Power Electronics and

Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
1
DC Motor Drive
• General Concept
• Speed Control
• SCR Drives
• Switched-mode DC Drives
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
2
DC Motor
• Advantages of DC motor:
– Ease of control
– Deliver high starting torque
– Near-linear performance
• Disadvantages:
– High maintenance
– Large and expensive (compared to induction
motor)
– Not suitable for high-speed operation due to
commutator and brushes
– Not suitable in explosive or very clean
environment
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
3
DC Motor Drives
• The DC drive is relatively simple and cheap
(compared to induction motor drives). But DC
motor itself is more expensive.
• Due to the numerous disadvantages of DC motor
(esp. maintenance), it is getting less popular,
particularly in high power applications.
• For low power applications the cost of DC motor
plus drives is still economical.
• For servo application, DC drives is still popular
because of good dynamic response and ease of
control.
• Future Trend? Not so bright prospect for DC, esp. in
high power drives.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
4
Separately Excited DC Motor
• The field windings is used to excite the field flux.
• Armature current is supplied to the rotor via brush
and commutator for the mechanical work.
• Interaction of field flux and armature current in the
rotor produces torque.
v
a
, V
a
v
f
, I
f
L
a
R
a
L
f
R
f
i
a
, I
a
i
f
, I
f
E
g
ω
T
d
J
B
T
L
+
+
+



Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
5
Operation
• When a separately excited motor is excited by a
field current of i
f
and an armature current of i
a
flows in the circuit, the motor develops a back emf
and a torque to balance the load torque at a
particular speed.
• The i
f
is independent of the i
a
.Each windings are
supplied separately. Any change in the armature
current has no effect on the field current.
• The i
f
is normally much less than the i
a
.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
6
Field and armature equations
rad/sec) (in speed motor the is and
rad/s) - V/A (in constant age motor volt the is
: as expressed is voltage, speed as known
also is which emf, back motor The
ly. respective inductor, and
resistor armature the are and where
: current armature ous Instantane
ly respective inductor, and
resistor field the are and where
: current field ous Instantane
ω
ω
v
f v g
f f
g
a
a a a a
f f
f
f f f f
K
i K e
L R
e
dt
di
L i R v
L R
dt
di
L i R v
=
+ + =
+ =
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
7
Basic torque equation
) (kg.m motor the of inertia :
(N.m) torque load :
) (N.m/rad/s constant, friction viscous :
where
: i.e. inertia, and
friction the plus torque load the to equal be must
torque developed the operation, normal For
: as written is it Sometimes
rad/s) - V/A (in
constant. torque the is ) ( where
: is motor by the develped torque The
2
J
T
B
T B
dt
d
J T
i K T
K K
i i K T
L
L d
a t d
v t
a f t d
+ + =
=
=
=
ω
ω
φ
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
8
Steady-state operation
f v a a g a a a
f v g
f f f
I K R I E R I V
I K E
R I V
ω
ω
+ = + =
=
=
circuit armature The
: by given is emf back The
circuit, field For
saturated. not is motor the Assuming zero. is
s derivative time , operations state - steady Under
R
f
R
a
I
a
L
a
I
f
E
g
L
f
+

+ +

V
a

V
a
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
9
Steady-state torque and speed
ω
ω
ω
ω
d d
L a f t d
f v
a
a
a
f v
a a a
T P
T B I I K T
I K
V
I
R
I K
R I V
=
+ = =
=

=
: is power required The
: is torque developed The
tage. supply vol on the only depends speed motor
the constant, kept is current field the if is That

small, is i.e. loaded, lightly is motor the
or when usual), is (which value small a is If
: derived easily be can speed motor The
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
10
Torque and speed control
• From the derivation, several important
facts can be deduced for steady-state
operation of DC motor.
• For a fixed field current, or flux (I
f
) , the
torque demand can be satisfied by varying
the armature current (I
a
).
• The motor speed can be varied by:
– controlling V
a
(voltage control)
– controlling V
f
(field control)
• These observations leads to the
application of variable DC voltage to
control the speed and torque of DC motor.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
11
Example 1
• Consider a 500V, 10kW , 20A rated- DC motor
with armature resistance of 1 ohm. When supplied
at 500V, the UNLOADED motor runs at 1040
rev/min, drawing a current of 0.8A (ideally current
is zero at no-load).
– Estimate the full load speed at rated values
– Estimate the no-load speed at 250V.
rad/sec) strictly equation this reality, in : (Note
rev/min 519
48 . 0
) 1 ( 8 . 0 250
250V, at voltage and load - no At
rev/min 1000
48 . 0
) 1 ( 20 500
value, rated and load full At
48 . 0
1040
) 1 ( 8 . 0 500
=

