P. 1
AdkinsThesis_A1b

AdkinsThesis_A1b

|Views: 5|Likes:

More info:

Published by: Saurabh Pratap Singh on Feb 24, 2012
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/23/2013

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • AIDS in India
  • Importance of AIDS Epidemic Research
  • LITERATURE REVIEW
  • Knowledge of AIDS
  • Basic Knowledge
  • Advanced Know/edge
  • Socioeconomic Determinants
  • Basic and Advanced Knowledge
  • High and Low Prevalent States
  • DATA AND METHODOLOGY
  • Data and Sources
  • Variables and Descriptive Statistics
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF DEPENDENT VARIABLES
  • DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF DEPENDENT VARIABLES
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EDUCATION AND WEALTH VARIABLES
  • Methodology
  • Predictions
  • Ever Heard of AIDS
  • EVER HEARD OF AIDS PROBIT RESULTS
  • Don't Know of a Way to Avoid AIDS
  • DON'T KNOW OF A WAY TO AVOID AIDS PROBIT RESULTS
  • Can a Healthy Person Have AIDS
  • CAN A HEAL THY LOOKING PERSON HAVE AIDS PROBIT RESULTS
  • Summary
  • Implications
  • Suggestions/or Further Research
  • Conclusion

SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BASIC AND ADVANCED

KNOWLEDGE OF HIV / AIDS IN INDIA
A THESIS
Presented to
The Faculty of the Department of Economics and Business
The Colorado College
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Arts
By
Kurt Adkins
May 2009
SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BASIC AND ADVANCED OF
HIV/AIDS KNOWLEDGE IN INDIA
Kurt Adkins
May 2009
Economics and Business
Abstract
With over two million people living with HIV I AIDS in India and no current widely
available cure; India is at an important stage in its fight against the AIDS epidemic.
The most effective and efficient method to slow the spread of AIDS is to target the
people most likely to become infected with the disease via AIDS prevention
campaigns. Using data from the National Family and Health Surveys (NFHS-3), this
paper analyzes the socioeconomic correlates of wealth and education; of basic and
advanced AIDS knowledge between a group of high AIDS prevalent states and a
group of low AIDS prevalent states in India. Results from probit analysis present that
there is concern for basic and advanced knowledge among lower educated and poorer
individuals. The results also suggest that there are significant differences of basic and
advanced knowledge between high and low AIDS prevalent states. AIDS prevention
policy recommendations are to increase AIDS awareness by targeting lower educated
and poor individuals at the state level.
KEYWORDS: (HIV/AIDS, India, Knowledge)
ON MY HONOR, I HAVE NEITHER GIVEN NOR RECEIVED
UNAUTHORIZED AID ON THIS THESIS
(Signature here)
Kurt Adkins
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT 11
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Vlll
I. INTRODUCTION 1
AIDS and HIV. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 2
AIDS in India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Purpose of this Study...... .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. ... 6
Importance of AIDS Epidemic Research........................................ ....... 8
II. LITERATURE REVIEW 12
Knowledge of AIDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13
Basic Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 15
Advanced Knowledge.. . .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. 17
III. THEORY 21
Pro bit Analysis. . . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. . .. ... . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . .. 21
Socioeconomic Determinants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Basic and Advanced Knowledge... ...... ...... ............ .... ..................... ..... 23
High and Low AIDS Prevalent States................ ................................... 24
HIV Status as a Control.. ........................................... , .. .. . .. . ... ... ... .... 24
Conclusions....................................... ........................... ............... 25
IV. DATA AND METHODOLOGY 26
Data and Sources........................................... ................................ 26
Variables and Descriptive Statistics.................... ........................ ... ...... 27
Methodology.............................................. .................................. 39
Predictions.................................................................................. 40
Conclusion. '" ........................................................... " . ... . .. . .. . .. ..... 41
IV. RESULTS 43
HIV as a Control. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . . ...... . . . . .. . . . . . ..... . .. . . .. . . . . .. . .. . ... ....... 44
Ever Heard of AIDS. .. ... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . . . . . .. ... . .. . .. ..... .. ... .. . . ..... . . .. . . .. . ...... 45
Don't Know ofa Way to Avoid AIDS.................. ............... ................... 48
Can a Healthy Person Have AIDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 51
v. CONCLUSION 54
Summary... .......... .............................. ........................... ............... 54
Implications................................................................................. 55
Suggestions for Further Research..................................................... .... 55
Conclusion............ ........................... .................................... ........ 57
SOURCES CONSULTED 58
LIST OF TABLES
1.1 HIV Prevalence Rates for States in India... .. . .. . ...... .. . .. .... ... .. .. .. ........ 8
4.1 Detailed Description of Dependent Variables. . . . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .. . . . ..... . ... 29
4.2 Descriptive Statistics of Dependent Variables.................................. 32
4.3 Detailed Description of Education and Wealth Variables................. ..... 35
4.4 Descriptive Statistics of Education Variables.................... .... .... .... .... 38
5.l Ever Heard of AIDS Probit Results.............................................. 47
5.2 Don't Know ofa Way to Avoid AIDS Probit Results.......................... 50
5.3 Can a Healthy Looking Person Have AIDS Probit Results................... 53
LIST OF FIGURES
1.1 HIV / AIDS PREVALENCE IN INDIA, 1990-2007.......................... .... 4
1.2 AIDS PREVALENCE MAP OF INDIA...... .................................... 6
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank Professor Pedro de Araujo for his effort and advice throughout
the entire process of senior thesis. Professor de Araujo made my thesis experience
productive and enjoyable, and continually pushed for new avenues of research. I
would like to thank Jared Faciszewski as well for his patience in lending me the
economic department's laptop for the use of STAT A analysis.
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Since the first recognized case of HIV / AIDS in 1981 there has been a
dramatic increase in the number of infected people until the late 1990's. Scientists
were so baffled by the discovery of the new illness that it took until 1983 to discover
that HIV is the virus that causes AIDS and that both are blood borne I. Not until the
mid-1980's were governments aware of the consequences of the AIDS epidemic, and
able to form HIV / AIDS prevention programs. During the time lapse of the first
recognized case of AIDS and the creation of the National AIDS Control Programme
in 1987, the reported number of AIDS infected people had already reached over
70,000 worldwide, with an estimated 5 to 10 million infected people
2
. Despite the
presence of prevention programs, the AIDS epidemic increased rapidly throughout
the 1990' s in much of the world. Although the rate of reported HIV / AIDS infections
has recently subsided, many developing countries still suffer from prevalence rates as
high as 20% of all adult citizens
3
.
I F. Barre-Sinoussi et aI., "Isolation ofa T-Lymph tropic Retrovirus from a Patient at Risk for
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)," Science (1983)
2 WHO, '''Global Statistics' in Weekly Epidemiological Record," (1987): 372.
3 UNAIDS, "AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary," Special Report on AIDS (2007)
2
AIDSandHIV
Although this paper focuses on the socioeconomic determinants of
HIV / AIDS, it is important to briefly describe the infection process of the disease in
the human body. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is defined as a
set of symptoms and infections resulting from damage to the immune system in the
human body4. The damage to the immune system is caused by the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
HIV is a virus that travels through bodily fluids that control the human
immune system. Once an individual is infected with HIV, the virus enters blood cells
and renders them ineffective for fighting diseases. There are antiretroviral
medications that can fight the spread of HIV; however the human body eventually
becomes resistant to these drugs and allows HIV to eventually spread entirely through
h
. 5
t e Immune system .
There are four stages in the HIV infection process. The first stage is called the
window stage; which is the window of time between when the person is infected with
HIV and when the antibodies to fight the virus develop in the body. The second stage
is the asymptomatic stage; this stage represents the stage in which the infected
individual experiences no symptoms for an amount of time that varies from person to
person. The third stage is the symptomatic stage; which is when the infected person
begins to feel flu like symptoms and becomes more vulnerable to infections and
cancers. The final stage of the HIV infection is AIDS, in which the human body's
4 Divisions of HIV / AIDS Prevention, "HIV and its Transmission," (1999)
5 John Ritter, "AIDS Virus Spurs Body's White Blood Cells Output," Chicago Sun-Times. 1992,
immune system can no longer fight infections. Once the immune system has
completely been infected with HIV, the onset of AIDS occurs. AIDS is a series of
infections in the human body that eventually lead to the death of the host.
6
Since there is no current method to cure HIV, the onset of AIDS is inevitable.
Therefore, in this paper the term AIDS is used for individuals infected with HIV or
AIDS even if the onset if AIDS has not occurred yet.
AIDS in India
Although India does not lead the world in HIV / AIDS prevalence rates, it does
have much concern for the spread of the AIDS epidemic. In 1985, despite the influx
of reported AIDS cases, India had not yet reported a single case of HI V or AIDS7.
There was recognition, that this would not be the case for long, and there were
concerns of how India would cope with the epidemic once it emerged. This was
because India lacked the scientific laboratories, research facilities, equipment, and
personnel to deal with the AIDS epidemic. Since the first discovery of HIV / AIDS in
India in 1986, the spread of AIDS increased rapidly until 2001 when the rate of
reported AIDS infected people subsided (Figure 1.1). In 1990 there had been an
estimated 50,000 people living with HIV / AIDS in India, by 2001 this number had
risen to 2,700,000
8
.
6 Robertson, Jamie. "The Four Stages of HI V Infection." SuiteI01.com. 31 Dec. 2008.
<http://aidshiY.suitel01.com> .
7 T. K. Ghosh, "AIDS: A Serious Challenge to Public Health," Journal of Indian Medical Association
84, no. I (1986): 29-30.
8 UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary
3
4
FIGURE 1.1
HIV/AIDS PREVALANCE IN INDIA, 1990-2007
w ::::::: r ....... :--'--'-- .. '-'--1
() 2000000
i
z
W
...J
«
>
1500000

