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One Nation-Two States: An Analysis of Turkish Relations with Pakistan

Muhammad Arham Shoukat
Malik Mufti 12/5/2011

This paper is an analysis on the relations between Pakistan and Turkey in the 20th and the 21st century. It gives one an overview on recent developments between the two countries and examples of bilateral cooperation between the two states.

An Analysis of Turkish Relations with Pakistan- One Nation, Two States

In recent years, the AK Party has pursued a more active and aggressive foreign policy in the South Asia. This essay will analyze that the relationship of Turkey and Pakistan which seems to be one which will intensify in the next ten years and is currently driven by the soft-power exchange between the two countries. Pakistan and Turkey have engaged in intimate relations for over half a century. During the cold war era, Pakistan and Turkey were both significant states who held a regular stance against Soviet expansion. However, after the end of the war, both nations were exhausted to such an extent that there position in the international arena was obviously extremely unstable and ambiguous leading both countries to re-evaluate their geo-political urgency and develop new foreign policy approaches.1

The multidimensional relationship between Pakistan still holds a remarkably similar environment since the time when the same spirit of brotherhood prevailed during the centurys former ties between Indian Muslims and the Ottoman empire.2 Even though, ideologically both the countries differed greatly- Turkey- pursued secularism where as Pakistan decided to follow the Islamic ideology, their respective stances on their independent aspect, never managed to disrupt the close ties between the two countries.3

1 2

Hassan, Muniur. "PAK-TURKEY RELATIONS: On the Common Ties." Alternative Journals 7.2&3 (2008): P.1 Ibid 3 Ibid

One key crucial aspect to point out is that the current relations between the two countries are on a hazardous high mainly due to the open ended style of the Turkish Foreign Policy. Ahmet Davutoglu, the brainwork behind the modern Turkish Foriegn Policy, states that Turkey is a leading country with numerous territorial identities that cannot be reduced to one unified character..[Turkey] considers itself to hold characteristics of Balkan, Central Asian, Caucausian, Mediterranian, Gulf, Black Sea and European counties at the same time.4 Davutoglu considers Turkey to be a significant country with local and global domination whose strong vision and proven significant contributions need to be accounted for. 5

This foreign policy strategy of Turkey has led to a convergence and divergence between the national interests of Pakistan and Turkey, which will be further assessed in this paper. Also it should be noted that many of these convergences and divergences occur mainly due to the geo-political position of both countries. Turkeys geographic location mandates it to be at the crossroads of the Balkans, the Caucus, the Persian Gulf and the Middle East. Similarly, Pakistan is considered to be the passage of Central Asia, West Asia and South Asia, holding ethnic affiliations with all kinds of nationalities leading Pakistan to be a key player in the region. 6

Though both, Turkey and Pakistan remain in the center of an anarchic international and homely environment, they share a strong relationship which can certainly lead to

Ahmet Davutoglu. "Turkey's Foreign Policy Vision: An Assessment of 2007", Insight Turkey, vol. 10, no. 1 (2008), p. 78. 5 Ibid

Hassan, Muniur. "PAK-TURKEY RELATIONS: On the Common Ties." Alternative Journals 7.2&3 (2008): P.4

Pakistan becoming less of a target in the U.S war on terror and Turkey to become hegemony not only in its region but in the world.

Pakistan-Turkey Relations Historical Perspective

Before 1947, the year Pakistan was founded, the relations between Muslims of South Asia and Turkey had strong links. During the rule of the British, the rulers who had a voice in the society and played a vital role in the political scenario had an unusually strong Turkish background. Hence, when the Ottoman Empire fell, the South Asian Muslim rulers expressed their concern towards to decline and were majorly problem as they had lost all hope of creating a Muslim Caliphate.7 Pakistans sole acknowledged Muslim voice, Mohammad Ali Jinnah was surprisingly able to honor the rise of Kemal Attaturk, as he read this new development as hope for the Muslims in South Asia. Jinnah closely analyzed the challenges that the Turkish Republic faced on a daily basis. However, when Kemal Attaturk passed away he was gravely saddened. 8In honor of Kemal Attaturk, Jinnah called for Friday, November 18th as Kemal Day. In one of his interviews he told reporters Ataturk must have derived the greatest sense of satisfaction and he fully accomplished his duty during his life-time and left his people and country consolidated, united and a power nation. In him,

7 8

Hasan, Rubab. Pakistan-Turkey Relations. Thesis. University of Karachi, 2001. Print. Pg 2 Haq, Noor. "Pakistan-Turkey Relations." Thesis. Pakistan, 2010. IRPAK: Pg 1

not only the Musalmans but the whole world has lost one of the greatest men that ever lived.9