=

=
+ =
=

=

=
=

=

=
+ = + =
f v
a a a
f v a a a
f v
a a a
fl
a a a
f v
f v a a g a a a
I K
R I V
I K R I V
I K
R I V
R I V
I K
I K R I E R I V
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
12
Variable speed operation
• Family of steady-state torque speed curves for a
range of armature voltage can be drawn as above.
• The speed of DC motor can simply be set by
applying the correct voltage.
• Note that speed variation from no-load to full load
(rated) can be quite small. It depends on the
armature resistance.
500 Speed (rev/min)
Torque
1000
750 250
500V 375V 250V
125V
Rated torque)
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
13
Base Speed and Field-weakening
• Base speed:ω
base
– the speed which correspond to the rated V
a
, rated I
a
and rated I
f
.
• Constant Torque region (ω > ω
base
, )
– I
a
and I
f
are maintained constant to met torque
demand. V
a
is varied to control the speed. Power
increases with speed.
• Constant Power region (ω > ω
base
, )
– V
a
is maintained at the rated value and i
f
is reduced to
increase speed . However, the power developed by
the motor (= torque x speed) remains constant.
Known as field weakening.
ω
base
ω
Torque
Power
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
14
Four quadrant operation
1
2
3
4
A
C
D
TORQUE
SPEED
FORWARD
MOTORING
REVERSE
MOTORING
REVERSE
GENERATING
B
FORWARD
GENERATING
v
a
e
g
i
a
i
a
= +; T
e
= +
v
a
= +; ω = +
i
a
= − ; T
e
= −
v
a
= + ; ω
m
= +
ω
m
T
e
e
g
v
a
i
a
= − ; T
e
= −
v
a
= − ; ω
m
= −
i
a
i
a
= +; T
e
= +
v
a
= −; ω = −
i
a
v
a
e
g
e
g
v
a
i
a
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
15
Regenerative Braking (in Q2)
• Say the motor running at position A. Suddenly v
a
is
reduced (below e
g
). The current ia will reverse
direction.Operating point is shifted to B.
• Since i
a
is negative, torque T
e
is negative.
• Power is also negative, which implies power is
“generated” back to the supply.
• In other words, during the deceleration phase,
kinetic energy from the motor and load inertia is
returned to the supply.
• This is known as regenerative braking-an efficient
way to brake a motor. Widely employ in electric
vehicle and electric trains. If we wish the motor to
operate continuously at position B, the machine
have to be driven by mechanical source.
• The mechanical source is a “prime mover”.
• We must force the prime mover it to run faster so
that the generated e
g
will be greater than v
a
.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
16
Drive types
• SCR “phase-angle controlled” drive
– By changing the firing angle, variable DC
output voltage can be obtained.
– Single phase (low power) and three phase (high
and very high power) supply can be used
– The line current is unidirectional, but the output
voltage can reverse polarity. Hence 2- quadrant
operation is inherently possible.
– 4-quadrant is also possible using “two sets” of
controlled rectifiers.
• Switched-mode drive
– Using switched mode DC-DC converter. Dc
voltage is varied by duty cycle.
– Mainly used for low to medium power range.
– Single-quadrant converter (buck): 1- quadrant
– Half bridge: 2-quadrant
– Full bridge: 4-quadrant operation
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
17
Thyristor/SCR drives
• Mains operated.
• Variable DC voltages are obtained from SCR firing
angle control.
• Slow response.
• Normally field rectifier have much lower ratings
than the armature rectifier. It is only used to
establish the flux.
Speed
reference
Three/single phase supply
Single phase supply
Control
and
SCR
firing
Current
sensor
Tachometer Current
Speed
M
T
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
18
Continuous/Discontinuous current
• The key reason for successful DC drive operation is
due to the large armature inductance L
a
.
• Large L
a
allows for almost constant armature
current (with small ripple) due to “current filtering
effect of L”. (Refer to notes on Rectifier).
• Average value of the ripple current is zero. No
significant effect on the torque.
• If L
a
is not large enough, or when the motor is
lightly loaded, or if supply is single phase (half-
wave), discontinuous current may occur.
• Effect of discontinuous current: Output voltage of
rectifier rises; motor speed goes higher. In open-
loop operation the speed is poorly regulated.
• Worthwhile to add extra inductance in series with
the armature inductance.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
19
Basic single-phase drive
f
m
f
g
a
g a
a
a
m
a
V
V
E
R
E V
I
V
V
α
π
α
π
cos
2
: voltage Field
emf back the is ;
: is current (DC) Armature
cos
2
: is voltage armature current, continuous For
=