c.
I
----,-1
500000 t . l
o .
1000000
1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
YEAR
Source: 2008 Report on the Global AIDS epidemic, UNAIDS/WHO, July 2008
In the most recent AIDS epidemic report update summary in Asia, it has been
estimated that there were 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India in 2007
out of 33 million predicted persons worldwide; also the adult national prevalence rate
was 0.36%9. However, in some states within India the prevalence rate is as high as
1.13%10. Although certain countries have prevalence rates as high as 20%, India's
epidemic is ranked third in the world for infected persons, behind South Africa and
9 UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary.
10 UNA IDS, AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary
Nigeria II. Since India has the second largest population in the world, with 1.15
billion people
l2
it is considered a 'next wave' country and stands at a critical point in
. 'd' 13
Its epi emic .
The vast size and diversity of India makes it difficult to measure the
demographics of HI VIA IDS of the country as a whole. India's high heterogeneous
AIDS epidemic is largely concentrated in the industrialized southern and western
regions of India, and the northeastern tip. The highest prevalent states are Tamil
5
Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Manipurl4. The states bordering
the northern edge of India and southernmost tip are the least HIV I AIDS prevalent
states. Figure 1.2 shows a map of India with the most AIDS prevalent states labeled.
11 UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary
12 "Rank Order- Population," in Central Intelligence Agency [database online]. July [cited 2008].
Available from http://www.cia.gov.
13 National Intelligence Council, The Next Wave of HI VIA IDS: Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, India, and
China National Intelligence Council, 2002), 1-32,
14 "National Family and Health Surveys," in International Institute for Population Sciences [database
online]. Deonar, India Available from www.measuredhs.com.
Purpose of this Study
FIGURE 1.2
AIDS PREVALENCE MAP OF INDIA
MAP OF INDIA
States:
o . And'h,.. Prad •• h
B
. K ,a:rna taka
- Mah arllll h'tra
- Goa
0 - TamU Nadu 8
• + Mlzorarn
•• Ma,.lpuf'"
D . Naealand
o
Source: www.avert.comlaidsindia.htm
This paper investigates the socioeconomic correlates of wealth and education;
of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS between a group of high AIDS prevalent
states in India and a group of low AIDS prevalent states in India using data from the
National Family and Health Surveys (NFHS-3). Also the HIV status of Indian
citizens is used as a control in a separate hypothesis to investigate the socioeconomic
correlates of wealth and education; of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS
6
7
between a group of high and a group of low AIDS prevalent states within India of just
HIV positive citizens. Including HIV status as a control, otherwise narrowing the
population sample to only using HIV positive individuals allows the results to be
comparable to the total Indian sample population. By focusing on states with high
and low HIV / AIDS prevalence rates the results unmask concentrated epidemics at the
regional level. All states within India are used in this analysis; however, they are split
into a group of high AIDS prevalent states or a group of low AIDS prevalent states.
Although several socioeconomic determinants are evaluated to determine any
discrepancies in basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS across socioeconomic lines;
the variables wealth and education are the main focus of this paper. By determining
the levels of AIDS knowledge of different wealth and education brackets, prevention
efforts can be directed towards the least AIDS knowledgeable wealth and education
classes.
The group of high AIDS prevalent states researched includes: Andhra
Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Manipur, and Tamil Nadu. These states are located
in central and southern India with exception to Manipur which is located in
northeastern India. The prevalence rate for these five states combined is 0.67 % of all
men and women
l5
. The group oflow prevalent states includes the remaining twenty
three states in India. The HIV prevalence of these states is 0.12 % 16. The reason the
group of high prevalent states only consists of five states and the group of low
prevalent states consists of the twenty three states is because there is a distinct line
15 UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary
16 UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary
8
between the five highest HIV prevalent states and the remaining states in India. The
fifth most HIV prevalent state in India is Tamil Nadu with a prevalence rate of 0.34%
and the sixth most prevalent state is Utter Pradesh with a HIV prevalence rate of
0.07 % 17. The HIV prevalence statistics are presented in table 1.1.
TABLE 1.1
HIV PREVELENCE RATES OF STATES IN INDIA
State Percentage HIV positive
Andhra Pradesh 0.097
Kamataka 0.069
Maharashtra 0.062
Manipur 0.011
Tamil Nadu 0.034
Total for five high HIV prevalence states 0.067
Total for twenty three lowest HIV
prevalence states 0.012
---
Source: www.measuredhs.com
Importance of AIDS Epidemic Research
In the absence of a vaccine and a wide available treatment for AIDS, the
primary focus for HIV control programs must be on reducing transmission. Evidence
from Thailand and Cambodia suggests that transmission can be reduced over time by
17 Demographic and Health Surveys, National Family and Health Surveys
9
sustained, HIV prevalence efforts that use existing interventions and target
individuals most likely to acquire and spread of AIDS 18.
Although, it has been proven that research is successful in aiding the fight
against AIDS, research must be directed at the national or state level rather than sub-
grouping nations based on prevalence rates. Kenya, Cambodia, and Honduras are all
classified as having generalized epidemics, with infection rates of above 1 % in the
adult population
l9
. However, the three countries have completely different patterns
of exposure; Kenya's AIDS exposure is mostly due to paying for sex, but Cambodia's
exposure is mostly due to heterosexual sex that is not paid for, and Honduras's
exposure is due to male-male sex 20. This is also the case at the state level in India.
Infected people in the high AIDS prevalent states in central and southern India are
exposed to the disease mostly through heterosexual sex that is not paid for; however,
in the high AIDS prevalent states in northeastern India infected people are exposed to
AIDS by paying for sex. Therefore, prevention campaigns must direct different
resources to each region to be the most productive. Evidence has shown that if
prevention efforts are directed towards population sectors most acceptable to the
disease, the epidemic can be stopped over time
21
.
18 Ashok Alexander and Mariam Claeson, "Tackling HIV in India: Evidence-Based Priority Setting
and Programming," Health Affairs 27, no. 4 (2008)
19 UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary
20 Elizabeth Pisani et aI., "Education and Debate: Back to Basics in HIV Prevention: Focus on
Exposure," British Medical Journal 2008, no. October (June 21 2003)
21 Michael Gluck et aI., "The Effectiveness of AIDS Prevention Efforts," (1995)
10
However, as the epidemic is slowly diminishing, the demographic segment
most susceptible to AIDS contraction shifts. Pisani, Grassly, Hankins, and Ghys22
reported that the exposure to AIDS in Cambodia shifted dramatically from being
mostly due to individuals paying for sex in 1994 to heterosexual sex that is not paid
for in 2002. In just 8 years, the proportion of new infections for men buying sex has
dropped from 76% to 32% in Cambodia; however, the proportion of new infections
transmitted within marriages has grown from 11 % to 46%23. The demographic
segments that prevention programs should target shifted completely in just eight
years. The fact that the people that are the most susceptible to AIDS is constantly
changing is the reason why current research to determine the size and location of key
target groups is necessary.
The finJt step in fighting the AIDS epidemic for prevention programs is to
ensure that people are aware of the existence of AIDS. Prevention campaigns aim at
stopping the spread of AIDS by educating people on the modes of AIDS contraction,
and methods to practice safe sex. However, before informing people on ways to
avoid AIDS people must first be aware the disease exists. Once basic knowledge of
AIDS is widely known, the next step is to spread advanced knowledge of AIDS.
Research, such as the analysis in this paper, determines the different socioeconomic
sectors that do not contain basic and advanced knowledge, which should be targeted
by prevention programs.
In conclusion, since there is not a wide spread cure for AIDS the only means
to stop the epidemic is to prevent transmission. Research to determine the
22 Pisani et aI., Education and Debate: Back to Basics in HIV Prevention: Focus on Exposure
23 Pisani et aI., Education and Debate: Back to Basics in HIV Prevention: Focus on Exposure
socioeconomic determinants of AIDS contraction can be helpful for prevention
policy-makers to allocate resources efficiently.
11
The remainder of this paper will proceed as follows. Chapter II will discuss
past and current research in the field of determining socioeconomic determinants of
AIDS contraction. This review will bring the reader up to date on the literature
relating to methods used to determine the correlates of wealth and education; of basic
and advanced knowledge of AIDS. Chapter III will explain the theory of the analysis.
The fourth chapter will explain the data and methodology used. The fifth chapter will
report relevant results. Lastly, the final chapter will conclude this study and discuss a
framework for future research.
CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
Research thus far has studied the relationship between which people are
diagnosed with HIV / AIDS and several demographic and socioeconomic factors.
Such socioeconomic factors include: education level, wealth level, age, place of
residency, and marital status of a particular individual. These demographic
determinants were used to test several dependent variables that reflect AIDS
contraction, which in return can be used for controlling the HIV / AIDS epidemic.
AIDS related stigma, sexual behavior, and knowledge of AIDS are the main areas of
focus for research done thus far because they have been determined to show a direct
correlation to stopping AIDS transmission.
The first section of this chapter will discuss why current research on the
knowledge of AIDS in specific demographic regions is important for helping in the
fight against the AIDS epidemic. Next, research linking the basic knowledge with the
socioeconomic determinants of wealth and education is outlined. The final section
will discuss studies that have determined socioeconomic correlates of wealth and
education, of advanced knowledge in high AIDS prevalent countries throughout the
world.
12
Knowledge of AIDS
Since the first voluntary organizations were constructed to help stop the
spread of the AIDS epidemic in 1982 in the United States, the evolution of
HIV / AIDS prevention programs has made considerable progress. These programs
include AIDS education campaigns and condom use seminars. Most preventive
programs such as these have three major goals: to increase abstinence, encourage
faithfulness in relationships, and increase condom use
l
. These three goals focus on
educating high risk regions on more responsible sexual behavior, rather than
informing them on knowledge of AIDS.
13
Knowledge of AIDS can be described as basic and advanced knowledge. In
research done thus far, and in this paper, basic knowledge is measured in the NFHS-3
by asking interviewees if they have ever heard of the disease called AIDS. Knowing
the amount of people of a particular demographic sector that contain basic knowledge
of AIDS helps policy-makers determine how to direct resources for AIDS
constriction. It is simple to conclude that an individual is more likely to be infected
by HIV / AIDS if they are not aware the disease exists. Therefore, it is more beneficial
for government financed prevention policies to direct funding towards educating the
population of the existence of AIDS in low knowledgeable areas rather then
instructing them on safer sexual behaviors.
Advanced knowledge is measured in previous research using data from the
NFHS-3 that asks detailed questions on AIDS. These questions include asking
interviewees if they have heard of different ways to avoid contracting AIDS or if they
I "Is India's Population at Risk of Contracting HIV?" I 3 September 2008 [cited 2008].
14
have heard of different modes of AIDS transmission
2
. Advanced knowledge has also
been defined in the literature by using the question in NFHS-3 that asks interviewees
whether or not they know that a healthy looking person can be infected with AIDS3.
Researching the socioeconomic determinants of advanced knowledge of AIDS has
proven beneficial for prevention policy-makers to determine the quality of AIDS
knowledge of certain regions, to direct resources demographically rather then
nationally. This is because policy makers are aware of the most AIDS prone
demographic segments rather then developing a prevention program focused towards
the nation's population as a whole. Once again, an individual that is more informed
on the modes of HIV contraction is less likely to become infected. Therefore, once
the individual is aware AIDS exists, the next step is educating them on the ways it
can be avoided
4
.
Informing high prevalent regions about AIDS, in low knowledgeable areas, is
the first step in stopping the spread of AIDS. It is simple to conclude that an
individual is more likely to use a condom during sexual intercourse if they are first
aware that condoms help avoid AIDS contraction. Therefore, there is a link between
educating high prevalence regions knowledge of AIDS and informing them how to
have a more responsible sexual behavior.
2 Rimjhim Aggarwal and Jeffery Rous, "Awareness and Quality of Knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS
among Women in India," Journal of Development Studies 42, no. 3 (2006): 371-40 I.
3 Lucia Como and Damien de Walque, "The Determinants of HI V Infection and Related Sexual
Behaviors: Evidence from Lesotho," Policy Research Working Paper 4421,
4 Ashok Alexander and Mariam Claeson, "Tackling HIV in India: Evidence-Based Priority Setting and
Programming," Health Affairs 27, no. 4 (2008)
15
Basic Knowledge
This section aims to present current and past literature relating to the
socioeconomic determinants of AIDS. In research relating to the AIDS epidemic thus
far, basic knowledge is measured by the respondents answer to whether or not they
have heard of the disease called AIDS.
De Arauj 0 5 used data from the NFHS-3 in India to investigate the
socioeconomic correlates of wealth, gender, marital status, education level, and place
of residency; of basic knowledge. De Araujo determined that there is a direct
correlation between wealth and basic knowledge, meaning general knowledge of
AIDS increases as wealth increases, for both male and females. However, general
knowledge and education are not directly correlated. It was determined that even
though males with higher education were more likely to have heard of AIDS, they
were less likely to have heard of AIDS than males with only secondary education.
Boosyen and Summerton
6
used data from the 1998 South African Demographic
Health survey to determine the association between wealth and basic knowledge of
AIDS. Their findings were consistent with de Araujo; as wealth increased,
individuals were slightly more likely to have heard of AIDS for both men and
women.
5 Pedro de Araujo, "Socio-Economic Status, HIV/ AIDS Knowledge and Stigma, Sexual Behavior in
India," CAEPR Working Paper #2008-019,
6 Frederick Booysen and Joy Summerton, "Poverty, Risky Sexual Behavior, and Vulnerability to HIV
Infection: Evidence from South Africa," J Health Popul Nutr 20, no. 4 (2002): 285-288.
16
Gupta and Mitra
7
did a similar analysis as de Araujo's study using a survey
from 1000 slum households in Delhi, India to determine the relationship between
education and basic knowledge of AIDS. Although the results show there is very
poor knowledge of AIDS, knowledge does increase with education.
Pallikadavath, Sanneh, Mc Whirther and Stones
8
used a multivariate analysis
of data from the NFHS-2 in two high prevalent states in India (Tamil Nadu and
Maharashtra) to model women's basic knowledge of AIDS. It was determined that in
both states basic knowledge is predicted to be larger as wealth and education
increases for both urban and rural regions. Balk and Lahiri
9
did a similar study in
thirteen states in India. The results reported were consistent with Pallikadavath and
others. It was reported that the lower the education and wealth women had in India,
the less knowledge of AIDS they contained.
Dinkelman, Levinsohn, and Majelantle
10
used data from a national household
survey in Botswana to describe the difference gap between AIDS knowledge between
men and women. In this study they use gender as a socioeconomic difference to track
information gaps in Botswana. The results showed there was no information gap;
however, they suggested that prevention policies should learn more about what drives
the heterogeneities in sexual behavior.
7 Indrani Gupta and Arup Mitra, "Knowledge of HI VIA IDS among Migrant in Delhi Slums," Journal
of Health & Population in Developing Countries 2, no. I (1999): 26-32.
8 Sassendran Pallikadavath et aI., "Rural Women's Knowledge of AIDS in the Higher Prevalence
States in India: Reproductive Health and Sociocultural Correlates," Health Promotion /nternationaI20,
no. 3 (29 March2005 2005): 249-259.
9 Deborah Balk and Subrata Lahiri, "Awareness and Knowledge of AIDS among Indian Women:
Evidence from 13 States," Health Transitional Review 7 (1997): 421-465.
10 Taryn Dinkelman, James Levinsohn, and Rolang Majelantle, "When Knowledge is not enough:
HIV/AIDS Information and Risky Behavior in Botswana," NBER Working Paper 12418, Cambridge.
17
In conclusion, previous research has shown a general correlation between
wealth and education with basic knowledge. Therefore, prevention campaigns should
attempt to inform less educated and poorer individuals' basic knowledge of AIDS.
Advanced Know/edge
This section presents methods of literature determining the relationship
between wealth, education, and gender with quality of knowledge.
Como and de Walque
11
and de Araujo 12 did similar studies to determine the
correlation between wealth and education of advanced knowledge. De Araujo and
Como and de Walque determined that as education and wealth increased interviewees
were more likely to know that a healthy person can be infected with AIDS, for both
men and women. However, de Araujo found that the likelihood of knowing this is
even larger for males with secondary education and higher education compared to
males with no education; however de Walque determined the opposite.
Aggarwal and Rous
13
, Ambati, Ambati, and Rao
l4
, and Pallikadavath, Sanneh,
McWhirther, and Stones
l5
all did comparable studies of testing quality of knowledge
with socioeconomic determinants. Aggarwal and Rous used knowledge specification
as a count variable for a logistic regression. The results indicate a direct correlation
II Lucia Como and Damien de Walque, "The Determinants of HI V Infection and Related Sexual
Behaviors: Evidence from Lesotho," Policy Research Working Paper 4421,
12 de Araujo, Socio-Economic Status, HI VIA IDS Knowledge and Stigma, Sexual Behavior in India
13 Rimjhim Aggarwal and Jeffery Rous, "Awareness and Quality of Knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS
among Women in India," Journal of Development Studies 42, no. 3 (2006): 371-401.
14 B. K. Ambati, J. Ambati, and A. M. Rao, "Dynamics of Knowledge and Attitudes about AIDS
among the Educated in Southern India," AIDS Care 9, no. 3 (06 1997): 319-330.
15 Pallikadavath et aI., Rural Women's Knowledge of AIDS in the Higher Prevalence States in India:
Reproductive Health and Sociocultural Correlates, 249-259.
18
between education and quality of knowledge. They found that achieving literacy
produces the most gains in quality of knowledge suggesting that being able to read
allows people to interact with AIDS awareness media. Ambati, Ambati, and Rao
used a series of questions relating the modes of AIDS transmission to determine that
there was a general increase in quality of knowledge as education increases; however,
it is interesting to note that PhD holders have a lower quality of knowledge than
undergraduate student and high school students. Pallikadavath, Sanneh, McWhirther,
and Stones also reported that the quality of knowledge was larger for individuals with
a secondary level of education than individuals with a higher level of education.
Perhaps these results suggest AIDS prevention is directed towards middle education
rather than higher education or older individuals. All three studies show a direct
correlation between wealth and quality of knowledge. This may suggest that
wealthier individuals come in contact with more media related AIDS prevention
programs than poorer people.
De Walque
l6
conducted an original study using individual level data from a
cohort study following the general popUlation of a cluster of villages in rural Uganda
for twelve years. The results show that there is a substantial evolution in the
AIDS/education gradient; meaning that educated individuals have been more
responsive to AIDS information campaigns over the past decade in Uganda. This
suggests that the Ugandan government may want to focus on educating its citizens so
16 Damien de Walque, "How does the Impact of an HIY/AIDS Infonnation Campaign Yary with
Educational Attainment? Evidence from Rural Uganda," Journal of Development Economics 84
(2006): 687-714.
19
that AIDS awareness programs are more beneficial in the fight against the AIDS
epidemic.
Strader and Beaman I
7
and Li, Lin, Gao, Stanton, Fang, Yin, and WU
l8
both
used college students as the basis for their analysis to test the correlation between
education and AIDS knowledge. Strader and Beaman compared the quality of AIDS
knowledge of college students against sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic
patients. The results showed that both college students and STD patients contained
adequate knowledge of AIDS however they did differ in their knowledge of whether
that AIDS is caused by the same virus as YD. Patients of STD clinics indicated this
was true. Prevention programs should address this lack of knowledge to ensure that
people do not believe AIDS is similar to other STDs and can be cured. Li, Lin, Gao,
Stanton, Fang, Yin and Wu tested Chinese college student to determine if the level of
college education correlates with quality of knowledge of AIDS. The results were
inconsistent, suggesting that either China provides AIDS information on college
campuses so the student body is knowledgeable of AIDS as a whole or the students
obtain AIDS knowledge elsewhere.
Although advanced knowledge can be measured using several different
methods, the review of relevant literature suggest a general correlation between
increased education level and wealth with increased advanced knowledge of AIDS.
17 Marlene Strader and Margaret Beaman, "Comparison of Selected CoIIege Students' and SexuaIIy
Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients' Knowledge about AIDS, Risk Behaviors and Beliefs about
Condom use," Journal of Advanced Nursing 16 (1991): 584-590.
18 Xiaoming Li et aI., "HIV/AIDS Knowledge and the Implications for Health Promotion Programs
among Chinese CoIIege Students: Geographic, Gender, and Age Differences," Health Promotion
International 19, no. 3 (2004)
20
The review of literature is important for the analysis preformed in this paper.
The literature reviewed in this chapter helped to develop and outline the methods and
analysis preformed in this paper. Along with developing a base of knowledge on past
and current research in the field of HIV / AIDS prevention, the reviewed literature will
also help to compare and contrast results and analysis methods for the advancement
of further research in the field.
CHAPTER III
THEORY
The purpose of this chapter is to explain the theory and analysis that accounts
for determining the socioeconomic determinants of basic and advanced knowledge of
AIDS of a group of high AIDS prevalent states in India and a group of low AIDS
prevalent states in India. The first part of this chapter will introduce and explain the
probit model used for this analysis. Second, the theory behind capturing the
socioeconomic determinants of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS is discussed.
Next, the theoretical determinants of AIDS contraction in a group of high AIDS
prevalent states and a group of low AIDS prevalent states are analyzed. Then, the
theory describing holding HIV status as a control will be interpreted.
Probit Analysis
Probit analysis is a binary-choice model that is valuable for qualitative choice
survey data. Binary-choice models assume that individuals that are interviewed are
faced with a choice between two alternatives and that their choice depends on
identifiable characteristics!. In this paper interviewees are asked several yes or no
questions. The probit analysis predicts the likelihood the interviewee will answer yes
I Robert Pindyck and Daniel Rubinfield, Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts (Boston, New
York, St. Louis, San Francisco: Irwin-McGraw Hill, 1998)
21
22
to the question based on that particular individual's socioeconomic characteristics
2
.
In the probit analysis for this paper, all the questions that interviewees answer yes to
are assigned a value equal to one, and all answers that interviewees answer no to are
assigned a value equal to zero. The equation represents finding the probability that y
= 1 based on the values of x, where y would equal the dependent variables and x
represents the input variables
3
. A more defined representation of this model is below:
(1)
Where flk represents the coefficient of the independent variable, Xk. The
probit equation resembles a linear probability equation; however, a function of the
typical linear probability model is computed to determine the probability that the
dependent variable is equal to one. The error term, £ , is continuously distributed
variable independent of Xl' "Xk and the distribution of £ is symmetric about zero.
Socioeconomic Determinants
