Power Electronics and

Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
1
DC Motor Drive
• General Concept
• Speed Control
• SCR Drives
• Switched-mode DC Drives
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
2
DC Motor
• Advantages of DC motor:
– Ease of control
– Deliver high starting torque
– Near-linear performance
• Disadvantages:
– High maintenance
– Large and expensive (compared to induction
motor)
– Not suitable for high-speed operation due to
commutator and brushes
– Not suitable in explosive or very clean
environment
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
3
DC Motor Drives
• The DC drive is relatively simple and cheap
(compared to induction motor drives). But DC
motor itself is more expensive.
• Due to the numerous disadvantages of DC motor
(esp. maintenance), it is getting less popular,
particularly in high power applications.
• For low power applications the cost of DC motor
plus drives is still economical.
• For servo application, DC drives is still popular
because of good dynamic response and ease of
control.
• Future Trend? Not so bright prospect for DC, esp. in
high power drives.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
4
Separately Excited DC Motor
• The field windings is used to excite the field flux.
• Armature current is supplied to the rotor via brush
and commutator for the mechanical work.
• Interaction of field flux and armature current in the
rotor produces torque.
v
a
, V
a
v
f
, I
f
L
a
R
a
L
f
R
f
i
a
, I
a
i
f
, I
f
E
g
ω
T
d
J
B
T
L
+
+
+



Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
5
Operation
• When a separately excited motor is excited by a
field current of i
f
and an armature current of i
a
flows in the circuit, the motor develops a back emf
and a torque to balance the load torque at a
particular speed.
• The i
f
is independent of the i
a
.Each windings are
supplied separately. Any change in the armature
current has no effect on the field current.
• The i
f
is normally much less than the i
a
.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
6
Field and armature equations
rad/sec) (in speed motor the is and
rad/s) - V/A (in constant age motor volt the is
: as expressed is voltage, speed as known
also is which emf, back motor The
ly. respective inductor, and
resistor armature the are and where
: current armature ous Instantane
ly respective inductor, and
resistor field the are and where
: current field ous Instantane
ω
ω
v
f v g
f f
g
a
a a a a
f f
f
f f f f
K
i K e
L R
e
dt
di
L i R v
L R
dt
di
L i R v
=
+ + =
+ =
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
7
Basic torque equation
) (kg.m motor the of inertia :
(N.m) torque load :
) (N.m/rad/s constant, friction viscous :
where
: i.e. inertia, and
friction the plus torque load the to equal be must
torque developed the operation, normal For
: as written is it Sometimes
rad/s) - V/A (in
constant. torque the is ) ( where
: is motor by the develped torque The
2
J
T
B
T B
dt
d
J T
i K T
K K
i i K T
L
L d
a t d
v t
a f t d
+ + =
=
=
=
ω
ω
φ
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
8
Steady-state operation
f v a a g a a a
f v g
f f f
I K R I E R I V
I K E
R I V
ω
ω
+ = + =
=
=
circuit armature The
: by given is emf back The
circuit, field For
saturated. not is motor the Assuming zero. is
s derivative time , operations state - steady Under
R
f
R
a
I
a
L
a
I
f
E
g
L
f
+

+ +

V
a

V
a
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
9
Steady-state torque and speed
ω
ω
ω
ω
d d
L a f t d
f v
a
a
a
f v
a a a
T P
T B I I K T
I K
V
I
R
I K
R I V
=
+ = =
=

=
: is power required The
: is torque developed The
tage. supply vol on the only depends speed motor
the constant, kept is current field the if is That

small, is i.e. loaded, lightly is motor the
or when usual), is (which value small a is If
: derived easily be can speed motor The
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
10
Torque and speed control
• From the derivation, several important
facts can be deduced for steady-state
operation of DC motor.
• For a fixed field current, or flux (I
f
) , the
torque demand can be satisfied by varying
the armature current (I
a
).
• The motor speed can be varied by:
– controlling V
a
(voltage control)
– controlling V
f
(field control)
• These observations leads to the
application of variable DC voltage to
control the speed and torque of DC motor.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
11
Example 1
• Consider a 500V, 10kW , 20A rated- DC motor
with armature resistance of 1 ohm. When supplied
at 500V, the UNLOADED motor runs at 1040
rev/min, drawing a current of 0.8A (ideally current
is zero at no-load).
– Estimate the full load speed at rated values
– Estimate the no-load speed at 250V.
rad/sec) strictly equation this reality, in : (Note
rev/min 519
48 . 0
) 1 ( 8 . 0 250
250V, at voltage and load - no At
rev/min 1000
48 . 0
) 1 ( 20 500
value, rated and load full At
48 . 0
1040
) 1 ( 8 . 0 500
=

