!tOlll'S 231
7_8 M<t!'iOps gf'l'bt 'EoUOWGJ[

7,11 AmlIysis of.a.RJigidEcoentriic; Caim 241 7..~2 Analysis Gran. E];}S;t1cCam :Syst~m .1.,14 7. '~3 SpriEg Swge, UfibaltIDCe ilnd WlIldUp .246 :l'l4'mmtlfi!.' 247 Exercises 247

~I

K i:ru.l!l of FriCMn

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8:2 laws offiittlQJl 2J1. 83 Cl!)effic:je;])~f'P'rictiU]) 25 I o


84 ~fldtt1JcdPlane
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152
216'

if5::i

8 6 8crn::w!liuel 2:62
8.. Wtldg~ 26-5 7 8 8 Pi'ii''Ots aDd Conan
268

R9 Fric:::tfmlll Clutches EU 8,IU lRo~Ull.gfrictj;on 285

8. ~1 AfJli·frictruoll B@rings 28~ 8,.12 GlIi;l3!5Y :f"tiict~on 286 8.13 (ir.easwFlictton :ata JoumEl~ 28t$

Copyrighted mate-rial

8.14 Frictjpo, Axis .prJ Unk SOl5 'fi ImFdmion }f)l} S..hS Mltche~~lnm~tBeariIig Su'mn~rv If)'2
£liCft:ilcs

287 291

'93

'9. BI.lIL5"R.(JpllS;llJndCh~li~t" 9.1. Bel] and Rope Orili'l1CS 196 9,:2 Op~i!'!~II!ld Crossed':boeltDri'l,'\!$
9.3 Ac;tl~Qnof Belts oI:'lPIl~~!eys 298 9.4 Vd!ocil),' ROIti.o 1.99 29:8

9.5 SUp 299 9.6 Ma:IL1rla'lt'tlr Baits and Ropes 9.7 erow:ullg of:Plllleys 30.1 9.8 Type~of:l?'ull!eys j(j2 9.9 lOlW ofBe~l:in;g 304 9'JO bllgtb ofEldt .lOti 9.11 O'.nc fStc!rl~ed) 'PuHeys l(1IJ
9~13 I?hwl"iii'lli'i!!l'smIHI.'P(~1 H2'

JOt

9', ~2 R(JI!<H)[WCtiOn: 'f@s~pu jJQ

9, ~4 e.elltr:if~gal Eff'eet Oil neh!!; .31j 9. LSi .M",,,,imum Pt~lwc:rTrnm:rlllUed by a HeM 9. ~6 ~'nitiaJ 'ill'OO1il11M'l :31'0 9.17 CrtECl!) 314 9 ~ Chslillc5; l' 5 8 9.19' C~i'I!ii:1 Length, 326 ~l2Q' AI!J?Jd~rSp~~d R!ltk) 327 9:21 f'bssifIj.;:atirm ofCha;ns 1'8 Summan~32f;
Erm·f\le~

316

NO

In~;

in

10.2 W.3

III 'j mnynl!'ute:pm6Ic D:-:etil U5 10.8 ~~Heli1ch<!llse<lb]e Gear::; :148 [09 !)j'ol:'l-sl:tl!wbrd GC3U; i48

10.6 ey<:d'()i~l, fO:lii~el~~th ;~'13 P

~I(UO Ipmb ofCnntactMf) In ~II Are ofOrmtid ~:501

10.12 ~1~lmber,ofPain:

oflce1h in COlllm:t (Contac]RE!Ho),


jU

ill

Copyrighted material

lllll~rfemtl(;e
~In,.~;~

Br;:rNme:n.Racl.z.mdlPiu:iQ!) 1M ·UlJ..6:UIlid!e;n}I.lJtUflig 351 !!..!lJ1 fC(Unparisc!n ,ofCydoioolllllld InvQL1IIJte Tootia ..Fowns


• U&J.lIJ

:u-~Ii.r::an""d- ,~-:',c-;n..... o;;oIl!i} r::~,....' :~C,liC~~ ~ _" .-;Ipn.liN

."'~

,~.t1

J62

1lIl12 T~irn,01ogy
u):.2.0

of H'elical6em

J·64

V~1Qdty RatiQ ooCl Ce'~we-D'jsWte<: ofH~]h:lI~ G~ ill:!~ He[icai Gear Forces and Ef§ci~m::y 365
~0.22 Worm. and Worm. Gear J'69 G~

10.23 Tl!'rrOlnDJOQ of Worm. G~r:s~i,(} lD.2'f! Veloc:i~ It<1:tio' Mel C'm'tl;\"e DiS!;ll;~eofWbcl]t'!

3m

:I..fl.2:S ili(ficien.cy .ofWorm Gears


:w.2fIiBc{\i'c;l Gem: f:x,ereises 11. Gorst Trains 111

371

Summ.ary 374

J j]

3·78

ill Simple Oear'Tmill

uz

17:8'
J81

Compo:uudOtl!M'Tmm 379 ll..l &wooed near Im]n 380 Ll..A P[lllrbetarx or 13i(!]c:rcHeGear l'rn~!:l
L1.j

Awys:is ofEp~cyc]ic, GeMInio 382 l1.6 T('Irqt!~silil) Epk-)'t::lk~T1Ji'a~l1s 3f)tJ ill Sun. dlId Planet GeaJr 394 .llJ! :Be",::eI. B];!llcyplh::G~ 397 l1.9 Com,OtuJd Epicydie Gear' 399 ~.l.·~ A'liUOl:IiL>otive Tnu'lsm,lssi.nfi Gear rmins 0 400

U..ll

Differentials
Sliilnlnarr Exercises

4('}j

-to'!
4()7

1.2:•. ;Slatie 'arne.An~[!i


[2. ~ CO!l!ltmirn
aJlm

A'Pp~ied!Forces
4JO

,.1.10
11

.[2.2[2.3 ~2,.4 l:2S

Static Eguihbrium.

.Equirui!o.riiumofrw(I-aod ~fCJrt~
411

M~mib~" Memb@f With'rwo FO:Rlcsand. a Tor9.1le 412 ~Eqitl~]iOOilJlilllofFouil'-force M,emlbers 41.2


f)PI)VtI1II'jgD

'~2::r
U

.~. '2·6 'f.oru:;e

Fmeo.:body.Di!lgrw!lilS 413 tl.8 S'u,p:mlcs.idon 4J4~2JJ Priodplt'l of\lijnillal Work 4:16


10 FriptiruUn

Mechanisms, 426

.S'umn'wrv431 Exiercisru 4:12 13.

Drnlliue ,Foln:eAoJlll:llS
ill

434

13.1 Di'5~~I:rruooC1.·s[l'rll~ciple

COP"fJlightocl material

4J5 13.4- Dynnmk: AooLysis. of S]Lds:r~(:rMk:Mcc~~ 4B.7 t:t5 Ve~OC'j.trv Accetel"ll.1:ion of SJ Piston 437 amd 13.6 Angu!ar Ve~ocHy and .Angular Acce,letlufon ef Conn.ecting Rod 43'9 IJ,.7 Blliine, FOfccAna!,ys]s 44(} l3.7 Tuming Moment on. Cnmksbl'iift. 441 tl:8 Dynamica!Uy Egu.i\i'i1~tllt: Sys;tc1~ 4'4S 13.9 Ine1!i:ia,oil''tllc GOfl!:lec1t.ing Roo 446 l3.·~ Inertia 'FoFlcein Rec:ip~alm:lg Engineti (Graphical. Meihod) 449 0 13, ~2: L'U 3 13, ru 4 l3. ~S
11.1 1 TlJrn,iflg..;mom,~,~Di<l;grruns 458 Flu(;~WI!tiol]l of Bm:~[gy 46J)

1.3.2, Egtli.wle:n.l Offl'let Inel"il.la Forrce 435 l3.3[}ynwn~c AiIlal)!:sis of F oll1r-[im~: Mcc:h;auism.s

F~ywiheds ./6j D'iroen!jjotls lofFlywhcelR~rns PU!I'!chin,BPre.sses471 SiwrmalJVl 474 Er:ercises 4lA

469

14. BaWllllclng l4.lStalt~c ,B'I.l~<l!n:dl1S 471' 1,4.:2, :DynUlk: ,lBal,~[\dtlg 480


1=1-,3 Imnsfernmce~o[<l! EQf(~ !from Onrl 'elatlil:Lto Another 4fUJ l4A BlIilancingof&w<lral Masses ioDilIcretu praoes 481
1 ....5 Foree BIDJ.lll1nd.~B LinkoiQcS of
d88

]4.6 DI,l!IJ:l!n,o~ngQfReciprocati.ll;gMas~ 490 14.7 Ba:l:f!Jt(;!.ng Loc'Omoth'1e5492 'of ]4.8 Effects of Nrtial. BalaillOLl:I;g ~D Loc~motiv.es 4'92 ,]4.$1 SI!JtOlld;uy B;'!ILucing 496 14.10 Ba'iancing: ofll1line' Ensilt'les: 497 14" ~1 Balanci.tlg ofV~lls,tnes 509 ~4..12 Balm:llc;ing ofW, V-SamE. V-I 2Ellgi~les 513 ~4" 13 B~I;:!ll,clng ,of RPdial. Engines SIJ ~4..14 Balancing; Machines: ,520. ~4.lS: Fi,eldIbJa:nciug J.24

Su.mrrta'f1~ 526
Ue11.'is);!s !ilZ

~s., lb'nkti and.lhl'iIlllimomiek'rs· J


~5.,.llYpel> of Birnll;cs S;;'O 1:5.2 Blm::lt Of SlliumBmke fiO l5.3 Band.Brnkc 536 tS.,,4 Band and Block .Bmke 541 i:5.5 1i'l!I~mid .lExp~g ShooBrnke 5114 l5.6Eff~tof BtM:xng 547 L5,7 'Thp~ O!fD:li'I!!UTlQm~t,cf5 549 ~. 8 P:rony Bnkoe .DYlli<llnameier 3. jjO

536

Copyrighled rnaterla

PREFACE
MccIDIilit!:ls;mt:>iUld!)l;tlchi[l\l;~· b,il.v(; I;:gn~ick;rabl(l f!l5'eitl'<!tiolil fer m.o~l~~,udcilt5 ofn~.e<;:hani.ca.~ ~11:gilil.,",'Cring !~:ll:lce thetheeredeel primcrp.lc:s .i.tlvolved have ~mm~iam8pp~k,ath}fl;Sto pfl!lQtk:I!Ji~. pfJ~I¢nl_s, Thclilmin objective of'Wirilirl:g this bocik .nas. been [0 give: a clear IlmdenHllild.lng afthe ()ol]cepts. IJnde:rtyi.ng ¢n;gi~¢t,.'fiflg M!i]b'liL A sincere t;iff~!1Ih~, been made to mail:!tOl,]1) the ~l1ys;icalpef(~pli.o:lls ~n the VOln.OUS deTllv.. UO:lll§ and tog:i\!le: tb.eshorten cQmprehcrnllLr),i!, :soll.l1tiutlm ~ V!lri~1Y of!prubru(lr!~. The !p~r.unetlM~ keptifl. rI'lind wl:d~e'WtiUllig the book are, tbe ·c(llii\e~g~OfCOtltl'll:ltS!. R~roq~~it~ k!:low!J(',cjgc ,oh'lllldl':_!11o;, ~lJc~:d!ily wrhililg, da.nly of d~iagr<l,s of •. n and ithe variety o.f solvedand enselved Illume-rica] proMems •. The book is. ~~'nt ~o be m~rul ttl 1!hed(!.~·leNcl stl:!dems of ttuoonaIl!cal en,s;inreerlI1S as w'CU as l'tiJose· preparing for AMllEal'!dv~ril,)'lls. ·ollerc(im~th.]ve ejo,i,amiool:ioiflS, ~Q'wever, di,lomii~lev,e~'studems will 1i!lS0

lind. the book ~obe highly t'S¢~l,I],'lie ~k will a]~ km)~f!t "QSJtg~a.dl:lille ~tu~!~!$ 10 some I~xt~nt ~iii. it {3:1~QI conw,ins advanecd topii;~S like; C',u:rvaturc tn.oory. :il1l<1iIYrS]S f rigid and elastie emn S),S:l1!IDS,. cOOiliple)i;. Uimoor o U and v¢c,toftncth~j. ibfC¢ b<l:~~ndllg(lninkll(ge:l. and £iel.dbal.wci[lg~.The; :sar]]iclll features, of the book arc ... Condse and cOilnpact. C(rvcring an 1!I1lS!jor 1op:ics
.. .P.rese!:L1aJtio:tl. om:toeplsin a Iogfeld, inncvaliveand of lucid manner .' E.... olving too bosic thoory from ~impll¢a:nd. N.'~ad]iyiUndGtSlt(lod~rindpl£$ •. A balOllRCOO pre~scuta.ti(m anile gmphical mldllnll]yt!clI~ approm::bc:!l

• CompU1~u progmmsin ~er"fri~iIl(Uy C:"~angt:!ag,e


• .la.vge number ,ofsolved e":aJm!pli~~s

•. Sw:nmary;. ICli.JewquestiolW as wellas a number nfunselved problems. Ollltbc end of cadI ,chapter
•. An apP'C!I1(Hx cQtl~a:~iI'I~l1!g ~hj:l\ct~VC"Jly:pc: qu~ni.ons

... Aoo~,,':f apJ)il'nd!i~.,contain.i~gim!pQ~!'!!t ~ki,) d]v~df,'ldr~dlyi~:t(l b

f~~;~ti(l~S and!l."8I;!LI~

his: expected dllat the studient:>lllsl:ng tnlts book mig!.l h~,\e oo.m:pleted a CQl!I!l'Se in app~i.eclmechaaics, The
two :~~ctilon~>k~m:m:~tics a!l!dd!~~m.ic,~ ofmachines. K~tll:m1tt!t'~.i!f!vo]¥l)is~tii!ldy di.sp~m:e:men~. \'Idocity nn.a! a<.\ec~emliOin(i],f Wll'it,UIS ,~ampoll!ent~. of msehauisms.waeraas d}'lila:m:k..sis tIl.C s~1!l,dyofthe~cffGc~l!lof theapplioo and inertia fbrees, an:a:p~ I, to ~.l 8if¢ d~V{)lOO tOlhesmdly of the kinE1lmrliticS;lf!d rest to ~hal of d!yJl~mics, Chapter 1 mlfQdllc~stlle co:nc~pl$ th~ ot'mecharl~sms and macl'l~rlcs. Cbapf.cnl :ilnd :1 describe goaphica:l une~.hods of '1c]oci~ 3r1d.m~cel.e:mllon !lnal:ys]~ wn.e.eas l!he anal.ylical appIo!ch ]s d]scllssed in Chap,ter 4. Synthesis o.r des.isnins; ofmed]aIiI.isltii.~. i81lUporiarU lobvc the desirable mOliun (If v;iit'f{J~ C{JmjXI:ill,;n~:;: uf miicih~[Iczy- - ~lJi!j: d~tiiil [iiff"l,)C(idurts fu<r th.o both g:r!lphk!l:~ and analylical.,anl gruvcll in Cho;ptcl' 5. V!lri.QI;lS types. Qf mechanisms ·wi.~b higbcr f:l1Iimkr of I.inl<$~wdiscuss:e~ in Chapter 6 ..IFn¢t~o[l lJiI,Y~riQi;,IS ¢9mpQ1f!@~ qf m~~~~t!~~!,~ v~!)"mp(iMilP.t~~. Ii a.ffec,ts th(ll[ ,e:ffic:icncy and is described in 'Cha;p~e .. 8...Cams, be~:i:s,£,e3rs,. gear ~roins are meant to tmns,m~t power ~tl)mom:shafl to anothel: and ere dlSC'tlsscdinch.a.pters 7~'9,.10 and U :respectiv,ely .. Feroesarc IlNli:n.lyof static and dYllllmkna.1JUre., Clull[lilicn 12 and H,me dC:'lil);tcd to dlcir c,lfcc!!:! on the co:m.pomloolts of the mechaaisats. Chapter 13 also rnrlc~ud!es, tile topic of tlYW[lcclswhich are e~Se!l'!Ull] OO.mp.o;lle:nlS for rob.ryrnaC'hitl.es. to r,eguhllc speeds. Speed r,egll!l~,lio!!l is .,,]so· a ffbc~~dby govlcm{}:rs\VJli~h are described. ill! Cihaptll:rUi UnlbLli~m!nced forees and vibI<!t~onsiJn varieas comiPOrll!-liUS.(!rn}ta:~i[lS: tlrl_acbilJes !'lr{l mu~t~iy ufi!d~s]r.J;blJL;:: Si[u;:~lhe e'fficil~n.cy i:$. reduced, A deI:HI~II.e:ds~llIdyof these i;s.l;l~de:rrtak!en [I] li:hap~f'ni 14 and. HI. Brakes are ·e~SCl1t~,iili~. roran~ rllOV~.ll:g components of :milicb.i:nc.ry <lJuc.l·are: disc~~l'!l-d in CbD,.~HJ,!~ 1:5,
fro.lili1l tn.e gl!trll:!l.e:n'iic .poi·nll ;f v~ew to knowtlu: o

.~!,l.

Copyriphted materia'

MOV~!1ig ood~es hk.~aewpllln,e:~. shiplS,. tw·(}- atnd .F()llr-w~ee]ers,. ete., e',:o:pe:riencc gyfflsc(}p:ic~effect v.lI.i~c'tEiking rums.~Jt Is d)cscTl:bed inCh.apter 11. Automa!ti.c OO1I.bIo~ o.fnllu:him::ry i5:vCf)' m.ucih desirnhl.c tt..ese days ,an~ Dnintroo1;!C,trOOlofthl:! same is g]Vlell hl Cllapter 19'. Tbefirst edi.non. of the book aimed.a!tpmvi:aiing tlI.e mruiamcmlitals ~fille sUbject ioa :s:iimpLemBmIet fDr easy ccmprellensiolllJ by studen~s.Simpl.emanu:'flla.~ical methods. wc:!!',e refmed instead of more elegant but p less obvious methodlsso 11:1",1; wilhHmUedlJlaithemati.cal.S:1I:iUs could eMH.y Illldmuuld the. txPQ!>itiotls" those However. tn I'I1I!a:kethc book tnorep!JIi]>OOcful. and O1!:cce:pmble ~o a wider eectlon (l.f~, thc5CCQn.d! editiioll

alr;o OOWiis~~ Qfmelhod$

11:1\i'o~vi.~v~ctor and co:mpJe~.

Jllilmoon;,

l.I:SmIiflypr{l;(~d

b,

i!05l1

mathematical skills, Sl!1Cn methodS frequently lead to (lQ~puter=--aLdedS():lutioD:!io:fl1beprobl.ems. The computer progwarms were re:writmn iJl the, more mer"mendly C l8~guOlge~A Sliullmary each chapH:rwas added at the

who, excel in

eriidanll theoretical q~"rl:ons were ~to

the exerdses. One .appendix cOlltai"'[n:gobjeeti"'"e·.~ype questions

or

wa.saJ~ls(:)i!!lc1l,1d~l,l tb~ p_~vioI;LS ngu!1:'l8 W~f\;'drawn. An

The present edmon iiS aimed at making the book n"lQJ'e 'exhElll.&t~ve. ~y ntI.QIIe woOrIl:ed ~am!Ples as w~n as mlso.l.voo IProbl.ern;s have been added. May n.ew secti.Oml h:tlivebeellil. added in most ofil:h.e chaplicr8 .apart from MwrittriS some pmvfous :s:~dlons.Alnotber appendix contaimllg; impo:rtant: m]~iom: ~oomsidtsha.!I liLso
been added.Effhrt hes been tmd~ to removeajl
SQrts:

of errors and misprintsas faT as possible, In~p~tc (lit

addHioo ora large a:ml,}liI~lt.Qf~reriIlJ~ car,e bas beeD taken to ~ettbe bO(lkremain c\m.cise a:ud compact ..R~~U!: to m,\}.ltcfthc·Iliu:m.~rical pt",bl.~~iUlh¢ end ,of e.a~hchapiter hay,e bce:n. ptQvid:ed at ~e PllibUfib~r"s w·cbsilte of the· book ('Orthe hrnclll of average :and weak sru.d¢fits. Full~]lJtknls. oftlre :Sa!IJt~ are a¥i!iiJJab~{~o,tbe: fac.1lilty o m~mOOrsat th~same ,~~~e. ftlCiUty ceabe ,avail~d!.by I.oggi_ng oo~o bttp;llwww.rnlhl\te.comJmtiMJrom3e .. The

and al:so gacvenlWlly valuable

~.armgrEl!~eml.o all those: teacb.ers: and studeiDltswho po.i:nted out errors and m.lstd:.e.s ofthe previous editions t SlI.wstiiOM, I aciau),wWedge the ciffons onhe editorial staffofl'altil. M.cGmw Hill Education Prh/,uli U!in~tL\ldfor brJngl!l$ 01iJt th~ new ,~dition i~an t~\le~Leru fu.rmat

Hnill!lly, I makie an a:tiectio.tla1e acb.Gwledgememt to m~tC!!vif.e, Neellil, and. my clt!i1drern,.Ra.lmee:t and JasTI:u:et, ftlir rbeir:pati,emce. sOPPOrl:Bind putting up, wi~h 'i~all 00 cheeorlbUy.Bnt for ~be:i!l" aerlfice:, l would not s have been ab~~ ~ooomp;lefu this worki .. the m(ls~sjl6sfy~l:tg way .. For fMtbcrr impw"Vt\~t (If th.c book.readman: Kql!KSted to post thcie Cl;!Immcuts Wid s~ggc:sli.ons 111 ss_;ralia:n@b.otmaj~.CQm.

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.1,.":'." I ,_ I~

AND M,ACHINES

~h nrumlber ofbociies,!3!re0!l5semb!leci [rls:udma waytlhait'the mO'tiolm of ofile ca,uses con:stICOIiml!e,dandpreaiict:aMe: motioill to the oth~rsl ~ts ~niOwn ilII~ a medlar'lri5.m'. A. mecihani5mtJl',[Iili'lSmitt5 aniJ li1Ilodiines a motlorl" A m(l(i1ri!l~ i$ a m!1:dhanll~mor i '<! !comi:!inatJlcli1 of m.ech'lnil~ms \lVhich"a!pa 11, ~'r'()mImpartli:lgl aenfl,ite .mO'tiom, to dle parts, alsotralflsmiill:s end irIIlodines; th~ aiJaili1lbr',~mu~(;h~lnica,l~n,e~gy !lntiOsome Itf!ldi off'd\e$i'red work, Thigl:S~ m,~~D1~1i1 i~~ f!!Jlftidar'!fi!E! ~f! it ~f1;dllg'(lI!!: ,!'! iSI!l'!r !1t~! i~~$, to start Vliitlrn irtJ; 5t~dy. The' sitcud\y.of oil me<r:hanli~lm in'l,!Q~ve:s iiit~~n,a&ysi:5, as WllMa,s 5ynthesi~. ,~Jl(tl'ysis is the studl, of motijolliiO and rorc!ei> c:.orHce:mhi1igd:iffere1ilt: IpaM:-5 of ~iil erxg~iI!lngl m.e;e;hill:ilisml whereali;s~1$!f.M5 invol';!l~5the de;5,ignl ,of its difl'lE!iF'limt pa:rt!;" ~n[l mKtNlli1i~~m~ ",arliou,> the pci'rtll are iliO proporuoned and re~ICi1i:ed :I:~.r!tthe~ filiI()'ti9~ Qf '~;!1~ if!l1lpa~ !"~qll)i,~i,t~ nn~tiiQIl:~ l()1 ~1:iJ~, ,o,ther5 OiIrtd:h~ IPilrts ~fl!!! ble to' '\J'II~iI:~st{:l,ndltl1~Qrl;~:l t f ~Wlpressed l!;lpCii'l theml. lIHlo:i.lire""e~,he study of the t n!la't:ltl!, !lm!!otions of the p'!,I1S does no!~d@p@~:don the:s.trengl!:hand the ~ct!J\~,ll shO!rp@;~ f~h!l!piilll:15, o ~;~ ,Ii! ~l!dIProi:oltin91 @lngi!1~.~!m~ dl~~pl~()~n'ulil1t, ~h@ of pi:5it!orl (j'i@<p@i!'ld) UiJ'Ofl the' I@Wlgths;,O'fthl! ~:on~@ctifl;g rod andl th~ ,cr~Jilk ~Fig, ;!,i1}, it is i,rlid,epe:rnde!1Jtt f t!,.t;:: beOlriiflg::otJre:rlgrth Gf tne parts or whe~her they ere Ol ble ttl fl!!!itihst'lilndl the for!;!;!'!> o 'Or' I:un.fihu:~, f'o~th.e study cf motJ'Cf!l5, U: '5immat;erii!l~ifiii! mil,chln!!! p~1t is f!'1Ol!cihi!' of 1m!:llds~e'~lkaSit: inm !Or wood. Alisic,. c it::~ no,t l'1!E.>.ce'~saryt:o i.lnO'WtiheaJcti.!iOlI :mOlpeamid a,~eO!Qf:!:~e' Ql;olS,~'5ectiQ!!1Qf1:h~ pO!~:"ihli!ls,fortiheitu:d¥"Qfmo'tions o.f' dlitl'ifereililil: arts of a mecihai'ln~m.,~he5t.udy ofroroes iis Inot neces!Sary .a rid! can Ibe nJ~gliliCt€id,,,ihe .!'itooy of mer::::t1anr'~l1f1Is., p rtillli'eforej 'Oinlll bE'!dI;¥~dedlimo the fo.1lownf!iJgdi!idpii lUllS"
Kinematics
~t:"dea1swil:il1 the rellatw-e' mofi,orls of cliiferemr,t parts ,of a mecch.lnlsm wiitl-umt. takiii19 inm cornsidlil'ra~olll tJhe 'Fo;IX1E!S. ~il'Od!J:jc:IWl~t:he'mo.'tions. 'Thus" ~t,s the S'l:~diYi' from [I geonille'l!~ic:poitlit O'f viewi,tio, ~I'iiOW tne dl~\placJe'melft. l
velo(ity ,ililildCi;iC.CEthIU<rtkNlof <Ii part of i!!IlmecllCi.l1i!OltriL

OYflllImics

lIlillh~lr!~tati(; or dYl1larni,t.IDy,rllami.c5 i!Oruril:Iifr>E!lr51l:lbdm'liid1~dI into ,~ii!l'eticsalld s;tlrOitia •. KUllllet~~s is tJ'he boody i!!i iin Innot~C!n where\CI55L:r~rQi de-a1$'With fOtJl;E$ whelll the !body i~ ~;ti3ltiornary.

It: [nvol'!!l@s the .!t.a.!culati,ol'ls of fQli'a's !nm'~nHI~@r::I'upon d,iffeool!'!t P!'Ii'tS oofa m@d'hilliniSI'l1l"lh@ fl:m:i;!$ iEan bE!' the study ortolFces whelllli

1-------

'1.1 MlCHAN1S~

'.~ , ,(\:~MACHlNE

As mentlortcdi. ea:rl!er. 3. combiftlJ[l!tioo, of a tlIllllibe:r ofbod~es (u:suElI:~y ri:gi.d)ilis5elJlbl~d ill such OJ! way ~b!llt the ruotion of'li)llUe ceuses lcollistrairleiJJ a:ndlP~eI!.Uct~ble:mo:tiol1~o ~.b.e,ther'S ~Si, knewnas a ,m;:f:-llfll.lism. Thus. the o functi.om .orO}]m;:c~'!]I]s;m is ~:O' ~r!lit ,w!l!(!, modify a motion.

power bas to be deti.ved ftom ex~~mam sources.

A machine 'is I!I InechanlS:Jill or a. oomllJi[latffiol'l of meehaeisms whi.ch, <I]lm fmm.impartingd!emiilemQt~orls 1;0~llep.i'l'l!Is, also tiall:smits and. mooifics tile availaJble mccha:nical. C'I1e.rgyinto somne .kind. of desired. work .. ~It is nei.1llill:w<l! seuree (If me;r;gy Mf!'! ptQd1l!cew·ofwQ~k ht bellips in proper ut:i]~~at:i(JD oftbesanJ.e, The motive'

As~ide\C-c!l'3ink!!lle:Clru:;lifli$ln (f:ig, ru .2) ~~~vel1s ~])erecipilil)Cat~~gmQt]o!l·ofa.:s]~:dlerinw iliDl3!:'Y:R"!QtruO!1J 'of~he: crnd. or 'Ilioe.:ve:rna.However. wlle,rI it is used as. an flIwwrnobile oogi[!e by addi[!g \Til'll m'¢¢M!:Iism,e~c., ve i.t booom.esa machill!e V;'Ib:icb.O~[!VCim th~ avaiEaMe el1!e~ i(fQree (lill tbepl1>t(m) into dilledesired ene[{W (~Orqll,e of lhecrnlillk~s::hafi). ],be, to:rque: is: used to, m.ove a veb:icle, Rec;~pr{)c:a!ti:rIi;g p!llliITlpS., ooe~proca,l.ilfig compressorS aad ,s!team C:jjJgi[ic~ilIr-e other cltllimpl.cs fis:- U Qfnlac4i:illcs derived from the :sru]d~I""C!;<1!nk mccbamS<lit1J, ScmiiJ.'> ()~hc. ex,8imrpl~,s ·of m.echWl:isms8ire~writll!l's~ c~.C!Ck.s~ wah::l!:J.es~ spr:ingtQY.s~ ~.In ~cbof dl~@, I:he foroe or e:n.elgf prov[ded ~s,Il()~moretha:n. w.lwilisooq~i:red ~O'olifeliCome the ftiictwn oftbe pans ii.m.d i wb:ich

is !!!li]ii1ledjO:i~.lO .@etrhe d~if;t;-d mOliom. ,oftll:~ mechanism

and

mOi~ toob~i:n

·i'![lY!!!Sefud.wnrk.

CrHnpl'C'fel]J' ,co,nsuained nUl't/,PR When th.e metien ibe,tween fiovoelements ofa. pa~r is ina. defuruiile dJir-ectioin trrespeetlve of the directi!on (Iifthe'fOO'ce ap'p~ffied.lit is kIiownru,oom:pl.etely,eODi'lmll[[Iedmotio[l.
Th.e ,eOl:'is!t~a.~i:l;ecl moti,onmay be ~$n:e~r
QHO~ry~:. The. 8~i,ebgpa~.of F~g.].3{~) .. .. If.' / I'" 1.. and tb~ tmmjflg pair of Fig. 13[b) M'e,(h1,1 ex.a:mpIes of1lhe .compl.eidy co.llis~minoo ltlodoJ],. III .sl.idiQg pair,the uII:lerprism can Q:fiI.ly s[~dJ~ ]n~ide hollow prism .. ~e In mse of II ~Ilrni"gpair, the i~er shaft mg., ~,. can hilive (lnly rota!!'y mo:Hon CUCliO corn]OIrs·at the, ends, 1:111 eaehease ~b.e (QiEee haste particular direction for the required RlOt~OI1i.
..••. 1

ry' .

be!lpp~~ed lin.!!.
lLoadl

(ii)

I:"£)fJ'm,lernlllcnnstrai:ru:n

m~IJJ;ar:J'M.e.llJ the l'notiOIA. between two e:le:m.e~.lsof .[lJ. pair is :po~s~bl:C iIJI1OOJe' tM[I (IiI]C di:rectiona[JId depe:mds ll~thEl wl'L'lL';ti,i)ij .(If the fo~ce :ap:rnlied, ~tis Imown as J". i:mw:mpleteiiycons.'~rnined moli.CIIl., FOIl" exalillp~:e. iflh.e l1lmio..g ~!!lIi:r of F~g, 1A dQe$ fl!o!~ have co.l]ars" ~!l.I}e!: shaft may u'Ve 51:10111&or :rotafj' mot fan depending
"" I

"'e:

lipon t!lle dl1r(l!(;riOinof the f~fCe i:m.dependernrl oftbe <Hncr •.

~p:pJied. Eildl, mali/on is

(iii) Success/ully ,C'Ofl.draifl.e,d luotion Wilen. the moHon. b~~ween tWI) ,e[emeotsof a pair ]spo.ss:il:l~ein more Uum one direct:~oll Inn ~s.mad:eto ha.ve motl!c'rJi only in. OR!~ di~ctilior! 'bYU]og ~0l:r!,e ex~emOll~ mean.s,. it ~S.Oli Uiocessfully llOIJiS!lrnined motkull. Fee 8 e:!ulilnple, a sh!ld'l. in It foolS~~p ibearing may ban v~.ftical m"ti:Grnl,aopartfrom. ootm')' m.o1]oll (fig" 1.5). Bl!I:lDe to ~OEldl!lpp~~edOil the" shafl: it is ,cons.trnrul:'ll!:ld tomnve ~n

Foo IStep boeiarirngl

Fi&~;S

Copyrighted mate-ria

KinleDitil,Hc Pairs ,iliccordmgho N,idttre of

COl1itad
,<I

(11:) LQ'werPi1ir A p.a:ir of iunk5 ha'l'~ng surface er area, CQltl.tm:::!: ~Cl,woolJJlhc; members is known as lPal.:, Tn.e eonteet surfaees of the two linksOire sj:mi~"Ir,

~owl(:(r

Bnunplcs
jo.il:lt,. ete,

Nutlll.lffil~i:nJl; on a seuc,w, sh,dl rotating, inl a bearing,

01111.

l:l!li~s,l[Ifasli!dcr~cnuilk. :mIDch~ll!i.s!1il!"lm,iv~~1

eb) .Hi:gl~e;rPair Wllc;1l apeir hasa jfO]I;1( or lill.e ceutaet O~IlJ~Ll!cl:5'>lLI.rfaccs .o:I'tI~e two l~llksare dissi!l1ilrumr:

betwcemll

the iinb,.itis

kn.OWi1lI.

asa bighe. pair. The

Fig. [.,7{b).

mec]m]'!ic.dly. e.g., cam and follo..... pair of ~r

(~) C"Q~?dPair When tllee~cil1lents'Qf II. pril~rare heldlog,e'lhe:, .1JD.elCll!<II[li.cll~mJl', II:]s known as a dosed pa,'k: 11K" t\\!\O d,emrCn!lsaJre g~()I~e:~:I'k:aUyide!'!trucal~o!~e Isoolid aad fu~~ and lhe otb!C'U' hellow O.i O'pcfl.• ls Tbt'l lauer !1!Ol O!l~Y c:!['V!(:I.(l:P'5 lhc: frnrmc!r but ifl!.SO encloses it. The eeneserbetween Ole two can be breken ()11~.y by de,slFlJ(~lio:rlof at least enecf the Ille'mber.'l. /Cam AU the lower pairs and MJ!nl,C onhe I:!~~herpairs m 'ci(l~ed p~~!'s" eam au(:l fD~]ower pair (hig]ue:r A ~Q:ir)shown in Fi.g. L1{a} a:nCla screw pa:ir' (I.ow~, ~i1il:')belong to the dosed. :p:lIirc'ltegOFy. (II) ·Um:.losm'till' Wilell h"!'o ]tnks ofa lpair iU'e in comact ci~l1c:rducto force of gNlVlty o.r ~[)me' ~pci:[J,g .;!Icti.()lli dlCfY 'COI:liS1]tllle anunelosad ~ai:r: ~nl~iis, l~e' UnbOllre no: :held 1;oge~n.e:, fig. 1' ..
j

K(:nse't~~tj,c~a~rs .~[cf'·cor-di~~~. tOINahu:.e OfryRe:li1lH,veMo;tJon~._ -I fb crnmg ~-,IHt ,:. two unss tave <I, :;1id;~l'lg tlMJlion relative ito ~uoh (J~h(:[I'. dlcy . __ ~- - - -_ ...'_ _ [(Inn. III sliding pair,
A .ro~UlI:]glll.ilIr red .in (b)
It

B, .".. _ ...
'j

..... ·.•·.....•..'Bolill · 1·

:rec'Hl[lgn:~flr~ole

in a pfislOis 'ls]i,d!i,rn.gp~ir [Fig,I.:S(!I)l

Trl:J7:ri'Jg PaitWhen one li]11 has a ~u"~iD1~r :rev().iv~ng o mOli!Oi~re:la:t:iveIO l!ae o~lle~~ they 'C0l1S:lilI1H~ a,l!1l1it'Uinger i1ic~~ol.ving pair [Hg. 1.8(bU lu a~]~d'er.-crnlilk:m,Qch<!ini,sm" <;IUpOIi;rs ~1r:iCeptl]ae sl:idermJrld W!I.ide PmJJ![3"eI1Llm~ng palrs, .A circular slimfl :~{Ii,!ollvi.rI,g i.llis!ude ;I, b~ri:ng is <l! tiUmingpaJ]r.

C.' :.,~.-f·..···.·····' ..'.' · ~..'....· .• ... · . '.;;;' '. .

~
.

I.> _,:._..._' ..,


.

Copyr'ghtcd materia

I{.:;) RfJ1ling P~:i',' ~~~. the: li[l~s(lf!'! pair have <\[io.ll:ing illilOHo!il re~a,tiv>l,';w each (lthlN"~ ~;n.ey ft)rm8ifOll~ing pair~ ,e.g., a romOg wheel Oli! a Hal $~ffao~~ 'b,aU :IlJndro,Uer b~~riJl~" ~IC. T!~lllbQ:]]he!lri4lg IiF'illl. ~".8(c)],.t!ne ba:~~ ,and ~lli!esfiafi c!()i~sl,i~rulte' rolling ~l'3i[wilo[lefls theba]] :a:rndlli,e bearing ii~ one lh~~~(jJ:nd mrn~h:u_gai~. p

(tV ScrietV Pa,ir (Helic~dPair) [hwo ~:rm~il:ug li~]:s h::llV!fl:~ nunilllg as wernl,8.S is:l:iClin~ :m,oiliol;] betweerl.li~eun .• ~~ey'Oml,1l SC[CW ~l1ir. 1"iI:I~sis O1iei1i,ievedby cl]Ui:ng m'<1Jb::lnli'llg I:brea.ds on Ih.e two. Ull!lb" TIie lead screW' <lTildl!hcnlil ofO! hdt:ie is a screw :pai:, [Fiig. L8(dn

,tid' $11herlcal RRrt \!liIne:n, one ]l.nk liD the fOrnl. ,of;) spher~
TIll; ba]ltmd sockctjo]tU is a ::.ph,cr:h;:a] piliII' [Fig. ] ,,8('1.';)].

turlrrlS ]rls.ide; ,01: ~lxl~d ]ink.i~is

a :lip\llcncal pair,

Theusual 'Iypesoif jOiflilS in a cha.]!l am • Bil.liSllJ' jo!iltlt


• Tenll!'lry joint
.. 'Qr!!;[I~nl,n)' joilrul

BiU~tIiJJ(}iHt

If t'i<lfO lit1ks:i'I~ j:oi!'fi~1 ~l the same c:O!lUllool,ioJ1.it is cailed a biil~lIryjoi,l~tO:lfc1't;]m:ple:.F:ig, f l$~ ~h.'I)wS u chain with two b~[I<lry j(lll11i:!l [rialt"u~d B.
T~.n:JanJJoi:r~tmilil~1l;.\e ijillts a:reJoiam 1111. !ioorunecti,o:n; i~ iSIDu,()''Im <I!i;[lIlC.mmyjo,]nl. ~t~is,eo[[silidc(t}cl C11J.ui'i.!'iJknt 10 tW(lbi~~ joiil'!t~ since th,jng of <lfl)i (I!1~ link rom:s:ti.hlI.ll!S two bi:llsry ,joil[ls with eaeh orille olili'1.er j(M10 lil!l~s"If! F~g. L9 te:rn!i!!),rink.... areme!1!!ioned ;)b.') T.

Qua tentan}16iut
~llIi'\i!al~~~I~llhree
QIi¢ ,q~1l!~e~,!:ryjgit!t.

Iffol'l!r' links. a,1iejoined

al a c(JI,U1ec:l]on, it is knO:WI:Iia8 .GI. ql!!a~er:naryJolnt. ~t~s,eoasidered

biil'i(,tryjol[US sanee Jixi:illigofal,iY0i:lJe

link ronslil.i)!'~ecs three bir:HliryjoiifiltS. ,Fi\gure ];9 shows


• J' ~!lJ!;l:ry JOl[lts"
]l

',n r

t..··f·!·~~c •.11 "" •• • 11 t geillem ] .' "f 1~I:llllm:~r 10..1.I,ilJi1"fj il~ OOIMCC'I!;i"\!!,at a ~IOHill.!~!S ~qU]¥~!cm . tij ~i!'~I, '

bl

.,

An U[l(jO!!!~tr.li'led rigid bodyltl!l)vin:g ill spiilce crutl d(;i}crll:m: tlilc [ol]l!owillrg i!nd!ependeln.l merlens (f'i:g .. 1. ~0): ~" nm:ls]!lttorn,a~, Ilil:oti():tlS ,1.l.](mg Hny throe l'nl!ltl!1liUy pcrptl!:liQ]f.c:ul~J ..l'!J(l~x,. y atl!d z t 2,. Ro,Hnionn[ ]1lOtiODJISbollJll!~.ese axes 8

Thus,

(I.

rigid body possesses ISb, d)~gf(.'(~ of freed~!1il.n~

(loR!\I!~eti{)l~llrofaJ rn~nk\VUhl~nOlh(l:r h~IP()~ c.eJil!1irwC{JInSl'railflts. on U'l.ei:r relative IM(litUOD. Th.eniunlbc:r'of:resl:mints COIl[ uevcrlbe aere

fjO!!!JIl h~di:~com~~ct'ed)or six (j oint beeomes ~(lIUd)."


D~~gree!1f fre~'om ofa pair is d.e;fincdas ~hc r.IImnber of o i:~.de:pern.den:lrelaldV\e! motions, bo~.b trall1l!ShltiClinal.:mcli [,oi:al;i.olmll, a
[p!i1,i:1"

calli 'h<l.Vle.
DcgrnesQIT trccdo!ttt1
= ,(i

- Nurmibc:r of mlsl:r;a:ints

Copyrighled material

O~pL;l!1di~gl!l]lot!~!hl!lnl]m;berofrestr.ilil:'!tliifl1PO!lW Q:!i ,!he:rcilltlve motion of the two 'Iimb conrn('lctcdtO~~lh~r.; .~. can bed~!liied assiv,~m Viiiii' ~nT~blel Jwhk~h g]\l(lslhe possiMe fOfl11 fir ~cJ~ cla$s,

E'jg.l,.U DUr$~!iJJtfonnll of eaeh ·(,;lffl~h<!ve id~() been ~hQwf;lin ['ig, I ,1[., Rem~m,bcr thl.Ua ,~tliC\l·~flf~.h!tiv'C; mQ(ioT;l between two 1:luks 01' a. peir l:lnIIlISi; be ~:nl~;h:peI1doJlt f th.e otl:!,'C[relativ'C ~101.iOllS th;m:i the pair 'Can have ..A sore,\\\, o <i:li1rl IIIl11IP,].]r pcrm:its, ~ransl.uional <ll.l.dI:OImtioIl~lrnotiioIlS.H:o'\'eV"cr, as the lWO l.llioth:miSC;}[JInClt; be, acoompl,is:h.cd .i!]d~~.Il!;I~;~Uy•.~ ~rew fl!l~ !1(ulp.<i:i~ is il.l'>iJl~m'!9jl:~~ j:)lI~r Qrdlel:ltt~~ ,eilll:Sll. i!I~d !~ql ,of'1he ibli!i!1h. class.

It kinfJIJ7mic C'liair~is::lIl38:SenuMy of'~ink£ ~:(1 w'h:idll~hti~l:!l~iv{lm{Jli(ltt:!s: oftlt~ Hrni~s ~ L pos~ibl~ and fie ~lQ{i,o~ of each [icl~ti 'ffl to tft'Ic'(}I~oeris dlilfinh·t;l [fi.g.1.12 '(al, (til', and (el]. . l'3,!iJh~1.1
-. u.n~bm·of
nl(f~;I'I":lillllil!i
l)i:O:r.lmI

llhl!i1l':iI,~tlJr~1 mllitilJlD

Riubry
mlI!limn
(I

I 2

lsi .Ii>!

I
2,

Spl'tere-p:IIEU\e

(I

2~
I~
]!'!!!

3 3: 3 .J

(I

Spl~.~w·C'ylim!ef Cyl~~der~()i:me Sph,erilC


Sph.ere,.:;;lull,oo. c.if~uiitlcr ~

I ! .J

JmIi

Plism-plarte
Sloned~5I1ilie!r:i()

IV

~1'1

2i'i<1·
~,1'1

.cyli,rudew
CyIQ:!'idi!l\f"oon~i!'~d;)
~ri~,mMje

J.
'2

J
3

2m<)

E"'p:ressh"!.g: tJiJe:n:wnbc!!' of dcgrel1s of t't¢£,dorn ofa l~tt~~e in tCiI1tl$ of'thanumber of links find the number of pakcol1ine~ti.Qm;s ofdU'feren.l types. ~sknownas Mlu~,lb(!r"Y:Jpuhesis")t~grees ,o/freedom ofa m;ochl!n~;snlin l " space elm be: determined a... fO:lJI,l)WS: Lei: N" = tUbl mnnber ,of ~ifL~i!ll ~ ~I.ldh<l.i~ii~m f' "'. of (~~om PI1 .'" lUlmbcr of pslrs ~a:\fing onc degree offreed.om Pl:'"nm.nber of'pairs ~aving two degrees offree.d:Om., and so om 11:1 <I, meehanlsm, ene linkis 'xled.
"

'_.

oo~e~

Therefeae, Nmuber@f movable ~inks"" JV -I Numiber ofde,grees, ef freedom. of (N - I.) movable links= 6(N - l}

freedom

Eaehpair

ha:~'lilg. one dCg%ce of freedom ~,I.nposes .5, restraints

om. ~hemecha:l!lis:m~ reducing Us rlegrees of

Baeh paiir 1:l<lv[ng1WO' degrees of f~o.m meehanism by 4P:l'


'[ibus~

by:5P11•

wi II i:mPJfiC 4- Kosl:rJ.i_tHs, redudng the off~.m

degrec-:.'i of fl'l>ooom ,ofthc

8~mila:rlYI otD~r pairs .hav.i.ng 3~':;andi.5 oo~cs

reduce the degrees qffreedom offhe mc.cihruiisrn. (U)

Tbe above'critC'riol:l is hm:dly ne~cssary w find the dc.sr~es of&ecd.om, as space lllecl:i;l[li.sms:,cs,pe.ciaHy of the moo o!l'cJ!erJl)eno~ pro.u::tkaL Must (lftlilelt1leCh1l!ni,srnsOire tW(l~imensio'fl~d~uch..as a four~nlilikor asHder'" ,ernG.k.mec;han:i''iltl ~n which d]spl!lcernrn('lltispllssible, aM):~g'~V.'Q axes (one resU~a]ntJ' mw rotalHOIl il'ool!l1 OlfIly an.e lids. 'Ow'Oretdrainls) ..Thns.there are ~hree gen.eralrestraiIlits. Thl.:<refQ!:c,. for plane mecha:rJt~s:~os,Ut~ulJowiqg i!'e]a~ion!liE!:}' be l;I~cd tl;lo fiml ~hc d'cgfC'C!5 Qfilh;edofll f TIn.Il'i IS known as GruebJel' .~' rileriml for degrees of freedoml ofp~ane m.echaflJI:5inlS in will]c~ ead~ c ImoviI,Me !.im1_k [l{llfSC~'jI:l~ tlilrcl.l dcgrec~ (lH(~(ld(lm,EOich pakwilho Q!t~ dcg!lXloHoocdQ!tl :iimposc~lwO tliurtlil.cr :rcStrail'lt5

on the mechanisms, lhl,ls

rednces liIu,;degrees of ftceJo][l of the mechanism art the mire, orone rcs1rn]nl each, Sgm';1igth.~ m,('l1tiuu th(: above ~Ia:lion ~::<K~#tbadi."sr:#eritm and a simplifiedrel~lio!'! I[F"" :3 (N-I) - 2P t1 c wl~ic:h ls <1:pplkibl~ to ]ink~g~~with ~ si11!gj]c deg~c: oH~edQm Gilly as O~!W~blef'g c:rjw~O!1!, HO'r.ll~v~r. rna!:!}!, ruUJlh.ors !nilkic: nQd!~st.tnctjolilbetwecin. Ktlii:zMCk':$, critcrif!!1I and HrueblcF'·sclrilerio.tl" ThIM, fQrl.idageg, wh~ BI single dcgree of freedlomQniy, p~- 0 (~.3) M.ost ofllite Ilink:a:&<es eJ.::pec:ledllo ba",e one degree of ~reetl.o~rn are' SOlfl<iJ wi1lii O:tle inplil~ w a:ny of ~IleHnh,

rooll'C~~gits d~ll.F0~Sof ftoodo:lilt.

