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TEST BANK

to accompany

Edwards * Wattenberg * Lineberry

GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA
People, Politics, and Policy Thirteenth AP* Edition
*AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

Dennis Plane Juniata College Wanda L. Hill Tarrant County College, South

New York Boston San Francisco London Toronto Sydney Tokyo Singapore Madrid Mexico City Munich Paris Cape Town Hong Kong Montreal

This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.

Test Bank to accompany Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy, 13th AP* Edition

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Instructors may reproduce portions of this book for classroom use only. All other reproductions are strictly prohibited without prior permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. ISBN: 0-321-47997-1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-OPM-10 09 08 07

CONTENTS
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Introducing Government in America .......................................................................1 The Constitution.....................................................................................................35 Federalism .............................................................................................................80 Civil Liberties and Public Policy.........................................................................131 Civil Rights and Public Policy.............................................................................183 Public Opinion and Political Action....................................................................230 The Mass Media and the Political Agenda ..........................................................278 Political Parties ...................................................................................................319 Nominations and Campaigns...............................................................................362 Elections and Voting Behavior ............................................................................408 Interest Groups ....................................................................................................450 Congress ..............................................................................................................494 The Presidency.....................................................................................................536 The Congress, the President, and the Budget: The Politics of Taxing and Spending ...................................................................583 The Federal Bureaucracy ....................................................................................624 The Federal Courts ..............................................................................................666 Economic Policymaking.......................................................................................712 Social Welfare Policymaking...............................................................................740 Policymaking for Health Care and the Environment ..........................................771 National Security Policymaking ..........................................................................795 The New Face of State and Local Government ...................................................842

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Chapter1 IntroducingGovernmentinAmerica
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) ThereisatremendousgapbetweenyouthandtheelderlyinallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) politicalknowledge. B) politicalparticipation. C) politicalinterest. D) volunteering. E) mediause. Answer: D
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2) Politicalknowledge A) isgreateramongyouththantheelderly. B) fosterspoliticaltolerance. C) isnotthatimportantinademocracy. D) isgenerallyhighintheUnitedStates. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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3) Voterturnoutmattersbecause A) federalfundsareallocatedonthebasisofthenumberofvotersinacongressional district. B) bettercandidatesareselectedwhenmorepeoplevote. C) politicianspaymoreattentiontothosewhovotethantothosewhodonotvote. D) itmakescitizensfeelbetter. E) itmakesourcountrylookbetter. Answer: C


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4) Governmentisdefinedasthe A) organizationthatbringsproblemstotheattentionofpublicofficials. B) bodythatisconcernedwitheconomicproblemswhileleavingsocialproblemstoother institutionsofsociety. C) agencythatimplementspoliciesthathavebeenenactedbyotherinstitutionsofthe politicalsystem. D) executivebranchanditsagencies. E) institutionsandprocessesthroughwhichpublicpoliciesaremadeforsociety. Answer: E


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5) ThepolicymakinginstitutionsoftheAmericannationalgovernmentincludeallofthe followingEXCEPT A) theSupremeCourt. B) thepresidency. C) politicalparties. D) Congress. E) theSenate. Answer: C


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6) OneadvantageoftheInternetfordemocracyisthatit A) provideslessinformationthannewspapers. B) makesiteasytoavoidpoliticaltopics. C) makesiteasierforcitizenstocommunicatedirectlywithgovernment. D) willprovidemorepoliticalinformationtopoliticalelites. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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7) Thingsthatareindivisible,nonexclusive,andthateveryonecansharearecalled A) intangibleproperty. B) socialized. C) communityproperty. D) communist. E) publicgoods. Answer: E


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8) Governmentsinthemodernworld,whetherdemocraticornot,aresimilarindoingallofthe followingEXCEPT A) protectingcitizenscivilliberties. B) maintaininganationaldefense. C) providingpublicgoods. D) collectingtaxes. E) providingpublicservices. Answer: A


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9) Apublicgoodisdefinedas A) somethinginwhichanymemberofsocietycanshare. B) somethingprovidedbythegovernmentthatcannotbeprovidedbytheprivatesector. C) achoicethatgovernmentmakesinresponsetoapoliticalissue. D) apublicpolicythatisgoodforthenationasawhole. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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10) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutpublicgoodsisFALSE? A) Thegovernmentusuallyprovidespublicgoods. B) Publicgoodsarethingsthateveryonecanshare. C) Individualshavepowerfulincentivestoprovidepublicgoods. D) Publicgoodsarenotprofitable. E) Publicgoodsareindivisibleandnonexclusive. Answer: C


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11) Allgovernments A) providepublicgoodsandsocializecitizensintothepoliticalandsocialsystem. B) ensuresafetyonthehighseasandpromotefreeenterprise. C) maintainnationalparksandanationaldefense. D) guaranteeacapitalisteconomyandcollecttaxes. E) holdelections. Answer: A


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12) Allgovernments A) havewrittenconstitutions. B) areelected. C) havealegislature. D) provideservices. E) haveapresident. Answer: D


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13) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttaxesisTRUE? A) OneoutofeverythreedollarsearnedbyanAmericancitizenisusedtopaytaxes. B) Despitetheimagepresentedbythemedia,surveydatarevealthatAmericansfeelthey aregettingtheirmoneysworthforthetaxestheypay. C) Aboutone-tenthoftheaverageAmericancitizenssalarygoestotaxes. D) ThetaxburdenintheUnitedStatesishigherthaninmostotherdemocraticnations. E) Allofthesearetrue. Answer: A


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14) Aninterestgroupsosingle-mindedthatitsmembersoftenvoteononlyoneissue,ignoringa politiciansstandoneverythingelse,isknownas A) aone-issuegroup. B) auni-issuegroup. C) ahot-buttongroup. D) asingle-issuegroup. E) amono-issuegroup. Answer: D


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15) Whencomparedwiththerestoftheworld,Americahasarelativelylow A) numberofofficesupforelection. B) numberofcandidateswhoseekoffice. C) frequencyofelections. D) voterturnoutinelections. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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16) Manypoliticiansbelievethatsingle-issuegroups A) stimulatethepoliticalsystemtosolvepublicpolicyproblems. B) areessentialtodemocracy. C) complicateeffortstoseekthemiddlegroundonvariousissues. D) playaunifyingroleinAmericanpolitics. E) donotaffectpolicymaking. Answer: C


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17) PoliticsisdefinedbyHaroldLasswellas A) conflictinsociety. B) theexerciseofpower. C) theresolutionofconflictinawaythatservesthepublic. D) whogetswhat,when,andhow. E) acourseofactiontosolveaproblem. Answer: D


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18) Single-issuegroups A) arerapidlylosingprominenceinAmericanpolitics. B) usuallyruntheirowncandidatesforpublicoffice. C) havelittlesympathyforcompromising. D) helpfacilitatetheconstructionofacohesivenationalpublicpolicy. E) arehighlyregardedbypoliticalscientistsfortheircontributionstodemocracy. Answer: C