=

=
+ =
=

=

=
=

=

=
+ = + =
f v
a a a
f v a a a
f v
a a a
fl
a a a
f v
f v a a g a a a
I K
R I V
I K R I V
I K
R I V
R I V
I K
I K R I E R I V
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
12
Variable speed operation
• Family of steady-state torque speed curves for a
range of armature voltage can be drawn as above.
• The speed of DC motor can simply be set by
applying the correct voltage.
• Note that speed variation from no-load to full load
(rated) can be quite small. It depends on the
armature resistance.
500 Speed (rev/min)
Torque
1000
750 250
500V 375V 250V
125V
Rated torque)
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
13
Base Speed and Field-weakening
• Base speed:ω
base
– the speed which correspond to the rated V
a
, rated I
a
and rated I
f
.
• Constant Torque region (ω > ω
base
, )
– I
a
and I
f
are maintained constant to met torque
demand. V
a
is varied to control the speed. Power
increases with speed.
• Constant Power region (ω > ω
base
, )
– V
a
is maintained at the rated value and i
f
is reduced to
increase speed . However, the power developed by
the motor (= torque x speed) remains constant.
Known as field weakening.
ω
base
ω
Torque
Power
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
14
Four quadrant operation
1
2
3
4
A
C
D
TORQUE
SPEED
FORWARD
MOTORING
REVERSE
MOTORING
REVERSE
GENERATING
B
FORWARD
GENERATING
v
a
e
g
i
a
i
a
= +; T
e
= +
v
a
= +; ω = +
i
a
= − ; T
e
= −
v
a
= + ; ω
m
= +
ω
m
T
e
e
g
v
a
i
a
= − ; T
e
= −
v
a
= − ; ω
m
= −
i
a
i
a
= +; T
e
= +
v
a
= −; ω = −
i
a
v
a
e
g
e
g
v
a
i
a
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
15
Regenerative Braking (in Q2)
• Say the motor running at position A. Suddenly v
a
is
reduced (below e
g
). The current ia will reverse
direction.Operating point is shifted to B.
• Since i
a
is negative, torque T
e
is negative.
• Power is also negative, which implies power is
“generated” back to the supply.
• In other words, during the deceleration phase,
kinetic energy from the motor and load inertia is
returned to the supply.
• This is known as regenerative braking-an efficient
way to brake a motor. Widely employ in electric
vehicle and electric trains. If we wish the motor to
operate continuously at position B, the machine
have to be driven by mechanical source.
• The mechanical source is a “prime mover”.
• We must force the prime mover it to run faster so
that the generated e
g
will be greater than v
a
.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
16
Drive types
• SCR “phase-angle controlled” drive
– By changing the firing angle, variable DC
output voltage can be obtained.
– Single phase (low power) and three phase (high
and very high power) supply can be used
– The line current is unidirectional, but the output
voltage can reverse polarity. Hence 2- quadrant
operation is inherently possible.
– 4-quadrant is also possible using “two sets” of
controlled rectifiers.
• Switched-mode drive
– Using switched mode DC-DC converter. Dc
voltage is varied by duty cycle.
– Mainly used for low to medium power range.
– Single-quadrant converter (buck): 1- quadrant
– Half bridge: 2-quadrant
– Full bridge: 4-quadrant operation
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
17
Thyristor/SCR drives
• Mains operated.
• Variable DC voltages are obtained from SCR firing
angle control.
• Slow response.
• Normally field rectifier have much lower ratings
than the armature rectifier. It is only used to
establish the flux.
Speed
reference
Three/single phase supply
Single phase supply
Control
and
SCR
firing
Current
sensor
Tachometer Current
Speed
M
T
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
18
Continuous/Discontinuous current
• The key reason for successful DC drive operation is
due to the large armature inductance L
a
.
• Large L
a
allows for almost constant armature
current (with small ripple) due to “current filtering
effect of L”. (Refer to notes on Rectifier).
• Average value of the ripple current is zero. No
significant effect on the torque.
• If L
a
is not large enough, or when the motor is
lightly loaded, or if supply is single phase (half-
wave), discontinuous current may occur.
• Effect of discontinuous current: Output voltage of
rectifier rises; motor speed goes higher. In open-
loop operation the speed is poorly regulated.
• Worthwhile to add extra inductance in series with
the armature inductance.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
19
Basic single-phase drive
f
m
f
g
a
g a
a
a
m
a
V
V
E
R
E V
I
V
V
α
π
α
π
cos
2
: voltage Field
emf back the is ;
: is current (DC) Armature
cos
2
: is voltage armature current, continuous For
=

