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ME6405

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Section Objectives: Before the invention of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), most industrial control was done using relay control panels. Switches and relays can be arranged in circuits to make logical decisions. Output from these circuits can be used to drive loads such as motors, heaters, or electromagnetic coils. A relay control panel is comprised of a single to thousands of these circuits. In this Section, relay control panels will be presented.
George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Control Panel Components : Switch


2 1 3 1 3 2

Off: contacts 1 and 2 connected

On: contacts 1 and 3 connected

Pins 1 and 2 are normally closed since they are connected when the switch is off. T Pins 1 and 2 are not connected when the switch is on. Pins 1 and 3 are normally open since they are not connected when the switch is off. Pins 1 and 3 are connected when the switch is on. (Note: Although this is a toggle switch, this switch can symbolize any type of input source such as push button switches, sensors, power supplies, etc. in this lecture.) George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Control Panel Components : Coil

Coil off

Coil on

(Note: Although this is really an electromagnetic coil, this can symbolize any load such as a pump, dc motor, heating element, light, etc. for this lecture.)

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Control Panel Components : Relay


1 1

Off: Coil off, contacts 1 and 2 connected A relay is a combination of coil and switch.

ON: Coil on, contacts 1 and 3 connected

With coil off, the switch goes to its normal position off. With coil on, the switch is pulled by electromagnetic force to its on position.

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : NOT


Using one switch, a logical NOT operation can be constructed. An example is given below: NOT Switch 1 = Coil

V+
1

Switch 1
2

Coil

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : NOT (Continued)


NOT Switch 1 off = Coil on V+
1 3

Switch 1
2

Coil

NOT Switch 1 on = Coil off V+


1 3

Switch 1
2

Coil

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : AND


Using two switches, a logical AND operation can be constructed. An example is given below: Switch 1 AND Switch 2 = Coil

V+
1

Switch 1
2

Switch 2
2 1 3 3

Coil

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ME6405

Relay Logic : AND (continued)


Switch 1 off AND Switch 2 off = Coil off V+
1 1 3 3

Switch 1
2

Switch 2
2

Coil

Switch 1 on AND Switch 2 off = Coil off V+


1 1 3 3

Switch 1
2

Switch 2
2

Coil

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : AND (continued)


Switch 1 off AND Switch 2 on = Coil off V+
1 1 3 3

Switch 1
2

Switch 2
2

Coil

Switch 1 on AND Switch 2 on = Coil on V+


1 1 3 3

Switch 1
2

Switch 2
2

Coil

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : OR
Using two switches, a logical OR operation can be constructed. An example is given below: Switch 1 OR Switch 2 = Coil V+
1 3

Switch 1
2

Coil

Switch 2
2 1 3

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : OR
Switch 1 off OR Switch 2 off = Coil off V+
1 3

Switch 1
2

Coil

Switch 2
2 1 3

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : OR
Switch 1 on OR Switch 2 off = Coil on V+
1 3

Switch 1
2

Coil

Switch 2
2 1 3

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : OR
Switch 1 off OR Switch 2 on = Coil on V+
1 3

Switch 1
2

Coil

Switch 2
2 1 3

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : OR
Switch 1 on OR Switch 2 on = Coil on V+
1 3

Switch 1
2

Coil

Switch 2
2 1 3

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : XOR


Using two switches and four relays, a logical XOR operation can be constructed. An example is given below: Switch 1 XOR Switch 2 = Coil V+ Switch 1
2 1 3 3 2 3 2

V+
1

V+
1

Coil

Switch 2
2 1 3 3 2 3 2 1 1

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ME6405

Relay Logic : XOR (continued)


Switch 1 off XOR Switch 2 off = Coil off

V+

Switch 1
2 1 3 3

V+
1

V+
1

Coil
2 3 2

Switch 2
2 1 3 3 2 3 2 1 1

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : XOR (continued)


Switch 1 on XOR Switch 2 off = Coil on

V+

Switch 1
2 1 3 3

V+
1

V+
1

Coil
2 3 2

Switch 2
2 1 3 3 2 3 2 1 1

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : XOR (continued)


Switch 1 off XOR Switch 2 on = Coil on

V+

Switch 1
2 1 3 3

V+
1

V+
1

Coil
2 3 2

Switch 2
2 1 3 3 2 3 2 1 1

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Relay Logic : XOR (continued)


Switch 1 on XOR Switch 2 on = Coil off

V+

Switch 1
2 1 3 3

V+
1

V+
1

Coil
2 3 2

Switch 2
2 1 3 3 2 3 2 1 1

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Problems with relay control panels:


Mechanical Relays and switches failed regularly (coil failure, contact wear and contamination, etc.) Difficult to diagnose problems and replace relays and switches Difficult to change hardwired logic (example: changing an OR circuit to XOR) Consumed a lot of power

To address these problems, Richard E. Morley of Bedford Associates invented the first PLC as a consulting project for General Electric in 1968. Bedford Associates is currently named Modicon and is a supplier of PLCs.