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19) WhichofthefollowingstatementsbestdescribesvoterturnoutintheUnitedStates? A) Amongdemocraticnations,theUnitedStatesleadstheworldinvoterturnout. B) VoterturnoutintheUnitedStatesisconstitutionallymandated. C) VotersareusuallyamicrocosmoftheentirebodyofAmericancitizens. D) MostAmericanvotersconsiderpoliticsascriticaltotheirinterests. E) TheUnitedStateshasoneofthelowestvoterturnoutratesintheworld. Answer: E


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20) Thelistofproblemstowhichpoliticalleadersarepayingseriousattentionisa(n) A) problemset. B) policyagenda. C) issueconstellation. D) legislativepackage. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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21) ________istheprocessbywhichpolicycomesintobeingandevolvesovertime. A) Democracy B) Apolicymakingsystem C) Aconstellation D) Thebureaucracy E) Government Answer: B


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22) Theprocessfromaboveis A) apolicymakingsystem. B) politicaldecisionmaking. C) apolicyagenda. D) agovernment. E) alinkageinstitution. Answer: A


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23) Anexampleofpublicpolicymakingwouldbe A) CongressandthepresidentdecidingnottoactontheAIDScrisis. B) amajorityofthepublicsupportingtheideaofgovernmentdealingwithunemployment. C) thepresidentmeetingwiththeheadsofoilcompanies. D) thepresscreatingpublicconcernaboutracialdiscrimination. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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24) AllofthefollowingarepartsofthepolicymakingsystemEXCEPT A) publicgoods. B) policymakinginstitutions. C) linkageinstitutions. D) peoplespoliticalinterests. E) policy. Answer: A


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25) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutagovernmentspolicyagendaisFALSE? A) Whenyouvote,youarepartlylookingatwhetheracandidatesharesyouragendaor not. B) Badnewsgetsanissueonthepolicyagendamorequicklythangoodnews. C) Whenpeopleconfrontgovernmentofficialswithproblemstobesolved,theyaretrying toinfluencethegovernmentspolicyagenda. D) Agovernmentspolicyagendatendstoremainconstantovertime. E) Noneoftheabove;allaretrue. Answer: D
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26) Apoliticalpartyisakey________inAmericasdemocraticsystem. A) stimulus-response B) linkageinstitution C) input D) majoritarianinhibitor E) output Answer: B


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27) Inademocraticsociety,parties,elections,interestgroupsandthemediaareallexamplesof ________betweenthepreferencesofcitizensandthegovernmentspolicyagenda. A) cross-pollination B) inputsandoutputs C) ideologicalbridges D) obstacles E) linkageinstitutions Answer: E


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28) WhichofthefollowingisNOTalinkageinstitution? A) politicalparties B) themedia C) interestgroups D) Congress E) Allofthesearelinkageinstitutions. Answer: D


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29) Whichoftheseisalinkageinstitution? A) USAToday B) thepresidentscabinet C) theHouseofRepresentatives D) theambassadortoFrance E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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30) Partiesandinterestgroups A) determinewhichissuesareonthepolicyagenda. B) arenotparticularlyinterestedinthepolicyagenda. C) workhardtogettheissuestheywantonthepolicyagenda. D) havenoeffectonthepolicyagenda. E) determinethecongressionalagenda. Answer: C


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31) Achoicethatgovernmentmakesinresponsetosomeissueonitsagendaiscalled A) publicpolicy. B) selectiveselection. C) alaw. D) stimulus-response. E) rationalchoicetheory. Answer: A


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32) ________arisewhenpeopledisagreeaboutaproblemorapublicpolicychoicemadeto combataproblem. A) Revolutions B) Politicalissues C) Socialcrises D) Governments E) Wars Answer: B


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33) Akeyquestionthatconfrontsgovernmentregardingdifferentpublicpolicychoicesis A) whetheranappropriatelinkageinstitutioniswillingtoframeapolicy. B) whichisthemostcomplicatedonetodealwith. C) whichistheleastcomplicatedonetodealwith. D) whetherornotgovernmentshoulddoanythingaboutthem. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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34) Publicpolicyisdefinedasa A) policydirectedatmorethanoneperson. B) courseofactiontosolveaproblem. C) setofrulesandregulationsissuedbyagovernmentagency. D) courseofactionbyapoliticalparty. E) choicethatgovernmentmakesinresponsetoanissue. Answer: E


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35) Politicalissues A) arealwaysacteduponbythegovernment. B) arisewhenpeopledisagreeaboutaproblemorpublicpolicychoicesmadetocombata problem. C) arelimitedinnumberintheUnitedStates. D) usuallyemergeoutofgroupconsensusonaproblem. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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36) KarlMarxandFriedrichEngelspublished A) TheCommunistManifesto. B) ATheoryofDemocracy. C) TheFederalistPapers. D) PoorRichardsAlmanac. E) WarandPeace. Answer: A


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37) Onetypeoflinkageinstitutionis A) aninterestgroup. B) agovernment. C) abureaucracy. D) alegislature. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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38) Theeffectsapolicyhasonpeopleandproblemsiscalled A) policyoutputs. B) policyimplementation. C) policyissues. D) policyimpacts. E) policyagenda. Answer: D


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39) ThewritersoftheUnitedStatesConstitution A) weredistrustfulofdemocracy. B) soughttoestablishthemostdemocraticsystemtheycould. C) wereinterestedinpromotingequalityaboveallelse. D) patternedourgovernmentafterBritainsexceptfortheKing. E) believedinmajorityrule. Answer: A


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40) Ameansofselectingpolicymakersandororganizinggovernmentsothatpolicyrepresents andrespondstothepublicspreferencesis A) government. B) politics. C) publicadministration. D) democracy. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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41) WhichoftheseisNOTacriterionoftraditionaldemocratictheory,asformulatedbyRobert Dahl? A) freedomofspeechandpress B) Onepersongetsonevote. C) Citizenshipmustbeopentoallwithinanation. D) Thosewhoparticipateinpoliticalorganizationsmustberepresentativeofthegeneral population. E) Citizensmustmakerationalchoices. Answer: E
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42) WhichofthefollowingisNOToneofthecornerstonesofanidealdemocracy? A) aconstitution B) effectiveparticipation C) citizencontroloftheagenda D) economicequality E) equalityinvoting Answer: D


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43) Twoofthemostimportantprinciplesofdemocratictheoryaremajorityruleand A) thepluralityrule. B) judicialreview. C) minorityrights. D) majorityrestraint. E) RobertsRulesofOrder. Answer: C


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44) WhichofthefollowingtakesthemostpositiveviewofdemocracyintheUnitedStates? A) democraticcentralism B) pluralisttheory C) hyperpluralism D) democraticpositivism E) elitetheory Answer: B