=
=
+
v
s
_
I
a
T
a1
T
a2
T
a3
+
+

V
a
R
a
T
a4
L
a
E
g

I
f
+
v
s
_
T
f1
T
f2
T
f3
+

L
f
T
f4
L
f
V
f
ARMATURE
FIELD
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
20
Basic three-phase drive
f
m
f
E
a
E a
a
a
L L
m
a
V
V
V
R
V V
I
V
V
α
π
α
π
cos
2
: field for used is phase single If
emf back the is ;
: current (DC) Armature
cos
3
: voltage Armature

,
=

=
=

I
a
T
a1
+
+

V
a
R
a
L
a
E
g

T
a3
T
a2
T
a6
_ v
cn
+
n
_ v
bn
+
_ v
an
+
T
a5
T
a4
+

L
f
L
f
V
f
I
f
ARMATURE FIELD
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
21
Example 2
o
f a
f m
a
f a
f
a
m
a f
f E
E
E a a a
a
m
a
f
V
KI R
KI
T
V
KI R
KI
T V
I KI T
KI V
V
V R I V
V
V
KI
32 . 62
60
200
2 5 . 2 2
5 . 2
60
240 2 2
cos
2
cos
cos
2
and
5 . 2
i.e emf, back the is Where

And
cos
2
current, continuous For
. continuous is current the Assume
rpm. 200 at opearte motor to for the angle g triggerin the
Calculate ohm. 2 is resistance armature the and 2.5 motor
the of constant field The supply. ac 240V a to connected
converter wave - full s by driven is motor The Nm. 60 of
load orque constsnt t a has motor DC excited saperately A
1
1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
× × +
|
.
|

\
|
×
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ¬
=
= =
+ =
=
=


π
π
ω
π
α
ω α
π
ω ω
α
π
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
22
Example 3
A rectifier-DC motor drive is supplied by a three-phase, full
controlled SCR bridge 240Vrms/50Hz per-phase. The field is
supplied by a single-phase 240V rms/50Hz, with uncontrolled
diode bridge rectifier. The field current is set as maximum as
possible.
The separately excited DC motor characteristics is given as
follows:
Armature resistance:R
a
= 0.3 ohm
Field resistance: R
f
=175 ohm
Motor constant: K
V
=1.5 V/A-rad/s
Assume the inductance of the armature and field circuit is large
enough to ensure continuous and ripple-free currents. If the
delay angle of the armature converter (α
a
) is 45 degrees and the
required armature current is 30A,
• a) Calculate the developed torque, T
d
.
• b) Speed of the motor, ω (rad/s)
• c) If the polarity of the field current is reversed, the motor
back emf will reverse. For the same armature current of 30A,
determine the required delay angle of the armature converter.
Nm I I K T
A
V
R
V
I
V
V
V a
a f v d
f
f
f
f
m
f
58 . 55 30 235 . 1 5 . 1
235 . 1
175
216
216 0 cos
240 2 2
cos
2
) (
0. maximum, is current fiels the Since
= × × = =
= = = ¬
=
×
= =
=
π
α
π
α
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
23
Example 3 (cont)
o
L L m
a
a
a
L L m
a
a a g a
g
a a a g
o
a
L L m
a
a
a a a g
f v
g
V
V
V
V
Also
V R I E V
V E
V
V R I V E
V
V
V
R I V E
I K
E
4 . 132
240 2 3 3
) 5 . 378 (
cos
3
cos
cos
3
,
3 . 378 3 . 0 30 3 . 387
and
3 . 387
then reversed, is field of polarity the Now (c)
sec / rad 06 . 209
235 . 1 5 . 1
3 . 387
3 . 387 3 . 0 30 3 . 396
3 . 396 45 cos
240 2 3 3
cos
3
, 45 with phase - by three supplied is armature The
speed Motor (b)
1
,
1
,
,
o
=
|
.
|