This subsection will discuss the theory behind determining the socioeconomic
status of the popUlation interviewed.
The NFHS-3 asked Indian citizens several socioeconomic questions, such as
their age and education levels. These questions along with an evaluation of the
2 Jeffrey Wooldridge, Econometric Analysis o/Cross Section and Panel Data Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, 2002)
3 Jeffrey Wooldridge, Econometric Analysis o/Cross Section and Panel Data Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, 2002)
household assets of each interviewee were used to separate each citizen into wealth
and education brackets
4
. These brackets represent the independent variables in the
probit model. Although wealth and education are the primary focus, several other
socioeconomic determinants such as: age, marital status, media consumption,
religion, and place of residency are used as dummy variables in the model. By
including these socioeconomic variables as dummy variables into the analysis, the
model is a more precise estimation of the probability the dependent variable equals
one without focusing on them specifically5.
Basic and Advanced Knowledge
23
Along with socioeconomic questions, the NFHS-3 also included questions
relating to AIDS that are used to determine the interviewee's basic and advanced
knowledge of AIDS. These questions represent the dependent variables of the probit
model. Each dependent variable is analyzed using a different probit model to be
examined separately.
Based on the earlier discussion of the probit model, the independent variables
relating to the wealth and education status of an individual will be used to predict the
probability that the same individual will have basic or advanced knowledge of AIDS.
4 Demographic and Health Surveys, National Family and Health Surveys
5 Pindyck and Rubinfield, Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts
High and Low Prevalent States
This subsection discusses the theory behind determining the socioeconomic
determinants of AIDS knowledge in a group of high AIDS prevalent states in India
and a group of low AIDS prevalent states in India.
Within the NFHS-3, the location of each interviewee is recorded by state.
24
This information is used to separate the total sample size into two separate data sets.
The group of high AIDS prevalent states includes the five states with the highest
AIDS prevalence rate and the group of low AIDS prevalent states includes the
remaining twenty three states in India and New Delhi. New Delhi is the capital of
India that contains its own variable in the NFHS-3. New Delhi is included in the low
AIDS prevalent groups because it has a low HIV prevalence rate. By separating the
data set into a high AIDS prevalent group and a low AIDS prevalent group, the
results may present the reasoning behind why the AIDS epidemic hit certain regions
in India harder then others.
HIV Status as a Control
This subsection introduces the theory used to determine the socioeconomic
determinants of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS using HIV status of
interviewees as a control.
Within the Demographic and Health Surveys6 website there is a separate data
set along with the NFHS-3 that reports the HIV Status of interviewees. The sample
popUlation in this data set is the same population used in the NFHS-3, with exception
of some individuals in the NFHS-3 that were not tested for HIV. Each interviewee in
6 "AIDS Surveys," Available from www.measuredhs.comJaboutsurveys.
both data sets is assigned an identification number which is used to merge the two
data sets together. Once the data is merged, only the HIV positive individuals are
used in this analysis to determine the socioeconomic determinants of AIDS
knowledge of HIV positive people.
Conclusion
25
This chapter has provided the theory involved in the socioeconomic
determinants of wealth and education; of basic and advanced knowledge between a
group of high AIDS prevalent states and a group of low AIDS prevalent states in
India. In the following chapter, the data will be introduced and applied to the theory
discussed in this chapter.
CHAPTER IV
DATA AND METHODOLOGY
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the data set and empirical model that
will be used to determine the socioeconomic determinants of knowledge of AIDS in
India. Each variable included in the model will be addressed in this section, including
the source and reliability of the data. Along with outlining the variables in the
regression model the descriptive statistics will also be examined. After reviewing the
data set and descriptive statistics, the model will be constructed and the methodology
to test the model will be explained.
Data and Sources
The data used in this analysis is from the third wave of the National Family
Health Surveys (NFHS-3) in India. The NFHS is a large scale, multi-rounded survey
conducted in represented sample households throughout India. The goals of this
population based survey is to provide state and national information on fertility,
health, nutrition, and AIDS, and obtain essential data for the Ministry of Health and
Family Welfare and other agencies for policy and program purposes. Along with the
survey questionnaires the Demographic Health Surveys also collect geographic
information that allows DHS data to be linked with data collected by the survey
26
questioners I. Also DHS conducted voluntary HIV testing for the use of in-depth
analysis of the sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with HIV
infection.
27
The NFHS-3 was conducted in 2005-2006 using a representative sample of
women and men in all twenty eight states in India. There were a total of 124,385
females between the ages 15-49 years old and 74,369 men between the ages 15-54
years old interviewed in the NFHS-3
2
. The amount of males that were tested for HIV
in the NFHS-3 was 50,093 and the amount of females that were tested was 38,255
3
.
Out of the males and females that were tested 279 males were found HIV positive and
181 females were found HIV positive.
Variables and Descriptive Statistics
There are several units of observation in the survey; however, since the
purpose of this paper is to determine the socioeconomic correlates of wealth and
education of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS in a group of high and a group
of low AIDS prevalent states in India, only selected variables were examined.
There are three dependent variables in this analysis. The first one measures
the level of basic knowledge of AIDS, and the other two variables capture the level of
advanced knowledge of AIDS. Following is a description of these variables:
I "AIDS Surveys," Available from www.measuredhs.com!aboutsurveys ..
2 Demographic and Health Surveys, National Family and Health Surveys
3 Demographic and Health Surveys, National Family and Health Surveys
Basic Knowledge:
• EHA: ever heard of AIDS - interviewees were asked if they have heard of
AIDS.
Advanced Knowledge:
28
• DK: don't know ways to avoid AIDS - interviewees were asked if they know
of any ways to avoid contracting AIDS.
• HLP: healthy looking person have AIDS - interviewees were asked if it is
possible for a healthy looking person to be infected with AIDS.
The first dependent variable classifies as measuring basic knowledge of AIDS
because it measures if interviewees are aware that AIDS exists. The next two
variables ask specific questions about AIDS, therefore are defined as measuring
advanced knowledge. The variable DK asks interviewees if they know any method to
avoid contracting AIDS. This variable takes into account advanced knowledge
because it determines if interviewees know any method to decrease their chance of
receiving AIDS, such as abstaining from sex or wearing a condom during sexual
intercourse. The variable HLP asks interviewees if they think a healthy person can be
infected with AIDS, which tests specific knowledge of the effects of AIDS on a
person.
Each dependent variable is also analyzed using the HIV status of interviewees as
a control. Therefore each variable is examined for interviewees that are HIV positive
to determine if there are any significant differences in answers of questions on the
29
survey between the entire sample and the HIV positive sample for both males and
females.
All three dependent variables use questions from the survey that are formulated as
yes or no questions. Therefore, in this analysis, if the answer to the question was yes
it is assigned the value one, and if the answer in no it is assigned the value zero. A
more precise description of each dependent variable is described on table 4.1. Also,
the variables testing advanced knowledge of AIDS only include interviewees that
obtain basic knowledge of AIDS, meaning they answered yes to having heard of
AIDS. This is because it is assumed if the interviewee hasn't heard of AIDS they
wouldn't have specific knowledge of AIDS.
TABLE 4.1
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF DEPENDENT VARIABLES
Code Variable Definition
= 1 if individual has heard of
EHA Ever heard of AIDS AIDS; = 0 otherwise
= 1 if the individual does not
know a method to avoid
DK Don't know ways to avoid AIDS AIDS; =0 otherwise
= 1 if individual believes that a
healthy person can be HIV +;
HLP Healthy looking person have AIDS = 0 otherwise
30
Table 4.2 reports the means and standard errors for the dependent variables.
There are significant differences in means between males and females and also
between high and low AIDS prevalent states. Some of the indicators reported in table
4.2 are surprising. While 85% of females from high AIDS prevalent states reported
they have heard of AIDS, only 66% of females in low AIDS prevalent states reported
having heard of AIDS. However, 94% of males in high AIDS prevalent states have
heard of AIDS and 84% in low AIDS prevalent states have heard of AIDS. Since
India's population is the second largest in the world
4
, these values imply that there a
large number of Indian citizens that are not aware that AIDS exists with a large
number of them being females from low AIDS prevalent states.
When HIV status of interviewees is used as a control, the percentages of
males and females in high and low AIDS prevalent states increases considerably. In
the group of high AIDS prevalent states 96% of HIV positive males and 82% of HIV
positive females reported having heard of AIDS. Although the sample size for HIV
positive females in low AIDS prevalent states is limited, 100% of them reported
having heard of AIDS and 83% males reported having heard of AIDS.
The first variable that reports advanced knowledge of AIDS (DK) indicates
that 18% of males and 29% of females in the group of high AIDS prevalent states do
not know of a way to avoid contracting AIDS. Surprisingly, these values are smaller
than males and females from the group of low AIDS prevalent states, 24% and 32%.
Therefore even though the HIV prevalence rate is larger in high AIDS prevalent
states both males and females have more AIDS knowledge in these states then low
4 Central Intelligence Agency The World Factbook, Rank Order- Population
31
AIDS prevalent states. When HIV status of individuals is used as a control, the
proportions of males and females in high and low AIDS prevalent states knowing of a
method to avoid contracting AIDS are very similar. On average, males know more
methods to prevent contracting AIDS then females do.
The second variable that captures advanced knowledge of AIDS (HLP)
reports that 76% of males and 63% of females in high AIDS prevalent states report
knowing that a healthy looking person can indeed be infected with AIDS. These
numbers are similar to males and females of low AIDS prevalent states, 77% and
69%. However, when HIV status of interviewees is controlled for, 70% of females in
low AIDS prevalent states and just 60% of females in high AIDS prevalent states
reported knowing a healthy looking person can be infected with AIDS. On average
the males reported having more advanced knowledge of AIDS then females in both
high and low AIDS prevalent states, even when HIV status of interviewees is used as
a control.
32
TABLE 4.2
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF DEPENDENT VARIABLES
High Prevalent States
Dependent Variables Males Females
Mean SE Obs. Mean SE Obs.
EHA 0.943 0.0013 31,166 0.854 0.0021 32,601
DK 0.182 0.0022 29,402 0.293 0.0027 27,792
HLP 0.762 0.0025 29,402 0.633 0.0029 27,792
Low Prevalent States
Males Females
Mean SE Obs. Mean SE Obs.
EHA 0.843 0.0017 43,196 0.661 0.0016 91,784
DK 0.235 0.0022 36,597 0.32 0.0019 60,603
HLP 0.771 0.0022 36,597 0.685 0.0019 60,603
HIV as a Control
High Prevalent States
Males Females
Mean SE Obs. Mean SE Obs.
EHA 0.958 0.013 239 0.815 0.03 168
DK 0.183 0.256 229 0.27 0.0381 137
HLP 0.738 0.0291 229 0.596 0.042 137
Low Prevalent States
Males Females
Mean SE Obs. Mean SE Obs.
EHA 0.825 0.0608 40 I 0 13
DK 0.212 0.0723 33 0.385 0.1404 13
HLP 0.756 0.0756 33 0.692 0.1332 13
33
The next step is to determine if there are any discrepancies of the responses in
the descriptive statistics of the dependent variables across socioeconomic lines.
However, first we need to define the independent variables. The description of each
independent variable is below:
Independent Variables:
• EDUC: level of education - education is divided into four categories: no
education, primary education, secondary education, and higher education.
These categories represent the number of years of education: less than one
year, between one and five years, between six and twelve years, and more
than twelve years. (Table 4.3 gives a more detailed description of the
education variables).
• WEAL TH: wealth index - constructed by the NFHS-3 using household assets:
is divided into 5 categories: poorest, poor, middle, rich, and richest. (Table
4.3 gives a more detailed description of the wealth variables).
• AGE: age of the interviewer - the following age categories are used: 15-19,
20-24,25-29,30-34,35-39,40-44,45-49,50-54
5
.
• MS: marital status - the following categories are used: never married,
currently married, and formally married.
• MEDIA: amount of media individual comes in contact with - this variable
includes: individuals that attend a cinema at least once a month, or if they
watch television at least once a week, or listen to the radio at least once a
week, or if they read the newspaper or a magazine at least once a week. This
5 Only males
34
variable is included to take into account the fact that individuals that are in
contact with more media related AIDS awareness advertisements may contain
more knowledge of AIDS.
• REL: religion - the following religions were recorded: Hindu, Muslim,
Christian, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Jewish, Donyi Polo, no religion, and other
religion.
35
TABLE 4.3
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EDUCATION AND WEALTH VARIABLES
Code Variable Description Definition
= 1 if individual has had
less then a year of
EDUC 0 No Education education; =0 otherwise
= 1 if individual has had
between one and five
years of education; =0
EDUC 1 Primary Education otherwise
=1 if individual has had
between six and twelve
years of education;
EDUC 2 Secondary Education =0 otherwise
= 1 if individual has had
more then twelve years of
EDUC 3 Higher Education education; =0 otherwise
= 1 if individual is in the
poorest quintile computed
by NFHS-3 using
Poorest Quintile household assets ,=0
WEALTH 0 otherwise
= 1 if individual is in the
poor quintile computed by
NFHS-3 using household
WEALTH 1 Poor Quintile assets ,=0 otherwise
= 1 if individual is in the
middle quintile computed
by NFHS-3 using
household assets ,=0
WEALTH 2 Middle Quintile otherwise
=1 if individual is in the
rich quintile computed by
NFHS-3 using household
WEALTH 3 Rich Quintile assets, =0 otherwise
= 1 if individual is in the
richest quintile computed
by NFHS-3 using
household assets ,=0
WEALTH 4 Richest Quintile otherwise
36
This analysis focuses on the effects of education and wealth on basic and
advanced knowledge of AIDS. The variables: age, marital status, media, and religion
are used as controls. By controlling for these variables, the absence or presence of
each category of each variable will help analyze the results; however, each category
will not be specifically analyzed. Table 4.4 has the descriptive statistics for
education. The variable wealth is not included in table 4.4 because its distribution is
divided into uniform quintiles; therefore each category contains 20% of the sample
size. Also the variables age, marital status, media, and religion are omitted from table
4.4 because they are dummy variables and their descriptive statistics are not relevant
for this analysis.
It is noticeable that the proportions of each education bracket are very similar
for both genders between the groups of high and low AIDS prevalent states.
Therefore, on average, both males and females have similar levels of education
between high and low prevalent states. This makes the results more comparable
between high and low AIDS prevalent states for males and females because each
education bracket contains similar proportions of individuals.
The percentage of males with no education in high AIDS prevalent states is
11.3% and 25.2% for females; with 73.6% of males in high prevalent states having
secondary education or higher and just 60.8% of females have secondary education or
higher. On average males are more educated then females in high AIDS prevalent
states. This is the same for low AIDS prevalent states; 32.3% males have less then a
secondary level of education and an alarming 49.0% of females have less then a
secondary education. These discrepancies could pose a challenge for AIDS
prevention programs to direct HIV / AIDS information towards certain education
brackets.
37
When HIV status of interviewees is used as a control, on average males are
more educated then females in both low and high AIDS prevalent states; 64% of
males have a secondary level of education or higher and 46.2% of females have a
secondary level of education or higher in high AIDS prevalent states, and 50% of
males have a secondary level of education or higher and 41.7% of females have a
secondary level of education or higher in low AIDS prevalent states. It is staggering
to note that 58.3 % of females in high prevalent states and 53.8% of females in low
prevalent states have no education. Therefore, since the majority of HIV positive
individuals in high and low AIDS prevalent states have less than a secondary level of
education it may be more beneficial for AIDS prevention programs to direct AIDS
epidemic awareness towards undereducated individuals than towards individuals with
higher levels of education.
38
TABLE 4.4
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR EDUCA TION VARIABLES
High Prevalent States
Independent Variables Males Females
Mean SE Obs. Mean SE Obs.
EDUC 0 O. 113 0.0018 31,170 0.252 0.0024 32,601
EDUC 1 0.151 0.0020 31,170 0.141 0.0019 32,601
EDUC 2 0.561 0.0028 31,170 0.485 0.0028 32,601
EDUC 3 0.175 0.0021 31,170 0.123 0.0018 32,601
Low Prevalent States
Males Females
Mean SE Obs. Mean SE Obs.
EDUC 0 0.166 0.0018 43,199 0.347 0.0016 91,784
EDUC I 0.157 0.0017 43,199 0.143 0.0012 91,784
EDUC 2 0.539 0.0024 43,199 0.415 0.0016 91,784
EDUC 3 0.138 0.0017 43,199 0.097 0.0010 91,784
HIV as a Control
High Prevalent States
Males Females
Mean SE Obs. Mean SE Obs.
EDUC 0 0.146 0.0229 239 0.583 0.3812 168
EDUC I 0.213 0.0266 239 0.173 0.0292 168
EDUC 2 0.527 0.0324 239 0.381 0.0376 168
EDUC 3 0.113 0.0205 239 0.036 0.0144 168
Low Prevalent States
Males Females
Mean SE Obs. Mean SE Obs.
EDUC 0 0.225 0.0669 40 0.538 0.1439 13
EDUC I 0.275 0.0715 40 0.308 0.1332 13
EDUC 2 0.450 0.0797 40 0.462 0.1439 13
EDUC 3 0.050 0.0349 40 0.000 0.0000 13
39
Methodology
In this section, the data will be applied to the probit analysis discussed in the
previous chapter, There are three different dependent variables in this investigation;
however, each dependent variable is analyzed for a group of high AIDS prevalent
states and a group of low AIDS prevalent states for males and females, The same
variables are also analyzed holding HIV status of individuals as a control. The pro bit
equations are below:
P(EHA = I) = F[Po + tp,EDUC, + Yo + t,y,WEALTH, + 0"0] + 0
0
(2)
Where p, represents the coefficients of education, EDUC, , and y, represents
the coefficients of wealth, WEALTH" The dummy variables are represented as 0'0,
The error term is represented by 50, where 50 is continuously distributed variable of
WEALTH EDUC d 0' d h d' 'b" 'b 6
, , ' , an 2 an t e Istn utlOn IS symmetnc a out zero ,
(3)
Where a, represents the coefficients of education, EDUC, , and tr, represents
the coefficients of wealth, WEALTH" The dummy variables are represented as 0'] ,
6 Jeffrey Wooldridge, Econometric Analysis o/Cross Section and Panel Data Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, 2002)
40
The error term is represented by 51 , where 51 is continuously distributed variable of
WEALTH EDUC dad h d· ·b·· . b 7
, , , , an 2 an t e Istn utlOn IS symmetnc a out zero .
(4)
Where OJ, represents the coefficients of education, EDUC
i
, and 8, represents the
coefficients of wealth, WEALTH,. The dummy variables are represented as a 2 • The
error terms are represented by 52, where 52 is a continuously distributed variable of
WEALTH EDUC dad h d· ·b·· . b 8
I , , , an 2 an t e Istn utlOn IS symmetnc a out zero .
Predictions
Based on the literature reviewed in the previous chapter several inferences can be
made. It is predicted that as the education of a person increases their basic and
advanced knowledge of AIDS would also increase because it is expected that as the
level of education of an individual increases, their knowledge of most subjects
increases. Also, it is anticipated that as the wealth of an individual increases their
knowledge of AIDS would possibly increase, because richer people are in contact
with more AIDS related media, such as television commercials. Even though the
7 Jeffrey Wooldridge, Econometric Analysis o/Cross Section and Panel Data Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, 2002)
8 Jeffrey Wooldridge, Econometric Analysis o/Cross Section and Panel Data Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, 2002)
41
prevalence rates of the group of high AIDS prevalent states and the group of low
AIDS prevalent states is substantially different, it is predicted that basic and advanced
knowledge of AIDS will increase as education and wealth increases for both groups
because the wealth and education brackets are defined the same for each group.
Therefore, the highest educated category in the high AIDS prevalent states has the
same level of education as the highest educated group in the low AIDS prevalent
states and the highest wealth class in the high AIDS prevalent states contains the
same level of wealth as the highest wealth class of the low AIDS prevalent states.
The results presenting HIV status as a control is expected to follow the same
correlation as the results from the total population because whether or not the
interviewees are aware they are HIV positive before they were tested is not
considered, in this analysis. Therefore a higher educated person is expected to have
the same level of knowledge of AIDS whether they are HIV positive or not, even if
they were aware they were HIV positive before being tested.
Conclusion
This chapter discussed the data set and variables used this analysis. The
dependent and independent variables were outlined and their descriptive statistics
were analyzed. The descriptive statistics presented alarming differences in basic and
advanced knowledge of AIDS between males and females and also between high and
low AIDS prevalent states. However, the descriptive statistics did not show a large
difference between all the interviewees and the HIV positive interviewees. The
following chapter presents a set of results from the regression analysis using the
variables described in this chapter.
42
CHAPTER V
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The purpose of this chapter is to present and discuss the results from the analysis
of the empirical model introduced and detailed in the previous chapters. The results will
be evaluated for the three dependent variables: EHA, DK, and HLP for high and low
AIDS prevalent states and also using HIV status of interviewees as a control. Along with
presenting the results, discussion will be directed at the possible reasons for the results
and the accuracy of the model.
Tables 5.1 to 5.3 display the results. The first table investigates the
socioeconomic determinants of basic knowledge of AIDS, while the remaining two tables
assess advanced knowledge of AIDS. All of the dependent variables are discrete and
binary. The benchmark case in each regression is a fifteen to nineteen year old
individual, with no education, in the poorest wealth quintile, living in a rural area, that
does not attend a cinema at least once a month, or listen to the radio at least once a week,
or watch television or read the newspaper or magazine at least once a week. For each of
the dependent variables eight regressions are estimated; one for males in high AIDS
prevalent states, one for males in low AIDS prevalent states, one for females in high
AIDS prevalent states, one for females in low AIDS prevalent states, and all four of these
regressions were estimated using HIV status of interviewees as a control.
43
44
HIVas a Control
The results for each regression using HIV status of individuals as a control are not
presented in this paper. This is because the regressions presented very few coefficients
that were significant at the 10% p-value, meaning that the probability that the dependent
variable is equal to zero, rather than the desired value of one, is too large!. Also, the
coefficients of the independent variables that are significant do not present any variations
from using both HIV positive and negative interviewees.
There are several possible reasons that the results do not present a differentiation
of knowledge of AIDS across socioeconomic lines between just HIV positive
interviewees and the entire sample population. One possible reason is that there were not
enough HIV positive individuals that were randomly tested by the Demographic and
Health Surveys to allow enough variables to be significant. Also there were several
independent variables in the regressions for low AIDS prevalent states that predicted that
the dependent variable is equal to one perfectly, indicating that there weren't enough HIV
positive interviewees to record a variation between interviewees' answers on the survey.
There is also the possibility that HIV positive and HIV negative individuals have equal
knowledge of AIDS, however have different sexual behaviors that explain their HIV