Jinnah not only admired Kemal Attaturk as a leader, but most acknowledged his efforts to build a nation-state model which would help him distribute and create a new realm for South Asian Muslims. After the formation of Pakistan, the Turkish Ambassador to Pakistan Yahya Kemal Beytalai wrote in a letter to Jinnah expressing how he felt about serving in Pakistan. The decision made by His Excellency in bestowing upon my humble person the honorable job of representing him for the first time in Pakistan will be a separate source of delight to me in the fulfillment on my mission...[ while] emphasizing once again the fraternal love and understanding of the Turkish nation for the noble republic of Pakistan.10 Jinnahs response was more cordial then expected as Jinnah replied stating ...The fortunes of your people were observed by s with deep concern and interest. I am so, assure your Excellency that the Muslims of Pakistan entertain sentiments of affection and esteem for your country, and now Turkey and Pakistan both are free, sovereign and independent countries...11

This positive attitude of the Muslim Indians eventually led Pakistan to reach a much more favorable nation status in Turkey. The public and media of Turkey had picked up on the admiration that Turkey had towards Pakistan. On August 27 1947, when a Muslim train from India from Pakistan was attacked by the Sikhs, a message of Prime Minster Liaquat Ali Khan was recorded in the Turkish press, in which the Prime Minister acknowledged the support of the Turkey in condemning the act. A leading

Ibid Haq, Noor. "Pakistan-Turkey Relations." Thesis. Pakistan, 2010. IRPAK: Pg 3 11 Ibid

Turkish scholar of that time argued that the Islamic history of Pakistan is closely connected to the history of the Turks. Islam found its centre there as fast as in the first century of Hijra and Turkish conquerors and commanders entered and settled there...[we] wish that they live in peaceful coexistence and make their future together in a amicable approach and work for the welfare of each other.12

Additionally, pockets of extreme secularist risings supporting Pakistan were evident in Turkey. Necmettin Sadak, a known sociologist author voiced his concern by stating ..Unlike India, Pakistan will not suffer from certain problems of ill caste system. Islam in these regions had solved, in the course of history the establishment and problems of the caste system..13 The public opinion of the Turks towards Pakistan, certainly gained momentum and many other authors joined the literal campaign to encourage the establishment of Pakistan.14 Mrs.Edib Adivar, published a book called Inside India which argued a remarkably similar attitude to Sadak in which she stated that since Pakistan had a similar Islamic foundation like that of Turkey, the flourishing of culture and society of Pakistan would supersede the expectations of many, making Pakistan a rich and stable nation state. 15

Similarities and Differences between Turkish-Pakistani Political Systems

The nations of Pakistan-Turkey both have had a history of strong

12 13

Ibid Ortyali, Ilber. "THE EMERGENCE OF PAKISTAN AND TURKISH PUBLIC OPINION IN 1947." Http://dergiler.ankara.edu.tr/dergiler/42/454/5157.pdf. Web. 14 Ibid 15 Ibid

institutionalized military establishment. In the history of Turkey, the role of the military has been on a rise after the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Pakistan has a quite a similar orbit after its creation as the democratic foundations of the Pakistan were unreeled after Ayub Khan decided to conquer the slack government trying to restore faith in the Pakistani people of a free and prosperous country.

Additionally, the democratic process in both Pakistan and Turkey had a similar path. Both in Pakistan and Turkey, the leading factor for the intervention and takeover by the army had been a leading societal segmentation's. These segmentation's lead to a vacuum in the community indirectly causing political parties to look after their own business, leading to a illegal and outlawed political atmosphere in the country. This corrupt and illegitimate political atmosphere justified the acts of interference by the army. What is ironic about both these countries is that, although the army took over to put the house back in order, once they came to control the situation before too chaotic mainly because the army refused to hand over the power back to the civilians.16

However, one difference between Turkey and Pakistan, mainly stands in the fact that Pakistan was formed through the struggle of Jinnah and his supporters for a free democratic country for the Muslims, clearly having nothing to do with the Army. Turkey, on the other hand launched its drive for a new republic on the forefronts of the army rule, creating a new generation of skill and authority for the Turkish governments to proceed under the influence of the army. 17

16 17

Ibid Ibid

Pakistan- Turkey Stance of International Issues

Pakistan, being formed on the principles of an Islamic democratic regime and Turkey on the other hand being formed on secular principles certainly different approaches to various international issues.

