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WORKOVER OPERATIONS

LECTURE NOTES NOVEMBER 2009


PROF. SUSHANTA SARKAR

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

THE PHASES AND SEQUENCE OF AN OPERATION VARIES FROM ONE JOB TO ANOTHER. ANOTHER. IT MAINLY DEPENDS ON THE EQUIPMENT ALREADY INSTALLED IN THE WELL AND THE CONDITION IT IS IN. IN. IT ALSO DEPENDS ON WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE AND HOW THE OPERATION IS GOING TO PROCEED IN PRACTICAL TERMS. TERMS. WE DISCUSS BELOW THE DETAILED STEPS WHICH ARE GENERALLY INVOLVED IN ALL THE WORKOVER OPERATIONS

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


1. PREPARATION OF THE WELL PRIOR ARRIVAL OF THE WORKOVER UNIT TO THE

THIS MAINLY MEANS : CHECKING THE STATUS OF THE WELL BY WIRELINE TECHNIQUES (CHECKING THE TUBING, PROVING THE HOLES, TAGGING SEDIMENTS, TO CHECKING THE PERFORATIONS WHETHER THEY ARE OPEN OR NOT). NOT). CHECKING THE WELL INTEGRITY (PRESSURE TESTS OF CASINGS) OPENING A CIRCULATING DEVICE DOWNHOLE (SLIDING SLEEVE, BLANKING PLUG OR DUMMY FROM SIDE POCKET MANDREL)

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

CHECKING THE INTEGRITY OF VALVES OF THE X-MAS TREE (PRESSURE TESTING OF VALVES) CHECKING AND PREPARING THE APPROACH ROAD TO WELLS FOR MOVEMENT OF THE WORKOVER RIG. RIG.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


2. PUTTING THE WELL UNDER SAFE CONDITIONS (BEFORE RIGGING UP THE SERVICE/WORKOVER UNITS) THIS SAFETY PRECAUTION-CUM-OPERATION, IN FACT, PRECAUTION-CUMSHOULD ALSO INVOLVE ALL THE NEARBY WELLS THAT MIGHT BE AFFECTED WHEN THE SERVICE/WORKOVER UNIT IS BEING SET UP. UP. THE OPERATION CONSISTS ESSENTIALLY IN ISOLATING THE SURROUNDINGS FROM THE WELL PRESSURES AND KEEPING THEM UNDER OPTIMUM SAFE CONDITIONS WHILE INSTALLING THE SERVICE/WORKOVER UNITS OVER THE WELLHEAD. WELLHEAD.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


THERE ARE 3 BASIC WAYS OF ACHIEVING THIS: THIS: BY INSTALLING PLUGS IN THE LANDING NIPPLES IN THE TUBING, WHICH ARE GENERALLY AT THE BOTTOM OF THE WELL, BELOW THE PACKER. PACKER. BY CLOSING THE SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE, IF THERE IS ONE. ONE. BY SETTING A BACK PRESSURE VALVE IN THE TUBING HANGER

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


AT LEAST, 2 OUT OF THESE 3 BARRIERS SHOULD NORMALLY BE IN PLACE. PLACE. THE VARIOUS LINES CONNECTED TO THE WELLHEAD ON THE SURFACE SHOULD BE BLED OFF ANY PRESSURES AND/OR ISOLATED. ISOLATED. IF NEED BE, THEY CAN BE DISMANTLED. DISMANTLED. NEARBY EQUIPMENT, THAT MIGHT BE SHOULD BE COMPLETELY DEPRESSURISED. DEPRESSURISED. DAMAGED,

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


3. INSTALLING THE SERVICING OR WORKOVER UNITS

ONCE THE WELL AND ITS SURROUNDINGS HAVE BEEN SAFELY SECURED, THE SERVICE/WORKOVER UNIT AND ITS ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT LIKE TANKS, PUMPS, WORKSHOPS ETC. CAN BE SET UP . ETC. THE EQUIPMENT IN THE SITE SHOULD BE SET UP IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE REGULATORY BODY. BODY. HOWEVER, THE X-MAS TREE IS NOT YET REMOVED TO BE REPLACED BY THE BOPS