\
|
× ×
− ×
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
=
=
− = × + − = + =
− =
=
×
= ¬
= × − = − =
=
× × ×
= =
=
− =
=





π π
α
α
π
ω
π
α
π
α
ω
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
24
Reversal
• DC motor in inherently bi-directional. Hence no-
problem to reverse the direction. It can be a motor
or generator.
• But the rectifier is unidirectional, because the SCR
are unidirectional devices.
• However, if the rectifier is fully controlled, it can be
operated to become negative DC voltage, by
making firing angle greater than 90 degrees,
• Reversal can be achieved by:
– armature reversal using contactors (2-
quadrant)
– field reversal using contactors (2-quadrant)
– double converter (full 4-quadrants)
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
25
Reversal using armature or field
contactors
FIELD
DRIVE REVERSING USING ARMATURE OR FIELD CONTACTORS
CONTACTOR
CONTACTOR AT THE ARMATURE
SIDE (SINGLE PHASE SYSTEM)
Vs
Va Eg
Va
Eg
Va Eg
1
2
1
2
CONTACTOR AT
1
POSITION
(MOTORING)
CONTACTOR AT
2 POSITION
(BRAKING/
GENERATION)
CONTACTOR AT
2
POSITION
(RESERVE)
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
26
Reversing using double converters
converter 1 converter 2
FIELD
Vs
Principle of reversal
Practical circuit
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
27
Switched–mode DC drives
• Supply is DC (maybe from rectified-filtered AC, or
some other DC sources).
• DC-DC converters (coppers) are used.
• suitable for applications requiring position control
or fast response, for example in servo applications,
robotics, etc.
• Normally operate at high frequency
– the average output voltage response is
significantly faster
– the armature current ripple is relatively less
than the controlled rectifier
• In terms of quadrant of operations, 3 possible
configurations are possible:
– single quadrant,
– two–quadrant
– and four–quadrant
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
28
Single-quadrant drive
• Unidirectional speed. Braking not required.
f v
a
a
g a
a
on
t
a
I K
V
R
E V
I
DV
T
t
Vdt
T
V
T t
on
=

=
= = =
< <
}
ω
: as ed approximat be can speed and
;
: is current (DC) Armature
1
: state steady at voltage armature The
, 0 For
0
i
a
v
a
t
on
T
i
a
Torque ( i
a
)
a)
Q4 Q1
Q2
Q3
ω (v
a
)
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
29
2 Quadrant DC drives
• FORWARD MOTORING (T1 and D2 operate)
– T1 on: The supply is connected to motor terminal.
– T1 off: The armature current freewheels through
D2.
– Va (hence speed) is determined by the duty ratio.
• REGENERATION (T2 and D1 operate)
– T2 on: motor acts as a generator
– T2 off:, the motor acting as a generator returns
energy to the supply through D2.
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Torque
ω
+
v
a

T2
D2
D1
T1
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
30
4 Quadrant DC drives
• A full-bridge DC-DC converter is used.
+ v
a

T1 T3
T2
T4
D1
D4
D3
D2
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Torque
ω
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
31
4-quadrant: Forward motoring
• T1 and T2 operate; T3 and T4 off.
• T1 and T2 turn on together: the supply voltage appear
across the motor terminal. Armature current rises.
• T1 and T2 turn off: the armature current decay through
D3 and D4
+ v
a

T1 T3
T2
T4
D1
D4
D3
D2
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
32
Regeneration
• T1, T2 and T3 turned off.
• When T4 is turned on, the armature current rises
through T4 and D2.
• When T4 is turned off, the motor, acting as a generator,
returns energy to the supply through D1 and D2.
+ v
a