SimiJ:l3irly.eaehpalr wru~bhY(I @grees

i()f:ITwdO:Ul

a cu.n:-;train¢d motioJ], (If the ottiCiI!8, is Qbtt1llcd, th~l:I,

MP!tlndNare ~o roo whele llJio:dic o:fbi.t1ary litllli:s onm)"

trllirnrncrs, me

n:,lnlt!]OI'l can.'00 s.1:tiSfle:d ollJly ifN rns; even,

Foe possi'bLc M!lk<igcs

Copyriphted materia'

N""iI,

N~6,
N=8.,
'!!Iind
S() 1)1l,

PI-'~ PI =1

P! = [0

NQ ·~~t:;!,lSli ~li,.In~i~:g:pSlir One excess ~l:m~hl:g p<li.r Two e'XCICSS tll:m]ug pairs

Thus. withlNle i!lcre~e i!~ the n:~!IT!ber f :I~r!ks"tile' number of excess ~I!u.f!:ingpaivsglJlf:Son i:nc!"eM~!~g, o GeUing tilereq1ll.im::d n:liI;linbeli ofl~lmi:Ulg pairs flJo~~ d:iJ(;~qu~rcdI number of Mn~lI:Y ~~Illks U(li~possible. is 'TIu.crefa[C, the excess 0.1" tile allilli.itional. pa:irs or jonnts. ean be oblll.incd onty from the I.in~ksb'l:""il~g Il1I:eUl: thool
two j,Qi.!1Lmgpom ts, ie., ternary O\i q~Hucmary H~k.~j' re, e Fot1l! six-link cl:iail1!,solme, or!he possil1l·]e 5 lyp~s ijre WaU:!l~;ix~oor ('":min, inlwh:ic~.l th~ t~M~ ~h!~~s are difl~et[y C'ctliilIiCcled [F!~ UJ(;zI!)] asd :S1ephcl1Win'S six-bar cLm:iI~,. :in ..vliliC:hit.c:r.I:l~ry nl'lks <ll[1eImt d:ic>ecUy 'COfl!"l~e~ed[Fl.g. ] ,1.3(b)l. A!]otiu~r pQS~ibmty ls a~so sihmvn h~1Fig. 1.113(c:),1~1~'e!,fer, ~ffil[iS ,cha:11l lis not <I. s:b:~lillk ~hilLIl bnl J,li fOIJI:'~~.i.rnlk ehain as links 'I, :2 [111(1 3 ~re,.i:UIfad:, one UM. o:~,ly\\lit]D nQ relative mOli.o!l1 ofdDc.se links. Two eX:l!)e,ss!l!!,r!lill,lg p~iili8 reqjl.d!rcd f{)!i<l!!'l eigilt~li~k chain 'c;Jn be ,obtai:n'!cU by 'Ul!SiJl.g (:ilp!lrl from
1

:3:

blil1!<l!1)'

Hl'lh):
(w·o qt~llller.!la:rj

n:m:ilry Hnlks IFi~sl. 114(!I) and (b~] links [Hg,l, rn4(c)~ QIl:L~ qua~e!in<l;1]'arl~dj wo telilli<lry Hmks I[fig: .. 1. 114{d)].. t
(0111['

(c:)

.,
3
.

~l
{ti)

Now,. CO!ls:~delf tl1ekinem;:.th: C1a:}illf'hoWflli'! Ftg, I, 1:5. 11has 8. ]it.lJkg,b!'uo!'l~.y ll!OO'ee termn:y H!lik:s, Jiowe'Vcw. the ~jnb 6, 7'Uld 8 CO!III~li~lLIte acim.l!ble pl!li!" :f>Othirul the
I:Q~II]'fill1l1ilbc11:' ofpaIr,~isag3il1
"" .1

W. TID.e degroe
X

oUreed:m:ll, ,ors!LIcliIi1Iil:~nk:!IscwiU be

F"'" J (S- ]}-2:

to'

Copyrighled material

F ... 3 (N~ J).-2PI= [P2=F, wh~re Fr is the numoorof'

rnedonl~Now.

r¢dllndarlt

de:gooesof
2

as the illiio,\Ie meehanism has a cam PQ:if~ irs degree of freedmn ITIItliSt be found! frmn G:n:u::bmer ~s ,erimrion. 1"101:a] 1~l1mbC'J' liaks ,. 4 of Number of'pairs with 1 degree offrooooliil -,3 'NIumb~f ,l)fpa~1'S 1ii.":ith d(!,~ :2 offroodo,m = :1
P - 3 (N - :1),- 2PI - IP" - F.,

+.
f~g. ].1'1
SOlld'i'Oi',1

Jl

= 1 (4- 0-2>:3-1
"" ]

x.-I

EX!!il:~I",'11,i;'

I.I
I -

.For l~l~ kihc'rlw1ic: tilJ.kages

.!:hQ~1oi ,in Flg. 1. Hi. ,c:alm{ore ~

,Iudi>#owing.:


.'

, '. th(!vcmmbero. biTttIJ,tlil'l1rs (Nh) (lie f1t4rn'uu· OJ ternrlry Ii,,~~ (NJ


111,,. 111~/l.ibet'

til a/her {ql1t:!/Cl'ltfJ'"''


<

f!f.,

.J ,links

{a,) Nb'" 4; Nr'''' 4; Nt} ""0; N;;;; 8; L ~4 P'I = II bycollflLing or P'I= (N+L U F ~3(N-~J-1PI

n·'"
J)

"" 3{H - ~)Of

2: x II] ~ - ]

(NJ .' tit numb r of.l'OtaJlinks (N) '. the l1ml,o(t{" qf ioq~ (l) ., l'h nwn'ber o!jol"f .,m::p~'ir~1PJ' ( IMi"iberr;J ikgr;~'" fJlfn.'t.>(lQm (f') G 5

'. "'.e

1 (a)

g-(2x4+1.)"'~I, The' 1ill'kage' has negative degree of freedom and! thus i~a !!iuperst~'~1!ire,(b)1 Hj;'" 4; N~"'4; fI" '" Q ; N = 8 ; L ;;;;3 P! ;;; ]0 (by counting) or PI = (N + L - J} ee ro F -' N - (2L + n 8 ._ ,(2 x 3 + n- 1 or F =- 3(II)-2P! 3(,8 - I.) -2 x HI '" l i.e., tihe' lilillkage' ha!i a consuained motion \. bell one of the seven rn.av:ing ]i.lliks is driv,ell by an externa] !UltIOC'e. ('c) Nb"" 1; N~""2:; N., "',2; Nr::::J]1
0;

= N-(2L+

.1.~:5;PI-15 .F = - (2L + t) .... _ (:2 H

Thcrefore,lhe ]illbge
E'.rifl·ffJpil· 1.:2' 1 11

Wi;, ,ill

x :;... I.) = 0 strueture,


nl.~d'fCil'm:>IIi·.'g

(0")

SI£lJ il,1

whether the U,;kag .shown

1;<7ig. ~ll~

1.19

CiI'l"e

willi
nm,

dt'grue llf jMf!1/0m:, ·If

HlfNl'/Jcr

0/ Ihlks slwi:l,~{1 ''lOt b~' !,)tlrtedJjiJI more Il'(J~1 l,

m(Jke s..ui'tablechanges. Tile

Co yr ghted materia

{lb) The Umkagel'n,as. .Rd~rn1m.g Ta,ble

~,QIJp.s and .~ dc~ (If r~ecdOln,. the nll.rniber of Hob shC:Ill!I.dbe ~O <CI!llcli the ~1!umber of ji(l~!Jit5 ] 1. Th.rre¢ e"1C¢$S

freedom. With 4

1..2, it

4 loolPs1I1'1dI ru lin](s . ~iffi :2 degrees of

johns conl:!eFormed by
6'~emazylil1kSi or

.:1lema:ry lillks<ll'ldl, !lJjlliaitemaiY Urtk:. Oil 2terna:ry links, a:nd:2 qmlltcmary [iUs"Of :3 Igjlll1lit!ernarylinks~ or a eombinatioa IO~:'l¢mary atn.dqU!lt~milir.y .i]rlks·'wi!h, d()uibl~ j ohnilS. FiS'ure ] .20(b} ishows one of ]~u:possi,'ble
so\~m]Ofl,:$, 1 ((:~

--"'-I>m

~c) There~re4 loops ~d 8 ]~nlb, .F "" .Ar- (2:l.- + ) "'8 ~ (4 x :2 + i) ""~~ His a super.;tmoCl!IJ~. WillI 4 loops, IhJe

Immberof

]iflk!ilrl1llllst

001

(I

to otitaif!

'liJfiL~

F:"IS- }.I)l!J

degli'ee; ef fil'eedoltl. 1\;5 n'LeI:l!~m:b>Cf of ~illiks ~s llO'l to be increased by more l!1'U:'I:~!ome, the number af ~!oop,sbills ~obe decreased. With
~!IJ;Q{]Di!l

Sol~lticm (a) Th~~~.llkag,e ~~ 2:


ji' ~

N - f2:.L

Thus, itisa steueture, Re:feI'f]ngTilble 1.2. for l1! .2"loopmech<l!'!i5m.r~ sh()]J]ld be six to
hi1!lVieone degr~e of ~Weedom. Th~s,. uae :lWlore I i:lillk sh,Qilll]dbe~ lidded to tn;e Hnikllg.e: 10' makie i! a mechami8m, of F == l, Olle of ~lil¢~~ibl~
selutiens ~us ~ee'ltt 5howni~
5

~I) 5, ~ (2. ~

x 2: + ]) -

Hind .5 ]~.nik;'li.
(I

3~oopS;, g liaks an4 :~ 01jo:]ots, iherequWed


lil'lk:!lS.e;CailJl be designoo. Oll!:~ of th~ maoy
501~;!ijjnsj,5 showf'iii:'i Fig:, 1.:20{c).

{d) h has 5 [,oopsand l2links:. Rcrcn'.i:lli.g; T!lMe


l. 2, ~t~as ] degree of m:ed<llUiiI!:Id th.usis a

.Fig,l ..2{},(!l.).
:8:

H'!«jfm;l]lism. {c) The m~ChB!1ismhl'JiS, a. 'C3:1ill pair, therefon:. hs ,degree of freedom mllJs!1 :be fUIJJ:nd t'i'·m:11I
Ci:fiUeMc~js C1'i.tcriOft 'lata] tll:Jmber·of]inlcs ~ 5 N~:mlbe[l' of pairs witllfl.1 degl1ce of f[ieedolJJJ

... 5

N1l!miht.'f ofp!lir.sw~lih. 2 degrees ""I P",3 {N-~) ~ 2PI-P~


nl!lSi~is - -- ---r

OF fl!le~dom

"'3(5 -1),-:2 x.S- ~'" I. 11. lillI¢¢ffiI<illliLisll'l with. '_lTIree<iom ..


DqtCf:1'lJi't.rt

(ltl~ degree

'Qif

.£X(llJ~'plcl.3:

111,(J dtg{f.~. _.

4/ t-l

.~
{el' fig. '1..:20
~

fi~drJm
SiIOW~1

i/~ Fig. 1.2.1.

t¥, lire meclrim"~"iI's_'-

Copyrighted materia

As the cffectruv'e degree effreedrrmis

zeru, il

us alocked sys.tem.

(b)

fig. 1.23 (a) The mecbanlsm has


~ts:degree ·of
OJ.

cam p'.ai~. 1'l1errcfore.

Grn~blef~ c'r.~t~fion. TOI~I f!UJm.[J~ oflinks "" 7


NIIllil11herof pflirswitb

fweedmn HUlst be fOillrrld ['liom (Fig. L23)1

S('!lmion
(0'1.) "nlem~cha!:li~m 1:1~ a sUdjtlg paitThQro fore.

i:w de:g~tltlof foocdom must be foullid frol~ Gmdbkr's ·cri,h:,riOfl. Tom] Rl!!mber ,ofli.nb..,8
Nmlll~l)r
"" .1.,1)

(Fig .. 1.22)

iP~irs 'Widll ,d:egre>e of freoo(lm


all!!

I. degree of fl~cdi)m "'8 N~lnlber (if pa:irs with 2 degrees of freedem "" ] F "'"3· (N - i} - 2f\ -3{7-1}-2xS:-l-1 Thus, il is !I. n'!¢clilamii);flTiIwi(h U!l.e deg[$(l (If

'2

free[it'!I]I., Hmj)' flu:

.r1:ll:iny ul.ri"11UJ lI1cclm··

(A.! ~he, slider, O\n.esi.idinSI,air tumrulJig pa:iirs), F =3 (N-~) - 2P] ~P:, -3l8. ~ I}, -:2 x ·~O ...1 -'0,
TIms, 'it isa me~allli~mwitn

~wo

nisms can be abtalJted from

8·1ilik

k#l,e;iJatic

chailt

of :[n.~dom.

ill sillSme

degJlee

~ci~Q~iif~ l,~F(g;

li2,.,?

F~ilg.l.24

E;~ 1:22
sHd~ wi]~'!om ca:wgbl!~ any mf)VC;I'I1CI'JJ~ rest aftlle mcc;lrn:~i!>I:Il. r: et'l'ect[Ve d~e, Qft~~e.d!l)m. ~ 3 (N- I) - 2f'] - P~-F~ '" 3(4 ~ 2: x 4 - I) - 1 "" 0

I(ib) TBlC:!>YS.tCWill 11as :lrc:d;nl:l'ld3!1i1~ d£groe: freedm:nas the red of jhe meciha:nism. can

or

~!Ji Ul~

Solulion The kincmll.ticch:illi.ll has :8 :~irukshn. a.m. A Ulnkffilt¢ m~(:I:!~!,!l$m Q'liJtili!1~d ](l; Ilyllxing!!lf!;e of the ]i:fiIb to the glJo~UDd each ume allid. reta.ililing '~lIll,yone eut ohlle synmnle~ri,c mcd:'1l1l1Sm!llb:llIS olJt1J][L'6d. tile glv.en i:]['u~maJ~i,(': chain. ~s $.~j;Iun~lrk:8IbolJt :~i:liLk;s:3r 7. TilliS" ~demk.al, if!vernio~s (rrH,lchan~smns.) o are (lbt!lijil1!e~ l:flhe; I itlksl, 1,. 8: or 4" 5,. 6 !Ir-e fixed. ll:llldd:itian., twomll.Jr,ie IUI.1~CJuenleda:ll.isrins ca:l1. be

n-

.. "''' Ul rlg.

obtained from the 8~lim'i_k ~jilern~uk:dii1~i:'iasshewn


] ..;,;. "5 .

CopyJlighled materia

1. snd:ing Paim in Place (JlfTumingPairs


FDgUrc 1.26C~) sbOW!i a f:01!lllr·1irllk medj]:ID~sl~1.. ei: t]ne lel~gl.~ of tltu!: UfllI: 4 be ]Ilicreased Io i:nifimity so tl1M .D L li~~ ~liQ:!i.['Iity+ Nt:nli'.wilh ~il:icwlalio!] of timeIinlk. 2,. C flOlVC a linC2Illoti![1111 [pcIpCUd]Cldaf' to ~~c axis of 1i1le link .:11. Tibc; SS!mc nruolion Qif C {!'_ ~$dltr~i]l_,¢dif the; link 4 is feplaood Iliry' a :sl~dJ~r,. ~rn:dguid¢s are ,rov~d~d fori~s moHD!!! as SIiL,),Wll! ~nFig,. L26(b}. Inll1iis C;l!Se,theaxis 'Q:nhes:IM!~r dees net ~s. thfO~' A and tl:lettte is an. eeeelil!l:lidty. fib'ilJfe ] .26((;) shows .111~idJer..cra:~k meChllI1LS:1f1l wi.lih. no eQOeflll;r.ic:ity; In t~:'~ffiwily. 8! lbiil~Il'ry s

wm

limk i::; ~,ep~2l:oedb~ a slider pair. . Note tllilaJtdl!:li)xl.s of·l~a.e slklfl1l8 pairml).l$t be III Ihe ~;~!lI:1~f d~cl~.nkage or p(lmUei. to' it o S.imilarly, the ~J1.lmin:gpa:ur <1;1: AI can also be repl.accd by <ll sHdin,g: l1!l1irbyplEuvidi[lg . .a s:Hder wi~hgllides. at . .B [Fig.. ~.:2.6<d)].. Incase the exes ·oflh,e two g[[dil'!l~: iP~ifS are i.11I ~[Ile or p1JimUel, the, ~wo slidetslaliOltlS. with the link. :; act ,one as o:n~ Unk whb ~Ji) ~]ailiv~ ~gt[:()!~~mOl~g th~~li~k~. Th,e;ntil>(l ~mT~~g:{:;m~n~ ~t:S to ~~ a: ]~I~k1!l~e, Thl:l!!l, ~!~ (llmer to repblce 'IW!C) l~li!ling ~ai['~il1l.:Si ~~l1ikage sliding ~Irs, '~!i;a)iesof(he slkl~.ilg paits :U1Ui>1 with iil~lefSeet.. ]:IlJ the &lilil,lC' way,. tile' t!1ln1rulJ!g pOl:i[SElil lJ aad C cail:l.bcn::iP,huJedl b, :smf:Cli:nlg pairs !by fixinga s.~i.dlero any of t the two ~~l]ksfom1i[Jg the pair [figs 1.::;M~e)r,md (f)]..Figl1:n: 1.::l:6{g} shows.ooIDh.ohhe lumilC1£ pairs at; Band

C ~p~;aced by s~Jdi:Dlgpairs.

2. Spring, In P'lace of T'Uftting PaJtts


Th~,,~~:i1Q!1 .... ~:P:rW!l!g ish;. .~lt;II!1~~:¢ Qi':i~Q ,!!'iw!1l;:1I! as it b~Qint~~ II:! h;::n~~Oin :t in (lli)mp:~$~ii~t1" A similar Qf G var:ia!t£Qnim ..Iengthl~· ~~p;I~$hed by t1ieltli) inary :lil:lksjoJ.ned by", hlrm:ing pab:. bl Fig. ~.2?'(;l)~ b tMaele:tlg~h A.S varies as 08 lsraeved nwa.y or toward:!> pGlittlt: A.F:igllre ~... 271(b) :show.:> af)·iiunk 1[Ie\:.halll.islnin ·whi.ch lir.lks oil aliLd :5 have been sho~'fil1lreplooed! b:y a s\p(uil:lg.

A~B."".
.

, CiOB
()

(XI
J

2
.

..siXI'
. a
1

Rem.ernbc.!Ji' lbialthe
1:l.l1mlng.poi.;ne.efme, Ihe bJmll:Y lli.ll:ks.

springis uet III rigid 1~f1l:1k is SiGIU~I<!Itil:l,g aetion btu the ~o Mmu)' liuksjo;iI:!I~d lIily a M find the de~e .of f~eedmn of such <I nnecna:n:ism" line SP!.rilllg Im80 W he replaeed by

or

3:.Cam l'ai.:rin .PbH~\I! '}':uming Pair '0:£


A
CaJ!1rupair

l'Das~wo degrees of~teed(Dm. For

li~k!l.ges

'wi~ll OI~;e (ieg:l'ee:of freed)oiRl. a:JlP]iciitlilon of

(ilille:D ]cir's

eqtlOlllOmll yi!e~ds.

F= 3r(.N~ ru)~2Pi~ 11'2 ] ;;;;; 3 - 2P~- ] xl .3N3N-5 p,;;;;; , 2:

Copyrighled matorial

This~ijJow!! t~1N. to have ]mning pakll shm.l.ld be as N""'3.. /11""'-5. 11-7.,

O'Q!I'l c~m, pair

if! a mec:h!l!!l]$m with ·glJie d!ilg:~ offrG~do:m~Lh.et!iiumtler (!If linb ~1Ji~

below: PI ""'2 PI ""5 PI-a:

N '" 9, A comparison ofliis

p~ .1] :a!ooso ""

on,

witl:llinkages hfll.v~~gturni:l'ag pairs,looly (l'il]):lc 1.2,)w.dicates fla~a.cam pair call 00

1'elP,lacedi by one bina:ry link w.i~h ~olll!Jmil1J.gpalirs 31,eacinend, Figlllre:1 ,2:S(<IJ} sih(DIIWS :~ink CD (of <'! fou:r~lil!lk !~eCl!i!:Ii!:1li$l:Ul'w~tl~two t.1l!mi!lgpa[rs at ~u;. ![dl;reiPib.~ e rb¥. a (;~m p~ilf..The CCiIU["CS '[IfCu['1;1:a:I.1i.H;C~S 8'1 the pO~liItof COinU.lc~1 K of tile n,,~(1cm:ms]~c at 1) aDd C.Figures l ..2.B<)b) lIDl1;di{c:) S:h,i)W.t!~link Be wilh~!,Irnimg iP@:iws U!t S!lnd C f(;pill!lccd by a cam psir, The ~!J:l.Jl:lS of Cll!!n'·i!!tllOO ~t tN.c POi:nrul Cmlltllc1X:~ic·1l.1fj' ID'ld C r,espcc~:iv:e]y, Figure L28~d.) Sh(!!WscqllruV$ll,ell!l mL'lehall~$m. for lil. d~$ccam of
witb (,ec~.pr-oc:a~iI:l£. ,curvoo"f:aoe follol!l!i''fil'; The centres of C~lnrOllllire ofthe camEll'ld the follower ,111 the ~lrusmnt

lieatA and Brespectively.

Fi;g.lJ..28

£t~rnple 1',6
~

SKelch

~lI

jew .slr.del""c1'(luJr
del:il'ftd "'/r'f)1.I(': S and fJ~fiYs,ilI:~

mec11aJf~'Jm~
Sl€pilt!lfSM

IJt~r,(;IM~iJM.

SOhdi,o~i figl!.!!'c 1.29(~) shows 11 Slepln.ellSOI'I's tftle~~f:Il.<l:ry links ru'e JiLO,1 d!h'octly com~e~u:d..nlLtE;,. am.y '0:1 the bi~ry IifilJ;::; 3Qr 6 can bereplaeed Iby ~ slider 10 dbi:ai~. JI slider-crank meehenism ot'i shown in Fig. l.C29(b) ;}lnl,(c).
c~l!1in inwhich

t .(C1)'

F:~g~ 1I..~9

Copyrighled material

Thss, dis less l]Ul:~.a,. b and .c~Lc.~it is tllc sl()it1L'l~~link i.~· :is to rotat~ a filn ein::k or :lela., a ct:';l!;d~" a The aoove ~.oeqU!alities ,.:]80 sug.!1}estthat Ol!!ll of a, band e, willtcl:levcir :t!>lbe longest, lk.c sam of tllml wiJh d, lhe ,~I,lOrle""l Unl: wMl be less tlmn. the .s'lIm nf'the :rcln:il!.nin.g two nn:k!;. Thus, dille necessary con':Htiou for the l.i~lk.
a to be

.. the ShOirtC:-;t l,i:ii11kis fixcd,~nd .. (h~ ~ ·QHh.¢!lili!Qfl~')t !!d the lMges~~jl!k~,is less [ban (ITI:~ st!J~ ·(lf~heQ!ll¢.rfWQ li.]'lj:s, ~

a c:run~is

In II. :similarwa.y~ lil C:llil he shown duu if lhe link: (; ls to rulill:e th:rougb a CuU drel;e, Let, i.filis ~o be a CIOlIIiI.K then thecondiuons to be ruo1H:I.O~are ·~ill!csame asabave, Also, it ('.m.~be S:~.ow-nlha~. ~foo~.lillc:limlt$. a mid c Folate ducl!Igh futl C~roliCS,.thelink h9~S'() m:ake.s one Icom~plh~,te,rc'Volll~itm rehlli.ve to
th,e fixleli ]ink d.

TIl ....Jii.lc-cbil~i!i:i!nlm~ o!:Mi.iicd is ktlO'wn t


as Gj'g,~k·t;w.r~kII,n fhj~~hlf!-("T.rIlCk or Figul1e ~.3S showsell
{/1"(J!!i"

cl'-rmk met,;.h{Jni.~nl Qr .''Q.MJ)"/JUolJ'cr~.ru.tCIf/(;:'':


the three 1:lllks .(;1', b :;l!n,d,
crct<'ltinrg through one co.rn~plele ~re\'o,Jl!tloI~I. hI Ul(:<)bove (~gns:idi1::!'~t~.Orl, ·~b~rotilJti(J'"of

tb~I~~ks; ~s.oh."~r\fGtl fil;;1.ativ~millt; fi;li;(..,JI~,nk


d.Nj).w~ oOrlsider the, mu"ic:mm~l of h "c~~ti.'!,',e to cjtbera or e. The compl~b;lr-p.t3tion of b r:cL1!itiv~to ,a. hi poofj~ble if the: ~n:gl.~ LADe caH, be morulh.a:iI i.:8~ iind rclal.ivelD e if the miliE!ile .LDCH more I.han ] 8W ...Frum I.he po~itiii()'nili~~fth.cI.iu~k~in. Fig .. ] J,s(ib) "nil (e). hi&dcl¥ W1,lt ~C~ iUlgJ~s cannot ib~-C'(li!t!~mQ:I'etlli!~ ] 8lWfo! ~Ile iSib"V0 s:iated ,coudiidons. Now~.as. lh~rc~aiti"'!f: mOlion between 1WO :adljacellt Hnks~maimu; ~he same irre-specdve of which li!!!k ii~ 'xed to Ute frame, dHl'erellllrned:la:n.i~l1il:s (kIIROo\!i'1l ir.Jwtl':siort.'l) oOiailled! byfb;:~[Igdif1i~rent liilks ~lf'~l:ds ki~:d OI·S of c,nallil.wiU be as f{)lh),w:!i~

c__....

~;.r.'" ~

, ,
"

.,./'

.,.

•,
~,

'i;

.,

...... .,.,"" ...,--,,... ..... (a)

"

,/ ,

,
,..,
......... .,.
"iJ_ ... ""._

(C)

Copyriphted materia'

1, If ;:lil1!Yf lhe adjacent links of Hnlk d; Le ...a erc is fixed, d can have a r~nre,.(lI~ltio!'l(c,TIlnk) and the o , ·liek opposi.1e to II .osd~~01!N:srrn.~k9. r.1iI.Fig. I.J6(a)j (l i:!l: fI)I;~dj(1 ~~. oGnlil:lkand b o$ci][rJites. wh,eftlas ( lnFig, L36(b), (;'i!l 11)1(>(1, tb~ (~~rik~nd ~)o~illale~, The !n(X;h!lnisU'lis krn,(lwnas cl:{}nk~pf)Cker O~ d~8

~:n¢

critljk~,le~~1'~.1ech(ml'W/j l

(}r

IVWfY·(_J£CU/fJ/lllg (,v'l'~ytNet.

2. [H~o l~n_koppo:siw fhc $hOrleSlli!il_k. i.e., H!1J!k bis fixed and theshnrtes! ~l,[lkd is made a coupler, ~bcto
Q~er ~wo links a aJnfl e wt,Yiilldo&ciU:UlileFig .. 1.36{c)]. Thcmedlllirn!ism. is: known as, a lvcke.N'OCker or [ tIDubhl·nx;'k(.{r or (Jolfbl(~·I(''1ler rnechalr,i,'5m QI' ,osc.illmlllg"():.Yc.illatII1Jj ,(;;(HfWtrllilr, A linkagein whicfu the sum 01'111.: lengths, ohbclongesl and the 8ho.Iilli!~t ~~n;_ksis tha_l:IliI1e less sum oh[u:' .1.eIiI~,tIl5ofth.e otln:tt two ~lnkl!j is k.-now~, as ,8 class-i, fmu·:b;.n limb;gc:, Wht:n tile' sum he: lenglhs {If (~~~.[jrgeslat.'ldthe s~ort~dl~l:'Ik!!;i~morelna:n [he sliIm of theleng)tlls ofthe <:l1he:r te\\!'o lirlks, the ~~i!llk11ge~s 'k1]<ol\!;'l! as II cl(i~:i.J1, four-:oor linkag.e". ~n such II. ]~uknse, flx!~ug of:nny of'the links alwuysn:SlUll'S ina roc£ef"roc'Ker meehanisar, Jlo niberwerds, the mcchailil:~SlIll a:llditsill[lYc,rsioms gi:l;'C lb,\,': S<lIUC- type of motion (ora. dmlblf.N:oc/u;Jl"ffi(ICh<ll!1!l"tn}. The abo,ve QbSG:ntathm5 ~re summarised i:nGrtl~Jwfs .111W w:hi.cih:slates that ,{I jtxn.r-;.btw met,hunism ha"rm

on

l(ja,~~t on« m\~'O.lVi.itg link if.the ,!,uJiI1 qftbe /:lmglhso/lhe

.largest and the .Jhorl:es/ links


~,~

is: li'J.s,~.tlmn tlte sum ,0/


~i.I;""_~

lengilts tJji:ile oIhitr ,two links:.


·F'I.,,;1i."'r ,,;~,I,'!Iot
'II .~,

;1·f',~1:. ··t,·'f""·"·" ..I';·.. J· ·~IJ·._ ;IT'!i"!i;U~. ~''''.'''!r.-~~'I-'!,~_,_ ..· III, 111:1,11,.,' 1:'Ji!'~'! ,~I_.:!,~; p.:!,p.A, i<'J.~;'.w'~ 1~[I"!r'

""";."[1 ""; I-I e......


"..,
~::J_

I!:-!:.:'! ''i-'!!'

~~ "

d'l''!"._"""V_,,,,," ... ·"""'-'IJ~!'!;.m--_~~~, .. ii~'I1-' ;;n- .•• ,L. ;C~LI -I"I.. ~"." ',1..1.> .. 1', eeha '''''!! III ~ .'~ll
._ ",'p. ~~>.I ~Q( .JI LI-. .

.~"lih". .... 'Kd;J'H""~.JI'"

·,

the ~J/,{.Wt:~$t lln1.;i~f~{f.d.lh~~l:Iah'!win act as dotlb~e"rocb!er mechenism ~nwh~,ch Hniks IldjaceJ],tID th.c nKed, ltnk will oscillate, 'If ttl.\: .liltk (uiJacc'm 1'0 Ihe.shor:lestii.nk isjimri, ~lliIe, .haiE, will act as; croJlIk':I:t'lCk!er mechanism ~l'Iwb~e:b the sholi1est limk ,,,fiU ;I'l.~¥o~ve c
(JPP()s.l!C /0

~o the fi~,cdl.ink: will have cvmp]ctl\l r'OYQ!ili1:!om;. lftlilc, link

and~~e ~iilnk;a~ljacem to lhe fixed Ii~kwill osocii]I!.!l!te. . ~f~he~uml ,oJ I.h,eh';:lilSJ.b~of 'IJbe largc~lllrld ~I:le stmfl.6-d. ~hl!kS rns: Isqual, to ~hc; sum of the lC'ng~bs of the otffilGlf two Jlj]k~, i.e., wh~1)J(lqll~]mClS C)d:!>l, tlle~~tlriO\i·cn;,~(lns..in gen.cml. fl(:5lJU .in mcc:h:rn:i~mtS simU:lJ ~(lth(JS() ~ giveIiJ Iby G.-ashof·s Il,'I!w, 1;.\:lI,l~.llt $()!nu;timC:$ thel .Ii.nksmaybe.~mne· cdml'lt;'!;!I'"Hfld may ~m'ii'lllto be. guided in th"t U~eproper direc:li(!!l, USI!J.llIHy, the purpt¥.'e is served by d~.e~ntln:ia of ~nc links, A f\fw ~"Ci('ll C'acs~ m!l.y~rise '''''henle(lUall~,Hesexist For cX;lIm;ple, parulle:/~(;$"(lnkJb~lr~barliJIiw,ge and de/wid Ullk!lse., . PllralteJ-Cra.uk Four-Btl,. Linkage If in a, fi:lur.4)ar~,~j:1blg'e. ItW.O{}ppo5ite l]n:ks are par<'llUel and. eq_ual .inl.e:ng~h, then

an.y of the links can Defilade flL~ed.,Th!2


~dj.ll'¢llt to the fixed link wUi alwa.ysa<:t as two cranks, Th.e fou:r links for.m "lpi:lraUelogrl1lm in all. tine iP()slition~ oJ th('l{~Ii.m:ks, pfiovided U:MJU<l!l1IicsllGtulte in the same se~ as shown in Fig. l,,3? The use of !i1!~.dill1!mechalli~m ~s,miilde ill the eoupled wheelis, ofa ~jocoDl.ollvein whkh (he rolrnry motion of (l!M,~w~r.'Q:1 ('r!iI]i'lSmiRed Illi Ih~ oth~r wh~et Fffrkjn~H'!~t1c' ~nalys~8.1~:nk: is ~r('at~d!:I~ ~xed and the !!'el:atille fR d m~}~:ionsofthc o!lilc;r Ilu!;:s [llie feund, Howei~'c:r:, ln fael, d.iilas, a {rnrl.iSl.a~orym.otlon [!ar u I~lc~1 t]le mils. to
h-volinb

DeUord' .[,inkilge In. a deltetd H:l1k.:lige{Fig. 1.38}, the ib"qtla] Jinks a~ ad~a,mmt ~IGI'each oth.er.\lVhen of the $llt'Ji'ter l~li'ih> ~sH~edJ~ d01;lbl~cr~t"ik: mechanism is obtOl~ni:d lii!""'hid"! one ~f:e\rohuion of I:ihc longer link IEOlH~S two [(r.,.~oJuHo.l1t$ o.flh,'Cother shorter [ink. A~ ,shown in fig, 1.38 (~), when (he link ,cmt:ates through halfa rnvol1lJ.t~anOlnd assumes the pesitlon DC'. th.e link. ,(I' has cempleteda full revolutlen,
<li:ll;Y

Copyr·ghtcd

rneleria'

-;

~ "~ -..
'~

to}
If'-

Fjg_.1l.38"

Ex.anrp."e .1.8

@
,

Fi:nd~(ill th~fnj;'C.t'$.ion .of the cliaJn gi~~~ in.Fig 1.39:

:)'hor!~'$tIb1k ji;n;:~/,i~,. h(lo ~h~ ~iJllk\lJhh J '~!J! w


l.engl!l. ls fixed. the e.hai.n, will act iii; dm~ble"clanl\: mechaaism in wbic;hli~ks with ~Iengl.hs:·of t2nliliti1il and 8- m.n1\'1fHI have compl!ele rel>IOIUllions., Link O{Jpo;fite to tile .ShO,I'/itwt lhlkjixed, i.e., when the .ltnk with I.O"mm .I.cn:gth is !ill:ll.ocl,.the, clla~n wi II act as J~;ll1bl{l.m(!'J.ccrm(.'CJlinanis.Ulin. whlchlinks w'.'tln. I~englh:!> 1.2 nun and R nun wiill ow.Hate, of Link affj"~delU It;} the' .s'lwrtestliflkjl:.{'l~d..i.e., whe,liI all)!' (if ~h(j ~i[d;,s1idjIIC~[it~.o ll!u~S!hoi:t(':~t ni:1Jk, i,e, Illi.!:IJk\\o'li.tha ~cngth of ~2"'mm. or 8mnn is fi:ll;cd, the cimin W~U;;!ct Y1> crnrl'k~rooJ::er TI:)!ilc~ani~m in wl:l:ic:~

"

12:mm

~h~$lhon¢~~ litlkof3-m!nlt.'f!gth
~jl1:k.w~lhIO.,mmtt'Jilgtll

win revol.voe:·~!1d the:

win o.~o~,~la.l.e,.
.L.f.(}J.holj;'JI~·

Emmple:1.9
,
.

f'i,gmv

!IJur-lr,-ik

Itled/onis.mCj

some ir~

&.!/r:~n4m . (-Ill) .length of the IOlng)::!>1~iuk [

2: Ullin Lc.tig.tb oftbe;~hQ!"I.¢St link= :3 ro..:.m. Length of other Jinks "'" I (i mm and 8r1'lM1 Since t2"'" 3 <: 10 + 8•.i:~ belongs w the-class~mecht!f1ism ~~.d acoord~:!lg to <ir,",sh,uif's
g~,

~.

~
.

of ,ea'ell 'mi:cliani5m li"h;t~hli:r~ct(mk·rocker a,' dmJ;hl(."cnm1c Qtdl)l~bl-eN'r)iYIilt-l:

wlJic.l1. ,tbe figu~ indiL'Ut-e .dw drml!"$;qn~.int#atuhrii tmit,;; rif lengtb. iruli,outti (!!.;! ,(YTN

~~W, lbfec

diislili1c:l i!J!",e~~,i)~s aroptJ~5ibl1.c,

Copyriphted materia'

D
(b) 9
(e)

length of other links '" :8 i1nd7 S:ince m 0 .;. 4 .;;:S + 7; it belongs to the class-I 'mechanism- hI this case as. the ~:ink a~jaoellil toO the shertest 'I'ink is iii xi€idl" :i~ a t~ril:I1_kis roc:ker ulcc:h •mism .
.Fi'gI,Wr!
~,

J,41 slrmv~~~

fJill~i'C,

1I,lec/~~nLtUJ' btlll'hlch r'hefig~II'f!s iruJi,,,o(e tkl;: dilJll!!nMi)!ls in

.~iUlrcl(1;J "nits of length. Ttl> slider C is the dri~-r: HrlU tht: li~lkAG ml2Oll';e o/",oscillo'{e'
D

a:
(dJ

Solutio'1
'(3.) Leng:lill ,o:fthe:I()!i'!g~;~a Hid;: .... 9

Lc;;ngth Q.fthe: :shol!l!l!'st li:llk - !5 LCI1Stll O1hel:' ~inl;,s, ~ ., a,l!Id ,6 Since 9 + 5 :;.'7' 1- 6, i,l:does 11.01 elooglo the b class-I meehaaism, Tberefore it is a. deoble .. roclCfmech.arlili~m. (b) Lc::ng1hoflhc ll)!i:~5t :Hnk = 9' Lernlgfb ofthc shortest link = 4 :Lcrru,~O!J 'Of.QLh~f linh = '1 and 1

or

$(d~i'i~n TIiem,oc'lit:ll[li sm ~3l'l tbrnL'!sub·chai,tls:, (i) ABC, ill slider-eraek chain I(i]) ABDE,,<I four~b<lr chain (iii) AEFG. a. four-bar dla:im, DEF is, a.Jecked chain. as it has o:lliWy three

links.

• As Ole lengah
nlld
..

BC is more thalil the Ilength !fB plU:5We off:sc'l 'of 2: units, A B acts as a erank

Since, 9

<: '7

+ 7 .i~ belofll,gSto the: td8!5S·1

meclllll.11l:isln,. :In. this ease as the slno,J1jesi Unk is ti[xe~, it is a double-c:rank meclh:l:l!lis:m. ,(c) Length (lfth:~ l(!ng,est li:VJIl:= HJ Length of the shortest link= ;5 Length of other links;;;; 9 iind 7 Since W + .5 -c 9 + '; it b~~i)n,g~ the elass-I to u'lechaoism. ~~ this ease as.he Unk opposite
1.0 Ihe shortest Un'&; is

can revolve ,Elbout A. ]0. the cl1uill A lIDE, lC,I'Q,glb Qfllbc ~g!~gc.s~ ",g lil1k
lelillgll1 'of 1:1~.elm:t'liest li!ilk - 4 S

can

le~glh 'of,l;)l,ber lit!i<~ = 8;'lim1l6 Since 8 + 4 -c IS + 6, it belongs to the elass-l mechanism, In thi: easeas (he sl1iOlleSI. link. is fixed, it is a dOllblc!"cnmk mechaaism amd (hills An lI:nd ED'
fc-!''()Ivc;
;r;

rul'ly.

fixed, it is

doeble-

[!"Ocker mechanism, ~d) L~Jlglhl ,of the: :~onge:s.t ii:1ll1k -I (I


Length n r the shortest Iii milk"" 4

In theebain ilBFG, 'Lengll~ ofthe'I()!ngesl iirik ""S Length of1he' shortest Hnk = 4, Length of other ]ink!i·"" 6 and 6

Copyrghlod

material

S~!'!ic~8

W :mecha~lil'i!IV~l. s ~he A
re... h!!:~ ~ flully.

+ 4 ~ 6 + 6" il ~~lo:nS~,IQ~!heda:ssr .~h(l!il~t I:inkis nx:~d, i! is, .if!


.ItP and A:G ean

ool!l.rDle'"cli,ail~kIitH;·d~al:l:i:'im a:li1d thns

M D'EP is a !,a",k~ chain wiUl 1i11;veel.i.dks,.til1c ~l!1!k€F tevQ!~ with (he re'!{ol\i:ing, of ,ED.W~tb the revelv iog of: .eo" AG also ~~vlJlvc:::,.

1.1.4:

n.e lrU!cl!ani'caJ
(011CC O[I()~lI~

.(1.dwntt:l;ge

{MAJ' of ameehaaism
'Th11!.!S

is :th,e mti;o oflilite oll.Upurl fo:oce ot 1orqu,!t3~() fhe input

ail allyiflslu:l,

for ·tM Hf;lk::JJ,g~

orF~S. ]1,42,:if fr.h:::tnol) !Iml~flIerii~, fo:r,ees E1ire ignoTJ,eCl al'ld the inpUilliOirquc T~is ,;,]ppHed ~o dnll~nk :2 to dit.ivc, the 'OUillilut ~ililik 4 with a :oo5istim.g torq,l!!C 7:4
{itellJ

Power ~nl]nl!t- PtIW~T OUfput

12 al2 .""- 1'4 w~


Oil'

MA""

r4,,,,,'~,
1'2,
~'l

lhU(i. iIi::; the rocirwro~al~f Ill{: vel~l:ilyri:ltio, [!1 case of c;liilld,·rockeli 1I11!cchm1i.sms" tll!.': 'VekH:ily ,WiI of the: outpull link .DC' (roekcr) b!!lCGIl1iCS, zero .n ~hc c'x,tl1emc pmdUol1:S (AS'C'D 'lI'Id .lUt' C'D). i.e. .when the i:n;pllIt .Iink .ABis ~[1 1~l'Ie: ith the [o~lple~ and the i!l!1~gle 1 w .BC between ~l1en]iseitlIDer ~[1(1 or! 800,. it m a kes the rueehanical <!!divOI!l]wg'e~ei:![fi[lilJe at such iPosi11omL O~dr to
~1'I'!~11 inpu:1 ~Q[~CJ~ as togg/f! POSilio'Jl:!l.
;:I.

C'~1'li '(l~~rcQme

al:J!F£,,~Q'~:I[Jutorque load. The ,L';:xtoom~[lQsitil)f.!s aftll~ li[lk1lg~ il~ 11:110,,""'1'1 t

1.15 ~N:SM.SiSI,ON ANGI;]E


'Ike a]lwe p. 'behveell lil1e output Un!!: a:IKl thecotlp~,er 'is known as Ir(J'n:smiss{(m angl~, III P'ig, ~,,43, ~r the ]t!1!k .1fB i~ ~h~ i!]!.lf~:t ]~t\k, th~ fOf~(: ;llppli!~dI.I.o thI!:Q~lpru'l tirfilk DCi~ tru~~rllitt~d d~roll!Ilhlilia.e OO~lp;]C~ jjC. fo:r !l :parlic:lJhu'~IIJ,e of for~e i~ ~h:t': ootitplc:r rod. ~~letorqu.~,r8:!~Sml;LL'Cd w li~¢ Oll!tput link l(ab{)ut.l~e~oint t D) is l:llax~,:ruU~l whlen, tlre tirlli[lSnllS·sio:nl 'ElI~glepis 901;). [:fI~llks .BCEll1id DC beeome eoineident, tl:w: t'I'UI.ISI,PlfJ.'sion o'IJgle hi,zero aDd the med:umls:JIl would leek or j<ll'll,[f p.deviates C s;i~il~:iI!ldy rtoJl]90~, ttu~~Ovql]~1 'Orl~l!I£(lil~Plll link decreases, SOInelimes,. h Il:IiEiy not be sufflelentto ov:er,coJ:lle the frklio\lIl. in ,11 is IJs1!Ullly ikciPt :more il.ha[l·45c,. The best mechllni.s~u8, therefo['c-,.
ntJ,'!,.'(!; ;'Ii

tile' sy.stellll

iIltldfhe

'me(lhm~i:sm n~f1y belfH:l:ed or J:a1\1rned:. F-]C:L1iC!i.'l

trn!'!~][!issiQ~ :lr.!~~1'l tl1"lt dioes mot devi:d¢ITU1<c:h from 90~. App~yi]lg roo~~~~lawtotri:;l~glesAB.D 3J~d, BCD (Fig,. I..4J), - . "j! -hi" _.2ad cos ()-12(~) a~ld 11;'+ Cl-2hCCQsp.
Foo:nn (D) end (H). "" .~~ (~~)

-.-.'~
'.

r + Jl: -

(II:

2ad' coo () -li2 + c~ - 'lac OiJ,s jJ ciJ + rP - fJ -.r?- 2£'((I,eo1> 1"'+ .2.bc cos]J "" II)

Co

y(gllt

d rna'oria

70

Si~.iCe 7 0 + 20< 70 7- 50, ~tbc~;oili:g.~ to lll.e c,I;l,(:1$"'~ :m,cdimli1;!sm, 11:11 fh;isca~ @£ ~hc: Hnk ~dj!1ig{lnt to, dlQ shorteSl lillkis ilrxed. it: Is a c;rnnlk",rockc:r mechllili~m." Max:imum transmissiou OlliIglc is wbe~, tal is 1800J
1

10

I[Fig. l.,.50(a)1 Th~s (~ 4- dj~= b~{- (J - 2b~ (01),5 J1 (20 *' 10)~,,,, ol T "7t'1" - :1 ;:.;::5.0>< 10 CO!!, 11 s
:B I00 "" 1500 ,. 49f)l) ~ 7000 eos }t I),,'~
:=; -

,10S j.i

J1 ."" 9'5,,7" Mi~~mtlm lmllismissi(ln!l[l!l~c [Fig. ~.S,ofb)l,

I:s when I!J is 10"


CQ~ .~.