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


4. KILLING THE WELL A WELL IS CONSIDERED TO BE PERFECTLY KILLED WHEN THE WORKOVER FLUID, WHOSE SP.GR. IS APPROPRIATE SP.GR. FOR THE RESERVOIR PRESSURE, TOTALLY FILLS UP THE WELL . THIS MEANS THAT THE INSIDE OF THE TUBING, THE TUBINGTUBING-CASING ANNULUS AND THE SPACE BELOW THE PACKER IS FILLED WITH THE WORKOVER FLUID. FLUID. THE WORKOVER FLUID IS PREPARED IN SUFFICIENT AMOUNTS. AMOUNTS. THIS IS GENERALLY 3 TIMES THE TOTAL VOLUME OF THE WELL. WELL.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

THE PROPERTIES REQUIRED OF A WORKOVER FLUID IS AS FOLLOWS: FOLLOWS:     TO KEEP THE WELL UNDER HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE. PRESSURE. CONTROL BY ITS

TO CARRY UP CUTTINGS IF DRILLING OR MILLING IS PLANNED. PLANNED. NOT TO DAMAGE THE FORMATION. FORMATION. NO FLUID LOSS IN THE FORMATION

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


WITH THE SERVICE/WORKOVER RIG IN PLACE AND THE WORKOVER FLUID READY, THE NEXT SET OF OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED AS BELOW: BELOW:  THE PLUGS THAT WERE SET IN THE TUBING PRIOR TO THE MOVEMENT OF THE SERVICE/WORKOVER RIGS, HAVE TO BE PULLED OUT. OUT. THE WORKOVER FLUID IS PUMPED INTO THE WELL TO DISPLACE THE TUBING CONTENTS. CONTENTS. THIS IS DONE EITHER BY CIRCULATION OR BY SQUEEZING. SQUEEZING. THE WELL IS THEN PUT UNDER OBSERVATION FOR STABILITY. STABILITY. KILLING OF WELL, SOMETIMES, IS CARRIED OUT BEFORE THE RIG IS INSTALLED. INSTALLED.

   

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

5.

CONSIDERATIONS ON KILLING THE WELL THE WORKOVER FLUID USED TO KILL THE WELL, USUALLY, DISPLACES THE WELL CONTENTS BY EITHER CIRCULATION OR BY SQUEEZING. SQUEEZING.

KILLING BY CIRCULATION  EXCEPT IN SPECIAL CASES, CIRCULATION PREFERRED WAY TO KILL THE WELL. WELL. IS THE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

THE FLUID IS CIRCULATED AS DEEP AS POSSIBLE IN THE TUBING, BUT ABOVE THE PACKER, EITHER: EITHER:
 THROUGH A CIRCULATING WIRELINE, VIZ. BY VIZ.
 

DEVICE

OPERATED

BY

PULLING OUT A DUMMY FROM THE SIDE POCKET MANDREL OR BY OPENING THE PORTS OF A SLIDING SLEEVE. SLEEVE.

OR THROUGH PUNCTURED HOLES IN THE TUBING OPENED UP BY ELECTRIC CABLE SHAPED CHARGES. CHARGES.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


 A REVERSE CIRCULATION IS USUALLY THE OPTION CHOSEN FOR GAS WELLS OR HIGH GOR OIL WELLS. IN OTHER WORDS, WELLS. FLUID IS PUMPED INTO THE ANNULUS WITH RETURNS THROUGH THE TUBING. TUBING. THIS METHOD ENSURES THAT OIL AND GAS ARE THOROUGHLY DISPLACED. DISPLACED. WITH DIRECT CIRCULATION, THE LIGHTER OIL AND GAS TEND TO MIGRATE IN THE HEAVIER WORKOVER FLUID WHICH IS LOCATED ABOVE THEM. THEM. ACCORDINGLY, THER IS NO CERTAINTY AS TO THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF THE WORKOVER FLUID THAT IS LEFT IN PLACE IN THE WELL AND AS SUCH, THERE IS NO CERTAINTY REGARDING KILLING OF THE WELL. WELL.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


 HOWEVER, AFTER A VOLUME CORRESPONDING TO THE TUBING VOLUME HAS BEEN PUMPED IN THROUGH THE ANNULUS AND THEREFORE AFTER OIL AND GAS HAVE BEEN PUMPED OUT OF THE WELL DIRECT CIRCULATION IS USED TO HOMOGENIZE THE FLUIDS PRESENT IN THE TUBING AND ANNULUS. ANNULUS. IN CONTRAST, SINCE ANNULAR PRESSURE LOSSES ARE GENERALLY LOWER THAN TUBING PRESSURE LOSSES, WITH DIRECT CIRCULATION THE OVERPRESSURE EXERTED ON THE PAY ZONE BY PRESSURE LOSSES IS MINIMIZED. MINIMIZED. HENCE PROBLEMS OF LOST CIRCULATION AND PLUGGING ARE ALSO MINIMIZED. MINIMIZED.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