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Section Objectives: Basic PLC Components needed to replace relay control panels will be presented. These include:
Isolated Power Supply Micro-controller Digital Input and Output pins ( DI/0) Memory

(Note: Advanced features such as Timers, Interrupts, Counters, etc. will not be discussed in this lecture) For this lecture, Siemens A&D S7 314C-2 PtP PLC installed in the Mechatronics Laboratory will be used as an example.
Siemens 314C-2 PtP

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ME6405

Basic PLC: Isolated Power Supply


Every PLC has an external or internal Isolated Power Supply. Isolated Power Supplies can have more than one isolated output. One isolated output is reserved for the PLC micro-controller. The rest is reserved for other components such as DI/O. Normally Power supplies are high voltage. Typically 24 Volts for industrial PLCs. The S7 314C-2 PtP PLC uses the Siemens A&D PS307 5A power supply. The PS307 5A can source 5 amps of current at 24 volts. The PS307 5A has 3 isolated outputs.
Siemens PS307 5A

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ME6405

Basic PLC: Micro-controller


Every PLC at least one micro-controller

The S7 314C-2 PtP PLC uses a custom micro-controller. Designed by Siemens A&D and manufactured by Infineon Technologies AD. Part Number: Infineon Siemens A&D IBC 16 SXA1020A-E S7 Controller Specifications not given in documentation

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ME6405

Basic PLC: Digital Inputs and Outputs (DI/Os)


DI/Os are electrically isolated from the micro-controller The number of DI/Os can be increased by adding additional DI/O modules. Example: The S7 314C-2 PtP PLC has 16 digital outputs and 24 digital inputs. Can be expanded up to 1024 DI/Os by adding additional DI/O modules.

SM232 DI/O module

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ME6405

Basic PLC: Memory Memory on a PLC is separated into 3 main areas:


LOAD Memory
Can be RAM (dynamic) or EEPROM (retentive) Used to store user programs For S7 314C-2 PtP PLC : LOAD Memory located on memory card

WORK Memory
Memory is RAM When PLC starts, Program is copied from LOAD memory to WORK memory. The program is then executed from Work memory. For S7 314C-2 PtP PLC: 48K bytes of WORK memory

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ME6405

Basic PLC: Memory ( Continued)


SYSTEM Memory
Memory is RAM Is used by micro-controller to implement counters, timers, interrupt stacks, etc.. Contains a bit for each D I/0 Contains Marker Memory. Marker memory is a free area of RAM that can be used by the programmer. (In S7 314C-2 PtP, 258 bytes are available as Marker Memory) Contains Process Input and Output Images. Periodically the PLC will store the states of the inputs to the Process Input Image and Process Output Image to the output. (In S7 314C-2 PtP, this is limited to the first 128 bytes of input information and 128 bytes of output information.)

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Section Objectives: Initially PLCs were used to directly replace relay control panels. To directly replace relay control panels based on mechanical relays with PLCs based on a micro-controller presented challenges. These challenges and solutions will be discussed.

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Transition:A Simplified Programmers Model


In the simplified programmers model of relay logic, all inputs I1, I2, .., Im go into each relay logic section. Each relay logic section then produces an output Q.

I1,I2, ,Im I1,I2, ,Im

Relay Logic Section 1 Relay Logic Section 2 . . .

Q1 Q2

I1,I2, ,Im

Relay Logic Section n

Qn

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ME6405

Transition: Relay control panel execution of Model


A relay control panel will execute all relay logic sections in parallel since each switch is capable of powering many coils at a time. If any input changes at time t0 then all the relay logic sections will update the outputs at time t1. I1,I2, ,Im changes at t0 I1,I2, ,Im changes at t0 Relay Logic Section 1 Relay Logic Section 2 . . . I1,I2, ,Im changes at t0 Relay Logic Section n Qn changes at t1 Q1 changes at t1 Q2 changes at t1