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45) PluralisttheorycontendsthatintheUnitedStates A) societyisgovernedsolelybyanupper-classelite. B) toomanyinfluentialgroupscripplegovernmentsabilitytogovern. C) manygroupsvieforpowerwithnoonesetofgroupsdominating. D) themanymembersofCongressdominateasingularofficialsuchasthepresident. E) becausemostcitizensfailtopayattentiontoseriousissues,governmenthasbecomean eliteinstitution. Answer: C


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46) AllofthefollowingareingredientsofapluralisticdemocracyEXCEPT A) groupcompetitionforpolicybenefits. B) bargainingandcompromise. C) majorityrule. D) multipleaccesspointstopolicymakers. E) separationofpowers. Answer: C


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47) Themostfundamentalelementofdemocratictheoryis A) powertothepeople! B) governmentefficiency. C) equality. D) majorityrule. E) accesstoinformation. Answer: D


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48) Representationrefersto A) majorityrule. B) allpolicyviewsbeingincludedinpoliticaldebate. C) theprotectionofminorityrightsinapluralistsystem. D) electingoffice-holdersinfairandfreeelections. E) thecorrespondencebetweenthefewleadersandthemanyfollowersinademocracy. Answer: E


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49) Whichofthefollowingindividualshavesuggestedthatpluralisttheoryislessdescriptiveof Americanpoliticsthaninthepast? A) AnthonyKing B) RobertDahl C) AlexisdeTocqueville D) RobertPutnam E) ThomasJefferson Answer: D


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50) Americangovernmentisviewedmostpositivelybythe A) socialisttheory. B) pluralisttheory. C) positivistphilosophy. D) hyperpluralisttheory. E) eliteandclasstheory. Answer: B


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51) Asysteminwhichmanygroupsmakethemselvesheardandfeltsomewhereinthepolicy processis A) pluralistic. B) directdemocracy. C) hyperpluralistic. D) elitist. E) bureaucratic. Answer: A


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52) Thetheorythatarguesthatgroupcompetitionresultsinaroughapproximationofthepublic interestinpublicpolicyis A) hyperpluralisttheory. B) balanceofpowertheory. C) eliteandclasstheory. D) pluralisttheory. E) bureaucratictheory. Answer: D


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53) WhichofthefollowingisNOTacontemporarytheoryofdemocracy? A) hyperpluralism B) classtheory C) democraticcentralism D) pluralism E) elitetheory Answer: C


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54) RobertPutnamsclaimthatAmericansarenowbowlingaloneisacriticismof A) pluralism. B) elitetheory. C) hyperpluralism. D) socialnetworktheory. E) noneoftheabove Answer: A


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55) WhichofthefollowingismostfundamentallycriticalofAmericandemocracy? A) traditionaldemocratictheory B) democraticnegativism C) pluralisttheory D) criticaldemocratictheory E) eliteandclasstheory Answer: E


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56) Manyeliteandclasstheoristsbelievethat________ofAmericanscontrolmostgovernment policydecisions. A) 5percent B) amajority C) thevastmiddleclass D) 1percent E) 10percent Answer: D


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57) OverathirdofAmericaswealthisownedby A) theUnitedStatesgovernment. B) onepercentofthepopulation. C) athirdofthepopulation. D) sevenpercentofthepopulation. E) Japaneseinvestors. Answer: B


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58) Atthecenterofalltheoriesofelitedominationofpoliticsis A) bigbusiness. B) theCongress. C) thenouveauriche. D) theTrilateralCommission. E) thepresident. Answer: A


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59) Eliteandclasstheoryholdsthat A) allsocietiesaredividedalongclasslinesandthatanupper-classelitewillrule. B) powerisdispersedamongmanyinstitutions. C) inademocracythemajorityclassmustoverthrowthegovernmentandrulebyitselfif governmentistobefreedfromthecontroloftherich. D) thereislittleconsensusinpolicymakingamongelites. E) politicsisthebasisofelitepower. Answer: A


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60) Thetheorythatseeswealthasthebasisofpoweristhe A) democratictheory. B) hyperpluralisttheory. C) Jeffersoniantheory. D) eliteandclasstheory. E) pluralisttheory. Answer: D


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61) HyperpluralistsbelievethatthedominantplayerinAmericanpoliticsis A) groups. B) thepresident. C) thegovernment. D) themedia. E) richindividuals. Answer: A


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62) InevaluatingAmericandemocracy,hyperpluralists A) claimthatcompetinggroupsvyingforpowermakeforgenerallyefficient,honest government. B) claimthatsocietyisgovernedsolelybyanupper-classelite. C) claimthattoomanyinfluentialgroupscripplegovernmentsabilitytogovern. D) believethatthepublicinterestisnearlyalwaystranslatedintopublicpolicyintheUnited States. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C
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63) Accordingtohyperpluralists,theincreasingcaseloadsoffederalandstatecourtsdemonstrate A) thehighstatusofattorneysintheUnitedStates. B) theinabilitytocontrolthebureaucracyinimplementingpolicy. C) thatgroupsaremorelikelytoappealtodifferentinstitutionsinordertogainpolicy benefits. D) theexpandingscopeofgovernmentintheUnitedStates. E) theincreasingcomplexityofoursocialnetworks. Answer: D


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64) ThepowerofthefewintheUnitedStatestodayislikelytoreferto A) high-levelbureaucrats. B) electedofficials. C) propertyholders. D) technicalexperts. E) asilentmajority. Answer: D


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65) Thenatureofgroupsandthegovernmentinhyperpluralisttheoryis A) stronggovernmentandstronggroups. B) weakgroupsandstronggovernment. C) weakgroups,strongelites,andweakgovernment. D) stronggroupsandweakgovernment. E) toofewgroupsresultinthecreationofmanygovernments. Answer: D


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66) Hyperpluralistswouldarguethat A) toomanyinfluentialgroupscripplegovernmentsabilitytogovern. B) societyisdividedalongclasslines. C) groupcompetitionwillresultinaroughapproximationofthepublicinterest. D) wealthisthebasisofpower. E) toofewgroupsleadtoaproliferationofgovernments. Answer: A


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67) WhichoftheseisNOTconsideredachallengetodemocracybythetextbook? A) thediversityoftheAmericanpeople B) thelevelofpoliticalparticipationbyAmericans C) PACs D) thespecializationofknowledgeheldbyexperts E) thetendencyoftheAmericanpoliticalsystemtochangerapidly Answer: E


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68) WhichofthefollowingwouldNOTbeconsideredacontemporarychallengetoAmerican democracy? A) complexityoftheissues B) thethreatofcommunism C) theuseofmoneyinpolitics D) politicalparticipationrates E) diversity Answer: B


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69) Increasedtechnicalexpertiseisachallengetodemocracybecause A) itisdifficulttohaveaninformednon-technicalpublicdebateontechnicalissues. B) itgoesagainstthetenetsofpluralistpoliticaltheory. C) itviolatesthenotionofoneman,onevote. D) electedofficialsfindithardtounderstandtechnicalexperts. E) interestgroupshaveadifficulttimesecuringtechnicalexpertise. Answer: B