status. If this is the case, AIDS prevention policies should be directed towards informing
the Indian population on responsible sexual behaviors.
I Leo Kahane, Regression Basics (Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications Inc., 2001),
201.
Ever Heard of AIDS
One variable in this analysis captures basic knowledge of AIDS. Table 5.1
presents results from a probit model where respondents were asked if they have ever
heard of AIDS.
In table 5.1 all of the wealth and education variables are statistically significant.
45
All of the coefficients for education and wealth are positive for males and females in high
and low AIDS prevalent states meaning that they are all predicted to know that AIDS
exists. However, the education coefficients for both males and females are larger for low
AIDS prevalent states compared to high AIDS prevalent states. This may suggest a
variation of the probabilities for lower and higher educated males and females that have
ever heard of AIDS between low and high AIDS prevalent states; however, this can not
be determined by just deciphering the probit coefficients.
Although the socioeconomic variables of media, marital status, and location are
not the main focus of this paper their coefficients are significant and should be analyzed.
The variable urban determines the probability that an individual living in an urban city is
aware AIDS exists compared to an individual living in a rural town. Males and females in
high and low AIDS prevalent states living in urban cities contain basic knowledge of
AIDS. Although the same trend as education occurs for low AIDS prevalent states
versus high AIDS prevalent states for individuals living in urban cities occurs; with the
coefficients being larger for males and females in low AIDS prevalent states then their
corresponding variables in high AIDS prevalent states.
The coefficient for the media variable is positive for males and females in high
and low AIDS prevalent states; however, for females in high and low AIDS prevalent
46
states the coefficients are larger than males in those states. Although the pro bit
coefficients do not predict average partial effects, these values are interesting considering
that 91 % and 81 % of females in high and low AIDS prevalent states reported being
exposed to a form of media at least once a week which is very similar to the males'
values of 93% and 81 %. This suggests that there may be a variation between the way
males and females respond to AIDS awareness programs via the media.
The variables representing marital status also present a variation between males
and females in both high and low AIDS prevalent states. Males that are married are
predicted to know that AIDS exists compared to never married males; however the
coefficients for married females in high and low AIDS prevalent states are negative,
meaning that married females in high and low AIDS prevalent states are less likely to
know AIDS exists compared to never married females.
The socioeconomic determinants of wealth and education of basic knowledge
were presented and discussed in this paper along with the socioeconomic determinants of
marital status, location, and media exposure. The following subsections will present the
socioeconomic correlates of advanced knowledge of AIDS.
TABLE 5.1
EVER HEARD OF AIDS PROBIT RESULTS
High Prevalent States Low Prevalent States
Males Females Males Females
Independent Variables Coefficients Coefficients Coefficients Coefficients
EDUC I 0.2816973*** 0.363839*** 0.4359226*** 0.5615119***
[0.0358167] [0.0273824] [0.0243053] [0.0146913]
EDUC 2 0.811759*** 0.8739482*** 1.0742170*** 1.2214960***
[0.0370614] [0.0269316] [0.0239789] [0.0142931]
EDUC 3 1.525961 *** 1.866467*** 2.0392680*** 2.2784950***
[0.1084011] [0.1067603] [0.101275] [0.0607527]
WEALTH I 0.2045287*** 0.1523843*** 0.3270476*** 0.2321227***
-
[0.0446972] [0.0373921 ] [0.0262084] [0.0187455]
WEALTH 2 0.4447763*** 0.340553*** 0.5867407*** 0.5049359***
[0.0445084] [0.0364961] [0.0280757] [0.0185636]
WEALTH 3 0.5945883*** 0.4855044*** 0.7616868*** 0.7213279***
[0.0504182] [0.0399142] [0.0324565] [0.0197324]
WEALTH 4 0.8368049*** 0.6544094*** 0.9808876*** 0.9486669***
[0.0647217] [0.0470054] [0.0405812] [0.0228229]
MEDIA 0.4496682*** 0.7252877*** 0.5784405*** 0.7889719***
[0.0377308] [0.0284256] [0.0207579] [0.0145119]
URBAN 0.1939821 *** 0.0988391 *** 0.2980942*** 0.2485483***
[0.0329923] [0.0237291] [0.0236027] [0.0129826]
MS I 0.1196612** -0.169305*** 0.0558886* -0.0699667**
[0.052641] [0.0370921] [0.0323357] [0.0190647]
MS 2 -0.0540262 -0.170339*** -0.225630*** -0.070261 ***
[0.1151956] [0.0518469] [0.0660331] [0.0315188]
Age Dummies Yes yes yes yes
Religion Dummies Yes yes yes yes
Observations 31,112 32,560 43,022 91,783
LR-Chi 3085.9*** 6709.6*** 12815.2*** 46629.7***
McFadden's pseudo R2 0.228 0.246 0.348 0.396
Note: Robust Standard Errors are In brackets. * = SIgnificant at 10% P value level, ** = SIgnificant at the
5% P value level, * * * = significant at the 1% P value level
47
48
Don't Know of a Way to Avoid AIDS
There are two variables that determine the level of advanced knowledge of
interviewees in high and low AIDS prevalent states. Table 5.2 displays the results for a
probit model where individuals were asked if they knew of a way to avoid contracting
AIDS. Only individuals that know about the existence of AIDS were used in this probit
model because it is assumed individuals that have never heard of AIDS will not contain
specific knowledge of the disease.
Not surprisingly, all education and wealth variables for males and females in high
AIDS prevalent states and females in low AIDS prevalent states know of at least one way
to avoid contracting AIDS. However, primary and secondary educated males answered
yes to not knowing of a way to avoid AIDS. This is also true for males in the poor and
middle wealth quintiles. This is consistent with the fact that 23.5% of males in low AIDS
prevalent states reported not knowing of a way compared to 18.2% in high prevalent
states. The reason for the variation between high and low AIDS prevalent states could be
due to the second phase of the National AIDS Control Program (NACP) that was enacted
from 2000-2006. Within the second phase of the NACP the Indian government aimed
the fight against the AIDS epidemic at the state level and directed more funding to
higher-risk socioeconomic groups and states
2
.
The results for the media variable displayed that males and females in high AIDS
prevalent states and females in low AIDS prevalent states reported knowing of a way to
avoid AIDS. However, the coefficient for males in low AIDS prevalent states was not
2 "HIY/AIDS in India," in The World Bank [database online]. August [cited 2008]. Available from
www.worldbank.org/in.
49
significant at the 10% level, meaning that the probability that males in low AIDS
prevalent states that watch television, listen to the radio, or read the newspaper, or attend
a cinema at least once a month know of a way to avoid AIDS is not significantly different
from males that are not in contact with this much media.
This subsection discussed the socioeconomic correlates of Indian citizens that
know of a way to avoid AIDS. The next subsection will provide more insight on the
level of advanced knowledge across socioeconomic lines.
TABLE 5.2
DON'T KNOW OF A WAY TO AVOID AIDS PROBIT RESULTS
High Prevalent States Low Prevalent States
Males Females Males Females
Independent Variables Coefficients Coefficients Coefficients Coefficients
EDUC I -0.096448*** -0.139206*** 0.1410175*** -0.0267438*
[0.0305757] [0.0277979] [0.0242251] [0.0193709]
EDUC 2 -0.369099*** -0.453778*** 0.0340105* -0.3002773***
[0.0285183 ] [0.0244531 ] [0.0221857] [0.0168012]
EDUC 3 -0.800343*** -1.00058*** -0.408395*** -0.810110***
[0.0397834] [0.0380548] [0.0328708] [0.0245046]
WEALTH I -0.0098445 -0. 1641 82 * * * 0.149484*** -0.0010558
-
[0.0398025] [0.0454739] [0.0264469] [0.030664]
WEALTH 2 -0.0836179** -0.278002*** 0.0927388** -0.1166872***
[]0.0380724 [0.0428939] [0.0267237] [0.0288615]
WEALTH 3 -0.153838*** -0.386330*** -0.0132362 -0.2127524***
[0.0398281 ] [0.0439008] [0.0282478] [0.0287732]
WEALTH 4 -0.247348*** -0.485469*** -0.2088623 * -0.4017625***
[0.043327] [0.0464486] [0.0309236] [0.0300101]
MEDIA -0.105730*** -0.275207*** 0.0013514 -0.1416595***
[0.0336987] [0.0381063] [0.020182] [0.024814]
URBAN 0.0274038 0.0729551*** 0.1035589*** 0.0096642
[0.0211712] [0.0199994] [0.0169648] [0.0124143]
MS I 0.0060905 0.0097784 -0.085231 *** -0.1275517***
[0.0307531] [0.027171] [0.0228669] [0.0173898]
MS 2 -0.030918 0.0511694 -0.165382*** -0.0491473*
[0.0890694] [0.0443343 ] lO.0602956] [0.0333567]
Age Dummies yes yes yes Yes
Religion Dummies yes yes yes yes
Observations 31,153 27,761 43,182 60,601
LR-Chi 1272.1 2340.9 1322.6 4061.1
McFadden's pseudo R2 0.0445 0.0697 0.0307 0.0534
Note: Robust Standard Errors are III brackets. * = slgmficant at 10% P value level, ** = sigmficant at the
5% P value level, * * * = significant at the 1% P value level
50
51
Can a Healthy Person Have AIDS
Table 5.3 displays the results for the probit model where respondents were asked
if they knew a healthy looking person could have AIDS. This question tests interviewees
on the specifics of the effects of AIDS on the human body. Once again, only individuals
that know about the existence of AIDS were used in this probit model.
Males and females with at least a secondary level of education reported knowing
that a healthy looking person can have AIDS with no variations between high and low
AIDS prevalent states. However, males and females in high AIDS prevalent states and
females in low prevalent states reported not knowing a healthy looking person has AIDS.
This comes to no surprise that the less educated the individual, the less advanced
knowledge of AIDS they have.
Males and females in the highest two wealth quintiles all reported knowing that a
healthy looking person can have AIDS with no variations between high and low AIDS
prevalent states. However, the pro bit coefficients males in high and low AIDS in the
poor wealth quintile were significant, meaning they are not predicted to have more
specific knowledge of AIDS than males in the poorest quintile. Overall, males and
females in lower wealth quintiles are not expected to know that a healthy looking
individual can have AIDS compared to wealthier individuals with exception to females in
high AIDS prevalent states.
There were no variations between males and females or high and low AIDS
prevalent states for media, marital status, or location aside from married individuals
living in low AIDS prevalent states. Males in these states reported knowing that a
healthy looking person can have AIDS; however, females reported the opposite. These
results are consistent with basic knowledge of AIDS.
52
The results between the variables DK and HLP were not consistent with each
other in reporting variations across socioeconomic lines. The results suggests that AIDS
prevention campaigns that are directed at educating the Indian population on advanced
knowledge of AIDS may be formulated to inform them on methods to avoid contracting
AIDS rather then teaching about the effects of AIDS on the human body.
TABLE 5.3
CAN A HEAL THY LOOKING PERSON HAVE AIDS PROBIT RESULTS
High Prevalent States Low Prevalent States
Males Females Males Females
Independent Variables Coefficients Coefficients Coefficients Coefficients
EDUC 1 -0.0369313* -0.110507*** -0.0177921 -0.062047***
[0.0357468] [0.0299553] [0.0326849] [0.0216461]
EDUC 2 0.0830773*** -0.0127542 0.0880702*** 0.0115258
[0.0327697] [0.0263392] [0.0292282] [0.0188781 ]
EDUC 3 0.3407332*** 0.2954747*** 0.4438502*** 0.360103***
[0.0420942] [0.0383523] [0.0401849] [0.0275362]
WEALTH I 0.0205418 0.0791144* 0.0425363 0.0004922
-
[0.0460371] [0.047981] [0.0350367] [0.0332668]
WEALTH 2 0.0852265*** 0.0736407* 0.1068765*** 0.0474089
[0.0435394] [0.0451377] [0.0342583] [0.0313878]
WEALTH 3 0.1628039*** 0.1694363*** 0.18077*** 0.1336151 ***
[0.0448437] [0.0461628] [0.0353372] [0.0313784]
WEALTH 4 0.3604381 *** 0.271878*** 0.2940397*** 0.2711***
[0.048438] [0.0488856] [0.0380914] [0.0328571 ]
MEDIA 0.0058066 0.0729768* 0.0395276* -0.011532
[0.0407369] [0.0406495] [0.0265422] [0.0275327]
URBAN 0.1189094*** 0.0354441 * 0.1531981*** 0.1276386***
[0.0220147] [0.020721] [0.0199969] [0.0138408]
MS 1 0.0583068*** -0.0335174 0.0482608* -0.0427674**
[0.0320433] [0.0280366] [0.0273709] [0.0195987]
MS 2 0.0859061 -0.0044854 -0.0070449 -0.0408833
[0.0990364] [0.0471105] [0.0780365] [0.0380206]
AGE Dummies Yes yes yes yes
Religion Dummies yes yes yes yes
Observations 29,393 27,790 36,591 60,601
LR-Chi 745.6 566.5 1074.4*** 1720.7***
McFadden's pseudo R2 0.0304 0.02 0.0374 0.0304
Note: Robust Standard Errors are in brackets. * = significant at 10% P value level, ** = significant at the
5% P value level, * * * = significant at the 1 % P value level.
53
Summary
CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSION
The previous chapters shed light on the issues, relevant literature, theories, and
methodology of determining the socioeconomic correlates of wealth and education; of
knowledge of AIDS between high and low AIDS prevalent states in India. The main
objective of this thesis was to test whether there is a difference between basic and
advanced knowledge of AIDS for individuals living in high or low AIDS prevalent states
in India across socioeconomic lines.
Using data from the NFHS-3 three survey questions and several socioeconomic
statistics were used in a probit analysis to estimate the socioeconomic correlates of basic
and advanced knowledge of AIDS. The data was split into two separate data sets
containing groups of high AIDS prevalent states and a group of low AIDS prevalent in
India to discover any variations between high and low risk groups.
The results were consistent with the reviewed literature in that there is a lack of
basic and advanced knowledge for individuals in lower education and wealth brackets in
India. However, this analysis was successful in determining a significant difference in
advanced knowledge between high and low AIDS prevalent states, specifically in
knowing of ways to avoid contracting AIDS.
54
55
Implications
Based upon this analysis, AIDS prevention campaigns should continue to direct
their efforts at the state level. There were significant differences in basic and advanced
knowledge between high and low prevalent states. The first step in AIDS prevention is to
ensure that India's entire population is aware that AIDS exists because if individuals are
not aware of AIDS, educating them on the specifics of AIDS is not efficient. After basic
knowledge AIDS is obtained, the next step is to educate the population of ways to avoid
AIDS and the effects of AIDS on the human body. By informing the Indian population
on ways to avoid AIDS, safer sexual behavior will evolve.
Since there will not be a cure for AIDS in the near future, research such as the
study performed in this paper is important for AIDS prevention policy makers to direct
resources towards higher-risk groups. Until there is a readily available cure for AIDS it is
essential that research continues to determine the most prone socioeconomic classes to
become infected with AIDS because as policy makers target certain population sectors,
the highest-risk groups will change
l
Suggestions/or Further Research
During the course of this study, several other research questions that can enhance
this study have presented themselves. This section will suggest further methods to
investigate the socioeconomic determinants of AIDS contraction.
The quickest and most useful approach to enhance this analysis is to estimate the
average partial effect of each independent variable. The average partial effect is useful
1 Margaret Novicki, "Mixed Progress of the AIDS Epidemic," Africa Recovery 11#3 (1998)
56
because it calculates the change in the independent variables on the probability of the
dependent variable.
Also, another way to continue the research performed in this paper is to determine
the socioeconomic correlates of knowledge of AIDS at the state level. Within the NFHS
there isa state variable that can be used to condense the nationwide sample to an
individual state. By condensing the sample size to an individual state, the results may
present variations across socioeconomic lines that would be useful for state governments
in the formation of future AIDS prevention campaigns.
Along with the survey questions used in this study there are several other
questions on the NFHS-3 that can be used to obtain a more in depth analysis of the level
of knowledge of AIDS. There is a series of sixteen questions that ask interviewees if
they know different ways to avoid AIDS. These questions consist of questions that have
been proven as a successful method to reduce the chances of being infected with AIDS
and also methods that are not a way to avoid contracting AIDS under normal
circumstances. Using these questions, a more in depth research on quality of knowledge
of AIDS can be performed on an individual state or a group of high and low AIDS
prevalent states. Aside from using a similar probit model as used in this paper, a
binomial hurdle model or a two-stage ordered probit model such as the models used in
Aggarwal and ROUS'S2 paper can be estimated to discover the socioeconomic
determinants of the quality of knowledge of AIDS.
Further research related to determining the socioeconomic correlates of AIDS
contraction is not confined to knowledge of AIDS. There are several survey questions
2 Aggarwal and ROlls, Awareness and Quality of Knowledge regarding HIVIAIDS among Women in India,
371-40 I.
57
within the NFHS-3 that can be used to determine variations of sexual behavior or stigma
across socioeconomic and state lines.
The most complex and perhaps the most beneficial research possibility is to
utilize data from different waves ofthe NFHS. The Demographic and Health Surveys
website contains every wave of the NFHS conducted thus far. For India, this consists of
three different waves; the first wave was conducted in 1992-1993, the second wave was
conducted in 1998-1999, and the most recent wave used in this study was conducted in
2005-2006. Using data from all three waves, the same analysis conducted in this paper
can be researched and compared for all three waves. This would present insight on the
socioeconomic classes that are responding to the AIDS prevention programs the quickest,
which is beneficial for the formation of such programs.
Conclusion
In conclusion, India is at an important point in the fight against the AIDS
epidemic. The HIV / AIDS prevalence rates in India have began to decrease slightly
however the epidemic can quickly reverse due to the large population of India. Since
there is an absence of a vaccine and widely available treatments for AIDS, the decrease in
HIV / AIDS prevalence rates is due to the increase in AIDS prevention programs.
educating citizens on AIDS knowledge. and safer sexual practices. The success of these
programs is due to studies such as the research accomplished in this paper that helps
direct prevention policy makers towards high-risk groups. The hopes and motivation
behind AIDS related research is to eventually stop the spread of AIDS and win the war
against the AIDS epidemic.
SOURCES CONSULTED
Books
Kahane, Leo. Regression Basics. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications
Inc., 2001.
Pindyck, Robert, and Daniel Rubinfield. Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts.
Boston, New York, St. Louis, San Francisco: Irwin-McGraw Hill, 1998.
StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software: Release IO. Release 10 ed. College Station, Texas:
StataCorp, 2007.
Wooldridge, Jeffrey. Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2002.
Journal Articles
Aggarwal, Rimjhim, and Jeffery Rous. "Awareness and Quality of Knowledge regarding
HIV I AIDS among Women in India." Journal of Development Studies 42, no. 3
(2006): 371-401.
Alexander, Ashok, and Mariam Claeson. "Tackling HIV in India: Evidence-Based
Priority Setting and Programming." Health Affairs 27, no. 4 (2008).
Ambati, B. K., J. Ambati, and A. M. Rao. "Dynamics of Knowledge and Attitudes about
AIDS among the Educated in Southern India." AIDS Care 9, no. 3 (06 1997): 319-
330.
Balk, Deborah, and Subrata Lahiri. "Awareness and Knowledge of AIDS among Indian
Women: Evidence from 13 States." Health Transition Review 7 (1997): 421-465.
Barre-Sinoussi, F., J-C Chermann, F. Rey, M. T. Nugeyre, S. Chamaret, J. Gruest, C.
Dauguet, C. Axler-Blin, F. Brun-Vezinet, C. Rouzioux, W. Rozenbaum, and L.
Montagnier. "Isolation of aT-Lymph tropic Retrovirus from a Patient at Risk for
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)." Science (1983).
Booysen, Frederick, and Joy Summerton. "Poverty, Risky Sexual Behavior, and
Vulnerability to HIV Infection: Evidence from South Africa." J Health Popul Nutr
20, no. 4 (2002): 285-288.
58
59
Como, Lucia, and Damien de Walque. "The Determinants of HI V Infection and Related
Sexual Behaviors: Evidence from Lesotho." Policy Research Working Paper
4421.
De Araujo, Pedro. "Socio-Economic Status, HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Stigma, Sexual
Behavior in India." CAEPR Working Paper #2008-019.
De Walque, Damien. "Who Gets AIDS and how?: The Determinants of HI V Infection
and Sexual Behaviors in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, and Tanzania."
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3844.
"How does the Impact of an HIV I AIDS Information Campaign Vary with Educational
Attainment? Evidence from Rural Uganda." Journal of Development Economics 84
(2006): 687-714.
Dinkelman, Taryn, James Levinsohn, and Rolang Majelantle. "When Knowledge is Not
enough: HIV/AIDS Information and Risky Behavior in Botswana." NBER Working
Paper 12418. Cambridge.
Ghosh, T. K. "AIDS: A Serious Challenge to Public Health." Journal of Indian Medical
Association 84, no. 1 (1986): 29-30.
Gluck, Michael, Hellen Gelband, Laura Esslinger, Romulo Colidres, and Sean Tunis.
"The Effectiveness of AIDS Prevention Efforts." (1995).
Godbole, Sheela, and Sanjay Mehendale. "HIV/AIDS Epidemic in India: Risk Factors,
Risk Behavior, & Strategies for Prevention & Control." 121 (2005): 356-368.
Gupta, Indrani, and Amp Mitra. "Knowledge of HIV I AIDS among Migrant in Delhi
Slums." Journal of Health & Population in Developing Countries 2, no. 1 (1999):
26-32.
Hargreaves, James, and Judith Glynn. "Educational Attainment and HIV -1 Infection in
Developing Countries: A Systematic Review." Tropical Medicine and International
Health 7, no. 6 (2002): 489-498.
"Educational Attainment and HIV -1 Infection in Developing Countries: A Systematic
Review." Tropical Medicine and International Health 7, no. 6 (2002): 489-498.
Isaksen, Jan, Niles Gunnar Songstad, and Arild Spissoy. Socio-Economic Effects of
HIVIAIDS in African Countries. Chr. Michelson Institute, 2002.
Li, Xiaoming, Chongde Lin, Zuxin Gao, and Bonita Santon. "HIV I AIDS Knowledge and
the Implications for Health Promotion Programs among Chinese College Students:
Geographic, Gender, and Age Differences." Health Promotion International 19, no.
3 (2004).
Michelo, Charles, Ingvild Sandoy, and Knut Fylkesnes. "Marked HIV Prevalence in
Higher Educated Young People: Evidence from Population Based Surveys (1995-
2003) in Zambia." (2006).
60
Nag, Moni. "Sexual Behavior in India with Risk of HI VIA IDS Transmission." 5 (1995):
293-305 ..
Novicki, Margaret. "Mixed Progress of the AIDS Epidemic." Africa Recovery 11#3
(1998).
Nyamathi, Adeline, Crystal Bennett, Barbara Leake, Charles Lewis, and Jacquelyn
Flaskerud. "AIDS Related Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors among
Impoverished Minority Women." American Journal of Public Health 83, no. 1
(1993): 65-71.
Pallikadavath, Sassendran, Abdoulie Sanneh, Jenny Mcwhirter, and William Stones.
"Rural Women's Knowledge of AIDS in the Higher Prevalence States in India:
Reproductive Health and Socio-cultural Correlates." Health Promotion International
20, no. 3 (29 March2005 2005): 249-259.
Parker, Richard, and Peter Aggleton. "HIV and AIDS- Related Stigma and
Discrimination: A Conceptual Framework and Implications for Action." 57 (2003):
13-24.
Pisani, Elizabeth, Nicholas Grassly, Peter Ghys, and Catherine Hankins. "Education and
Debate: Back to Basics in HIV Prevention: Focus on Exposure." British Medical
Journal 2008, no. October (June 21 2003).
Rios-Ellis, Britt, Janice Frates, Luara Hoyt D'Anna, Maura Dwyer, Javier Lopez-Zentina,
and Carlos Ugarte. "Addressing the Need for Access to Culturally and Linguistically
Appropriate HIV I AIDS Prevention for Latinos." Journal Immigrant Minority Health
1 0 (2007): 445-460.
Strader, Marlene, and Margaret Beaman. "Comparison of Selected College Students' and
Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients' Knowledge about AIDS, Risk
Behaviors and Beliefs about Condom use." Journal of Advanced Nursing 16 (1991):
584-590.
World Food Programme. "Literature Review on the Impact of Education Levels on
HIV/AIDS Prevalence Rates." World Food Programme (2006): 1-15.
Other Sources
Bharat, Shalini, Peter Aggleton, and Paul Tyrer. "India: HIV and AIDS-Related
Discrimination, Stigmatization and Denial." (2001).
"Rank Order- Population." in Central Intelligence Agency [database online]. July [cited
2008] . Available from http://www.cia. gov.
"Containing HIV/AIDS in India: The Unfinished Agenda." August [cited 2008].
A vailable from http://infection. thelancet. com.
De Araujo, Pedro. "Is India's Population at Risk of Contracting HIV?" 13 September
2008 [cited 2008].
Demographic and Health Surveys. "ISSA Dictionary Report: Recode3." (October 30,
1996).
61
"Description of the Demographic and Health Surveys Individual Recode Data File." DHS
III (Version 1.1 March 5, 2008).
Divisions of HIV / AIDS Prevention. "HIV and its Transmission." (1999).
"HIV / AIDS in India." in The World Bank [database online]. August [cited 2008].
Available from www.worldbank.org/in
"National Family and Health Surveys." in International Institute for Population Sciences
[database online]. Deodar, India Available from www.measuredhs.com.
National Intelligence Council. The Next Wave of HIVIAIDS: Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia,
India, and China. National Intelligence Council, 2002.
NFHS-3. National Family Health Surveys, India State Reports. 2006.
Ritter, John, "AIDS Virus Spurs Body's White Blood Cells Output," Chicago Sun-Times,
1992.
Robertson, Jan1ie. "The Four Stages of HI V Infection." Suitel01.com. 31 Dec. 2008.
<http://aidshiv.suitel01.com>.
The Global HIV Prevention Working Group. "Proven HIV Prevention Strategies."
UNAIDS. "AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary." Special Report on AIDS
(2007).
WHO. "'Global Statistics' in Weekly Epidemiological Record." (1987): 372.

SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BASIC AND ADVANCED OF HIV/AIDS KNOWLEDGE IN INDIA Kurt Adkins May 2009 Economics and Business
Abstract

With over two million people living with HIV IAIDS in India and no current widely available cure; India is at an important stage in its fight against the AIDS epidemic. The most effective and efficient method to slow the spread of AIDS is to target the people most likely to become infected with the disease via AIDS prevention campaigns. Using data from the National Family and Health Surveys (NFHS-3), this paper analyzes the socioeconomic correlates of wealth and education; of basic and advanced AIDS knowledge between a group of high AIDS prevalent states and a group of low AIDS prevalent states in India. Results from probit analysis present that there is concern for basic and advanced knowledge among lower educated and poorer individuals. The results also suggest that there are significant differences of basic and advanced knowledge between high and low AIDS prevalent states. AIDS prevention policy recommendations are to increase AIDS awareness by targeting lower educated and poor individuals at the state level. KEYWORDS: (HIV/AIDS, India, Knowledge)

ON MY HONOR, I HAVE NEITHER GIVEN NOR RECEIVED UNAUTHORIZED AID ON THIS THESIS

(Signature here) Kurt Adkins

.

. .... .. . ..... . . . . . . . .. . ....... .. .. . . . . .... DATA AND METHODOLOGY Data and Sources...... ... . . ........ . . .. .. .. ... . .... ..... . .. . .. ..... . . .. . .. ... ..... .... .. . .... .. . .. . .... . ... .. . . . .. .. ...... .... . . . .. . .. .. .. ... .... .. ... .. ... . .... ........ . .. ...... .. IV. . . . Basic Knowledge... ... ... . .... . . . . . . . . 43 44 . .. . .... .... .. ... . . .... .. .... . ... . Methodology. .... . ... .... . .. ... .... .... . .. . . . ... ... . .. . ..... Conclusions... . ... .. . .. .. Socioeconomic Determinants..... . ... . .. ..... . .. . . ....... . ..... .. ... ... . ..... .... .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .... .. . . . .. . ... .. .. . . . . ... .. . . .. . ........ . ..... . . ... ...... . RESULTS HIV as a Control.. .... ... . .. .. .. .... . .... . .. .. ... .. .... . .... . .... . . . ... ... ....... .. .. . ..... . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I. .... .... . .. . . ... . Basic and Advanced Knowledge. . ... . .. . . .. ... . . . . ... . .... 11 Vlll INTRODUCTION AIDS and HIV. . .. .. .. . .. ..... AIDS in India.. . ..... . .. ... . . . .. . . .. . ........ . ........ .. . . . .. . ... .. . ...... . . ... Importance of AIDS Epidemic Research. ..... . . ... 1 2 3 6 8 12 13 15 17 21 21 22 23 24 24 25 26 26 27 39 40 41 II. . . .. . . .. .. ... .. . . .. " ....... .. ...... .... . . .. . . . ..... ... .... . ... . ... .... .. . . . . .. .. ........ .. . . . .... . . .. . . . . .. ... . . . . .... .. .. . . . . LITERATURE REVIEW Knowledge of AIDS.. ........ ...... . . . ..... .... . .. .. . . . .. .. ..... ... .. ... .. Advanced Knowledge.. .. .. .... . . . ... ..... .. .. .. . .. . ....... . .. .... ..... . . . ...... ... . .. . Variables and Descriptive Statistics. Purpose of this Study....... . ..... .. .................. . ...... IV. .. . . . .. . . ... '" .... .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . ... .. .. . .... . ... .. ... .. . . . .. . .... . ....... .. . . . . . . . ... ...... .. .. . . ... .. ..... . . . . . ... .. . ..... ....... . .. .. ...... . . .. . ... ... . ...... ... .. . ..... .. ... .. ... ... ... .. .. . .. . .... ... .... . . . . ... .. .... ..... . .. .. .. .... .. . ... ... . . . . Conclusion.. ... ... .. .. .. .. ..... .. ...... .. .. . .. . . . . . . . .. .. ..... ... .. . . .. .. . . . . . ... III. . ... ... Predictions.. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. THEORY Pro bit Analysis. ... . ... . . .. . .. . HIV Status as a Control.. .... ... . ... High and Low AIDS Prevalent States.. .

... SOURCES CONSULTED ..... ......... CONCLUSION Summary.. ....... ....... .. .... . .... . Conclusion. .. .. . ....... . .. . ...... ....... .......... ............. .. .... ... 45 48 51 54 54 55 55 57 58 v...... ... .. Can a Healthy Person Have AIDS.. ........... ..... ...... . ...... .. Implications...... . ..... . .... .. ....... . ...... ....... ...... .......... ............Ever Heard of AIDS.. ........... Suggestions for Further Research....... .. ...... ........... . .... .. ............... ........ ... ...... ...... ........... ... . ....... ......... ............... . .. . .. ... ........ ........ .. ...... .. . Don't Know ofa Way to Avoid AIDS.... ....... . .. .... ... ... .... ... .... ... .. ...... .... . . . . ..... . ... .. .......... . ..... ... .. ..... .. ............

........ ............ ... . ..... . . .. ........LIST OF TABLES 1....... .. Detailed Description of Dependent Variables. ......l 5................3 4..... Don't Know ofa Way to Avoid AIDS Probit Results... ..... Descriptive Statistics of Education Variables.........2 4... ....... ............. .. . Can a Healthy Looking Person Have AIDS Probit Results.. .............. .2 5. . ... .... ...1 4.... .3 HIV Prevalence Rates for States in India.. ...4 5.. Ever Heard of AIDS Probit Results.......... . .....1 4............. ... .... . .... ...... ................ 8 29 32 35 38 47 50 53 . ....... Detailed Description of Education and Wealth Variables...... .. ............ ... Descriptive Statistics of Dependent Variables..... .... . . .

.............. 4 6 ......... 1990-2007.....LIST OF FIGURES 1.. ... 1................. ................1 HIV / AIDS PREVALENCE IN INDIA......2 AIDS PREVALENCE MAP OF INDIA....

and continually pushed for new avenues of research.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Professor Pedro de Araujo for his effort and advice throughout the entire process of senior thesis. . Professor de Araujo made my thesis experience productive and enjoyable. I would like to thank Jared Faciszewski as well for his patience in lending me the economic department's laptop for the use of STATA analysis.

the reported number of AIDS infected people had already reached over 70. UNAIDS. '''Global Statistics' in Weekly Epidemiological Record. "Isolation ofa T-Lymph tropic Retrovirus from a Patient at Risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).. Scientists were so baffled by the discovery of the new illness that it took until 1983 to discover that HIV is the virus that causes AIDS and that both are blood borne I." Science (1983) 2 WHO." (1987): 372. Although the rate of reported HIV /AIDS infections has recently subsided. and able to form HIV / AIDS prevention programs. the AIDS epidemic increased rapidly throughout the 1990' s in much of the world. Barre-Sinoussi et aI. I F. many developing countries still suffer from prevalence rates as high as 20% of all adult citizens 3 . During the time lapse of the first recognized case of AIDS and the creation of the National AIDS Control Programme in 1987. Despite the presence of prevention programs. "AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Since the first recognized case of HIV /AIDS in 1981 there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infected people until the late 1990's. Not until the mid-1980's were governments aware of the consequences of the AIDS epidemic." Special Report on AIDS (2007) 3 .000 worldwide. with an estimated 5 to 10 million infected people 2 .

HIV is a virus that travels through bodily fluids that control the human immune system.2 AIDSandHIV Although this paper focuses on the socioeconomic determinants of HIV / AIDS. it is important to briefly describe the infection process of the disease in the human body." (1999) John Ritter. The second stage is the asymptomatic stage. "AIDS Virus Spurs Body's White Blood Cells Output. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is defined as a set of symptoms and infections resulting from damage to the immune system in the human body4. this stage represents the stage in which the infected individual experiences no symptoms for an amount of time that varies from person to person. 5 the Immune system . however the human body eventually becomes resistant to these drugs and allows HIV to eventually spread entirely through . which is the window of time between when the person is infected with HIV and when the antibodies to fight the virus develop in the body. The third stage is the symptomatic stage. the virus enters blood cells and renders them ineffective for fighting diseases. "HIV and its Transmission. 5 . There are four stages in the HIV infection process. The damage to the immune system is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The first stage is called the window stage. The final stage of the HIV infection is AIDS. 1992. Once an individual is infected with HIV. in which the human body's 4 Divisions of HIV / AIDS Prevention. There are antiretroviral medications that can fight the spread of HIV. which is when the infected person begins to feel flu like symptoms and becomes more vulnerable to infections and cancers." Chicago Sun-Times.

the onset of AIDS occurs. <http://aidshiY. In 1990 there had been an estimated 50. it does have much concern for the spread of the AIDS epidemic. K.suitel01. 7 T. AIDS is a series of infections in the human body that eventually lead to the death of the host. 6 Since there is no current method to cure HIV.700." SuiteI01. AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary .000 8 .com.3 immune system can no longer fight infections. that this would not be the case for long. AIDS in India Although India does not lead the world in HIV / AIDS prevalence rates.1). equipment.000 people living with HIV / AIDS in India. In 1985. India had not yet reported a single case of HI V or AIDS7. no." Journal of Indian Medical Association 84. 6 Robertson. and personnel to deal with the AIDS epidemic. 2008. 8 UNAIDS. There was recognition. "AIDS: A Serious Challenge to Public Health. 31 Dec. Therefore. the onset of AIDS is inevitable. in this paper the term AIDS is used for individuals infected with HIV or AIDS even if the onset if AIDS has not occurred yet. Jamie. "The Four Stages of HI V Infection. by 2001 this number had risen to 2. despite the influx of reported AIDS cases. Ghosh. Since the first discovery of HIV / AIDS in India in 1986. research facilities. the spread of AIDS increased rapidly until 2001 when the rate of reported AIDS infected people subsided (Figure 1. This was because India lacked the scientific laboratories. Once the immune system has completely been infected with HIV. I (1986): 29-30. and there were concerns of how India would cope with the epidemic once it emerged.com> .

5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India in 2007 out of 33 million predicted persons worldwide. behind South Africa and 9 UNAIDS. ----------------~_1 i ----. UNAIDS/WHO..J r ------. it has been estimated that there were 2.-----~-'----~.1 HIV/AIDS PREVALANCE IN INDIA. UNA IDS.---~ W z > ~ 1000000 c. « 1500000 500000 o t. . Although certain countries have prevalence rates as high as 20%.'._~----~I l I 1985 2000 2005 2010 Source: 2008 Report on the Global AIDS epidemic..'-.13%10....36%9. . However. AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary. '-'--1 +--.. AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary 10 . in some states within India the prevalence rate is as high as 1. July 2008 In the most recent AIDS epidemic report update summary in Asia.:. 1990-2007 w ::::::: () 2000000 . India's epidemic is ranked third in the world for infected persons... .4 FIGURE 1.-1 1990 1995 YEAR · ~~--~---f~--~--_r~----~. also the adult national prevalence rate was 0.

14 "National Family and Health Surveys. The Next Wave of HI VIA IDS: Nigeria.cia. The states bordering the northern edge of India and southernmost tip are the least HIV I AIDS prevalent states. Andhra Pradesh. July [cited 2008]. Figure 1. and the northeastern tip. and China National Intelligence Council. with 1. Ethiopia. Russia.15 billion people l2 it is considered a 'next wave' country and stands at a critical point in .com. Since India has the second largest population in the world.Population. 11 UNAIDS. 1-32.gov. 13 National Intelligence Council. and Manipurl4. AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary 12 "Rank Order. Karnataka. 2002)." in Central Intelligence Agency [database online].5 Nigeria II. India. Deonar. Available from http://www. . The highest prevalent states are Tamil Nadu. Maharashtra. The vast size and diversity of India makes it difficult to measure the demographics of HIVIA IDS of the country as a whole.measuredhs.2 shows a map of India with the most AIDS prevalent states labeled. India's high heterogeneous AIDS epidemic is largely concentrated in the industrialized southern and western regions of India. India Available from www." in International Institute for Population Sciences [database online]. ' emic Its epi d ' 13 .

o .comlaidsindia..6 FIGURE 1.lpuf'" D ..Goa TamU Nadu • + Mlzorarn • • Ma.avert..htm Purpose of this Study This paper investigates the socioeconomic correlates of wealth and education. And'h.a:rna taka 0 - 8 o Source: www. Also the HIV status of Indian citizens is used as a control in a separate hypothesis to investigate the socioeconomic correlates of wealth and education. of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS . Naealand B. of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS between a group of high AIDS prevalent states in India and a group of low AIDS prevalent states in India using data from the National Family and Health Surveys (NFHS-3).2 AIDS PREVALENCE MAP OF INDIA MAP OF INDIA States: . .Mah arllll h'tra Prad •• h K .

The group of high AIDS prevalent states researched includes: Andhra Pradesh. they are split into a group of high AIDS prevalent states or a group of low AIDS prevalent states.12 % 16. otherwise narrowing the population sample to only using HIV positive individuals allows the results to be comparable to the total Indian sample population. Maharashtra. AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary 16 . Including HIV status as a control. The reason the group of high prevalent states only consists of five states and the group of low prevalent states consists of the twenty three states is because there is a distinct line 15 UNAIDS. The HIV prevalence of these states is 0. and Tamil Nadu. Karnataka. The prevalence rate for these five states combined is 0. By determining the levels of AIDS knowledge of different wealth and education brackets. Although several socioeconomic determinants are evaluated to determine any discrepancies in basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS across socioeconomic lines. These states are located in central and southern India with exception to Manipur which is located in northeastern India. Manipur. prevention efforts can be directed towards the least AIDS knowledgeable wealth and education classes. The group oflow prevalent states includes the remaining twenty three states in India. the variables wealth and education are the main focus of this paper. All states within India are used in this analysis. AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary UNAIDS. By focusing on states with high and low HIV /AIDS prevalence rates the results unmask concentrated epidemics at the regional level.67 % of all men and women l5 .7 between a group of high and a group of low AIDS prevalent states within India of just HIV positive citizens. however.

069 0.062 0.011 0.067 0.034 0.measuredhs.34% and the sixth most prevalent state is Utter Pradesh with a HIV prevalence rate of 0. The fifth most HIV prevalent state in India is Tamil Nadu with a prevalence rate of 0. Evidence from Thailand and Cambodia suggests that transmission can be reduced over time by 17 Demographic and Health Surveys. the primary focus for HIV control programs must be on reducing transmission. TABLE 1.8 between the five highest HIV prevalent states and the remaining states in India.07 % 17.com 0.012 --- Importance ofAIDS Epidemic Research In the absence of a vaccine and a wide available treatment for AIDS.1.097 0. National Family and Health Surveys .1 HIV PREVELENCE RATES OF STATES IN INDIA State Percentage HIV positive Andhra Pradesh Kamataka Maharashtra Manipur Tamil Nadu Total for five high HIV prevalence states Total for twenty three lowest HIV prevalence states Source: www. The HIV prevalence statistics are presented in table 1.

9

sustained, HIV prevalence efforts that use existing interventions and target individuals most likely to acquire and spread of AIDS 18. Although, it has been proven that research is successful in aiding the fight against AIDS, research must be directed at the national or state level rather than subgrouping nations based on prevalence rates. Kenya, Cambodia, and Honduras are all classified as having generalized epidemics, with infection rates of above 1% in the adult population l9 . However, the three countries have completely different patterns of exposure; Kenya's AIDS exposure is mostly due to paying for sex, but Cambodia's exposure is mostly due to heterosexual sex that is not paid for, and Honduras's exposure is due to male-male sex 20. This is also the case at the state level in India. Infected people in the high AIDS prevalent states in central and southern India are exposed to the disease mostly through heterosexual sex that is not paid for; however, in the high AIDS prevalent states in northeastern India infected people are exposed to AIDS by paying for sex. Therefore, prevention campaigns must direct different resources to each region to be the most productive. Evidence has shown that if prevention efforts are directed towards population sectors most acceptable to the disease, the epidemic can be stopped over time 21 .

18 Ashok Alexander and Mariam Claeson, "Tackling HIV in India: Evidence-Based Priority Setting and Programming," Health Affairs 27, no. 4 (2008)

19

UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary

20 Elizabeth Pisani et aI., "Education and Debate: Back to Basics in HIV Prevention: Focus on Exposure," British Medical Journal 2008, no. October (June 21 2003)

21

Michael Gluck et aI., "The Effectiveness of AIDS Prevention Efforts," (1995)

10 However, as the epidemic is slowly diminishing, the demographic segment most susceptible to AIDS contraction shifts. Pisani, Grassly, Hankins, and Ghys22 reported that the exposure to AIDS in Cambodia shifted dramatically from being mostly due to individuals paying for sex in 1994 to heterosexual sex that is not paid for in 2002. In just 8 years, the proportion of new infections for men buying sex has dropped from 76% to 32% in Cambodia; however, the proportion of new infections transmitted within marriages has grown from 11 % to 46%23. The demographic segments that prevention programs should target shifted completely in just eight years. The fact that the people that are the most susceptible to AIDS is constantly changing is the reason why current research to determine the size and location of key target groups is necessary. The finJt step in fighting the AIDS epidemic for prevention programs is to ensure that people are aware of the existence of AIDS. Prevention campaigns aim at stopping the spread of AIDS by educating people on the modes of AIDS contraction, and methods to practice safe sex. However, before informing people on ways to avoid AIDS people must first be aware the disease exists. Once basic knowledge of AIDS is widely known, the next step is to spread advanced knowledge of AIDS. Research, such as the analysis in this paper, determines the different socioeconomic sectors that do not contain basic and advanced knowledge, which should be targeted by prevention programs. In conclusion, since there is not a wide spread cure for AIDS the only means to stop the epidemic is to prevent transmission. Research to determine the
22

Pisani et aI., Education and Debate: Back to Basics in HIV Prevention: Focus on Exposure Pisani et aI., Education and Debate: Back to Basics in HIV Prevention: Focus on Exposure

23

11

socioeconomic determinants of AIDS contraction can be helpful for prevention policy-makers to allocate resources efficiently. The remainder of this paper will proceed as follows. Chapter II will discuss past and current research in the field of determining socioeconomic determinants of AIDS contraction. This review will bring the reader up to date on the literature relating to methods used to determine the correlates of wealth and education; of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS. Chapter III will explain the theory of the analysis. The fourth chapter will explain the data and methodology used. The fifth chapter will report relevant results. Lastly, the final chapter will conclude this study and discuss a framework for future research.