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ME6405

Transition: PLC execution of Model


A PLC will execute all relay logic sections in series since a microcontroller can execute only one instruction at a time. If any input changes at time t0 then relay logic section 1 will update Q1 at t1, relay logic section 2 will update Q2 at t2, . , and relay logic section n will update Qn at tn. I1,I2, ,Im changes at t0 I1,I2, ,Im changes at t0 Relay Logic Section 1 Relay Logic Section 2 . . . I1,I2, ,Im changes at t0 Relay Logic Section n Qn changes at tn Q1 changes at t1 Q2 changes at t2

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Transition: Differences in Relay Control Panel vs. PLC execution of Model


Difference 1:
Relay Control Panel The maximum time any change in input is reflected in any output is t1. PLC The maximum time any change in input is reflected in any output is t1+t2++tN.

Difference 2:
Relay Control Panel Since this is made from analogue components. It is possible to replace a logic section without stopping execution of other logic sections if wired correctly. PLC This is made with a digital micro-controller. The micro-controller must be halted to replace a logic section. All other logic sections will stop operation.

Difference 3:
Relay Control Panel Since parallel execution of logic sections, all outputs are a function of one set of inputs. PLC Since serial execution of logic sections, all outputs may not be a function of one set of inputs. (example: input I2 may change as the micro-controller is processing Logic section

George W. Woodruff School Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech 2. Therefore Q1 and Q2 are based onofMechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School ofdifferent inputs)

ME6405

Transition: PLC Operation


To minimize the effects of differences between the Relay Control Panel and PLC execution of the programming model, the PLC operates in the following manner:

Steps:
Warm Restart

PLC Restarts (Warm Restart) Reads Inputs and updates Process Input Image Executes User Program Once Writes Process Output Image to Outputs Take care of system processes ( such as communications with other PLCs, updating user program, etc..) Loop Back to step 2

Update Process Image Input


scan cycle

User Program

Update Process Image Output

PLC System Processes

Steps 2 through 5 is called a scan cycle. (Note: some people may refer to a PLC as a Programmable Loop Controller because of George W. Woodruff School of Mechanicalcycle loop.) Georgia Tech the scan Engineering, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Transition: PLC Operation


To Minimize Difference 1:
Time to complete a scan cycle can be set by user. If PLC violates the scan cycle, an interrupt routine can be run or the PLC will halt execution. (For S7 314C-2 PtP, maximum scan cycle allowed is 6 sec)

To Minimize Difference 2:
If a part of the user program is replaced, the new part is written first to LOAD memory. During step 5, PLC System Processes, the new part is copied into WORK memory from LOAD Memory. During the next scan cycle, the new part of the user program will be executed.

To Minimize Difference 3:
If the programmer uses the inputs stored in the Process Input Image, the user program will have access to the same inputs per scan cycle. Also if the programmer, writes outputs to the Process Output Image, all the outputs will be updated simultaneously during step 4, Update Process Output Image.

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Section Objectives: The biggest transition from relay control panels to PLCs was the transition from the hard wired relay logic to logic defined by user program. In order to allow established relay logic users to program the PLC, a visual programming language that looks like a relay control panel was created. This visual programming language is called Ladder Logic. In this section, basic Ladder Logic will be presented.

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ME6405

Ladder Logic: System Memory Addressing


To address a bit of memory

___ ___ . ___


Memory Area Notation Byte Address Bit Number

To address a byte, word, or double word

___ ___ ___


Size of Addressed Memory Notation Byte Address

Memory Area Notation

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ME6405

Ladder Logic: System Memory Addressing (continued)


Memory Area Notations:
Notation I Q M PI PQ T C L DB Memory Area Process Input Image Process Output Image Marker Memory Peripheral Input ( Actual Input Pins) Peripheral Output ( Actual Output Pins) Timer Storage Area Counter Storage Area Local Memory of current Data Block Data Block Memory

(Note: Advanced features such as Timers, Counters, Data George W.Woodruff discussed in this lecture) Blocks Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W.will not beSchool of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Ladder Logic: System Memory Addressing (continued)


Size of Addressed Memory Notations:
Notation B W D Size of Addressed Memory Byte (8 bits) Word (16 bits) Double Word (32 bits)

Byte Address: Each Memory Area is addressed in one byte increments starting at byte 0. Bit Number: MSBit is 7 and LSBit is 0
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ME6405

Ladder Logic: System Memory Addressing (continued)


Examples:
Marker Area

M1.3 (Note: only bit 3 of Marker Area byte 1)

