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Week 5 Handout A03: Amanda Rajapaksa


OH: M 3-4@CLICS /by appt.

The effect of daylength on flowering was discovered by two investigators from the US
Department of Agriculture, ___________ and __________. These researchers found that neither
the ______________ nor the ______________ would flower unless the daylength was shorter
than a critical number of hours; they called this phenomenon _________________. In the 1930s,
___________ and __________ determined that the _______ of the plant were important in
sensing the daylength.
Define photoperiodism:

Many flowering plants sense seasonal changes; they use changes in night length as signals to
flower. Flowering plants can be grouped into three groups. Photoperiodic plants are classified as
___________ or ____________, though the regulatory mechanism is actually governed by the
hours of ____________, not the length of the day. Plants that do not exhibit the photoperiodic
response are called ________________.

Short-day plants flower in the early spring or late

fall (ex: chrysanthemums, poinsettias, strawberries,
and xanthium)

Long-day plants flower mainly in the summer (ex: spinach,

lettuce, and henbane)

Day-neutral plants flower without respect to daylength. (ex:

cucumber, corn, and sunflowers)

Q: How would you determine if a biological response in a plant is regulated by phytochrome?

T/F: Conversion between Pfr and Pr only occurs in response to absorption of certain wavelengths
of light.
T/F: Phytochrome is a pigment.
Q: How does the length of the day (really the night) affect flowering in long-day plants as
compared to short-day plants? (PS3, Q#8)
Q: 8hours of light, 16hours of dark
-short day: -long day:
Q: 8hours of light, 16hours of dark interrupted with 660nm in middle of dark
-short day: - long day:
Q: 8hours of light, 16hours of dark interrupted with 730nm in middle of dark
-short day: -long day:

Q: Henbane, a long-day plant, requires 11.5 hours of light to flower when kept at 28.5°C, but
only 8.5 hours when kept at 15.5°C. In terms of what you have learned about the role of the
phytochrome pigment in flowering, offer an explanation that is consistent with this observed
influence of temperature on flowering. (PS3, Q#9)