AIDS related stigma. The final section will discuss studies that have determined socioeconomic correlates of wealth and education. age.CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Research thus far has studied the relationship between which people are diagnosed with HIV / AIDS and several demographic and socioeconomic factors. Such socioeconomic factors include: education level. The first section of this chapter will discuss why current research on the knowledge of AIDS in specific demographic regions is important for helping in the fight against the AIDS epidemic. research linking the basic knowledge with the socioeconomic determinants of wealth and education is outlined. Next. of advanced knowledge in high AIDS prevalent countries throughout the world. 12 . These demographic determinants were used to test several dependent variables that reflect AIDS contraction. place of residency. wealth level. and marital status of a particular individual. and knowledge of AIDS are the main areas of focus for research done thus far because they have been determined to show a direct correlation to stopping AIDS transmission. sexual behavior. which in return can be used for controlling the HIV / AIDS epidemic.

basic knowledge is measured in the NFHS-3 by asking interviewees if they have ever heard of the disease called AIDS. These three goals focus on educating high risk regions on more responsible sexual behavior. and in this paper. Knowing the amount of people of a particular demographic sector that contain basic knowledge of AIDS helps policy-makers determine how to direct resources for AIDS constriction. . rather than informing them on knowledge of AIDS. In research done thus far. it is more beneficial for government financed prevention policies to direct funding towards educating the population of the existence of AIDS in low knowledgeable areas rather then instructing them on safer sexual behaviors. These questions include asking interviewees if they have heard of different ways to avoid contracting AIDS or if they I "Is India's Population at Risk of Contracting HIV?" I 3 September 2008 [cited 2008]. Most preventive programs such as these have three major goals: to increase abstinence. It is simple to conclude that an individual is more likely to be infected by HIV / AIDS if they are not aware the disease exists. and increase condom use l . encourage faithfulness in relationships. Knowledge of AIDS can be described as basic and advanced knowledge.13 Knowledge ofAIDS Since the first voluntary organizations were constructed to help stop the spread of the AIDS epidemic in 1982 in the United States. Therefore. the evolution of HIV / AIDS prevention programs has made considerable progress. Advanced knowledge is measured in previous research using data from the NFHS-3 that asks detailed questions on AIDS. These programs include AIDS education campaigns and condom use seminars.

Researching the socioeconomic determinants of advanced knowledge of AIDS has proven beneficial for prevention policy-makers to determine the quality of AIDS knowledge of certain regions. is the first step in stopping the spread of AIDS. 3 Lucia Como and Damien de Walque. "The Determinants of HI V Infection and Related Sexual Behaviors: Evidence from Lesotho. 2 Rimjhim Aggarwal and Jeffery Rous." Journal of Development Studies 42. Once again. the next step is educating them on the ways it can be avoided 4 . once the individual is aware AIDS exists. "Tackling HIV in India: Evidence-Based Priority Setting and Programming. an individual that is more informed on the modes of HIV contraction is less likely to become infected. "Awareness and Quality of Knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among Women in India. It is simple to conclude that an individual is more likely to use a condom during sexual intercourse if they are first aware that condoms help avoid AIDS contraction. no." Policy Research Working Paper 4421. no. 4 (2008) . in low knowledgeable areas. 3 (2006): 371-40 I. there is a link between educating high prevalence regions knowledge of AIDS and informing them how to have a more responsible sexual behavior. Advanced knowledge has also been defined in the literature by using the question in NFHS-3 that asks interviewees whether or not they know that a healthy looking person can be infected with AIDS3. Therefore. Therefore. This is because policy makers are aware of the most AIDS prone demographic segments rather then developing a prevention program focused towards the nation's population as a whole. Informing high prevalent regions about AIDS. to direct resources demographically rather then nationally." Health Affairs 27. 4 Ashok Alexander and Mariam Claeson.14 have heard of different modes of AIDS transmission2 .

15 Basic Knowledge This section aims to present current and past literature relating to the socioeconomic determinants of AIDS. Sexual Behavior in India. meaning general knowledge of AIDS increases as wealth increases. However." J Health Popul Nutr 20. In research relating to the AIDS epidemic thus far. individuals were slightly more likely to have heard of AIDS for both men and women. no. "Poverty. education level. gender." CAEPR Working Paper #2008-019. 5 Pedro de Araujo. for both male and females. De Arauj 0 5 used data from the NFHS-3 in India to investigate the socioeconomic correlates of wealth. Boosyen and Summerton 6 used data from the 1998 South African Demographic Health survey to determine the association between wealth and basic knowledge of AIDS. 6 Frederick Booysen and Joy Summerton. general knowledge and education are not directly correlated. Risky Sexual Behavior. Their findings were consistent with de Araujo. and Vulnerability to HIV Infection: Evidence from South Africa. basic knowledge is measured by the respondents answer to whether or not they have heard of the disease called AIDS. marital status. . and place of residency. 4 (2002): 285-288. HIV/ AIDS Knowledge and Stigma. "Socio-Economic Status. they were less likely to have heard of AIDS than males with only secondary education. It was determined that even though males with higher education were more likely to have heard of AIDS. of basic knowledge. as wealth increased. De Araujo determined that there is a direct correlation between wealth and basic knowledge.

Dinkelman. 7 Indrani Gupta and Arup Mitra. "Knowledge of HI VIA IDS among Migrant in Delhi Slums." Journal of Health & Population in Developing Countries 2. "When Knowledge is not enough: HIV/AIDS Information and Risky Behavior in Botswana. and Rolang Majelantle. and Majelantle 10 used data from a national household survey in Botswana to describe the difference gap between AIDS knowledge between men and women. Sanneh. Pallikadavath." NBER Working Paper 12418. no. they suggested that prevention policies should learn more about what drives the heterogeneities in sexual behavior." Health Promotion /nternationaI20. "Rural Women's Knowledge of AIDS in the Higher Prevalence States in India: Reproductive Health and Sociocultural Correlates. It was determined that in both states basic knowledge is predicted to be larger as wealth and education increases for both urban and rural regions. Balk and Lahiri 9 did a similar study in thirteen states in India. "Awareness and Knowledge of AIDS among Indian Women: Evidence from 13 States. however. James Levinsohn. Cambridge. 3 (29 March2005 2005): 249-259. Levinsohn. Mc Whirther and Stones 8 used a multivariate analysis of data from the NFHS-2 in two high prevalent states in India (Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra) to model women's basic knowledge of AIDS." Health Transitional Review 7 (1997): 421-465. 10 Taryn Dinkelman. knowledge does increase with education. Although the results show there is very poor knowledge of AIDS. 8 9 Deborah Balk and Subrata Lahiri. I (1999): 26-32. the less knowledge of AIDS they contained.16 Gupta and Mitra 7 did a similar analysis as de Araujo's study using a survey from 1000 slum households in Delhi. India to determine the relationship between education and basic knowledge of AIDS. . It was reported that the lower the education and wealth women had in India. The results reported were consistent with Pallikadavath and others. The results showed there was no information gap. no. Sassendran Pallikadavath et aI.. In this study they use gender as a socioeconomic difference to track information gaps in Botswana.

Therefore. and Stones l5 all did comparable studies of testing quality of knowledge with socioeconomic determinants. Como and de Walque 11 and de Araujo 12 did similar studies to determine the correlation between wealth and education of advanced knowledge. and gender with quality of knowledge. 15 Pallikadavath et aI. Ambati. Ambati. 3 (06 1997): 319-330. prevention campaigns should attempt to inform less educated and poorer individuals' basic knowledge of AIDS. 12 de Araujo. however de Walque determined the opposite. and A. De Araujo and Como and de Walque determined that as education and wealth increased interviewees were more likely to know that a healthy person can be infected with AIDS. 14 B. Rural Women's Knowledge of AIDS in the Higher Prevalence States in India: Reproductive Health and Sociocultural Correlates. McWhirther. M. 249-259. Aggarwal and Rous used knowledge specification as a count variable for a logistic regression. 3 (2006): 371-401. previous research has shown a general correlation between wealth and education with basic knowledge. and Pallikadavath." Journal of Development Studies 42. and Rao l4 . Ambati.. K. no. Advanced Know/edge This section presents methods of literature determining the relationship between wealth.17 In conclusion. de Araujo found that the likelihood of knowing this is even larger for males with secondary education and higher education compared to males with no education. Sexual Behavior in India 13 Rimjhim Aggarwal and Jeffery Rous. . Aggarwal and Rous 13 . The results indicate a direct correlation II Lucia Como and Damien de Walque. Sanneh. However. "Dynamics of Knowledge and Attitudes about AIDS among the Educated in Southern India." AIDS Care 9. for both men and women. Ambati. education. HI VIA IDS Knowledge and Stigma. no. Socio-Economic Status. "Awareness and Quality of Knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among Women in India. Rao." Policy Research Working Paper 4421. "The Determinants of HI V Infection and Related Sexual Behaviors: Evidence from Lesotho. J.

This suggests that the Ugandan government may want to focus on educating its citizens so 16 Damien de Walque." Journal of Development Economics 84 (2006): 687-714. All three studies show a direct correlation between wealth and quality of knowledge. "How does the Impact of an HIY/AIDS Infonnation Campaign Yary with Educational Attainment? Evidence from Rural Uganda.18 between education and quality of knowledge. and Stones also reported that the quality of knowledge was larger for individuals with a secondary level of education than individuals with a higher level of education. Sanneh. This may suggest that wealthier individuals come in contact with more media related AIDS prevention programs than poorer people. Ambati. Ambati. De Walque l6 conducted an original study using individual level data from a cohort study following the general popUlation of a cluster of villages in rural Uganda for twelve years. McWhirther. and Rao used a series of questions relating the modes of AIDS transmission to determine that there was a general increase in quality of knowledge as education increases. . Perhaps these results suggest AIDS prevention is directed towards middle education rather than higher education or older individuals. The results show that there is a substantial evolution in the AIDS/education gradient. Pallikadavath. meaning that educated individuals have been more responsive to AIDS information campaigns over the past decade in Uganda. however. They found that achieving literacy produces the most gains in quality of knowledge suggesting that being able to read allows people to interact with AIDS awareness media. it is interesting to note that PhD holders have a lower quality of knowledge than undergraduate student and high school students.

" Health Promotion International 19. suggesting that either China provides AIDS information on college campuses so the student body is knowledgeable of AIDS as a whole or the students obtain AIDS knowledge elsewhere. and Age Differences. Gender. Risk Behaviors and Beliefs about Condom use. 3 (2004) ." Journal ofAdvanced Nursing 16 (1991): 584-590. The results were inconsistent. Lin. The results showed that both college students and STD patients contained adequate knowledge of AIDS however they did differ in their knowledge of whether that AIDS is caused by the same virus as YD. "Comparison of Selected CoIIege Students' and SexuaIIy Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients' Knowledge about AIDS. 18 Xiaoming Li et aI. Although advanced knowledge can be measured using several different methods. the review of relevant literature suggest a general correlation between increased education level and wealth with increased advanced knowledge of AIDS.. Stanton. Li. 17 Marlene Strader and Margaret Beaman. Lin. Stanton. Gao.19 that AIDS awareness programs are more beneficial in the fight against the AIDS epidemic. Prevention programs should address this lack of knowledge to ensure that people do not believe AIDS is similar to other STDs and can be cured. no. Gao. Strader and Beaman I 7 and Li. Strader and Beaman compared the quality of AIDS knowledge of college students against sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients. Yin and Wu tested Chinese college student to determine if the level of college education correlates with quality of knowledge of AIDS. Fang. Yin. Patients of STD clinics indicated this was true. Fang. and WU l8 both used college students as the basis for their analysis to test the correlation between education and AIDS knowledge. "HIV/AIDS Knowledge and the Implications for Health Promotion Programs among Chinese CoIIege Students: Geographic.

20 The review of literature is important for the analysis preformed in this paper. Along with developing a base of knowledge on past and current research in the field of HIV / AIDS prevention. the reviewed literature will also help to compare and contrast results and analysis methods for the advancement of further research in the field. . The literature reviewed in this chapter helped to develop and outline the methods and analysis preformed in this paper.

Next. Probit Analysis Probit analysis is a binary-choice model that is valuable for qualitative choice survey data. the theory describing holding HIV status as a control will be interpreted. the theoretical determinants of AIDS contraction in a group of high AIDS prevalent states and a group of low AIDS prevalent states are analyzed. the theory behind capturing the socioeconomic determinants of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS is discussed. St. Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts (Boston. In this paper interviewees are asked several yes or no questions. The probit analysis predicts the likelihood the interviewee will answer yes I Robert Pindyck and Daniel Rubinfield. Then. New York. The first part of this chapter will introduce and explain the probit model used for this analysis. San Francisco: Irwin-McGraw Hill. Louis. Second. Binary-choice models assume that individuals that are interviewed are faced with a choice between two alternatives and that their choice depends on identifiable characteristics!. 1998) 21 .CHAPTER III THEORY The purpose of this chapter is to explain the theory and analysis that accounts for determining the socioeconomic determinants of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS of a group of high AIDS prevalent states in India and a group of low AIDS prevalent states in India.

where y would equal the dependent variables and x represents the input variables3 . and all answers that interviewees answer no to are assigned a value equal to zero. The NFHS-3 asked Indian citizens several socioeconomic questions. The error term. Econometric Analysis o/Cross Section and Panel Data Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A more defined representation of this model is below: (1) Where flk represents the coefficient of the independent variable. Econometric Analysis o/Cross Section and Panel Data Massachusetts Institute of Technology. all the questions that interviewees answer yes to are assigned a value equal to one. 2002) 3 Jeffrey Wooldridge. Xk.22 to the question based on that particular individual's socioeconomic characteristics 2 . Socioeconomic Determinants This subsection will discuss the theory behind determining the socioeconomic status of the popUlation interviewed. however. The equation represents finding the probability that y = 1 based on the values of x. These questions along with an evaluation of the 2 Jeffrey Wooldridge. such as their age and education levels. In the probit analysis for this paper. a function of the typical linear probability model is computed to determine the probability that the dependent variable is equal to one. 2002) . is continuously distributed £ and the distribution of is symmetric about zero. variable independent of Xl' "Xk £ . The probit equation resembles a linear probability equation.

Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts 5 . media consumption. the independent variables relating to the wealth and education status of an individual will be used to predict the probability that the same individual will have basic or advanced knowledge of AIDS. several other socioeconomic determinants such as: age. religion. These brackets represent the independent variables in the probit model. Basic and Advanced Knowledge Along with socioeconomic questions. and place of residency are used as dummy variables in the model. Based on the earlier discussion of the probit model. 4 Demographic and Health Surveys. marital status.23 household assets of each interviewee were used to separate each citizen into wealth and education brackets 4. National Family and Health Surveys Pindyck and Rubinfield. Although wealth and education are the primary focus. These questions represent the dependent variables of the probit model. the NFHS-3 also included questions relating to AIDS that are used to determine the interviewee's basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS. the model is a more precise estimation of the probability the dependent variable equals one without focusing on them specifically5. By including these socioeconomic variables as dummy variables into the analysis. Each dependent variable is analyzed using a different probit model to be examined separately.

The group of high AIDS prevalent states includes the five states with the highest AIDS prevalence rate and the group of low AIDS prevalent states includes the remaining twenty three states in India and New Delhi." Available from www. . the results may present the reasoning behind why the AIDS epidemic hit certain regions in India harder then others. New Delhi is included in the low AIDS prevalent groups because it has a low HIV prevalence rate. New Delhi is the capital of India that contains its own variable in the NFHS-3. with exception of some individuals in the NFHS-3 that were not tested for HIV.24 High and Low Prevalent States This subsection discusses the theory behind determining the socioeconomic determinants of AIDS knowledge in a group of high AIDS prevalent states in India and a group of low AIDS prevalent states in India. The sample popUlation in this data set is the same population used in the NFHS-3. Each interviewee in 6 "AIDS Surveys. Within the Demographic and Health Surveys6 website there is a separate data set along with the NFHS-3 that reports the HIV Status of interviewees. By separating the data set into a high AIDS prevalent group and a low AIDS prevalent group. the location of each interviewee is recorded by state. This information is used to separate the total sample size into two separate data sets.comJaboutsurveys. Within the NFHS-3.measuredhs. HIV Status as a Control This subsection introduces the theory used to determine the socioeconomic determinants of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS using HIV status of interviewees as a control.

25 both data sets is assigned an identification number which is used to merge the two data sets together. the data will be introduced and applied to the theory discussed in this chapter. Conclusion This chapter has provided the theory involved in the socioeconomic determinants of wealth and education. . In the following chapter. only the HIV positive individuals are used in this analysis to determine the socioeconomic determinants of AIDS knowledge of HIV positive people. Once the data is merged. of basic and advanced knowledge between a group of high AIDS prevalent states and a group of low AIDS prevalent states in India.

Each variable included in the model will be addressed in this section. After reviewing the data set and descriptive statistics. including the source and reliability of the data. The goals of this population based survey is to provide state and national information on fertility. and AIDS. health. The NFHS is a large scale. nutrition.CHAPTER IV DATA AND METHODOLOGY The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the data set and empirical model that will be used to determine the socioeconomic determinants of knowledge of AIDS in India. multi-rounded survey conducted in represented sample households throughout India. the model will be constructed and the methodology to test the model will be explained. and obtain essential data for the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and other agencies for policy and program purposes. Data and Sources The data used in this analysis is from the third wave of the National Family Health Surveys (NFHS-3) in India. Along with outlining the variables in the regression model the descriptive statistics will also be examined. Along with the survey questionnaires the Demographic Health Surveys also collect geographic information that allows DHS data to be linked with data collected by the survey 26 .

093 and the amount of females that were tested was 38.255 3 . The NFHS-3 was conducted in 2005-2006 using a representative sample of women and men in all twenty eight states in India. National Family and Health Surveys Demographic and Health Surveys.385 females between the ages 15-49 years old and 74. only selected variables were examined.369 men between the ages 15-54 years old interviewed in the NFHS-3 2 .. There are three dependent variables in this analysis. National Family and Health Surveys 2 3 . Demographic and Health Surveys.measuredhs.com!aboutsurveys . Following is a description of these variables: I "AIDS Surveys.27 questioners I." Available from www. Out of the males and females that were tested 279 males were found HIV positive and 181 females were found HIV positive. Also DHS conducted voluntary HIV testing for the use of in-depth analysis of the sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with HIV infection. since the purpose of this paper is to determine the socioeconomic correlates of wealth and education of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS in a group of high and a group of low AIDS prevalent states in India. however. The amount of males that were tested for HIV in the NFHS-3 was 50. Variables and Descriptive Statistics There are several units of observation in the survey. The first one measures the level of basic knowledge of AIDS. There were a total of 124. and the other two variables capture the level of advanced knowledge of AIDS.

The next two variables ask specific questions about AIDS. This variable takes into account advanced knowledge because it determines if interviewees know any method to decrease their chance of receiving AIDS. Therefore each variable is examined for interviewees that are HIV positive to determine if there are any significant differences in answers of questions on the . which tests specific knowledge of the effects of AIDS on a person. The variable DK asks interviewees if they know any method to avoid contracting AIDS.interviewees were asked if they know of any ways to avoid contracting AIDS. Advanced Knowledge: • DK: don't know ways to avoid AIDS .28 Basic Knowledge: • EHA: ever heard of AIDS . • HLP: healthy looking person have AIDS . The variable HLP asks interviewees if they think a healthy person can be infected with AIDS. therefore are defined as measuring advanced knowledge.interviewees were asked if they have heard of AIDS. Each dependent variable is also analyzed using the HIV status of interviewees as a control.interviewees were asked if it is possible for a healthy looking person to be infected with AIDS. The first dependent variable classifies as measuring basic knowledge of AIDS because it measures if interviewees are aware that AIDS exists. such as abstaining from sex or wearing a condom during sexual intercourse.

and if the answer in no it is assigned the value zero.29 survey between the entire sample and the HIV positive sample for both males and females. the variables testing advanced knowledge of AIDS only include interviewees that obtain basic knowledge of AIDS. This is because it is assumed if the interviewee hasn't heard of AIDS they wouldn't have specific knowledge of AIDS. if the answer to the question was yes it is assigned the value one. All three dependent variables use questions from the survey that are formulated as yes or no questions.1 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF DEPENDENT VARIABLES Code Variable Definition = 1 if individual has heard of AIDS.1. in this analysis. = 0 otherwise EHA Ever heard of AIDS DK Don't know ways to avoid AIDS HLP Healthy looking person have AIDS . =0 otherwise = 1 if individual believes that a healthy person can be HIV +. Therefore. TABLE 4. Also. meaning they answered yes to having heard of AIDS. A more precise description of each dependent variable is described on table 4. = 0 otherwise = 1 if the individual does not know a method to avoid AIDS.