Bosnia-Herzegovina Early in the game when the crisis between Bosnia-Herzegovina started Turkey had a tough reasonable approach towards the crisis. Pakistan on the other hand, had a extraordinarily rigid attitude towards the crisis. Pakistan adhered with the notion that the sovereignty of Bosnia-Herzegovina such be respected and the international community should take notice of it. 18

The Bosnian crisis was considered to be one of the major challenges for the European country and Turkey itself. It was primarily due to the fact that Turkey had keen interest in joining the European Union, so any stance against the European Union approach would impair its position; however, if it did not follow up, the Muslim population of Turkey would be extremely upset. Moreover, Turkey was worried that if the crisis did not stop and Bosnia-Herzegovina ended up splitting, it could be seen as an opportunity for the Kurds of northern Iraq and Turkey to start an uprising to call for a free land of their own. Given all these conditions Turkey played a vital role in lobbying for financial assistance for Bosnia. They also took upon the responsibility to train Bosnian soldiers and provided the army with $2 million dollars of aid. Military help was not the only form of relief that Turkey provided to Bosnia it also provided Bosnia a credit

Hasan, Rubab. Pakistan-Turkey Relations. Thesis. University of Karachi, 2001. Pg 98

of $ 80 million dollars and advocated for lighting trade embargos against the Bosnian Muslims. Turkeys overall approach came to be that the acts committed by Muslims in Bosnia were effective since they had every advantage of self defense. 19

Pakistan felt like the crisis in Bosnia-Herzegovina was a mass calamity in the sense that there was a serious violation of human rights taking place. Similar to Turkeys stance on the embargo, Pakistan also lobbied for a lift of trade embargos on the Bosnian Muslims. On August 12th 1994, a delegation consisting of delegates from Turkey, Iran, Egypt, Pakistan and Turkey called upon the President of the Security Council and expressed their attitude towards the Bosnian-Herzegovinian crisis. After many efforts, the voice of the Pakistanis wasnt expressed exclusively leading Pakistan to send around 3,000 soldiers to join the UN peace-keeping force. 20

Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was an event which not only decided the future of Afghanistan and the Soviet Union itself but also changed the role that Turkey and Pakistan were to play in foreign policy in the future. Turkey was not only part of the signatories that raised their voice to the international world, but also pointed that the current involvement of Afghanistan would be a direct threat to the sovereignty of Turkey and a source of instability in the region. In 1981, Turkish President General Kennan Evren, visited Pakistan on a six-day visit in which he expressed to the Pakistani government, Turkeys endorsement of a political settlement of Afghanistan in accordance with the UN resolution. He stated that a joint-Pakistan-Turkish attempt to resolve this
19 20

Hasan, Rubab. Pakistan-Turkey Relations. Thesis. University of Karachi, 2001. Pg 101 Hasan, Rubab. Pakistan-Turkey Relations. Thesis. University of Karachi, 2001. Pg 104

issue could only be led through a political settlement which could be reached through the resolutions of the UN General Assembly. He also expressed his concern for the Afghanistan refuges asking Pakistan to receive them inside Pakistani territory.

Pakistan, taking all the Turkish concerns in-confidence was extremely concerned that the invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviets was an indirect occupation of Pakistans sphere of influence. In an interview, President Zia-ul- Haq expressed his concern about the 80,000 troops which had just invaded Afghanistan, as he felt that the Soviets troops had the experience of harming the sovereignty of Pakistan in near sight. One could see that Pakistan was not going to let go easily of this issue and started reaching out to the west in-terms of assistance. After significant military support from the west, Pakistan last beefed up its frontline, standing as a major force in the region, denying success to the Soviets. The Soviets could not hold on any longer and after the Geneva Accords were signed, the Soviet troops finally withdrew from Afghanistan leaving Afghanistan in a much chaotic state than before. 21

In 1992, the Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel visited Pakistan and shared his concern with Pakistan in the aftermath of the Soviet-Afghan war. He stated that the only way that Afghanistan could be stable was if Pakistan made sure that the peace process in Afghanistan was a pleasant and smooth one and a genuine government was set up. This was a serious concern for Turkey, mainly because instability in the region could always hold an option of another possible intervention by the Soviets. However, little did Turkey realize that Pakistans participation in the war had left the

The Event of Our Era": Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East." Daniel Pipes. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://www.danielpipes.org/242/the-event-of-our-era>.


nation of Pakistan in a state which began suffering from the virus that Afghanistan had been struggling with, leaving Pakistan in a chaotic situation for the next twenty years. 22

Kashmir Turkey has been a strong supporter of Pakistans standpoint, which is that off a free and fair plebiscite in Kashmir, should take place under the supervision of the UN. Turkey certainly argues that Pakistan and India are at a loss, suffering economically due to the Kashmir issue-Pakistan. 23