T1 T3
T2
T4
D1
D4
D3
D2
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
33
Reverse motoring
• T3 and T3 operate; T1 and T2 off.
• When T3 and T4 are on together, the armature current
rises and flows in reverse direction.
• Hence the motor rotates in reverse direction.
• When T3 and T4 turn off, the armature current decays
through D1 and D2.
+ v
a

T1 T3
T2
T4
D1
D4
D3
D2
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
34
Reverse generation
• T1, T3 and T4 are off.
• When T1 is on, the armature current rises through T2
and D4.
• When Q2 is turned off, the armature current falls and
the motor returns energy to the supply through D3 and
D4.
+ v
a

T1 T3
T2
T4
D1
D4
D3
D2

DC Motor
• Advantages of DC motor: – Ease of control – Deliver high starting torque – Near-linear performance • Disadvantages: – High maintenance – Large and expensive (compared to induction motor) – Not suitable for high-speed operation due to commutator and brushes – Not suitable in explosive or very clean environment

Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

2

DC Motor Drives
• The DC drive is relatively simple and cheap (compared to induction motor drives). But DC motor itself is more expensive. • Due to the numerous disadvantages of DC motor (esp. maintenance), it is getting less popular, particularly in high power applications. • For low power applications the cost of DC motor plus drives is still economical. • For servo application, DC drives is still popular because of good dynamic response and ease of control. • Future Trend? Not so bright prospect for DC, esp. in high power drives.

Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

3

Ia + va. • Interaction of field flux and armature current in the rotor produces torque.Separately Excited DC Motor ia. UTMJB 4 . Va La Ra + Eg Lf Rf J if. Zainal Salam. If − − − ω Td B TL • The field windings is used to excite the field flux. • Armature current is supplied to the rotor via brush and commutator for the mechanical work. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. If + vf.

Each windings are supplied separately. the motor develops a back emf and a torque to balance the load torque at a particular speed. Any change in the armature current has no effect on the field current.Operation • When a separately excited motor is excited by a field current of if and an armature current of ia flows in the circuit. Zainal Salam. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. • The if is independent of the ia . • The if is normally much less than the ia. UTMJB 5 .

The motor back emf. UTMJB 6 .Field and armature equations Instantaneous field current : di f vf = Rf if + Lf dt where R f and L f are the field resistor and inductor. is expressed as : e g = K v ωi f K v is the motor voltage constant (in V/A . which is also known as speed voltage. Zainal Salam. respectively.rad/s) and ω is the motor speed (in rad/sec) Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. respectively Instantaneous armature current : dia va = Ra ia + La + eg dt where R f and L f are the armature resistor and inductor.

rad/s) Sometimes it is written as : Td = K tφia For normal operation.m/rad/s) TL : load torque (N.Basic torque equation The torque develped by the motor is : Td = K t i f ia where ( K t = K v ) is the torque constant.m) J : inertia of the motor (kg. : dω Td = J + Bω + TL dt where B : viscous friction constant. Zainal Salam. UTMJB 7 .e. i. (N. (in V/A .m 2 ) Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. the developed torque must be equal to the load torque plus the friction and inertia.

time derivatives is zero.Steady-state operation Ia + Va − Ra La + Eg − Rf Lf If + Va − Under steady . Vf = I f Rf The back emf is given by : E g = K vωI f The armature circuit Va = I a Ra + E g = I a Ra + K vωI f Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Assuming the motor is not saturated. For field circuit. UTMJB 8 . Zainal Salam.state operations.

or when the motor is lightly loaded.Steady-state torque and speed The motor speed can be easily derived : V −I R ω= a a a Kv I f If Ra is a small value (which is usual).e. I a is small. Zainal Salam. ω= Va Kv I f That is if the field current is kept constant. i. The developed torque is : Td = K t I f I a = Bω + TL The required power is : Pd = Td ω Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. UTMJB 9 . the motor speed depends only on the supply voltage.

UTMJB 10 . the torque demand can be satisfied by varying the armature current (Ia). or flux (If) . Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. several important facts can be deduced for steady-state operation of DC motor. • For a fixed field current. Zainal Salam. • The motor speed can be varied by: – controlling Va (voltage control) – controlling Vf (field control) • These observations leads to the application of variable DC voltage to control the speed and torque of DC motor.Torque and speed control • From the derivation.