Thlt'l 00 - 2;{I),2 '" 5(P '*' "702 - 2>< 50 X~70


2500 '" 2500+4900 -7000 ees Jl
'008

,A C

l1

p, ;;;;.,.7 0

#",45",6(1 ThG two to,~~(l po~it~")nsa!:'Je fibowni[,! Fig!! ] .3!Xc)


~UJd(dJ Tl'8ns;mis.~~QllallgJle for fi.rstpositII.OIl,. lP"" (b-, (~)::l+ eil-2(b - a)e emit
j~ "" 30::l ~ 7@' - 2 x 3;(]1x 7.0 COl> p: ,4'900 '"' 900 .;. 4900 - 4200 Q"-l~,ft ,~os;J1 = CL214 p= j7.6~ i\!SC and d <1fC of equa] lcugtb rF':~g, L$O(c)]:, ilt. lsan lSQ~tes {[i;;lingle ,an (I. th:us i:n:P'iL!lt angh: () "'" (77'JjD + nO"') '" 2,57,:t)O ,'ransnwlss:iOf! ,:iI!]glle for ~o!ld ~HiQnF~g~ 1..50(d}" ,ifl= {b -} a)?' + t? .. 2tb 4- a)C'CQS ji, 702 ee 70F +. 702 ~- 2 :.K 70 X 70 ICOS, # 4900 ""41900 .,·4900 - 91800 (',asp

c
b.

'CnS}l

ee

0.:5

jJ "" 60~
t 'iI' as all ~o_ ,L <!._ ,"11-, Sl(_~, 0 , ~Ic-_ trin..-n:~e _.(_ . r I:G,. ~ "0(';1). e -- '1-!8 cr- I, le L ';, '-I 'l:f''!<-,-. -"""'' ' ,'.1' nrc of ¢~:r~lle!~glh.itisan t,':(jj~:ihucm] u;i~tl:gleand thus trllinsm,issliollJ angle' is eq;liml ~o 60!i)j And the' illll[)1I!t <l.lJIglc, 60;;] ~bI]W;f¢.I;~~IS cat! also 00 o:1Jmined grap'h'll1aUy by drnw[u,g d~.e figure:; to !iiCu~C ,Ill"ld :Inensl!I!rin![!; tIl!:!' angles,

S~Jtu thr,!l

In thi8mcdl:8lfli~sm,; of dU'llongcSJl li~" == 70 mm lc;n,!!lfbofthe shortest link= 20 aIDI Le:ngJI'hof ,~th~ links ''"''fOand 50 mH1
lc\!l~ijJ

• 'n~

e",

Copyr'ghted

rneleria'

dQ'~fbleslidef'-c,.(",rjkchr)if~ (S'Oc, ].17). fta,fllhf.:f" i!~ :;1ide:r-cn:!J1l!k clw,hi. ~h~ sU';lighl nn,e plItltQf the sl ider'm~y ~ bepasS]llg l~rol,:lghlhe fix'(:di pivot.o or nlilY be displaoe~llhcC]i:st<lnce e belweeDlhc ~,~OOIJiivot 0 ~imdrhe straig]ll~.Ii[le~(h ofth~ sUder 1:5 called tll.eoffit!il' andthe c~ain so fomloo,an oifiel sl'itkr-crunk cli'ailP" D:i:ff:eroelJltmeehaalssas obtained! by fixf:l'I,g d[ifer-eni! links or a kmm::m!i!tkl ehal .. :OI!re nown as ~II:S .rmlersiotl:S. k A slid~-(:~Jn~ clwii:!1 th~ fi)UoNvil'!g.il"l'>l'~P}.iom:.~ has

Wh.'f.':1lJ oftlu: rurning pa:uf.s of afolLar-bar d~8J~I1IIs: !1)iIU~ replaced bya $Udh~g pair, itb~co:m¢,s'J ..~ii1gif! sliidet,~C',.ank chain or.!ilwpl.y a $lider~cro,'I1kchairi. his alsopossibh: toreplace two sndilllgrmi1rs aLiI, fOUl:rJbi:1r ch;ai:I~~iQ get a

.FirstJnversien
Thisinv~n;ililllJ is obtainedwhan liak ~is fixed nnd limlks: :2 <Jind4 are madethe 'CI::E1nk: aJfHi rhe !SUde;rres~eti:~ly [Fi~. :1.51 (<11')]1. Apljlicm.iOj~:S

]" Re:ci]'lili1)c~titl,g el'lg,ine fijg;. l~ 2.. R..x:il'lroc~!tiug !l;;oa.npressQiIi As :sbowl1JJ:iu Fig, t5.1. {b). if H is a !l'ecipoocmin:g c1iljgtlnc, 4 (pis~m~)! ~s:the diriver andlif
I

iI is; II C{l'InprCSSOf,

:2 (crami:)is the driv,er,

Second. Inversion.
F:ixiil.~Sof the, l~iillik:2 of ... slid~;:!iI'-WDk chain
rc~mlls tit'l. jhe second hn:VC'J'Si,on".
The5lider~cr~lIk medl<!!1is:;,m o,fFfg, ~ .~ .•5 (a) cml! a]so be drown as shown! il!1Hg, ~] 52;(~). FI:III'ti[.er, when~lS link :2 is, fixed in!>tem:l. of l[1.C: ink I, lhe Hlllk .3 along,w~th the: slider .Elt l

its elllicf13 become-s a crank, This makes the Hnt ~ to rota,teab~M'~ 0' alOitls:woith the slide" wbic1~ a]s.o,reei~ro~ates Oil it [Fig" ~52(b)].
App,lict:lJio,~s :~" W]latwofIJ,l q~~,itk,~l1el:!ilJn :rnil~dlm~lism

2.

Ro!a'!), engiae ,I

M~i,hQQf',tllQ~.ick~Rel:rmJ M~c1'!11'~;,~m [tis

me~hll,nisllm used

i~l WO.rk5:~IOlli'S~Cll,;m

met~~s" The forward

i>trukc ~ril~CS Htlt~!~lon!gcl' and cul:5 ~hl,;ml?~1wh~rc~ d!e t'cl:!.1m~trokc b idle ~mdtuikC8.~ ~hQf!.~rpcJ.im~, a S]ld!er~·retarcs ]11 :adioolo aiOO!ln A and s~.id!C:s on~~'ao U",k.1 [F]S. l.S2{c)]. C]$ 3. point on the lil:lkl extended b~Cil(:W!l!!,i~~ urM.we the ]~nk 5 is pi'ii.1ooocl. neollm~t e'-.!ld Uu,,", of Hnk 5 is pi'i.((lt,~d to the ~O(l!, the fOf'!,~td ~1roke of which C'~l~& ~m;IUitThe ilXi~ ,ofmoli()~l (Inl~!(: I~de~ 6,Ooof) Pfl&Sf:~l.hlrough 0 am~ 'is pel'Jl'e!~d.ic:I)j.13ruJ .oA. th~ ~ the u)ClccI link The crnrmk :3 ICOl<l!l.ICS .im.da.e eeumet-eleckwise di:rrccti.on. [niliZlUy, lClt 1hc;s~lde:r4 be at B~ so!hat C be al C. Cutltru!'l~teel 6 win be in ~bc cl'It!'C:n.lC lert ~o~it]o!l,Wlth, thiel:l'M)'\Ie:m~.t oh}l~ crank, ~fua s!:ider traverses thepat~ . .B'B.g' W.IU.1I"CLU! thflpoiliu C maves ti:'lrOlI;g!h CCC"'.,. CllUhil~ tool. ,6wiU Im\'e~·h.e :fm'w'aII:d strroke·.ffi'inaUy. the sllder Bassmnes l~~epmHiCim~ and tiLe alttilillg~ool ..8" fiis iiil (be e)i~reme t~ghl posil iali'!"The tl~m;ei~o11e;nfor the forward 8'troi:;e of!iliie slidereis ~}ropa\ri!i:I1JD:i~1 t@ the obl~$C <I!!~lgle lfjA1Y~~ .;1."

CQpyrighled materle'

C"C·'C' ...ffnere is baekwanl stroke of thellilol ,6"The il]melolkel1, in thiis, isp.roportional lO the'a"cwro a!:!gt~ '
B" All' Lei

S~mi~arl.y~I~IC sl idcii 4cQm.plc1esi'h.eresl

of' the circle ~hIDOll.]!,il,il]!:, ~mm!l:l1f'[f"Ef<llld t

C p<ls&es thro~J,gh

.u ..I'..

0"'" Obil!Use !'IiWg:~C If A EJ"f m A (j"" [l.c'lltc'alJlgl!c B'Jlg" ai~A' T.b!e!!l.


Ttlfi.'i1iCi!fCIl!l~tii:1Jg

Time of

!1CI:W'lIl ~

fi,

(}

R:(I'tH~Jf:~lgillr; IRdt.:!Ti!l~F~lil'152(b). il ~!I$1 bt; O~(:f\,f(;~ '~l'!;u Wi~l the rotation Qf Un,e ihllk 3.~W:ae link I retetes about (] <In.d the' slil(k'if 4 l'ccupmcat:c.s 01] U. !this ~isoimplies th<llt iiflh:e~~id~r i~made to liccipooc.:ne Oll the~;n:k ~. lhec:rn[lk 3i1v-ill i!'Olm![(l aJb!llUltAand the U~" t about 0 In @, .jolltary ePlgil1e, lhe ~;I[{Ier I:!>repiacced by !'I !1]S,tol.101nd t!l~ Iink 1 by a c)'l~flder pi,,'ut.ed, a;l 0'. MOfe(l\o'CI1i:, ifls~cadof ene !ty~ind:cr.'S~YC(l~ Hum: icyl inders sy,mrl.lcjt['i.c<l[~;Y p:]<)cOO;1m or rog;1.J.hlri!.l~~['\fftl$ i~ the :iam~ rhl~e: l,)1itimp3l!aU(l~ pllbitS!. ara tIiS(>.(I, t\J~I'he cylilldets rotate aoout the samefixed m:nln:: and. fm1":ll a tmimlced s.ys~em. The fixed I:ink 2 is, also OO\n,TIUlOI1~o · ~II cy~ inders ff~f!. .1.53). T.l'Il:I£,. ~11 a rotary engi.n.e, UtC c.m:ruk 2 ~s fliX!c[i ~mdi U'l.c fOOd)' body
1 mtlll~(J.s.whereas ira.fII red;pn:l!mHrlg m:1ig[IHJ: (I. sf hlV"CiI"S:iomJ, file rn ~sl'ixed.ilnd the erank 2: rO"l:mes. Fig:..lI..sa

Third Inverslon
!By fixing the link 3 of the slider!Cf<U~k!lleeh.RllJi:SI:n,

A.

the Ul~rd in\'el'l>io.m :is obl:.l~lle(l [F~g.I.54(an

NO'w th-e ~ii:rili2: ~g1!rnl:l<lc,ts as a cruDilk


:lIl'Ild!

the liak 4 oscmll.t€s.

o
{b)

.App,uc(l~ions :1. Os-cmalirng cyli]1d~.t ~gkj(~


2. Cra:!):k and nl~bani:filll sI01:t:ed·leV'er

Os:dUat~'JJ;g CYU:l1dIlT .E~~gin,e As showf.l~l1l"'~g. ~.54(1)), the il[lilik 4 :us I.lJ;fI)!ille~I] the [orin ·ora c}"i.inder ,lind ill pistolll isft1-lfi!J Wille end of the Ii~k !~"The p]soto[lredproc1:ltes hl!Si~dell1,e leyj.i:ndlerpivo,~ed to the fixed link :3. T~~ ~mln~em(,:~tiskJ!!(YW1I !IS Q.~cwlLa:ti!:lg~'Y~~!J!d~.r ~gig]c.. '1'Ji wlilicb {Is!ilile 'I'li~roll1ilCC]pOOCa'OOS, ~fltfg~ oocHlta'ting, cy]illder,.lilc erank retaies,
Cm:!'!k i\l1'Ua1' 9l(il'11etl-I.e:v.er .Me:ciuulisn,l: If!:l1i.e cylinder of all QlScm;EJJtiUl:l';l. cy~JI.1idler e~lgine i:sll1l1l1:diei:~~hc furm of a ~uid)eiillH:i!he' piston i:n ~hcr:Q;nnof ,01sHder~[he lI'.mE;gC:rIlflllt as 8nO'l\'11, inf'lg ...~,..515(a),is obmlllied. A~ ~!l@crn[lk mt:!lite$, ai;lOl]tA, the gIll.ide " OOCUI:r~I:e;!i ab()ut ..8 ,At a point C om ~be gliI1ide.~.e~i[lk .5 ~!;i, 'pliV>O~6d, the atbe, enid of ~~!h£ch~seennected to!!he cuUi:i:ig tool. th:mulllh a pi,\'clloo j o[n,1,

Figu:Illl: L55{b} 5h{l''IV$Ota '~i(lntme: ros~t~ilns


of ~be ogci~~:l!~i;rJJggu[d!e: . Thll;l tmme of the 4
r-O~N
V.iU;:K3S ~t!lO~

i!OPfOporlill!l.l ..II"ljbe;)[)gt~

(;,

for 'file ~Ull1l stroke, it is proponiomd

to

0lil1lig1cfJ,

cioc.ikwise.

provided

the.: C:D'aJ!f!k

nltlllJ(~

Comp~ring a. C~i3!rlkaad sl.Olted~IJe'!,fer qjl1ii.cb rerum meCilanlS:Ill ~ri,ti:J ~Wlrui.twortl:lqllij.c:k:=


rewm mechln;II~!l:m. fb~~a\'!{i:ll:So~~r"'t!ti(ms, the

are mllde:
]. Crim.k 3 ,onh(;lWhifwDlrLi~ m£cim:~:is;l[1is lenget dunlJ its mea lilIlk 2: w~.eire"s the 1:::1'31111;offhe .:i1EQu:ed"]eVei[ttlec~lll:ism 2:
(b)

is sllorlerl.im.J~. iLs fixed iirg1t.J. :2. Coupkr link: ] of the \Vhilwo_nth: :~1,1cchani~m makes c:Olil.~pldc romti.ons. abml1.its pb/o~cdJoim OWirtl1 ]hef.i:xcd link. Hcnwcve,r,ihe ,oo1!![)ler lillk4 offihe s~OIt@d·k¥,er
:rnechill!!1ism O~iC:m\;Jjles lIbolJ,tUI.'S pivot B. 3. TI'!~:c01;!p]~r ]in;k holdi]lg HIe l)oo;I,ct'l~ bepii~o[ed to '~lile' !lUlhl eQ:UIP:~er' Un.1.: :<ill !Iny 'con .... l]i,el~1 poiru, C i.l~ b{_d e C<lSC'I'l. lc'l.owe'!,!'~'r.:w.r the; 5!!JnlLe di:sp!ac~m~nt ofl~(llfl~l. it Lsrnore (;OilV4~!Jij,ei1!l inh£:pOi1m~ Ci;.:tflkm~ on thCl(z.lU.clii:si:()n. onh~ m:aiilil. couplet lillkl(~owmills (lite pivot 'll'ilih. ~he fix~ Uml.k)inc3se of Dh,eWhn,hvo;rthrllJ.ec::ha:n.ism. "'lilt! bil;yOI~([

l1acec:lI;lreu;lle: p05.i~:Um~of the ~lidc:! ij]tllil~ ~1~uJ;.-d.-l.l1vel: 1]U.~~h~nbm.

it ~l1tip'h'J'g fIJ\!ir./I'iue .. SJr.aplil!":::' m.ad,~rJH'S 1'Iiti[~ fi!lr?rl mifh qilicA:;'~'f~ur1nlr.r·f'Il'f!I1I~U'lli·J'J5.


D'

Fmlld:h. In.v'ersio:n If tbi.l; lim.;, 4 of the s]k1Jer~~r~n:klu.cd;anism

i:~ f1~,tldl.tbt':

fOllrlh i~\\'¢_~i(!:n is Obli!ii,~ed [Fig~, 1.56(11)].. Link 3 'em] oocMI:w.lie (lbo~!t~lilcfixed Ill:vol B 011 ~hc ~ilil'k 4, TillS .mLl:kl(';s the e:~d A of (be Hill 2: to oocmi;m:~e<JiboullJ <ltl1Ld tlile e:llId ()
to reciprocau:.i!ollg I.h~axis of

the

fixed link 4.

Ap,.dlctlt.irlrl HaIlid~PlJmp fiSlIife !~56{b) 8h.{J,~~a hmldJ·j;u.:!Jmp. !~k 4~s !1:ladc' h! ... U tke: fa:rn1!of ~ i;i/~iflder :OIil1d, .<I p,lull~~:fllXed to the ~,i~]k '
ri.'lc:iproc;~u;!ls.iDit. (ib~'

fig, Ui'll :E~'t~'npfe 1.13 "lite te,~glhqf the fu.,-"(.f Nflk


(i) incJim;~fh:J~of the 'slm/,'€d J(tlN1J'wnf.~ Il"e ~'ti;c~l .fnthe ~$re.i'I,I'e .V~ltia!1 • (iiJ .rf1I.'io j titetilneoj o eluting strobil to tile time of rol:Un'1 slrok{$.a'ml

l;f a CNN~k alii ;JiI()li;r:;tl=1ever .rlJech(mism is ,15() .,mu. and


tll>OJ

(1/ thecl¥mk

·l~ U}f)

mm,

lJetf!f'1,I1.i~(!the

(iii)'

length of tlut stroke. if i~/e ler~gth of tile


S1Qll,fo,>dl(tllltr is 4:50
.m.O;i

and

I:he llneoj

.£trokepasse8 !lrrougl~ tlieex.lrem.e pasitiol;s

of,rlle j'me t/td qf tire lerer.

or (l~)Af:l!gl,c of the SI,o!ltcd .levlS! witl~ the 'iI~rtkal


,f:t/2 ... ~ - 66.~L'I .., .13·.6'l'

(ii) imIDe of ooll[lg s~[{like TitllC·of :l"~tl!m, tro~e 5 360~~1J'

f3
(i.i i) Lel~g:t~l :Ml)o.ke'" S' S~.;;: 'Il" ,of R "'" 2:A.R',$ll11l (~!2)

= :2 x 4,snsin
0;;1 ""' 250 IUlllt .oF" - Opt' - 1.00 ~uu IlB.' ""IlK":;;; AR;:o 450m:IU ... 360.3
~:f'
..
;.. ..

23J;o

1'Iiillin.

i{l!aD:Eft~CRANK CHAIN'
-'i
'.f'I':" .... .

A foyr':b~r'l:lhfl~l~ ha'ii'ji!~g lW(llL'lmiUng


l!:!lO'W!] 3$ II.

flI]d twos:~£di.lI!& ip,t:liirs such tha~ twop[I[rs :(lftllcSiI,me kind i1:'I'C' adjaoollfl is y ¥

douiMN\~ider=cnrnk chadfl [fig. 1.5:8(3)]. 'f~e fOUOl!lllung are: itsinver.s±ons;,


r;r,'-I'~,.

flrstl:nvclaion
This :invcrn:uon rns, oMil~ned whciIiI. the :Iink ~is n:l'!!ed~l1cl: ~h,e two adjaoel:lit. lP<1i~823, and 34"liell!l.min~ pairs .mdtheolh#two
pairs 12: aad 4~ s:Hd~ng pairs.

Apl~Umii(m~]mpWt<l] trammel E EnipUc-aJ Trnt,une~ Fig~ L5&[o) shows ~Il elliptLcall:mm!llu] in w!h:icih.the

,
I I

,"
I

1'''

....

tile' fotitl of gtli!ue,g fo'][ ~~i~rs 211~d 4" With the 1!flf!(lVemC~1tof the !)~idcrs ,allY ,poitllt C o!1!llhc link J!exeCiPt fixed 1imll is
il'l

•\

,
\ \ \

tll.c ruidpoint of A.tJ W]U tll'SiCC an ellipse en 3 fixed plate, Tn.e midpoililt of AS w.in [.e~"n <In)' iIilSI<l!nil. ~hc liil11k3 :Ji1111ke arn~1c 0' W~ltI~ tiID() i,("'~~iJi,("-on$~dl~rill!g~bc displacements of the slidess ftom the cenlm ,ofLlle tll'lIlru!lllil •
.t

m"a.~

""

....,,' =-~~ .....

_..

00

,.:BC

Cl]1)

e andy == Ae silt 6'


-Y

_.x

Be

.ad =,OOS.1:1 ail'.

iJC

= smlto'
'.a

COP"fJlighted materia

,.

.'.~g. .62:~ 1

.'1

As a =;) fj~lR1Tha '9' 0".Tbus far a :sm~nvalue of the forecF~ R approaebes In:i~.]i:l)' [0 II stone CI1lJsh{':r,a largB .. resist.l~,C'e at 1) is O''iileIIicOJne VoiithOJ small foree F in this w<J!Yfigu,e J, 62(b} ShOW8Jflolh.er such m!echani.'snt, ..

Indeedng M,ecbanisms
~hc:purp<l~c of di\l'h':li~g the periphery of a. circular pi~cc: :[nIiO ~. numb tf ,of equal pans, .Imlexi:ng is g;e:n.crn:iI]Y done all gem; Cl~lltttrlg Or' milling machines, ,An l:ncl:ex,I'I1gm.a::lmni!>lllI ,ctmsIs~g of nil :Lmlex hend illil\l!'hicrn, ,I spindle is carried in 11 headsreek ["fi!:l" 1.63(0:1.)], Tht::wurk tu b¢ind~x:cd it' hddr.:~thtr bet'\.~IC~! Cl;n!iF'~ Qi: i~a c~l!lcl aH!l~h(;d tglh~ spiJld~c. A 40tooti[ w:nmlwh.eel. dir.i¥cn by 11 si,n:g;lc~n~ml.dt.'drigj;lt.~~a:ndw()iin:lis aIS(l~]ucdl"Q fh~sp1nf:l!c. At the c:lld Qn:ll.c WOmlJ shaffi .J!lildlustaMeirn.a£.'x c,mn~ with. ill handle anda phu~.g'erph.l iSillsonHcd, The plunger pin 'm~ be made to fit. i~!o ;lllyholf,): in fh~i]1d!?"" pi,:ltc whi.¢1lli lml;! :8! ru.. lb~rt)t'(:ir":~~~S(lf cqmdty spaC¢d h~)l L;:!ii fl1) :Sh(l\V'!1 m
All ,ilitiex.iltg mtt,dlaniS,Pill SC.[';'C$

iin Fig ...1 .•6J(b). An inde'x h~ad ~~. 'U~yaU!y f:I:!"ovid~-,Jwith a I~m~lberf inl.e:rtlla~!gcab]~ o

indie,;>i1P:la.l~s;~OCOV!,):!' a I

w~de Ir.l!lilge ofwtll"k. Howe:\\'c,~,~be t1!u:V1! hows mlly '1111.(:'Clil1de ni" !7 tl.oles 'for sake of cla~~~y. s .As. the WOrnrl. wbcel has 40 teeth, the number of revoluiieus of the ~nclcx,cran.krcquur"€'Jljo maklc 'one n;;volution ofd:m work is also 4Ht ]'illcll!liimbcr of'revolutions of the C:1i)[lk.ne~derii far apmper divisien oftt:tl work ~nto the d.esiredlillll.miber of dIV~siol'ls, [alill be c<lkll!I<:I~edil$foIIQws: rill ~fa wml. i,sto be d:iv[ded illto 40 d~.vhikms,. the or<liIlIkshm:!!!cll be given, one i.x~.n'lpletere!\lolUliC!'rI.; II 20 divisions, ~.wore!~(oh,:!lio:msfln ~!lc~li1 divisiuilll,. r.TId:m (J:I1, II ~f the, WQ~k is to lbe di:vidooitUD 160 diivL:sions, oib\l~mls:~ythe cr"Jrl'1,;~hot!l!~dbe ~Ol:alcd through m~e· fO<l:nilil.,o£a rot0l.1.iO[!. lfoirsueli!c~es,~[!!!ldex :p,lale with ~ flumbeJ: of .hol€'S d]vi~]b~eby 4 such as"!!i'Hh
I

~,6or 20 h(}t~S~i1n ~e ,choiilen.. ~f thi;iWO!t is, m be d~vidl;-diUih}136~fi!s. the use of Ihe irtdcx [);Il.~c ill b~ le~s~iUhd slnec lh'l:l I'Q[iilt~O!i w ,of1hc ernnk for eseh d~vi:S~1)11! he 4Ql'~ 36 or tlve~se,vcntcCllth cf'a ~il..lm"Th'l!ls, a plalcwit~1 ~. ~c!olcs wH.1 '7 is selcd!:d! in thi.s case. lo oDv.ialc,~ih.c,nc(css.ity of COl!lIl:tillg the holes at em;;hl :p.ar.tUll~, tum ol']h,c c.r.lrlk, an indCix sector with tl>~O .flrms whi.ch, earn be SCI~ and clamped together <.11 <'iIIl.!Y <.'!rlgleisalso .<"lv.al~llib~.(l.In thls ca~e,.this can be: set to measure oil" 5~p<lces. Sla:vdll!'g wHb Ihecmnkpil1l' inl h.e hole d, a ,CUi wmlll/(1 be. l:I1Iadciu th~ work. The, crnok is rotated alild the pin i~r!'a,~lfe to I~M!.c;:r !lIo~bc ~_.(Jkb. 5 d~vbd.oll!!'lIIpml ~ '~!ld u seco!'lClcu~is made: in tI~e werk, In ,DI imihlrway, s ,"" third CII~ is made by rotMlng 'lhL:lCrull1k(lIli~.io tl'lmllgh five ldii"'!si!orls w.ith 1'1'1ehc~p of anmdex SCC1U.f" id so (m. Usu ..I~my,. ~n:d!c.N: mlbks are Ip:mvi.,rled W teascertain tbe fllIffi.OOf' On~m& 'of the cr~nk alildt~~ ililmoor ofhul{'~s tor the gir;, ~!IlC3SIZ.

Copyriphted

materia'

Wbrm wlfiJeel
fliJl1gelF

Ii'll!'! Handle

Imld'.

plal:e
(iii)

':iI...

.Ki"nematic::s d!!~I:5 wit:h dmrl:lI<l1:li ... motkms; of ·@ diff\li!r€!!'1It pi1!ln~Qf~1T!'ij!'~hgl~~:;rf!.witll:g!Jll;.t~k~~g iiflft9 consiidlll r<ltiOiil th~ fOfCf!S 'poodiiJoing! tl'ie 'motionls;

2.

wnereas,dyml7'Pics in'lloUves.ne c,:l'lc·il.ilatiiolll rfon:I~S: t o irnpre:'!ise.d iiJPOO diflle~ren'tparts a~ a meclilanilS!rrl!. M~J!lan;$mis a colilr'llbiiiilail:iorl of a mjm:b~;r of ri'gidl bedles f!lsiS@mbl'~d insudl .a way that tifl,e mmcoill of one ~~lI~~S' ~J;llil$tI'~1Ih~dla:nd Pctrooid(,lbl~ rnotii(llil of:thil'otrner:5 wihllrnl<ls a, m!llitilirl~u5 <'II me,haniiifilih

or a tombi nabLa." of m~c:h,mi:5!rtrli5 whi:r;:h\r ap,II't fr'!)ITI ~mp~:rUn.g ddnit!:!: moti(ll:i$ ~~ th~po1Jri;~~~I$Q tl"ansornits<ind mc~ifies t:~e' av<iilaM~ me!l:lilanii;(;al en'E!rgy ~mJt'IJ 'S:O'fTU1: ~:i~d:~f useful WOFIt. 3. "irr:liiieli!a'are three types, ·olf ,t:otm!!:train,ed mo,tl'On: (:Gmpletely ljQIil:stmil1e,d,. incl:)mplet:~,ly' rnfl.strtl;n~,d <lind 50cussji:J/ly Olltl£tmirant. 4. A tlrll!, ~S~I ~~T~(,Inl~ !body' c'r g groutP· of N?$i)to;lfit: bod~es; wiith! r:i'gid c:onnediQl1s pr@"'llntiftljJ their

A nnk may all~{i Ibe Ide'tiinedl (lombi natiiolil lor mem'bllirs of a fI!'le!Cl1!i3!n~!!im" ,colilnecting ,000thl1;r liiO~mll:n~~ .rnal hiilrV'il'lglmUlDon relativE! tQtirnern. ;:, ,A kin-e-mi:'itic pall' or simlplya pa1lr i~iii joint oft'lh1'(1 iilflic;; hawJflg reiatii,vt'!: motiQIiiIiJeM~elil them, 5"A p~ir lilnk~ l1~vilmJg~vrt:~.;;e 'Q:rarea,oonil;~~t b~w~~irI~rn~'m~mrb~~ ii~ known ,~~a I~;r fl'4l1'i;llru;1 a ~ilr liavilflg al POi,lltOF I:ini! ,,(lr:1~ct batwllelrn the lil1!ik:s1, a~i~her'PtJif:. 7. Whellil tneelem;ell11i:S 'of ,dl pa,[r ~,eheld tog,e:ther mrE!;cmMlica,~ly,li,t iis.krnowiiiI a~ a d[}5~'palr. il'1~el:Wo ell!mentst;lrl! 9~ometrkl!nV id~lilIbic~l_ WI::i~iflM(I liml~;s <ll pa~raN! illli'Il:D~'hta~~ af ,either dUE! to fa,ree' of gir;a\liity Of S'O!'l'i!e, s,priingl actlo!'i!; t:lii!ey C!~nstijt]iJte an .,md:}~edpaJ't" 8. U:51Jalt'l"p'e~ of joints ii'lll;! d,!O!inl <lr'(l:Ibi!ll<lrry jQh"!lt" t:erna;ryjolnt~!id quilll:ei'inai)'jo~n't 9. Deg-re! oJfre,edom cJ(.! pO-it' iscle:fin~d~!l'the riUMI:I!~r onr!dlepend'e~t rellMiv.e mo,ti:oFl~j botlh trans Ilartie Iil;;! I alla mtatiloll!Cill, a p.allF (~a'fi1 rna,VEi'. A. kinMS!matic rrhain' is an at5:t'!3'mMy of lin!k--s in ~~icn t:nu~rel~tive mmi:o ns of tlii1e lii~I~5n5i O(5,'5iilJ~e the p and ,m(lt!i~nl'o( e'<idfll re~Oiti,~to~~@otl1.~1f iis:dilffi'f'lit@. , A red1!.lll"ldonf tChai~ does Il;o,t i;lnow' girl,!" moti(JoI'n ~f a II~nlkrEI!a!t~~tothe Qth~r:. A tintag.e or me.cntrn'sm ~s ,o-!bttaJm,:d if one of tlhe 11~l'Iks a, kii!i!rilM<itilc cha~ii'I is iii:.:ed to the groui'lJc. of
as, a m ernber or ,a

re~atlw

mcvement,

F~ 3 (rrJ~l)- :';P'. ~6. Av:tfior'scnleEiOti fur degree ,of free<'fom all'lidl thE iflurmlH!r ,of'jolil'il~5Ia~plan.e rneehiilflisms wiith 'tllifljilling

pairsi:s
f'" N~lf2L '*' 1) P,,"'N+,t[~JiJ a 'f(l1Jr~lli!'!r.: !1!J@1cha!1!iS!m- II~nl-l;that miilkes ~ ol1!l !:ompl.e:t!! r12volrutiOIi"i' is, &::nlo'!'!'l:1 i)i!l a "fW'!&:jt~1!~ lfinlk o'PPo!Silt:e: to t.heliixedllinlk~s: c:alie,d the ro.t1l'ier ;;md tile fOlJrth Ilirl~ lis r:::ailll\:ld !eiie,'o r rocketif it. O'!>ci~~ates a or alnmllilM C!rfilil k~if .it !',DtM:es.. In a Watts six·barchllimll~flleu~lnJi'!al"!f ~jnrt1.!i rerdilrect a ron,lillected whem[lsli'II ,aSteprnelnsoiiil's s ix,ba ~cha:r!'i!; ~Ih!l;:y I'IQt dire~t I(:Qnned:ed. ,lim: If "system haJ~ one er IITl,OIi'>e IlInb wnlCl~ de rlQt ii"iltrOodiJc~an.y e!i(ltr~ COflilst.r<:liint" ~'I: lis knownr as rsd'uild'atpt link alild iiSnOlt,comill1ted tonirld dll>E!' degree: of fre;e;diOiT'li. :10. If a l:rnk ,of a me'c:hl3!l'1ism COl!'! be miOvedl widliOlUt ';;i!Iil:5ing~ny mQtiol1l to 'l:lilif' rest of tlll~ Iinlk"S of ~he mE!!(h,mi~m~iit i~ said ~o linalr.lea reduluiantdegFtt0/ jr(g.r..dQm., "1:"', T1he me(h.grJi(;i1l!t(ld!tQnt~g~ (M,A.) of ;;.Im~(;It!~l1il~~ .1.$ t:~oeratio of the Ol.ll~!.Jft: force ()l"oorqueW the lirnplUt forr'e ,:u"t()~CiliU!et arr1 ~niJt.a!'ilt a :2:1.. Tille arilQ1[e Il ~et"'Ii1:'Nim the out:pll.i'l: link il!nd ni,e (OUpre'r is haWinl as·.ttWJe5mlis:riotl Clil"!gle. ;13. Diiffeilfernli:Ilfrieclii1alnisms obltailimled by~)(in9 dlllffereUllt Uilnks 'of ,iii I(iiiil~malti~ digil[l ~re iknQ'l'lfi1l 01:5, liit~
~". II'!I mlol'e\l"SiQM .•

or

:Q.

D~rel! qff-~dlJml

of a met'h~\i'l'.~5-m indic:a,tes how

manlY in:pll'l:5 are needed! to! har.re a c.al1'tll"ainiecl mo~~o:f'I of the otliloe'IT Un!!:s. jGLiulm;d('s ,mt:enOIl fOr'~lle degree· ,om fr,eedom of piOlne mecha!1i'S'nu is,
f",,:}

IllilIe' meman,isllr'ls

(N-lI.)- ";!'P'J, ~ lP'~

,only 1$.

Gnre!'ll~ ,mefflmf~H dregr~e ·offr,e~dlom(jf ~~aJliI~ lm1edllanis!lns, witih sinlg'le,·,chil9rtN! oH~@@dQm jOi!i1,t5

a f,argle drl\1~1119or'OE! r ij,re Il()ii1Iowiiilass-n(!p"rlcUCti (II" r;(i99I!1tlm!l:~h~nli$rhs • .A1nI .indf!;Onf] fflff,i'ran;sffl 5l1l\r\!Il1o.S thE! IpurpDse of (llli'l.l'idi'ngith~ p~np~~ilfY ,adin;ylgw Ipiec~ iMo ,iii oil" ~UmbeH)f,eq,u~1 p~I1i;~"
U:5Ie-,[j O'llf:r(.Qme: r.e!>ist:iilln~~: .~ m~mber wit:m.O! sma'll of

t!o'

11,.

:2:.

Distifl!gllJi~hbe'l:ween HI P'le~lh<!i"!T:sm<llrl(~m~:tJlUrU~ ~II} iilJilalv:si:s,a~dl s!~'i!'ithe:sisof medrnafli~ms (iii) kijnel'i'i:ail:~c:s,ai"id dY!!'1!O!mie!> Deline: [;:UFiie:m~th::lini~kl.~l!m~tic: p1i!i" kilFl!!!'!i1i~U~

chain,.

3. Whll: are !i"lgid andl reslls,t:aI~'I: bodies? E~albQrO!'lie.

4" How ,]I r,~ th~ 11<JiIl'I!I~m.atil~ (;Ial>$ifi~d? e:i'!pl'gliIi1 pa,ir$ wi.tl:!:I!!!OIl1i1Ilplf!s. Difl1erentiiiit-e 91ilVlinge)(i;imp!es: mlo~~nl!],d high~"p~if!; {ii} do)@d allidll,lll~l(ls~dl p;;.irs (iii) tlJ.rffiiin.glllild morllingPi:!.irs 6, What dOVClIY m~,gllml -by ,[j@gnl~QJ freedom of g

Copyrighled matorial

16

Theory

of Mil cMrlfJl
How
<In!'

tkiirn@moiltic; ~ir? @xtlm,ples.

IP<lirs d'a~ifi@d? 'GNie

a.

1,

9.
'1.0. 0:i:il .. 12..

]]:.

14.

15. :16.

'1'),

:18.

19',
<JQ.

typ~.5ofmmrnrllliifl@d moti:oll. What Ii) iii redl!!!l'ld;~im!~ illl ~ mechanism? Iili1k IH,ow de;! <:!' Wtltt'~ :~i~lb\\!r ~~in !.mr;l ~ :Sil~ph~'r1I~Q~'\~ ~iJ!!·,b.!ilr'("(lin d1illiT! WhOllt: US nedu~dilf!lt d~lgfi(!:!! of freedom of .~ rne<ehan iSlm? Wi'iiata,re Iilsu'allt~pes 011 joints in a mecnanism? What: is the degree' ot freedom of a me<ha'li'i1ism? How is it det~rm,il1~d? What is K'lItzl:l.u:k's oriterliolll-FQr dl!9iree Qf firl!edom . of plan,e' mechiill1il:5m~l In wh,lt wall is, Grnebler"s: i;!r,i~eriQI'i! .gliff@,",e'I'i!~ FrQ!'!I'lI, if? How <lIre ~hed!e>greeoFiFll'eediom anchhe number of ]o~l'It;s in ,i'II ~~f'lkagecan be rounc!l wnel'l 'the' iU.lmb'e'ir of linll::s and tne l'Iumbe'if' of reaps ln <I, kin,emat~c (;n<l~n <lJ!E!km)wn?' WhiU lis mean,t by equiva'le:nt meci'Limisms? [);eilne Gri31shoP'$ law. St:.alte bO"'N is, li,t helpl\ul inl daSo~ifyil'lgl tlile fuur~linlk meciflanisiliI§ into differ,i1:nt llype$,. Why areIP(lrallel,<r,pnkf:ol.lr.b~dinka9@ andldelli:oid linkage ,considered special 'cases- ,of 'f,our;.ilink me>chal'l,i:s:ms'? D~lim! mec:na!f'lic.a I ,adv.a'ntage' alrnd tr.ar.l,smi!>'!>liOl'Ii angle of ol mech@!'1!i5m, D,escrilbe OIg,ri;o'Us ~l!'l'!!\ersilD\rns, o~ ~ slider·cranlk meKh~nlis;m gi'l!'!IiI~ ~x'oi!!'ll,ples., Yl,ihat: a're qv!}ck"'~etlum meehanisms,? WheF'e ilT'e they used? Di:sCJl.Is~· fiJncttO!'lHl!lg CiT any' '()ITl!!' of the
IDisclU~v.ariGlU5

,[(II) 1 (b) 0]1

them.

(b)

2:1. How are the Wl'ilrwon:h 'qj,uiclHetum meehan,ism ancil crank alnd slotted-lever medhanlism differ,ent il'rom eadR ,other? ,22. Enumerate the ililvers:]c!I1'sof a dOllble-slidler·crank (;ha~n. 'Goiv,eel)l:,amp,'es. :z,3;. D,e'scn1lbe br~efly d,e: fiJ!lIctio!ll~ O'f elliptical trammel ,mdl soolt;d'll~~. 24. In wha~ W!!!y is 0 Idham's (:OiU'lP~ing u:5-il!,Jul jill

(c)

1.:6'5i.

connectingl tw,o· pa'f.!lftel s~afb5 when the di:sta,llce


bet:'We'~li1theif',a~"es sm.II~? is 2.5. What jJlr4~!!illjJ;P·i,!ctj(lii1 m:e:c;h.misms?'
Give

26. What :iHIMlI imJe;.ci,ng mecha nislliI'? De'SICribe how l,t i5 ""SledliQ divide the p~Mip,hery ofa drc:u!arIPiece ~ll'l'to t i,! I1IlJmll;u!f ,of ,equOII parts. . Fortine kin,E!m:at!I,e Hl'likages sho'ii'lln r'n FlgI. 1\,:!i~~'11m! :tJ1'ne, d'e<g~,e<eoHireei:lotrl (If).

examples".

~B. For the kinem!i!,ti." linkag:fl'!i shO'iNln in Flig 1.6s.. find tine IrTlumber (If Ibin,arylinlks (N~}, kmlary linlks (NIl. other links (~J'I totallil1lks filj, loops t., JOints or pairs,
(P~).oil Ii1Iddegree

,of lTe,~dkmll ,(,F),

[(.<Ii) NI; =3; H, "' 4i N,~" 0; N" 1.1L ,,:,, P'~~ 9; ,F", '0 ]

2,.

(0) .Nt;• 7.; N~" .~ No " 0; N ,- 12; L " 4.; ,p Ii " 'lS; F= l
'll::)

Nt."

8.i HI-

2,; ,~@'" l,j ni!il'll,;

l "'!iJ P!

=1,5; F= 0]

Co yr'ghled rnaleria

M~tlt~llj~jj'¥

1I,~~IM,dH'Ii=::;

.31

.:»:
5,

{a}

'"

{b~

{o}

c1fl.1I..67_·
~·9, snow that the linkages shown ~'n Fig.. 1.66 are stnJrtures~, SI.!I9gest SO!lt'!1!dn:ang6 tJo,make t~em
'meCinanisms l~a\i'in9 on,! deglree of free.dol'l't 'The lliiUJmber of li~kssho"':ld !lot be G~aoged by lITi:c,re thill'l!u. A limlka9~ niiSUt linlC;~ the nl!:lmb@lf,01Hoops is~. and
(<lI(ul'ate its .

3:1. Figl)JrelJ51 s'hows, sofllefolJr·I'i,nk me(lh'U'lf,sm:s in w~~chthc igl.ilrts !I'i!dh::ate t~e: dimensio:m; lin ~1;\1nd\o,rdv ..its of ~fl!9th. Irldir;::atethet.ypeofeilC'll f mec~ilnlsm\r whether it is ,(ra~k'rockeror doeblecrank 0 r d:oiJb!le'·ro'~r: -- _ _- _
H,{JI)' crani:i·r<lC;~~ ,!b}d!olu:ble:·cr~,nk

],'0.

(i)

de9~ees, 'offrel1ldom

(ii) t!~""lbelrofjof,rnts (iii) ma::~jmlJm num'ber

oftef,rnary Iln:I('5:hat (<llllle t had. . As..sume that all the IP'airs are turningl pairs.
(3; :~f B)

{c) ,d;oub'Ie:,rochr]! 3::1:, ,A 't::lf,an~·,r'oc~er !1i1!ech'i!ln~sm ABeD has the dimensions .. i': 3" mm" ae = 9'0 mnml CD " 7:5 H mm am:! AD (fix~d rilr'ilk) ~j,OO mm. Determine the: maximum and the m;nimu.m\l.lIIUie5 of ~h~ transmisl>nolrlilfigle. Loca,te tn~t'l'l9911'~ PQ.$iit~OIil~ and 1"'C.IjC;a.t~ t;&!e (;oMoE:spond'ililg; .c;f~nk !:Ing'l~ ~!rnd tIU'l,~rari~m~S~i'Oli'i ar'i911'~. (lo3g! 49i~',8=.l28,o~J1'" 91ij!, O",3~';I_:5°,p- s61l)

Copyriphted materia'

";1'0 "" '~'tk-'"'Ve.b ... 'liN +Voo

(2,2)

=V
00 "'"

+\1' + v +V·· wbfi! '<:It? ,.a;" oa+ ab ... be + 'tidl

T])~us.ShO'"f,5: I:hill!l :in fig. 2.2. lIba~sorepreSoenlS


su.bl:S:21Ctiionof 00.

the o
(b)

fFom ab [[Fig" 2.. fa)~[ 4


V#o/) '"

Alsu
gr

ba. ,hBS

-"'I'!,:J"""'!Jr;l~·vl,\(.i .oil, ~ ob

been snowninfig, 2.4 (b). ·n~ls. Uil~ duftel:\cl:1!"~of 1:'\':{iI V~(;~g~i8 gWVI'lt:llbylili!(l c]Qiiitig 8i.dil'l!If it triangle-. Inc olh~r two ~id~ Qfw~liCl~ ( are iOff!il¢d by p:~ac.lllg 1he: 1M) veetors taru] [0 taU,LRe .sellSe b~:iltlg ~ol!W3ms thtevec,lo:r qllan4fui;y from wb,lcb lie olher ]$ sruJhtl;i:!!c~ed.

TIds

,<I wigld nlll-!: ,0:4', ,of1eirliIiJltll r, JOIi1,~e: oo!!lta I]Xied a point ,0 with! a !.mifol:':!i!lSiO!l:lllaJr \I·(ilocily wnrudlt$in (h.e OO'u,nle:r·cI{l.c:kwis~ dillWlion. I[Fi;g.. .5 (:a)]... 0;4 2 tams tnron.gh 11 sm<l!Ua!r:I!!:~e 8$' ill1 ... small inllel1i'.:!1

let

·YoIIilI·'--A.

6' t, l'"iJ!ie1t'i A will travel shownin [FiJ~.2.5{b)],


i)hi:itl~

1iI~iOfigthe

~rc ;fA'"

aJ~,

f'

I I

Ve:]oc,lty of A lidativc to or

Arc-AA'

6t
1"5'9'

ot

r~

dO

at

- rro'

Copyrighled mate lal

l'ihe, dlirectiml ofv~'O!)]6: ,!)long ~be d:isiP,lacem,ellit orA., Also, as & <l[pproa!ches zere (& -t 0)" A.~t~vi~]oo ~e'Epemllicl.lla:rto 004 .n,lIS! veklcn:y of Ais ,(r1i' lind ls perpe-ndicl1marll.) OA. This calli be represe:nJledbyfl vector Oil! I(F[f$. 2.5 ~)i,The f~c:t dlil.1Jl~I~e: iooCli~!f!,ofUl¢ ",el(l(;~~yv.e~torisp~rpe11ldi~etl~Sir to I:h,elinK alsc emi!!rges fr'om ' d the f;),col thflit A ~~ ~eilither 3Ipp~~h ~Qr~~edc f~,om O~m~ thtl!i~liju:~ ,only po;ss:ib]erno1im of A relative to 0' is [n a directiQu pe[JlelldilCl!lla'r to QA. Co[!s]dera poirlt B (l\tllb(l lirik OA. Ve:b:,lci~¥ of B ~ w • OBperpendJiC5l.l.l3.1! to 0l1. ~fo:b repvesenMs the vC:locity orB,it: can be observed lha~:
liJOA 0:1

(2.5)

(Ill'!

l.e., b ,di.vides the 'iielocity vUloliun llhc seme mtio as .B divi,des jhe 1,!Ilk, Renlember, lili1elieloc:ity vec;10r vw_,[fig. 2:•.5(c~] ~ep[esents. Ule veloci]y ,of A at.a [J~rtic~~~ri!1s;lrult. At oth~r im1sl:a:n]s,w:h.e.n link OAilisslimlcs a~()~heri)08itiiol1\, the l'c,loc ity","«:I:G:I'S, will have ~]jc:ir (HI:\~cti:p.mJ'llch1!o_gcdi the'

aocQ.r-d.ing~y. Arnso.til;el:lM;grnLi~lIdcanile ]11$t;mt;i!tI~oll.'J Ulli!la~' \~(liocity ofapoi.m!t ()1m ~roit!lti:l11gl:lO<dy is pr<l\~iI't~.a!~llll.lO1.l:S


distance from ~h~:md.s of mtalti.o:l1.,.