=
=
+
v
s
_
I
a
T
a1
T
a2
T
a3
+
+

V
a
R
a
T
a4
L
a
E
g

I
f
+
v
s
_
T
f1
T
f2
T
f3
+

L
f
T
f4
L
f
V
f
ARMATURE
FIELD
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
20
Basic three-phase drive
f
m
f
E
a
E a
a
a
L L
m
a
V
V
V
R
V V
I
V
V
α
π
α
π
cos
2
: field for used is phase single If
emf back the is ;
: current (DC) Armature
cos
3
: voltage Armature

,
=

=
=

I
a
T
a1
+
+

V
a
R
a
L
a
E
g

T
a3
T
a2
T
a6
_ v
cn
+
n
_ v
bn
+
_ v
an
+
T
a5
T
a4
+

L
f
L
f
V
f
I
f
ARMATURE FIELD
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
21
Example 2
o
f a
f m
a
f a
f
a
m
a f
f E
E
E a a a
a
m
a
f
V
KI R
KI
T
V
KI R
KI
T V
I KI T
KI V
V
V R I V
V
V
KI
32 . 62
60
200
2 5 . 2 2
5 . 2
60
240 2 2
cos
2
cos
cos
2
and
5 . 2
i.e emf, back the is Where

And
cos
2
current, continuous For
. continuous is current the Assume
rpm. 200 at opearte motor to for the angle g triggerin the
Calculate ohm. 2 is resistance armature the and 2.5 motor
the of constant field The supply. ac 240V a to connected
converter wave - full s by driven is motor The Nm. 60 of
load orque constsnt t a has motor DC excited saperately A
1
1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
× × +
|
.
|

\
|
×
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ¬
=
= =
+ =
=
=


π
π
ω
π
α
ω α
π
ω ω
α
π
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
22
Example 3
A rectifier-DC motor drive is supplied by a three-phase, full
controlled SCR bridge 240Vrms/50Hz per-phase. The field is
supplied by a single-phase 240V rms/50Hz, with uncontrolled
diode bridge rectifier. The field current is set as maximum as
possible.
The separately excited DC motor characteristics is given as
follows:
Armature resistance:R
a
= 0.3 ohm
Field resistance: R
f
=175 ohm
Motor constant: K
V
=1.5 V/A-rad/s
Assume the inductance of the armature and field circuit is large
enough to ensure continuous and ripple-free currents. If the
delay angle of the armature converter (α
a
) is 45 degrees and the
required armature current is 30A,
• a) Calculate the developed torque, T
d
.
• b) Speed of the motor, ω (rad/s)
• c) If the polarity of the field current is reversed, the motor
back emf will reverse. For the same armature current of 30A,
determine the required delay angle of the armature converter.
Nm I I K T
A
V
R
V
I
V
V
V a
a f v d
f
f
f
f
m
f
58 . 55 30 235 . 1 5 . 1
235 . 1
175
216
216 0 cos
240 2 2
cos
2
) (
0. maximum, is current fiels the Since
= × × = =
= = = ¬
=
×
= =
=
π
α
π
α
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
23
Example 3 (cont)
o
L L m
a
a
a
L L m
a
a a g a
g
a a a g
o
a
L L m
a
a
a a a g
f v
g
V
V
V
V
Also
V R I E V
V E
V
V R I V E
V
V
V
R I V E
I K
E
4 . 132
240 2 3 3
) 5 . 378 (
cos
3
cos
cos
3
,
3 . 378 3 . 0 30 3 . 387
and
3 . 387
then reversed, is field of polarity the Now (c)
sec / rad 06 . 209
235 . 1 5 . 1
3 . 387
3 . 387 3 . 0 30 3 . 396
3 . 396 45 cos
240 2 3 3
cos
3
, 45 with phase - by three supplied is armature The
speed Motor (b)
1
,
1
,
,
o
=
|
.
|