 WHETHER CIRCULATION IS REVERSE OR TOTALLY DIRECT, THE CHOKE IS APPLIED ON THE RETURNS TO KEEP THE BOTTOMHOLE PRESSURE HIGHER THAN THE RESERVOIR PRESSURE ALL THROUGHOUT THE OPERATION, THEREBY PREVENTING ANY KICKS. KICKS. WHEN THE CIRCULATION IS FINISHED, NOT ALL THE FLUIDS LOCATED BELOW THE CIRCULATION DEVICES HAVE BEEN REPLACED BY THE KILLING FLUID SO, KILLIN IS ONLY PARTIAL. PARTIAL. IF INJECTIVITY IS FAIR, KILLING CAN BE IMPROVED, AFTER CIRCULATION, BY SQUEEZING THE OIL AND GAS STILL REMAINING BELOW THE CIRCULATION DEVICE INTO THE FORMATION. FORMATION. HOWEVER, SOME OIL & GAS IS EXPECTED TO REMAIN TRAPPED IN THE ANNULUS UNDER THE PACKER AND THE TAILPIPE. TAILPIPE.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

SOMETIMES, THE WORKOVER FLUID IS CIRCULATED AFTER SETTING A PLUG IN THE LOWER END OF THE TUBING. TUBING. AS A RESULT THERE IS NO RISK OF LOST CIRCULATION INTO THE FORMATION DURING CIRCULATION. CIRCULATION. HOWEVER THERE IS UNCERTAINTY REGARDING WHETHER THE PLUG CAN BE PULLED OUT, ESPECIALLY IF IT GETS COVERED WITH DEPOSITS. DEPOSITS.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


KILLING BY SQUEEZING THE SQUEEZE TECHNIQUE IS USED:
 WHEN THE CIRCULATION METHOD CANNOT BE USED - FOR EXAMPLE, WHEN THERE IS A HOLE IN THE TUBING NEAR THE SURFACE; SURFACE; WIRELINING IS IMPOSSIBLE BECAUSE OF A COLLAPSED TUBING OR BECAUSE OF A FISH; VOLUME BELOW FISH; THE TUBING SHOE IS VERY LARGE ETC. ETC. WHEN INJECTIVITY IS VERY GOOD THIS IS TRUE ESPECIALLY FOR GAS WELLS. WELLS.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

SQUEEZING IS DONE ONLY AFTER AN INJECTIVITY TEST JUST TO BE SURE THAT INJECTIVITY IS SUFFICIENT. SUFFICIENT. THIS IS BECAUSE OF THE SAME DRAWBACK AS WITH DIRECT CIRCULATION THAT IS, MIGRATION OF OIL AND GAS IN THE KILLING FLUID GREATLY COMPOUNDED BY THE FACT THAT THE FLOW RATES WITH A SQUEEZE JOB IS OFTEN MUCH LOWER THAN WITH CIRCULATION. CIRCULATION. IF THE INJECTIVITY TEST IS UNSATISFACTORY, NECESSARY TO MODIFY THE SQUEEZE CONDITIONS. CONDITIONS. IT IS

FOR EXAMPLE, SQUEEZE AT A LOWER FLOW RATE, PROVIDED THE TOTAL INJECTED VOLUME IS INCREASED. INCREASED.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

FOR A GAS WELL, PERFORM A SERIES OF SQUEEZES AND BLEED OFFS AT CONSTANT BOTTOMHOLE PRESSURE TO ALLOW THE GAS TO MIGRATE UP TO THE SURFACE WITHOUT FRACTURING THE FORMATION. FORMATION. SOMETIMES, IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO ACCEPT TO SQUEEZE AT A FRACTURING RATE OR REVISE THE PROGRAMME THOROUGHLY AND USE A TECHNIQUE SUCH AS COIL TUBING OR SNUBBING JUST TO KILL THE WELL OR TO CARRY OUT THE COMPLETE OPERATION. OPERATION.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