Byte 0 Byte 1 Byte 2 Byte 3 Byte 4

MB0 MW1

MD3

Byte 5 Byte 6 Byte 7

MD4

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ME6405

Ladder Logic: System Memory Addressing (continued)


Examples:
Peripheral Input Area Byte 0

PI2.5 (Note: only bit 5 of Peripherial Input Area byte 2)

Byte 1 Byte 2 Byte 3 Byte 4 Byte 5 Byte 6 Byte 7

PIB1

PID4

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ME6405

Ladder Logic : The Ladder


A ladder logic program has a ladder look to it. The sides of the ladder are the power rail on the left and ground rail on the right. The rungs of the ladder consists of Virtual Relay Components. (Note: Rungs are called Networks in Step 7)

Virtual Relay Components Power Rail Ground Rail

Virtual Relay Components

Virtual Relay Components

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ME6405

Ladder Logic : Virtual Relays


Any Marker or Function Block memory bit can be one or more virtual relays. If memory bit is 0, the coils of virtual relays associated with the bit are off. If memory bit is 1, the coils of virtual relays associated with the bit are on. Any D I/O memory bit ( Peripheral or Process Image) is a virtual relay for a digital input or output pin of the PLC. Virtual Relay Components: Mechanical Relay
1

Normally Open Switch ( equivalent to pins 1 and 3 of Mechanical Relay. If this switch is closed for a virtual digital output relay, the digital output pin is high. If this switch is open for a virtual digital output relay, the digital output pin is low ) Normally Closed Switch ( equivalent to pins 1 and 2 of Mechanical Relay)

George W. Woodruff Schoolof Mechanical Engineering,Georgia Tech of ( equivalent to coil of Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff SchoolCoil MechanicalEngineering,Mechanical Relay. Not available for virtual digital input relays)

ME6405

Ladder Logic: Rules for converting Relay Logic to Ladder Logic


Each external switch must be connected to an input pin of a PLC. Each external coil or load must be connected to an output pin of a PLC. The relay logic must be recreated using virtual input and output relays associated with the input and output pins. Only possible paths from power to ground though virtual relays need to be recreated in Ladder Logic.

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ME6405

Ladder Logic : NOT


NOT Switch 1 = Coil
From Relay Logic: V+
1 3

Switch 1
2

Coil

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ME6405

Ladder Logic : NOT (continued)


Relay Logic rewired to include Virtual Input and Output Relays: Inside PLC V+
1 3

Switch 1
2

V+
1

V+
1

Coil

(Note: Wired to PLC Input Pin Associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.0)

Virtual Input Relay at I0.0

Virtual Output Relay at Q0.0

(Note: Wired to PLC Output Pin Associated with Virtual Output Relay Q0.0)

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ME6405

Ladder Logic : NOT (continued)


Ladder Logic Equivalent: Switch 1 is wired to PLC input pin associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.0 Coil is wired to PLC output pin associated with Virtual Output Relay Q0.0

I0.0

Q0.0

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ME6405

Ladder Logic : AND


Switch 1 AND Switch 2 = Coil
From Relay Logic: V+
1 1 3 3

Switch 1
2

Switch 2
2

Coil

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ME6405

Ladder Logic : AND (continued)


Relay Logic rewired to include Virtual Input and Output Relays: V+
1 3

Switch 1
2

V+
1

Inside PLC

(Note: Wired to PLC Input Pin Associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.0)

V+
3 2

Virtual Input Relay at I0.0


3

Coil

V+
1

Switch 2
2 1

Virtual Output Relay at Q0.0


2

(Note: Wired to PLC Output Pin Associated with Virtual Output Relay Q0.0)

(Note: Wired to PLC Input Pin Associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.1) George

W.Relay at I0.1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech Woodruff George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

Virtual Input

ME6405

Ladder Logic : AND (continued)


Ladder Logic Equivalent: Switch 1 is wired to PLC input pin associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.0 Switch 2 is wired to PLC input pin associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.1 Coil is wired to PLC output pin associated with Virtual Output Relay Q0.0 I0.0 I0.1 Q0.0

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ME6405

Ladder Logic : OR
Switch 1 OR Switch 2 = Coil
From Relay Logic: V+
1 3

Switch 1
2

Coil

Switch 2
2 1 3

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ME6405

Ladder Logic : OR (continued)


Relay Logic rewired to include Virtual Input and Output Relays: V+
1 3

Switch 1
2

V+
1

Inside PLC

(Note: Wired to PLC Input Pin Associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.0)