48 At no .8(1) ω= a a a = = 519 rev/min Kv I f 0. 10kW .48 ω 1040 At full load and rated value. this equation strictly rad/sec) Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam. – Estimate the full load speed at rated values – Estimate the no-load speed at 250V. the UNLOADED motor runs at 1040 rev/min. Va = I a Ra + K vωI f V −I R 250 − 0. Va = I a Ra + E g = I a Ra + K vωI f V −I R 500 − 0. UTMJB 11 .8(1) Kv I f = a a a = = 0. ω fl = Va − I a Ra 500 − 20(1) = = 1000 rev/min Kv I f 0.8A (ideally current is zero at no-load).DC motor with armature resistance of 1 ohm. 20A rated.48 (Note : in reality.load and voltage at 250V. When supplied at 500V. drawing a current of 0.Example 1 • Consider a 500V.

It depends on the armature resistance.Variable speed operation Torque 125V 250V 375V Rated torque) 500V 250 500 750 1000 Speed (rev/min) • Family of steady-state torque speed curves for a range of armature voltage can be drawn as above. Zainal Salam. • Note that speed variation from no-load to full load (rated) can be quite small. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. UTMJB 12 . • The speed of DC motor can simply be set by applying the correct voltage.

Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. ) – Va is maintained at the rated value and if is reduced to increase speed . Known as field weakening. However. Zainal Salam. • Constant Torque region (ω > ωbase.Base Speed and Field-weakening Torque Power ωbase ω • Base speed:ωbase – the speed which correspond to the rated Va. • Constant Power region (ω > ωbase. the power developed by the motor (= torque x speed) remains constant. rated Ia and rated If. UTMJB 13 . Va is varied to control the speed. Power increases with speed. ) – Ia and If are maintained constant to met torque demand.

Four quadrant operation ia ia eg va TORQUE Te eg va ia = +. Te = − va = + . Te = + va = +. Te = − va = − . ω = − REVERSE GENERATING D A ia = +. ω m= − ia = − . Zainal Salam. ω = + FORWARD MOTORING SPEED 4 1 REVERSE MOTORING ia C eg va 3 2 B FORWARD GENERATING ia ωm eg va ia = − . UTMJB 14 . ω m= + Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Te = + va = −.

Regenerative Braking (in Q2) • Say the motor running at position A. • The mechanical source is a “prime mover”.Operating point is shifted to B. The current ia will reverse direction. If we wish the motor to operate continuously at position B. • We must force the prime mover it to run faster so that the generated eg will be greater than va. UTMJB 15 . Widely employ in electric vehicle and electric trains. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. during the deceleration phase. Zainal Salam. torque Te is negative. • Since ia is negative. Suddenly va is reduced (below eg). • This is known as regenerative braking-an efficient way to brake a motor. the machine have to be driven by mechanical source. • In other words. which implies power is “generated” back to the supply. kinetic energy from the motor and load inertia is returned to the supply. • Power is also negative.

quadrant – Half bridge: 2-quadrant – Full bridge: 4-quadrant operation Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.Drive types • SCR “phase-angle controlled” drive – By changing the firing angle. Hence 2. – Single-quadrant converter (buck): 1. Zainal Salam.quadrant operation is inherently possible. – Single phase (low power) and three phase (high and very high power) supply can be used – The line current is unidirectional. • Switched-mode drive – Using switched mode DC-DC converter. but the output voltage can reverse polarity. UTMJB 16 . – Mainly used for low to medium power range. – 4-quadrant is also possible using “two sets” of controlled rectifiers. Dc voltage is varied by duty cycle. variable DC output voltage can be obtained.

Zainal Salam.Thyristor/SCR drives Three/single phase supply Single phase supply Control and Speed SCR reference firing Current Speed M Current sensor T Tachometer • Mains operated. UTMJB 17 . • Normally field rectifier have much lower ratings than the armature rectifier. • Slow response. • Variable DC voltages are obtained from SCR firing angle control. It is only used to establish the flux. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.