,on-.-tlN~
-

:MrECHANISM
4'

aill!di

FigYl:e 2.6~a) shews a fOll!f-li~l_km~h~!l!isml {q~adric-oyc~J~ ~eci]mnliSlw.} ABCD ~Il wlirich AD' is da.e fi,!!Jcdlillik. BCis the OOll]):~cr: AD is the dJd¥cr roWl:ling mil 111118ingularspced of @ ra.dJs :~n~Jac- .'oo~\Vise diretdQl~ifi.~: d

isa crank or mO'\'in.g ut d1:isIlng)ldilli' vel.ociu)ll:l!l uhis l[1St<l1llllt if his a rocker, [I~isrequired 1(!1,~fild the iilb~()hljte t vdioc:ity orc (or velocity of C ird!8itlve~·o II), li':Vrhi"g the '...elod~y vector eqI!l3~.lOl'lj' 'vet of C rei. 1[0 A' = V~~.of C ~[, to !J'T velorD ret to A

the v~h)o!::;itr of 8i1~ypO~lnl:lieJlllti.ye ~o any Oi[le'!" ]J'OI~lltonafixed ~ is ~~iVir.~y~ illk

zero. Thus, aM rhe ~oints

Oft! 11.

:fb::~d

]iflk are represerlllOd hy one ~olulltin ~l1e ve]ocil;Y df:<Igrnnll,In HS. .2.6(a)'. ~I:le POll:LlSAa!lLd D both Oil! O~~iftlliL';'d 1i~1 AD.nen:fo:nJ, th:~\!clodty QfCreh~![i'll'e to A ~st]l'l1: sanJe as v~liQ~;ily of Crel.l!Jt:lvc toD. IEq~iiJH(.ln('2..61 may be ,.v;rinen 3S,
j

ne

where

Vl.>

or

Silll' = ,wAJJ; 1. to

AD
.; .L ea

""t'b0D'

he is

1LIinli:JfUMNllill mop:itu:[lc

Be

COP"fJlighted materia

"eol nr de is uuikn,Qw;!l i~ n~~gnill,adc;; L ro DC The wloc.]ty (Uagram ls ~':(II~;~U:illCloo follows: as

L T~k(l~hefirst '!lcctor alb as H [5 oompldely known, 2., TOo adl.]!vec~m~e ~n ab~ draw a line .L. BC tttro:l!!gbb~ ohny ]e~gtb. Sinee lIbc direction~sense of be ~s. U[lkIli(W,'~, it 001]1, ]~,e en ~itf:ler~hlil! ,orb. A QI)!1.v~ni.e!J1 length Qfthe Hnec·i!Iil. be: taken ~111 0011:1.sides ofb. 3, Througb d~ d@y !i ~h~~ L DC to ]OO!l,tc' dIe vedor die. TIIC~ inwJ'5Il'CtiO!ri1of this line with the linc of YC~tQt b¢klC1!l:O$ ~ep!)l.nt 'c. 4,Mm'k 3ITOwilile:a.dsOIli the vl:dou be and de 1D give, the propecr c.SellS(l. ;"11 de is th~mJ;1igni~ and abo 1"lil(;' represents the directlon. of the ,,--elocil~:Y of C reiative·l(!1,.A ~(I[ .D), rnt. 1$:a1:80 themibsoTutc v\11oci.ty of the [ID1~m CfA aad D be~i!I!sfb;edpof"IS); :5. R:en~.emJbc;r~l:unl)iJe ~l1!'lJWh~'HJS!)n VicctorbccalO be p~t i~~~y dircctio:nJ because oolih ends of the link BC i1rn'C mov~b~.(l.lrth~arr(}wneadis put from ,eto b,. then the '\i'cclm rus. read ilScb. The abo .... cqutioll e ismooil'h'ld as dc""'ab-€b

de+ eh= ab In.temledJiJateiPo:ii:nt l!l'el~~.tyv~tnrin


The 'i,i'eloe:ity of an runter:r:llediil!1eoiut 0111 any .oj) the Hnib can oeCtll!l]il.a! eas:iiy blJi'divl,-d)il'lgthec('J~pond!ng p du:: s.<l!lne ratio as the, ~oiillt d:i1!i'~des the Hnk.f:or pc:irU" olll.l:b.e rnfnk Be.: E be' be .Bf'

Be

.offset Point

or or :jIb+b:f''''''d~ +d

Th~ '\i!~tj)l$ 'Vm~ and "'!,4are alre~dylh.ere olnhe:v:elodly df.<lgra!IiIl.,. vfo is .1.. B.P,. dr.aw a. line J. .BF tllWlIgh b~ VjC is .J. CF; dm'w ill line J. CP dJFO"Ug!h Ie;
'~'il1eij[I:e:I'll~li()m. o!l'(h(l t""..-oIines ]ocates the pc~nt f. arm df lndicmes the veloohy of.F relative to.if fur .lJ)c 'Or '!he alboollll]t;Vietocily
"

ofF.

... .):A~ir~:·~· ...Il-.-~'l

~~_~:.....t:il:ltl'

Note fb,.lItin Fig. 2,~6,the 1::!1i.~o.gLI.l; bfei!;: simiJar to thlllriMl~~ BFCin which:lU ~£ throe $idesk~ efand fb ampsependleolsr 10 Be" ell and FB respemi.ve.ly.. The t>i8lI!lgle.s. suehas ber~re .known as\\'e:locity images and are· fOUlndto be: :very he~pnd devices ~n.the vel.oc'i~.y'l!ll:l.I.}I:s:~slof c:omp~ic!ued sih!8ipes. of the Unkase:s.Thll.ls~ amy

Copyriphted materia'

a Umk in ~ffileon6gu:rnti.om. d~agf3!~ C~D e~~~y ~¢Ioca~oo ~fllit1¢ ""cloc:iry diugrnm by dirnwimg c Ule~eillochy image, W,~i~c drawing rhe velocity hn~g,e~,I!hefollo,w[rlB ~o:i[l1Sslnou]d be k~pt ~I:lmind:
Oil

offsetpoin]

~I. 'De vC:loc~~yim3gl! of 3, Un]!:. is a &C.aJktl:ti'epood~Clior.!ofll~e sh8ipe arabe li~~k ru~l:lc v~]!I)cHy dia:glfm¥! frem tl:ie ,c()I]nPlll>ltiimli di,!ligram. ro~a:ted bodilyljl11f:\O~lghl 90~ il~ diooC'U,o:11 the of[jge ~mgu~!lir y.~locitjl. 2..,llle order of tlle ~etl;ersinllllc: vel.oci~yimnag.c; l,slh!!samnc: es in thf,': CQJ~f:igllluati.QI~ dru!lgraJ1iI1l, 3, J!1Ig~!'l~r",I., :rnt](I Qif the sizes of "'~ffe~,m~ images to ll,lC sizes 'Qftnl;!ir (CSp~ctw¥chllksis d~mmll]t:~u the the same m~c!liiWl:ism"
'

.ANGUfQt4-VI1GClTY OF UNKS ~a--Bu. __--~--.,~.~~


1l.Anplar Velo,cny of nc
(a) Velooil)1 of C lI,e~;atiive to B. vd ""' e (fig. 2.6} b Poi,lltl: C.relal.ive: ~Ci B meves ~I~t~~e:·direc::ti:ml·5eIlSe .£iveu by
""<:1;)

oj

I-l' ~.
...

·P.~,tl

.;"

(upwlIrcls) ...'illII1IJS, CnlOvcs !i.nlhecomlte~:!"

dlockwi:sc direction

<lbm.lll

11
'1,,1~ ""

W.Eh x

8C ;;;; ~b W
{iii,

ell

--<::b

~;:.11 =-

Cll

"iJ.;, _,

,cb
to

B lieJ1albte to C m)Qves ii~l, d,il:',ecHon·"s.e:~liS!e ivl!'Jil. b;'!lbc (do:W:llIwaM!s,. opposHe <I g ~l1e,oOu!IiL'Ic.r-clQ(::blO".i~ d~roctio:n<libiIJul C with :m:tl,~'I1i~!Jde(i)lk give4l. by
\I~

be), i e., B ..

ItnO\iC:S

iilll

BC
U. calli be ~~.I]j.U '!il'iema~ih.ide of dlI:b = CIJ/Je aSi~ch "" \~bo:" andlhe diooel~iO'll '011' 'I'(Ito1tiOtD is: th~ ~ifte. liI:~~rdore. ~!lig:1:fiar 'll'el(!!ci~y of'a ~iJ1!k!llbgt!t n~ ~)o;!.~m[1:Y I~~th~ srtm~ as ~h~ ~1'Ii,g;~lar o 'I¢h:u~ity ab{Y~ittill(: o~h~!i, lI~gem:rnl, ~:h,e 'lIlgt~buvd.,ochy Q:f'n~kBe ls {.l.llbi; ( .. ,1»€tJun ~hc'~Qt:uucr~h')dwise di,rectioli!.

2. A~.dar V'e,locity CD (J,f


Wlodty of C .rela.liveliO D,
V~1-:

de:
II dl:ree'lio~:NlCil'lSlO :~iv~:n~y v".:{or C mov!!s ii~.the eleekwise d~recl:i.iJlDl,

]tis seen tln.a! C rc~a~uvle D movesin 10

aliioutD.

Fignoo 2.7 shows tweends ;} tUln:!iQg:. p<!ir; A ]:Jilli~ ~.j.!~

of lihc two links of


t~Qnn~

of tile links,

~...

...•..• .••.

...

w~lc;'I'eas ahole .is [pWOvidJecli i:~.~he other to fi:l 'Ihe prn· -. :piin. 'Vlle:m. jOiirled. tn.e sUirfilce of the ho~;e of O[le link WllU rub o:i1l ~e tl:u:rf:aoc(lfthc pill 'onll!;l Qlln[)[ liltlk. me vl'lloc:uty ofl!l!llbb,ull.!5 of the two sarfaess w.iU d!epelJduJN!n theilngtllar velocity of!l ~Ilnik
rn.~iit~vr;:I:Olh~I(Uh~f.

G.

•.... '..

'_. .1 _.
"I·.-_" _
IL ""

p. g:.

2.t

Copyrighled matorial

Pi:nat.11 (Fi.g,~2.6id
The pin IU A joins ~il1lb AD and ..lB. AD bejililigfi:xcdi, tbe vdocity ·ofrnbb:i[lg velocity ofAB only. letr ~ ... r~ius(lr the P!ift<It A l1u::'.~1\~e~ooil.yofrnibhillg ""ra .il)

Mn dcpcmJ.d ].i!]}O\lil

~h~angu]aJ!:'

PinatD
Lei rJ "" liSld~u of 1'fu1.e a1D pill VelocHy QrmbbiJl~ '" rJ.w.::u

PinatB
m~

-= iIf'o!!!f.i "" m
tII)~ ""

dockwise ,c(lunlier~cE(K;kwi,se

m~,'"

Be

'It~,.

Since 1ilile directions ,of the two ,1lngllm8if vdociti.es of links A.B and .Be MClmI, ~lI.e~pposite di:rootl.oos,. 1!MC 0 a,]IgtUbl~\I'e]odtyof one ~i;l11kr,ehui".e ro ~iheother !S ~ih¢sum of ~he two \l\e~(I!!~li,~s. Let I'll"" rnd~Ui~ the p[n of \lel.oo[ly ofm'bbirnlg ""r~,

I~,~ +w~J

Ilil lj'

Pinal C
,(o.~ ""

,w.~~ at.-l =

(ij~'h

C011['Jtef~dod:w]s.e

cloclwise
~)

Let r;~"" r.adi;u. oftm.e pin .11, C Vdoci.tyoffilb.b:imlg = to:: I(Wt>..> T

]~ caS(i lit ~sfau!!ld 1h,ulllilc angUi~.aJr\''eloohics ,(If tile ~.WQ ~]!]_k~ jQ~!'!ed tog,eth(;r .!'I!:'~ Ii!'! the s!lllnc d.ili"cc~fo!:l. dae vc;ioclty orrubb:ung will he the d:iffciI'ejjce ortl~.e anguhll' v:e;]odHes, m!ult~pUed by lheradjl!lsonl~e ~\kt

Figure '2..S(~)1 sh,o\vs a slide:r-crnll1lk meclnn:'lis!rn ~1:I!\:vlruidru ls ,oA' lihe;Cr<liIilIk. movml1l,g !with I~JiIi'lifollliTl <li11lg1l.11]:rvelocHy ru ,mdls In tbe~ clockwise direction. A 1 pointE, :a. ,5]~dtlr m!)V'~5 .01]1 tffilc:II!'I,Cid g\lil:~dc G. ABis lh~ c>ou~:lel1" jO~f)ingA and II 11 is reqll1ired to find m~ velocity ofln.e slider at .B. Writ~fI,gthe y,e[,oeHy vec~orequ.U~(In,

'kll. afErel. to 0' '" \let. ,0fB ~t to A + Vel. of

,4'

ret 10 ()

Copyrighled material

-btl"". t u~ ,

'. " p~Jlr,(m

(l'1I1~r' )re'III7Cl9~"0'

,Jj,'"

C'f),luuxl'irl{j

velocil)l

., _. '

"11:" ! a p'(Jml i" onm« ,rod JiaI.',llig .fbe.h!lJ~' awoftdc

(~\,) wfJU

..

_ .II~~ _
-

5.25 _;_ ,. ,_. .' ., ," A.lJ -'.60 ~ 3.28 ~<ld/!l leckwise c
!.Itt!

(i!t (J,rl~ipl!lr",-eJO(;ilYof ONt CG'Ill~€ctingmel '(II) veJf)Gjlitt.s oj h~bbjIJg~lI" tiJe piu.'. !)flh~ f;:rt1nk;~ljafl.. cmnk ,(J.ftli t!J'e .r;;f'Q,~:s-hmd ., MH!;~ig; ditlm'(!t~r:s 8fJ, 60' (lJ1d }(JO' ~:mJI
• ....: J. -

(\l) {a) Velocity of .ruibMng !It cF'dn.ks'mi (!It 0)

pita of ~he

== OO<Jll! 1'0= 20

!o:

0,1)4 = 0,8 !lUIs


1

~ f€!!P'lf&,~i'Vd~Jt, $O!UUOOH Fig,yl'¢ 2.JO~..) shows dii!grorrl to :;;l; cotlvt;:!1!lierlil:se~le,

the (.1omJfigl!ra~ioll

.·810 (.. ,1'.. -:-.2 {b) MP~~ is (lOliln'I.cN;ku::l1l!,;' clockwise. Vdoc:ily of rubbing A "" (Wo;l.,·f, (l)~~ r~

::

40 mm, . .

ise a!ld

alba ~.~

v,p= ,~ x 0.1'1 "" 20 )0;, 0<48 :;;; 9.6mis The v~dor oqualiO'n is VfuJ, ="':b,;r -+

".N

<lIt the crnD1l~ pill

Or'

"" (20 + .3.28)

)of

0.03
~()I!

"" (I.693 imfs, [c) AI the;: c,ro~s-he(id,. the' slidecr does or

rot.u~ iind ()!m!I:yIli!e:,eil,)n:ll~clillgrod lias :lrIb "" OII1+ab


lh1i!
aI:l,gll~;!'irIrtiQlt~cm. Voro W gei!l!\i('l

Tak~!!h(l vect(lr
]1!1'oper di:rectiOI:1i and

a conve[li,elJlt scale in, the [Pig, 2. 10 (b)],


It.;)

Ve.]odty 'ofrubb,i!1g, a~ th~ cress-head pin


~HI

v,~ is .1 All" dra~Yillline .1/!BLbrough. a;


'TIu,~s~idc:1ilJ has ~ !il1eitr luoti,QIIl re~~tive

ill"", rb =

3.2:8 OJ},) =OJ Moofs


if(

the

gl!lidl; G. D!1lw a litlC iP!IW:!!]~el lQI[lC dili~clilon of ][]ot~O:JJJoftbe g,I:idclr1:iuoughg ,(or 0)'. TI:U1S, thepo.bu

E.1'aluple .2.3

bis ]oca~ed.
(i) Vc:locuty ofth(': sl icl~f.Vb =Qb = 9'.7

!li~

®
<to

Figrm~ .' .2,,} las}l,ows

W) ~Qc=wte;tbepQh~:~ en bii:lexJe!1lId.~rJ ~li!dn.i~~t e -""hil lJA


Iil.a "" 5.25 mls on ~:m:3sul':ingfro,ml~'lC
~:i<il,gmnl.

ae

.1£

.1 50 11,m .in the OJ 'titdociiy ~/l'Il~ slickr Gt D

ftjBr::ltauism iJl,wMc.i~' oA QC "" UI{) m~n,liB .,. QlJ ..,. . lfJ() I1r;'h ,arid CD = 250 111m. The trunk O:A' nUal·B.$ at . ,flu:! clomvise ,di~'CIf,QII.D'(!I(!nnjn~

mv

(if) angufcw lrelfJ,Cl#eS nJbb(ltgwlccify


fI'i,m

at tlu]' pb~

oflinkiJ QlJ a:naAl1 , .B which is


... ~e '" 5.25 ;:':"1"'00 "" 1.48au/s


11:~;;;;; (lIoC-

OA5

i~ dit:wJe'fl1r' 2:lt' x 15m


60

lO,L

m/s

draw of .1 ;lb thoo!Ugl:J til,


' ..iI.. • -~"' LOC<Jlte'tll.e:POUU r

~vbJieJ~hoo rhe .Ieast v,e~(leil.yrel;]U\'\e to the cra~lsbfit!Jir hes the k"a~tab~g~l!teVc;klL:;ity,


On}1 '.. SOC ~ t ~e -

To, locale a :poiolt F on the oon:n1ec'lil:lgrnd

ru,:.., VjW''''
~(1'!':>i~

"" 15. 7'

l<lidt~

0,4 "" 15.7 ~OJ.


\1'- .+"0'
00

= L,S? m/s

The

VOC!iOl"

eqlillil!l.iolUl.'[(Ill the~I;l~,l]!Ji:nlism OABQ.


at>

htl

AF;d' =;--= All all

v !.:v =

2.'76, AF"" ],60:-: S.2S"" 0.84 :m


Vj = or=

M..nafu

or Vbq =; ~"". + ""~<l' or qlb;;;;;; ea + ~b Take the veetor v:f[jJto ,:iI ,eOI1\1\ml~Cnll scalein pl:'Op.e:1" di~1ectijoll lind sense [fig, 2;, ~ 1. (0)]. vjffi, is .1AD. draw ". line .!L AD IILf1..)"'!d~Ol!:;

~Ile

As bl,Mh th~ ~htk!i; ,C!onJ!lJ~cted !lIt !J b;ave ~oUl~ter~ eleekwise <lliigularvelocities


v,eroc[ty ofl!l!1bbiUlg8!t ~he cr..tnk pin 13 "" ((000"'" (6.3 - 5.63) x 0.04 ,. 0.0268

~rI r"

mls:

E::ttll,!:!pl!l' 2.4

2'.T2((;JJ. 111ft:cronk rolal:r:sil" dirri!cti('J~l' .160 rp~Jl. The ditll,r~ele.r' at Q!the:ptmzp pi.<;l'()n ,at F'i!S JOO mm. lJin~"Il~kms ~heclockwise

iil:lef1gi'~f! cmflkshafi dri~ej a rtJCip}'O(YM,ing pumpl11fO!tgh ,(,I mer:ltdlli§m as sboWl:i 1'1 Fig,

.of.th~WfrfOU,'1 lifl,'t'i ,a:1W OA ""110 t1'l'1'~(rr:r.m!k) CD ee 1 ;fJ' AB'= 6i60mm

mrl,l

Be....:HO_tnl.lf

~b)

fi,g,2..11

v&q is . 1. Q'B. dIllW a line .L QB thir()'!Jgj1 q; TIn::; llllilcrscc~]m] of '(be two Iines Jccetes poi.[I~ b.. !Loco"te the POiillt e on !q.l~such ~haJl
Iqe ""

FOol' IrlEt pru,i!iO'lJoj :In! cf'tNnk :shOWj~ h1 ~~(!i diagram. de.umnl.ru.~ th~ . (i) lle/odt)' of the; cro'!fSilf!ad E (ii)llt!/ocil)l olrllhJJi~g, allhe IJb~ /;1,8', G and I), t/Jf! dla,netenJ' h~hlg: 4(), 3()~ J() o:J1d;.. 50 min resJX'Ct,ilieJ~' jI " "..

~b.c

~i.ii) tQ.rq~N reqr~in;ifall1~


"'. piw.'i,IiUFt.'

,ll«ji (1 to OJ'(!Jt."O'f.{.ril ()f;"f)(JlrN11I~ '?lltl(l pumpi,'fI{all


5:.

Cit .F

moo"",
300

0.3

qb

for: lhcI'J1CCh,il,[lism geD, '''.~'' '\Irk + \'('07 or' v,1g" "'cq ·iF· \Ide (},r Rd"" q e + etI V,/l.' [~~ ,1,DC,. drn\,>' a H:Il,e ..IL .DC tbro~1gJ;1, 'e; The vGclorcqwUlol1
.!F()rv(lg~draw
fI ~ine

O~rollJghg~ pa:rnlld

to the

H:~e

o['stlrioke Oiflitile sHde.illlll.e ~ide G. 1"11e iilll'iercSec~~olll of liH.': h~'ol i:rae~sloC"a:I:es the ~liDt d. (j) Th:eve~oci'ly ofS:l1dcr ~t D'! vd' = g,d=

.a

>O.56'llv:s
(v~.)[
(~I=

vb<,[ -..•

QB
~Ih"r

= -. -. "'"5:,63radfs
'~13
!oJ • .:!

]IlS9

C(lililnu:r~c.lm;:1!::wis;e

(v]i),

Wk,'"' ~=

AltO

U~9 ...., . .,"",~- 6.3rndls.

.. ,~~. coumer-e '1 OC.J:\.W:lSIe

(IJ)

l'.g.2..1'2

Copyr ghtoo material

ll!/'"

ee ;:::; n.SA~mlcS

l'iL .,.,~
. ,""I

2'1tN

5D

",.

21t

60

160
-

. .'. , ... Ui.16 r'ddf:s . ... ..

(ii) (.11) W!I"and ~

'vOtr ""

(!\r,:. 0:,41"" l6'.16 x 0.17 ~ :US mfs


)1

Writing .o.4BC,

~he

lI''¢CI~1f ¢qua'tioi'i

for the meeJ'lil!!1lik'im

Woo '" AB"" 0".65 "" ,],,1'"1 :mdJs Vi;:loc:ity Qf m'blriWlg: at the [iio A' '"' I( w;(iij] - .~ .ra
·,:,l16.76~J.71~ 2 x-_\, l
O.()i1

abo

both ,:U"C cleekwise .. i.4!>

eb "'"OB, "t ab

::tJ 2(ib)]
l'!Ja 'Y!)c

l1~ke tile vecier 'Vm,to a c()n"'~tlientSIC'ale [fig.


:~:s,.lAB., d:m.w
Bi

Une LAB through a ~

Ve~~ilY 'of.r~bb~l1g,U. B "" (,~d,+ ~ i


"'" (3.77
.oj?

.ri.\.

3.3,:5:)>::: 'O.lJI.5 •.. " «(0,* "" ;(~)


<l~ C

is .L Be, cl!r;lW.<Ii line J. BCtbll'ough c.

The in1A.~tio.n. ofth'C t1o'l'\O lines ~ocates~hc p1lint IJ. Ve~odty of .IJrilildveto C i.s UpW.Il00S fOIl" the g;,"'e!IIconfiguration .. Therefo,re~. ~flelink .BCD moves OOiUi,ICN.::lockwj!iie!libol.!t ~lrJcpi...ot C.
~d<.;

"'O.lQ_1 mJs (c) Vel.odty of rubbing

... ~

.,~

Vf.!,e
Of' li'.l.., "'"

DC

sc

"" 3.36 x (103 ~. 0.0,5 m/s 2 (d) ,(i;i•.."and, Cit'tl,bOlh are C.o'LI~1tcilf-c·loc:Ik'wise (!Jed ~ ~ .~ 3 ..35 mdls ... (BCD i~,one ]wflk) ..... . ~~"..t_. 0.15 .• \ 'II , ..ll'-' '" ow",,"" £1) "" 0.83 = V ...~g, ~Y\!':S
i;1 .... -

CU1 I •"'l'~, )( -_... d 0.5,.1.

0.!lo n.lI1S ·'1 ..

(.ll}C)

cos.
of

Writing the \1'c,e-h)I" CQ.u:l'lionfor tke: m~ch!lni~m

Vc:ioc:ity of mbbit1£,flt .0 7 '(W;;'l - lro,"'I~11'"


- (,;1,,;;;_ -.
-'I

'l'S

0 'J8) 7

O.t}S x-~= 2

-(1.079 mfs

or Laki~'''!!'d!:in the [p]'pper d.~r¢.Ction and sease :rrO:ln


e ,lIsS-l~m:ing lJ il1il.the Iconfl,gIU'iIl'ion 1l'Irr;"ct poiru {1m Iim!( OJ; diagrnm ,m;, '!!III

(:ii:i) Wonk i:nput "" Woo,rlCou.tput T.(J')= g", where

r
11 =.

Cd ;;;;;. arl,g1lliar veiilJiCity

to.wquc 0:1iI the cr.luk~~a:fi. oQ,f the 'cmnk;


0111 th~ p'iS~(i~
= iiI

F =. for'cl;

~'()I()iCilY' flil' the P£1;tOIl

= l~.

\".~ isL DE. draw a line 1..DE lI~roughd.


:For v~;;:, draw a line 1liIrm:lghg:•. ra:mHe:1 to UJe

Thus, negloc-1:illglosscr.;, t;=: f~.v_ ::: .!. ('0,02)1 :.:<300 :x In.l x 0..54

di:rcction of motion of the slider E in th~ guIde G. This way the pomt e i'~ IOC3ill~.
(i) The velee i~y lii'u:: cr.o.s~ead. of

1.6.76

'U

.303,66N,m

Copyr'ghlcd materia'

.Ffguni
~I

2.l3(a) ~31~ow.~

jim:1

fo,t' tlUJ givenconJigftJ':(JUrm.1j aA rot;ares aI.l00 ,rpm i~Jh'(!. c-Jocblisf! mreC1io'lr. (ill) (VI'
#,j(XJ1!' Wllociti~

'~i!'~h 'GoA j(j{) 111m. AD ee {iliO 1111U, A C ""OD ee 1.2 m. OD i.s ,horizontal
fnl(!chau,P;s1t1.

,·n

(!'I

()fCal~d D
ojUnh AC ,(J~unJD

C1Jfglj$a1' Wl{()C,ilies

:30"
//' ... , •.,;1

cd! ,.. ob +- lad _ v.Jt,is .L BD, d:mw a line .llJD tl:ir{)'lI!gh b~ Fa, "'de' d!r.'iW <I.iii:le ,n]j!!,Q~gh e~pamlle:l. ro th.e ~h~G (If stH~k4;l'.It t~e (I]$toni!!'ll. ille gu£d!c p, n!l':in~erseC:~'~OI~~oca~li:sdle IlOi~IJt d. v" sa K '" .5,.2 [[Ills v,l'" IIJdi ;;;;. ].55 m/~:

co. .. ,m ~
t:!C
M

.!'~/I.;::;

AC

].2)0

5.i .= gJtmdffi:C]ock~w~s(l

~&I

..

_. ,. "I d·j· 1 ~" . ~ooJJ. _ '-. _.", _ 5.:17 = ",.:1' If,as C.OC:IliW:!s>e - V,lI! ... .. lJ[) L20

Example

2L6

For
~

of the s,~idtJ' A is.:1 mA


;ig..2,13
(0.

"lecr~t<mil1m Sh(,)W'll' m N;g, 2. .14(a) •. filid t~/~ Felor:;lty of t:he sJid(fJ' /J for the ,"Ul'eo'R CQifi.gf'rlJ·~'i'(}J~' if lhe ~f(ICfZY'

:::I.

HI
,J<

pasliu;m

of the.
_,_

,., '""

2n: x 200 .. _..

60

... = 209'4 ....

_,".Its;
1<lI'.I!l'"

VOl "'-

w~P;j " 20,94 x 0.3 "'" 6,2$ nvs "

'Vr:i~]n~ Ule'VfCIJIl)r' eq,1!I!atio!!l for the meem.:mi&m

O:-J'C.
or

or
gc ,;;;;@i!l '

Vb.:i

a,v
,

'0.1;

+ ae

T.<!kc thc'll'CClu.r l."13(h)]..


V""I:5 JL 11C. draw
"q::

"'00 toa
11 line

(loRvc!lJie~t

scale [Fig~ .'

It!
~b}

lOl, (I),

is

V'crlical.

J•.4(' thOOlll~IIi;, ,draw U vertical Hne: thro:llIgh 'g

FJg.214

S'()Jiukm The vcl.oc;ityvecto.r

egJUlati!ol'Jl

~s

ThcililtCm'Scc:i.ioml. of thei,'i,vQ lines l.oCt."Ites the point. e. ILQC<.lJtc the [lJoiirlt. bon 31(; ;a$ l!IS!lJ;<il~Qii[J ob C\lIihich giliCS "00. Wril~ng tht:; \!\ectl)f C:qI!l.ll,tiO!ll. fbli the med~8inl.snl OA.Bl)" ...
V,ib

=.

V<l/j.

+ "&1

Tal1ie tile

\lector"!'.,.. (",,3 ]lIIJs} ~Q a cO!llve['!ieot

scale [Fi~, .2.l4(b)]

Copyr'ghloo material

~locily .thlrllysiSl.
VIM

is _lAB, draw a line AB throl!.lgh 3;


.\1!

line through g parnl,lel ~() the line of sa:roke Qf the s,lider IJ 9[1 ~eglilide G,
Fot \'~ d.raw The jil1i~ern~cti:ouof ~he
pelot b.
h?i'Q

slider E and equal scale. "

10

:2.5 m/s using s.ome

]i[);~s I~~

tb~
"

Through e drawa line .L. EC lImlltl.mugh 91" a Iinc J. ;fe. rhe intersectiou ofllllcse two H[bl!S ]oe~t~s 'll1lepoi:n.'I:IC. Lecete the PO~!l1 t(ul[he\lecto,r caso tha~ 'b

Velocity of B ;;;;;: ;;;;;;: mls. :gb 2.67


Example 2.7 _ In mi&hani.sm !lawn i;1 Fig.
'vel(Jcity

c'3Jcb "" CAleB. " Tlliro'iJlgh b~ drawa ]Iine ,.L lJD ,and lilrougJl1 iii. 11 line p;mdlel to direction of molic:m of Ihe: slider D, the intlllrseciliorli of these two lines leestesthe peim d.
of link BD .. b(LlB'lJ '"'

,(9)
,.,
"I!JII'e
(If

.,.-

2".1J(a. flu:! angular

ojlluH:rankOA;' ,IJrad/s(»ui

. r$ lleftl.MI. tli'i:r:1 the


,pasitro.n
ShilWD, 151ji'l1'j'

the s,iia(iu:aIE ts con INlim:d to 2. rml8. The'rlzoriOli o/bmb the .. I~ckn >
liI!A-:BC is Iwrlz(!lll'(JI' lJ'eI'IJrmifJ:e tilt!,

'11 fhe

(I) Angular velocity

2.9510.26 ""I!] J, rad/s, (COWl,laler·d,ock\\"i~e)


Angul1lr 'li!\e~.ocily of Unk

(I) ruh'binglre/ocity ,at'lJ if the ,Pin dimn:eter is

K4fO .. ;;;;]4 m'dVs '~cloc:bvjs'c) 6

sc

be/Be ...

(it) wit, 'lIy (JJ slider D..

TIHI:s''fclodtj! of mbbing at B '" (~ ..;.m",.)j·1I =0 Ll, + !4) x 0,015

=nJ8 mts. (ii) The velocity ortl~e slider D =Inli


EKtUl'l'P"l!' 2~8

= 8.3

m/s

Til'(! len.glf1sq/,'ariolls 2.1'6((0 are asji,,1I0Wti:

links

of a mech'(lli'if;1Pl ShD~W~ ;,~ F~g.

~b)

Soll,ltl,~m
Dmw

l~rl ""

ru~:OA;: 'IS;x 0.2 :: 3 mls


Iilil,

lh-c '\i'e'lm.::~tyd:ii.ll:l;.:am !IS follow!>:

Talc vector

to

3,

suitnbie scale (2,,]Sb) .

•'

Ccnsider two points G ~md II {III the guides, of sl!idern .E and FI\.'SpeGti,~I:y. In, (he vdocity df!agmm, I:lte POi1iUS g and Ill. co h:u::hle with e, 'Jmmoughi Ii:" take ... vector gli: paJ.1dh:~,(Qdirectien of ma,tiiol1 of the

- 0.1"" 1j'() mm

Ae -

600,p,mn CQ '" QD ~ J45 'ml,~

CD'" .125mm lJ..D "" 50'0' Inm


OQ '" 625mli'.1

Copyr ghlad materia

EX!1ml,'e 2.U

Til'e' l~iocJumiJj'ln (}If


r::r'll:lhcl'

(J'

staue~'aj:'knls m/Jf.
(J$ .~

is

[,llltJiV,i

l,~ Fig,

1.1f)iiS] ahJtlg

~~dth

.1j
mtlJarm 'i!(!!m:ily

dj'~'ICJr,~UII~ qf fjj1k.vtN t.:ftlI:Jli;: .oA mli(}l(J1S

.110 rpm. i/efermin.r!; 111ft! l'i?lovilJ'of ,I'M' poim K Oa~L")l~'laenli1ft crtmk 0:4 i.f i!'1e.JiWtrJ £11aIr '/~''''.J/e n/ J(.I~fa flut !ml'iz(JlfJwN; WirOlwUlIJlethe.iQl'1~~ftreqi~;rMnt lire f:'"m~k OW ~oIlIli't!'I'i:W'I!t" (1 h()"~n:J1lll!jorof!! (~f 4ll m atl{7 ""' "" ,2.w >:: 120"", '1'O!. rndl:s .... ""~ 60 .,....
\1

(JJ

{lII'Im) (a)

~I.m= aJ'llIx ,0;]""- ]2,6

)i;

ttl ""-] ,26

ru/s

Wr!f~ the Vt\CltOf '~qoMh'lf~ for 'tlilCIi!l~h~fWis"l. OADQ and ~oll~pklc the vdocity diagram} a:.'i ~$f~lll [(Fig. 2" ~9(b Milke AbD.c simi ~m:lj]' .~BA C (both. areread docbl;,iise). W.ul~ tho li!~ctor ~qll3tll.Of'l fm tilile: lrmreh:3ni!Snil OACDM and c(nl1pko:tei ~.l1c'\ieiocil.y diag:em'll.MaJ:re MUII,k,s:Lnlilarlio .hlJMK n)O~h are read ~io~k\~~se). v:t "" ok = (1.45 wn/s ~~t ~~Qri?JQ!1!l;;lU' 039!1wCS { :;;;;

:r.w"",-" = Fll'~ (hor.iul31t3.t)


'I'"

.•i

~.

40000

x 10.39

~!'i) = I "I.4~' N
~ ..

12.6

i".",

· .. m, :

Flg. 2.;1~,

\Vhi Iii; alli1ily.si!l!l; tb ~

!TJ;OliQIl~

of various;

links. of

~~uec~llQ~is!1!!~. s()m,e'li!im~s we ate f!!~cdwi I,ll the


problem ofdes!l)[['ibi~lg Ihenmli'tUl nf'a IUQlfic!lble po.int O.IiI,<l link whidl. lUIS s{)!mc ,l'lI.]g'ular vdoci!y:. !POQ" ex:::amp.!e. th~ mo[iO'IiI, of:1 ..~H der on a. r(li~::!:tiil'ilg link.In such a case, the :aIro,gliDI3rvel{lch~ of the rolO1!tflli.g,~ink a]Qng widl, thelinear vdocilly oflhe slider U1.1.y!JC lmowr:1 a:!ld U :may beL'CCjllired to
I!DUd!djJliJ 3ii:i~oti:il'~ 'V1l:locity o"tlliie!>Hd:(lr.

.r

A CF.imlk ~[Jd sruoU.$d·]~'H;j;mecb~al~S~]l., hich w fOrl:l1l (}f quick •.ro'ium !il:lec:fu'3:ra:is:mjsLi\l:1 ~ ~bt S,loitt~ng <!m~ sll<l:piIlS machines, (]i~'p,ic~:;I.lle serne fof1tl of ~l1!(ltk)~ [F~g. 2.:2~H1I)J.OP' is th~ ci[~I,]k [{llatin_g ~llt I1].In1~iU'l .. r ve.loc:ity of ,w rndls i:lrn. the {
ILS:

a.

,c~ockwise diirecliolll abont ~hc centre O. At the end of thecrank, 3J slider P i~pi"i'Q~~d hiehmoveson ... w n ~S!C m~,tin;g ~il'lk.JR, In SU-ch[,li'oble!m1S, i'~is co'Urveililiei!ilt if ap.o'ili)t Q on lh~ Unk .~R il~,lmed~1!iliel.ybelow Pi~ assumed to exist (P <1iflidiQ' a:rc' known as cOlllcnldenl po~inf,s,). s ~hecrnnk rotmc3, t~~,creIS ((lll!lIt1v'e lnO\i'C'mc:nu of l~n~po.~nt!iP !lud A Q alQng Alt 'Wri.ting the vecrer equm[olt fm llilc mceh~I)l:~m OR:4~

Vel ,of Q ~t to 0 "'"Ve:~I,ofQret to P ..;- el. QfPreL to 0 V

aq: .. np In ~Ibi:ilequation,
'V",J'

+ P'<J

or

"p' ""tiaOP;

L I() OP ]11

'v'll'

Q.fpq is unknown

m3;g;n~rlld~ ~I to AR ;
fully [F'~g,2.20I{bH,.,

v.p or aq is 1!.l.tI..kno1l.\luin :!t!ug..nitw,ir;l ,;1hJ ,Af? T~e the vector


C'i/'l,'I'

Y~J!jIwll~ebi~

kiW\At,ii

is III AR. dn.w a Um~II

~(I

ARlbwt!Sh l~;

"!fIr

!,s.lA~.R, draw a Hne ,Ld.R ~l:imli.l,g!h (Qr 0). a

'Inc L"1~'Ction ~oc.";l~estb¢poiTJ!tq.


'The v«l'or ,eql!",tlun,fOJl!iheabove could alsn ~.we beeuwriuen
Vel. of.? rei..10 A' = V~lof P rel, tu

as

Q + V,d. or Q r~l,10 .i

or

ClIP =aq+ qp

Take (he ''!?cct:O[ '\I,JO' whieh is C'OO~plete]y !known.


l'iH'

~s. JL4.R. dr~w a line l.;lR through ~; liAR'. draw a line i~ throughp. Ii,/(

"'f.quS

'TIle :illll~rse~~kumlm;a:tc-s U'lc:poiJiiJ q. Observe tbaJ lhc~rcloC'ity dia:gr.Jfil1soi;)[<!:im"din th~ two C!JSL::'ii !l!"()~C

same except H~;l!lthe dwcctiol1l ()f'llt"l' is tho ru\lcrse ofU'lal 'o~·v'fJ'.


As the
vectors

components"

aq and! qparc: pcrpenClI.c:uJar to c'udl olhe:r:, the v!i!c1:or'v P'! m<J.y bc1!S-'iulncd Ul h<liVeM,O one :perpendicu~mr to ,AR<'!oo tile ulhew ]Xir"."I.Uel ()A R" ~

Copyriphted materia'

~.

Tlil.~1Y 1)/ hWt'lil1liS

The \:,ompQne.. t 'Of V'c.IQ(.Uy along Ai, :i."e• gp iJl,~ica;oos.rulllerelaHve v:eloci;tybetweM Q,md Por the . : dl¢ block onl ii!1l Ali, Now, tile vll~'oohy of R rn~.ptM:pCndfeyLuf ~Q All., A:~th{! ·...cl.ooity of'Q [pCfpcnAicuJM 10 iJ'.li$ MJfwn. '!he point F wjl~l !~ie O[!'liet;'I()t ~q produced sucbLb~lll1 ..fa!q= .ARIA!] 1'0 inal.he velocity of ram S~wrile the veloci!yvector equlu'10n,
\~\llocily of ~Iid~!'lgof

or er !!is'''' Ot+ n, v ff:' iii ah'cildylhl.i:m in, th(l diagmtri ..D~w a line (hLro:ugljr p.c:rpcDdiclim~[ ~o R.S for thtll yt,ClUf ·\'~I'~Dda IIDt; ~ali()ugfug, p1lr:;)!ii~llQ th~ li~J~of mQtiQo of tha slider S (!In~e: trgi@ G. fQr .!h(,1i vector Vog' In this way th¢ p;)!int~

s is ~.oc~ioo.
The vel.flil.~il.>' uttliLe ram cS ""
Abo, (0 .
0$
.

(ar gs) towa~dsr:ig'Jl for the


..

givetilpo.s~ill~IOI:I of

the cr'lll~k..

...!:l. clcckwise

l'_.

..

RS

U~1;.Iany. the ..... ('1ulpler RS is lung .lnd ~ts~bliq'1:!jtyilj: ~~gh;;"t:lG-d.


Then er '" O~

Ti:m.enf cuU~ug
Time ,of tel1iJl:ITl

'~'-

1/)'

When ~hect'<lnK{~SSI,1II:ni,:;".lhl.): ~jl:il;!~ Of" dUrll'!g th~ c.:lliing :!!U{)k~~,. eJ)m~~~1 of '\ieloc:it~~rO!'lg A:R the (i.Ie.,pq) ~s zero and oq is. m3J)ii·mll,un {'" (lp) let r"" ~Ienglh (~fC:!'a!i!k ,("" ()'P) I "'Icng.th ofs]otted le;\lt::r (-- AN}
e '" di:st<mce: between fixed cCililtres ("" .11'0)
ill""

a!l1;&iu~ar vc.loci.ly oftln.e crank

Then,

during the c;M,uing. !>troKl:l.,


c!l~m1_..
::::;

, .. AR ,mx OF' x ~

AQ

=001'

X --. C+1'

..

'fI.11511:'> by negll~c;ctilng ~1l~Qbl.iq'Yi~y(;'Ifll!.; ~i!1lk. i.¢, ~:i<."ll!mi.flg ihe velgc:i~y oOfS ~"ql!alIQ lhillt (lfR, f(S~ SimU:arly.,
d~llrjll~gthe renrrn
'" ,(1))(

s!roke- •
AQ"

.}D". .( I· X -.

A'R = .(1)1")<; '. _. I I

c-r

I'il:Jr~

c+r

ror

. -r c

"'-c+r

c-t'

Copyr"ghtcd

rnaleria'

Figlif{f .':U.l,(a) ~lMn1<!.~thf!,I;'iJc 11:1 b(li~lsm Of a ql~tck rt!t~fm C mdun'!'s:tNo/ the dQ!fe~llevef' tlPe:< t/~c W1;iQr/~ di.m,&JMio'l!.';i ~l" qiu!hicf~ are ~ Qvl' f -fOC),~liJ~.l,oP -= lOG '~.m.l.A.R "" Jt)lJ rim!.• RS_~SO() Fl'1~~.1 . "" , .. Ror tile.; co{fftgura1Jm.1 S}rO'l\I#, .dett.->J'~nrl.il:! tite, lrfJ,~f}..r:iI:YTf).j ~ 'CilllirJg[:oJ;)( ai Scmd ,11ft,lI~gular l
• 0- ~

E'X(,i!,tlp·le 2'.12

Draw a :~inedm:augh r ~!!l1~lU~ndilclJ~a:r~o for I.h,e RS'


veCl0r
~ml a lili!eIJt~m~gl~ pllra]~.e] [0 me lil~eof :g, G,. filr Ih('! vecter \l~g' In L~i8way the pownt s is .1.oC'llI!lm.
"'11'.!'

®
rptll.

~nOli.O:nl. the :sUdier {) ijl1I:]U~ gUiide of

1be vekl,~il.y(lfth~ ram S ~ !liS,{Of


rnJtisc{).wMds m1!lllufot the ciCank.
\Iff.

{l!ii1);;;;;

4.5rnJ~
of ~hc

~iIV~!1!rosirtiOi~

Al'I.glWlar VdiOCi~y oni:1iI1 RS.


(,0'..

•&:e~or:Nj'-,()f.ihe tj~'k RS. Th(J "CFl1Jik OP:.i'(JtatC$ at

2M

·n

RS

"'.

1.4

(U

. -:'"

. .. . . 4.61 ]:lldis eleekwise

£rl1!'IJpfe

2.:1'3
.

a~d ti~'e;~li:dh1:gwrlQCitp.Q/.{/u'~ block

f',or the in'wm'ed slider'oGrank rm:du),"ri$/I1 shmWl .in Fig. 2..2.2(liI)" fil~d fIle (Jiigu/(Jr l'f!/ocity of Ihe lillk QR
ml

th(;tli'nk

QR,. The cronic CIA is 3()f) ~fm .l(J.~g ahd ''l)l'{JM:s crt l'Q roa/s i~ lh~'doQh!'isedinlCiioTl. OtlM> 6:m milt Ql1d QqA' ;= 400.

[16'

--

.211'X

210 601

;;;;;;; .",m·s £ !:Ii

....... ' --

(a)
df--

Omw th~ eo!:'!f!:lPlvatio!~ to


Vr[<"' =

~~iu'lbh.l seIde.The

V1.'!cl:o:r c,,!1lIa~lionror thieUilu~c:hanisnll OPA.

lip., +v 'lP

,or

IlIjJ '"'

op +pq

hi!. thi S C'<.IUl'llion,. 'II~ or op =: (i) .op -- 12 ...'0.2 "" 4Amls


T::1Jk,eth~ 2..;2.] (b)] . .
'VIll'
\I' q,iI

'IIec'l)[llt'!iI:r, ..

which ~~ fruUy

1l:::i!(lWIi!

[F~g_

(b) .Frg. 2.2.2, ,

II';
(QW 0),

is III A.R·. dj;~w a Unit;;III to AiR tha:tl~~g


i~J,. A R., 4mw
.(lj

lim~J.I!~' through

!~.

S(lll.,Uon 11111;vel()ci~y Viech)r ~lII.alioo wrll'I~~ !Is 1]~!I,.II:d.