V+
3 2

Virtual Input Relay at I0.0


3

Coil

V+
1

Switch 2
2

V+
1

Virtual Output Relay at Q0.0


2

(Note: Wired to PLC Output Pin Associated with Virtual Output Relay Q0.0)

(Note: Wired to PLC Input Pin Associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.1) George

W.Relay at I0.1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech Woodruff George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

Virtual Input

ME6405

Ladder Logic : OR (continued)


Ladder Logic Equivalent: Switch 1 is wired to PLC input pin associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.0 Switch 2 is wired to PLC input pin associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.1 Coil is wired to PLC output pin associated with Virtual Output Relay Q0.0 I0.0 Q0.0

I0.1

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ME6405

Ladder Logic : XOR


Switch 1 OR Switch 2 = Coil
From Relay Logic: V+
2 1 3 3 2 3 2 1

V+

Switch 1

V+
1

Coil

Switch 2
2 1 3 3 2 3 2 1 1

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ME6405

Ladder Logic : XOR (continued)


Relay Logic rewired to include Virtual Input and Output Relays: Inside PLC V+
1 3

Switch 1
2

Virtual Input Relay at I0.0


V+ 1

Virtual Input Relay at I0.0


V+ 1

(Note: Wired to PLC Input Pin Associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.0)

Virtual Output Relay at Q0.0


3 2 3 2 V+ 1

Coil

V+
1

Switch 2
2 1 1 3 2

(Note: Wired to PLC Input Pin Associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.1)

(Note: Wired to PLC Output Pin Associated with Virtual Output Relay PQ0.0)

Virtual Input George W. Woodruff School of Virtual Input Engineering, Georgia Tech Mechanical George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech Relay at I0.1 Relay at I0.1

ME6405

Ladder Logic : OR (continued)


Ladder Logic Equivalent: Switch 1 is wired to PLC input pin associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.0 Switch 2 is wired to PLC input pin associated with Virtual Input Relay I0.1 Coil is wired to PLC output pin associated with Virtual Output Relay Q0.0 I0.0 I0.1 Q0.0

I0.0

I0.1

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ME6405

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Section Objectives: A micro-controller can be used for more than relay logic with virtual relays. Ladder logic has components that take advantage of the micro-controller. These components can be categorized as follows: bit logic,comparator, converter, counter, data base calls, jumps, integer functions, floating point functions, move, program control, shift/rotate, status bits, timers, and word logic. It is impossible to cover all of the components in one lecture. This lecture will first explain formatting of constants. Then, only a few categories and examples of components will be shown.
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Constants

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Constants

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Constants

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Constants

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Bit Logic
Available Bit logic components: Normally Closed Switch Normally Open Switch Output Coil Midline Output Set Coil Reset Coil Invert Power Flow Save RLO into BR Memory Bit Exclusive OR George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech Positive Edge Detection Negative Edge Detection Address Positive Edge Detection Address Negative Edge Detection Set-Reset Flip Flop Reset-Set Flip Flop Immediate Read Immediate Write

ME6405

Bit Logic example: Set Coil and Reset Coil

Description: Set Coil is executed only if power flows to the coil. When executed, the specified <address> of the element is set to "1". It will remain set even if power is removed from the coil.

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ME6405

Bit Logic example: Set Coil and Reset Coil

Description: Reset Coil is executed only if power flows to the coil. When executed, the specified <address> of the element is reset to "0". No power flow to the coil has no effect and the state of the element's specified address remains unchanged. (Note: can be used to reset timers and counters) George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

ME6405

Bit Logic example: Set Coil and Reset Coil


Example:
Switch 1 connected to Input 0.0 Switch 2 connected to Input 0.1 Coil connected to Output 0.0 If Switch 1 turns on then turn on Coil and keep it on even if Switch 1 is released. If Switch 2 turns on then turn off the Coil. I0.0 Q0.0 S I0.1 Q0.0 R George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

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Comparator
Available Comparator components (Note: Integer is Word, Double Integer is Double Word) Integer: Equal to Integer: Greater than Integer: Less than Integer: Greater than or Equal to Integer: Less than or Equal to Double Integer: Equal to Double Integer: Greater than Double Integer: Less than Double Integer: Greater than or Equal to Double Integer: Less than or Equal to Real: Equal to Real: Greater than Real: Less than Real: Greater than or Equal to Real: Less than or Equal to

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Comparator example: Integer Compares

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Comparator example: Integer Compares Example:


Coil connected to Output 0.0 If MW0 and MW2 are equal then turn on coil. Q0.0 CMP == I IN1 IN2

MW0 MW2

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Jumps
Available Jump components (Note: called Logic control in Step 7 Help) Label Unconditional Jump Conditional Jump Not conditional Jump

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Jump example: Conditional Jump

Description Conditional Jump: The micro-controller will goto the specified Label if power flows into the JUMP. (Note: a label can be assigned to any Network)

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Jump example: Label and conditional Jump


Example:
Switch 1 connected to Input 0.0 If Switch 1 turns on then jump to label END I0.0 END JMP Components

Components END Q0.0 I0.1 George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

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Integer Math
Available Integer Math components: (Note: Integer is Word, Double Integer is Double Word)

Integer: Add Integer: Subtract Integer: Multiply Integer: Divide Double Integer: Add

Double Integer: Subtract Double Integer: Multiply Double Integer: Divide Double Integer: Modulus

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Math example: Integer Add

Description: IN1 and IN2 are added and the result is stored in OUT when power is applied to EN . Power flows out of EN0 when power is applied to EN unless George W. Woodruff School George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech the addition results in overflow. of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

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Math example: Integer Add


Example:
Add 5 and integer stored at MW0. Store the result in MW2.

ADD_I EN 5 MW0 IN1 IN2 OUT MW2 EN0

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Move
Available Move components: Move

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Move example:

Description: IN is moved to Out and power flows out of EN0 when power is applied to EN. George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

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Move example:
Example:
Move 5 to MW2.

MOVE EN 5 IN1 EN0 OUT MW2

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Timer
Available Timer components: Pulse S5 Timer Extended Pulse S5 Timer On-Delay S5 Timer Retentive On-Delay S5 Timer Off-Delay S5 Timer Pulse Timer Coil Extended Pusle Timer Coil On-Delay Timer Coil Retentive On-Delay Timer Coil Off-Delay Timer Coil

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Timer example: Extended Pulse S5 Timer

Description: A power transition from OFF to ON on S will restart the timer. Power flows from Q while timer is running. The timer will run for a preset time TV. (Note: 256 timers allowed in S7 314C-PtP PLC) George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

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Timer example:
Example:
Switch 1 connected to Input 0.0 Coil is connected to Output 0.0 Turn on coil for 10 seconds if Switch 1 is turned on.

I0.0 S S5T#10s

T0 S_EXt Q BI BCD TV R

Q0.0

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Word Logic
Available Word Logic components:

AND Word OR Word XOR Word

AND Double Word OR Double Word XOR Double Word

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Word Logic example: AND Word

Description: IN1 AND IN2 is stored in OUT when power is applied to EN . Power flows out of EN0 when power is applied to EN unless the addition results in overflow. George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech

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Word Logic example: Integer Add


Example:
AND MW0 and MW2. Store the result in MW4.

WAND W EN MW0 MW2 IN1 IN2 OUT MW4 EN0

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Section Objectives: In this section two example ladder logic programs will be given.

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Example 1 :
Switch 1 connected to Input 0.0 Coil connected to Output 0.0 If Switch 1 is on then turn on and off a coil at 2 second intervals (Note: 2 second interval means a period of 4 seconds and 50% Duty cycle).

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Example 1 (Continued)
Time: Scan cycle right before t = 0s User Action : None

T0 I0.0 M0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD Q0.0

T1 I0.0 Q0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD M0.0

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Example 1 : Continued
Time:Scan cycle at t = 0 User Action: User turns Switch 1 on

T0 I0.0 M0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD Q0.0

(Note: Time left: 2 s)

T1 I0.0 Q0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD M0.0

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Example 1 : Continued
Time: Scan cycle right before t = 2s User Action: None

T0 I0.0 M0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD Q0.0

(Note: Time left: ~0)

T1 I0.0 Q0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD M0.0

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Example 1 : Continued
Time: Scan cycle at t = 2 s User Action: None

(Note: There is an inconsistency in this picture. The power is still flowing though the normally closed contact for M0.0 on the first rung even though the coil on the second rung for M0.0 is on. This is due to the serial nature of the PLC micro-controller. Since the first rung is evaluated first, the coil was still off when the micro-controller evaluated the normally closed contact for M0.0) T0 S_EXt Q0.0 (Note: Time left 0 s)

I0.0

M0.0 S5T#2s

S Q TV BI R BCD

T1 I0.0 Q0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD M0.0 (Note: Time left: 2 s)