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70) PACstandsfor A) PartisanAssistanceContribution. B) PartyAffairsCouncil. C) PolicyAdvisoryCommission. D) PoliticallyActiveConstituency. E) PoliticalActionCommittee. Answer: E


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71) PeoplewhoworryaboutPACsaremostespeciallyconcernedabout A) thedeclineinAmericanvoterturnout. B) thecloseconnectionbetweenmoneyandpolitics. C) toomuchdemocracybeingdangeroustosocialstability. D) therolePartyAffairsCouncilsplayinelections. E) single-issuevoters. Answer: B


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72) Escalatingcampaigncostsareachallengetodemocracybecause A) itisbelievedthatPACcontributionsaffectthewaymembersofCongressvoteonsingle issues. B) theyareassociatedwithmoretechnicalpolicies. C) theyleadtopolicygridlock. D) theyreflectdiverseinterests. E) theymakeiteasierforcandidatestoraisemoney. Answer: A


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73) Accordingtothetext,thediversityofpoliticalinterestsinAmericaisresultingin A) adecreaseinpoliticalparticipation. B) policygridlock. C) thebreakdownoftheeducationalsystem. D) anincreaseinpoliticalparticipation. E) aculturalrenaissance. Answer: B


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74) Theabilityofgroupstopreventthegovernmentfromtakingactionsadversetotheirinterests leadstowhatthetextcalls A) Dahlsidealdemocraticprocess. B) elitedominance. C) budgetdeficits. D) enlightenedunderstanding. E) policygridlock. Answer: E


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75) Theoverallsetofsharedvaluesinasocietyisknownas A) individualism. B) valueaddedvoting. C) populism. D) politicalculture. E) collectivism. Answer: D


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76) AccordingtoG.K.Chesterston,theUnitedStatesistheonlycountryintheworldthatis foundedon A) heredity. B) acreed. C) isolationism. D) civicvirtue. E) religiousprinciples. Answer: B


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77) DuringtheAmericanRevolution,PatrickHenrysaid A) Wefightfortruth,justice,andtheAmericanway! B) Givemelibertyorgivemedeath. C) IregretthatIhavebutonelifetogiveformycountry. D) Ourfathersbroughtforthonthiscontinent,anewnation,conceivedinLiberty,and dedicatedtothepropositionthatallmenarecreatedequal. E) Livefreeordie. Answer: B


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78) AccordingtoThomasJefferson,whichofthefollowingisaninalienableright? A) Liberty B) Taxes C) Justice D) Jurisprudence E) Incontinence Answer: A


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79) TheDeclarationofIndependencesaysthatallmenarecreatedequal.Whichaspectofthe Americancreeddoesthissuggest? A) Individualism B) Egalitarianism C) Liberty D) Capitalism E) Populism Answer: C


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80) OneoftheprimaryreasonsforthecomparativelysmallscopeofAmericangovernmentis A) liberalism. B) pluralism. C) judicialreview. D) capitalism. E) individualism. Answer: E


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81) AccordingtoFrederickJacksonTurner,theexistenceofthefrontierinAmericanhistorymost directlyresultedin A) theabolitionofslavery. B) astrongpreferenceforlimitedgovernment. C) theenvironmentalmovement. D) thespaceprogram. E) thecivilrightsmovement. Answer: B


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82) Populismemphasizes A) thepeople. B) theelectedofficials. C) representativedemocracy. D) themeritocracy. E) prosperity. Answer: A


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83) ThosewhoarguethattheUnitedStatesisinthemidstofaculturewararguethatAmericans arebecomingincreasingly A) isolationist. B) secular. C) hypocritical. D) egalitarian. E) polarized. Answer: E


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84) National,state,andlocalgovernmentsinAmericaspendalmost________ofthegross domesticproduct. A) 3percent B) 30percent C) all D) 10percent E) none Answer: B


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85) TheUnitedStatesgovernmentowns________ofthelandintheUnitedStates A) all B) 5percent C) one-third D) 2percent E) none Answer: C


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86) ThelargestitemintheUnitedStatesgovernmentbudget,consumingmorethanone -fifthof spending,is A) SocialSecuritypayments. B) foreignaid. C) educationspending. D) nationaldefense. E) welfareforthepoor. Answer: A
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87) TheUnitedStatesnationalgovernmentspendsabout________ayear. A) $4billion B) $250billion C) $1,000,000,000,000 D) $500billion E) $2.8trillion Answer: E


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88) Whichofthefollowingcategoriesisthelargestexpenditureinthefederalbudget? A) SocialSecurity B) Medicaid C) environment D) nationaldefense E) homelandsecurity Answer: A


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True/FalseQuestions
1) Arecentstudyofcollegefreshmenrecentlyfoundthatonly34percentsaidthatkeepingup withpoliticswasanimportantpriorityforthem. Answer: TRUE
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2) Ina2004surveyofpoliticalknowledge,youngpeopleprovidedthecorrectanswertoonly one-thirdofthesequestions,whereaspeopleover65werecorrecthalfthetime. Answer: TRUE


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3) TherevolutionaryexpansionofchannelsandWebsitesanticipatedinthenearfutureislikely toenhancethepoliticalinterestandinvolvementofyoungpeople. Answer: FALSE


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4) Publicgoodsarethingsthateveryoneshares,suchascleanair. Answer: TRUE


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5) Governmentshavelittleincentivetoprovidepublicgoods. Answer: FALSE


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6) ThevoterturnoutrateintheUnitedStatesisoneofthehighestintheworld. Answer: FALSE


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7) Governmentoftenactsonissuesthatarenotespeciallyhighonthepolicyagenda. Answer: FALSE


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8) Inademocracy,publicofficialsaresupposedtopayattentiontotheproblemsthatconcern voters. Answer: TRUE


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9) Allissuesonthegovernmentspolicyagendaarecarefullyconsideredbypublicofficials. Answer: FALSE


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10) Apoliticalissueariseswhenpeopledisagreeaboutaproblemoraboutapublicpolicychoice madetocombataproblem. Answer: TRUE


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11) Mostgovernmentalpoliciesaremadebyasingleinstitution. Answer: FALSE


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12) VeryfewpoliciesaremadebyasinglepolicymakinginstitutionintheUnitedStates. Answer: TRUE


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13) Anon-decisionisonetypeofpolicydecisionmadebygovernment. Answer: TRUE


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14) ThewritersoftheConstitutionwereunanimouslyanddevotedlycommittedtodemocracy. Answer: FALSE


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15) Governmentbythepeopleisameaningfulandusefuldefinitionofdemocracy. Answer: FALSE


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16) PluralisttheoryholdsthatbecausesomanygroupscompeteforpowerintheUnitedStates, nonehasamajoritysayandpublicpolicyroughlyapproximatesthepublicinterest. Answer: TRUE


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17) AccordingtoRobertPutnam,manyoftheproblemsofAmericandemocracytodaystemfrom adeclineingroup-basedparticipation. Answer: TRUE