\
|
× ×
− ×
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
=
=
− = × + − = + =
− =
=
×
= ¬
= × − = − =
=
× × ×
= =
=
− =
=





π π
α
α
π
ω
π
α
π
α
ω
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
24
Reversal
• DC motor in inherently bi-directional. Hence no-
problem to reverse the direction. It can be a motor
or generator.
• But the rectifier is unidirectional, because the SCR
are unidirectional devices.
• However, if the rectifier is fully controlled, it can be
operated to become negative DC voltage, by
making firing angle greater than 90 degrees,
• Reversal can be achieved by:
– armature reversal using contactors (2-
quadrant)
– field reversal using contactors (2-quadrant)
– double converter (full 4-quadrants)
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
25
Reversal using armature or field
contactors
FIELD
DRIVE REVERSING USING ARMATURE OR FIELD CONTACTORS
CONTACTOR
CONTACTOR AT THE ARMATURE
SIDE (SINGLE PHASE SYSTEM)
Vs
Va Eg
Va
Eg
Va Eg
1
2
1
2
CONTACTOR AT
1
POSITION
(MOTORING)
CONTACTOR AT
2 POSITION
(BRAKING/
GENERATION)
CONTACTOR AT
2
POSITION
(RESERVE)
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
26
Reversing using double converters
converter 1 converter 2
FIELD
Vs
Principle of reversal
Practical circuit
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
27
Switched–mode DC drives
• Supply is DC (maybe from rectified-filtered AC, or
some other DC sources).
• DC-DC converters (coppers) are used.
• suitable for applications requiring position control
or fast response, for example in servo applications,
robotics, etc.
• Normally operate at high frequency
– the average output voltage response is
significantly faster
– the armature current ripple is relatively less
than the controlled rectifier
• In terms of quadrant of operations, 3 possible
configurations are possible:
– single quadrant,
– two–quadrant
– and four–quadrant
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
28
Single-quadrant drive
• Unidirectional speed. Braking not required.
f v
a
a
g a
a
on
t
a
I K
V
R
E V
I
DV
T
t
Vdt
T
V
T t
on
=

=
= = =
< <
}
ω
: as ed approximat be can speed and
;
: is current (DC) Armature
1
: state steady at voltage armature The
, 0 For
0
i
a
v
a
t
on
T
i
a
Torque ( i
a
)
a)
Q4 Q1
Q2
Q3
ω (v
a
)
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
29
2 Quadrant DC drives
• FORWARD MOTORING (T1 and D2 operate)
– T1 on: The supply is connected to motor terminal.
– T1 off: The armature current freewheels through
D2.
– Va (hence speed) is determined by the duty ratio.
• REGENERATION (T2 and D1 operate)
– T2 on: motor acts as a generator
– T2 off:, the motor acting as a generator returns
energy to the supply through D2.
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Torque
ω
+
v
a

T2
D2
D1
T1
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
30
4 Quadrant DC drives
• A full-bridge DC-DC converter is used.
+ v
a

T1 T3
T2
T4
D1
D4
D3
D2
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Torque
ω
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
31
4-quadrant: Forward motoring
• T1 and T2 operate; T3 and T4 off.
• T1 and T2 turn on together: the supply voltage appear
across the motor terminal. Armature current rises.
• T1 and T2 turn off: the armature current decay through
D3 and D4
+ v
a

T1 T3
T2
T4
D1
D4
D3
D2
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
32
Regeneration
• T1, T2 and T3 turned off.
• When T4 is turned on, the armature current rises
through T4 and D2.
• When T4 is turned off, the motor, acting as a generator,
returns energy to the supply through D1 and D2.
+ v
a