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Example 1 : Continued
Time: Scan cycle right after t = 2 s User Action: None

(Note: Inconsistency from the previous slide resolved)

T0 I0.0 M0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD

Q0.0

T1 I0.0 Q0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD M0.0 (Note: Time left: 2 s 1 scan cycle time)

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Example 1 : Continued
Time: Scan cycle right before t = 4 s User Action: None

T0 I0.0 M0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD Q0.0

T1 I0.0 Q0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD M0.0 (Note: Time left: ~0 s)

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Example 1 : Continued
Time: Scan cycle at t = 4 s User Action: None

T0 I0.0 M0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD Q0.0

T1 I0.0 Q0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD M0.0 (Note: Time left: 0 s)

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Example 1 : Continued
Time: Scan cycle right after t = 4 s User Action: None

I0.0

M0.0

(Note: A once scan cycle error has been introduced in the timing. The reason is that the coil of M0.0 on the second rung was turned off during the scan cycle at t = 4s. The normally closed switch of M0.0 is not evaluated again until the scan cycle after the scan cycle at t = 4 s. Therefore, Timer T0 starts one scan cycle after t = 4. This error will propagate and similar errors will accumulate. ) T0 Q0.0 S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD (Note: Time left: 2 s)

S5T#2s

T1 I0.0 Q0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD M0.0

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Example 1 : Continued
Time: Some time later User Action: User turns Switch 1 off

T0 I0.0 M0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD

Q0.0

T1 I0.0 Q0.0 S5T#2s S_EXt S Q TV BI R BCD M0.0

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Example 1 :
Comments: As this example illustrates, consistent timing is difficult to achieve with a PLC due to the scan cycle. This is the reason why PLCs are not used to control systems with very fast time constants such as CNC machines, chemical mixers, etc.

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Example 2 :
Switch 1 connected to Input 0.0 A Hall effect switch is connected to Input 0.1 (Note: a Hall effect switch will turn on when a magnetic object comes in close proximity) The motor for a conveyer belt is connected to Output 0.0 (Note: As previously mentioned, a coil can be any load such as a motor during these lectures.) If Switch 1 is turned on, the conveyer belt will transport 1000 magnetic SHAFTS to Georgia Tech Students. Switch 1 must be turned off then on to send another 1000 magnetic SHAFTS. The hall affect switch is positioned right under the conveyer belt and can be used to count the SHAFTS as they pass by.

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Example 2 (Continued)
Time: Scan cycle right before t = 0s Actions : no part near hall effect switch I0.0 M0.0 Q0.0
0 Move EN EN0 MW1 IN1 OUT

Q0.0
S

M0.0
S

I0.0

M0.0
R CMP == I 1001 IN1 IN2 ADD_I EN 1 IN1 IN2 OUT MW1 MW1 EN0 MW1

Q0.0
R

I0.1

M0.1

M0.1
S

I0.1

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M0.1

Example 2 (Continued)
Time: Scan cycle at t = 0s Actions : Switch 1 is turned on, no SHAFT near hall effect switch I0.0 M0.0 Q0.0
0

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(Note: There is an inconsistency. Power is still flowing though normally closed contact for M0.0 even though the coil M0.0 is on. Since the components on a rung is evaluated from left to right, coil for M0.0 when micro-controller evaluated the normally closed contact for M0.0 was still off. Same for PQ0.0)
Move EN EN0 MW1 IN1 OUT

Q0.0
S

M0.0
S

I0.0

M0.0
R CMP == I 1001 IN1 IN2 ADD_I EN 1 IN1 IN2 OUT MW1 MW1 EN0 MW1

Q0.0
R

I0.1

M0.1

M0.1
S

I0.1

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M0.1

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Example 2 (Continued)
Time: Scan cycle right after t = 0s Actions : no SHAFT near hall effect switch I0.0 M0.0 Q0.0
0

(Note: Inconsistency from previous slide resolved. The conveyer is still moving because of the Set coil.)

Move EN EN0 MW1 IN1 OUT

Q0.0
S

M0.0
S

I0.0

M0.0
R CMP == I 1001 IN1 IN2 ADD_I EN 1 IN1 IN2 OUT MW1 MW1 EN0 MW1

Q0.0
R

I0.1

M0.1

M0.1
S

I0.1

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M0.1

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Example 2 (Continued)

(Note: Similar Inconsistency between normally closed switch of M0.1 and coil of M0.1 as seen with normally closed switch of M0.0 and coil of M0.0)

Time: t = t1 Actions : SHAFT approaches hall effect switch, 1 is added to MW1 I0.0 M0.0 Q0.0
0 Move EN EN0 MW1 IN1 OUT

Q0.0
S

M0.0
S

I0.0

M0.0
R CMP == I 1001 IN1 IN2 ADD_I EN 1 IN1 IN2 OUT MW1 MW1 EN0 MW1

Q0.0
R

I0.1

M0.1

M0.1
S

I0.1

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M0.1

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(Note: Inconsistency from previous slide resolved.)