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18) ElitetheoristsmaintainthatwhoholdsofficeinWashingtonisofmarginalconsequence;the corporategiantsalwayshavethepower. Answer: TRUE


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19) Elitetheoristsbelievethatwhoeveriselectedtoofficeinthefederalgovernmenthaslittle influenceonpolicymaking. Answer: TRUE


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20) AIDSisanexampleofpolicybeingmadebyinaction. Answer: TRUE


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21) KevinPhillipsdescriptionofthe1980sasthetriumphofupperAmericaisevidenceof hyperpluralismintheUnitedStates. Answer: FALSE


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22) Itisclearthatordinarycitizenscanmakesoundpoliticaljudgmentsontechnicalissuesinour society. Answer: FALSE


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23) Themoreparticipationinademocracy,thehealthierthedemocracyisthoughttobe. Answer: TRUE


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24) TheAmericancreedincludeslaissez-faire. Answer: TRUE


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25) NewHampshiresofficialstatemottoisGivemelibertyorgivemedeath. Answer: FALSE


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26) Akeyaspectofegalitarianismispoliticalequality. Answer: TRUE


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27) ImmigrantstotheUnitedStatesoftenbroughtasenseofindividualismwiththem. Answer: TRUE


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28) Politicianswhoarguethatthepeopleshouldbeputfirstareemphasizingpopulism. Answer: TRUE


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29) NearlyallpoliticalscientistsagreethattheUnitedStatesisinthemidstofaculturewar. Answer: FALSE


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30) ThenationalgovernmentintheUnitedStatesnowspendsapproximately$2.8trillionevery year. Answer: TRUE


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31) Thenationalgovernmentemploysnearlytenmillionpeople. Answer: FALSE


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32) Whentaxesdonotgrow,taxrevenuemustgrowtopaytheadditionalcosts,orabudget deficitresults. Answer: TRUE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) Becausetheypaysolittleattentiontopolitics,________arelesslikelythan________tobe well-informedaboutpoliticsingovernment. Answer: youth;theelderly
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2) Definepublicgoodsandgiveanexample. Answer: Goods,suchascleanairandcleanwater,thateveryonemustshare.


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3) Lasswelldefinespoliticsas________. Answer: whogetswhat,when,andhow


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4) Politicsdetermines________. Answer: whomweselectasourgovernmentalleadersandwhatpoliciestheseleaderspursue


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5) Thosewhocasttheirvotesbasedsolelyonhowcandidatesstandononetopic,suchas abortionrights,belongtowhatareknownas________groups. Answer: single-issue


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6) Whomweselectasourgovernmentleadersandthepoliciestheseleaderspursue________. Answer: isdeterminedbypolitics


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7) Definepublicpolicy.Giveexamplesofdifferenttypesofpublicpolicies. Answer: Publicpolicyisachoicethatgovernmentmakesinresponsetoapoliticalissue;acourse ofactiontakenwithregardtothesameproblem.


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8) Inademocraticsociety,parties,elections,interestgroupsandthemediaarekey________. Answer: linkageinstitutions


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9) WhatarethekeylinkageinstitutionsintheUnitedStates? Answer: elections,politicalparties,interestgroupsandthemedia


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10) ________isameansofselectingpolicymakersandoforganizinggovernmentsothatpolicy representsandrespondstothepublicspreferences. Answer: Democracy


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11) Whatisademocracy?Definetheterm,andthenbrieflydescribethreecharacteristicstypically associatedwithdemocraciesintraditionaldemocratictheory. Answer: Asystemofselectingpolicymakersandoforganizinggovernmentsothatpolicy representsandrespondstothepublicspreferences;equalityinvoting,effective participation,enlightenedunderstanding,citizencontroloftheagenda,orinclusion.


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12) Whatismeantbyrepresentation?Howimportantisitinademocracy,andwhy? Answer: Representationisthecorrespondencebetweenthefewleadersandthemanyfollowers inademocracy.Itisimportantbecausethegreatertherepresentation,thebetterthe democracy.


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13) Compareandcontrastmajorityruleandminorityrights.Whatistheirimportanceina democraticsociety? Answer: Majorityruleisafundamentalprincipleoftraditionaldemocratictheory,andrequires thatthemajoritysdesireberespectedindecisionmaking.Minorityrightsisanother principleoftraditionaldemocratictheorythatguaranteesrightstothosewhodonot belongtomajoritiesandallowsthattheymightjoinmajoritiesthroughpersuasionand reasonedargument.


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14) Compareandcontrasttheroleofgroupsinpluralisttheoryandhyperpluralisttheory. Answer: Answerswillvary.


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15) Whatistheroleofwealth(ormoney)inpluralisttheoryvs.elitetheory? Answer: Wealthisnotveryimportantinelitetheory,whicharguesthatallgroupsareableto influencegovernment,regardlessofagroupswealth.Elitetheory,however,assumes thatwealthispower.Therefore,thewealthiestonepercentofAmericans(whoown one-thirdofallwealth)hastremendouspoliticalpower.


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16) Thosewhoespousethe________theorycontendthatUnitedStatessocietyisdividedalong classlines,andthatanupperclassruleshereregardlessofAmericasrhetoricofequality. Answer: eliteandclass


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17) Namethetheoryofgovernmentthatarguesthattoomanyinfluentialgroupsaresostrongthat thegovernmentisunabletoact,asgovernmenttendstocaveintoeveryconceivableinterest andsingleissue-group. Answer: hyperpluralism


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18) Identifytwochallengestodemocracytoday,asidentifiedinthetext. Answer: increasedtechnicalexpertise,limitedparticipationingovernment,escalatingcampaign costsordiversepoliticalinterests


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19) ________occurswhennocoalitionisstrongenoughtoformamajorityandestablishapolicy. Answer: Policygridlock


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20) WhatarethefiveelementsoftheAmericancreed? Answer: Liberty,egalitarianism,laissez-faire,individualism,andpopulation


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21) Whenpeopletalkaboutaculturewar,whatdotheymean? Answer: ThebeliefthattheAmericanpopulationisbecomingincreasinglypolarizedalong ideologicallines.


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22) The________isthesumtotalofthevalueofallthegoodsandservicesproducedinanation. Answer: grossdomesticproduct


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EssayQuestions
1) Discussthepoliticaldifferencesbetweenyoungpeopleandolderadults.Whatmightaccount forthesedifferences?Andwhataretheimplicationsofthesedifferencesfordemocracyinthe UnitedStates?
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2) Discussthedifferencesinpoliticalinvolvementbetweenyoungpeopleandolderadults.How mightyouthinvolvementbeincreasedinourdemocracy?
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3) Whatarethemajorfunctionsperformedbyallgovernments?Giveexamplesofhowthese functionsareperformedintheUnitedStates.
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4) Describethecomponentsofthepolicymakingsystemandexplainhowpublicpoliciesmake theirwaythroughthepoliticalsystem.
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5) Describethefiveprinciplesoftraditionaldemocratictheory,asidentifiedbyRobertDahl. Underwhatcircumstanceswouldtherealityofdemocraticpoliticsfallshortofeachofthese idealprinciples?Providespecificexamplesinyouranswer.