In February 1999, the peace process between Pakistan and India started when on the request of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, the Prime Minister of India Vajpayee visited Lahore to sign the Lahore Declaration. The Lahore Declaration called for a settlement of unresolved issue including Kashmir. However, this peace process did not last long enough when Pakistani troops along with Mujahideen took over the Kargill hills across the line of control in the Indian Administered part of Kashmir. The Turkish foreign ministry responded to this act by stating that the Lahore process provides the most appropriate ground for the resolution between the dispute between India and Pakistan and any armed crises could lead to a setback for both countries. Turkey was not in proper favor of the stance taken by the Pakistani side and requested a serious reconsideration. Turkeys stance towards Kashmir was expressed clearly to Pakistan when Prime Minister Ecevit visited India in March-April 2000. Mr Ecevit mentioned that Turkey had faced the same problem that India had been facing from Pakistan and was utterly menaced by
22 23

Ibid Ahmad, Istiaq. "TURKEY AND PAKISTAN: BRIDGING THE GROWING DIVERGENCE." Web. <http://www.sam.gov.tr/perceptions/Volume5/SeptemberNovember2000/VolumeVN3ISTHIAQAHMAD.p df>.


it. Ecevit mentioned that Pakistan officially provided moral and diplomatic support to the Kashmiri Mujahedeens. The media blew this statement out of proportion leading to tense relationships been the two countries.24

However, after Ecevits March-April 2000 visit to India, things normalized between Pakistan-Turkey as Turkish Prime Minister Ahmed Necdet expressed his support for the solution of the conflict through the use of International Law and the wished the best to the Kashmiri people. The stance that Turkey held towards Kashmir became unanimous, something which Pakistan tremendously appreciated. 25

During Turkish Prime Minster, Erdogan recent visit, Pakistan once again raised the issue with the Turkish nation. In a recent speech, Prime Minster Yousaf Raza Gillani stated the people of Jammu and Kashmir have been struggling for their right to selfdetermination pledged to them by the UN Security Council more than half a century back. They have been victims of Indian occupation and the worst forms of repression. In the last decade alone more than 75,000 defenceless Kashmiri men, women and children have been callously slaughtered by the Indian security forces. The Kashmiris must be granted their inalienable right to determine their own future..[it] is in the same spirit that Pakistan had supported a just and peaceful settlement of the Cyprus issue..[we] will continue to support your efforts for resolution of the ongoing problem in Cyprus.26

24 25

Ibid Ibid 26 Ibid


Israel-Palestine President Musharraf in a speech to a Turkish delegation stated Excellency, Palestine remains one of the greatest challenges facing the Muslim Ummah. Israel atrocities against innocent, unarmed civilians continue unabated. Israels blatant occupation of Palestine territories goes on. We have always supported the Palestinians in their struggle against Israeli oppression and will continue to do so. The Palestinians deserve a homeland of their own. 27This very speech represents the view and stance of Pakistan towards the Israel-Palestine issue. Until very recent, the views of the Turks and the Pakistanis differed on the Palestine-Israel issue.

Pakistan does not consider Israel to be a state as it has felt a close sense of solidarity with the Palestinian people. Pakistan believes that Israel has sponsored acts of the terrorism, suppression, killing, deportation and violation of scared places. The only solution Pakistan sees to this precise conflict is if Israel withdraws all occupied Arab and Palestinian lands. Indirectly, Pakistan has also expressed that the major root of terrorism around the world lies in the actions of Israel. If Israel had not taken over the Palestinian lands, the anti-west terrorism movement would not have gotten any attention. Even though, Turkey holds a completely different stance compared to Pakistan, Pakistan has not expressed any concern against the Turkish-Israel connection. One thing however that does bother Pakistan is the fact that the support of countries like Turkey towards Israel, has given rise for Israel to endorse Indo-Israeli relations. 28

27 28

Foreign Affairs Pakistan, issue 5 (June, 2003): 3-6. Foreign Affairs Pakistan, vol. XXX, issue 5 (June 2003): 7-14.


Turkeys idea of peace in the Middle Eastern region requires all states in the region to recognize both Palestine and Israel in an equal manner. Turkey considers supporting Israel as a gateway to be on the positive side of the west. Even though, this Turkish approach has cause immense distress for the Palestinian people, the Palestinians believe that Turkeys approach of respecting Palestinian rights is a formidable one. Also, recognition of Israel as a state gives Turkey more power and influence over the conflict and the region. However, the Arab countries believe this to be a notion which has betrayed the ideology of the Islamic Ummah.