V'~'l''"

C<f~

tl~

T~¢ilf!te[fSecl:i(:!:l:l ~(I~~ue:);~!I1e [l(i!][uq" !fi...~c.ue'~he p1l,:int Ii (lIn thc¥ee~or aqp:mdm:ed SIU::::1li ~h3tll.rtajq.

vu.!o +lIliq

(If

"loit"''foo+'Vu;:;

V,~" ea Vbq T \~,~

v~=

l'ooTVM

;;;;ARIJJQ"

ea= q.b+b~

(111iI, .'" ~9 ... iJIbl

Copyr ght9d material

VII¥! is f1!1~~YkUlOWI~ ~1fId after ~~ll:il:'lg this vector" drnw ]~IJ:csfm"JJqI~ml 'V~ID(orYltd) !l:tldl:~~e t!lilc~oirn;i;

rExtlrnpie 2.15

b. ~)bv!otlsl,.~h~' dHl~iC;I:!OJm:·:iC!~:Si\: lllo!5 'Oh


fin'ieqU1!liol1; ,. _ " _, v((b W:qr - ru(t~ -

0pp!J.l~I~1i.l110 '

thm of!i'~, Fign~{l2.12 1(1l) shows the sohnien of th~ .

DC!

Q[i

lIbq

1rf t11s prmlp meehanis,ftl F~g. 2.24,(f!I,),. Oil 3]l) j\!,N;ot~, ArC "'" tIRO mill am! ~ OQ = 6'$.{) mm .. Fol' tlie.' gillf'/i C{/ttflgur~tl'Dlj,det'l1j1f1.1~f1 the ; (iJ t~iI.wll(lf' ~'eIOc.i~! tlie cyll)ulel!' .of (ifJ sli'dirlgve,locrty 01 i;~/,tlpJ~m,ger
,~fl.O~lI:f.l fj~

11!1

(IU) al$oJl~/'eiV,~{Q"UFQltl~ep.lulJcger rb~ CI~I~_kOtt ml;(#£.~ 01 20 l'arJ/3 ql(JC:~lvi~e • .A

SI.idil1g '\leI,ociit)!' ofblocik:=


,EX'(I~!I~,ll'l':2.14

\i~

or ah

5.45: mis,

@
__
650
mlrt:

.~..'.(,._.'.§ " ,2.2 0,',')'

Fa'!" file pv1.fititmof fi,(! 1,~"nlsm S~Olil"'l 111 Fig; 3{aJ, ""(J'h:ul(J/.~,th~c/'~llfQJ' l>Ielodryo! the lirJu JfR. 011
is 3,00
mJ1J

Itmg

aJtd .rol:meS'

tU 10 l'-adJ£ tIt Ihe clocilwlsg lii.r~difJ,'I. OQ ""

mltl

QOdl '"' <I,()"


Elg. ~23

S(i!/tj thm

11~=

20

0.3

'=

6 I~S
v,,& + 'Vb.,r

WluillU u~;gthe vec~Ctir eql!laliollil,

SQ$~{,~iDl,~ !.';r<> ==

0..32 ;< 20 == "j/:lm!s

+ 'V~, SClIV~llg,~lle ilrnlom:.


'Vl><o "" '11",."

{if\''"'l''

.Mc.l~f,od PrOOlIJccA C~I(IR, I lrnl'lcACIJ<!S8CS tln1Q~gh


i'!w. piVllt Q..Let .lJ be .a: ~Oiillit on .i1R bmelllithi Q..
\I'V"rhil:lg ~b.e UC~OI' eqiJ3tioli1.
V~Jo:I:="'(1,;;1 +vw

vb,joo .. ="I'+'V M
'qb ""'0:11 +ab l:JIkl!:: tl", h) a ·cojjve!l:!ie!l~ sc ale [Fig. 2.23(bn " Vrur i~. AB. draw .. ~ .JL ...J.Blhro~lgh .11.; L ine
Of

er

'Yii!1

= ''''00 + vfxJ

So~'viillig <till" of t~lfse cqjlii:liti.O(~s lc.1& to Silrne VL1!~Odly ding;!1IIItl e)!ioept fOf the direotion ofvt\fj and
"'I]'.tp"

v~ is <)~,O~lgAB, ,d)r4w.. line IlllO AS ~mcmghq,


l~leinl:e:rwcU·OIJJ lnentes the IP'O.iitllt b.

Tllidug the ~.t1uer(~ql;l~~[on,


","'1';;;;; ",<IIi, +"f,!iJq

Copyr ghlocl material

()

(mimi,

lIE!)

Fig. :2.2.7 I

Oii)

Stf(il:ke

or IlliI~ raek
.BAB'
.!T'
;0::

III)

= :tl1gUtiiif

displ,ac~!l1i;f.lt

ef'the quadrant x its radius

= angle
.

All
(l)bt; ""

2rt x 3100
1!Ij[l
..' ""

~o¢,4 x _;;_ x 121(1~ 9!2,2mm

J 1,4 'rn4lls

180

,(-LBAlr ;; 44111 by :measuremC'4iIt) Examp,' e 1.18 .J,~ ,the mec,hquism

vb''''

lL4.l'( O'J ee ::'U4 m~


diagTIim ]:5 eompleted as fol~Q\V'8:

>

.in,v;,!

liJrg-jrJirli

The velocity

511.fJWfl

in

'.

Fig, ·2._8a), ,AD is tlfe 'UFt tng ,cnmk ,mttldllg al 3(}(J

rpm clockwise. mm. I Of} mMi~,Be = lWI) [lIT/,i, cs, .e.F ~ .40(j' mm,. OP ""
,th 'mochtmlsm.

: The I~ngl'llsafthe llGf"iol:ts IlnA,. an~


./ID

= 630 mm•.. ,WI' '"


fJ/lS
ee

",DlC = ~2jO

:'340

iUfn, FS·=. 400 rml'll

~ .'ltFOrIIIC

gi\lElJ C(MJi, ,'ilJ'atwn 0'

~deiermine tlu~ (d l'clocity olth.r1 slider block S

..

~(lirtmgilliir ~"lociIY 0
,In)
1->\

lile 1,i;lkEF

locilJ! of the Ihlk SF I:t!111ftsl~'i!ltfJblock •

nmw the \!e]odty diagr:nn of the fowl"·ltil1ik Illedl3:nism ABeD as U~II{l.l.',I{ltdng wilh I.h,i'): vector ~b a~shD)w!1in Fig, 2.28(1il). Loc.ate' ~h,e point ,e iuthe ,'cl,oci:ty di,OlIgra:m at tBie uidpQrtiit (If !bc' as rbl(l poiNt E ~!li,~:Il¢ midpoist oili'8',C.Let be I), point ou jhe I.i]ll EP ,ilt ~he jQilnt. O.ilrn,w "J line' .IL EQ' l1uQ1Igh e, ,il POll'll en wlil~cl:'!wl ll i~il~'iC~Ctilt,llhc: vd~i:ty of Q relailve to .E. The' slidirll,g 'veilllcimy of link Ef in ~h{ljobn 3!1 the instant Is along the .Iink. !Drs,'w a line parnlld to EF Iluol!IgJliln, the inl:ersecti:on of which wi,~hthe previous linelocates the

polm q,..

Extendl:be

'I.'ec,lulJ

l~

to f !l1iJc.:)a, that ,(ifl~q :;;;;

.EFIEQ'.

Copyr ghtcd material

.,

T~uo1l!ghr d .. nv a ruioo J. F$,.nldthrouSh g a! UriC ptlim~]e] to line of stil'ok!eof the slider. J!:Ie i:I]I!:ersJeci;io;ITiI of the two H!1IJC;slecares l~!I; 'point s,
[I:I~ velocity
diagrsmis comp~elieCi. g§""

,(ii)n~<l!tlSP~'lIr\h\l]Oc]ty ohhe
'" '. ,I-

~ht:tEF

v,;.

EF

;:;

er

EF

-~.

4:9" ~,;!l.,5 ~YlfSl (ccw) 2- ~ .


0.4
_,_

TIlU!l"

(ill) Tit\: V'{!~.Q(:ily of th~ ]~nk !iF in l1!~ sw~~1


I:lmock _, ,g,q

{i} 1hcveloeity

of slider S""

2.6 lll/s,

- .85
ru

:I];V5

Vector Appnl!9Jch
11:1 ee, 2.1 O,lhe oo~cep:l ,of cOlnddent ~o:intswas 1.1~I:rodlleed.However, S complex algelb:m~c Inetlmdls provide <In 1.I.lk'.JI[LlIitive rOJi'n:u~I<1ilio!lll. far ~~lC kim:mati.c problems, This also fl[qmi5hc~<l1l excellent m~m~ Qf,i}b~i;r!illg stlllmnre 'ills:ighl. ][I~O thcme~rJii&J:g 'of (he ~:eml coim.::idelijpoints. Lei. thillffibea JCI~armm,Qi'i,f~iIlg ibodyi~:a:vimgillS mOliiOililrelal.'i",c~o 3.fixed ~oolrrd~ nate 5)',~lemlJ;'y.:< r(Flg. 2.29). A lso,lel 3,IllOVl.l1ig cooimi.mlile s)"s,te!ru :ljlz' ibe .. u,mdli1L'd~o l~lislitlOV.il:lg body. CoOnlimiJllcSofUIC: arig1f1 A of .~I:Je:!lillorvi!tl!l\~~ySitC1i!llai:!Ckrnm\'1i1 l1dlltiVli'llm tl1(labso:lu~@rotfe:rom:e: sys~~m. Assmne that the'lll.ov.ing syslem has ailruilJ1gU]<Ir' ve~ocity ,ll) alse, tel
f

x'

~d!:k
to
R

,1~rn.li1lun

r¥wlm

lll:n.i vectors forlne aJb®ol.llI~l;!s~srell1, it vecliOlrs: ;for the Inovimg sysl:em, alal~li<lr'l,lel!OC:ily ofro111itiuoll onlie Ill,avi~g :Sy5·!~liII 'I"ecl;o~r ,I'C,liiltivc to sysl'cnaJ :re hltivc to m.ovi:rl£, .5y:51ei..!1R

nx.oo

lC:liil.point P 11i1!}10'¢ l(l:!'!gp~th P'PP"rolul:iv~ a pesition of P rdB!IIVe te ehe fixed syslem isglven

('0 ~:h(l movim,g (;Oa!!'d~_~~l{,l \l)'oM.cm :lYz'. At <l!l!Y it!~~n~;t:.l!!bc by libe cqUlIllOf.l

.R·.. ·:;a.+

f'

'il:ms, (rn) tlli!3iY bewtitten 1'aldng

:l-s.R. "" D: + x1

+ ylm + Ilil

tlll1ld~riv$Liv'¢S \l,,P~th rnspe.cl to lime ronna tht"l '\~¢IQc:in:.1'~

R.=
l'hcfi:rsl

a -+ (i~1+.VI1l~ i' iii.) + (x"i +- y'rill+.zfin) -+

term :inlhis eq.IJil;tuol:li~u:l:kil,l'esthe vc[oc~ty of lilile origin of the mo.'IIil:'lg sys!tcm. The second t.e!tfiIJ refers!o ~he velocity of P ireiouive ~oltl.e lU101ii'~[Igysle:m" Tkeli"Jlitid lema ]S due ~olhlefa£:a ~h3,tlln;erefenillC~ s :;ysllemhilS ,d~iJ)(01311)'m.otion witll am,gtl:btr velocilY (D,. A~so~1= (l)~: 1:,,101 = tdX n'!. it """{jj X
~I

Copyrighted

maierla

ofotle bOOY whh tespec! to!~e other body" Howe'!l!!'':,even w:uth this, lim,ilt<n:ion, the f[lst!ll.]t;Elnem:~seemre isa u!iiC'ftdwo:i t'Or 'lI!f~.d~ii1j'lllt1d'h:'l~llek~f1emtl!a!li(;:s (pl~;u:r rn.olioll. In o~n, f~!rthler disc(~s~iorls" tills c~ni~'Ji'ewiiH:be Q ,cal:i!edIJl!iS I-C'ftIUre, [[I case the perpe;fldic~d;1r8 to.,." and \'/,111: : IUld .fJres;pc(;i:i'V'C\lyl.neetOtll:snd!e A thr::; bQcliy p. d~~ 'J.-c~~ wm, lie: (l:ut~;id~th~ bOod.y p [Fig, 2;,32(..)]" ~fthe dlirecth:ms (ilr~'" andv, anli. p!lml,kd8nd.l~~4,'; psrpm:lJdiicu.l<1fS In, Ai atild..B meat :all ]l]fi:~ity;,I!h,e ]~CfHtlt[\eo:i'1r.,e body I]es at ,i~f1nily. This is the case when tile body t:ias[l linC:ilI"rllotl!QIlI (F:ug. 2.32(b)~1. .A:stn,c; bodiy p rotates about tl,le, :poillt ,[ <Illthe ill:sumt and dlJe 'II,d()c~ty of 3[lypoili!l (It! ~Ile body is prl!)partioJl!!d to th;c dist!;l!l];cc of thc~in1 froml J, lhL:l vc]oc!ity of ~he ]?o.im 1 il:scUw;01!lld be, zero (th:edis~3f1cebein.g: zero). TI~i:!> irl1l,plies tl:l11!t rhetwo liHJduesp and q <Ire ~e]'~ti\lely ;1Itresr air there is irI(llre~:r.!!tfve ~1!otio'iil'be'lw~nl the two ~I the [-¢(;i~lre, Now j]ll~gi;n!etI~~tthe 'body q ls ~lsQ i!~ nlot~O!~, f¢~li'\!'e to !.!. d~irdbody "
(Fig~. 2.:B). TblC~lth~ It!;QtitjJ!fioflh~ ]}Oint

1 ~~~~li'!;'¢~[I tI~(;third 'l}oclyw>I)l!ild be


on t~C' body p er q.

the" seme w[lctherthi.s NotaHofil

point: is eonsidered

An l-centre is i1I ce:nlD1e ofrola,tuon ofn ml]oving 'bQdyre.~atii"e to a:nQ!t~.lcl:booy.lfa body p i.si~lnu:lO!tijm]oel;arti.vc r to <I, fixed body q. th:e centre ()flo:tllJ~±O:[1(~-.oel]tre) mOl.y be:named as Ptf", Howe,'ei:. i:1lI ase ofrt,!01tlV\e mot~QJrn;" c ~he:body q ":1'1[1.1'1]50 be,imagtlned ~QIU!tillte rre~lIit~vel(I body p (i.e., as ~fthlfl~YP]1> f.X(ldFo[ctl.c mo:ttrmnt) lliJom tile' same eentre. Thus, cC'D1tl:ie Ofr.OI<rlim,l or ~-<oenl:reC,l11 be Ilm.ned qp alse, 1"hrus hows 1~.1ll[~he I..eemre of '~M'two booie5 p and q in r-e:I<)J.ive mmion cao Iilc named either pq or (jP s mcaniil~g thessme ~ihirl.g. ]~:Ig(;JiL1,;nd.the: l-centre wiU b~l1!~m£d in ~h(l a;.5cwd~[lg ordiL'lr 'of llw~ a.lf'I!h~b~'lS or dlg~.]'S,i e., B, J5.pq, eg, etc. ..

For two bodies Im.\!'~1lig r-e,IU]'j'IC!1iI1otruQI] between them, ~h.e;reis OliIII.l-.o!::ntre'. nf I- centres: will be eqmll to possible paiD1j; ,ofbooies or Mnks.
tel IV"'"NUirnbc'.u of l-eeetres

TIUlS.

irra mec'h:a!lLism, tl1T!e1Um,OOf !

C,Q:RiSi!dierhree plane !bodies p. q~!1!d r; r beb:lg <Jlb,ed body ..p and ,qro1:Ue: :II.oourt·csnltro pI" and qJ'rospccli ...e]y t m]ative!:o the oody r; Th'~S, pl' ~s'the ~",ml!1treofOOdfesp 8i1~d r ,\\iJle;reas ql' is ~~u:'l~c:e:~tll'e booies q l'Iimd. /"" of AS'sumell1{.'![~cenlre oflhe bodies fJ snd q !It tile' :point pq~s shown rul] F~g. :2 034. Now. [) ..m:I.q ooth IHe!iliu)f\!'~ng relativetoa ~11Immlfixed ody r. Therefoffiie, the Illotio(ll of ~J!J.eifmotual tb centre pq rus, o be the sasne !!l,\l1hd.lc:r ~h]$.poi'lllti~cop~idc~dill t '[~" bodly P O]'q. (R~r:er 1:0See .. 2.·~2). Ifdttl PO~!]l q is cOf1!sideredl 011 ~he hGdy p,irts vemocHy lr)o is: pel:[p'erl.dicoula[" to lhe' ~ine p joi:n:i:n;S. pq !I[l(:i p~'.

Copyrighted

maierla

>

.. @i

VI~r:-f~JlAJ(!(lli~I";~ 011

U WC,poJi:U l'q i~ CQ{lsldCred


v,e~.QC~ly"q

1'h.c: body q,. its

is, pmp:::ndicul3li

10

the line joining p(jand

or:
U.rI ,t'-"j.

~( is found I ha:l line ~.wo vclooiHIo.'S of the ]~oo~'~lre m:e .ill di~f~rc;nt ~ircclioll:S whieh isiml1ossl,blc.: t''Th.e:refb:re, tiliu;:, -eemre of the bodies p and q Co1.Jlll;Qt bel l
I

ail

theasaamedpesltioa

pq.

The v¢~i)Citk"S. ~p~t'!d~q 'l)f

will he same O1I]Y ~f]his c'l!l1ilro:~tas on. ~Ilc: ]~n;e.jojllilii1igpr and q.r" ~Jtl words,. if ~h~·ecpl.ol:nc~xli!;, ..... a'Vl; .fcla:li\i'"C'motion b IUifIOJlg themselves, their l'OIi:!lIU"~ muM Li0 Of! 3 ..sUi]i.gl\!·l ~:jnc;,. This is known as Klmnt~dj,~~· tbeorem.
~h~I-~(.'tt;Itrl1l

. ~..:

The p:~ocedur-e to lneare l-cemres ef'a mechanism is bc:ung l~h~:str.nt,.'"(iW"i~ib tbc

help of the foUO"w~.ngc;:-;amiP~c,of .iI. ~Qutlink mecbsnism,

H\gure, 2,.3·5· shows a fo~r=I!rlk me,chllrli~~n A'BCD" the litlks of whicb h..ve been !1iL!if!t.-d iJ~ 1. 2,. 3 ~~.d4, The
numlrer

.of

~."ccflltil",e5 [8 give.]].

by
4

IV "" n(n -1) "" 4{4 - ~I) " 6 " :2 2:


Nt)IW. .~fl· ~h~centre of l"Q'Ultj~on ,of 2: iVll:I!li'ii'(:;~Q ~ it;~lit.A,thcI...,oentreI2fOrthc ~hik."5 I. l'l!lrd 2 l.ic$lltA ..AI:l';o,thelocaaonof 24·~-----------I;~~~~~"o:'1~1 ~~~~~D'

.·1~

.4 is

....!~b.~!J~roH!HQ!'l : ()f th~ link 2. 'n~l;.~Jol\1:! l-cemlilwc iii :lln~s reil"enefl 35 thii!jklJ~d l-ceaoe. Sirnii1.flr·ly., 14 i.iS iUlotllll.erfl:>i:M II.,.c;enlrre,
~Oit

gO!ug.

~:o~h"Qge

.PJg:. 2.3.5
fOll

~Ilu:~ links 1 mKll4 looal:e:di at.D.

ll.jllk 3 rntatcs about lJ [-el~ti... 1iOlhe: link 2ilnd thus ~Ilc;l-cenire 23 for limlk:'i .land 3 lic:'i!llt B..With the e movementefthe H!l._ks, e p<l~ition of (hep~.!1~jo·]rlt B w)]] cinW"il@caud so win ~he posft~.Qj] (If the l-eemre, W

However,
afixed

:11 a~~timc&~ tme

l-eemre will be Loc<l!wdat the pin

jioi:rnrL

Tbus, 231is l'mo-v.tnas

3. p(ltmUIi€l'lt

bm

llQ:t

~-ce:ntlle·. Sillllli.~arl.y, 34i;sm:mtb.er pellll1otl'l.en.1 but irlot aflx,ed l-centre

f"Or ~!i.e Hr:liks .land 4 ..

The: llb!)\1~ W~CG;f!t['c:;, ~~etl kICllt.ed boy i:n~pec~~Qtlgtl~iY.'Th(; (lth~r rM) W-c~trr~s[3 :;ii_lIld4 whicb ;tife ]~~.. 2 ncitthcr fbc.cd 1l0f'l:'cmHII1~nt ean be IJoealed! casUy by a:~I)ling Ken;n.ooy·s tl1CtM~Crn s: c:.:plain.edi below, a

I-Centre 13
Fi I'SI. c~Jtsi.clcr three ~.il1ltkJi; 1, 2: and :3" O~em.oire link 2 hal'>been Ilddl'd.I:O Iinks 1 a:nd :3 w~lh the c;o:n.d:i~kllll th.. ~hc ~~C~!ltrv~ U:uld 23ru-(l alre!ldy 1110WIi!. ,(,!f!dthe:!third [-cC!UOO Dis ~o ~ loeated, Now, es ihe Uu!'"ce JInks 1~,:2and :3 hEl\lle ",e]ati:ve .moti.aru;rurnong themsdve;s.,. thdr- l.cmb'cs H~ 'l)1'lJ3 S'lr.I.isht !loe.1"lms, .I~e[ltre 13 lies on tlile line joal'li.ll,E!; 12 an.alJ ~o:r Un.e AcE). Si!'ldlatly, ,Cl)n~ide~ '~iIil~~Ih''!k~ and ] .. Thek l·cle!'lt~ are' 14,.34 .. l,4! uidI3. Out of U:u~seJ, .14 and 34'!1[e
!~

Copyriphted

materia'

already kuovrn:.Th.ercJore, l-eentre 13 ties. enthe linajoining ]4 and 34·(or DGj, lbeit!tersec,t:ioll
jQilinrung.11 :rmd 23 ~or PWdlllC(lt!.) with tile line joining 14 and! 34 (;or prcducedjlocares thel-cemre

of the iljine
13.

Co~~dcrL!!gfV,'4;!I sets of WLQks 2, W.4 and 2, 3,4; Ih~ l-cemre w'OuM HI'l 011 th1li lines 12-14 :!Ind 23-J4 •. TI:!It IfrutC'tactlonIOc&lCS thel-eentte .:l·t There .iSa.COIiI.'l\'eilil~ent way ofkeepirl!lJ!: ~Ilile:~mck oflhe I"cenl:res ~.oc,ued by ir:lspoclio:n. and by K.eulned!y':;
Lrneare:rl.l.,

MAWIi. [pO]ots as: the eemers ef a rC,bliJ;llan:- pO~1i'golil bving same ·r:I.~!llnbcrof sidk:~as f~.eni~nubc:r of links ~il]

'Il() Itn~ch:u1_~sm.

Name them ru.-.oortli:ng 10 the 1:lnb of ~ihcl.nec.ll:lnism. Jointhe PC:~l:1ts of which. the I~centreshifl\le ibeen localieil byinsp«:I:~on,. by fii:rm ~line5LThen on jo:in:il,g:ll:ie po:ints, of whk~h!~e .1.~en.1re-s befn,g 1()C.lla.1l are 1>11' KeilnedY'8Ibwrem,. by d(lUed lfnc~,. 'For C'x~p~.c,. f~r a fQ!,lr~~i!lk mechsnism, m~r:kthc poi~ts 1. 2. :3 and!'" .~$hown [til Fig ..2.36(a). Join. 12, 21, 34RIld 14 (or 4~) by fiml. lines .:lIfter I.OC;:31i~g.these l"c:e:nl~S by iins~t]O!'l [Pig, 2.36(b}]I, [ii! Fig,. ~ .. .. 2

,0

"" ....

"
/

.,.. '.:Jo;

". .I'

"
24

2.29(c) tih~ centres have ~ ","' encireled far lh.e record. To:ll:n:d the l,cell~fe 13. jein ~

"

"

.1'

"

'"

....

"
,

{b)

Fig.2J6 to ] by a dQU'ed ~ine '[.Fi\g. 236(bH-. The co.[!struc~itH'! ShOW5 th~tlncleeutre lies-on ~ih.c jofllroi:n:g ~.-cc;n.1(~s 2 and 23, and theli .... jaljl;l~!lgl4:l!n:d 34 {or H}., Locate the l-eentre ~inc 1 e ~tua~~'y on the rulWll,-.~!,)~tiQn Qlfth.c two Iines in tnecon.igMat:iol:'l dl:flgtam. of the: meehaeism, In Hg, .2..36(c), 13 ~sun..u:er.lilled to 'lil,QI:e lhllilit the :1-vel1l:re Ims.been located by K.eflnedy·:~ t!:I.,,=or-ellill. S~mihu'illy.fin;d the l-eentre 24 bfyjoirl~tlg2: ~Ild! 4 and Ilocale ~I:le; oitlt O~ the hll;crncedolt nf the I i~c-ij12-] 4alld 23-34. p
It

was .III.e:ntioncd in Sl~lil!tI 2.1:5

~lth.c I-cc!1n~isgcncrnUy n(l~ I.ocated at the ce.1JI.1J1:::c 'Of CU!1i'altiJJ~c of the 3J~ront p.un lM:M by a. po:ill.t of ~>:2:
Or.!!~.c. b!i)dy w. idl rtl:\1.[) ..•... ...•.. ..~c~. (.;0.. Il.~ .o~~¢..r . body. 1mlthe :aoo\'e c:"'8mp~e .of u f(lur
A•

.....
• ___:, •

'.- •...
.',

~i!lLk lJu;cJ1:lJr!i!i.l1hth~~-c:cntre
P~ViQtpoint .lJ
O~.

of thtil

the c(lup~cr rehUivc


at

1 (a}

1:2

H)·~b.~fiXlr.'d lilli< is

13,. ~h~f~~S, il~

uppiU'~mp;Jth hju c:i~ijEaf e4i!fVc dOliU the fixed. pivot Awhhih means Ai is its oonJIm'e:, \curvatlure and thelcng1h A'll is the radius of ~}uw.atU!m.AI;~o, 01 the;I.·cen~ of the pi.YQ] poi!]t C Q:r:J the oou;'pI~:r relativeto the fixed li.nk ~s; apiEi. at 13, whereas iisiilip,pm:c:n.t

p;ul:Ji:; rol:a!lion:ilOOU1l the j]~cd p.ivQt .D..

Rule-stO' Loc-ate'l-Ceutr:cs by Ilfsp,!u7:tif}I1


L 2.
[I'lli...oted jo]nt,.llhc eentre ef'the pIVot is the Leemre fair the two links onbe pi \'01 [Fag. 2.3·1 (a)]. a s!idilil'g: motioln, the I..centre Jies 31 bafinhyill a dI~recHoliIl!pe:rpend~"cl~~.'U~:O path ofnmliiolill ofl.h.e the 8.11~de~t l.s becacse the ~didi[!gmotion is l'q,uiv;:t.lc!;!(.U) 11"not!.)' m~)li{}~OfUl(:;c ~\i[]J:~~",jt~llli!c Thhi !;~di!l!~ ef'eurvature as infinity [F~g~ 2.37(b)],
.IB a ]:rtIJ

Copyriphted

materia'

·':l III a pure m]l.i:li1:t;'OOIllI.:.'l:Ct ofthel.we, liil11ks, ~:liIeJ~ceJiilt[oeHe-s .at tile :po!iffillto:fCOI1lI:a>cl3:tlilil.egiven irutoml [F.ig .. 2.37{c)},n is !;l~l,;~~e~JmlwQpgil!'!u ,gfQQnl~t Qfl the tWQ ~Qt!~e~ b1!,!!\~ 1be::S!lme H[!e~]"y'e~ocity ~~ tl!~!S dlefe is !~On::1~live m~liolll.loniw two jliJ~ (he!pQ~!lt OfCOJi!t3(l~ wbic:h is·ll~e]-C:~!1!i1.fe (RJ~fe:f Sec. 2J2) ..

a;ra"u]ol v.e:~ocd~of .mo.tile. Unl~ laente thei:rcOnlLi1I1Ionl"c,enl're. The \'e~:ocHyof thi:sl"rem11i"e [e~;lII[i~'e a 5xed t1:iJird ~i:n:kis tliile same wllil.e~:liIe:r to, the ]-ceillre is ·consider.e(1 Ofllbe firM or l:heseC(iiIMll ink (S~. 2..] 3J f'itstcOi'il'lidef tbe ]~eeillrnetobe QrI the nfl'lD ]~ink end OOI[,IUIl HOle w~locity oflbe .1~IHre.ne.IJi c'Orisidbr the [~CCrltr'C to 00 onlh.e Siccond Hnk MUi find its aUlg;u.~m:velocity, For e!'I;;<Imp,le.;fiti5~q'uiredlH}f!lld Ithe Ol"g'I!I!~aJ ve;~oc!lty of the lil:1l;;·4 Wlhclll. ~he'!!:rlg)1.dilq;'\~doci~ of ~he l~,]nk i :l of a tbur-l:i.nk I.'l'necitm,ni.sm~sknown, icu.:;;;]aethel-centte J<1 (Fi.g. 23:5 ).im:ragin.e liml,k .1 H) 136:n thf; (llf,fil of a i lilal: disc oo:n;lain]ng pO'irlil: 24 an,(I revohli[lg <IbO'IU .~20['.1.1. Then When the a:n~yJj)!L vel:odt), of" Wink is
kI;l~WIlL a!llIiCl.i,t

is> required

~'Ofind! Illte

'!i'l~ .. {OJ

Now,imagine

the I
~';l~

= m<l'f24 -

i~* .~.

24 - 12} to be: 1;111];0 cllliousfu.~C!contain :poillt. 24 :m.ml evol'!;'.ing abou:l 14 or D. Tllen ~ 14)1

'·t;:::::_~~
,(til

2:4~ 1.1

24-!4 a:~\b~l~ V'1i:~ocHyr.:!~iQ


eC!fIi!J!l!lQm I-C{lfWtre

,of ~'\,\'IO Iil:Qksre:i;ni¥i:) ro a th ird [l~ki8i~.\I'~:~ly

The above ,eqJuatilO'Il iskll.Al'\V!1 as (hie (1i'~~wlt1l<'lral()cil)N':(Jn() Ih'(;!(}'~ln, b. w(J~$.~he lP~OpO!1DOna~tQ~'he disla1i!~-8. ·ofl~ed!!

:rfO~

fheir re~]lLXlti\jet:e:\ntres ofmtat~Ofll. In llllC above casc.l:ne po.inti! t2 llndl4 lie: OIn the Si1ll1,c sidle [If21i1on the line 24-14'lI1d1 the di:l'cd:iollo[ roun3Jmru oflh~ two .~illJks {2 and <His the; same,. i.e .. cloc:k.'\"{isc or eoueter-elackwise .. Had: (hiCY been oathe

opposite -side-s of th~CI)iIlilWlOI"! [..oerure,I])~ ,dL~tioa w,(J~I.d h~'i!lie'b>eel1! ppos,ite~ o


E;ia!TI pl.:l

,mid lif}O mm resp,etJfiwi~~ 0/ ,l'u: .nro.l;l~acnis,~ JfJr "jft1)f}1·ifi~1'1ajrho!! ",r1imk wlteJ~ i.r l1{;t~ rll~~M
Imn

w ..i 9' .Ill' ~. :diiJe.f'>(;~'a~k JrtChmjiiN/J1, J

AI

600.

:Jil'e Ifm1.tl1s of thf:1

(:;1'(,I'I.lk

.cwrJ

the cQ~mtlCl~IWrod at'l: 1fJ()

~(;I' ·~ ......__

..-.~.~~~ ... 2

t.occm! aif

#ret~"~'/~i

3(f' Jiutl!tllf: ,"'~f±fr r;i.&Clci ,r;:'ei~l~&, ;1'1.'1;0, jiJ'rd tb.f! ~'(!i(jcil}~ th'e slidl!l' a:nd the. tmgulaj' ~.'eI(JC'ily q( lff the c{J~H!3(:dJlg Md if ihr: a:Qlmk j'OtqJ'(J_~~l' 40

f'ad!s,

L4at,~,

. .4

ClJpyrgll!

rna'! ria

SO'iuli'(m Tile sl,idllir-erank mJ\}ch~!lism is shown in


F~g. 238(0.). Name tire fourJinks las] j 2, 3 and 4. Locate !lle various T-(;¢!li!:reS a,.s follows: I(i) Loc<1lw l-eentres ]:2, 23 <lind34 by inspeetiea They <lfe' <lItthe pivo;ts joining the respective

posUion

.c.rrmk 0..4 rotates c.locbvise' at I j'tJ rpm. FOJ' .tIle. lv/1'(m .tire cn:mlC'.oo4 lllllke.s £I'll angle of 3()'f!! with the /rorizorrJal. aet'e'rmitl'e fhe

]i.llik:s. As the ]illie of streke (\If the, slider is


horizGiliual, th,~ [-ceiln~ ~.:1 lies 'venicaHy upwardls: Or' clm1lrfliwarosZlt infinity as shown :in 2.3Sj)b). o(I:i) Take rOl:lr points i:n the forlu of a square and mark them as. I, 2,. 3 "md 41. J'O~DI W2. 23. 3,4 3.ltd 14 by firm ]i1i:e.s.as. these: have b'¢ifii:i located by inspection, (iii) l""'Centlll'e 24 lies I!~ the i"i.e:~i;io~n of lines joi:nli1'ag Ihli'i :r·I.~IiII]l'l 12" 14 Rtild2:3, 34 by .. 'S Kcnlllcdy"s tm.e:oil\em. Joi:llimS of 12. ,mull t4 me ..ns a verncal 'line throLtgh 12. Tbis

(I) Une:ar v>ei«iiies oJtt:w pbmt po.il'rtsB. C c#idD


(tl')
lWgtllaf'lml'oc:.itiru

,o/tlu links AB,.·Be and'

CD

f[g.

l-ce~lre
II.

dOl'led line l,g in(nc!lte 'll:uu Olis h!is been located by bl.spt::ctj,on.

'can he sllOWl'!!il1

~hc square by

•,
I

II

(i,,") l-eentre 13, lies il.t tile interseeuen of lines JOEnillg the, l-eentres 12" 23 Elnd M. 34. J,oiHing (if 34 3!il:d! 14 mean . U! v~rtitii] line IhwlJigtl 34. SI~Qiw~his,]-c~n~oo i~th~ ~qY~!T~ by ill donc~ ]U!:tc. ThUlS., IiI,U the [-OCfJitres !IfC located. As \'Ic'lo(:ityonhe link :2 ~ kllOWlii and the \"elod~y of llile Huk 4 is, 1'0 be forrn:di, COllsi,lfer the l-eeane

, "I ....
.

15, ": 160

'J

181

Va'" 1'/1)1

.0.4"" :15.7 '" 0.1 ;;;;;;;.51 ml!i, ~ and 14 by

24. 'Tillie po:lnt 24 bas the :S~JiI'I.le velocity w'hellier 'it is assumed to lie in lililk2 Oll' 4. First. assume 24 (0
lie
011 1!he: link 2: which

Locate ]-ceIlU[ies 12,23.34.45,,56,.16

rotates

3Jt angular

velocity of (]2-24) '"

iIl.speclicm.

40 mdlfs.

Un,ear \l'e:lloci,l~ of rn~CC1iure 24


40)( 0,'123
=<

= 410 x

4.92 HIls om the D0l1z0nlal directioll

• Locate 13 wh ieil ]ies. 01] 1]le interscclion l2=:n ~li1d]4~34, [Fig.2.39(1)}]1 • LOC:ilt~ ,I S ,V:h.iclli. ]j!~s,0111 'l:fuI.e: intersection of ~,4-45 :EIlnd56- ru.6 (Hi is at "")

or

Nm'l, when 1his pnint is. assumed in the link 4, it


will Iila'\lc ~!he A'Ifl~ '!,ieloc.i~y \'II'hic;l~ Hle"oill\"i lit... liiliili"iill"

(i) . !(Yw. iU Itle: in~tii!lC~. lir!llk 3, rolaWS abOtiU lh,~ llile J.-COlatl:'(; 1.3.
'111115,- := -..--.\I 'Q
~

v,doci:ly olflht:: slider is the same as of the :po:iliu24. Thl15. iincaf vdoci:ly of'the slider "" 4,91 'I1:u],
Fil"stlJ'e 2. J9({j) ,shows tf sbt-"ink . me.i::~.(mi.r:m, 111£ dime:Juions o/tlle Ij'17klf 0.4 ... lOO mr1:l. .liB .., JSO mWJ, ,Be;;;; 100 mrl,I',
(.I~

l'h

130 -34 or 131 - 23-

'!I!) :=:

~:x

0153. 1,57 :: 'l' (j'{; rnI s ,,-, .


26)
\;I'

and"'!" "" ~_ A'I

v.

QC

. "'" flO

or

11· "" =.=.

1100..

:200

x 2.66 "" I... 33

_.

m/s

fh.e ]1iI:ilUi.QCe'"'Ihe I'i~k 5 rot~les [-oentre ] S.

!l.bOllt the,

Copy ghled materia

i[lte~e~~io~ Qf]hll\\$joini:IWg I-o~rltTl.':S 12, t6 alld.:a,5t:ic

seele as shown .irt:!. Fig. 2.43.

sorl~UrmDnw lli~roI!Lfigur<ttio:nt()

asuitllble

(I.~) To, fi~d 111111: vcloc:hy fI[ B owd~~ li!i!1k6,.i~ is mql,l[redI tOo locale the I-ce!Ure26 as the:

velocity 'ofn plil:1uJ (lin the ~ink 2is known, AfI!:!\rb:a.1]llg .I·centres 'byimspecti.o:n. h)c:1!t!1l l-eentres 24~ 46 and 16 by K~MOO"S: theQrem. ifi:rsleOl'ls·]der· 26 ~:(), Online ·cra!11lk be 2.
~~~.. (!)

(1.2-2:cJ}i_I 1.6.7',6 O.n:ll • 0.536 [llifs '"

(liLorizomEl~)1

When ~'Ilepoint 26 hi eonsldered oml.he [ink 6, t aUpoiln:lson il,;!dU hav,edte s8me'l.l'elocity3st~e pOi.IlIl2:6. Vdoclty

OF th.'ecrossne.m:CI - OJ, 5 36

.l))[s

,~b) (1)1 'To flind the ve:locity of rubbing 8,1: A {or 23); ~ ~Dl:dMJ ~re r,equired, Localie I-(enlre 13. Then mJ(23~1.3,}- ~ (23~]2). _ OJ7

," +

Wj= ~(i76 x: ~

0..756

flg.2.f1 No'w~ <1ts v,e~ochy on]jIL'l.I-O~fliLro.26 is; til.e: s~nM~ the


,ooJ

~ 3.,?'rnd!t~

i~cl(X:kwi!'le as 13 ~Iild .12'I~eoiHthe Siilme


<!it A '" (.@J. -~) .".. _ .__ __ .0.04 __ t] 6.76· - 3.11)- x ____:__ =, 0:);6 IWS ... :2:

whether itis ennsideeed


""1\11'''' (~,,(
~F

tD

lie

01'1

1he li:nl2:

Of'

6,

sid.¢Qf23. 'Ve1ocity ef nqb:b.ilI!g


~

1,2-26)=~.
.(r2:-26) =10 x OJ37"1 ..:3'7.1n1S

V6

== ~

Sol~~ ExampJe 1,4 QJ' /l,e


.

I.JiJla'ritanitO'!js &!.ttlti'e,~.~~flu)a:,

...

Oi) For \JIe~Qd~y f nib'ltli~gat B. ,~andI1tJ4a!!!e o


lrequ~rod!. ~ was c~~clli,iiI!~edi niJor\n:;.

~J!(J4 - rn4) == WJ{34-. ]3)


wlI .~ J. 71.x ----"' ~ 3.33 Imdfs
(Q'" ~!l wUl1lc:r-d.ocJiw.ise .1lS ]4 and 13 lie: om the QPposite :side$, of 3~8JnrJ 00,; is

0.45 .o..S I~

cleekwise,

¥e~.oeiltyof :rubbfl1S ~lIt I3 ('ailil be ~k::ul,atoo. (~~i) As .fi!4is b.o:wm. the velodty of nib 'bing III C
f]:ll!!!!" C1m ~e

known,

:Sim~~<1IrIY:l lecate the l-eentre aI$ fmll1. the :rr'el!at~:~:Jrn.,

'~S al'Jd o!b~3:ill

Copyrighled matorial

~5-14') W:s"'" W445 _ lS ) and deH!rmlll'iJe tl1~ ( 'il'c.lodly (If O1.ltI'b~!lg:a.t.D, TQ.~qu~
£13

~~edl.al1itJ."f;

nJ ,"

£!lJUli1Jg

mm::Jt.im: needle bwr. F-m' tile g./I!'{m CCJ'fJji.gflroti,r:m.ji't1.d the tile

d,¢!l~nI1!imooim. tn'!.esame way as iill.


'l1J.e,et:ut!i:gurtttloj'ltJitlg"'IJ.llol .(J' l!lro'l~pil;lg llUJCll.1tll! .isgiven

Exo:lnp]e 2,,3.

W$kJclty ()f.th.~l.f€l!dJa ft%ecito slider D whei:l the cr(J'l1k 004 .ruta.~eS at 40'

E;n:lt.r~J.d,t~ 2.25:

md/'s.,

. l;e'ol:/;.lI ofl:luJ poiul.P Q'~'rh~ . ' ..'_leyerDCP if flu! crank 0.4 l'P/,Qj,jJ$ m be_ll~cra1!k 80 r'lltii9.' - .•
.;1'.,

i~. ~,.;.2..;4,',.4(fJJ .. !ll'.,lC~iI!lrJJ~ Ih, ·'Fi...' . ,.D.'

SQrlHhm !l,{'ICf!~e,,~e~-ccI'We 26 (fig" 2.4!Sb). C[I!~~der2:6 to He on tl!~link 4, V:~ti ee ~ "". (]2 - 2.6) "" ·,HI :0:; 22A ee 896
'Ilerl:ic.dly
dOWIlW<l:rdS.,

I.om};::;

COll!s[[lcr 896

.2:6to Ik

0:1l

the ]hlk: 6.

Sollltion ~ is kncwn, ~,isr:equh'ed.


Leeate ~l:Je]~cell:lt(-e26 by fir::;;l-I][Idn,ng the ].3 i1!1ld

Ve.lodly of needle '" Vel.ochy of sllder

m.nr~

= 11M =

H, by KCIlllcdY's lhcoliem. [Fig. :2 .44(b)1,


Th.en ~,(26-· ~6) -~(26~
~i:i.

Ii:} 383

26-]2 =: W-1X _. _. _.:= 80 x: -..47",= '9.8211ld/$ 26-](j

-I

1
415

I~·-i-·--~o!.;..~~.,~, - \;;<!
(mm) j-li-300-~4

&00

(.e!')

,-

16a!.., .

Tl is co:unter..cl!ockwi:sc as 16 ilnd 12 ~Ite(lI1) the: opposite s:~desof2.(>>!l.ld ,~. is clockwise,


'TIallls \'.1.."'. ~ x (:16 -

~ , Fig. lAS

.~.

16~t-

PJ"" 9".~2 ;0; 600 '" 5,.8!9 lUlls

Copyr'ghted materia

E'I;',!!np'l"'2 .. 7 2

®
V(o c

Plgnre 2,46(a} i'ejm;sem:; f~ s/tnpe,r IJlfN:':~ll1Jji!!m!, Fw #Ie given IC'01Iji,gnml'ion, ~\ilW1~ \.,iU be lheveiQcif),' of II,c- ~ljtl~ff

rool at !Ii Qmi th~" U11.fPll{lF


~'Ilfl

,',~/(~dtle;r; f ~he liuts AR q WMt'S ({,f UJ r-(Jdl.'r_

RS, Cr(;ln.k o.r

SeJ/ul/'()JiJ LOCi!H~Ule ]'"Ge~:litre26 [Flig.l.46(b)]

v4(o "" !I'PJ2

(12 ~ 26) "" 10 );: OJ 66

]".66IWS

(ii)

It)

"'" (ill, (' ~4 ..

&.24

-12) ..

-14

' 430 , "" 4.25, rod/s. (c;lockwi8e)


SiJmUu:r]y"
Wi.
--j

1,0 X (,.'.l.S.3,· .. ,)'.

;::;:;;@.,(..·25-12.·.·.).·=10x:1(·.·. 25-.15 ---.,

2.'.'.1.•. '" ..0 ) . 1060.

""1,.98~dI;s (~i.QCkwl:l)ie:)
45 - [~.) _( 552: ) .w~"" ,W4J ( ---"'- 4.2~, -. ,=, . 45.-.~51187

ru:91 mdls ('cl.ud.wise)

An ]~ec1l!t~·~~~ d~I1r1~d OjfJ:~y

f[)f

an imna:ntSJt'ld

d~s,lllg.oCsas the tlleds!rD,isl1ll I:M()Ves. A e81r,rmtte is 1l1i1e i~ocus of the [~t:e[Ure of" 'pi<lil:le booy re~Mi'Vie 100{lllCith!!!!:' p]rme: body fOf the ,range OfliftO~itOIl

:sp..~ifi,edl or dmi:ng;

<I

fill~il:c~c'r:f.ooor t~mc.

Th~~ ..r~ ~wo 'l~~S of e~~~1'QdJ~s;;

1. SlPa:ee Centrode('or Fii~edl, Ce:ntJode)oi a MOYll11gBody


'~~,s ~bcl~ i of ~heW-cclI:ltr:e ~hc .1iI1,o"ol:ing hodyof
relative to thel'b;ed OOd,y,

.2•. Body Cellltrode (or: Moving Centr.od!e)

of aMo~il1S 'Blody
]1[,

]$ ~ile~ollus: of Utt':rn~ce];Jtre lOt!' ~he fI.x.ed body relative tn thii: mov<!b~e boin_Jjie,.ll'!c 11OC1!L"lI of tmJe

COP\l[ ghted tna'mial

["eemreO'lssln:ni[lS the, [llo'V;)b]e !:Jody to be :fixed <lind!the: fixed body to i:lc'n:i;o'l'a.ble'. In a :rollir-l:i~1k ~ni!d~i!.n.islnshewn ~Il Fjg~ 2.41, the I:ink Lis fixed. The leeus o:fi1l,e l-cenue of i.ids I BiI:1:O! 3. overa :mngeoil" motion of the Hmk 3 is the sp11ce !Ce:rg!~:rodle.Fixe :posUiOin:S of the I-centre,. i.e .• ll.i'l' h 1.. illlldl~ laa:ve been (lbla:iillOO and jioi:n;J.cd wilili'l <:I ~flI'!oQth CI!lItY,~ lVJ:JJic.i:i,lslll.e sp~oe CC1rill1iocie. If jhe Hnk Al1 th(l DO(;I;IS ,oft1!{:I-Clemre ,of] atld J :t~thf; body Cel'ntl'oa:e. TI!:is ~~.a£.been sillown ~!'l Fii!\l:.2.. \'13'br fi:vcpooi.dotls of'the link L .0f CORlparingfigs 2.. !7 and 2.4:8, A ob.s~N1il1:1I3It the fiffii pos;i~iof.l All tel (I,) lJ ·of f':ig,. lA1'is ~:>:~cll.y sil~lila:1" to' the ihsl: ~i.l:iou A1.lic (E1 ).DI; ofF~g. '2... The' seennd posituoll$ of the ~.wo~~glln::s.;we also sil~li]mi; Silfld~aJrly, 48. the tbiropoo;ilio:nl AB;jllClJJ IOfFig. 2.47 ]5 C:1Iiaclly sinli.l<l1ito dl.cl;h.inllwsiJliO!~l A)BI;;'CD3 of Fig. 2"4:8,~ml so 0[1. Thus, & B2C~!'J' lij:C31j.<tod B~:C~l"~. siWl]:I1if WAs 11C1j," Bel,,' ;and BC14 • re.'lp~!l:ti\'eiy. This ~IIIIP~es i thm: lhepOK]tifU]i!! offlte l-eenrre of.F'iig. VB em} be O!hta.ine<idiJl'ecl:ly by oollSUillil:ti]ng oilllJi.Ci .. .s, s:i~ni.~riiro 6 t lJ ,];C·tl2 (;I~rem;ly ,e:tists.), BJ.C3,1) aad lJ~Ci 4" If' Iies on C~ and l'5' {In R};. ]1] Fig.. 2.49, sp.a,ce ond. body ()crltrodc;!l of ~hc link 3 re.la;!;i.v~,to I have been obta:imcd. in the game diii:&'tfUT! cOVl~ide:ri"g. fOUif positiotis of'the li!:lk :3. fig~~ :2.50shows lhefixed C;f;llitode (an!l~hed ~o C~,i~i~e fiKOO ]li.f]k I.) a~ld t~.emoving,oentrode'.("lt'l'Ci1~cII to \C tm•.e ~llO\'iD~lg :_nwiILhliBks2: a:n.d4 renmved eUltli~e~y. :I~nk \ Nmv:;if the n1{)I\i'~rlgiI;::Dl_F!roo!e: is nl~ HI roll en the C .\ \. fixed CC1Ml'odi:) 'whlllom s,Mp, the ,coupler link 3 win '\ \.\ e JOM;: tl y
31s assumed to be fixed nnd ]m,Oyable,
,,,.~\\ .04 \i_"'__~~
•. ~_._. __ ... ""_ "" ~ __ ~~ ~ ..,,~~~~~.

traWH\~'L?

m.ot ie III

~c

!irilmC!

had lFi~ed ii!1, the ,~.ntrOOe ('Irig~i:'m[

as. '11

nlecll:n:Rism.This ]$ beeause apoiat ,11)( IOII~llIg c()r!~act s ~Iways i al'n J-(:~iilFl'liFi d!ijf~re[!~f(lsi11ons ,!I)nhe~jlllk 3, Th~s.t1repJ(JI1r:tn()ti(m ofa rigid j!lo4\~.rel{lUli'e to d/w.rher .rigid

{be .mllit.?;g motion 0/ [lne ,oemr(Jfle 0\11·ItU.~ other. The instaat point of roUin,g 'OOIll.aot is the i:n:sf,!II,]t.f!!lIteous eentre, "File, comm.(),n mo,gem a!!'!.dllbe C\()~lln~!]r\lom'!~l 110 'I~¢ ~W(il oentrodes a~k~cwl1 M du: Cfmlnuie ~(;Ij'igt:'li\lla:nd tbe cenfrorie 11()t'.m:alll'cspectivc:]y".
hut,ijl is eqMl'!1l1te~t~o

Copyrighted maierla

Summary
macf"lif1e Qrr ;;, mecmQ:rIi$m'; ~Ipr~$~nted b)l i'l :>~Jeole'tCiri .. lin;e dia'9r08,m, i:5lCommon'lrylbilow!> orr as; al a:t{iflgwoCl~lo!! .diQgmm, 2;, V,e:lioC'it:y is tihe derii",'aUv"eof di:5[plac:ement with fEi:Spe.ct: to, ~imeanlc!l i~IProportKlnal t.o 'the :slope of tllle tal'llge,nt to the ciispJa,e:elm:elll!t=time eu IV(!: at ,~my irnst:.illnt, . ], A v~ctor 115 i3i Ilille will!Ch IrepreSEl,irtS a veiCtor qjliJantity 51i!u~h s force', vellocity and acc·eleratr,oo. a 4,n@m[lgorrtude ohne i!l.~alf'l1aoeotli~ ilne .. r veloclity Qf ~ pOil'llt 'Qlil~ rotii tilml9 bad'll IS propor:tr.ooal to it'S gii~t~lrnl;lti! from the a:x~s rota1iibn. of S' Th~ \lekl!~i:ty Man IintermediMe- poi~t olf'iiiiny of the ll'lnb call be fOlinic 'i:!'tllsil:y by di'tldiil'lgl ttne: cQfTesJ,porndililgv@lrxirty 'Vector ill1i1;fuIe; ~me' r01lltil(} .1I<s; tine poi Ilt di'>lUdesthe ~in'k. 6" '~i:dccity imC!ge.sare ifolJ~!ild be very hell,pfullI devic:es: to it1!, the l,'ellb(iity",,~al¥S'ls of (lompUcated linkages,. The or,d!er of the lettel'$ in tine velQClilty~ma;ge is d,e: $<lme <!~in the Qo:nngi.mltio!1 dl~gr,..rn, 7. The a I1gularvelodty of'al ~inllk abou;t; i)lOE!e:<trem[ty tiO , the $[jii'ir'ieas:the Iifi,giJll<iri... . elociity aboiJuhe ,otner .
1, A
l
1

... fi"~·1J.::~ ': :pf,_.~ '. :!·:tti,:;'.~iI

' ~'.·"'··_':""I· r'_~.·".·I· . ·.i:"...a_:1-'·;£;:_,

8. The .instantai"leous ccentre of rotlltjO,", o,f a !body' (,e:!ative to aliilother body is the ,.entre about wt1icih, tl!~br;ldYlrg.t~lte~ ~Ulll!,,: lirl~tgl!i1t 9, IIn ,~ 'li1I'Ieclill~niS;nfl,,~ne 1:i'l;Im'bi!t of I·(eri.r'@~ is giv@.n, Iby N .. n{.n -1}/2 Ilf~tnree'pli:llne bod i~ h~'oi\!!l!ila<tilO!',e r mo~i!Oo .unoogl themselves .• their I<c:e!i'it~,esmli!ls,t HI!: 10f! a slt~r,aig'ht: llim!!.This IS ~lnOWIi1 as; Ke:~:ne4Y"S theo.rem, 1.1. Wlliilen the ilrngi.lililrvelocity ,of a,l~n'Kis i'::novl'!'lIand it. ts; requliredto :lind the alnguiar ",elodt,y" of "mother l'ilnk,. ~ocatetheir c'Ommo.11I l-eentre. Til e n'1'O(!iity ,00T thri$I'(:f!IIiI::rI~ ~:lat~ to 1I11:1tf!dl third~1nk lis the$ame, whether the: l·c!eflltJr.e is '~'OMidel'e-d1 the fim ,Olr on the secoliild llinik. .A ce,i!l!frooe is: tha l!Xu~ ,aJ tM I·(~njjre of 01plOlfl@; bod" relat!lv@'to ,!nother pilan!! badly for t~ range@: of motiorm specifi1ecil0 r dll!i~gl a fini;-te [pe,iiodl (If
1

time.
:13, Tne plan:e: modo:n .01101 body relatirw tfl alrlother rigi'ciI "g,id body !s eqlllivalent tot:he rolling mQtiiQo ,o.f on:e ce.flti~odeon iI:~e: other ..

...

>

. ~. . ~.
•.

-.

1., What ls a conllg,uratfon di,uJfam?,What is;lit~ use? ;l;, Describe the pr,ocedlulFe to. con:Slti~ct the dla:gram of,,. four·llink meClt"lanIISi'in" 3, Wh~,t ls a velodty image? 5t<1te mmy it il> knQ,wf! ase lITIu~'[IIPfliil device i~ t1h!e velocity,mal~ysiiS of (.om;plic(!ted ~in'~.. ges.
4, What~;; ve:locit.Y- oJ wbbing? How li~it ootind? $, What cI'aYOiill Inrh~,H' by tme'tenTIl''Coil1ltident points'? 6, What is iJ],$tantone'Ooscentl'C!qj !'70tGlfio-fI? How (jOI yOiJ 1k:i1O"wthe ~lJmbef of jrr.sttlfptrrnwU5 CStlt!e5 ina

l1ilIed'lilnlsmi? '7. :5ta,te arlal p:rIO\leK;en,~edr$theOlfeJfJ,'''5 appiici;lbi'et:o lim.tantalnl:lOLl!5, centres of rotatlen ·ot thii7t!@, Ibod'ie:s. IHQ,Vi'~$.hh~1 pfy!1 iF! !Qt:;~tJri!1g1'~@~igY$· in~t~I'!ri;~nll'OOS centres.c,f 11mec:Jfmni(~rnn?' S. St~te ,and @ixiplainangu{ar:.!i.ielocitY·fatklrheo.ll1mas o)pp!:icabl~etomecnJ nisms, 9 '!;~ll'iai[do yO!) ITI@<i311i Ib~ ,~nlt:rQdeof il' bod,!!,? What are: it5:tylpe~'? 10. Wiilatafel'l>led ('e'ntrrooealild mO'lliliilg t1enrtrodEl? IE!<pi'alin" 1,1,. :Show that tille iP,lane m.otllon ,of a rigid lbody rr.ellative ~o d,filOtller ,rigjd rlJodyis. '~qlJrfV!1!l.eilit to the i"Qm~9 nmotliol"l of one c,ei!fltrode.Oliil'the otlhel'. T2.. In Q ~llidef'uank !iiIf1ech~l'1Ijsrm," the (stroke (l,f~he slid~!I'
1•

is lone,lhillfth~l!eJil9tlh ,o1itine Gonnecrl:ing.Il'()d" .r~w D a d~"gram to givf!tJ~e Yi!loc~ty of tntl: slider art an., inst,mt as:sumilng the Icrankshaft: to tum urnirormly. 13, Inl ill (Oiur·~iinkme(:tlal[lislilill the UCi!1k AfJ rQtat'e:;·!lrt 36, rad~s" The lletrngths; ofth@' lililJIt::>re AB'-lQO mm, a Be "400 rnm, (;D"45'0 mIT! an d AD ~ 6-1;)0 !'11m, AD' is the fixed ~inlk,A.t the ii1i~t<ii'ltwhen AB v~at flight ang:Ie'5. to AD, determine tlifle velocity 'of (i) me micJpoin.t of llio~ Be (iii) a point Onl~he :Iiimk:CD~:~OO mm ffO"!iiI1 the p~~ corlne,ctiinglthllll~inhC{) ;;lI'Id.AD" {6.ss IrnfS; Ji..4.5i ml$} :14' Forth.: m,l;dl~n:ism :shGwn ~n F~9"· ·S;&.determtne ~ tj~e, 'f;<\e~Ot,tie~, Qf the pO'iotS (, f "'m~ F andlt:he aog,L.darvE+odties.o~ the llinks ,Be,.(DE aiiild ff.

~imm} (Q,S;3mJs;

~ig 1.5! .. Q.99 mfr.;: 0.8:1. mh; '5,.." Ira dJ~(-cw; 8..; radls Cor-Wi 6.13 radjsccw)

Copyriphted

materia'

ACC:EL,ERATIIO:N

AN'ALYSIS,

Ve;IQdty of,~ mnoviillg bed,!" n5 ~ ¥@,ctor Ii:! lJanmv having magnd1t!!!lde and dlire(tiioil1. A dlt!ll"lge ~ll'!the 1;f!!1!lloci1y ' weqlJilfes any of the folioll'l,!'i 1:191 mmliitior:li!> to Ib~ fuM\II~d:~

'. Ach~n91e: in tille magniwdie iOnll}' ,.A cilli!'ng;e ii'lt:ne d11f\e,c,tion Miy
'.A cl'1i1l,ngle bO'th mag~'ltthtle ainel djlfol,!c:.~crl in

lhe' Irrme of f:h~llIg,e oheklcit.y'With rE$pect'to, time is mloil'lll'! <IS(!(,.Geiemritm and it acts Tntihe dir-ectiol!il ()ft~e chCliill!ge a linik, ~t'$~r.l'1!ea~!el'o(~t'l" is V Nqlili,r>t;!d tQb~' fulJ'ndillrst Simii!i!rh/. to 'fflIn:d,It!ir~ ,~ngt.i~a:riil~(!eleral:iQn ,;lillinlf, lts aflgu~alr velocity hasto be rou'nl:l. Ap<H't ' a'I ITQmtJ'he glraphica~ method, ..Ig~bral,c iili1Ietfulod~ ll'fleaJllr.o dl~5ws~ed ln ttl!,!! ch"pt~r, A:rt~r r,liiIdin.g~Jh~,aQiemeratioi'ls~ it: i-;; :ea~'1o liin.d i·ner1l:foCi t fOr[f!5i .. dung on 'M'i1IriOl)~p1i1t$ of 11 medlli!! nisli"l1l ,o:r I1!lg;£;hi ne,
illl vel~tltiity,lti1!J5~~~e:lleratljon ,,!I$C)O! ¥e,Citlor qu'O!rltity.l-O tind ,11I~ear;)cc:e-liE'H<ltjon ota, painton J~

Let ~Ii.nlk 0.4'. iI;Iflcngtb r.: m~lfl i,~n dl!1l~I~;JifP!'lh. cio(:kwis~di!:lllClio:!l as shQ'l,V!m,in Fig, :),.1(;)),. ~t~l)~ all i~lbe in:MiliJ:u!lmmlJs, !lnglilar velocHy llj irlnd!an. a;n.gJLJ.~i1r aooe~eml.iaIllO: i:~,the.: :sa!li!U~' dioocl.iO:tl, l.e., ·I~:neilJilguhu: ~l~h)!' v i[lt;~csin ~hcckilwi&e d:Loocti,o:n,. V"

.~"""1F""""""i.~.

-.9.~;-;C,~,"",,"

",~,oosJ6

6i1

'lilmg.entifo'li. 'il'clodty of.4, ~'(!IDr ~Ifl.;;l: :;;hGiltitUcrval (lftim~ 51, leI O:4~il:;iJ!:me(hi(; Il~W p:i'Silia'lII, 0/1' by roUl!ling, th:OOtlgh ~.ill!!laM ~Xigl~ Ang!ida!i\il!locity of DA : '[1iI~~" J' + j); (),~ O

oa

TlIinglOl!Jtia~ Vie~QC[ty of A '~\,~. "" (co + a r The tangential veio\:i~r of A' :may be ceasldered the (1itherp~taU.el to 0.4.

a.t,

to, have two. componc:nIJ]s;. oneperpclldirulai

to GA .l3in~

Chan.g.eof VelodtyPerpendicular

to OA

V~loci~y orA' JL to 0.4= Vor Veloci~.y of A' "'~ID 0:4 "".I~ 'cos 08 ;', c:l~,iml!1.e f \!'c:loc:~ty ::::l~/Q' cos ..88 -~'" o

.. -,1 c~-~:\-A CCi~iera,mfl

0"

~:f.~~o CJ'I ..
.1':1 JL.

'-c

~I

_
_-

_:_{(V~'~iF~f.X~ ... ~j)~·n~ll'~c~'(t<;~M~ ...•.-~@~r ~·


r

[n t!he limltj.~s 6 ( .-) 0, 'cos 6/J-4 II ,'•. ;;I;cc~I(;·,nu~cl!'lof .1'~o ~ a r A 0.4

Of . _ dfiJ'. ) ~ .
I

=C::)r
::

". ( a - ,dl"

d:L~

dt

Th~s fiCP[-e~Cililt~he ra.k: ef d.Ulng.c, 'i,i'cloc.~t:yi!n the t1Ingential. dkecdmli of llhe motion ot.-1' .rd~ti.vew, O. t a.ndlil,llIs ~~ kntnm as the .tangential act'deration ,ofJrc.lanv"C,to Q,. It is d-ClIDotcd.by

or

f!~.

Chan;g,(!!of Velocity Parallelto OA.


V(l;loohy (If A p~aUcl ~o VA '"'0 Velocity ofA~ ~ornHe] to OA~ y' ~s:iIl8fJ ==
;',. t~h,'l!Il,g'()!Jf""cliXil~y

!J'~

sin (; ,(}-

I)

.A,cClekm~:ion of A' p<ll:"dlHd ro

0.4 ""
..

(ro -t a ,8/)n;,in (d)

lit

In the, Jimtt,flIs {i l-io 0" sin


, . .....

cO...., &I'
d,e)

Acc{i:l~ro:~~ol1 If ~ra!!¢l t~ Oil"" ,wr 'd.' of ..r

,...(a)~ !~]
(3,2) Tiliiisooprcse>nlb the ir:.ateof c~:ang~ vc~oclity along 0:<1'. the (lirecJt:tOIl.i:ne:ing: f~omA towards O()f tl)w,~td~ of tile eemre of'rorarion, This ;leCJf;"I¢rnt~9!l is known m~(I:lcccntripe(({/ Q. ]I:!cr(jc,llj(j1a(;c(Jlel~ltion {\'f A re~a~[¥e to ~"'~ o :::unCi ~s,d~n(JlOO by .l,WJ •• Fi~un:: 3, [(b ) shows tb.e' ocnlripc,m:1 and ~'h.e l11I1J!l1'eulial oml]po;noo~
jhe ~o]~owing:

of' illue .1l~ce:lcr~lt,iQr.!lIcti~g on A,. NOl\l

Copyr'ghtcd rneleria'

'rota] aeeeleraricn orc ~1,i3!tiwll],B ~ b~1e. 'fota] aeeeleratiea ofC'" ell c1

Anplar Acoo1.e:ratiOtl!.Oi.f

1mb
C(lIillpotii.e:nl

IFmm.th.e foregai[l~. di'5CI1SS~OIlI it cu. be [1b.!l~rv,f,;f:I.Ih:1!l t:rungMti.a1 rnh~ liD the DigJl!lar iWCe~iera,tiollof a ]irlk

of :ux:e]iilrnlltiiO'I1,

OCICUI"SclJl!JWl

Thng,enti,;)\11 ace, of B ~~lIOA"


a.AB"" aBA w]I!I;:fC; a·"'!!m!Rutaf;!!Cc¢I('~~kY:ID.oft1LoC ~~l:!k.B A Tbus. ,<!uguLnrfIi!CCc,lc4':'i1ti:OJl. of" link. ca. 00 round iftbe t..ug,cif.U~<I[ <l,cceleral~o[lrn8, kIiLQ'~" R,.d~rri~giOFi.ll 3.;1,
g

r:a

i.le., <l.c:ceI'eTI,1:ionof C relative 1;0 fJ isin a d~reclioilil ~" to ~~ er in. II (.lo!lllnteit~c]ockwise: As;

diC1e~i~ol:l a,bolu~B.

P~b;;;;,~CB

.'.

tXc,,;;;;,l'<ttlCB

TruJs:enthl,ru ace. ofB rolto


IDOlgJ:li,'Ill1Ide" «'lie;;;

c.s; =~I ~~
II, d!i:rect~OIl. c;lllCI

Le., a.crel!enU'ioll ofB rel;ali:'I,I'e t.o Cis ]0

I B'C Whltchis the sam.!: .!S ~~. 1llus, 1Ul:g,ll~ar 3,cC LlIC1rndorlof II li:1ik:about or.le.eNtremhy~s i1[J.gU~El!riltceleTIltiO'D'l1 about the,o]!hciIi:
i

Ik

'cb or

][1 cou:tlter.,[:I~Qcb\li~e

d~[-OCli.on. 8ibout CwiJ~,


lIiIld di:rccluon as thi;l

the Sflmeil:llffilo:gn]tudie

f!mg~rlli;jJI.OlIc(:,of erel, to [}.f~ie."

Cd)

Ie!

.D.

:c :relilt~ve 'iD

.iI)

moves irlil a di:rec,t[ofl i~m, 10:'11'10 ~t 01:' CmO'li't:1t ill! the ·cg~!!lI)er=ck1ockwifie4iR:c~,]Qn a;bout

3.3

ACaL~'pDN:'OF

INTItRME.DIATf. ND OFFSE,TPO:lWS ~.~\~.,,~. A ~t;;ll:3?~",~:.....-

In:tennediab? Point
Tbi:!:lIcceJerotion ofhu:em:c~diJlft(! ]loinlts Oil Uli~links C;Si11lJ ob'!:aillled bydivid:illg tln\e ~cceEefl!u:ion veeters il.~ '00 ~hesame :rn[]Q as the PO~nlSdhdde: tbe [i'll;ks.For poiliflll E on the liolt: Be (H.g. J,2h .BE rb1 ~.~ BC

hi

'(::1:

:Ill e~gi'VC:litllC'Wtll] acoelemli.on. oftll.e:potnt

E.

Theacce]c~tiOO'!of:i!I!fi off5!t;:'lpo~.nt Gil :a ]i;llik,~u~h of 111,iC foHow~ng Inel:h.ods:

:iI:,ll

.F oll111C (Fig ...3..2) •.CM. 00 dctcll:I1incd byappl!yi:uag

till)'

], Writi!!lg th~

lI'~G~orcqmU[o.!l!,

Copyr ghr~ rn ti', ria

flii. -lfhl!
T

r~ij' r~!
0;;

-l-

fed

= roJ + 'f;f~ " -'-"~ ". I[~!I T .,R!,' + [Ill = ·r.(III'+~. . . I·t~ .1[(1: + "t
~l>
01:

a,b1 + b,fb+fbf, ~ d,.(~,. r~'fc+ :r~f1 +


(,)!, D.

The C'q[L:laHOI:1I anl be ,easily solved :I¥~pltli.caUy <'1Is5lnQrwn in Fl,g.3 ,J(dJ), c

r·:reI3.tl~.. e ~oA'
2" Writing

II!,', iVepf¢!lieiflt~,th¢ acceleration

of

th(; vecl{)~ ("\lIlialioO!.l.


~r""~+fl>rj'
"" fLI.:.! +~b'

~ fb" + ffi, + ffl., ::Iii,f,'" :.l,b~ 4 blfh +'Glfl ft.:riJJmad)y~X~S!lS on ~heaccelel'3tio:m di:agrarn.,.
or
f.... " --,.III FB •.direction m,\!o'aTIis B, "
m

~. (bJl
DF'

f~ .'"ajf,X: FB "'.(~~ x FB

"" CB x PH L to FH; d~fe~lion ~() br


,ap,'""a~"

r:~' ...

. ......

becau&eangulara'ccci]cr<!~iQn of'all ~hc:PQ.ints.OJ, tillJ.clim'lk.8CF<lool!l:t me poi:~~fJ i:s ~lllc same

(counter-clockwise).
fflll eanbe flHJI!1.d in ~h~8 w;~y.
j, By ,:u'cj]'.I:~Tab!IJni:JlJt;18~mcti,ll!d

lllir1le p.rc:'I,Iions Ch~plCJ',it W3SIMCI1ItI.oncd ~h31:vc'!ocity i~es ~Isenllinfij,ndi,ng(he veloehles of 1)f["e11t(l~l1!l8, of ~ilflk'i,In the ~~1Jme\\\·a)'.(loaelen:l,tj'()n imug~i~ ate ~~Ipfl;!:![W ~nd ~11l!~ ;)cl.;i~[~rntii,Mi!S Qff"tu poitlHi Q.f'Ih~li!'!ks, The acc~l~mtioni!i!!la:g~ of c~

are

aloo

of~llllkis; oih]ained In. thesmiUC .m.M1nWI.eJ asa vdoehy ~m!8ige" hean be proved. ~hc tr.iangJe b,c.if1 is s:lmi:lOlrtlJ the ul<1!l'Igle BCF in !Figs 1,:2{d) and (a). Let 00'"",angular vc~odty of the 'link Bell a '" ~l:IgU.l:arOlOcelernUallJ ofthe link BeF .R~!fern~!1g 10 Fi!;!! :3 .2!(:;i!)' o";!nd[ ..3, 3 btf~(j)'21JP BF aBP tbtl

1]lat

b:1.(:.b

~ '---_,
,(Ij'~

Be

.BC

aBC

.: .~

Cb t1

b~~!'If!..nd b~c.~c!~re two right.i,Ol!!l:sle,dhl<l!t!g]e~ i.u,which tbe mUo

Qorw~8i:po!f!d]ng ~~d~s.~~ s~mt); ~\S pr'lf~ ~~.I;'l $~mi.lar, &~

:.I!OOr,,~, cTh~r;efm!.the

ot the two two. tri.:mgles aJrt:

hi 'I.

f. .""BF .",.k:

Be -

A~:so,.£'1".. b~ r~ "".ti:'l;; b! <::J

Lfbb,fl·"· £tbh,f~ L'['ll!Jiblt:,- LCllliI'tfl "" .£3"" .,£2 "" £1 C,'lJ:lfb II l1F, b:rcb, ~! BC)

Copyriphted materia'

Now, il'l.&

bl.~]ICW

and IJFe. L3""L]

h! """ BF'o;;;;k
b, c1

sc

the tw:oli~;J[I~h:s,~EIIJC.imihrur. s Thl1l!iii,tofiwad ~e" ooce~eml:iOOl. of 31:1 offset: pornt OIIml ]ink:, a.l~aJltIg!c[i.imiIM to the ol]elhrt1llcdin 1!h.e config~u'a~loJlidiagram CI1i!1l e m~de on. (he ~Iooe~eri!;!io\ll h:l]~ oflfutel:illk b in sueh .:Jj way ~hat the: ~1i.IDan(:!l:lQf ~.ctllers5 the same, i.e., bif~c~ is cloo.kwise, so£i~~()uld BFC: ] !be An, easier method oflwakiillg, thelriSl!tgle b] f. :s:imi,l;f!!f BFC is by lnall:'l:i.lfIg Be' Oirb BC fClil!I<\1 to b~c:~!I:~d! to dmwi:ng:a liue pa;rnHcllJ) CF 1:m!l!,ting 111"ill. r Be' P is tilileel'U!C~ size Gflhc!'f.u~IIl~~,e to he Inm:lJe Oill biiC:;~I' T:1~ h:lfl ""SF ~ncl,clfl, = C F.
TI.l!ill!:efore.
a.

n'l'lS, 'lJ;le (lOhMf.:

is ObUI~I:'iJ~d,

n..c: "ol'lifigumtl~!llfl[ld. 1ile:vekx:hy diagmlm~.of~. 51 idcF-Cirnrnlk :nt«:ha:llii5:1l1I dj5c~l5Sedirl reprodll1oedinFigll. 1 .. {a) and (b). 4
Wr:ilt~rlg the Ol![)ce~~~<IDtiolm ·eqUllti.Oift,

Sec. :2, 8 ~,la.vebeen

Ace. orB !!"ern. I{) a = A~c. orB rel, to iJ + Ate. of A 001. to 0 f~ ·~r~" {"lI' + ,,_ _. 'I' +r: -.f· +.. +'fcl 0:
~.~ --.GIii'

g~ 1)1 "" ~I i1!1 +a, L~ + ~~Il ~~'I 'the 'cr<IlBk Oil. ~OIJ:1!WS at 3. :UlfltfQml '!{el~i:ly> ~he[\eroI'e-. the IllClC'lClernl:io[l of A !I'~]9ti\'\~ 10 .0 fu3:li -only th~ oe!:lltriipet,d oompdmnu. 8imlhlrly:, the !iilidn ~Q'i'iesir!! a lil:lea:r d,lrecti,oD11 HIltd! [hus h~s l~O .cel1llv:~p(lt~d

'_i'Jd

I~'

'~~.

b'!

Jt!"

_.,_-~---= Q.
~.~ O'h

t_' .r
'lIM'i

clO.miPOne~t 81liuiiiIg the 'l'ccl!J:i ~JIb~c:

'- fti. b-'-iI

<!II

!!iN

"~:m~1!l1l"

r.'~:Il:i'l!li~l!(!d~

f.,!:I\'llljJ'l

,,~~~2
Oil'

E1'ilroC'l~ol!l

Si)I!II~1!

IloQ.1

40

2.
J. 4_

If:~ h, or~t
If~D'

hdl}l

AB

II jiB'
1_.48

-~A

m:b,,:hl

fE!:il; OJ','gl~!

II to lin,,;: o.rm.otlon!JfB

COP\l[ ghted tna'mial

GO:[JJstrn-Cl the aocdernlio!1 di .... m ~ 1, Tale the :!llir:st 'll'ccl.orr~of" 2:, Adld! tile!seco[ld
'\!'eC~iOtto~lle:

iLo;

rol.I(lJI'IVS~

[irs!to.
'\ICC'~l.'Dlr:

3. F,oro th~rd~~or~ (~(l

drra,w a line .L 10 AB 1Il00U,gh. the ~lc-ad billofthc seoond!


gl ]:l!l!IJ[3,I.lcllO the lim:
Oflll'lO<t:UOIl

4. !F,o!:' th_,efi)urth 'i.l'eeWt. dm.w a U'I'l.e: through


Tbis c,ornlP~etes the vellJlc:~ty d:i!lgrnm"

onhc' s]ider.

Aoo(:kro;liQw! ohlle s:ii~er8 "" 0.1 bl ('Org~ bJ} tQw[ a(:~I~t~tiQI:! (fif B Ft):lfllUV(l ~Q A. = SJ! Ibl
Note, ~hat for ·1ilW~ive~ cii)1lII1gtl[.;iJtion of the m!!ch~is:mt the d~OO'Ctioill of ~ffi!¢ :1()()i!l~er.mH(l1il ~h~ slid~r ~s of oppolllhe to th:Iit oflh.i!l v('i~och'y.T~.e:rn:fom, the jmCe~~fjl'ilionis: l1!!g:l,t~\!~ the s:~ider d.ooele.r:ilu:e.!i wlhil!e movimg er to thcl'igbl.

EJtl'lmp'l;c 3,.1
,

•..... @ ... ,... •............•.•. Ill,rf,c:h,(ml$,m fOl~r-,lilrt


ant!
tJ mtanii:Uj,OJ1

Figllro J.J(a) ",bow~. III-e CQlrjigpnlticm .diagr:(Jw~ oj a .

Sohaicm

~b=

10.5

;0:;

0'.05

= O.S2511lvs

w.',rit .t/l'(t l,engl:lls oj flu! line oj 26 .tn .the CoWj/,~t~


rile

,~f~tg

tCo.l:l1ipl.C1!i:: v!:IQc;lty dia;grnm [!fig,. J;,:5{b}] as . the

,~-'Xpl~in,edin 8xOIll1Iipl.e 2. ru ..
Wril:ilflg jhe Vtec:toreqmltku!I lJ rel,
10

.f,.) mm. Tjje li'{1k AlJ l~tU mil iitl,~t(m.l'all(,>'u!~aI1g,tJlar veiocilyo/ l{)"J nulls
"(J,(J/s~

for a:oc:elemltJ,QllI,

Aoc. ·ofCoot to A ;; Ace" ot ere!.. to ,8 + Aloe. ef


it

do.ch'ise di~c#(,m., Hr~d (Q the angu-!aj; acC.(de'I'lliort8 of


an(JCD

li;;ks
'~

Be
,or druc.l.~;l~ b~ + ~liile'l

... ,--

(ii) the li~earQocelerotious of the ,POiJ1t;k, F

a.rJa,G

Eac:liI 'V()l~to:r liI.u a ¢~!lilripet!i]


C;OitllpCmelll:,

omd a l:l!Jl(g;ellltial,

~~
~~a:.d
~ 1l\.1l9

,.'.
(-l

~~+f~ ""£~iJ+ f~ -+ f~t +r;b


dw ~+
~i.I

,or

c~ ;;;;;:H1 +bl bl +b., til+- ell ,c~ b (TalblJlil 1) QI:l i~e next ·p<lge.
ll;S

BE ~.4(i 1iI1Imi' SC",66I111M

I[.;I)

00

Set d:'li~Vet!W.

ullb]e

[)r8iw the aceeleeation dia,g;rnm {]} Take the Jlo]ep.Qii[lta~

foUcrws: 3.5( c)]I.

OJ <II~. [Fi,g.

I[H} Sta:IiiJiIlig Irem a •• tnll!le l'1l~fi:rst¥~c~or amb~. {in} To ~I:leli!rs('vector, add ~}l¢ second v~etl)f;11:l1t:t to th~ seeond vec~~;O:if. tlie third .. add (iv) 'Tile- veot.oil' 4is !kiF!~'wl!'!ill! dJk~ctlio!il oml~y. 'Ifu.c.(I'efare, timmgb th!Cl~e;!l(lc!J, ofihc; IIflifd
vector;. ,draw
~C),
8.

rnin~, ...l1!CI Be 1'hepoiJlJ

(;. Qf

the fou:r!h'l,lie(;tor is to lie on thls line, (v)


SIJai"il.

tig.J~'

"vi~~'1. ~l1,dItakelh~ d.

fi,:ft~:l·vcetOir ,iii I. ,t.."

Copyr·ghloo material

; '- ~!~.:@:W)'~ Ib~ ..


" ',('itl'",

.I'iJ"G.r~.!!!

J Ib
f'

'
!

3.L

. ;:;1';,

'.' 111 r:~ or [J, CI;

(be+:! 11C

Ul1C· .. ,

4 ..

s,

(de)"

:2 -7

DC

(\liil} The ~;ixJ;b vcc(ofi!i k[iQ'W'[lhi directi:QrI o!llh'. D,row .0'1. ]~n'" JL tQ DC mrolJid !:lead CII oCthe fi:1.Thi \'lector. the ~,:uerscct<~Qnof which with 'l~e ]ine in the S~E]p (d} 1.,QC3JL\(lShepolnt cil• t {v~ni} JOllll a! bp h!e:! and d~c~• Now,. albl l)epn,·.s,CIJilS Ibe total accc]c!:'<l!ll,QRS of th~ po'n,t B rdaHv!e to ~ihe:~Iint A. SiRl,]Tarly, b.,c. is Ihcwta:l. OloceLerat!0!1'! .of C rei;'iti,V'~ to J3 and d:'lc.,i!l' th~ total :acct'l']~!i'alion of C re[at~i~ W D"

ThE!'OIc:CE!Ie'~O!tir()n eq~~tioli1

i:s h!!:~prlJ II only

Itt the iflitH~\11

~t,g,ge {:Of b!l:U@,r cgmpretu~rtsi(lnl,.)

(i) A 'fIguJtw (J£:C-e,lW¥lti(Jon.,~

abo;""

f;.t. or &ill ell - -Be .

""

22~
Q,O()6

"'"3,4.09 radls!
eounter-claekwise

r[Not~

slio-wo ~(IlFi9- ;1: •. SiC;, the a~~ow\head has Ibll:@in:put 0111 th~~inejQi:ning
pOii!11~ b~. ;all'ld <:1.OS;I,H::ha W'w i

hi tlhe ,i!I(c,ef.erat~QIlii i~gfam d

4.43 a "- p{ on:O'ill Cl,- ::::;. .,.~,. =~~


uff -

cn

1~1056

thilt

Ilil~epre.~@I~ts

tnevecto:r for ao:elera,Uo,!"! of C Nl<'Olti\!\l! to B" ThilS sat:I,s'~es du:!O!bo,lIe eql:!)atilo",. As the~OIme
cqu a ti:on

(~i) .UncuT' ,ar.r;dera#mJs (a)tocatc poin.l·ll~ion lb! ~~such tfm.t

bi,e,
bl'[:1 f~<l+~k=f~

ee

BB

.r.. ""Hi. c~

8(;
ee

5.1:5 m!.s:!: wen


as b!Ii:!.f~ a<rere:acl irru

d, (ii. ,., .; D:i;;; ,IIi bi


This shows that on lIhe' sam,@ Ilirlll- joinil!1g ti, and

(b) Dm"" 6 bll(;~fljimi~u!'tv .1lJCF kmming ~,~ ;

the ~rlr(lf\lihe:i'lg slhg.~lld llire ml;!rllu~,g inl th~ oth~!fc;lilreC:~lion 50 tn:at the \!'1!i[;tOf repr,!!s@,rni:!l tli.i1o<lculiii<rtion af B ~ellati\le to C tit) :5oi!itisfy'trn~ laUe!' equ3'tlion.

"~j

mindlinat

the :iiame (lPd~r (:~,(lCkwiSi~illlhuseas~)...

iJCFas

ilni5 limp~i'~5that Ii n case bot:ih the: e'nds of <)1 liln'lt;.ne I in mot~onl, t:~f'afr·ownl!e\adl may'be piJt ii!i!,eitiller d.~r~ctiQO O~ no al~rowh ead is pili!: alta.m. i,5ts beca U:5.e e'Y"'ery time it. is, flot necill:ss.al~ytQ wrjl~¢ th~ llJ(.ot;elle:rradQ:nq\J'a!tion. e

fr"" a~fl:::: 4,42 'nnl~ , (t:;) Linear aeeelemtien of~hc- poim Oc.m also 00 found hy drowrn!1:;l: th~ .<l!cceletali.m:nimage of the' tr:i4!!'!s~eDCa on til. Cli!l the 3ccek't'",}tit)tI di3gf'.ln~ s(je.i~,dli8i1 the (lrder of the ~~ener.!'l :renminsl:I":i.e: S'Hn.ll.~,. j~,=dlg.1 = 1,9 mf~z

Copyriphted materia'

c
]:0 fund (he poi!lltotll:h~ oonfH~cting rod which has

,zemaccele;J;'llion.al ~hL~iT:lsla:ml, draw ~riangle ABE on ]hc c(ll,]Ii~l!.!mti,(IIn d]<lgJ3lIl si:miJalf 1.01 UI bw'll'l.such '1~8:l ~h(! leuers are in !he samc order, l.e .., c]OCkW[SCi {Fi.g. 3..8}.n.e:1ll .Ii is a point Oil! the cO:nlnectirn.g .rOO, wi:lh, zero aceeleratiea as ]t correspm:ub ~'O zero aeeeleration g:f pOirH O.
E-X!l'1ifl'.le 3,,·4

!fJg.,3.9

bJ t!lf: rrrMQ.~~/sm shown ir~ Fig. 3.9(1'l). (/if: crank 0:1 rotates et 1.10' rpm clo(.'kwi,,~ For tiie gi\te~! t~o~fitlu,r(Mion.

.. Fo.rtheJtm:r~linlmec]mlfi[is:m.OABQ. oom.p,]ete~ the licloc:ity diagram M ti~~, [fig, 3.9,[b}l .. L,o;c,ate j:m[nlC' cnvecrer (lob extended.sc that

iief(!nJiilMJ t;'l~>a'Ccelemtion

oJ~I~~e'slidE,. D mMi ,tfl!g111or 'lJcceJer.(Jlicmo/ Ibe Jil1k CD.

cq _, CQ _ 3100 "" 1.661 bq .B(J ~:80


.. Dr.tw lIih(U:]2iMtal ]i:rll,l th[(l:ug~g for the lIe(:OOir
li'~

'fgb/e4 S.N. L 1:.


~~dn:!,

ThUtS~u: veioc1ly dia:gr.m'l~is (,:omplew~t Sd ~he veetortsble {Tm:Mc4).


l\\lillg)lTIit.ud'~ (n~/s.z)

irifcrsealonofilie lwol~~

aada

line .lCD f(lrtlm vecwr v~ the

the .pobilllll

!!)j~~~nu~

f:u ,or

(1.1

:11

(O;l·Y" 0.4

'"

12 ("'.,:_ )~

OJ
(1.29)2
0"3

;;;;4!g,4

llO!4
[lAB .L4B

fi~y or
OiL" r~~

111 bl!

Cab)
All

3.
·1. 56_ 1_

'[I

"" 5.55

~~
(b(IIY
'"I<

f6q o.rql bq or rl~~. 'b-"'l b ~


,c1 ~d

{JQ

029r
(US

.,
-9,25
118(2

.l!JQ'
(!Cd):!

~3c
(j!;

(Ii[

en

..

(1,0 ()2

0.4

- 2.55

Ilev
1. Cll

Oirl!!:..;!

d~

8:.

f!!l;I,orgl d ~

U t'o slider IJtlotiou

.Unks A C .wncICQ' each ean ~a,ve c,el1itr:~peta~ and t'lI:lgerHialcm~p0r!e!f!ts .

Oirg~b!"'" ~.n the

,q~d! d~b! +

'~:- fl_= r~~ ~~. ,. + •• +(:~ ·~I+ ~ .....


or
q~1 ql + IIZ:IIC1 :;;;;: c' 0:1HI +~I. til

Fmrn. this equatlen '1!I.lld. is already drarw,n, dia,SJrnm and lIb ..tS a liaear Ilccel.e;ratio.1iL
f ....
""

-+ It,., Hi]
di"b'Til!liTl

eempenent,
',,",

[C f· _._ I ,dq _,-' 1)<1. .

.,,-,,1'

TI,bt'I

8c~ the fQI~~!owingector table (Table 5).. v

Oomplcm.l the aceeleranon


QIIl~c~ql::l\j usual

vector

or

11:1hi

= gld

II

+ dI~ba'*' 1b,!lb:1

[Fig" 3JO(.;:)JI" :S~.Ini~3.rI;o t'l..CQD such that oolh are read illihesame, sens.e, I.e., eleekwise, Write ~hc veeter cqllmJtfclll for 11110 sl !d.Cir-'H,ltllk ID!;lcl:!'Hli5m (lDO.,
DnlW'A,cl'qldl

&1 the rollirlJwingvcctof


qj d~b~gl.

tabl.e (TaJbk 6).., Compkl!t'! tile <l;c~e!~c:rnt~Oj]J 'il'CC~O!, dtagranl

Ai:!;, lh~
{u)

m ,'f>. g:-I hi, "" 7 mf~ {'.'" . ~'. "

wwm:d!; I.eft

~.Gl,,~~!l',:ratiot!r~i~I,l!rp()~itt!l tovjp

111~ slid~r

f~ or

",,~~,+tiq
fI;f\! + [11,1

is de.lce]em~~,ng.

f~,~ '"

", .. _ r!.~"Ct -_ l:18 ._. 2:, -'3. AC 0..,6


a{.![" .~.'

:rliutS

.--..lI,~.:~:

cOlJllliIl~r-c~oe;kwise'

II.

.~-=

(~'iI) (1194J

:2

I~

.. J

OJ1~

0,,15

'5,92

IIOA, ..

2. 3"

5.

SN

2,

J ifY:iJ.-.'·
"-1 .•... " ,:'

':.'
I)... ,
... , .. :

4.

11>3 er I'lll bL

Copyr'ghtcd rnaleria'

utv4 ."'.

_ _r~
_ f::"l

(1!U'l(\1 _

QC'

:to ..' '", l "" ~fI14.S·~ rndi's D.S


corullt'C:r·(:I(j.c'kw~s.c 0.,5
.141.4 mUlls

tl line JLeD' f'O[1i thevector '~J.:.' the ~11{crseQ)tf:OII ,of-die two Ilmmll':s thepo<hn d. .. Bxtc11ld~he \',ecl:o:red toe Sl~iCh thar ,ecJ·cd '" CE1CD. Y(~'[Illd

Q:M -

Olr'bdlil!. _ 7.2 _ ," - -,-

' ,-

',)~'I , ~:

'. Dr'd\!l

:[1

BD

&au,rp,l'e 3:,6

@
.

~iUilirgtJri'Jtit)n..

ill the med~m~is!§l SIlOWII iu Fig. 3..11(0), #l<t- rCf'onk 0;;1 ,1'O$atU a1 11{) .rpm dackwi:'l!, .r:'{ll'" l:ft~, gi veIl de:termitu~ tlie W!locill.es and
"1)

1!I\c~tQl,r ",.ndl.~linc l.EF fbr!!liJe'\lcctof vfir' 'V»; ~hG ~:n.1~ffiCCliofii of the h¥O I.OCliruCS,~hc jWtil1lf •. ThiWi,. the ve~ocHydia,g!<!:mis cOl.np~,e~ed. V~'~ociLy (lhruid!~r.f.1
= gb=

~lOmZOra[D]1 ]ine L1~JOlllll :g" for the

431!i.lrnii

Vc]oc~ty ots]i:dler .D '"

gill. "'",2.,~,5Il1A~
s]~O:'iMlTh~!l the

Set l~]e''!;'~Iolrl:a'blc

V~~oc~ly ors:~tderv "" g'''f "'"O..35m/s

(lalb~le7) as

. acceJel~liolfs(}I!I!e-}titlers JJ, ~
IE

mld:R

fQHow~!~lgpage; Tire m::celcradQD1JJ d:i3:gmm toUI)~V'S~

is drawn

as

(i) F[lom I.l~epo~.~pohl:~IlII. uake; the :firs( V~C'lo:r ~'I.a! I[Fig,. 3.H(c)~, (u} Add Ih.eSewltld vector by pl.<lc~l1igils, tail lit til'
(~ii),For th,e thi:w V~~Qr f~IiI' df~W a line .lAB IJ!llioIJ.gIlllJl andl li'o~ •.lI!e fQl,lrth Ve{;10~ OJ lo;ri.zOl~I;~I. ~Iilte~~lIiQl!Ig[h:,.IIn.eintersccdon of g ~:liJe two linesleeaies pO~1]1 b~. (i;v,' loca,te, '()iilll~ el om the veo'imr
g a~ II'

(v). Add ~hc"'ccl{)r for ce:ntwiiKllal

1IAX:JL\l~,~r~lioU!

r,~~ or~~nk CD 8J.~d for hSI:a:I~g.>emi3J1 ClUJlp:ment, dr'~:w a perpeudicu ]ar Une to, iL
(vi]
.FO[l"theveeter

g. the
llne

7. "r.ll'\.'

ill

vertical line Hl!1iol!C,ghi


n~Ifil~(l,h@ I~Vl(lyS, t

,
;~J~!,1:btli

loc~~es, the

irn:!¢~li.Q:!,!ijftbts
1)Il)!rU dl,.

"'\I'ii~ .~o;[t1J e ~1d:~:.'II:1i(l


,exteI'llS]OI'l.

l!oc~~e

poit~l:e

~ ,OI~

~its

SOl!ltlOfl

11.,=

2.n x 2.I.n,
,60
,

~\li '1fll'k.e[~le v eeter 8 and drnw line el c_fpalMllel ii) to 111" !lJ]ld drn~v t! line for th(l~!i!,g'C!1tial
' , 'Coll1ipo:~.ent {~;l;) rOlf

X 0.2 .",,4.4 n;1lt:s

Co:ml?Me the v\doci~ diagr<ll'll as foUows, I[Fi:g, 3.1 ~i(I:I)]; • Fo!' th~ sljd~i!':"c!!'llIl'1k mechanismn DAB. OO~l"rne~e ~:ble vd!!.1oChy diagtt<lIU as usual,

the"~!i(1)if 10., W!_koc~. ~imriliQn~.d li~c through g~'~ the: i.f[i!:::rnccU~[Iof thisw~.I:h, ~Ilcil

th:e previo~ ~iitlelo(;.ues the p.ait!t. "1' Thi~ ~Qmpl~l~ tll@ ~c~@]6wadUi~1di.agn:unl.,.
{l.ccck'tl'lti;cuiLof:dider
Acce:le:mtn,orn, ofsliider AcceleTlit~@!i!;

• l~te

the ~Qi!llt,~.:11. the veetor~b, 0


tne vector

B> IIIIbru== 36

Im/tl.2

• Drow:~ v¢!1ic~]li!1~tbmughg':iot

·or ~UdeFF- g:'" 1"11 "'" Hi,mJs

fJ':;;;;: g'id.~ :;;;;L4'ruls '

Copyr·ghtocl

materia

&.rmrple 3.8

Air Andn;,w

~~.·· .••. 6:}:


~

::~;

riO

(l)

Jhl(,W'

UG',,',(!lcrQ!im~(Jfiheslider'

rof~If!~ ,at 100 j'P~' .FiNd l'lui

;~~e;:~:~= !:a:;~;~
""'(IiritJ'btl!~5I'roke

Fer t'I~tl ]il1kaigl.': OAC:BQ.


~+~~~+~.~+~=~+~ (Ii ail + ill] Cil "" {h b:.+ bil '(:. Li:n,b AC aad Be each have I:1.lI'IOCOil1J:lpo[J:e,I~t!l"
f:til
i~",+

(Jltglli{ll' (t(;~/eJ'(jIi,(}j~

,olthe.li~lk3 Ae.

(U

Be

utldeD.

+~ +f6 = fb~+f:b +:f:b or 0011 ;i1ru*' a II ' c,~ Ci, ... '111 b~-:I- bi, ch + 'fib c~:
Set the !l'ollowru~]g,!~c:liQr1ub.le (Table 9). Dr~w ~he'lctele;r.u:ioll cliilgrnm as follows: (a) FWi!1I!IIbepo~e pOil1ll;o~, MJl:e tll.efi:rsl .... eeter and !Mi~the sooofldvoctor10 H as s.I1.owlilin Fi.g. 3.l3 (c).
l(b)Uwugb dlc hcad 'C,iI ofLl1c s'lIDorld veckHt,

ee)

drarw a m[11!e L to A C :for the lhird 'ii'ec'~m: From q~ (o.r o!), take the fourfil, vee lor ;an(l

{d)'fl1:t!otl.gh

add ~:hi;ti ill vecl,{)rliO wt. tl1:~ I]cu.d '~!l of ~h¢fifth ¥cct(ll;" draw

a I:iill.e.L to

liaes drawnin s.tejp5 {oJ <III.a (d~ 1.~;EI!Iit!S .PQhn Cl' I:fue
Now, fr1<>"" fd~ + fro 0:1' 'fag ~roo + SiniOe f~k'bas two cOI.npo:nel'li.ts.
fd'g

n~lri~~rsi;lc~iOTh the of

Be C'b:i~]).e s~ixth v:oolCl'r,

f*

= f 00
-

+r~ + ~l:
+ C:I! d~+ d~d1

or

gl.

dl.

0 •. ""I.

S~l the !l'oll()w~ng vec~or ~alb]e n:~bl:eW 0'). Fm~n ,c, clmw the :5eoD1.radveerer amd dmw a liaa.L to CD ti:lr..oI],Q:b tlli1ebe.tell of the seeend veeter, [)r,'lw a Hne ~!tra:~~e~ t()~ihc Iiee of n~otio:~, of the slide.' t~'ii!'C!fli~. g!~.Thus, th(1lpG!i!:!,t dl,i8 .Iocated. = 41ld~ .",.[ Q.65, mt:s2

Jd

\'"

'. '".,;.~,

age

.. ~

AC

0'1" c,.C:J~.~

0.1&5

2:6,4.:= l42,,{

iI'<lC::'1)Is.2 "~~=~

clockw.ise

" ,_ .. a~ ~ r~ o.r iCll'l ~ Be


COrnlPlCle tili,e v,e~ocil:yd.i:(l~rnnl!lS s:~u;wl1in Fig. lJ3(b)" The prooedli.ll!e is explained E1I!:a!:n:ple .10, 2
Wr,i~e theaseeleration V'!;lC~!I)!: ¢q1l!~'!iQnnotiJag ttlilt th,(l ,cl~l'Inks 0:4 <lI~d Q!J rQiii1l;!;e: at d il'fewellt IJl1ifQrn:! speeds,

(u _ --. -, ~.4·"' .,0 IUUfS ~ .. '0 .1 IJ.. - 8.85,_, r


,_..1

O.lB5

COI:l!'i~L;:r-e~(lCkW]8e

Copyr'ghtcd materia

SN
~.Q

IIAC
1.

l.AC

4. 5.
JLEe"

SN .2.,

r1 or~i !d~
"~r,ord~ d.
:~~~ o~g:1

~~ 011 O!I Ie!

1.
4.. ,

IICD iI
l.CD
m1.otl)ol1l.of.D
~Q

dl

I"-~_""",,,~~·~i."'·~~

_,-"o..",,'.I. ....

OLIS .ACCELERATION 'COMPONENT


."

;··r

I"'_~

.~tis seen thflll the aeeelerarion of a llTI:ovIng pO.lut iJjel!m~ve to aflxed body (fix.ed coo:rdrulJl<J!lesySh;:I:IiI)1 l:I1ay have l\vQ OO:t:!lpi)rI~tyl:1iio:f ,ac~(lleraltio:m;. dlC cenmpflt:!ltmul the tmlg~llt~::!II. How~\I'c:r~ in semeeaseathe poi!]lt liuay h;aveits n];(lll:ioillrela~~ve 10 al:l1l.QI'i,I':~ng. roody (moving coor-dinale) sysleru,.r:or ex <lmple,I1I.1ot!.on of <~slider ora H mt!UIlllig JliniL The f'O:I]ow]r:1i1:1:IlIDIalys,is ii~ Im::a,de ~o l~n~~S<lig!.!tc; dl.~llccele;rnHOI:l! a~. ~lillup.o!i~lL Leta li~ A:Rrotu,~(; bOu:l !!. :Ii:~ed ~ PO~tlt ;Ji,)nit (Hg.l" 14). p']S;~ :PQ~I:U a sUd~!'en ~JiI~,~hl~" Oil
At
n:rny ,!!liivellJ in,sd:~II~I·.

Let

,00=

a~guiairvdodty oftl:bc link


J

,1l-lIIlJigllllla I"

aooe]!eral:lo:i:l ohliie link

f "" .;;J:~c!;lil~~,;iItio:!1lQflOO li:rn.c~( &l:id~['·(In t~~ ]hlk


It'! II. short lfltflf1lal Qftimc ofUn.e sl:Udelrin the outWlllild

l!'" 1:inellr'

veiloc:ilyohhc

sl idc~fOiI:l.the ]hlik

'" ""rodU3~ distance of poi rill P oilUlhe slidee 81, let 81)be.lne ;fll1tg'lI.lalidU:Siplarem.e~t of~hei:ink aml8r. the radlal dispI3cem.erJ;~
d:~roCI:iOllll,

After the sbgrtin~ef'l<'".d !OftimttlC lit. :~e,t

CopyJlighled materia

at

9,

OJ 'F
Ij

atit - .lll£,ulv vehx,i,ly of the ~i:nI,:.


1.1i:l1!l3Ivd.ooCit¥ ofih.e slider on.thc!tnk - rndtal distance' of'I~,es,Uder

v'sil1 BfJ

\,1" ""

r'~~,r + lir

+llil

A(~eleil'a.tionofPPar,aIIeI to AN.
I'ni,tial vc.locity (ifP~~on.g; All. "" V"" vl'il' Finalvelecity of P aklilg AR '''''Y'' C()~5e- w'r'IS~B~' CiIlfinge of \ile[m~hy along, AR .""(vtCQ~8e- ,(Q'r' ~i.!'I!&e)- ,",' AQccJ~~~tiQ,~ :a11[):J1!Q, AR ofP
R

'~·r~ ." ..
• I fJ{j.,·,,·, I ;

;:0