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6) CompareandcontrastthethreeleadingcontemporarytheoriesofhowAmericandemocracy works.Whichdoyouthinkmostaccuratelydescribestherealitytoday?Explain.
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7) Compareandcontrastpluralist,eliteandclasstheory,andhyperpluralismandassesstheir applicabilitytoAmericangovernment.
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8) DescribethefiveaspectsoftheAmericancreed.
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9) SomearguethattheUnitedStatesisinthemidstofaculturewar.Whatismeantbyculture war?Whataretheargumentsforandagainsttheexistenceofaculturewar?Whichsetof argumentsdoyoufindmostconvincingandwhy?


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Chapter2 TheConstitution
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) WhichoftheseisTRUEabouttheUnitedStatesConstitution? A) Itcentralizespoliticalpower. B) Itissupersededonlybydecreesofthepresident. C) Itsetsneutralrulesforthegameofpolitics. D) Allofthesearetrue. E) Noneofthesearetrue. Answer: E
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2) Insettingthebroadrulesofthegameofpolitics,constitutions A) areneverneutral;theygivesomeparticipantsadvantagesoverothers. B) arefairandimpartial. C) allowallparticipantsthesamepoliticalopportunities. D) havenoeffectonthedistributionofpowerinsociety. E) areconstantlychanging. Answer: A


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3) Byeighteenth-centurystandards,lifewas________formostpeopleintheUnitedStatesatthe timeoftheRevolution. A) hellbothpoliticallyandeconomically B) politicallyoppressive C) ideal D) notbad E) aneconomicnightmare Answer: D


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4) TheBritishgovernmentsteppedupitscontrolsovertheAmericancolonieswithnewtaxes andstrongercommerceregulationsrightafter A) KingPhillipsWar. B) theassassinationoftheDukeofWindsor. C) KingGeorgesWar. D) theCivilWar. E) theFrenchandIndianWar. Answer: E


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5) Duringthecolonialperiod, A) AmericansexperiencedlessfreedomthancitizensofmostEuropeannations. B) BritainwasinvolvedinnearlyeveryaspectofAmericanpolitics. C) Americanswereburdenedwithcumbersomefeudalandhierarchicalrestraints. D) Americanssufferedoneoftheloweststandardsoflivingintheworld. E) theKingandParliamentgenerallyconfinedthemselvestogoverningthecolonies foreignandtradepolicies. Answer: E


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6) TheBritishleviednewtaxesonitsNorthAmericancoloniesintheeighteenthcenturyinorder topayfor A) maintainingtheelegantlifestyleoftheBritishroyalty. B) conquestofterritoriesinAfricaandAsia. C) defendingnewterritoriesobtainedaftertheFrenchandIndianWar. D) taxcutsandsocialwelfareprogramsforresidentsoftheBritishIsles. E) therisingcostoftea. Answer: C


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7) WhoissuedtheDeclarationofIndependence? A) theConstitutionalConventionof1776 B) theContinentalCongress C) PresidentGeorgeWashington D) the13coloniallegislatures E) GeneralGeorgeWashington Answer: B


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8) TheDeclarationofIndependencewasa A) validlegaldocumentunderBritishlaw. B) bitterattackagainsttheBritishkingforabusessaidtohavebeendonetothecolonists overalongperiodoftime. C) proclamationfromKingGeorgeIIIgrantingtheAmericancoloniststherighttoform theirownnation. D) thoughtful,cautiousexplanationofwhyindependencemightbeagoodideaifcertain demandswerenotmet. E) lasteffortbytheAmericancoloniststogetbackongoodtermswithEngland,whileonly threateningindependence. Answer: B
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9) TheDeclarationofIndependencewasprimarily A) atreatywithFranceforwaragainstBritain. B) anoriginalphilosophicaltreatiseonpolitics. C) anoutlineforanewgovernment. D) apolemic,announcingandjustifyingarevolution. E) theUnitedStatesfirstconstitution. Answer: D


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10) TheprimaryauthoroftheDeclarationofIndependencewas A) ThomasJefferson. B) BenjaminFranklin. C) JamesMadison. D) KingGeorgeIII. E) GeorgeWashington. Answer: A


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11) TheDeclarationofIndependence A) containedcompletelynewideasonpoliticalphilosophy. B) becameoneofthemostimportantstatementsofAmericanpoliticalphilosophy. C) tookseveralmonthstowrite. D) blamedtheBritishparliamentforabusesonthecolonies. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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12) TheAmericanRevolutionwasbasedupontheideasof A) intellectualslaves. B) intellectualfrontiersmen. C) GeorgeWashington. D) Europeanpoliticalthinkers. E) Americanfarmers. Answer: D


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13) ThefoundationofJohnLockesphilosophywasthathumanbeings A) derivetheirrightsfromnature. B) haverightsthataregrantedthembygovernment. C) determinetheirownrights. D) derivetheirrightsfromGod. E) aregrantedtheirrightsbytheirKing. Answer: A


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14) WhichofthesewasNOTamongJohnLockeskeyphilosophicalconcepts? A) checksandbalances B) limitedgovernment C) naturalrights D) consentofthegoverned E) propertyrights Answer: A


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15) JohnLockesideasonnaturalrightswererelatedtohumanlawinthat A) naturalrightswerelessimportantthanhumanlaw. B) naturalrightswereconsideredhigherthanhumanlaw. C) humanlawwasthesourceofnaturalrights. D) humanlawprotectedpropertyrights,makinghumanlawequaltonaturalrights. E) humanlawandnaturalrightswereunimportantafterrevolution. Answer: B


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16) JohnLockebelievedineachofthefollowingEXCEPT A) limitedgovernment. B) consentofthegoverned. C) naturalrights. D) divinerightofkings. E) bothCandD Answer: D


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17) TheDeclarationofIndependencearguedthat A) nationsareindivisibleandapeoplemustneversecedefromtheirmothernation. B) peopleshouldrevoltwhentheysufferdeepinjustices. C) theBritishparliamentwastoblamefortheevilsimposeduponthecolonists. D) peopleshouldalwaysworkpeacefullywithinthesystemtoredressanygrievancesthey have. E) revolutionisjustifiablewheneverpeoplebecomeangrywiththeirgovernment. Answer: B


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18) Reflectingthenaturalrightsphilosophy,theDeclarationofIndependencestatedthat governmentsderivetheirjustpowersfrom A) God. B) theconsentofthegoverned. C) tradition. D) theirelectedleaders. E) aConstitution. Answer: B


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19) ThejustificationforseparationfromEnglandintheDeclarationofIndependencewasbased heavilyontheideasoftheEnglishphilosopher A) LordNorth. B) HenryVIII. C) OliverCromwell. D) DavidHume. E) JohnLocke. Answer: E