THS IMPLIES THAT THE INJECTIVITY TEST HAS TO BE PERFORMED LONG BEFORE THE WORKOVER IS DONE. DONE. THE CHOICE OF MEANS TO BE UTILIZED AND THE WORKOVER PROGRAMME DESIGN BOTH DEPEND ON THE INJECTIVITY TEST. TEST. JUST AS FOR CIRCULATION, KILLING IS NOT COMPLETE WHEN THE SQUEEZE OPERATION IS OVER, AS OIL AND GAS STILL REMAINS TRAPPED IN THE ANNULUS UNDER THE PACKER AND ALL OF THE ANNULAR FLUID. FLUID.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


OBSERVING THE WELL

  

AFTER KILLING BY CIRCULATION OR SQUEEZING, THE WELL MUST BE OBSERVED TO CHECK THAT :
THERE IS NO PRESSURE IN THE WELLHEAD; WELLHEAD; THE LEVELS ARE STABLE; STABLE; THERE IS NO GAS CUTTING ON THE SURFACE. SURFACE.

WHATEVER THE OBSERVATION TIME, THERE IS NO ABSOLUTE GUARANTEE THAT THE WELL IS STABLE. STABLE. THE TIME DEPENDS ON
   THE METHOD USED TO KILL THE WELL, THE WAY THE OPERATION ACTUALLY PROCEEDED AND ON OUTSIDE SIGNS OF PHENOMENA SUCH AS EXPANSION. EXPANSION.

THERMAL

IT CAN VARY FROM ONE TO SEVERAL HOURS. HOURS.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

IF THE WELL SHOULD PROVE UNSTABLE, KILLING MUST BE STARTED ALL OVER AGAIN EITHER WITH THE SAME METHOD OR WITH ANOTHER METHOD. METHOD. MODIFYING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONTROL FLUID OR USE OF SPACE FLUIDS, SOMETIMES, IS QUITE EFFECTIVE. EFFECTIVE. THE WELL WILL BE UNDER OBSERVATION ONCE AGAIN FOR STABILITY. STABILITY.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

FINAL KILLING PHASE


 WHATEVER THE METHOD USED, THERE IS ALWAYS A CERTAIN VOLUME LEFT IN THE WELL WHERE IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO PLACE THE WORKOVER FLUID. FLUID. THIS VOLUME MUST BE CIRCULATED AS SOON AS THE COMPLETION EQUIPMENT REMOVAL OPERATIONS ALLOW. ALLOW.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


REPLACING X-MAS TREE WITH BOP
 SINCE THE WORKOVER FLUID IS KEEPING THE WELL STABLE, ONLY ONE MECHANICAL SAFETY BARRIER IS DEEMED NECESSARY EITHER THE DOWNHOLE PLUG AND/OR THE SCSSV AND/OR THE BPV THE X-MAS TREE CAN THEN BE DISMANTLED AT THE TUBING HEAD SPOOL AND REPLACED BY THE BOP, WHICH WILL BE THEN TESTED. TESTED. THIS OPERATION SHOULD BE COMPLETED AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE. POSSIBLE. IT IS IMPERATIVE THEREFORE THAT ALL REQUIRED PERSONNEL SHOULD BE MOBILIZED, REQUIRED EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE IN STATE OF READINESS, APPROPRIATE HANDLING AND HOISTING EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE AND THE WELLHEAD CHECKED ETC. ETC.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


REMOVING COMPLETION EQUIPMENT
 THE INSTALLED BPV OR PLUG HAS TO BE RETRIEVED BEFORE THE PULLING OUT OF THE DOWNHOLE EQUIPMENT CAN COMMENCE. COMMENCE. IF THERE IS A KICK WHILE TRIPPING, IT IS NECESSARY TO BE ABLE TO CLOSE QUICKLY NOT ONLY THE ANNULUS WITH THE BOP TUBING RAMS, BUT ALSO THE TUBING ITSELF. ITSELF. THE CORRESPONDING SAFETY DEVICE (KELLY COCK VALVE/ TUBING SAFETY VALVE) MUST BE ON THE WORKOVER RIG FLOOR READY FOR USE (THREADS TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH TUBING THREADS)

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

THE PROCEDURE FOR REMOVING THE DOWNHOLE EQUIPMENT DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENT AND ITS CONDITION. CONDITION. PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT IS THE TYPE OF PACKER RETRIEVABLE OR PERMANENT TYPE OF CONNECTION BETWEEN THE TUBING AND THE PACKER (SEAL ALONE OR SEAL PLUS ANCHOR). ANCHOR). WITH A RETRIEVABLE PACKER, AND ESPECIALLY IF THE WORKOVER IS BEING DONE SEVERAL YEARS AFTER ITS SETTING, IT IS OFTEN WISE TO CUT OFF THE TUBING A FEW METRES ABOVE THE PACKER BY CHEMICAL CUTTERS. CUTTERS. THEN, RUN IN DRILL PIPE WITH OVERSHOT, LATCH ONTO THE TUBING AND UNSEAT THE PACKER. PACKER.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