T1 T3
T2
T4
D1
D4
D3
D2
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
33
Reverse motoring
• T3 and T3 operate; T1 and T2 off.
• When T3 and T4 are on together, the armature current
rises and flows in reverse direction.
• Hence the motor rotates in reverse direction.
• When T3 and T4 turn off, the armature current decays
through D1 and D2.
+ v
a

T1 T3
T2
T4
D1
D4
D3
D2
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 3-2003):
Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB
34
Reverse generation
• T1, T3 and T4 are off.
• When T1 is on, the armature current rises through T2
and D4.
• When Q2 is turned off, the armature current falls and
the motor returns energy to the supply through D3 and
D4.
+ v
a

T1 T3
T2
T4
D1
D4
D3
D2

DC Motor
• Advantages of DC motor: – Ease of control – Deliver high starting torque – Near-linear performance • Disadvantages: – High maintenance – Large and expensive (compared to induction motor) – Not suitable for high-speed operation due to commutator and brushes – Not suitable in explosive or very clean environment

Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

2

DC Motor Drives
• The DC drive is relatively simple and cheap (compared to induction motor drives). But DC motor itself is more expensive. • Due to the numerous disadvantages of DC motor (esp. maintenance), it is getting less popular, particularly in high power applications. • For low power applications the cost of DC motor plus drives is still economical. • For servo application, DC drives is still popular because of good dynamic response and ease of control. • Future Trend? Not so bright prospect for DC, esp. in high power drives.

Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam, UTMJB

3

If + vf. • Armature current is supplied to the rotor via brush and commutator for the mechanical work. Va La Ra + Eg Lf Rf J if. Ia + va. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam. If − − − ω Td B TL • The field windings is used to excite the field flux.Separately Excited DC Motor ia. • Interaction of field flux and armature current in the rotor produces torque. UTMJB 4 .

the motor develops a back emf and a torque to balance the load torque at a particular speed. UTMJB 5 . Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam.Each windings are supplied separately. Any change in the armature current has no effect on the field current. • The if is normally much less than the ia.Operation • When a separately excited motor is excited by a field current of if and an armature current of ia flows in the circuit. • The if is independent of the ia .

is expressed as : e g = K v ωi f K v is the motor voltage constant (in V/A . The motor back emf. Zainal Salam. which is also known as speed voltage.Field and armature equations Instantaneous field current : di f vf = Rf if + Lf dt where R f and L f are the field resistor and inductor. respectively Instantaneous armature current : dia va = Ra ia + La + eg dt where R f and L f are the armature resistor and inductor. UTMJB 6 . respectively.rad/s) and ω is the motor speed (in rad/sec) Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.

i. (N. the developed torque must be equal to the load torque plus the friction and inertia.m 2 ) Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.Basic torque equation The torque develped by the motor is : Td = K t i f ia where ( K t = K v ) is the torque constant. : dω Td = J + Bω + TL dt where B : viscous friction constant.m) J : inertia of the motor (kg. UTMJB 7 . (in V/A .m/rad/s) TL : load torque (N. Zainal Salam.rad/s) Sometimes it is written as : Td = K tφia For normal operation.e.

Steady-state operation Ia + Va − Ra La + Eg − Rf Lf If + Va − Under steady . Zainal Salam. UTMJB 8 . Vf = I f Rf The back emf is given by : E g = K vωI f The armature circuit Va = I a Ra + E g = I a Ra + K vωI f Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.state operations. For field circuit. time derivatives is zero. Assuming the motor is not saturated.

ω= Va Kv I f That is if the field current is kept constant. Zainal Salam. or when the motor is lightly loaded. UTMJB 9 . i.e. I a is small. the motor speed depends only on the supply voltage. The developed torque is : Td = K t I f I a = Bω + TL The required power is : Pd = Td ω Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.Steady-state torque and speed The motor speed can be easily derived : V −I R ω= a a a Kv I f If Ra is a small value (which is usual).

the torque demand can be satisfied by varying the armature current (Ia). several important facts can be deduced for steady-state operation of DC motor. • For a fixed field current.Torque and speed control • From the derivation. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam. or flux (If) . • The motor speed can be varied by: – controlling Va (voltage control) – controlling Vf (field control) • These observations leads to the application of variable DC voltage to control the speed and torque of DC motor. UTMJB 10 .