24% and 32%. Rank Order. Since India's population is the second largest in the world 4.Population .2 are surprising. Although the sample size for HIV positive females in low AIDS prevalent states is limited. While 85% of females from high AIDS prevalent states reported they have heard of AIDS. 100% of them reported having heard of AIDS and 83% males reported having heard of AIDS. 94% of males in high AIDS prevalent states have heard of AIDS and 84% in low AIDS prevalent states have heard of AIDS. these values imply that there a large number of Indian citizens that are not aware that AIDS exists with a large number of them being females from low AIDS prevalent states. There are significant differences in means between males and females and also between high and low AIDS prevalent states. Surprisingly. these values are smaller than males and females from the group of low AIDS prevalent states. When HIV status of interviewees is used as a control. Therefore even though the HIV prevalence rate is larger in high AIDS prevalent states both males and females have more AIDS knowledge in these states then low 4 Central Intelligence Agency The World Factbook.30 Table 4. only 66% of females in low AIDS prevalent states reported having heard of AIDS. However. the percentages of males and females in high and low AIDS prevalent states increases considerably.2 reports the means and standard errors for the dependent variables. Some of the indicators reported in table 4. In the group of high AIDS prevalent states 96% of HIV positive males and 82% of HIV positive females reported having heard of AIDS. The first variable that reports advanced knowledge of AIDS (DK) indicates that 18% of males and 29% of females in the group of high AIDS prevalent states do not know of a way to avoid contracting AIDS.

males know more methods to prevent contracting AIDS then females do. 77% and 69%. On average the males reported having more advanced knowledge of AIDS then females in both high and low AIDS prevalent states. . When HIV status of individuals is used as a control. However. the proportions of males and females in high and low AIDS prevalent states knowing of a method to avoid contracting AIDS are very similar. 70% of females in low AIDS prevalent states and just 60% of females in high AIDS prevalent states reported knowing a healthy looking person can be infected with AIDS. On average. even when HIV status of interviewees is used as a control.31 AIDS prevalent states. The second variable that captures advanced knowledge of AIDS (HLP) reports that 76% of males and 63% of females in high AIDS prevalent states report knowing that a healthy looking person can indeed be infected with AIDS. These numbers are similar to males and females of low AIDS prevalent states. when HIV status of interviewees is controlled for.

601 27.402 0.0019 0.0022 0.293 0.854 29.03 0.596 Low Prevalent States Males Obs.402 0.603 EHA DK HLP Mean 0.0022 36.256 0.815 229 0.166 0.661 36.196 0.212 0. Mean 31.943 0. 168 137 137 EHA DK HLP Mean 0.825 0.0027 0.2 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF DEPENDENT VARIABLES Dependent Variables Mean EHA 0. 13 13 13 .0022 0.597 0. Mean 0. SE Mean 239 0.0608 40 I 0.1404 0.0017 43. 91.235 0.013 0.685 HIV as a Control High Prevalent States Males Obs.183 0.756 Obs.738 Females SE 0.692 Females SE 0.0019 Obs.0381 0.633 Low Prevalent States Males SE Obs. SE Mean 0. 32.0021 0.784 60.385 0.1332 Obs.792 27.597 0.0025 29.603 60.771 High Prevalent States Males SE Obs.042 Females SE 0 0.32 0.0013 0.32 TABLE 4.27 0.0291 229 0.0723 33 0.762 EHA DK HLP Mean 0.0029 Females SE 0.958 0.182 DK HLP 0.792 Obs.0756 33 0.0016 0.843 0.

primary education. and higher education. This 5 Only males . • MEDIA: amount of media individual comes in contact with .education is divided into four categories: no education. secondary education.45-49. and formally married.3 gives a more detailed description of the wealth variables). poor.constructed by the NFHS-3 using household assets: is divided into 5 categories: poorest. or if they read the newspaper or a magazine at least once a week.33 The next step is to determine if there are any discrepancies of the responses in the descriptive statistics of the dependent variables across socioeconomic lines.30-34. or if they watch television at least once a week.3 gives a more detailed description of the education variables). middle. between one and five years. However. These categories represent the number of years of education: less than one year.50-54 5 .25-29. currently married. (Table 4. 20-24. • WEAL TH: wealth index . (Table 4.the following age categories are used: 15-19. rich.this variable includes: individuals that attend a cinema at least once a month. • MS: marital status .40-44. between six and twelve years. and more than twelve years. and richest. or listen to the radio at least once a week.35-39. The description of each independent variable is below: Independent Variables: • EDUC: level of education .the following categories are used: never married. first we need to define the independent variables. • AGE: age of the interviewer .

Jain. Buddhist. Jewish.the following religions were recorded: Hindu. Christian. Sikh. Muslim. . Donyi Polo. and other religion. • REL: religion . no religion.34 variable is included to take into account the fact that individuals that are in contact with more media related AIDS awareness advertisements may contain more knowledge of AIDS.

35 TABLE 4.3 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EDUCATION AND WEALTH VARIABLES Code Variable Description Definition = 1 if individual has had less then a year of education. =0 otherwise = 1 if individual has had more then twelve years of education. =0 otherwise = 1 if individual is in the poorest quintile computed by NFHS-3 using household assets .=0 otherwise =1 if individual is in the rich quintile computed by NFHS-3 using household assets.=0 otherwise EDUC 0 No Education EDUC 1 Primary Education EDUC 2 Secondary Education EDUC 3 Higher Education Poorest Quintile WEALTH 0 WEALTH 1 Poor Quintile WEALTH 2 Middle Quintile WEALTH 3 Rich Quintile WEALTH 4 Richest Quintile .=0 otherwise = 1 if individual is in the middle quintile computed by NFHS-3 using household assets . =0 otherwise = 1 if individual is in the richest quintile computed by NFHS-3 using household assets . =0 otherwise = 1 if individual has had between one and five years of education.=0 otherwise = 1 if individual is in the poor quintile computed by NFHS-3 using household assets . =0 otherwise =1 if individual has had between six and twelve years of education.

On average males are more educated then females in high AIDS prevalent states. each category will not be specifically analyzed.4 because its distribution is divided into uniform quintiles.3% and 25. marital status. It is noticeable that the proportions of each education bracket are very similar for both genders between the groups of high and low AIDS prevalent states. Also the variables age.2% for females. and religion are omitted from table 4.3% males have less then a secondary level of education and an alarming 49. both males and females have similar levels of education between high and low prevalent states. By controlling for these variables. These discrepancies could pose a challenge for AIDS .36 This analysis focuses on the effects of education and wealth on basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS. therefore each category contains 20% of the sample size.4 has the descriptive statistics for education. The percentage of males with no education in high AIDS prevalent states is 11. This is the same for low AIDS prevalent states. the absence or presence of each category of each variable will help analyze the results. Table 4. and religion are used as controls. This makes the results more comparable between high and low AIDS prevalent states for males and females because each education bracket contains similar proportions of individuals.6% of males in high prevalent states having secondary education or higher and just 60. however. media. on average. with 73. The variables: age.8% of females have secondary education or higher.0% of females have less then a secondary education. media. 32. The variable wealth is not included in table 4.4 because they are dummy variables and their descriptive statistics are not relevant for this analysis. marital status. Therefore.

.37 prevention programs to direct HIV /AIDS information towards certain education brackets.7% of females have a secondary level of education or higher in low AIDS prevalent states. Therefore.2% of females have a secondary level of education or higher in high AIDS prevalent states. on average males are more educated then females in both low and high AIDS prevalent states.8% of females in low prevalent states have no education. It is staggering to note that 58.3 % of females in high prevalent states and 53. 64% of males have a secondary level of education or higher and 46. and 50% of males have a secondary level of education or higher and 41. When HIV status of interviewees is used as a control. since the majority of HIV positive individuals in high and low AIDS prevalent states have less than a secondary level of education it may be more beneficial for AIDS prevention programs to direct AIDS epidemic awareness towards undereducated individuals than towards individuals with higher levels of education.

538 0.0028 31. 168 168 168 168 EDUC EDUC EDUC EDUC 0 I 2 3 Mean 0.0018 43.784 91.539 0.151 0.0229 0. Mean 0.784 91.199 0. 32.0012 0.275 0.784 91.143 43.157 0. Mean 0. 91.0669 40 0.213 0.0376 0.097 HIV as a Control High Prevalent States Males Mean SE Obs.601 32.450 0. 13 13 13 13 .252 0.462 0.199 0.1332 0.601 32.170 0.170 0.0024 0.141 0. Mean 43.1439 0.0024 0.113 Females SE 0.38 TABLE 4. 113 EDUC 1 0.485 31.784 EDUC EDUC EDUC EDUC 0 I 2 3 Mean 0.583 0.000 Females SE 0.1439 0.199 0.0205 239 0.561 EDUC 2 0.170 0.175 EDUC 3 Males SE Obs.0021 0.4 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR EDUCA TION VARIABLES High Prevalent States Independent Variables Mean EDUC 0 O.0019 0.146 0.381 0.0349 40 0.138 Obs.347 0.601 EDUC EDUC EDUC EDUC 0 I 2 3 Mean 0.0797 40 0.3812 0.0010 Obs.199 0.050 Obs.170 0.0715 40 0.173 0.0324 239 0.415 0.527 0.166 0.036 Low Prevalent States Males SE Obs.0016 0.0020 31.0018 31.0017 0.0000 Obs.0018 Females SE 0.123 Low Prevalent States Males SE Obs.0016 0.0266 239 0.308 0.0144 Females SE 0. 239 0.0017 43.0028 0.0292 0.601 32.225 0.

an d 0' 2 ' a an d th e d'Istn'b" IS symmetncbout zero 6 . WEALTH" The dummy variables are represented as 0'0. each dependent variable is analyzed for a group of high AIDS prevalent states and a group of low AIDS prevalent states for males and females. 2002) . utlOn (3) Where a. represents the coefficients of education. represents the coefficients of wealth. represents the coefficients of education. and tr.39 Methodology In this section. represents the coefficients of wealth.y. however. . the data will be applied to the probit analysis discussed in the previous chapter. There are three different dependent variables in this investigation. .WEALTH. + 0"0] + 00 (2) Where p. and y. 6 Jeffrey Wooldridge. EDUC. Econometric Analysis o/Cross Section and Panel Data Massachusetts Institute of Technology. where 50 is continuously distributed variable of WEALTH . + Yo + t. . The pro bit equations are below: P(EHA = I) = F[Po + tp. EDUC ' . EDUC. The error term is represented by 50. WEALTH" The dummy variables are represented as 0'] . The same variables are also analyzed holding HIV status of individuals as a control.EDUC.

Econometric Analysis o/Cross Section and Panel Data Massachusetts Institute of Technology. represents the coefficients of education. It is predicted that as the education of a person increases their basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS would also increase because it is expected that as the level of education of an individual increases. because richer people are in contact with more AIDS related media. 2002) 8 Jeffrey Wooldridge. d · utlOn IS . d . EDUC i . their knowledge of most subjects increases. where 51 is continuously distributed variable of WEALTH . The dummy variables are represented as a 2 • The error terms are represented by 52. . represents the coefficients of wealth.. . WEALTH. EDUC. where 52 is a continuously distributed variable of WEALTH EDUC and aan th e d·Istn b · · symmetnc about zero 8 . Even though the 7 Jeffrey Wooldridge. 2002) . Predictions Based on the literature reviewed in the previous chapter several inferences can be made. 2 I .40 The error term is represented by 51 . . Also. 2 Istn b · IS (4) Where OJ. it is anticipated that as the wealth of an individual increases their knowledge of AIDS would possibly increase. and 8. such as television commercials. . Econometric Analysis o/Cross Section and Panel Data Massachusetts Institute of Technology. and aan the d· · utlOn · symmetnc about zero 7 .

The dependent and independent variables were outlined and their descriptive statistics were analyzed. Conclusion This chapter discussed the data set and variables used this analysis. even if they were aware they were HIV positive before being tested. it is predicted that basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS will increase as education and wealth increases for both groups because the wealth and education brackets are defined the same for each group. the highest educated category in the high AIDS prevalent states has the same level of education as the highest educated group in the low AIDS prevalent states and the highest wealth class in the high AIDS prevalent states contains the same level of wealth as the highest wealth class of the low AIDS prevalent states.41 prevalence rates of the group of high AIDS prevalent states and the group of low AIDS prevalent states is substantially different. The results presenting HIV status as a control is expected to follow the same correlation as the results from the total population because whether or not the interviewees are aware they are HIV positive before they were tested is not considered. However. Therefore a higher educated person is expected to have the same level of knowledge of AIDS whether they are HIV positive or not. The descriptive statistics presented alarming differences in basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS between males and females and also between high and low AIDS prevalent states. in this analysis. the descriptive statistics did not show a large difference between all the interviewees and the HIV positive interviewees. The . Therefore.

.42 following chapter presents a set of results from the regression analysis using the variables described in this chapter.

living in a rural area. while the remaining two tables assess advanced knowledge of AIDS. Tables 5. Along with presenting the results. and HLP for high and low AIDS prevalent states and also using HIV status of interviewees as a control. one for males in low AIDS prevalent states. in the poorest wealth quintile. one for females in high AIDS prevalent states. The benchmark case in each regression is a fifteen to nineteen year old individual. or listen to the radio at least once a week. For each of the dependent variables eight regressions are estimated. DK.3 display the results.1 to 5. and all four of these regressions were estimated using HIV status of interviewees as a control. discussion will be directed at the possible reasons for the results and the accuracy of the model. one for males in high AIDS prevalent states. that does not attend a cinema at least once a month. The results will be evaluated for the three dependent variables: EHA.CHAPTER V RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The purpose of this chapter is to present and discuss the results from the analysis of the empirical model introduced and detailed in the previous chapters. All of the dependent variables are discrete and binary. or watch television or read the newspaper or magazine at least once a week. 43 . The first table investigates the socioeconomic determinants of basic knowledge of AIDS. one for females in low AIDS prevalent states. with no education.

AIDS prevention policies should be directed towards informing the Indian population on responsible sexual behaviors. . rather than the desired value of one. however have different sexual behaviors that explain their HIV status. New Delhi: Sage Publications Inc. Also there were several independent variables in the regressions for low AIDS prevalent states that predicted that the dependent variable is equal to one perfectly. is too large!. One possible reason is that there were not enough HIV positive individuals that were randomly tested by the Demographic and Health Surveys to allow enough variables to be significant. There is also the possibility that HIV positive and HIV negative individuals have equal knowledge of AIDS. Regression Basics (Thousand Oaks. meaning that the probability that the dependent variable is equal to zero. the coefficients of the independent variables that are significant do not present any variations from using both HIV positive and negative interviewees. 2001). If this is the case. Also. I Leo Kahane. indicating that there weren't enough HIV positive interviewees to record a variation between interviewees' answers on the survey.. This is because the regressions presented very few coefficients that were significant at the 10% p-value. There are several possible reasons that the results do not present a differentiation of knowledge of AIDS across socioeconomic lines between just HIV positive interviewees and the entire sample population. 201.44 HIVas a Control The results for each regression using HIV status of individuals as a control are not presented in this paper. London.

Males and females in high and low AIDS prevalent states living in urban cities contain basic knowledge of AIDS.1 presents results from a probit model where respondents were asked if they have ever heard of AIDS. In table 5.1 all of the wealth and education variables are statistically significant. and location are not the main focus of this paper their coefficients are significant and should be analyzed. marital status. however. with the coefficients being larger for males and females in low AIDS prevalent states then their corresponding variables in high AIDS prevalent states.45 Ever Heard ofAIDS One variable in this analysis captures basic knowledge of AIDS. this can not be determined by just deciphering the probit coefficients. Although the socioeconomic variables of media. Although the same trend as education occurs for low AIDS prevalent states versus high AIDS prevalent states for individuals living in urban cities occurs. the education coefficients for both males and females are larger for low AIDS prevalent states compared to high AIDS prevalent states. All of the coefficients for education and wealth are positive for males and females in high and low AIDS prevalent states meaning that they are all predicted to know that AIDS exists. However. This may suggest a variation of the probabilities for lower and higher educated males and females that have ever heard of AIDS between low and high AIDS prevalent states. The variable urban determines the probability that an individual living in an urban city is aware AIDS exists compared to an individual living in a rural town. Table 5. however. The coefficient for the media variable is positive for males and females in high and low AIDS prevalent states. for females in high and low AIDS prevalent .

46 states the coefficients are larger than males in those states. The following subsections will present the socioeconomic correlates of advanced knowledge of AIDS. location. meaning that married females in high and low AIDS prevalent states are less likely to know AIDS exists compared to never married females. Males that are married are predicted to know that AIDS exists compared to never married males. The socioeconomic determinants of wealth and education of basic knowledge were presented and discussed in this paper along with the socioeconomic determinants of marital status. and media exposure. This suggests that there may be a variation between the way males and females respond to AIDS awareness programs via the media. Although the pro bit coefficients do not predict average partial effects. these values are interesting considering that 91 % and 81 % of females in high and low AIDS prevalent states reported being exposed to a form of media at least once a week which is very similar to the males' values of 93% and 81 %. . The variables representing marital status also present a variation between males and females in both high and low AIDS prevalent states. however the coefficients for married females in high and low AIDS prevalent states are negative.

340553*** [0.2784950*** [0.396 Note: Robust Standard Errors are In brackets.052641] [0.0742170*** 1.7213279*** [0.0284256] 0.0364961] 0.0315188] yes Age Dummies Yes yes yes Yes yes yes yes Religion Dummies Observations 31.225630*** MS 2 -0.0142931] 2.0370614] [0.0273824] 0.0228229] 0.1523843*** [0.0324565] 0.4855044*** 0.363839*** [0.0370921] [0.5784405*** 0.0647217] 0.5867407*** 0.8739482*** [0.0185636] 0.1067603] 0.2485483*** [0.0236027] [0.0540262 -0.3270476*** 0.0329923] [0.0558886* -0.112 32.0399142] [0.1 EVER HEARD OF AIDS PROBIT RESULTS Independent Variables EDUC I EDUC 2 EDUC 3 WEALTH .0262084] [0.560 43.4447763*** 0. * = SIgnificant at 10% P value level.0445084] [0.246 0.8368049*** 0.2980942*** 0.5945883*** [0.0377308] [0.7*** McFadden's pseudo R2 0.811759*** 0.0239789] [0. *** = significant at the 1% P value level .I WEALTH 2 WEALTH 3 WEALTH 4 MEDIA URBAN MS I High Prevalent States Males Females Coefficients Coefficients 0.1939821 *** 0.0607527] 0.0197324] [0.1151956] [0.4496682*** 0.0145119] 0.2*** 46629.0988391 *** [0.9808876*** 0.783 LR-Chi 3085.0146913] 1.0269316] 1.4359226*** 0. ** = SIgnificant at the 5% P value level.0243053] [0.0358167] [0.7252877*** [0.228 0.0190647] -0.6*** 12815.6544094*** [0.0129826] 0.0237291] Low Prevalent States Males Females Coefficients Coefficients 0.022 91.9*** 6709.0187455] 0.525961 *** 1.1196612** -0.0280757] [0.5049359*** [0.2816973*** 0.0392680*** 2.070261 *** [0.348 0.0323357] [0.0373921 ] 0.47 TABLE 5.1084011] [0.5615119*** [0.101275] [0.9486669*** [0.2214960*** [0.0518469] [0.7889719*** [0.0470054] [0.0699667** [0.169305*** 0.0504182] 0.0446972] [0.0660331] [0.2045287*** 0.0405812] [0.2321227*** [0.0207579] [0.7616868*** 0.866467*** [0.170339*** -0.

Table 5.worldbank. all education and wealth variables for males and females in high AIDS prevalent states and females in low AIDS prevalent states know of at least one way to avoid contracting AIDS. Not surprisingly. August [cited 2008].5% of males in low AIDS prevalent states reported not knowing of a way compared to 18. Only individuals that know about the existence of AIDS were used in this probit model because it is assumed individuals that have never heard of AIDS will not contain specific knowledge of the disease.2% in high prevalent states. This is also true for males in the poor and middle wealth quintiles. The reason for the variation between high and low AIDS prevalent states could be due to the second phase of the National AIDS Control Program (NACP) that was enacted from 2000-2006. primary and secondary educated males answered yes to not knowing of a way to avoid AIDS. However. This is consistent with the fact that 23." in The World Bank [database online].2 displays the results for a probit model where individuals were asked if they knew of a way to avoid contracting AIDS. . The results for the media variable displayed that males and females in high AIDS prevalent states and females in low AIDS prevalent states reported knowing of a way to avoid AIDS.org/in. Within the second phase of the NACP the Indian government aimed the fight against the AIDS epidemic at the state level and directed more funding to higher-risk socioeconomic groups and states 2 .48 Don't Know of a Way to Avoid AIDS There are two variables that determine the level of advanced knowledge of interviewees in high and low AIDS prevalent states. Available from www. However. the coefficient for males in low AIDS prevalent states was not 2 "HIY/AIDS in India.

or attend a cinema at least once a month know of a way to avoid AIDS is not significantly different from males that are not in contact with this much media. . meaning that the probability that males in low AIDS prevalent states that watch television. or read the newspaper. The next subsection will provide more insight on the level of advanced knowledge across socioeconomic lines. This subsection discussed the socioeconomic correlates of Indian citizens that know of a way to avoid AIDS.49 significant at the 10% level. listen to the radio.