FURTHERMORE, WHATEVER THE KILLING METHOD, THERE IS ALWAYS A VOLUME OF OIL AND/OR GAS TRAPPED UNDER THE PACKER. PACKER. IT IS IMPORTANT TO CIRCULATE IT OUT AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER UNSEATING THE RETRIEVABLE PACKER OR AFTER STABBING OUT OF A PERMANENT PACKER. PACKER. WHENEVER TRIPPING OUT, CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO AVOID SWABBING PARTICULARLY WHEN THE PACKER IS BEING PULLED OUT. OUT. SECONDLY, THE WELL MUST ALWAYS BE KEPT FULL WITH WORKOVER FLUID. FLUID. LASTLY, THE CHECKED. CHECKED. WELLS STABILITY MUST FREQUENTLY BE

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION


WORKOVER PLAN
WELLS COMPLETED WITH RETRIEVABLE HYDRAULIC PACKER  OPEN SLIDING SLEEVE OR PULL OUT DUMMY FROM THE SIDE POCKET MANDREL OR MAKE A HOLE ABOVE PACKER WITH ELECTRIC CABLE. CABLE.       LOCK OPEN SUB SURFACE SAFETY VALVES KILL THE WELL BY CIRCULATING WORKOVER FLUID INSTALL BPV IN THE TUBING HANGER. HANGER. REMOVE X-MAS TREE INSTALL BOP. BOP. REPLACE BPV WITH TWCV. TWCV.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

TEST THE BOP BETWEEN THE TWCV AND THE BLIND RAM; RAM; CONNECT A TUBING IN THE TUBING HANGER, CLOSE THE PIPE RAM AGAINST THE TUBING AND TEST THE PIPE RAM. RAM. REMOVE THE TWCV. TWCV. CONNECT TUBING HANGER WITH TUBING STRING. STRING. UNLOCK TUBING HANGER BY UNSCREWING ANCHOR BOLTS. BOLTS. RELEASE PACKER BY STRAIGHT PULL/ROTATION. PULL/ROTATION. CIRCULATE WORKOVER FLUID (AT LEAST ONE CYCLE). CYCLE).

    

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

RECIPROCATE THE STRING TO BREAK THE SEAL TO AVOID SWABBING ACTION. ACTION. PULL OUT COMPLETION STRING. STRING. IF IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO RELEASE THE PACKER, CUT THE TUBING ABOVE THE PACKER, PULL OUT THE COMPLETION STRING. STRING. RUN IN OVERSHOT WITH BUMPER SUB ON TUBING/DRILL PIPE, CATCH THE FISH AND PULL OUT. OUT.

 

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

WELLS COMPLETED WITH RETAINER PRODUCTION PACKER  OPEN SLIDING SLEEVE OR PULL OUT DUMMY FROM THE SIDE POCKET MANDREL OR MAKE A HOLE ABOVE PACKER WITH THE ELECTRIC CABLE LOCK OPEN SUBSURFACE SAFETY VALVE KILL WELL BY CIRCULATING WORKOVER FLUID INSTALL BPV IN THE TUBING HANGER. HANGER. REMOVE X-MAS TREE. TREE. INSTALL BOP. BOP. REPLACE BPV WITH TWCV. TWCV.

     

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATION

TEST THE BOP BETWEEN THE TWCV AND THE BLIND RAM; RAM; CONNECT A TUBING IN THE TUBING HANGER, CLOSE THE PIPE RAM AGAINST THE TUBING AND TEST THE PIPE RAM REMOVE THE TWCV CONNECT TUBING HANGER WITH TUBING STRING INSTALL BPV IN THE TUBING HANGER. HANGER. UNLOCK TUBING HANGER BY UNSCREWING ANCHOR BOLTS. BOLTS. DISCONNECT TUBING SEAL FROM PACKER. PACKER. CIRCULATE WORKOVER FLUID (AT LEAST ONE CYCLE)

     