No significant effect on the torque. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam. or when the motor is lightly loaded. discontinuous current may occur. UTMJB 18 . motor speed goes higher. • Worthwhile to add extra inductance in series with the armature inductance. • Average value of the ripple current is zero. or if supply is single phase (halfwave).Continuous/Discontinuous current • The key reason for successful DC drive operation is due to the large armature inductance La. • Effect of discontinuous current: Output voltage of rectifier rises. • If La is not large enough. (Refer to notes on Rectifier). • Large La allows for almost constant armature current (with small ripple) due to “current filtering effect of L”. In openloop operation the speed is poorly regulated.

Basic single-phase drive Ia Ta1 + vs _ If Ra Tf1 + vs _ Ta3 + Lf + Tf3 Va − La + Vf Lf − Ta4 Ta2 E g − Tf2 Tf4 ARMATURE FIELD For continuous current. armature voltage is : 2V Va = m cos α a π Armature (DC) current is : Va − E g Ia = . E g is the back emf Ra Field voltage : Vf = 2Vm π cos α f Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam. UTMJB 19 .

L − L Va = cos α a π Armature (DC) current : V − VE Ia = a . Zainal Salam.Basic three-phase drive Ta1 _ van _ vbn + _ vcn + + Ta3 Ta5 Ta2 Ta6 Ta4 − + I a If Ra Va La + Lf + n Vf Lf − Eg − ARMATURE FIELD Armature voltage : 3Vm. VE is the back emf Ra If single phase is used for field : 2V V f = m cos α f π Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. UTMJB 20 .

e VE = KI f ω = 2.Example 2 A saperately excited DC motor has a constsnt torque load of 60 Nm. Assume the current is continuous. The motor is driven by s full .wave converter connected to a 240V ac supply.5 60 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. UTMJB 21 .32 o π 2Vm π 2 2 × 240V 60 200 2 + 2 . Calculate the triggering angle for the motor to opearte at 200 rpm. 2V Va = m cos α a And Va = I a Ra + VE Where VE is the back emf.5 and the armature resistance is 2 ohm. For continuous current.5ω and T = KI f I a 2Vm π π cos α a = T Ra + KI f ω KI f T Ra + KI f ω KI f α a = cos −1 = cos −1 = 62. Zainal Salam.5 2 × π × 2 . i. The field constant of the motor KI f = 2.

full controlled SCR bridge 240Vrms/50Hz per-phase.5 V/A-rad/s Assume the inductance of the armature and field circuit is large enough to ensure continuous and ripple-free currents.235 × 30 = 55. Td. with uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier. a) Calculate the developed torque. Zainal Salam. determine the required delay angle of the armature converter. b) Speed of the motor. α = 0. UTMJB 22 . The separately excited DC motor characteristics is given as follows: Armature resistance:Ra = 0. • • • Since the fiels current is maximum. 2V 2 2 × 240 (a ) V f = m cos α f = cos 0 = 216V 216V = 1.235 A Rf 175 Td = K v I f I a = 1.3 ohm Field resistance: Rf =175 ohm Motor constant: KV =1. The field is supplied by a single-phase 240V rms/50Hz.58 Nm If = = Vf π π Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. ω (rad/s) c) If the polarity of the field current is reversed. If the delay angle of the armature converter (αa) is 45 degrees and the required armature current is 30A.Example 3 A rectifier-DC motor drive is supplied by a three-phase. the motor back emf will reverse. The field current is set as maximum as possible. For the same armature current of 30A.5 × 1.

3V E g = Va − I a Ra = 396. then E g = −387. L − L Va = cos α a π π π α a = cos −1 = 132.3V ω= = 209.3 = −378. L − L 3 × 3 × 2 × 240 Va = cos α a = cos 45o = 396.3 + 30 × 0.4 o π × Va 3Vm.5 × 1.235 (c) Now the polarity of field is reversed.3V Also.3 − 30 × 0.phase with α a = 45o . 3Vm.Example 3 (cont) (b) Motor speed Eg ω= Kv I f E g = Va − I a Ra The armature is supplied by three . L − L = cos −1 π × (−378.3 = 387.3V 387.5) 3 3 × 2 × 240 23 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.3V and Va = E g + I a Ra = −387. UTMJB . Zainal Salam.06 rad / sec 1. 3Vm.

if the rectifier is fully controlled. But the rectifier is unidirectional. It can be a motor or generator. it can be operated to become negative DC voltage. Hence noproblem to reverse the direction. because the SCR are unidirectional devices. by making firing angle greater than 90 degrees. Zainal Salam. Reversal can be achieved by: – armature reversal using contactors (2quadrant) – field reversal using contactors (2-quadrant) – double converter (full 4-quadrants) • • • Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. However.Reversal • DC motor in inherently bi-directional. UTMJB 24 .