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20) Thesolepurposeofgovernment,accordingtoJohnLocke,wasto A) promotethecommongood. B) preventanarchy. C) educateitspeople. D) protectindividualsfromviolence. E) protectnaturalrights. Answer: E


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21) JohnLockebelievedthattheendofgovernmentwas A) preservationofproperty. B) majorityrule. C) equalityofman. D) pursuitofhappiness. E) thebeginningoflife. Answer: A


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22) InJohnLockesphilosophy,therequirementsthatstandinglawsbeknownandprivate propertybepreserved A) arealwaysthreatenedbydemocraticgovernment. B) imposetwomajorlimitsongovernment. C) areunenforceablewhengovernmentislimited. D) mustbesacrificedintheinterestofdemocracy. E) couldonlybeenforcedbyapowerfulking. Answer: B


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23) LockeanthoughtandtheDeclarationofIndependencearesimilarinthatboth A) recognizetherightofthepeopletodeterminetheirownformofgovernment,shortof resortingtorevolution. B) weredevelopedinthelate1700s. C) valuethepreservationofprivateproperty. D) seekcommonidealsingovernmentthroughtheestablishmentofaconstitutional monarchy. E) supporttheconceptofnaturalrightsandtheideathatgovernmentbebuiltonthe consentofthegoverned. Answer: E
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24) ThomasJeffersonsphraselife,liberty,andthepursuitofhappinesswasamodificationof JohnLockesphraseLife,liberty,and________. A) property B) God C) heaven D) health E) equality Answer: A


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25) TheAmericanRevolution A) washeavilyinfluencedbytheearliersuccessesoftheFrenchRevolution. B) stronglyreflectedthewidespreadclassconflictthatwouldeventuallyleadtodeadly riotsfortwogenerations. C) wasverysimilartotheFrench,Russian,andIranianRevolutions. D) wasaradicalsocialmovementthatdrasticallyalteredthecolonistswayoflife. E) wasanessentiallyconservativemovementthatdidnotdrasticallyalterthecolonistsway oflife. Answer: E
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26) TheprimarygoaloftheAmericanRevolutionwas A) togaincontroloverthecoloniestradewithforeignnations. B) tocuttaxes. C) towintherighttoprintpapermoneythatcouldbeusedtopayoffdebts. D) torestorethecolonistsrightsasBritishsubjects. E) togaincontrolofthewesternfrontier. Answer: D


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27) TheAmericanRevolutionwasdifferentfromtheFrench,Russian,andIranianrevolutionsin that A) itwasmuchbloodier. B) itwasmuchshorter. C) itdidnotresultinachangeofgovernment. D) itproducedlittlesocietalchange. E) Itwasdifferentinalltheseways. Answer: D


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28) TheArticlesofConfederationwereadoptedby A) theContinentalCongress. B) PresidentGeorgeWashington. C) asmall,self-appointedcommitteeofthenationspoliticalleaders. D) theBritishParliament. E) theContinentalArmyundercommandofGeneralGeorgeWashington. Answer: A


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29) Beginningin1781,theUnitedStateswasgovernedunderthe A) ArticlesofConfederation. B) MayflowerCompact. C) BasicLawof1781. D) BritishConstitution. E) currentUnitedStatesConstitution. Answer: A


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30) TheprimarygoaloftheAmericanRevolutionwasto A) establishanewpoliticalsystem. B) restorerightsthecolonistsfeltwerealreadytheirsasBritishsubjects. C) createaneweconomicorder. D) institutionalizenewsocialvaluesbasedonequality. E) establishpropertyrights. Answer: B


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31) TheAmericanRevolution A) didnotdrasticallyalterthecolonistswayoflife. B) producedgreatsocietalchange. C) waswonquicklyanddecisivelybythesuperiorAmericantroops. D) createdclassconflictsthatsplitsociety. E) wasfoughtbetweenalargearmyofcolonialsandasmallBritisharmy. Answer: A


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32) UndertheArticlesofConfederation,mostpowerrestedwiththe A) theBritishParliament. B) president. C) UnitedStatesSenate. D) statelegislatures. E) ContinentalCongress. Answer: D


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33) WhichofthefollowingisFALSEabouttheUnitedStatesgovernmentundertheArticlesof Confederation? A) EachstatehadonlyonevoteinCongress. B) MostauthorityrestedwiththeUnitedStatesCongressratherthanthestategovernments. C) TheCongresshadonlyonehouse. D) Therewasnopresident. E) Allofthesearefalse. Answer: B


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34) WhichofthefollowingwasNOTaproblemwiththenationalgovernmentundertheArticles ofConfederation? A) thethreatofsomeoftheContinentalArmytoestablishGeorgeWashingtonasking B) thelackofpowergiventostatelegislatures C) thelackofanexecutivetoleadthenation D) theinabilityofthecentralnationalgovernmenttoregulateforeigntradeorregulatethe nationaleconomy E) theunwillingnessofthestatestosendmoneyrequisitionedbythecentralnational government Answer: B
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35) AftertheRevolution,powerinthestatelegislaturesshifted A) frommerchantstolawyers. B) fromthepoortothewealthy. C) fromradicalstoconservatives. D) fromthewealthytothosewithmoremoderateincomes. E) fromtheuppertothelowerchambers. Answer: D


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36) TheUnitedStatesgovernmentundertheArticlesofConfederationcanbestbedescribedas A) weakandineffective. B) overlypronetointerventioninforeignaffairs. C) overlybureaucratic. D) dictatorial. E) apersonaltoolofGeorgeWashington. Answer: A


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37) WhichofthefollowingwasNOTasourceofrevenuefortheUnitedStatesgovernmentunder theArticlesofConfederation? A) taxesleviedbytheContinentalCongress B) printingitsownmoney C) sellingoffwesternlands D) stategovernments E) Alloftheabovewererevenuesources. Answer: A


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38) WhichofthefollowingwasNOTaproblemwiththenationalgovernmentundertheArticles ofConfederation? A) theunwillingnessofthestatestosendmoneyrequisitionedbythecentralnational government B) thelackofanexecutivetoleadthenation C) thelackofpowergiventostatelegislatures D) theinabilityofthecentralnationalgovernmenttoregulateforeigntradeorregulatethe nationaleconomy E) Noneofthesewereproblemsatthetime. Answer: C
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39) UndertheArticlesofConfederationmostgovernmentalpowerrestedin A) thestategovernments. B) thenationalgovernment. C) thepresident. D) theCongress. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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40) AftertheRevolution,amajorpowershiftoccurredinthestatesfrom________to________. A) thebroadmiddleclass;ahandfulofwealthyindividuals B) countryside;city C) city;countryside D) theeastcoast;thewesterninterior E) wealthyindividuals;broadmiddleclass Answer: E