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

The issue between Cyprus and Turkey has been one key obstacle in many progressions for Turkey. Many countries have opposed Turkeys stance towards however Cyprus; however, Pakistan has been one of the major supporters of Turkeys stance to intervene into Cyprus since 1974. In a visit by President Musharraf to Turkey, President Musharraf reassured the Turkish government that Pakistan fully supports the Turkish Cypriots struggle for their just cause. He also figured reminded the Turkish people that Pakistan will always have a brotherly relationship with Turkey and even announced the fact that it would further open more TRNC consulates in Pakistan. 30


"Turkey's Stance on Israel Will Reverberate in Washington | Mohammed Ayoob | Comment Is Free | The Guardian." Latest News, Sport and Comment from the Guardian | The Guardian. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/sep/12/turkey-israel-reverberates-washington 30 Haq, Noor. "Pakistan-Turkey Relations." Thesis. Pakistan, 2010. IRPAK: Pg 51


Economic and Cultural Relations between Pakistan & Turkey

To get a better understanding on Turkish- Pakistan foreign relations, it is extremely beneficial to assess the economic and cultural relations between Pakistan and Turkey. Political relations between both Pakistan and Turkey have been extremely stable however when it comes to economic relations there seems to be a certain lack. Both Pakistan and Turkey are active members of the Regional Cooperation for Development and members of the Economic Cooperation Organization, however the real question raised is why dont they corporate economically then?31

One of the main arguments that foreign policy experts have provided are that of Pakistan and Turkey producing the same types of goods which leads to indirect competition between them. Pakistani-Turkish economic relations date back to October 1959 when commerce ministers of both countries announced that there could be a perfect balance of trade reached between Pakistan and Turkey. However, when Pakistan ended up joining the Baghdad Pact, there trade negotiations with Turkey decreased as their main focus was trading with Iran instead. In the sixties however, Turkey increased its import from Pakistan, as 85% of Pakistans jute export was directed toward Turkey. 32

In October 31, 1967, President Ayub Khan of Pakistan visited Turkey and agreed that to improve the relations between Pakistan and Turkey there was a desperate need in the increase of economic and cultural field. After his return Ayub Khan personally

Ahmad, Istiaq. "TURKEY AND PAKISTAN: BRIDGING THE GROWING DIVERGENCE." Web. <http://www.sam.gov.tr/perceptions/Volume5/SeptemberNovember2000/VolumeVN3ISTHIAQAHMAD.p df>. 32 Ahmad, Istiaq. "TURKEY AND PAKISTAN: BRIDGING THE GROWING DIVERGENCE." Web. <http://www.sam.gov.tr/perceptions/Volume5/SeptemberNovember2000/VolumeVN3ISTHIAQAHMAD.p df>.


comprised controlling the jute and its products to increase economic and technical cooperation between the two countries.

Regional Cooperation for Development

Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) was a multi-governmental organization which was originally established in 1964 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey to allow socio-economic development of the member states.The formation of the RCD was substantially appreciated by Pakistan and Turkey as it meant that the RC would strengthen the existing bond between Pakistan and Turkey. The RCD formed is with different subsections: a council of ministers, a regional planning council and a coordinating committee.33

When Pakistan and Turkey developed the RCD, they were in the phase of modernization and industrialization. To further expedite the case of the RCD, Pakistan, Turkey and Iran agreed upon the idea of free movement of goods, close collaboration amongst chambers of commerce, formulation and implementation of joint purpose projects, reduction of postal rates, improvement of air transport services, cooperation in the sphere of shipping, improvement of rail and roads links, promotion of tourism, abolition of visa formalities, technical assistance and cooperation in the cultural field. 34

On December 27-28, 1969, the RCD evaluated its progress of cultural and economic cooperation between Pakistan, Turkey and Iran and expressed its satisfaction. Factors such those of progress in the field of petroleum and petrochemical industries and
33 34

Hasan, Rubab. Pakistan-Turkey Relations. Thesis. University of Karachi, 2001. Pg 141 Hasan, Rubab. Pakistan-Turkey Relations. Thesis. University of Karachi, 2001. Pg 145


expansion in efforts of joint exploration of oil were on the rise. At Izmir, in the 1970s, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran agreed to take effective steps to reducing quantitative restrictions and tariff obstacles to trade. Turkey and Pakistan significantly emphasized on decreasing double taxation and worked on the establishment of the Ahraz Eskederum Pipeline project. 35

The Pakistani and Turkish President both expressed theirs and stance in regards to the progress which was being made by the RCD. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who was the President during the 16th session of the OCD stated, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey have decided to cooperate in the gigantic task of developing their economies in close association with each other under the aegis of RCD[it] is an instrument for strengthening further the countries old bond of friendship and fraternity among the people of these countries. The Turkish president while addressing the RCD on its tenth reported, in the past ten years RCD has rendered useful work to benefit of the regional countries, however, we consider these past years as a phase of growth and we look forward, with greater hope to the future of the RCD36

The RCD not only developed strong political ties between Pakistan and Turkey but also harmonized the economic activities between them. The accomplishment of transportation, communication, insurance and banking saw considerable developments which led to a total of 49 projects being contracted to Pakistani companies within Turkey starting a new era of bilateral agreements between the two countries.