~~~~------~~~~~~----(ru'+ :f16t)(.r

(v + lllt)ens ae -

+ Or)sin &J ~

II! ~he Umit, ... & ,-+ 0' 5


C{)'S(l'8 ~

iSl

QOiil,AR '

p.•Iil.'1 ·.'O Slider

II

·... 1
i

·,ill

I~

gr _- -:

1 and s~n&J' _,. _

ae

w'

Aecel~ruth:m of P ;~do!'igAR-

f - 6)r 'd~ _ ... _ '" f= OJrMr~f-

,dO

= Aoe. This is; theaccc~c'rntiffi1: ofP a~a.ngAH in the r.ad!ilillUy ml,ffi'Rm diJf.lctl](ltl. /wonl ib~ ~.eg:l;uiv~if thC:lsUd~r h~fi d.. I~ra:liCln w!h~]('; ~ I'i'!,{)vtng iHlhe outw.al'd dlrcd~onor has!lcce:lc:ral~i!)n ·whilemQ~.iog in the ~;H\Jl':ard iroc1:ion, d

W" r ,o~'~:~rder-C'~IlJlt]p!.'ltIlLacc·.

'i

Acc;:el!eraUon. of P Fe:rpe,n.dicularto .A.R


Finel 'i.\·c.loeity of P 1, to AR "" v' Si.IiI,M + rotl (:9908 C'Jiai'l;g~of li,'eJQdty .L to AR == (v'sh~ae + at ,r"c(lsiW) A£"Cie~~mli.()~n. P.l to A!R OF lnitial veiooil:y ofP~
Hel AFt
M

(iJr

ljJt"

~ 'ev + tliOeof>
-1' (I

,59 ~. «lJ + (tat )(, .."if. ,8,. )cm~Sf! .~.,@;!"


ilnd

ln lihe: ~~Iff:I;il>IU~ J t

cus$()-) 1 AcoeWemti.onoF P .1 to AR =
"V

-d. + ,(Qi + N~
.,~
'1'

dlJ

dr
ul

+,D\! + ra= 2: fIJI-" +ra "" 2rov +m!:lgernrlialacc..


'" 'vru

This 1:;(h,¢ ,i!cc.;l¢_ra~h)D P ~i;\·tldt~ula:i' of


(:ol1lpon.c'l':It. h

to t1.R. The ~i;)mpi)Jl;~!li!t 2;0).!/h~k...no1Wt'i

as the Cor:iolisar;celeralioJ1

is: positive if both ,n; and v arc either P(l1;[tiVQ or n~g~ti.\i\~;' Jbus~ the eeriolls compQllcntis pos:i6vcif t~e .. hnk All mt ... esc,h'lckw~i'lealld ~he,.~]~dermoves ;radially outwards ~ • Hnk Imtmes '~Qm~ler~I,-()oLikwi:se l:l'l1dthe s'lid('£' :mQi!i,i'e$ t<ltii:aUy ~!~ward~" Otb(lrwi~" rhe Corio;Us. 'Oom:ponc~u will 00. ~c;gtI!tivc.;. These Ob5c:I'V@I,tkn~s besummarised can ~nto the fo~kjwi.ngrul£\: The d~_(ectio"ll.of the· Coriolis <l:c.1ceh!ol!;),ti!on oom,llollC;1l,t is obtlincd by rotating l11c:rnditlruv'CTocity ,,,ector \' th!!'flugh 901" in lhe: di~li(l!1 ofwtatJfofl ofthe lin~·. LeI Q be 8. p('Iinton the link .;flr im.mcdia.te.~y henea:th the J'.i'O.i!i!~ P :u the ~DM:;lfU, Th~Wl

Copyrighted

rnmeria'

Note thnt in tiHIe p~~l:'!t case, th¢ slidtllI,Q: !lC~~~e["Jtion. lQa isin tffiI.eopposlt·e d'irecti,01!l to lil.€! 51idillS u 'qp,.n.is signifi.lI!sliuu tI~!esl idc'risdiecei;e.nltir.lg.
A.I:5Io,

W;!]O!tl][y

ri"~ rg+r~"
,;;;; +f~ +r.s.r f'rnJ ~r 1 ;g~~I, ..,
This
0qjlil~li.(m caJlli !l~ ".1. fJg

=fm

4-

f~r

+ !1'1 ~r + sir

Sil

Tota~. ;)CC. 0(' S rel;a~hle,to R. r~T'" ,r ~!i!, ,Aaeeh:mliol'l of S"" g. S~Of 1J!1!!;~,or (J'~!iil

be so~vm:llas usual,

The dl:rectio[l of g~!ilis


decc;lciIOIti;llIlS·
£'\itml\p'/e

o\p~osite to the d:ire!M.iofl of mnotiOirl of the s]id:er S indical ing, tltllt the slidel" is

3.9

.~.'t,:S. 0.···.···.'.'-"

.Figt1rn 3.J6{a) ShlHt~.f'~ ~'IJdf!.!·· m'1~,iui_ ml{'I!~~m" O~l (J' rod ivUh a w.!';'fJh~ l~4 mls. \F~(f# ,ifS iJi'St{)ilCie Y'r!1II.I' . th~ fJOint

pit
J~~
'11'-. 'PQ'

,() is' 'l i~ ~ AI' this j'ns/:a!ll.. slle welDot;I~'Rof the tlil, I' s11dc iis i~lC_J"!iJaJiirt.g" a rate, &f 10 mlrsZ. Tha al 1'ii~riIj(J;'i an ll'~gll/~r;y'f!lQc.itJ' f;)f 6 1'(:1(/& cmmtc1'd(H:'~'fise (jlJlJ~U, 'tIml an,an,gMiar «ctfi{eli1.aon . () ()f2~r;ar1!s1 (JlqC~:vil.e'. lJerenf~~"'Btile ah'Salufe tI'Ccelerauol1oldk s],cfer. .....
SOhl,fh~1'J

Wriliag,lhc
.11'

Ip~

~II'

+ .11' ~M Ilqo,
'D]PW"'"

al1c~tC[~tklln't:ctQfoqu<Ltiun. v
"" [.

~..

+ " ...~.'~;II.-r- "f" -r- f(i; T II~~ "f'~ -'- ,.,C\~ ~~"_ '~\Qo 'M
.,L
..1.

30

48

o~q~ '1':1(1''11] + q! Pi! +P'q fil + Set the following veeter t!)b]e (Tabl.eI2,).: Fig,lIte 3d6(b)1 shows !ho,wlo o'bilailll.liliIe direCl10f! 'ohhc eorielis COn'lpone[lt. The vc;~ocHyvec'~oli'onhe slider ~sro1~lcdlmmugi:! 900 in tbea[lgl!!iar dirccl,]ol1
OJ,

(c)

Fi8·3.16 ]. From tllc'poiepooint


OJ. tiilk1e the q'of~l"
,I

(lFthe rod, Draw the acCeiC;!1itl;011 di,(lJgraln ~, f(lUo'i.~


[Fig, 3,. h5~cJl:
TaMC'.~

wr:st vcc]m

2. Add
,

o,qi(r'
lO

h !.II(: ::::eoo!ildvccwr

SN
j"

It;

~ 0tf 6,
,~
Q.

.t

'I,i)!
(!II"

II

o.~

2.
3..

f~,o !.'tUI

OVr x OQ = 2{1 x L5= 30

JL OR

]0
.1.oR.

4.

3. Add the ~liIirdvectorto [h,esecond vecUlr.


4. To IUl:d the fQu:l1h vector, place tile tail of'the fburth vector :at the head of the third vector and Ule fillml !point Pi :~s1<Clcal,ed. S. JO~[l 01. PI. ._ _ -r 000 measarement, o~ fl'i'l. "" ,4'7.:5

Solsdion

The ve[ocitydia:grnm has beenreprodeced 'ill Fig. 3.1.7(b) fiiOm Fig. 2"2,] . 2Jl x 210 Vpo OJ' op = OJ. OP = .' . x 112 = 22 x 0.2

60

'" 4,4, fW5

nv~_'~

W:riti.llig the Il.c,ce~emlioo vecrer C~l:~iiIIli.oll~

or by ealeulatien diagraJi'l~

Drom. the aeeeleeation .or'ii1. or 'or

r: =1.+£ _qa
fN

f~

""~I-'

+'~,
'lP

= J(S4 -10)02 + (4,81- 30)2 == 47.,' m/s2 E;,\·(w~pl.e 3.'1R


~" _.0.·,":". '.
~

'Ih ~

01

PI + P. 1.

fig. 3,I7'(a)'
fl./,echcmism

rif (;1

.s'/IOW·

Ihe fill/it.

f". +(1,- ",re. +fu +f~' 1I1!!1 q!!1 pol! !JI1' Ill'

quicK,.,rel!/rn

fIU;:clJlll,iiJ;m of tire OSlmU:lMIJI1Ci' tjfpe, th~ Wll",iou£ enmeJuiOJlS

0;1, "" 400 Iw-jj1, Of "'"l(fO' mm, ·Ai' =. 700 milt


RS -' 30'0'
IIU1J'_ '

ofwhlc/rQTe

a •. ql + 'q:o, qw "" 01 P'I. + Pm'lIlp ... 'qp IJ]:I Set the foUowillg V!:CID,r 118.01e (Tabl,eI3) shown 'ill IlD.e follow:ing pi.g~" DffirecliOlCl of J; is Gb~ailled by :roOlj~]ng ""If

11uiDu,gln.'90'0 ill the ,di:re-c,~io[]of' '''l1gfl~;!lr:IlIOVc;miU:nJt of liw..QA .]5 s]w''MI ~!1Fig.. 3.1 7(c) (dockwisei:n

For Ihe cmJji.gfJrmion j'!JOWII', determine th~. acceic,"'lIi(m oj the ctil1-iN!tool ot Sand Ilw angular (1{,'celera#(),h of tile Ijnk RS. The ''J-ank

this case). I).rn,w ~heacceleration diagramas (0 now~ [Fig.3.17(d)]; l, From the ,ole: point 0'._ takie the firs:l,veetor
1)'1

OP rotal(!.~of ~U) rpm,


~S

-~---.~~;Po:n~!lr

GJ~I

'1350

Cl'OnAR

0'

(OJ

2. Add ~Q it dw second veetet P:I'l)p, 3... Addlthc third veceor tD the second \tector. :FOT the fO]lll1h veclaf, draw a Unepf.litaUel to AIQ. 1h.,oll.gn the head q:l" oftllle d~imvector. 4, "Protm. the po['~poi_n~; ill or (llj.lllLke '~~~£:I'iflh. '!lector <II11~ for 1]](', !>bdilil vector, drn~\I' a line pe1ipendiClIl.aJr to !I'g tl][~lIgh the head q~ gf the' fl fill vee lor. This way tI:tepoint ql is located.

P.,·

5. JoOm ,ql~and all a!!idextend to alr~ _ AR ;Rlq.-= AQ Writing dle veeror equarlon,
or or f..... ~ (o~1F+ flU f.. ...· ~ .. + fir g

rl

such that

g.s. c I)~ r'j + "'1 Sf + Sir!ill fro is, ~Jicady av.a,~liaJbte en Ilhe: acceleration disgrem, f5g is I:l(Iri:2!QflI~1. 'r (:rs)'2 _ ,(tAI)'~_ () 63' 2 f- =--'''"''---='_,_. n_s,

fro

+r:, +. r:r

'1" RS OJ Oom~·]e~e Ihe vector d~iig['all1l s: usual. a Ac:oe~~rali(l\1'! '~llf the clWl!:itlg l(lQl, 'f, ;;;;; 0'1 5.

- :12.8 'm/:?:
-

pjlt .3.:1.'7 .
.'I;!! '.

a,
rs

=='1'5

rm

. 157 or_sIs .• "" ~ ... i2.1.mdll'is clQc'kwi!<e

80S

(),]

Copyrghlod

material,

lkt't~~tI.~iooAjjQly~;[s:

Ull.

..

SN

: .".. '\lcetlJr~:
)"
-

-.'

..

"_

IleOP·

2.
3"

2. IDhl,\I''1P

3.5.5~

. .LA_Q.

.. i

~-

'1IiIAO
S,'
II: cr. _"

r.t.
]I"jj

'

-!\I'" OF q'I!, -- ' ..-

'.... 1·1 .,.

i'AQ'

..
I.

rl

f"" ,-_W",:, -,'"' .,.,. "'"

_?
-

-,'

RA

V,,, I},,~ .
, 'IJ

"• .."
... ,,...

, .436.",. ',," e,~ "", 35, .5 m/:"S "', _. ",,:1: . , '-'


i '

11).1 ," .. - 0,.:'

- _", _ ,"

ate:

1I'l' (;<'!SOe ~probllem ~s;to Ibewod,ed OlUit: without, tllle writling the ved:o<r equMlionl and if Ifill (or~d,I.:s
~ccel@rati'Ql'I
(jompon>@liiItr~ is

,tDrJiS!ldl!f@d

ins,te;:ld of '~~, therrnlnDt~~nat

.' lI;lem;agni~lId!e of!:lile CQnolis ~(lmp(Irt{mt re");!,ins; the same,


• [n, or-der 10 lind! [llIC d_i:rod,QrJ, \i'''lII'I,is 10 bewtated ~b Fig. 3,17c" 'fhe diredijon be OPP'Os~.lell} to plaoo Ulis V("CtQ-f

d.teVC\lm:~lY 'I',oci(!r
'9\r as $ho'ikT.i in

r::;l' Now. one williJe'ltlrnpted


[O\\~rdsri,ghlofp'l

af (~~~s,fonndto
in th~

<lO(l~I"rutimll dia~.

the veeror WO[l~~ be' read as p~lq\PwMen.meass ~~;a:ndtim. 'fbl.lS,~~in I.Jw \,l1cwrf;;,'I~s to 00 p:l:ac6d i.!JtlhL'l ~m(l p:~~.i.e., on the ~!efi

f{oweve:r, i~ftl~~t is done,

r;:;.

ofP:lwl1ddh. gb~i:i'i~wirl

mCriI!ns:lhe acceleration diagmm 00 Ih~ s;:i~ •

.E:ra;hp'l,~ 3.11, ~~.•• ·~,f.··,·~o."> •.


~

F~{kjiil'! 3.18(41~.~hQ1P,5'
&Y;.tdl

{i'iJ

'fi.:&rurr.,~.I'M ,CTQnk OP .11m an


(ll1'g;il(lrlt£l~ily

yvke mel),fumisJlI, A't' Nl~ ~ml~'d:s/mwf! in tile

oj U) radfs cmd (11,1 emgul(Jr 4i.~'el~rgliolr (J/.. Jt). ,rug!'iJ', lktermirrethq ar;t;:rtl(!('(ItirUl~fll.clider P .ilt the' s

gflitJc'.am,iIiUf!tor;jz,mualaecil.le:rali((no!tl'laguwc.

Salulifm ~'p.:.=1 x !i),2; =2: m/$. 0 . 1:0 dlllW the vel.achy dlia gr:mn, take a c,o.incideMI~ poi]1it Q jl..l!;.'l iItl~,l1ll:3!(h. P Oil th~g,l,li,~ link Take snether rol1nl C on the gllide lilnk, Now, proceed! as
1

follows [H~. 3.1&(bU

Copyriphted materia'

L. Thk,e;lh~

SII!lutSib~e seale,

vector

tl'p

equal tol

nv~to some
..

.A . fV/~iIROi!"til . quicJr;.w;etum
. lj'JrM."h·(iil~i;fm· h.1l~

2.. TIU!" veiocrity of Q rei <'i!ti'\l'cto l' is <1!!iOliI'g tbe ,~ide p;)Jth, Therefure, dr.ruw a. ~i.n¢ p.w.]M
J., TIle. ve~oc:ity ofCrelalive, to o I.S, ;l]Ollg the guklic path a1 G er is hori2)o:nl~aL 11Ius" draw a hori~Oi!ik!.1il~j;l$&ooi:igh :g ~(I i~N~
PQ~n~~, . -

liel!'li..1ih&.W1 j", F'll. ,J.l:9:(al, T/~ctJlmt;nsir:)HJlof

to (hi:!! Pill,1ihl(v~i.,eZl~} throlllghp poiarq,

tol~ale the

'.
~MWI;I~

·,'httl.ifj{[, are OP.(c.ral.lkj ~ 24,f)

O:-f -l~(l mm. Ai$mlijj tll'l.I aml RS • '}Ij{1 I'~m. ""£/1,e(;Cronk OF? lias mi (IJ~gllJar' ~1e1(J(JiIJt,
>

~t !. ,.~~~ml ()It ?
20.tadl~ allli'f!!

a}l:sul(l~ ,.erc.eJewrwu

bi.ft:f1~I, D(dt1JWi.l~'(). the'.

(1)

pcc·~k~'t'(f{ori if liJ(J (

.~1Jdf;"s·

4 .. Now, 'Q aJlHi Cail"e ~,woH~ed jJoh:1i1:S the 011 ~me H~li::,!1J!'ld tllle di:;;t~tl!c~b~lw~li)!1i]b~m docs IfIQt vil~y,T~~,e:refore, the poinl$ q nnCl 'c. tl:l 11m 've!ocitydiikligrn:m.lcolunc:udc" ThlN:.'l, the imersectlOlJi of lines dro'l.ffi in ~lep!S 2i.'!!ml3 loc.ue~ poi!1lt~ (JI(!J~ e, c -, (ep )~ 2~ . Now, f pI:! or Urn p~"" -"" - "" 2{h:vs1 Of' 112
j ~

(if) (Jltgl~l().l',(J.r.x;ttle:r~ltjm~ oj
11

Ullw,ffA.R (Jut/ft.$:

.• .

oJ,

P(llilsilide~

'! f!Po, ,or 11',(1 p'~= 3'0

)(;0.2= >6 mls:!


di~~rom M
fQ~]()WI'l.

e
p

QlonAB

[)!".;)JW ~~~!',MiQt]

3.18~e)]~

[F~g, .

1. fi:rst ~(llkc the oel~l:ripetal acceleration ,comporl~l1t o~P.: and add th~ t!1insel:lti,!l] cQmpo[lelltf;iI at Pu~PII to lit.

~:~Of

2, N!)w~ the n~f;[f!f aCl;ele:ffl~icmor:s~~idb'~g QfQ lJelatlvclo P lS 'l!cni.ci1l~l. Thus, d.mw a. liillJelD locate [point til 0.11 that. 3. IDr;]j~lif;:).hon:1)0!1l:a1 t~!1el!hrough gIl !!() I(lc.u.e i
the ~o:iil:lt e~ on that,