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS

PULL OUT PRODUCTION STRING RUN IN MILLING TOOL WITH CATCHER SUB, MILL THE PACKER AND PULL OUT THE PACKER OR RUN IN MILLING TOOL WITHOUT CATCHER SUB, MILL THE PACKER AND PUSH DOWN UP TO THE BOTTOM.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS


DOWNHOLE OPERATION, RECOMPLETION, REPLACING BOP BY THE X-MAS TREE AND START UP THE TECHNIQUES ARE THE SAME AS THOSE USED WHEN THE WELL WAS ORIGINALLY COMPLETED. COMPLETED. HOWEVER, THE BOTTOMHOLE IS USUALLY CHECKED BEFOREHAND BY RUNNING IN A DRILL STRING EQUIPPED WITH A DRILL BIT AND SCRAPER MOVING OUT THE SERVICING OR WORKOVER UNIT IN THE SAME WAY AS FOR INITIAL COMPLETION, THE RIG CAN BE MOVED OUT BEFORE OR AFTER THE WELL IS BROUGHT BACK ON STREAM. STREAM. THE SAME SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS ARE COMPLIED WITH (ESPECIALLY SETTING PLUGS)

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS

DEPLETED RESERVOIRS DEPLETED RESERVOIRS POSE PARTICULAR PROBLEMS AS SOON AS THEIR RESERVOIR PRESSURE IS SUCH THAT CONVENTIONAL WORKOVER FLUIDS (BRINE, OIL BASE FLUID) EXERT A CONSIDERABLE OVERPRESSURE. THEN THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS ARE POSED:
LOSES MUD/ OR FORMATION DAMAGE. WELL KICK OFF AFTER OPERATIONS.

LOSSES AND FORMATION DAMAGE THE FIRST SOLUTION IS TO USE SPECIAL LIGHT FLUIDS, BUT BESIDES FOAM (SP.GR. FROM 0.1 TO 0.2) THERE IS YET NO (SP.GR. FLUID READILY AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE 0.2 TO 0.8 RANGE (BETWEEN FOAM TO OIL BASE FLUIDS)

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS


LOSSES AND FORMATION DAMAGE THE SECOND SOLUTION IS TO PROTECT THE FORMATION WITH TEMPORARY BLOCKING AGENTS. AGENTS. THESE ARE USUALLY PRODUCTS THAT ARE UNSTABLE WITH TEMPERATURE OR HIGHLY SOLUBLE IN ACID. ACID. THE PROBLEM WITH THEM IS THAT THEY ARE NEVER 100% 100% TEMPORARY. TEMPORARY. THE THIRD SOLUTION CONSISTS IN ACCEPTING TO WORK WITH A LOST LEVEL. THAT IS, WITH THE LEVEL SOMEWHERE IN THE LEVEL. WELL AND NOT ON THE SURFACE. SURFACE. HOWEVER, THIS CAUSES SAFETY PROBLEMS AS IT IS HARD TO CHECK WELL STABILITY CONSTANTLY AND IS INCOMPATIBLE WITH OPERATIONS THAT REQUIRE CIRCULATION. CIRCULATION.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS

THE FOURTH SOLUTION, WHEN ONLY THE PRODUCTION STRING ABOVE THE PACKER IS INVOLVED, CONSISTS IN PULLING OUT THE TUBING STRING ONLY LEAVING THE PACKER WITH A PLUG IN THE TAILPIPE INSIDE THE WELL. WELL. THE FIFTH SOLUTION MIGHT BE TO USE A UNIT ALLOWING WORK ON A PRESSURISED WELL, SUCH AS COIL TUBING OR SNUBBING IF THEY ARE APPROPRIATE FOR THE JOB (CLEANING THE BOTTOM OF THE WELL ETC.) ETC.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS

START UP PROBLEMS THE TECHNIQUES DESCRIBED IN INITIAL COMPLETION ARE APPLICABLE AT THIS STAGE EXCEPT THAT THERE IS USUALLY NO AVAILABLE KICKOFF FLUID THAT IS LIGHT ENOUGH. ENOUGH. IN SOME CASES THE PROBLEM DOES NOT CROP UP BECAUSE THE PURPOSE OF THE OPERATION WAS TO INSTALL AN ARTIFICIAL LIFT SYSTEM OR READAPT THE OLD ONE. ONE. IN OTHER CASES, IT IS VERY COMMON TO USE A COILED TUBING FOR NITROGEN START UP OR TEMPORARY GAS LIFT. LIFT.

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS

GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORKOVER OPERATIONS