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Bilal Ahmad Investigating the effect of caffeine on the heart rate of Daphnia

L6NMF

Introduction Daphnia are crustaceans, commonly found in ponds and lakes and widely sold as live fish food, these animals are fascinating objects for observation and study in their own right. They feed by filtering minute particles, such as bacteria and algae, from the fresh water in which they live. In the water flea Daphnia, the single, small heart is easily visible when viewed under transmitted light under a low power microscope. The heart rate (which can be up to 300 beats per minute) can be monitored and counted in different conditions for example changing water temperature, or changing the type and concentration of chemicals added to the water. A change in Daphnia heart rate may not be a predictor of a similar change in humans. Hypothesis I believe that a Daphnia subjected to a caffeine solution will show a rise in heart rate, this rise in heart rate should reflect the concentration of caffeine in a given solution. My theory can be backed up well, as caffeine is a stimulant that speeds up the body affecting the nervous system and rate in which the nerve pulses are sent and received in humans. Apparatus Culture of Daphnia Justification Accuracy

Dropping pipettes/Gradation pipette Standard glassware (beakers, measuring cylinders etc.) Microscope

Caffeine solution

This will be used to drop the caffeine solution into the slide. Measuring cylinder would be used to measure the caffeine solution. We are using a microscope is because it will show the Daphnia using a light making it easier to see its translucent body. The caffeine solution will be diluted with distilled water to see different levels of caffeine effect on the Daphnia.

The gradation pipette would be more accurate as it has smaller measurements. Measuring cylinder will be more accurate as we are using small amounts . The heartbeats per minute will be easier to see as the light will illuminate the body of the daphnia.

The accuracy of the solution will depend on the glassware used to measure this.

Risk Assessment

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Bilal Ahmad

L6NMF

Care must be taken not to distress the animals unduly. It is generally held that it is unethical to inflict unnecessary suffering on animals. Many people do not believe that this needs to apply to invertebrates, as they believe they have no feeling or do not feel pain. However, most invertebrates do have nervous systems and probably do feel pain. Some religions ban all experimenting on animals, including invertebrates. Other risks are normal laboratory rules such as keep glassware in safe place without it being in jeopardy of breaking. Care should be taken when mixing solutions. All safety hazards and guidelines that apply to any chemicals used should be followed. Variables How do they affect the experiment? In theory the more caffeine added to the daphnia it will increase the heart rate of it. How are they controlled?

Independent variable Caffeine content

Dependent variable heart beats Other- control such as temperature and lighting

This is what we are investigating and will tell us if caffeine affects the heart rate of Daphnia. Temperature and lighting might affect the heart rate of the daphnia e.g. lowering heart rate thus affecting results.

This is controlled by making sure we change the caffeine contents by diluting it but also the same amount of one solution should be used for all of them. This is controlled by the change in caffeine which is the independent variable We our not able to control these conditions constantly as we do the experiment In a classroom were the temperature changes often.

Method The animal is placed in a cavity slide in a drop of water. The low power objective of a microscope is used to view it, and the number of beats in 30 seconds is counted. This can be repeated three times and an average can be calculated. Before all of this the original heartbeats in a minute need to be taken three times as well. Results table 1 Caffeine 5% solution (cm3) 10% 15% 20% 2 3 Average Number of heart beats every minute.

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Bilal Ahmad

L6NMF