35 36

Hasan, Rubab. Pakistan-Turkey Relations. Thesis. University of Karachi, 2001. Pg 158 Hasan, Rubab. Pakistan-Turkey Relations. Thesis. University of Karachi, 2001. Pg 161


In mid 1970s, the framekwork of the RCD was used to form the Economic Cooperation Organization ( ECO) which took into confidence countries which were formed after the collapse of the Soviet. In 1977, The Treaty of Izmir was adopted as the legal framework for the RCD the basic Charter of ECO was modified to provide a proper legal basis to ECO's transition from RCD at the Ministerial Meeting held in Islamabad in June 1990.

Turkish-Pakistani Trade and Investment.

Turkish foreign policy towards trade of is one of the most notable elements in the relationship between Pakistan and Turkey. On November 12th, 1981, Pakistan and Turkey signed a protocol for technical for greater economic and technical cooperation. Some of the steps which were taken to improve trade included Ankaras renewal of rice agreement with Pakistan and opening of a Pakistani bank in Turkey. This strong establishment between the two sides further led the two countries to sign the agreement of avoidance of double taxation on November 15, 1985. 38

Under Prime Minister Turgut Ozals regime, trade liberating policies lead to more tariff concessions to promote trade and commerce between Pakistan and Turkey. Turkey further offered Pakistan a 50 million dollar short term revolving credit facility for increasing the volume of trade. In the early 1990s Pakistan was granted the MFN (Most Favored Nation Status) by Turkey to encourage more private sector investment. One of


"The Brief History of ECO." Economic Cooperation Organization. Web. 06 Dec. 2011.


Turkey - Now. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://www.turkey-now.org/Default.aspx?mID=131>.


the first projects that came out of the MFN was the project of the Ghazi Brotha Dam. Additionally, Turk Siemen also won the contract for the supply of cables of a total of $30 million. 39 Beginning the 1990s three of Turkeys biggest construction companies: Bayinder, STFA and Tekser took upon the task of building Pakistans infrastructure and communication network. The total amount of investment volume inflow to Pakistan reached a high of $ 1.5 billion. One compelling reason why Turkey all of a sudden increased their presence in Pakistan was to indirectly improve their status in the petition of a membership in the E.U as in the 1990s; the European Union was Pakistans biggest export market and a source of financial aid. 40

Post 9/11 Pakistan-Turkey Economic Agreements

The post 9/11 period for Economic-Trade relationships was one of the most prosperous time for both Turkey-Pakistan. It was mainly due to the fact that Turkey saw the unraveling economy of Pakistan have a lot of potential and the principal inflow of aid was a key target for Turkish companies. On June 15, 2003, Pakistan and Turkey signed an agreement on the protection of the environment. The environment protection agreement was signed in confidence of the Johannesburg Declaration of Sustainable development which was mainly based on recognizing the significance of sustainable development approach for the protection and improvement of the environment as well as for health and well-being of the current generations. The agreement called for


Ministry of Foreign Affairs <http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkey_s-commercial-and-economic-relations-withpakistan.en.mfa> 40 Ibid


development and implementation of waste treatment and disposal methods, conservation of biological diversity, exchange of information for soil protection and renewable energy. 41This very agreement led to major cooperation between Turkey and Pakistan on researching and discovering renewable energy sources in the conflict affected area of Baluchistan.

One of the principal agreements which were signed between Pakistan-Turkey was in-regards to bilateral road transport. The agreement was framed to build a more accessible network between Turkey, Pakistan and their neighboring countries. Some of the major concerns which were raised before the agreement were linked to human trafficking and drug trafficking. Pakistan and Turkey share similar views on how human trafficking and Drug trafficking should be heavily reduced and should be monitored properly. Turkey expressed its concern on how many illegal immigrants from Pakistan had part-taken in activities in Turkey which had harmed the society mainly. By building a bilateral road transport system, the law and order system on such routes would be heavily monitored. Some of the articles that were included in the agreement allowed the carriage of deceased, carriage of decorative articles for theatrical performances, carriage of goods equipment and animals needed for musical performances, carriage of works of art, carriage of aid material and postal carriage.42

Considering the time that takes between travels between Pakistan, the Turkish party expressed its interest in decreasing the time and introducing a train service between Pakistan and Turkey. The agreement of the train service had two parts to it: the first part
41 42