Example 2 (Continued)
Time: t = t1 + 1 scan cycle Actions : SHAFT passes over hall effect switch I0.0 M0.0 Q0.0
0 Move EN EN0 MW1 IN1 OUT

Q0.0
S

M0.0
S

I0.0

M0.0
R CMP == I 1001 IN1 IN2 ADD_I EN 1 IN1 IN2 OUT MW1 MW1 EN0 MW1

Q0.0
R

I0.1

M0.1

M0.1
S

I0.1

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M0.1

ME6405

Example 2 (Continued)
Time: t = t1 + 2 scan cycle Actions : no SHAFT near hall effect switch I0.0 M0.0 Q0.0
0

(Note: Inconsistency between the set and reset of M0.1. That is because coil is still set when the third rung is evaluated.)

Move EN EN0 MW1 IN1 OUT

Q0.0
S

M0.0
S

I0.0

M0.0
R CMP == I 1001 IN1 IN2 ADD_I EN 1 IN1 IN2 OUT MW1 MW1 EN0 MW1

Q0.0
R

I0.1

M0.1

M0.1
S

I0.1

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M0.1

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(Note: Inconsistency between the set and reset of M0.1 resolved.)

Example 2 (Continued)
Time: t = t1 + 3 scan cycle Actions : no SHAFT near hall effect switch I0.0 M0.0 Q0.0
0 Move EN EN0 MW1 IN1 OUT

Q0.0
S

M0.0
S

I0.0

M0.0
R CMP == I 1001 IN1 IN2 ADD_I EN 1 IN1 IN2 OUT MW1 MW1 EN0 MW1

Q0.0
R

I0.1

M0.1

M0.1
S

I0.1

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M0.1

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Example 2 (Continued)
Time: t = t2 Actions : the 1001th SHAFT approaches hall effect switch (so 1000 have been delivered) I0.0 M0.0 Q0.0
0 Move EN EN0 MW1 IN1 OUT

Q0.0
S

M0.0
S

I0.0

M0.0
R CMP == I 1001 IN1 IN2 ADD_I EN 1 IN1 IN2 OUT MW1 MW1 EN0 MW1

Q0.0
R

I0.1

M0.1

M0.1
S

I0.1

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M0.1

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Example 2 (Continued)

(Note: Inconsistency between the set and reset of PQ0.0. That is because coil is still set when the first rung is evaluated.)

Time: t = t2+ 1 scan cycle Actions : the conveyer is stopped with 1001th SHAFT over the Hall effect switch I0.0 M0.0 Q0.0
0 Move EN EN0 MW1 IN1 OUT

Q0.0
S

M0.0
S

I0.0

M0.0
R CMP == I 1001 IN1 IN2 ADD_I EN 1 IN1 IN2 OUT MW1 MW1 EN0 MW1

Q0.0
R

I0.1

M0.1

M0.1
S

I0.1

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M0.1

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(Note: Inconsistency from previous slide resolved.)

Example 2 (Continued)
Time: t = t2+ 1 scan cycle Actions : the conveyer is stopped. Switch 1 must be turned off and on to deliver 1000 more I0.0 M0.0 Q0.0
0 Move EN EN0 MW1 IN1 OUT

Q0.0
S

M0.0
S

I0.0

M0.0
R CMP == I 1001 IN1 IN2 ADD_I EN 1 IN1 IN2 OUT MW1 MW1 EN0 MW1

Q0.0
R

I0.1

M0.1

M0.1
S

I0.1

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M0.1

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Example 2 :
Comments: This and the previous example illustrates that the serial nature of the PLC micro-controller can still affect program execution. Also, this program can be simplified using an positive edge detection coil. This was not done because the positive edge detection coil was not an example in Section 5.

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So far we have looked at topics applicable to all PLCs. Further Study Should focus on: Topics applicable to some but not all PLCs: Interrupts Counters A/D Function Blocks

Communication Protocol: Profibus How to use communications to communicate with other PLCs, smart actuators and sensors, etc

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