Example 1 • Consider a 500V.8A (ideally current is zero at no-load). drawing a current of 0.8(1) Kv I f = a a a = = 0.48 (Note : in reality.load and voltage at 250V. – Estimate the full load speed at rated values – Estimate the no-load speed at 250V. When supplied at 500V. 10kW . Va = I a Ra + K vωI f V −I R 250 − 0.DC motor with armature resistance of 1 ohm. Va = I a Ra + E g = I a Ra + K vωI f V −I R 500 − 0. the UNLOADED motor runs at 1040 rev/min. Zainal Salam.48 At no . UTMJB 11 .48 ω 1040 At full load and rated value.8(1) ω= a a a = = 519 rev/min Kv I f 0. this equation strictly rad/sec) Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. ω fl = Va − I a Ra 500 − 20(1) = = 1000 rev/min Kv I f 0. 20A rated.

It depends on the armature resistance. • The speed of DC motor can simply be set by applying the correct voltage. UTMJB 12 . Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.Variable speed operation Torque 125V 250V 375V Rated torque) 500V 250 500 750 1000 Speed (rev/min) • Family of steady-state torque speed curves for a range of armature voltage can be drawn as above. • Note that speed variation from no-load to full load (rated) can be quite small. Zainal Salam.

) – Ia and If are maintained constant to met torque demand. UTMJB 13 . Power increases with speed. Zainal Salam. Va is varied to control the speed.Base Speed and Field-weakening Torque Power ωbase ω • Base speed:ωbase – the speed which correspond to the rated Va. rated Ia and rated If. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. However. Known as field weakening. • Constant Power region (ω > ωbase. • Constant Torque region (ω > ωbase. ) – Va is maintained at the rated value and if is reduced to increase speed . the power developed by the motor (= torque x speed) remains constant.

UTMJB 14 . ω = + FORWARD MOTORING SPEED 4 1 REVERSE MOTORING ia C eg va 3 2 B FORWARD GENERATING ia ωm eg va ia = − . ω m= − ia = − . Te = + va = −. ω m= + Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Te = + va = +. ω = − REVERSE GENERATING D A ia = +. Te = − va = − .Four quadrant operation ia ia eg va TORQUE Te eg va ia = +. Te = − va = + . Zainal Salam.

Regenerative Braking (in Q2) • Say the motor running at position A. Widely employ in electric vehicle and electric trains. • Since ia is negative. UTMJB 15 . Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. • The mechanical source is a “prime mover”. during the deceleration phase. • In other words. the machine have to be driven by mechanical source. torque Te is negative. Zainal Salam. which implies power is “generated” back to the supply. • Power is also negative. kinetic energy from the motor and load inertia is returned to the supply. • We must force the prime mover it to run faster so that the generated eg will be greater than va.Operating point is shifted to B. The current ia will reverse direction. • This is known as regenerative braking-an efficient way to brake a motor. Suddenly va is reduced (below eg). If we wish the motor to operate continuously at position B.

Hence 2. • Switched-mode drive – Using switched mode DC-DC converter. – Single-quadrant converter (buck): 1. variable DC output voltage can be obtained. – Mainly used for low to medium power range. but the output voltage can reverse polarity. – 4-quadrant is also possible using “two sets” of controlled rectifiers. – Single phase (low power) and three phase (high and very high power) supply can be used – The line current is unidirectional. Zainal Salam. Dc voltage is varied by duty cycle.quadrant operation is inherently possible. UTMJB 16 .quadrant – Half bridge: 2-quadrant – Full bridge: 4-quadrant operation Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.Drive types • SCR “phase-angle controlled” drive – By changing the firing angle.

It is only used to establish the flux. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. • Normally field rectifier have much lower ratings than the armature rectifier. UTMJB 17 . • Slow response. • Variable DC voltages are obtained from SCR firing angle control.Thyristor/SCR drives Three/single phase supply Single phase supply Control and Speed SCR reference firing Current Speed M Current sensor T Tachometer • Mains operated. Zainal Salam.