Pakistan, Turkey to cooperate on environment < http://archives.dawn.com/2002/10/18/nat8.htm> "Pakistan, Turkey Agree to Enhance Multi-faceted Ties." Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://pakistantimes.net/pt/detail.php?newsId=9974>.


initiated between Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani and Prime Minister Tayyib Erdogan and the second one initiated by President Zaradari and President Abdullah Gull. The first phase of the train route was a test phase in which Pakistan and Turkey agreed to allow the transport of cargo, however when the test phase ended up being successful, President Zardari and President Gull launched a $20 billion project increasing the efficiency of travel between the two countries also decreasing the time of travel from 11 days to 4 days. President Zardari also used the platform of bilateral transport routes to reassuring the Turkish nation that I paid my first foreign visit to Turkey as PPP CoChairman after the marydom of Mohtarma Benazir Bhuttoit reflects the importance the democratic government of Pakistan attaches to its relations with Turkey. 43

Cultural Relations between Pakistan and Turkey

The countries of Pakistan and Turkey enjoy a remarkably similar cultural heritage. One of the main reasons Pakistan and Turkey have had strong relations are mainly because of the modern sense of faith, religion, customs and tradition which are shared by both countries. Cultural ties between Pakistan and Turkey date back to 1953, when the agreement of Cultural Agreement was signed between Pakistan and Turkey. One of the main developments which were uprooted from the cultural cooperation initiative was trade industrial exhibitions and Pakistani and Turkish weeks being held in both Pakistan and Turkey. 44


Online, Asia Time. "Asia Times Online :: South Asia News, Business and Economy from India and Pakistan." Asia Times Online :: Asian News Hub Providing the Latest News and Analysis from Asia. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/LA29Df05.html>. 44 Pak-Turk Culture Ties< http://app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=8047>


In 1983, Pakistan and Turkey together launched an exchange program between the students at the East Technical University of Ankara and the National University of Science and Technology in Islamabad. This program was expanded in 2003 when 30 scholarships each were presented to Pakistani and Turkish students. In 1992, Pakistan and Turkey signed a new agreement on culture relationships. The agreement asked for an increase in the reciprocal exhibitions of traditional handicrafts and exchanges of talk groups and artists. 45

In post 9/11 times, Prime Minister Erdogan and President Abdullah Gull have both expressed how they have deep cultural ties with the Pakistan.In a recent speech which was given by President Abdullah Gull, Gul stated that Pakistan was his second home; he felt like everything and anything that he had lived for in Turkey was also available in Pakistan. 46

Military and Defense Relationship between Pakistan and Turkey

Pakistani-Turkish defense relations are mainly based on the High-Level Military Dialogue (HLMDG). The HLMDG was setup in the post 9/11 in June 2003, after President Erdogan visited Pakistan. The HLMDG meeting happens twice a year. All meetings are based on the agreement of 1954, the Truco-Pakistan treaty of 1954, which states that cooperation between the two countries will happen on information on technical

45 46

Ibid Ibid


experience and progress, production of arms and ammunition and on any unprovoked act.

One of Pakistan and Turkeys foremost defense and military developments have been Turkeys MILGEM building military ships for Pakistan. The MILGEM project is carried out in a join cooperation project between Turkeys defense and Turkeys naval forces. Savas Onur, the manager of the MILGEM, stated on a visit to Pakistan, it our nations duty to help our Muslims brothers to defend them solves hence we are planning to carry out a joint project with Pakistan and its corvettes. Further, Onur mentioned the devotion that the Turkish Firms felt towards their Pakistani brothers, three defense firms have merged forces to supply Pakistans demand for corvette ships.This is a four ship covette project. The first ship will be designed and built in Turkey while the other three ships will be built in Pakistans military shipyards...48 Moreover, Turkey has been a large supporter of Pakistans atomic program. In the early 1980s Turkey helped Pakistan acquire systems for the development of the Pakistani nuclear weapons program. After the foundation of Pakistans nuclear program was developed, Pakistan reached out to Ankara to help Turkey developed its nuclear program under General Zias rule and the rule of Nawaz Sharif. However, Turkey rejected the offers both times mainly because Turkey wanted to align itself with the west. However, the relationship between Pakistani and Turkish military has seen immense cooperation, making Turkey seek nuclear assistance from Pakistan. Turkeys current


Ibid Pakistan Defence, September 21, 2009, http://www.defence.pk/forums/land-forces/27996-pak-turkrelations-defence- 2.html



situation, being neighbored by Iran, which has the potential of becoming a nuclear power, has made Turkeys case more viable. 49 In 2009, Turkish Foreign Minister Babacan reassured Turkeys desire for an enhanced level of defense cooperation with Pakistan. Babacan stated that Turkeys main initiative to increase defense trade relations between Pakistan and Turkey were based on cooperative efforts in developing counter-terrorism technology. Pakistan followed Turkeys lead in producing their first unmanned vehicle which Pakistan believed could be used to target militants. Pakistan further looks to Turkeys successful campaign against the PKK to evaluate the use of the UAV to collect successful time-sensitive actionable intelligence information.