0445 0.0890694] [0.0397834] -0.278002*** 0.2 DON'T KNOW OF A WAY TO AVOID AIDS PROBIT RESULTS Independent Variables EDUC I High Prevalent States Males Females Coefficients Coefficients Low Prevalent States Females Males Coefficients Coefficients -0.0173898] -0.408395*** EDUC 3 [0.0221857] [0.1275517*** [0.165382*** 0.247348*** [0.153838*** -0.0491473* [0.0228669] -0.0309236] MEDIA -0.0380548] [0.453778*** 0.0697 0.0336987] [0.0454739] -0.0511694 MS 2 lO.9 1322.0927388** WEALTH 2 [0.085231 *** 0.1 0.030664] -0.4017625*** [0.020182] [0.275207*** 0.0097784 -0.50 TABLE 5.0287732] -0.3002773*** [0.182 LR-Chi 1272.043327] [0.0836179** -0.0398025] [0.0307 Note: Robust Standard Errors are III brackets.0199994] [0. 1641 82 ** * 0.0264469] [0.0267237] []0.1416595*** [0.0193709] -0.761 43.0464486] [0.0729551*** 0.6 McFadden's pseudo R2 0.139206*** 0.0242251] [0.2127524*** [0.0274038 0.00058*** -0.0333567] Yes yes 60.0602956] [0.105730*** -0.0168012] -0.0211712] 0.369099*** -0.2088623 * -0.I -0.030918 -0.027171] [0.0096642 [0.0340105* EDUC 2 [0.0277979] [0.0307531] [0.0380724 -0.0381063] URBAN 0.386330*** WEALTH 3 [0.0300101] -0.810110*** [0.485469*** WEALTH 4 -0.0439008] [0.096448*** -0.0305757] -0.153 27. * = slgmficant at 10% P value level.0010558 [0. ** 5% P value level.0328708] [0.0132362 -0.0398281 ] -0.800343*** -1.0428939] [0.0169648] [0.0098445 [0.1166872*** [0.0443343 ] Age Dummies yes yes yes Religion Dummies yes yes yes Observations 31.1410175*** [0.0244531 ] [0.0245046] -0.0060905 MS I [0.0267438* [0.0534 = sigmficant at the -0.0124143] -0.1 2340.024814] 0.0013514 [0.149484*** WEALTH . *** = significant at the 1% P value level .1035589*** [0.0282478] [0.0285183 ] -0.601 4061.0288615] -0.

Males in these states reported knowing that a .3 displays the results for the probit model where respondents were asked if they knew a healthy looking person could have AIDS. or location aside from married individuals living in low AIDS prevalent states. males and females in lower wealth quintiles are not expected to know that a healthy looking individual can have AIDS compared to wealthier individuals with exception to females in high AIDS prevalent states. Once again. males and females in high AIDS prevalent states and females in low prevalent states reported not knowing a healthy looking person has AIDS. marital status. the pro bit coefficients males in high and low AIDS in the poor wealth quintile were significant. However. Males and females in the highest two wealth quintiles all reported knowing that a healthy looking person can have AIDS with no variations between high and low AIDS prevalent states.51 Can a Healthy Person Have AIDS Table 5. meaning they are not predicted to have more specific knowledge of AIDS than males in the poorest quintile. only individuals that know about the existence of AIDS were used in this probit model. Overall. However. Males and females with at least a secondary level of education reported knowing that a healthy looking person can have AIDS with no variations between high and low AIDS prevalent states. This comes to no surprise that the less educated the individual. This question tests interviewees on the specifics of the effects of AIDS on the human body. the less advanced knowledge of AIDS they have. There were no variations between males and females or high and low AIDS prevalent states for media.

however. females reported the opposite. These results are consistent with basic knowledge of AIDS. The results suggests that AIDS prevention campaigns that are directed at educating the Indian population on advanced knowledge of AIDS may be formulated to inform them on methods to avoid contracting AIDS rather then teaching about the effects of AIDS on the human body. The results between the variables DK and HLP were not consistent with each other in reporting variations across socioeconomic lines. .52 healthy looking person can have AIDS.

3407332*** EDUC 3 [0.0004922 [0.0299553] -0.0138408] 0.062047*** [0.0353372] [0.0427674** [0.0177921 -0.0275362] 0.0461628] 0.4*** 1720.360103*** [0.4438502*** 0. * = significant at 10% 5% P value level.0313784] 0.0058066 [0.0482608* -0.02 McFadden's pseudo R2 0.0304 Note: Robust Standard Errors are in brackets.110507*** -0.0354441 * 0.0263392] [0.1276386*** [0.1336151 *** 0.18077*** [0.1628039*** WEALTH 3 [0.0328571 ] 0.5 0.0488856] [0.0780365] [0.0791144* WEALTH .591 1074.0420942] [0.0332668] 0.271878*** 0.0220147] -0.0199969] [0.0350367] [0.53 TABLE 5.0425363 0.0401849] [0.0830773*** EDUC 2 [0.0313878] 0.7*** 0.1694363*** 0.2954747*** 0.0460371] [0.0304 0.0859061 -0.0273709] [0.6 566.0326849] [0.0320433] [0.0471105] AGE Dummies Yes yes yes Religion Dummies yes 29. *** = significant at the 1% P value level.0729768* MEDIA 0.0127542 0.0736407* WEALTH 2 [0.0280366] 0.3604381 *** WEALTH 4 [0.011532 [0.0335174 MS 1 0.1531981*** 0.0407369] [0.0044854 MS 2 [0.1189094*** URBAN [0.020721] [0.0474089 [0.0380914] [0.0395276* -0. Low Prevalent States Females Males Coefficients Coefficients -0.0265422] [0.0435394] [0.0205418 [0.0115258 [0.0195987] -0.0216461] 0.047981] 0.0380206] yes yes yes yes 60.0448437] [0.0342583] [0.1068765*** 0.0292282] [0.048438] 0.790 Observations LR-Chi 745.0383523] 0.2711*** [0.0852265*** 0.0880702*** 0.601 36.0406495] 0.0374 P value level.393 27.0275327] 0.0451377] 0.0990364] [0.0188781 ] 0.0583068*** [0.3 CAN A HEAL THY LOOKING PERSON HAVE AIDS PROBIT RESULTS High Prevalent States Males Females Coefficients Coefficients Independent Variables -0.0369313* EDUC 1 [0. ** = significant at the .0070449 -0.0357468] [0.2940397*** 0.0408833 [0.0327697] 0.I 0.

relevant literature. and methodology of determining the socioeconomic correlates of wealth and education. this analysis was successful in determining a significant difference in advanced knowledge between high and low AIDS prevalent states. The results were consistent with the reviewed literature in that there is a lack of basic and advanced knowledge for individuals in lower education and wealth brackets in India. However. of knowledge of AIDS between high and low AIDS prevalent states in India. theories. 54 . The data was split into two separate data sets containing groups of high AIDS prevalent states and a group of low AIDS prevalent in India to discover any variations between high and low risk groups. Using data from the NFHS-3 three survey questions and several socioeconomic statistics were used in a probit analysis to estimate the socioeconomic correlates of basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS. The main objective of this thesis was to test whether there is a difference between basic and advanced knowledge of AIDS for individuals living in high or low AIDS prevalent states in India across socioeconomic lines. specifically in knowing of ways to avoid contracting AIDS.CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION Summary The previous chapters shed light on the issues.

Until there is a readily available cure for AIDS it is essential that research continues to determine the most prone socioeconomic classes to become infected with AIDS because as policy makers target certain population sectors. the highest-risk groups will change l Suggestions/or Further Research During the course of this study. research such as the study performed in this paper is important for AIDS prevention policy makers to direct resources towards higher-risk groups. "Mixed Progress of the AIDS Epidemic. This section will suggest further methods to investigate the socioeconomic determinants of AIDS contraction. The quickest and most useful approach to enhance this analysis is to estimate the average partial effect of each independent variable. safer sexual behavior will evolve. several other research questions that can enhance this study have presented themselves. There were significant differences in basic and advanced knowledge between high and low prevalent states. The average partial effect is useful Margaret Novicki. By informing the Indian population on ways to avoid AIDS. the next step is to educate the population of ways to avoid AIDS and the effects of AIDS on the human body. Since there will not be a cure for AIDS in the near future. The first step in AIDS prevention is to ensure that India's entire population is aware that AIDS exists because if individuals are not aware of AIDS. AIDS prevention campaigns should continue to direct their efforts at the state level." Africa Recovery 11#3 (1998) 1 . educating them on the specifics of AIDS is not efficient.55 Implications Based upon this analysis. After basic knowledge AIDS is obtained.

Within the NFHS there isa state variable that can be used to condense the nationwide sample to an individual state. the results may present variations across socioeconomic lines that would be useful for state governments in the formation of future AIDS prevention campaigns. There is a series of sixteen questions that ask interviewees if they know different ways to avoid AIDS. a binomial hurdle model or a two-stage ordered probit model such as the models used in Aggarwal and ROUS'S2 paper can be estimated to discover the socioeconomic determinants of the quality of knowledge of AIDS. Along with the survey questions used in this study there are several other questions on the NFHS-3 that can be used to obtain a more in depth analysis of the level of knowledge of AIDS.56 because it calculates the change in the independent variables on the probability of the dependent variable. a more in depth research on quality of knowledge of AIDS can be performed on an individual state or a group of high and low AIDS prevalent states. Also. Awareness and Quality of Knowledge regarding HIVIAIDS among Women in India. another way to continue the research performed in this paper is to determine the socioeconomic correlates of knowledge of AIDS at the state level. Aside from using a similar probit model as used in this paper. 371-40 I. There are several survey questions 2 Aggarwal and ROlls. . Further research related to determining the socioeconomic correlates of AIDS contraction is not confined to knowledge of AIDS. By condensing the sample size to an individual state. These questions consist of questions that have been proven as a successful method to reduce the chances of being infected with AIDS and also methods that are not a way to avoid contracting AIDS under normal circumstances. Using these questions.

the decrease in HIV /AIDS prevalence rates is due to the increase in AIDS prevention programs. The success of these programs is due to studies such as the research accomplished in this paper that helps direct prevention policy makers towards high-risk groups. educating citizens on AIDS knowledge. and safer sexual practices. India is at an important point in the fight against the AIDS epidemic. . The Demographic and Health Surveys website contains every wave of the NFHS conducted thus far. Since there is an absence of a vaccine and widely available treatments for AIDS. For India. Conclusion In conclusion. The hopes and motivation behind AIDS related research is to eventually stop the spread of AIDS and win the war against the AIDS epidemic. the same analysis conducted in this paper can be researched and compared for all three waves. this consists of three different waves. The HIV / AIDS prevalence rates in India have began to decrease slightly however the epidemic can quickly reverse due to the large population of India. the second wave was conducted in 1998-1999. the first wave was conducted in 1992-1993. This would present insight on the socioeconomic classes that are responding to the AIDS prevention programs the quickest. Using data from all three waves. and the most recent wave used in this study was conducted in 2005-2006. The most complex and perhaps the most beneficial research possibility is to utilize data from different waves ofthe NFHS. which is beneficial for the formation of such programs.57 within the NFHS-3 that can be used to determine variations of sexual behavior or stigma across socioeconomic and state lines.

Booysen.. and A. T. Montagnier. and Jeffery Rous. C. Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. St. 2007. F." Health Transition Review 7 (1997): 421-465. K. J. Rimjhim. no. "Dynamics of Knowledge and Attitudes about AIDS among the Educated in Southern India. Thousand Oaks. Jeffrey. "Awareness and Quality of Knowledge regarding HIV IAIDS among Women in India. C. New Delhi: Sage Publications Inc. Rozenbaum. Wooldridge. F. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. and Subrata Lahiri.. M. Nugeyre. Brun-Vezinet. Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts. Boston. Ambati. Pindyck. Release 10 ed. 58 . "Tackling HIV in India: Evidence-Based Priority Setting and Programming. "Awareness and Knowledge of AIDS among Indian Women: Evidence from 13 States. Leo. Alexander. no." Journal of Development Studies 42. "Poverty. Journal Articles Aggarwal." Health Affairs 27. Balk." Science (1983). J. Stata Statistical Software: Release IO. Ambati. and Daniel Rubinfield. Regression Basics.. M. B. and Vulnerability to HIV Infection: Evidence from South Africa. College Station. no. 2001. Barre-Sinoussi. 3 (2006): 371-401. J-C Chermann.SOURCES CONSULTED Books Kahane. Ashok. London. Chamaret." AIDS Care 9. no. Gruest. Deborah. StataCorp. Rouzioux. Frederick. Rao. 4 (2002): 285-288. Risky Sexual Behavior. and Mariam Claeson. Texas: StataCorp. and Joy Summerton. 4 (2008). W. C. 1998. New York. 3 (06 1997): 319330. Dauguet. Robert. Louis. "Isolation of aT-Lymph tropic Retrovirus from a Patient at Risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). S. Rey." J Health Popul Nutr 20. Axler-Blin. 2002. and L. F. San Francisco: Irwin-McGraw Hill.

HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Stigma. "HIV/AIDS Epidemic in India: Risk Factors. 1 (1999): 26-32. "How does the Impact of an HIVI AIDS Information Campaign Vary with Educational Attainment? Evidence from Rural Uganda. no. Hellen Gelband. "Educational Attainment and HIV -1 Infection in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review." Policy Research Working Paper 4421. "AIDS: A Serious Challenge to Public Health. 2002." Health Promotion International 19. and Judith Glynn. "Who Gets AIDS and how?: The Determinants of HI V Infection and Sexual Behaviors in Burkina Faso. and Arild Spissoy. Michelson Institute. Xiaoming. "Socio-Economic Status. Sheela. Cameroon. Gupta." Tropical Medicine and International Health 7. Ghana. & Strategies for Prevention & Control. Chr. "HIVI AIDS Knowledge and the Implications for Health Promotion Programs among Chinese College Students: Geographic. De Walque. "When Knowledge is Not enough: HIV/AIDS Information and Risky Behavior in Botswana. Michael. Dinkelman. Ghosh. 3 (2004). 6 (2002): 489-498. Indrani. De Araujo." World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3844. Jan. no. and Sean Tunis. Pedro." (1995). Zuxin Gao." NBER Working Paper 12418. Isaksen. and Age Differences. Taryn. Sexual Behavior in India. T. Cambridge. 1 (1986): 29-30." Tropical Medicine and International Health 7. "Knowledge of HIV I AIDS among Migrant in Delhi Slums. 6 (2002): 489-498. Socio-Economic Effects of HIVIAIDS in African Countries. and Sanjay Mehendale. Laura Esslinger. James. and Bonita Santon. "Educational Attainment and HIV -1 Infection in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review. Damien. Kenya. Lucia. no. "The Determinants of HI V Infection and Related Sexual Behaviors: Evidence from Lesotho. . Gender. Li. Hargreaves. Niles Gunnar Songstad." Journal of Development Economics 84 (2006): 687-714.59 Como. "The Effectiveness of AIDS Prevention Efforts. and Tanzania. and Damien de Walque. no. Risk Behavior. James Levinsohn. Gluck. and Rolang Majelantle." CAEPR Working Paper #2008-019. Romulo Colidres." Journal of Indian Medical Association 84. no. Godbole. and Amp Mitra." 121 (2005): 356-368. K." Journal of Health & Population in Developing Countries 2. Chongde Lin.

Risk Behaviors and Beliefs about Condom use. Margaret. and Margaret Beaman. Ingvild Sandoy. and Peter Aggleton.Related Stigma and Discrimination: A Conceptual Framework and Implications for Action." Journal Immigrant Minority Health 10 (2007): 445-460. Pisani. 1 (1993): 65-71. and Catherine Hankins. "Mixed Progress of the AIDS Epidemic.60 Michelo." Journal ofAdvanced Nursing 16 (1991): 584-590." World Food Programme (2006): 1-15. 3 (29 March2005 2005): 249-259. "Education and Debate: Back to Basics in HIV Prevention: Focus on Exposure." Africa Recovery 11#3 (1998). Rios-Ellis. Nyamathi. "Marked HIV Prevalence in Higher Educated Young People: Evidence from Population Based Surveys (19952003) in Zambia. Perceptions. "Sexual Behavior in India with Risk of HIVIA IDS Transmission." 57 (2003): 13-24." (2006). Luara Hoyt D'Anna. "AIDS Related Knowledge. Strader. Marlene. Charles. "Addressing the Need for Access to Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate HIVI AIDS Prevention for Latinos. Nicholas Grassly. and Knut Fylkesnes. "HIV and AIDS. "Comparison of Selected College Students' and Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients' Knowledge about AIDS. Britt. Parker. Peter Ghys. Elizabeth. and Behaviors among Impoverished Minority Women. Pallikadavath." British Medical Journal 2008. Charles Lewis. "Literature Review on the Impact of Education Levels on HIV/AIDS Prevalence Rates. and William Stones." Health Promotion International 20." American Journal ofPublic Health 83. Maura Dwyer." 5 (1995): 293-305 . . and Carlos Ugarte. Nag. Jenny Mcwhirter. Sassendran. Adeline. Crystal Bennett. Barbara Leake. no. and Jacquelyn Flaskerud. Javier Lopez-Zentina. Moni. Richard. no. October (June 21 2003). "Rural Women's Knowledge of AIDS in the Higher Prevalence States in India: Reproductive Health and Socio-cultural Correlates. Novicki.. Janice Frates. Abdoulie Sanneh. no. World Food Programme.

"HIV / AIDS in India. Available from www.Population." (1987): 372. "'Global Statistics' in Weekly Epidemiological Record.com. De Araujo. Jan1ie. 1996). Divisions of HIV /AIDS Prevention. and China." (1999). India Available from www. The Next Wave of HIVIAIDS: Nigeria. Stigmatization and Denial. <http://aidshiv. "ISSA Dictionary Report: Recode3." in Central Intelligence Agency [database online]." UNAIDS. NFHS-3. "HIV and its Transmission. National Intelligence Council." Chicago Sun-Times.measuredhs. Robertson. India. A vailable from http://infection. 2002. 2006.suitel01. National Intelligence Council. "Proven HIV Prevention Strategies. 31 Dec. Peter Aggleton." DHS III (Version 1.com>. "AIDS Virus Spurs Body's White Blood Cells Output. "Containing HIV/AIDS in India: The Unfinished Agenda. Deodar.worldbank." in International Institute for Population Sciences [database online]." August [cited 2008]. 2008). "Is India's Population at Risk of Contracting HIV?" 13 September 2008 [cited 2008]. "Description of the Demographic and Health Surveys Individual Recode Data File.org/in "National Family and Health Surveys. Demographic and Health Surveys. Pedro." (2001). Ethiopia. Russia." (October 30. WHO. thelancet. Ritter. The Global HIV Prevention Working Group.61 Other Sources Bharat. . "India: HIV and AIDS-Related Discrimination. 2008. August [cited 2008]. gov. 1992.1 March 5. National Family Health Surveys. July [cited 2008] . "The Four Stages of HI V Infection." Special Report on AIDS (2007). John. com. India State Reports.com. Shalini. and Paul Tyrer. "AIDS Epidemic Update Asia: Regional Summary." in The World Bank [database online]. Available from http://www.cia. "Rank Order." Suitel01.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Descarregar
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->