No significant effect on the torque. • Large La allows for almost constant armature current (with small ripple) due to “current filtering effect of L”. Zainal Salam. • Average value of the ripple current is zero. discontinuous current may occur.Continuous/Discontinuous current • The key reason for successful DC drive operation is due to the large armature inductance La. In openloop operation the speed is poorly regulated. (Refer to notes on Rectifier). • Worthwhile to add extra inductance in series with the armature inductance. UTMJB 18 . • If La is not large enough. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. or when the motor is lightly loaded. or if supply is single phase (halfwave). motor speed goes higher. • Effect of discontinuous current: Output voltage of rectifier rises.

UTMJB 19 . Zainal Salam. armature voltage is : 2V Va = m cos α a π Armature (DC) current is : Va − E g Ia = .Basic single-phase drive Ia Ta1 + vs _ If Ra Tf1 + vs _ Ta3 + Lf + Tf3 Va − La + Vf Lf − Ta4 Ta2 E g − Tf2 Tf4 ARMATURE FIELD For continuous current. E g is the back emf Ra Field voltage : Vf = 2Vm π cos α f Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.

Basic three-phase drive Ta1 _ van _ vbn + _ vcn + + Ta3 Ta5 Ta2 Ta6 Ta4 − + I a If Ra Va La + Lf + n Vf Lf − Eg − ARMATURE FIELD Armature voltage : 3Vm. Zainal Salam. UTMJB 20 . L − L Va = cos α a π Armature (DC) current : V − VE Ia = a . VE is the back emf Ra If single phase is used for field : 2V V f = m cos α f π Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.

2V Va = m cos α a And Va = I a Ra + VE Where VE is the back emf.32 o π 2Vm π 2 2 × 240V 60 200 2 + 2 .wave converter connected to a 240V ac supply.Example 2 A saperately excited DC motor has a constsnt torque load of 60 Nm.5 2 × π × 2 . i. Calculate the triggering angle for the motor to opearte at 200 rpm. Assume the current is continuous.5 and the armature resistance is 2 ohm. The motor is driven by s full . For continuous current. UTMJB 21 .e VE = KI f ω = 2.5 60 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam. The field constant of the motor KI f = 2.5ω and T = KI f I a 2Vm π π cos α a = T Ra + KI f ω KI f T Ra + KI f ω KI f α a = cos −1 = cos −1 = 62.

Zainal Salam. For the same armature current of 30A. If the delay angle of the armature converter (αa) is 45 degrees and the required armature current is 30A. determine the required delay angle of the armature converter. the motor back emf will reverse. UTMJB 22 . The separately excited DC motor characteristics is given as follows: Armature resistance:Ra = 0. The field current is set as maximum as possible. Td. full controlled SCR bridge 240Vrms/50Hz per-phase. The field is supplied by a single-phase 240V rms/50Hz.3 ohm Field resistance: Rf =175 ohm Motor constant: KV =1. with uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier.Example 3 A rectifier-DC motor drive is supplied by a three-phase.235 A Rf 175 Td = K v I f I a = 1.5 × 1. α = 0. ω (rad/s) c) If the polarity of the field current is reversed. b) Speed of the motor.235 × 30 = 55. a) Calculate the developed torque.58 Nm If = = Vf π π Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.5 V/A-rad/s Assume the inductance of the armature and field circuit is large enough to ensure continuous and ripple-free currents. • • • Since the fiels current is maximum. 2V 2 2 × 240 (a ) V f = m cos α f = cos 0 = 216V 216V = 1.

06 rad / sec 1.5) 3 3 × 2 × 240 23 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. L − L Va = cos α a π π π α a = cos −1 = 132.3V Also.phase with α a = 45o .3V and Va = E g + I a Ra = −387. UTMJB .3V 387. L − L = cos −1 π × (−378.5 × 1.3 + 30 × 0.3 = −378. Zainal Salam.Example 3 (cont) (b) Motor speed Eg ω= Kv I f E g = Va − I a Ra The armature is supplied by three . 3Vm. L − L 3 × 3 × 2 × 240 Va = cos α a = cos 45o = 396. then E g = −387. 3Vm.3V ω= = 209.4 o π × Va 3Vm.3 = 387.3V E g = Va − I a Ra = 396.3 − 30 × 0.235 (c) Now the polarity of field is reversed.