Pakistan and Turkey have also performed simultaneous joint military exercises. In 2009, Pakistan and Turkey partook in Indus viper for eleven days. In exercise Indus viper, five of Turkeys F-16s and 49 Turkish Air force personal were deployed to one of Pakistans army bases.


"Turkey Seeks Nuclear Weapons." Hellenic Antidote. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://hellenicantidote.blogspot.com/2010/07/turkey-seeks-nuclear-weapons.html>. 50 "Turkish UAV Pakpasban." Pakpasban. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. 51 Pakistan Defence, September 21, 2009, http://www.defence.pk/forums/land-forces/27996-pak-turkrelations-defence- 2.html


Turkeys stance on Pakistans War on Terror and Afghanistan

War on Terror

Pakistan and Turkey are victims of many terrorist attacks; not only international terrorism but also domestic terrorism. There has been an identical link between the nature of Pakistan and Turkeys interest in countering terrorism.

On a domestic level, Pakistan and Turkey both have disputed territories which seem to be the main cause for domestic terrorism. Turkey believes that with the support of the non-state actors like the Al-Qaeda the PKK might gain support of and start a strong movement. Turkey appreciates Pakistans continuing interest in action against AlQaedas leadership and training facilities. In 2003, Turkey fell victim to twin suicide attacks in Istanbul which were believed to be carried out by Al-Qaeda. Turkey has coordinated with Pakistan on the arrest of suspected terrorists in 2004, 206 and 2007 partially eliminating the threat that Turkey faces. 52

Trilateral Summit- Pakistan, Turkey, Afghanistan

The trilateral summit between Pakistan, Turkey and Afghanistan is a key summit in advancing the relationship between the three countries. They Turkey-PakistanAfghanistan trilateral forum was launched in 2007 as a regional effort to resolve the conflict of Afghanistan by leading multilateral cooperation between the three countries. The forum primarily serves to offer a joint response to a common danger in the region,


Hayland, Frank. "Turkey and Pakistan Cooperate on Counter-Terrorism Efforts." The Jamestown Foundation (2010). Print.


which is essentially a declaration to work against terrorism and extremism. The forum takes into consideration the interaction amongst the military chiefs and the heads, intelligence services, join military exercises and train courses for army officers and cooperation amongst counternarcotics agencies.53

The interaction in the forum has led to a broader international cooperation among the three. In late March-2011, the three countries held their first joint exercise on urban warfare in Turkey. This joint exercise was the first time Pakistan and Afghanistan partook in a military exercise held in Turkey. Other than military engagement, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Turkey have also cooperated to for a Trilateral Minds Platform, which includes members from academia, media and think tanks. 54

In December 2010, the Afghanistan High Peace Council proposed an idea which would reconcile relationships with Afghanistan and insurgent governments. The idea mainly took into consideration opening an office for Taliban in Turkey. The purpose was to facilitate talks between Taliban and concerned governments where the Turkey would play the role of an official broker. 55

The title Two states-One Nation, is a clearly defines the relationship between Turkey and Pakistan. Both countries continue to develop on their ideology, Turkey


Editors, The. "Trend Lines | Global Insider: Turkey-Afghanistan-Pakistan Trilateral Forum." World Politics Review | Geostrategic Analysis of International Affairs. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/trend-lines/8623/global-insider-turkey-afghanistan-pakistantrilateral-forum>. 54 Ibid 55 Ibid


believing in secularism and Pakistan following the Islamic Path. Even though, both countries do tend to differ in their paths, their motives are the same.

Economically, Pakistan and Turkey have done well to help each other out. Bilateral treaties like those of building a stronger transport network and increasing trade have all given a successful boost to the relationships between the two countries. They tend to move forward even stronger as the economy the global economy seems to be sinking.

Culturally, Turkey and Pakistan have supported leading causes; those being having cultural weeks, having cultural student exchanges and opening schools in both countries. Currently there are over 10 Turkish schools in Pakistan and over 10 Pakistani schools in Turkey, both setting examples to provide one of the best educations in the world.

Ties between the both countries seem to strengthen more in terms of defense as Turkey and Pakistan; both have supported the stances that they hold on international issues. In a recent attack by NATO on Pakistani soldiers, Turkey called for an investigation and condemn it on all levels. What more can a relationship be defined with? Pakistan and Turkey currently hold and will continue to hold a positive tie in the future from what it seems like.


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