'_S·3::19
SID~nli(!n n.ey,c~oci.lyd!i~grml1~as.~ec:n.·~dooed

4. As. ~hel!e is :i!!:.el'l) vel:(!.Cil.}' ~e'lw~rn, .Q a~d

P. th~y,u~

to be thcf;:oltm:::wd[!i1gpoi~~s in

ill figs 3J9(b) from Fig, 2.25(])).. ~~~+~

.
~~~+~

the, aooe]er<llli<llll ,di.lIgmm1)~.so., 'Th.us, jhe ~I;nersecdor.l. of nnes dra"lifn ~n steps 2alt1d :3
lotat:¢~ tiIle poi]]t 't) I .of t], . Acoel,erotioillof slider P ""rM.or
ee

Wr.~t~[Jjghe a;cce]emtioO!n v·ector equation, t

qruPt

Both the l~qmli.ol1S lead ~:ath~gawu~ a.cceL~cnio:n. diag.TIli.r1 e::!l.oept that ~:he d,1r-ecIiQltlSeinS~· ~f~lb:e

4,7:5:m!~,2
0;,

:Il!ce~I~~d,Omvectors kl\VE-C1:liPand
T.:1Iking th~firs~ one,

IQllfie R:VC:I'Se:d:,

~:mrilioflilal aiO()e~.el:Jli:l.io.n of gUlide g~ 'c~"" '20.5i 1~1I52: It ruS;I!O be :I1Oited that in this examp:le, Q and P rrure two enlncident pobl!ts,. bu~: s,]irul,~heiJiIe ]10 Cori.olis Is oQmpo~(:;!}it.This is bseause lh~~]r!k (guii(J,ii) ,~U)J 'which the !lltderis movi~~gdJof;S~(li1h!lve amy a!!lgull!lf :mJ!)!tion. ii11:1:d! thus ro foilt trn.a~,s z:cro. i
",rq:

amd

fq~."'fqp
fila'

+fI)tl.
a.! P!

""tpa +f(ll~ +p~ q~

or
Each

a~!ql" '

:ha:s two oOll1l,poraenl:s"

r:. ~ r~" "" r:1l + f~o f:l~+ r:p


.if.

Copyriphted

materia

or

a1 iflill + '!iI.q:E"" jill Po+PuP~ +p'~ 'i'J11 + 'lip fh

~:is dbl11Ji!'!ed ~'Y ~9~ting'!l'f1J tbr~gh. 90" i~~1~directien of!a![lgu~r Ill(l¥emctlt Uteli_. QA .m.8!i:i: ,(cOllmllc:1':..cloc.~Iil]t.!i this (;<i!'ic) Draw ~h;e a~ce~:e:rn[fOill diagram ,SiS{bUo'WS I[F[!} 3.1.'9'(C:)1]1~ .1. from the pole ~ollinrol'j talke ~liIefi!lis;t v:ecIO!~

n.e di:recHof.l of

Set the fQao:wi:~:g'fflcto:r 'la!bl~(tfllbie 14):

_ (rs.)~ ._ f !: - __ '- (OJ2)~_

~r

.RS

OA:3

'_·II}.UdJ'·'

IfI

".·.~3'.•~ ::l: , .!a.Us,

or

CQn~~~'~ete V{'lCiOlr dihagrturll ss lJAsl1!at !tbe f~"" 01


s] c

0.39' ml:!i2

'r~,a,
lXw- := a'qtt:= = .l56 '.

or Qb
QIiI

<Ill

0.,57 ""0.36,5

~Ildadd 10 II t~~ SiOOo:nd\'oc:~or.


2. Ad~ th~thi]'(l
vcctt'li.r to the seceud
j.

\Il(!G.~Qr.

W/gl dodtwjse;
".[

.Po["Lhe fOlul!lh \llL'lct'Or drow ~I~[!~' parallel to .A'Q'~ th:mll.1gb tile' hesd ~iJ< of til1~ (Mm. Ve.c'~ll,t. 3.F!I'om. tile, 'pol;e poin'!! al. oro.. take: lheflnh vecl:p:r and for Uli; sixth 'v1ecLi(l(r, draw ~.]~f!;e ,pcrpcmli'cui'lU to AQ tlwlJ'~g;h ~!~d '!lI~ d the

RS 0.43 2 docikwi~e ",.O":-lS8 nld/r.


'r~

'f! '!1! a =.,

"'- 'i>~"'~ ," <"

'0' "> .. .""''''' . '.;':;:;-.-.

Ibe flnh vector;

[xmup',I~ :1.13

'rhis Wiily I~~poirlllql is l~tQd.


<it Join () ~ ,1iJfirllJJ

-~=;11

Im.! '~l'!;u:!1d W :r~~ur;h tll<llt :~IIl"~ AR


••

Olle eyliru}er ()fa I'(j!cary (;>I!gine hi ..Ami'fl in ,d!r: ~Qrifig.lw(lticm (/ir1g1'(mr ~1Jo~,'.r~ Pig, .l.:1.o(o).. in O,.! is tlw;fi:!Cadcrank. j{JO mm
is

'~h .. Q I
"1F

Wri[]l'Ig the\ieclov equa~ion,

or or

r~= [If,! -Irfjil'


;l

fro '" f'J'

:r;t,
JI~

fn.~trlmts il'1dll1€d til J,()~ /f) tll'~ 'l/.f!t'I,irY1J, J'J~111j(JU§! 'q( fl!'rl ,i:mgiiru (.:'Or1SiJ>ti~K ",diirt/ens J'O$tlil'@ aea of
cmij'orm

fo.rt~; (JP t_ft the cO'nmU:l,ilrg 1'l1l1 [j'~d lm~g. The ifjre of i!,:f'Jf:ike ts (JlrmlJ AR'

'J20

min'

(lj~d (JI the

Il! 5~'" o! Ii] + ,r. :!if + 51' 51 [ I1'J l'iS iI~ read!'" ;J'!,IlD.ill<llll:e'011, '[Ile aceeleratien d iag.t.i~m. 1:,,0.; [i~ i11J<lfi7..(]ru~LI.

:irF + If I' +f' ~nl JiF

.spem rJ/.J'{)f)

~Pl'l'~'(lhaill

Ihe ji-re4 Cl!n$IV

A. f)(mwJ'lJIJtt!' 11M:'

(i) l{«",lem"'O~t

GI1}ii'lIIJIJ

Midlt'')

fmlldff!

the.

cvlimler
(1i) ~r1gJJIQr ffl;t;d~J:(!{iQuqf t~~ft mmxlilJg r{p;/ «

SN
IIOP

2..

'r~ (li Pn 'l~.m'

PI

~ x or - 20 ic V.24: - ~.48

.1

OPor II o'P'

3.
.:k 5.
II

e
~jJ1

0]:

PI. qp '~h

(;p

Of!qJ"

IIAO
HAQ
.1AiQ
(~ .... ~) ...j;

r:i1 o:r;lIJ q;

6_

...

rr'l~01"1II~. ql

:x~:~!~

x OJ J S (~~u-

aq-

0.585) ...~138 rnJ5l

.'

L95 Loc5 ." := :2 x~0.16 x .". ""4"'1 mts" .J., .. foi[' CO'D'iol.is component is taken. by 90~in the d.lliaction ,of ,aoguLm: mov,eme:ra!t of tbe link QE (eoM~~r..cklock\vi5ein mis The directlon
l'O'llulng V'i" l;nll'llJup case),

Wq~is fQ~ndto be c()llIltlteH;locikw'~se.

n.eatte~er.!tiQn dia.gmm.iscampl~l\d!
2

:ali 1lS1I81

.AocelieraLi.an of &1iditlg of ruhlLk EF i~ 'Ille trunnlon


== qlJq~.""tBfiJrus

TI:'IlS sh.ows that h is oowl1iwams or ()ppos~te te the velodty. 'Thus,. 11is d.ec:e~:era;l'ioJfl•

EX~l.~t1JI~ 3.13

.In

,~Jte pump

lI.iw;lml,ji£m

shown ir~Fig,J'" 2·2t~... O~ "" J2() 171m•. AC = (j8~)i n,~m,G,rt.el OQ = (jj.() ,mm. .Par #hl g~~e.n
10' qillu:J.er~'<I(I'ls

colrfig~~m~iQu,de'er!lJ1ine (1,)1 ilnl!ar (.!i1.idi/,Jg) m::ce!erati(m of slick/" C

,re.latiwe

(ii) ,(J'nguiar accelr.ratirm o/th~p;~l:Ql'lrod

·~r~*' f~ +
or
1111,

~:b 'f~~
"I'

Sol,~llJtm The liieloc:~~y dIag1:1I.nh<ls,'beeI~repredueed in fig:..1.:22I(b) from !Example 2. JS. The ]ll'QbI·em clili be ~Qlved by ¢i'~:et of ~ tWOfiH;:tll,cds di~cli,I~!ledFor v~l(lci,tj" diag,r,anll' ill E:x!lml:"~e 2.,15. Wdl:ing the aeceleratica ve!j;,]or egjlJj:.ltio:n fo.r the ~aittercO[JiIi:giJJ:r:ali:on, fQ(} "" f;W + (hq
OJ

:a~ "" q] b,~ "'" hI'!.bl,.+ b~ ab +. a" llil

Set the: vecior t<i'lbl.e (T<I'Q,le 17) Th.e d:irect~;ocll of f~is obtaiued by wWllingv,b.:! ~Mm:~glil [[I 90 di:l'ecll0!} of wI>., ~c~ockwi$e).
fl

me

D:!'aJw~he:ilcc(l:I~~i!c)1lJ d:ill~mas

~iV'en lbe:l.OIW,: .

]. T'ilke lJbeITrst\!ector [Fis~ 3,.22~c)J., ~2. :Fwm pointql wole PO~i'U}, aketh~ ~I)nd ~
'I,i'e¢M

roo "" r~+ roo

])e:melild~~,l,darto :(lB' fol:' tile, third veclM.1:r:

;:md thf'O'll!.g:b me: bad of it, dmwa ~i~

Ti1blt" 17.'1

.
2.
3.
t~v Q:u'~q
. f~N~li,

--""--"".Ilfl VA 0.32
{b~I)::l (4.171 ' -'" -"" 2t},:g

(oily

(bAy

..

rllOA

BQ

O.HS

b~
fll

.tQB'
Iii QS .lQB

5.

r:J; orll,; a,

3, Tlike the fifth.

VfC,t01!"

from the point:a~ sueh

that the' vector is in, the proper diooctionand


al lil:'lep!!rnU~l to of the fifllh veetor, liIle jlUef:SeC~~O:iID the ~mes,drnw.m i.n ~b!]liS ,(2) (]if

sense. 4. F'OJi" tll,e founh v,e~tor" dnI,w

QfJ' ~:bro~,ghthe tail

lib

aad (4) ]ocnles :po.int 'btl' letD be a pomt on QfJ beneath tlIe 'Point C. A,ec. ,ofe ret to cy~inder walLs

=f~ == f~ =12m1~~ Writing the vector equation, f'tq;;;;; fm "*' fdq


::::: f~+jcd

= ~~, f!J + f~ +
er

(0)

'It c~,- q. d! -Hilll I~ + ,t,dl d l

r:, ~f~

r; = 2~
(:.1 .

",,?l

mrs~ pualJ(!:110 (28'.


:2.Wj..qn.'al;

SoirdKm

Jilb'"'

10 xO.Ol~ "" 0.35 rwis

vpi':

= f:J.

, .". " .'. .' '. .' . qwd. _ QD locatepOlillt, d~ OI!l.'q.bl such tbat.. , -." , , . qwbl QB , 'fo,lhe vecmr f~ add the vec1:orfM' snd! then

v,e1ocity diagranl as shOWI) in CaI!l be I.oc:aled by ,drawing the 'velocity iIuage of tile triangle BCQ and P 1:1,

Complet:eth.e

Fig. 3.23(b). P,oint Q drawing


POii'

rite \!c]ociry

[m~ge of 111il~lriaflgl,eDCP.

ThIUS, ~J!le poi~u ern i,s h:lC:a~.ed. Jo~n .1, 19 ,c]' .

aeeeleratien diagJrnlll,,\' e have, Aoe. C ret to AI..,Ace. of C rel, to.B Brei ..teA

or

+ Ace. of

Ilil'Ci repreS~[}t5 rotal aooe[,erntiQn of C re:latlv,~to'


IIJ,.

fOOl "" o:r or

fCob

+ flld!
"I-

.4.. Tbis has two ,components,. I'" J. 1'" 'C"~,cd -. ",.=;..·1


,a

:~aI= ifl'tg

r~!i
+ b!,c]

dl el ""a! h!

" .....

and

r! lito

,a~ = r:a
,.._' ~., ...

C4' ("" Ct) .. - :::. .- == 20,,59 rod's'~ -H C,A 0.68


I"....:r. " ...... .

c:.

W!'itiug lmenns of,com]l(llncnts.

.',.r!!
or ,dl,

+~:~ fbI!! +f:b, +(:., ,=: ed + elllc, "" II~ 1101 + b;1 Cb+ C''iJ c:~

Set thcfol.l.ov,!iltlg vector table (lable l8):

Ev,(J:,npl£ 3.116,

; B' - 35 "m~. BC= 40 min. CD = ·.{5 mm 01'1'(1AD = 'iO "l'lInr. t the In.danil wlum LDABI 15"1' Ih~ lillie A.B mta{es wid, an ' .angolar l'e/ocify Of 10 rad/$ .in the IccJI'm.Jt!r- 1 C'/och':'ire dJii(!;C 10, • Given I; C '/J ii1elJf,poinU P tlW1C/l-f!J In 111ftillk CD ,rJ,nJ'Q miocfir:il m 11j f t~jrk'C '~cjlj t.hLlt BQ :j'G! mnl' {tiltS' CQ ~,zO
,

"J1ut' i~rue;~~suutS /tJ,u~"$mk ~ ofa moch~m't1u m. as ut1dj!:r [F(g:


"23"a}}; .

-..,;0\

Draw the acceleration dli:a:~ n11b.c1dm fo~l)owi~;8 '!:bili :smcjps ·of !Examp]e ::U. Locate lh.e ]IDillt P;I by dmwing d'l,e acce]emtionlitia,~e- ,of 'lbe lrian,gle Dcr Oil ~he v-ector !c.ldlilnd ,qnl !by dmwi~
'!hi;
llQ\ile~,emtion i.m,I1l.~e.of

..

tbe tria:nsle lJCQ

.on

dw

v~lQr ibm''; [Fig.3,23(c)] I

Now.

COIlO~~$;acce~cmltWlCompone<l1l

r~:-Ace,

of ~ret

to

QI + Ace. of 0 rel, to Al+

""'I'M

+r~,+ ri::f'

"nm. Detenni,'l(}
Q ,(01"
IJr.c

l/je ,(l,cw}eraJi(mo/

P' ''e~(l~bJ:G to

In the 31b(iW:~eq,~a~.lo[l f;!'XI (3 I fiI'll) 8.md~~a (3irn'Qj) sre :bcwn ,!I1])1!!I i~;s, oo~.lli;red to nlld rpq.l1lewefore, i
fiJiSl
W~

li.nk B ~.

have te find f.-:T.

Copyr ghlad materia

SN
I I.

2.
1.

-)11

5.

.1 DC
b~ tQitil!tl!11,g ~hC'VCC~Of v~, in thf.: dif@d~on Qf~~gul;af: v.dooi;ty orfBC w]ricn. is cilock'w]se in f:his case .. /pq lSi rt:-I]'lreiiltmtw byvet;ltcr!\lll P! -- 4,:nl m/$l! This is tl:!eaGG;:elelt1l~io~ of PreJativc 10 Q (or Uu: HIlk:. Bq, :Le, tilil.e aoode~OI!tilo:nlwhich.uI observer stati(m,cd 'on Hnk BCwmddmport <liS. th.e.u:::oeierlltIOJiDI of the poi~.'tPc

Let

pL~!1;e Imoviuglix:ldyh'tllvi.ng itsm.Miot'!relaliv~ liO a i:-r.ed iC()()Tdffifi!!l!,I~e ,COOI[',jiml;w 5)fstcm :lIz' ws iiJtlatbcdto tli:is mov.i:n.g~ody as b~fii):r¢ (F~g.3;2:4), CO(lrdijI!1Rt1!'JO I)fth.~ oris;ifl4 ofdl.e mQvin~,!Sy:St~Q'I are b'!i)WIl~l:ritiw tQtlw~b~(!]g~~ Fefen:nce systema!tld, ~emovi[Jl1l, ~y.s!h:m.~, i1nallgularVle.]ochy m ,3]50<. To find the acQ(lleftuion of P,.:O}.proceduoo !!:imi~il!r t~e on-e adopted for veillodly ~f>Ll!Sed, Jruerealsa, ~"
systcmX}cz <iswuslablilJ in Se'Cti.Oi'i, .2:.n. Amovi:rug
'~f!l,

~:s ~i('I:~id~r the same :liystem

V@dol'"Approach
Eq;lIatiotl .k.ii~ Dgffeoo:rula!~II.gi~
" ." ~P- vb+ ~R:- (~ x.r . '~;O, obl1lilill t~;ea!c~I'emuon

of?,

.'~

= Vb +""R +cin';:r+wxr whel'e .riJI is 'the ang~]af'acoelemliQ[! of ro~atiof! (If U!~!iIl(l!\d!:'!s:,


SySICl.ll.

'vp

and
].e .•

"Ill i:!;.

obtQ]!1~d by

di (ffi~Je:l\~l"mifJ!,g (1:"'1, + ytm

+ z/n:) ,.

COP\lr ghted rnatcri

vR """(x~l ylm + z'n) +I(;:et + jll.i1. + .i~n) + =: (X/~ + jilm+.z '0)+.(JJ (iet + jim + .:'n)
::;;;:f'R

+wXvR

w'Kr"" OJ :x

.!. (x'h
dt vll:
+(0

Jlm T tOo)

=rex (x'l + y'm+ iln)+E (.t"] +y'm.+z.fn)


"" (lYX

x (ru X!l')

But

Th~i(!!oo,

"'" ""~~ uJi Vb'" :fb


I'll' ·",.rll + (til

*' m ~)(K) + ru )( r + [@ X "Iii 4- m xt:(it) X r}] v


:x ,(.,.•

~,.,,_ "'" ~A: ~. ""--:,.)0; .,.R. 4"';' X !r-- ... fi'\ _ . ~UT. x.•.W") .Iib. _:Ii or "''''' ~ _ "". . -.- "'"

NO'w ahsoiutc<lccel.e:rn.don of Q. the' ciOlnddellt flQint may ibe wrilt~tl as

'q<l ."". I;z.~+ (~


""(~ -!-I(1:b

~ fb 1" dt(rox r) ~ fib + &;.xr + OJ X I(W)( r)


ThU!i, equation (~~red~~, to

d.

fp",rq• +:tR + 2roXvR


'" ''!lOll

+f

II;

+ fee
to the :mO'l'lQgS1{StCl:ll or lIClal]ive

wbcllerq~ isj~c ahSO~Ule accc~erat~o~ of Q.. fills ~])eOlroe~~r.ni~.nof Prelativc,

to Q~~d fC ]5 blO'\¥I:ii as tlb.c ,Conohs, I(lOmlpail1.cJi]Jt of,aeecJernho:n.


The aOOli'e ,eqootioom3:Y be w.riHcn as + rpq + f'

.~){,I.""r~ f- -.-L1"f + L, T' F P" 'f': Aoe. ofP ret. ~I) A;;; Ace, ,ort' rel, to Q + Ace. olfll2 rei. ~oA' + C(lrio']~s; Aec,

(3.. 6)

Use of Comp,lex Numbers


Eqll!liti()!] 2,$
V= rer8 + tr8' (j1J [)l.ll'ere:ntiatillJ,g ilwith r'C5pC(lt totime,

is

f ~ (fd8+. :: (w,8 -

n 8'e''e) + (ir,ej lii!8' + ,if; Jfl +- lr,o is)


4'.ii(r,9+2r9)t!it'l

rlP)te

0.7)

'The fir.st pari: of till,s


transltMtrJ,e (J~Cfderatio:n

equation indi.ca.tes the, rilid~i3i[or c-entrlpe,al accele.rtJtion ~ndl!he second part, the
inlpo!;ar ,c(loro:inates. (f- 6i .r) + (f-I;!' +2wv)
w.r) ~ 2(0 v fl.81' t{l A + Cono]is. ac:odem~:ion component Le ..•the SIImJe eq.,mt~,Qm.Eis

r=

~ Aec,

of P fill" 10 Q 4- J!,.ee., 'of Qrel.,

:;;;;;; (ra /+

before.

Copyriphted materia'

~ •. "!=~~~ ~

.:.~

~C>NSTRtJcrION ~........ _. . ~ ..

.r':::·· :
. :...

'>.... :"

.::

~ .~. ~ ~

ln KJeir..''s eonstruetien,
~l'Sclr:Tbeline

thevel.ocity <lind!the a{)Ce]lT.1itifUli di.agrams are made (I~l til_!'; 'conf!.gijfl~lil)n diagrom: ttHU :rupr'csernils the (,raJ'll; ]0 the co:n:fig.Yr~tioo dJi!'!~ al~()i~~~ts the vel.OOily.and the accch,17.ul.on of its mrlovi.ng (;J1din tho vl\l~:ooily and the ;acctlilerat.lol'! dia.grIlfIDlsrc:spective~y.For a :slid!er:..crank m~eh~f!ism. l!h~proc~~ to make·1.liw K~~i!1':s Ol'1!sttu:ctioni;s described below.. O

Slid.f!I'-CrankM,ernmism
Ill" Fi.g. 3.2:5, GAB re!pre$etI~s the configumti.on of a s]kit?r·eranlkmechanism Us ve.locity and acceleration diagrnn'ls are .as shoWJIDin Figs. 3.~(b)and (c)., Let r be 11ne 1e,ng.th of the crank

Ott
Velodty .I),iagram For ve]oc;]ty dia~. let r I· ~I~p.f'(~nt v<ffi" b) :'l!Om¢s(3!L~, heil fOi!"~tll.w~lociry'T d~!lgmm. km:~th Oil ~ wlr ","'GA.
.Fl''01l1I

this, ~:n.e' scale for the velodty diagram

is kooWil1.
ProducllldA a'md draw a [~!liepi\i~d:i~ula! to OB ~hrO'ltgh 0. The i!~l(;'r.ic.~tionQftherwo li~es

l~ocflitesMle,PQint b. the rngtlJ'C~ mab ls ijweveloci.ty dill:g!t"3m. whieh is 5imHar to the ve[ochy diagram. of F~g. 3.4(b) ro;tntGd th._rough 9(Y'" in a dirooUonoppruite ~l) fhatofthe. cfil.i!lk.
JkcrUmtiot:

DMplim

Por :i:lool1illllrnti~ diaJgr~


h.~.tr

~p~~t!:w

...... ..;1 0- _', "I ..II""· .... 7" '"' .•.. t;!,

Thi:i ;p:ro\,'fdes:th~ ~c,lle for ~he aooelerntl,on di.a~m., Makellbe: fiQlluw~og CQllSt_I'IUc:~iQtlr ] .Dm:lw' ~ c:bdc widlaba:s: tilt); radills8:nd a.es th~ C4.1ll:Uie, :2,. .Cltaw 1!,In:Qth.C'J' lcl.rcJc\lIiilh All as diilIDl.eter. ,3 • Join the pilll'litSI)finl'¢f'$Cc~ions C and D of me two drdes. Letit meet .oB at b] and ADiuE.
Then. niaib~bllis thereqeirerl acoe[ern!lion diagram wmcn is ,slmbr to the 3ccelention diiagram of Fig" 1,4((:;) :rota~edtbrougb I.80g.. The: proof ~sas fb.uows: J()][! AC and Be. ABC IIHd.ABC are two r.i~.l";!lngled ~ria.ngl.c!>in which tbe agl.e CAB is C()Immon. Themfl.1oro~the mang~ <life:fjimilii~;
.4£",,-

A'G
a.rui'JQ'

AB

..

•... (A(,)~ _ ,AB

two diia~ams,

Thus" th:i:i! aceeleraiieu d]agrmn has a]] me:s.ides .par8iUd to that of aooe]e~!lt~o!"J! iagr.(lIrn ·of Fig, 3A(e) Md d b~~,two sides 111.111;1a:n.dll~ba ~preS«!ltrul'lg the oo:rres:i>Orrld.lngmayd,tudes of the, acce]enrtton.Thus, the
l!f(l

sh:ni~W';

Copyriphted maleria'

!of the (JIElliler.1['1lhe fo~lt~b!llli[lk<1se otF]g,3!.2(~). A on tln,e fixed H",k ~ l $, the ,~eilltr-e of C'~Ill"Vature orB ~li!. the !n!1)Vj~ c(l'l;lp~er3. Theil co:m~derirl8ltheiD",el"'~OIJi, il.e."" a.sslJming lillt 31.0 be fixed iifid ruleas~ng llli1efi~ed. ~~!~k I,B anilE! link 3. is .a~o,~hc:c~m:1t:eof orn:vat1Jlll'C oftbe pomt A Oill!JilI:! I.ililk 1. 1ie two :pQ;~nts, tm knO''!'!';I]lli,llle o i ,,;;(},~Ijug.ales: of each other; The distanee bep,.v~~n. themis called the rndi~ of courvartm"e of:'eitln.cr IO~IJ!~.
L

The H';aJ!1I!t'!!u'!!.'!cO!:lslrnctkllliL is II gJI1lpb~Cill]melhiOdla, nod the ruoc<litiici'n1Jl of tibc cenD:.re of !CUfVfI!Wrn of th~ lecus of a
pam.ton iii, ]NG1vil1[g body;, Let there be Iv.'lQ bedies naving a~L~five :plaJl!arm.otiIOJ:i between them. Consider t\lm
!CIlI:V$ll1i!~S

C'@!1I~ +'

1~0!'):Ji!0!1

of th@ tWI)!lictua] cemt~o~es (S>ecti.on 2.~6) ][1 the :regionnealil1i!e ~iilll (If C:OJ'l~act a:1 the i[ls~~tit Let a
Calt!llf!

Idmlew~th

the cu"~itU!reof fi~ed eentrede iilU!! 0', the iClent:l:r!l of circle 'ct,l~POf!dl1o"g!Jo t!be cl!lirlt.llilure ,o:f ~hemo:vi]Dg ce.1urodle C(lntmd~ (P'ig. 3,27). :POf th~ sotk{: Oif ,co'tlive:rruieIi,ce, tb,(: t;w'ocl:rclteS !angent m:il1Y be !carulleld~ffile fi_::.;~ and thfl mo~in!;l; c~t[M~i!, Let J 00 th.e point. OfCO[lWict ofth:ehvocm.tro~e:s WhliChis alsn
1

a n::pres~.1.tk'l')c:irde OOfi1eSiPOfidt~

ro

FIXed!
~f111rod'.fl

Th~ ce:!'!iUt),oot&n.gel1l ,aJ110 the oelilLtooe IlmmJ!.I] .im: al:so sh!OlMl. in theiglllre .. U:t~er!'OO,dl:lg: eentroo:e ro.]] 0[1 t1il..oeixed OelJil:rode with f a:nligll!.lar\!lehx!:iLyOO. 111(:0 as 1 iselso the inslJa'lu3:ttOO'l.a:s
'I:hemSl8iDllmeCIU;s

CMtr'~.

ce:llItre·.

~hc\'\eIQc:i~onbc:po.int: 0 ~s
'1'0 =:

ronl
..,.' ,,_.., cr"~g;.~".&d

As t~e motiQn of mO-V[!lIg Ge!Ulrode Sidvm'lces..~e .~Iif!t of oonilaC'l Pm.Q!vl:::s;a:t.;ulg W]th S'o:m,e'!i!\f,li©'cHyv. Sillceat ny ins~aaJ,t,. the ~mejoiruill1:g OWJith ()' must ~s 1l1:rotlgb .P, 'I1I.evelocity

ofPmusi

be; gi.ve.a. 'try

~I=~-'~
TIIDe 'il\elm:Uyof allY jlJi[b>jtrary~!I!ltA on the I:n{)ving; ccl~lvodc'. Le, aJPOifllt: on.tlill~'Coupler who~ 'CQ~~g~kl p!):i~i~i:sto !be fO'1i.!wtd is given by. li~ ~ (j),Jl . TOMncli th~ GO:lljl1g1U('1l ~,il:'!t oftihe' :pO!i~u.A,the Rlartnuan],l COlls~tlillctiow is Ol.~ Lblkw\{s~
t, Tak.e a !!!IectQr ~eprese!lli,llg the veloohy v.ij ofdlepOlfllt () by dnwlflg ;!I U~e mre:~efld!!~ul.af to 01 toO ~ s~i,~8Jb]e!icak." A1:so.~kie ~ ,",~c:lor re"J1e~enting '\I'~.• ;tllccve]oc]ly of .1.1 l!lki.ng !llir;le l,e1])~n:dkllililllirto by A1 ~Il;~ dra:'lID to the s!UI1e 8~!e. 2. .D.alW '!J)lCve10dly V!.'ltC10li!l'!O i:ndic:a:w the ve~Qcci:ty of itffim point .I Dr dr:li\vimg 3. line p!!lmlre] 1:0 :~!l(]l wntersecting w[tl~ tbelinejoliling 0' wn.lll the ellld po'irn. ofl~,le\'\ectorv w

10' 00''''

'!~

3. 'Thke II. t':omporu:f,l1t ofvparai.lel

IJO v~" Ullhis V~g IJce~]~cd '!.iI, 4i Joia endpoints ef'the vectars,11lJ arJi(~u", Then the internocli.on oUl~s line withAl' p.ro"!'~dcstheroqll:isilc cQnjl:lgS/~~ I?Cl~nt.!I " giving 'Iilia¢ radi:ll~ of ctlitV.m!hl.ru ,of the JOCU\l.of A' ~.A'A'.

,Also,.
From (i} and

{II)

un.
Ali' Of)' -~-:s][!a""·'--

or
or

AiJ'A'

..

0'1<10'

AI . lA') _ ,oj ta ( A/,M:+ AJJ.A·lilU~;;;;'·.Q110· + QUO'

·-'~-' _~_I 1(lA' + ..!..). sin a ""1t)' + .i, A'},- _ 01

(~l'~A~lJ '.

sim,ct .~•.~'r'-~' i Ce!'!twd:e normal

This ~sh.oilivn as one fonn of~JiJ,c:Eu~eI'-rSa'Va:ry c:q,ruatioll. .

This ls llseful 'I(),i~(letUe the OQq],ug.tle po:iili'l,1A" aftlle poiil'ltA


wh.elil.ll:ierndil Gfcul"'II'lI~ure oft]ll.~t\'i!o cc:numd!es,arelkltloMl. For any afherpohllt ilm an, ans,]e fJ with! tlre eentrcde

(:aifi\gc:n:~ wbQ~c cOn]'ugatl!;pohn is 1)' (Hg, 3.28), tfue: ~oov~

~qmllt!.oilllil1JFliy be: wr:iUen lIS

2.. ] .. (.81 ,_8'l )'sin P'


I

J;I "'"

_.1 _,._ rn .. , ,01 O~l


H1J

Let this: peint

be aprutiC'~Ia:rpoiJu
~fueeqmltkJ\1iJ.

time nl(r,!,,~lJig
RleCI
I~

centmdesueh thal hsalisti.es


----=':;;;:;;:;;

~'i~fJ_I
8i

=",_,~

01 ell

Thi 5 means th,u the I~!!!l'! 1M' I ts 2~:ro\¥hichit!d]c,ues that til.cpoinl B ]s such tOOl Us 'OOl~lllID1'l:C :point lies all
~:n:fi~l~Y (j:i'l.th.~ 'I~f.i~ j(!i~jjiliig[J1. S~mi.lar:ly~ 8 POl11t P em lhll ce:ll11rOO.e nm:nal. wbose OO1i1ijlJglIJt:~ ~[flil is at ~l:'!ifliHy(II:'! lh~ for p I, ~] 1'Q' {iO~ d '" (I.' _ - "" -_-, -"""7'7 8S8i11g~c:lf'1S 'it," an::sm plS L PI OJ 01 .

line .10,.

Copyrighled materle'

fJ o. HI .~. .Pi!s:~t.I.{j nlIlIJst ibe :sam:!sf~ed..,l'h~s eq,'l!l.8it~m'l defi!lJeJl It crure;le '\vhooe diameter' is lP as sllo",ni~Pi~ ],28. The; ,c"l..cleis b.OwaIlS tl:ie'f1if/ectiem' circle. Each PO~IJJI: n thi!.! ()i:~c!e has alii in:finite radius of i():~:!'Vallijl:'ie at 11l¢ o ~Dstaa:Umd ~ts CJQ]ljl:lg;;lte ptJiii:'i1t lies <1lti.nll:milty; nms~ O'J], Ul~ ling ~l~, ~PQi!]tA.·' :rn!t~:fsecti!lg drdc wtldi!caJ~~$; ~ '~,(l flaH!$ 'CQl1!j~t~ PQl!lt is at il'l!fi~:i~y,wt!d~h~s. si]'J:a W rn --.=---. 0'/ ,4"1 {)l itl- ,.11 1 A'I T fA 1. 1 ~ From (i ii) and (]v), A''''J "" Al- .A'I or If" I"" .4I.A './ 0'1 A" Al.A'1 AI.A'· J =: A "',i.A 'J! A'l(A~A ~ .lA} ~ (AI ~ M~")A'A

Thlis ,<l!~9Q indicates th1!~ .PI- Bllsi][1 II The pOI]nt P is knOWfD.9S the inj1er:ti.o1't pole. rhos, to Iud more PObl]S whase ooirljnglil~epCljntS[[e lHIl ~Il!fi:n!ilty. the eqllJ:lIli.QI]l PI ~ Blisin. [

J""

1'1'1,..1" A .~ 041JA

~ Ai ,A" A .~ .AA ".A'A

A'LA'[

IE::;

A!A..... AA.·

or Ai,),: = .;iA".AA' '[.1:9)1 Thisisl1i.e seoomd! fonn of the Eulel~v<'liry equ<},tilioll !IiI~d~1!ll:l)oreu;Sldil] th!ll1 thefl:rst rOrDI as this does nnt. reqJlI:iR~ knowing th.~ cl!I:rI'ail'ures ohll,e two ccE1ltn:u::les.However. i1 requires draViriltilg, the ][If!'cetioIHI ci:role

WblCIl

C1.l'11I

'easily 00 dr,awn.
1:00

h:t3lpp~yi1!g tJ.ealbQ'i,'ie ~ql!latiQo~,.M" andiA)r'aoo

lie

0.1:'1

~he same s~d\;:of A,

&!i!~'.I'~,le 3.11'

s11~w,t·i~J;.Pig. 3.2.9(a). flie


,dJt11tms'io.lIS' GI"e;'

IJideJ'-CFal#r.

iU.ll.fL'J:laf.~/.:ilW;f .~

0.14 =,2M?mm"AlB -2S ;nUl, AD' ."",1;_I'mu aliti DC = if} 1,/Jl1'. _ D,m ~Jre lrijk,r;:No~J ,rrh'C.l.e the motion a/.I'he.' COflp,{er awa fill" flie i'llSttI/Jt(j~fe·O!'I;NTadiu.s ,Qj ,urvalu~ oJ)lre ,llat/1o?t1ift of!Pler p(Jinf C.

/0'1"

SO'iuliQ~l Loc~re tile im;tawU3!1leous ce;tltl!e of I

:Bit

the [nl,e'l"SOOliolil of 0:4 arun.da line per,pWDd~cu~"r.t[l the directi.olIl. of moti.'on of the slid.er I[Fig. 3.2;9(b)J •. Api:iiF[ froon. .1,. 'm.e iPO~j:U B ~Iso rn~e..som, itllei~_ft!~cNoll
(;tf:¢le
;M: Hs c~'tre of c~walb1:re is al ~Ilifin~ty. ~.e O mOom: poi!llt :is.needeCl to dm.w ~he il~flec~io[l ,ciLoole wbi.c'llcom 00 Qbt![IJ,~~ ItS :('1;11,1-;)',,",5; As () is t~e 1te'.I1,im"e of Clltw·<'llt!Jr-e (If the [lo:itu. II. ex,~e~d..1'0 to .Ai"" s'U~ib, ~h8it

Al,2 =--- =JS.6'm:m {on m.easl][e:m,etI.~ 26"'~ ..' AO 20 - _ - - - .AJ ~ 216,,. rom) (Sq. 3..9),
AA
:= -_-

,"

Loc!lta: ..'1." as shawn ~I~lhe,fiSll!:I'c ,a.lii. the same side of,A(!s A', Thu:s,. A" ]s a p(r!.int wh.(j'S~centro of cm:vat'U:re is 8.~ i:Iii:l'ini.I;y.

Copyr'ghloo material

Now dWw a drde passimig tibmu:gbJpoints I,. B


Ilm.d..4." by ~okiugrigbt biisec:ro't:i ,of' J1J ,<)[IdB:A (not ~Iillowl!l [Ill Iheiglllire) it.l~erseG:Hllg at. the, oel:ltre; 'Q ·of
n

ail:iiId]l'I~ly

Loc,allL';

It poif!:~of.llC

as this poill~.lies on [be ~Ilitlootkmcirc-]~. ;or hs ID:~ll1lSiGm ;Slle,bl!b.9.~


~.;1' -

~hll!eirele. niaJUe:~er of'thell'ifi!ecllOiID, ,ei.rc;le, if .,.. mm. 6:tS I:ofirid Ib!e oCi'ilte of clliFltfl;IJtire of ~e~ot!:'!t CO~

l:h.e cQ1upIDcr;. join lCin~~g;s~(:U~gllt¢ itltkx:tiQll ~~rc:I,(l iilit C", Then C'''is llpoint llav]ll:g: c!::nire·olI'cm:'ViI.ture

Locar~e r: as sbo\VIIi:1'.I ~lte::I1:gll!re on the same :!ii,dieof C as C'. TheilC' ~s, tl:ierequ'i:s:i,te !CIDIl!fe ()if Ci.l!FViUiI..U:'ceof ~hepoi:n:! c;

r=1··;!'1If!l1 i!'I~ .... ee, . _ - : ;;;;; ;;;;;; '"' 11ID1 52.7· CC' ;;;;;.... - CC" [SJ)

1.11 UOOIIUER. ~GN:STRUCTION


This ]s a:notil.e.igrapll~c~lme~hodl by wt.li:ch ~nflecli.o'~ircle, C<lJ!1! ~ M dra~1 wHhi01il:~requiring the c~rvatures of~lile' celll..ooes.
l1impo~:11i1l!l on th~I:IiI)()"iJlg liJooy whi.ch ac,t) .letA' ,and .8' b~ ~ir CQ!Iljl!]!gSlt~ po~ltI~smiliiP~ti.'II'~ly .lIt 'l~.einslant Jr.(l[llJ AB and A' .if a!tld~~llmelr inter;secti.Oll be at Q. Th.E::n. Ifie Hne paSl~~l'i(g(trough l 3i1l;([ .Qis kl1.o.WIDl <l;S the c(j1Ji~eall'f.m ,~s, Thi!!l a::ilis ls &~mC for th~ two
I1IDit colli:liLe!lrr wi.~h .1 CF]g~ IJ{n.·

Let A<lrld Bile

tbcsc rays, Q w~U ha.'I,I'c.Eli dHfe!!'ellit b:mtiO:HI ond. ~lh[Jsu di:ff.erelil~ 'eoU:inca'l:ioll arxis.
BQ~iUier t!r,ro:rtm [~:stli!ltes.t~t lh~ (mgle :$~rhtffldft.d {me (JJI'ij~' by ra.FS' (AA' ,or .BJ¥) Milth {he C1en,~rodf! ttmgel1t Is eqfii\1"l1(0 tii!;1gutiill'e of rh~ (J~~e:9rlb',fJJ1d~dby #!'e ,mher r;a.y with' #!'e ,tX)iUuIJatfcm ax,ls. WII Fig. 3.30,. [h.e ray AA sUible:n.d.swlg]e ,Il: w.ith t~e oellitrode tal'lgellt WId 'Lher~ .Bit SUD~~l!1.dS salrne ne.:gative a:llIiglew]ththe the
j

rays AA' aod.BIf aad

fi(1ll"1!Dotb~!"se~QfpQi!1l1$

II ~~dlJ,~ve!n

011

oomm~at]ollaxis.
Normal

e~,/ :
II

//1
.f,11

.., ,13'

;, ,
I

A ...::.:.:~.~~
."

•,
.;
!

•, , •, ,
! I
~I
"

,
U

Let A and ..4.', and.8 aad If be ]ffiu~noiYrn.]pnin., ofcof.lJ~a~ k

PQ~nlSI[Fi.g. 3..3[(0)] ..

Maketbe foll.Qwil'lg, oon.smu;:,nO[l: rn. ~Ile the ~ilU.l, the ]wU!ntarneow ce;nUe of velocity al theim[er~ecltiolJi Ofl\i\!()l<I!ysA.4' and BIl. :2,. ~I.ie: . the ....."i~nt ._::iit' the~-;T ts - -t~,o-- "'fa--S ,1lII, __ [Ii;,! A''''''_ •. . _, __ ~"" , , ~_c:_,~t:c ___n o~ _ -,.r~ ,18,Si',:I p' , 3. JOlin i(J. to, ob~aii!l ihe ,eo]li:D1.I:'lu:ion axis. 4.. Dmwa liillil¢ pfiCll,llilroA'B' ~fl!~til[!gA'BatJ. 5. Dmw a lilii~ pl!liraU~ll~) tlLmugl'l J hMe:]'seC:llngAlA' and BBf at A il.3!nd B I 1e.s;pectively. If} 6. Dmw a,circle p'a:!ls,ing (h~;gh J~A~.and B I (FiS. 3.3 ]b). A (loni"-'e!)Jie:!U wayofdraw:ing the ei~~e t5 ~y dl!'<l!w.i:n:gA.]:pl.A .. andl.B,P'U!f ~r i:nle'l::Set:'lil1l!ll two pei:pendlilClllar ]llles, aLP. :Now.lP is the di;<IIl1!elieron~le niltleeli.oti, c£rck: M i.l subtc:m.ds a 90°tlil~gle 3,1po:lnts.41 and 81 indiicati[lg tb.aIA1! l1:r1dBtl ,31llC, poi Dilts in the ilie::;emiicivcles w:ith d:i<lm~tedP;. Thus, Pis the illlificctilJll pol.c. [),rnw the c'.i[,de with If> as ~~ d~<!!me~er; 7. As lP is ,:.]90' cemrcde Ilomlarn"diraw the celltmde ~o:mge~lit shown in the fiigare" as Let a be the a!'!gl,e whi(;h. lit ~s~btet!ds'W:ithtb;e eentrode ~ill'!g,ei!!t Now;;l.if(:; fA~.s i~~!C;ribed by the chord i JA~whic]ru ls at a:1l :a!~.gle a wi!]]] fhecetnrode ~lUlgool ""!ld~iUbtefldlllbe ~I1!1l:le81A~a~ the C:iF'Ctl!rufe:rellilce 'of 1 the flruflec,1:ioll dre~e. Therefore, ~he; Ulg,lc:i IB~Al I:S a]so eqml~. t@ ,(to As AIB~ is, ~,nil]~!e~PQ and! is :in~el.';Sfc:n:ed < ~Q by Iff. ~beW1g~e 1111.1',ISilillso eqll!l]~o ~.e WIl:g.]CQ)B'~ ru.e". equal to a. Thus, 1h~ arag]c; 81!1lhtc:nded by one 'of !he ra}'swiltm. th~ 'C&m~adi()ll:m~t is 0L'[Ml 'I.~;J;the n€'ga:~i'll'eohhL': ~[lg~~ sllbt[lI1:d!~~by th¢ >OOlermywruihlh.{l coni:n.eall:io[l axis. Thuthe co:nstrucl:iiolll s;a1:isfi~;slhe .BobiJlie:i tlleo:!',ell~.
.Q."

,flj

me

point Qif Ie {Fig. 3032);,. Thepoint Pis the ~nfl.ecti.onpol.e:, .its cClln'ugElite po~nt P' lies IIltimIDltIJiI'!;yllllJidl ~htlisthe my P.Pis pefPend'io1(!]a:rto the ta11~lt to U'!e,cenh:-Qd¢Ian,g~!1l. 'Dis 5.'Ygg.esu:s~bat ~ctlor.dimgl:o,the BQbiUier thoorettn. the otbJer lI'iliy CC wi.]] be peltll:'-.JIdkldllf' to' ~i]e ,cotUrneartilQ(ml axis. But as the po.int C mu~!the oitl.lC. the ,ooUi[[l,eatiolIl. axis call be diralV!!lby drnwin,g n ]in(; ~el:!d~Jcul~r to lCat 1. Sillic~
ie,,!

Method' to' fitr-d aoonjrlg;n:te p!(lint ,af m;lotller arb.itm'I11' point utlhe it'lflectio!ll. ~[rele be.draWilllandi ~ecen~rOOe ulilgent aDd momanl be mown and lit ~sI1&J:uiil'ed to fimd 111.c: eOlljI~~1I'te

g is ~ point ,of i]1l1m~tio'l1,oftwo~ys PC:and!Fe ,H ean

la~FlIl

bel.(l~al~ ~lLlte ~!Wrerse'iti(l!tlof PC a:~d tile 'c;oUin~<:l!liQIil a::ds.Now as Q' also lies 0[1 .P'C:,. jO;.~[I~n:gof P'Q meaas :II. H[iepnl,c:1 to IP~ 'fb.$~~ti.Gn (if this line wi,th Ie
]Qc",testh~ PQil1lt

nus,tile I1lFooed!u:re to f.ind the 'COIJiJIIl~a,te point C o:i"a.ny


a.mitr.u1Po](tIl Cis 11511'0110'\- ....5: ~, Drill,w fhe: ';:OUilllit'!<litio:nl iI:X:[Sby d!l'11Iwi:1lig line peil1)el±dli.c:ular~o Ie 1'u10l1i£11l. .loca,le a

e,

of PC WI ita. tile ,eoUi:Dl.eELti(D:ni . axis • ' .ID.mw.;'!lioe pru'a]]e] ~o If'throlJgb Q i:rnJ~ti~g U:s'6 ,the /Joi;illie:rrhoorem
fi.;J'

Q' a.! d~eillter5et,ti(l[l

'Lh~lin~ Ie at C'" t1Ierequisite: ,cm~JIil:g8.l:epoiI11 ,of C.


iJar .rt1ftclio.tJtsm §'W~l iiJ .£(g'. 3, ..B(a} .. 'fh~ , ahl~emi(jl!>iam IJIJ = AO = 60 mUI, BG""" CD ..

ikt~nuill'(!

I#J~' ceiiltl'l::l

of

CflflitlJi'ltrt"

I)}

o/I.hrtcmtpler C1~n'e #J point Ii of NI,~four;...

2S.rn",,~. D .is .rJtifi!l!dlJ~k andJ;: A ofB'C.

,i'S

{Ita IJ1.i'Cipoi'l1i

Copyr'ghted

materia

3. The rate of (mange of 1,iel.ooity a!on.:g the radial (M~e'tlio!1 ls kno'l!\l1l as the (@tl'tJ1p.eta{ or radial (]ccd'~roti~ t:1n~ directiorn be~rngtoWil.~d'!>the c;~ntri@ off rotabionl, 4. Ue:a!19ul:ar a,celler:ailicm of ~ Iin'lI::~bcut Orllil iI1';.ct!!"'E~~ity listhe same :il!flm<!9r!ibl"ld!e end directior! as the ,i\lr!!gl:!l!lar aocel:eratiol:ll!!lbouit :tile otinl!rand is fut!illdl by div;idirrtgthi!!! ti~!n9!!,ntjo1!ll j!I.c(:~ler,~jOI'liIwitl:'i the leifl9th Qhhl'lli~k. 5. A,c:c:eiel(1tiot:l imC]ges .;I'e helpifu! to f1:irndtlhe aC,(·@h~fation5of cdfS€1! po:ints of th!! links,ll1lhe c;lc(je~er~t!iOfll ~mc;lgeaf.i;lllifll( i5 obtairrne,d'lin~he sa.me manner as a '\Illlloc:lty image, 6" Ac~~I'e~a~IQr! ,of a point, ena !iiok re~atlVE to a co~rmc[;d~ntPQimlt on a moving liinlk lsthesern Qr absolut:e aooeleraitiiOli'l 'O;fl;~e (!Oll'icJidelit poili,"tr ac:c-efler,l!ti'oom the po:ll1t l"el'Mive to (oirliciidelrrt po~ntarid the Ccuio.{is :~II:;celeratio!"!.

'7. The H.artmanfl ccllstructfon iis a, g.rrap~icaJllmetlnodl to, I1nd thel'ocatiQJ:l Q(iI:~@' (entrE: o~ OiJ!\IilhUe of 1ihe IO{;Ul!>ofa IPoiriitorn th~n'lOVil!rlgl body. 8, Th~ 6vle.r-$(l.V!:lry 't'il!Jl(ltiCn is e~pfflS:~i1'd: ,a~

AP".,AA""M'
9-The BQbi'l~i!!lrCOJ'lW\l{tiol'l is o!r)ot~~t 9r",ptii~ ..i method by whi,e:h ~n in,flediclI:1 eirde can be dra,wn widlolJit req~jriil19 the CUNi!JWre5 oftbe·celi1!trOO!l,!~, 10, The aQ/)irfi~ themem S1ti1!tes that the any/e· lS"l,lbtended by one rJjthe ~ys (AJ\' ar-B8')wi!h the cemroae tll1lgent is t~ua~t(l :rh!m:gati¥!ofrh! 0'11.9"( 5'ub~ended by the at.IJerlll),'With the,cQllii!!fc:tiQIJ wQs, u. TIle !OOUs, of allll such point'; oli!i,~he (ou'p~er whi:ch have statiQnliliify Ci;if1t'O!Wre ii1tttJe in~.iilnJt. 'i,5 knGWin as 'lhe (J!.M; of :~he'.st~tlanql)"~tJ~~ti!~ or the tittling.paint ,Wrve.

EXie:rclses
What a~e celil,tripetal andi 'tangemja~ compone:n:t~ of ;oI(iC'-Il!III'l,~ . mQn? When do t~.ey occur? How <lIre ~~I!Y d~te~mi~!!d? :2. D'e:5clriilbe~ne pr,ocedlllJreto, chaw ~'El:loQi.tyand! o'lclCele,ra,tior:) di:agrams ,o,f a fOil1l",llnk mechalillisi"i"i" I~ whli!lrt~~Y' O1lr-e the O!ngull~r.<!l!!tiellt,r8t;i:o~u()fth!!' outpot Iiii'd:: nd tflie'oouplerfC)[Jng? a 3. What is an ,iltteleratiCrI iimage? How is it iHl:l:pfullin detenmin ingtlne ~cC~r:erMiorl$ (lif o~et P!}IiI'it:$C)11 ,a,
1,

....

-~... . ;: ::: ..... :.


: .....

... ..: .

iink'? 4. Wh~t ls

tl)~ ygriQIis; ,~({~r~r,~~iQI1I

~gmpgn~nt? II)

AB :;'~,7~5 m, B,c:; '1,:1:.5rn, CD:; '1 m.•AD:;; 1.s;m. BE", ,l137" 5 mm,. Ct::.. 87.'5 mm armd,ett" 500 rnm f a nd F' a ~e tvIIQ. ~oirns'O'n t~e ,cQup!e!!"11'i'i!kSc. ,AD . is the f;1x~dIlink.a~r: I$,re ad dQC;kw!$~ !:'I~dfU~S (I~ BC p~odILited. ('fa ~ik: AS lilacS ,ani,angula r v(!IO{ity of ::110.94 !I"!)d/~a,.unb!!r·d'o.:!lb.vi,~l!lirid .!1 di!lL':eler3tio~ of ~8Q ~~df!i~aUhe !(I!it~I!lt .alAS "'60~. iFilndthe 'fi) ~m.ti!ntO'!m~O~!li r ilcc@ll!ir.]!ltklinofC'l· E ai!iild F Ililmi~11I ~ii} flln~~gnt;gneQ~:Si ~n91[11!!f 'iI~'IQ(liil;i~5 !lnd' .,ti~~er,atiQ!iI~· lirnles9Cand (0 ,of

whi,.(h,~aSie5 does ~t a;.ur? How ~s i,t determilned? o $, fxp1lainl ·t:he pIM'~'LJre to QonstiI'U~.t KI'~ir1l'S ((In!OtruC;,1i:ion to detelill1jn:~~li1e: vel!odty and :acceleratiio,n of asiidilrr:·cranl( mi!(h,lIlli ~m. 6. E)!;p~ainl the term, conjugat:e.~ in re:I'a'l:ia to two n pOn1t~ on two, p~ain:bodiie:s,,, 7. E)!pllallr'ltihe Hlilirtmiflmill CQII'I~truc:,tlonto fil:1d 1;h~ location Cif tltlie centre of CiilirvatlllJrt!,mthe IbcU!i;of a point: On a m~viiJiJ9Iboay. g,. What is Eu:ler:~av,ary eqruatiol'l? What: ar@ its two far,m:;? E){p'lo;!~nflow ~hes!lll ~lr'E: 'used! tcfind tin@' lQ;catiQn of oOfljIJ9~t@pojnts" 9', U::;~ the BQbilllerlhieorem to 5l:iOWtihat the, irtiilililruOmJl dffii'@(alllx! dirawfl witnou;!: req~iring tltie (;ioiNat'iiI!'eS,ofi~he (emrodi~5. , ~O. Denne t:ne t!emil cubic oj'the $t(ll!iOtJ(:HY W~t!ll'i!l'" EilF,ill.:iifiJ 9raph~,"ail method to' dr~w it. ('l!iii!: ~1. A.. cr3nk and rodn~r m@chanism, ABeD has tine' !ou'owin,g ,dii~m~iQIii$;

"'.00 1'!·i!J(fI!!ii,1 «w]

l~h&6Im/$~, ]30' mt!i~,~61t,. m/$2 (il) «!k ~S',gl: rad! !Ii u.Sirad./s C(W:j~" zzg radJ$~«W, {(ail

~,w~·

n. IFI,91J1~e s!homa me~l1[jnisrn iifiwl11l(~ 0 (inti 11.35

are the:fi)t!edi Cil!!iI,t~s, Dd~rl!ini~@;~he acoelerolti,on of the sHdllf $~nd d~~~n91iIa ri!c(jeleratlion of the liinfc BQf;O'rtJh~9~v~n OOlrdi[lu,"t!ior)I, (~.,5 mJf,ltoward~ ieft;. :U4lrild~s::lcW)

Copyriphted

materia'

·~. I'n O! simple~:e:am

el'1gili1l1ij th@ 1~!i1gth~QHh~ u~lr'ik alliid t~e' OOfllr'n!1!ctil1lged a!~e 1,00 mm ,maliQO mm r ~espeCitiil!,ieily.ThIE! we:f:ght of tl'le:c:olillne:ttlng Irod Is SO I<gand uti; "entre o~ ma~i5is no, niU'liil from the '1/;['os5i.tleaci 'CEllttlFE. The radius, O'f grYlraltio:n iilbout, thi~ '~nl:!Fe IO,ft mi3!5i5i:!> ::1.20 mm. lif the ~1ll9ine ~peed U53,QO~mj deOOIMmnilr1,e the: pO!SIlt!Tcm fo,~ winen 'tille iiira'nk Ili1a~ turned ,45 g {romUieii'imi,erci[JIe:adi ~'e,tli<tjj'e. O}tne vl!~odl:y~nd: acc@I@r.'!tiion oftlh@ ~'HiI~r'll! 'of

{.al' ve!lm::iibf of~h@' p~SJbOnl f@~01~ii!f@,tow~'Hs {b} anglil'latr 'IM!lotitie:s ohod ACand' the 'cylin,del!' (c) sl idin.g aCiceleration of the Ipis,tlOn rellative tlJ
{d) w,I'o(~ty

of p~~1!O'";abso!lute) ( ,~)ailllgl:!lar~ttleleratilo!il ,011 the Ipiston, roel at' Ua) :l,Sllm.ls ~b)l2,i06I1'.u:lJ.s,tcWof~~ rod AIC'allld cylindeil" (c) :16 nn{s,~ 1.5 Im/s: (e,)l39 IraCl/s" 'c:cw:l (d~

cylinder

mass of the: c;ol'l"ecting ~od


(iln the alngli!d~rvel()cityan,d acceleration ofthe ~a,d
(iiO' th~ kin;etic ene-I'gymtihe rod H~) 2;;1 rnJ:$,; ,!kJ, mis!l !~~~ ~''1lladJ:s~ ::1.13 Iroldls:il (iiij

14. Fron;llltil@ datal af ~ n!icip~cca~il'lgl il'ump givelfll n~ u..1lil1p;I'~2"'!hnlrnd~h~ ,li:flI~.,.rfi(I:~r~~tiQrllI Qfi::Ii1Ei cf(l:sS"ln~ad E ~!l:dthe i;llngi,di\ir Q,r:;c:e!le;r,Mio:nsif ~~e ( li!1lIks;t9(D ~liiId DE. [91;~5 mJl'l; 60.S rad/s)l'J 5",;n.lrldls,'1 15. IFiIgl!.!I!'E!!.36Sh.<lWS ·aJ ll09g:le mer;hilimi~~m inl whiich j il!l1eo~alillk O,A ootatl!!s <lIt nO'lIipnml. ~~mldthe 'Il@iIQ~ity and! the ac:ce 1~,j'i3!ti()nhh:e slide, art ID. o ('O;::I.Zl' ilt'l/S .• 0.03 mJ!~)
19.1lnthe

"'Silt N.m]

m!!~ffiI~ni:~m sihQ1I!,IIr! Lr'! Figl. 3,37,tihe '(iI'~,lilk 0;4 ,cri;ve:sthe slider!!:B li!l!"IdIO''!ns,tr,atghl path:5th~CilJglh. Ico~uleCl:ir:ii9 links AlB <lInd CD. The II,e~gth5 ,oft~e milks, ere OA '" ::lJsPmm, AB '" lOO mm, AC '" ~o illlUIil, CD ~ 450 mm. Ci:A rol'at~~at: 601 rrpmc:lcck'Wise aml..,t: the: ~1'I$'tant:hal~ ,mgul!a,li' mardatiloml 'o:f 1,6 rlldIJs~. D~ermJlne (I) thevelm:Ity' and ,at:c:ell,!mrtion of slicfe:rs .i!3i1ifl,d D~an~ (iii) thearngullar velocity aindl ,mguil,aracceleratl'on aflinJl< CD.

IIl\i9i~!fiIl1.!!', "'\11 ml'sr S.,SS mJ,'$:i, !i.49mt5~; r~Msl 6.,53 ~adJS·l)


16... ir:il a ,crank end SIMll8d~le\lerQu'i(jk·ret!J!m !i'm@(h.\mism ~r:lg. 3:.15~1~;the ,distance b~riI thi.! ~;H!i'!ide'i:lt~~, t 00 a"d A. 1~2.:sa' rrm, ,Othelr I,engrth:s <i!!lr~'1OP '0;; loa' !'J1l'Jrnj AR" /jiQQ ~1i'!'I. RS" ~SQmrn ar'!dLAOP" ".1::10". Uniform 5:~@@dof t!he e~nk i~ 00 !rpm dO>[';lCwise. Une ,of:~roke Qfthe ram, iis Iperpe,l1o lou~artn OA and is 4S!D< mm alcove A. C~,I'oI!.d~1ie wlor::ity and tille: the ail:l::eJera~lol'll.,oIHh@ ramlS. ~(Ml4m~';;!,..,55mis, '1]. For the i!welited sl~d,eli-o~llnll( rnec:lh~f1u~mm E~mpillil' 2.13. ,d~neITf!irle~h<e '~!i!gl,ll'~r ·~~ti~~~f;;!tlionl

2.01

of~~e l'i!'!k,O\l?,

t3SG!

rllldjt$,)

1.8. In the pump medhanTsm '~hown ~nFigl. ;3:. ~~~.al)i theOffililil'k 0); is SO mm I,ol"lgland tine pistlo'n I~od AC is: ::I.SO ml"l'il IOii'ilgl. 'Tille !1i!!rlg,tnlS (lO aiil!d Cit] are ~So mm <liile;! 180 mm resped:~w%l'.[,he 'cr~nk;I~Otlill1:@5;~,t 300 r:pl1ii11 ililHhl!! ~IQG;l(wis@: (I:Ir,~mi.QIli.Oetermine~lfu~

Jig. 3$lB
jJC. li\ol't:ile Imotion of the Ci01Jplle',~ ,rehllti\!':!! t.lot!h@ Iiii):led ~inlj( of' :t:hie'f'our:··I'ir.k medbl'li~s:m ,;'115 sihown in IFlig. 3.3iB, l!ot.1~tl! the IPo.51,tioi!'l of 'th~' Ci~IlI'l:rieof ,cIJN;e!tur@ohh@ pourltE l)I~inglthl! BO:bilit~rth!~offlim.

Copyrighted

maierla

COMPUTE

'

AIDEDAN~ OFMECHA

~
J

The a.l'!alyses·Qlthe vehxity and the a~~~lliratiQniQiFveill.i'n ,'hi1!pte~ :;!.i'lnd '31, depen.d illPQil the gra;phh:alap:prol'lC!l1 ,ali1ld ilIlres!Jit~tk!ero!f ~m:li!19 the ~~19(iity~ndtile o!!~c:eile:~~i9m! Q~~ QHh!'; 11~f!I!:;$ ~Im~~hl;!l~j$IT!' il'!'9fl~Qr!;vlrQ IPQ~i1;i9!i1~ of Qn~ (ran k;, Howev,er, if it, isreqllJired tonlnd these V'alue5 at various CO.lilftg.u~atiolrns of~he mech~nr5m 'OTto fi nd the !T1ltlJ(inrnum !i.l'alues of ma)(imlJm~et'Ocllty or acceleratiO'n, it: is irliot (tmveliliem to d raw velocity andl ~~'I!!Ie:ratiot:l dii~lram5~galin <l'nd <lg<liin.lnothat Cil5e!., analytical e-xpre5SnOrns. fonhe displace:ment,lIelodty and ilc.'Celerat~on Inteitim5.,off't'n~ general Ipara,iinl!:te~ are derived •.A desk..calCJulator or dlgiltal compLlltedadlll,tate:s 'tille calc,lJlat"om,worik.

DispJaee'm.emt Ama]y.s:i:s
,If" f~l1,f·;linkmedilamljsm ;Show~ ]0 Fig,

4.1 is h~,t.'qIl.]Hb:rium, o.

b, c'and.,d ~,epresell!l fh.e magnitudes of the ~fl!Lk!; A:8:, Be; CD and D'A. respcctfuv,cl.y. 19:.(j MId ,<lire thee an.sles (!if A~B •.Be ;md DC mspl:lcti-vely whbl:h~ .::c...ax:is (l:3:k~.n;rloDg. AD) .. AD is the; fixed nnk, AB is taken. as: fn~ inplll linll:: wnel!'eas DC as, the
output link.

OOcivedas fM~ows,

As in IIOY configl.lratiQlil. of ~he :IlI""ool:lisrn, 1ihefig;~re, m1ll$t {lndQ~~ the: Links of th~ mC(:hani$m 'can 100 ~OO$ide-red A as veceers ...Jbus,'Vc:cfor di:splacementrelatillDShips ean be,

- .x
d

. !g. 4. .

..

Oi;spl,w~mefit a1.01i'Ig-ads: x
Q

cas 6 + beos

/1·", ,.ri'+ C COl;; fJ

(l1.heoquati.on. is Y3il:id :for L,t/' morothan 90~ a~o.)

or
or (b ~.

Pi :;;;. cos (c;

f"'~ a 'cos 8+ df
(J cos q;I-

~ c"l, cos·~({). ,r'c'{J52 9 + £'- 2accos , 7

".lad cos 6' + led CO$ tp(

4.. ) 2

.1

Copyriphted materia'

Djspb.~en,l

dong ~Y"'~ a giD 6+ b sin fj' =: C sin ,I/!


b sir! IJ·'"

c sin

fP -

(ls:io

e
1(4.4)

er

(b s[nffl,2

'"

(c iSiiD ,rp_.(J sin fJfl

- il SIn.:! 'q) + ~·$lin.::! (} ~2!1C' sio (}s~n ;p


Adding leqruatioi!l~ (4.2)3nd (4.4), .b''2

"".r! if ,if

4'

.tfl = lac

ICOS

6'coo fP - 2acl coo e + 'led ces

(j"~

2ac sin a sit! 'fP

(4.:5)

.!Put

Tihen,
led or

cos 'r{I~' .lac cos' 6' CQS If' ~ .lac· sin 8 sin 4' ~ 'lad ces e + 2k == {)
(4.,.6)

~- t~oZ ,(lOS, ",,-

(t]
~l1C~~!'I

~+tan~ (~)

ca[l-l+tan (~f2) tan: (~n)] .


M1!I1tiplying k,o~out

~,actOi))

6 [1- >4> 12)], 1+UUl (tp/2)


tIDl
I

e [.1

;::~~;~~)ll-0 t1doos.e '*'


Ie "'"

by [It Wl.2.( ;)]

Copyr"ghtcd rnaleria'

A B'

= k ~ d (tI~ c) cos
:=; ~

8'~ ed

2ac sln B 0) cos

C -k-afd+
EqIlQlti,l):!'J! (~.,6) is

e +- ~d

a quadratic: i:!l! tan

(i)

.~~s two

fOOW art,

or

=.B ± ~ ,'=2tul-' '.['·---.--- ..• 2A~


1 ._

.JlJl 4AC.]
-

(4.7)

nus, MI,t; p:lsiltjao of~ Olllp:ut lint.giV~r!i~Y ru:!l1:ie IA· C!!!l!i be cail~latediftii!e :magnitooe oftbe links and Ute po.s~Uo:!'!'OftbCl tnput lint ~t'(') k!M,WlI'tt. Le., Ii, ./),.c.;. d and 9' are known. A nllation benveell the ,coupler Link position f1 ;and the mput link position B can aIDso, found as heiow: be EqulltlOS (4.1) and (4L3} can. tie wdttell. as.
C OOSlq'I'"

a oo.s,9 + b cosfj~· d
'iF

(4.8)

C':!!iafP ,,.. .Q :r;inO

b .~jnJJ

(4.9)

Sqru.arl~g: and ,adding 'th,c two cq:uafiQIl!3 •


.~: == ,;

+ Jr. + .Jl. "'"24b ~


-t

()CO:l

P-

2bd

00$.

fJ-2m! oo:s e + :~b sin 6' sin f3 '2K "" 0


{4 ...lQ},
qI..-1> for

:Put
-2;bd',co:s; jJ

d> ,if. b'~- .Cl + Q!-='2J(


2ab eos O'eos fjTml.J.sif!
8 sin jJ - 'lad ces 0' T

- !Jd,cos.13 + abcO:!i IJ cos


C

fJ +ab si.n 6'sililfj-

adco:s 8' + 11- 0

Eqlua:lion. (4 ...10) ~s ~dcnti.c!~eo Eq:. 4.6 and. can. he; Obt8fill!d :fmm. fu~ SajJlC by sub~tilt:l.ti_~g /3fOf DDdt' for k: Tiiu!IS, i1.e solution of' Eq. (4.10) wiU be.

'.
where D

II '''I J.'.g,i;.~

...

~:I

[.~E±l.E'.:c~ ..' ~4DF."]·. 2D

(4Jl}

= k'-

a(d

4-

b) cos 9 + .bd

.5= 2ahsin9 F"" It .~. - h) oos8'~bd (j(d

.fJ eanalsu

[Ie f€lud. dimctly

fmmr@latiiJIll ,(4...3) ,!lJfWr c,ailcul:ating

qJ;

Copyriphted

materia'