Reversal using armature or field contactors DRIVE REVERSING USING ARMATURE OR FIELD CONTACTORS CONTACTOR 1 2 Vs FIELD 1 2 CONTACTOR AT THE ARMATURE SIDE (SINGLE PHASE SYSTEM) Va Eg Va Eg Va Eg CONTACTOR AT POSITION 1 (MOTORING) CONTACTOR AT POSITION 2 (BRAKING/ GENERATION) CONTACTOR AT POSITION 2 (RESERVE) Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam. UTMJB 25 .

Zainal Salam.Reversing using double converters converter 1 converter 2 Principle of reversal Vs FIELD Practical circuit Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. UTMJB 26 .

DC-DC converters (coppers) are used.Switched–mode DC drives • • • Supply is DC (maybe from rectified-filtered AC. UTMJB 27 . etc. 3 possible configurations are possible: – single quadrant. suitable for applications requiring position control or fast response. Zainal Salam. – two–quadrant – and four–quadrant • • Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. for example in servo applications. or some other DC sources). robotics. Normally operate at high frequency – the average output voltage response is significantly faster – the armature current ripple is relatively less than the controlled rectifier In terms of quadrant of operations.

ia Q4 Torque ( a) ia ) Q1 ω (va) Q3 Q2 For 0 < t < T . Ra and speed can be approximated as : ton T ω= Va Kv I f Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam. Braking not required. The armature voltage at steady state : Va = t 1 Vdt = on = DV T 0 T ton va ia Armature (DC) current is : Va − E g Ia = .Single-quadrant drive • Unidirectional speed. UTMJB 28 .

ω • Torque T1 D1 Q4 Q3 + va – Q1 Q2 T2 D2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. the motor acting as a generator returns energy to the supply through D2. UTMJB 29 . – T1 off: The armature current freewheels through D2.2 Quadrant DC drives • FORWARD MOTORING (T1 and D2 operate) – T1 on: The supply is connected to motor terminal. Zainal Salam. REGENERATION (T2 and D1 operate) – T2 on: motor acts as a generator – T2 off:. – Va (hence speed) is determined by the duty ratio.

T1 D1 + va – D3 T3 T4 D4 D2 T2 Torque Q4 Q3 Q1 Q2 ω Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. UTMJB 30 . Zainal Salam.4 Quadrant DC drives • A full-bridge DC-DC converter is used.

T1 and T2 turn off: the armature current decay through D3 and D4 • T1 D1 + va – D3 T3 T4 D4 D2 T2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam.4-quadrant: Forward motoring • • T1 and T2 operate. T1 and T2 turn on together: the supply voltage appear across the motor terminal. T3 and T4 off. UTMJB 31 . Armature current rises.

UTMJB 32 . Zainal Salam. • T1 D1 + va – D3 T3 T4 D4 D2 T2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. When T4 is turned off. T2 and T3 turned off. When T4 is turned on. returns energy to the supply through D1 and D2. acting as a generator. the motor. the armature current rises through T4 and D2.Regeneration • • T1.

When T3 and T4 turn off. When T3 and T4 are on together. Zainal Salam. T1 and T2 off. UTMJB 33 . the armature current decays through D1 and D2. Hence the motor rotates in reverse direction. • • T1 D1 + va – D3 T3 T4 D4 D2 T2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. the armature current rises and flows in reverse direction.Reverse motoring • • T3 and T3 operate.

• T1 D1 + va – D3 T3 T4 D4 D2 T2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. When Q2 is turned off. UTMJB 34 . Zainal Salam. When T1 is on. the armature current rises through T2 and D4.Reverse generation • • T1. the armature current falls and the motor returns energy to the supply through D3 and D4. T3 and T4 are off.

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