But the rectifier is unidirectional. UTMJB 24 . It can be a motor or generator. by making firing angle greater than 90 degrees. it can be operated to become negative DC voltage. However. Hence noproblem to reverse the direction. because the SCR are unidirectional devices.Reversal • DC motor in inherently bi-directional. Zainal Salam. if the rectifier is fully controlled. Reversal can be achieved by: – armature reversal using contactors (2quadrant) – field reversal using contactors (2-quadrant) – double converter (full 4-quadrants) • • • Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.

UTMJB 25 .Reversal using armature or field contactors DRIVE REVERSING USING ARMATURE OR FIELD CONTACTORS CONTACTOR 1 2 Vs FIELD 1 2 CONTACTOR AT THE ARMATURE SIDE (SINGLE PHASE SYSTEM) Va Eg Va Eg Va Eg CONTACTOR AT POSITION 1 (MOTORING) CONTACTOR AT POSITION 2 (BRAKING/ GENERATION) CONTACTOR AT POSITION 2 (RESERVE) Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam.

Reversing using double converters converter 1 converter 2 Principle of reversal Vs FIELD Practical circuit Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam. UTMJB 26 .

or some other DC sources). DC-DC converters (coppers) are used. suitable for applications requiring position control or fast response. UTMJB 27 . for example in servo applications. – two–quadrant – and four–quadrant • • Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. robotics. Normally operate at high frequency – the average output voltage response is significantly faster – the armature current ripple is relatively less than the controlled rectifier In terms of quadrant of operations. etc. Zainal Salam. 3 possible configurations are possible: – single quadrant.Switched–mode DC drives • • • Supply is DC (maybe from rectified-filtered AC.

Ra and speed can be approximated as : ton T ω= Va Kv I f Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam. UTMJB 28 . The armature voltage at steady state : Va = t 1 Vdt = on = DV T 0 T ton va ia Armature (DC) current is : Va − E g Ia = .Single-quadrant drive • Unidirectional speed. Braking not required. ia Q4 Torque ( a) ia ) Q1 ω (va) Q3 Q2 For 0 < t < T .

ω • Torque T1 D1 Q4 Q3 + va – Q1 Q2 T2 D2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. the motor acting as a generator returns energy to the supply through D2. UTMJB 29 .2 Quadrant DC drives • FORWARD MOTORING (T1 and D2 operate) – T1 on: The supply is connected to motor terminal. – T1 off: The armature current freewheels through D2. – Va (hence speed) is determined by the duty ratio. REGENERATION (T2 and D1 operate) – T2 on: motor acts as a generator – T2 off:. Zainal Salam.

4 Quadrant DC drives • A full-bridge DC-DC converter is used. UTMJB 30 . Zainal Salam. T1 D1 + va – D3 T3 T4 D4 D2 T2 Torque Q4 Q3 Q1 Q2 ω Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.

Armature current rises. T1 and T2 turn on together: the supply voltage appear across the motor terminal.4-quadrant: Forward motoring • • T1 and T2 operate. Zainal Salam. UTMJB 31 . T3 and T4 off. T1 and T2 turn off: the armature current decay through D3 and D4 • T1 D1 + va – D3 T3 T4 D4 D2 T2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.

acting as a generator. UTMJB 32 .Regeneration • • T1. Zainal Salam. • T1 D1 + va – D3 T3 T4 D4 D2 T2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. T2 and T3 turned off. returns energy to the supply through D1 and D2. the motor. the armature current rises through T4 and D2. When T4 is turned off. When T4 is turned on.

Hence the motor rotates in reverse direction. the armature current decays through D1 and D2. When T3 and T4 turn off. UTMJB 33 . T1 and T2 off. When T3 and T4 are on together.Reverse motoring • • T3 and T3 operate. • • T1 D1 + va – D3 T3 T4 D4 D2 T2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr. Zainal Salam. the armature current rises and flows in reverse direction.

• T1 D1 + va – D3 T3 T4 D4 D2 T2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 3-2003): Dr.Reverse generation • • T1. the armature current falls and the motor returns energy to the supply through D3 and D4. UTMJB 34 . Zainal Salam. When Q2 is turned off. T3 and T4 are off. When T1 is on. the armature current rises through T2 and D4.

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