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41) AftertheAmericanRevolution,statelegislatureswerecomposedof A) significantlymoremiddle-classrepresentativesandfewerwealthymemberscompared tobeforethewar. B) revolutionarywarmilitiamen. C) aboutthesameratioofwealthymembersandnotsowealthymembersasbeforethewar. D) significantlymorelandlesslaborersandpoorfarmersthananyothergroup. E) ahigherpercentageofwealthyplanters,lawyers,andmerchantsthaneverbefore. Answer: A


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42) RightaftertheRevolutionaryWar,adramaticchangesweptthroughthenewcountry resultingin A) adramaticincreaseindemocracyandfreedom. B) apopulationshiftfromthecitiestothecountry. C) apopulationshiftfromcountrytocity. D) anexplosioninprosperity. E) full-scaleindustrialization. Answer: A


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43) UndertheArticlesofConfederation,Congresshadthepowerto A) levytaxes. B) overturnstatelaws. C) regulatecommerce. D) maintainanarmyandnavy. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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44) WhichofthefollowingwasNOToccurringinthestatesduringthetimeoftheArticlesof Confederation? A) abolishmentofreligiousqualificationsforholdingoffice B) adoptionofbillsofrights C) upper-classdominance D) expandedpoliticalparticipation E) alloftheabove Answer: C


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45) UndertheArticlesofConfederation,powerinthestatesbegantoshifttothehandsof A) merchantsandlawyers. B) middle-classfarmersandcraftworkers. C) governors. D) low-incomelandowners. E) newindustrialists. Answer: B


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46) Inpost-RevolutionaryAmerica,stategovernorswereoftenselectedby A) judges. B) thepresident. C) heredity. D) thepeopledirectly. E) statelegislatures. Answer: E


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47) AttheendoftheRevolutionaryWar, A) capturedBritishtroopswereherdedintolargeprisoncampswheretheyservedlife sentencesfortheirtreachery. B) astrong,newnationalgovernmentbeganimmediatelytokeeptheeconomyrunning smoothlywithcarefulregulation. C) apostwardepressionseverelyhurtsmallfarmersandmanyothers. D) theconditionoftheeconomywaslargelythesameasithadbeenbeforethewar. E) aperiodoftremendouseconomicprosperitybegan. Answer: C
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48) AsmallbandoffarmersinwesternMassachusettstookuparmsinwhatisrememberedas A) theFarmersRevolt. B) KingGeorgesWar. C) theBostonTeaParty. D) theWhiskeyRebellion. E) ShaysRebellion. Answer: E


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49) AftertheRevolution,JamesMadisonobservedthatthemostcommonanddurablesourceof factionhasbeen A) urbanandruraldivisions. B) thevariousandunequaldivisionsofproperty. C) aristocracy. D) theBritisharmy. E) racialinequalities. Answer: B


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50) AtthetopofthepoliticalagendaduringtheperiodoftheArticlesofConfederationwas A) economicissues. B) social-equalityissues. C) militaryissues. D) votingrightsissues. E) slavery. Answer: A


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51) AmongthefactorsthatcontributedtoeconomicturmoilundertheArticlesofConfederation wasthe A) postwardepressionthatleftmanysmallfarmersunabletopaytheirdebtsand threatenedmortgageforeclosures. B) decreasingeconomicviabilityofslavery. C) powershiftfrommiddle-classfarmerstowealthylandowners. D) statelegislaturesthatfavoredcreditorsandcreatedmoredebt. E) Allofthesefactorscontributedtotheeconomicturmoil. Answer: A
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52) ShaysRebellionwas A) themostdecisivebattleoftheRevolution,afterwhichBritishtroopswereneveragain abletomountamajoroffensiveagainstAmericantroops. B) aslaveuprisinginVirginia. C) anuprisingbysmallmerchantsdemandingcredit. D) anuprisingbyRevolutionaryWarveteransdemandingpensions. E) anuprisingbyfarmerstopreventjudgesfromforeclosingonfarms. Answer: E


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53) WhichstateboycottedtheConstitutionalConvention? A) Texas,becauseittooktoolongtogettoPhiladelphia B) Virginia C) RhodeIsland D) Nostateboycotted. E) BothVirginiaandRhodeIslandboycotted. Answer: C


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54) WhatwasthesignificanceoftheAnnapolismeeting? A) Itwasthefirstnationalconventionofwomendemandingtherighttovote. B) ItissuedtheDeclarationofIndependence. C) ItdissolvedtheContinentalCongress. D) ItselectedGeorgeWashingtonasthefirstpost-Revolutionarypresident. E) ItissuedtheoriginalcallfortheConstitutionalConventioninPhiladelphia. Answer: E


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55) InAnnapolis,Maryland,in1786,delegatesfromfivestatesmettodiscuss A) theproblemsofthenationalgovernmentundertheArticlesofConfederation. B) theneedtodeclareindependencefromEngland. C) theneedforaBillofRights. D) theissueofslavery. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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56) ThosewhometattheConstitutionalConventionin1787were A) amixofwealthyandmiddle-classAmericans. B) wealthyplanters,lawyers,andmerchants. C) overwhelminglymiddle-classfarmers. D) primarilyBritishofficialsoverseeingtheimplementationofthenewgovernmentagreed tointhepeacetreaty. E) splitevenlybetweenDemocratsandRepublicans. Answer: B


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57) Whatwastheoriginal,sole,andexpresspurposeoftheconventioninPhiladelphia? A) torevisetheArticlesofConfederation B) tochoosethefirstpresident C) tonegotiatethepeacetreatywithGreatBritain D) toabolishtheArticlesofConfederation E) tograntwomentherighttovote Answer: A


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58) WhichofthefollowingwasNOTacharacteristicofthe55delegateswhoattendedthe ConstitutionalConvention? A) Mostwereresidentsofthewesternfrontiers. B) Theywereallmen. C) Asignificantnumberwereurbanites. D) Manywerecollegegraduates. E) Theyweremostlywealthyplanters. Answer: A


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59) ThefirsttwoweeksoftheConstitutionalConventionwerespentdebating A) thenatureofrepublicangovernment. B) theeconomicstructureofthenewgovernment. C) thetermsofBritainssurrender. D) militaryissuesandtheneedforastandingarmy. E) practicalpoliticalissues. Answer: A


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60) WhatviewofhumannaturedidthedelegatesattheConstitutionalConventionhave? A) Humansarebasicallygood. B) Cynicalview:humanbeingsareselfishandgreedy. C) Thereisnohumannatureandhumansaretheproductoftheirenvironment. D) Humannatureisbasicallyevil. E) Altruisticview:humansaredeeplyconcernedabouteachotherswelfare,apartfrom theirownself-interests. Answer: B


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61) AccordingtoJamesMadisonandmanyofthedelegatesattheConstitutionalConvention, whatistheprimarysourceofpoliticalconflict? A) ignorance B) stupidity C) emotions D) religiousbeliefs E) unequaldistributionofwealth Answer: E


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62) MostofthedelegatesattheConstitutionalConventionregardedwhatasthegreatestthreatto government? A) factions B) kings C) slaves D) foreignadversaries E) charismaticleaders Answer: A


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63) TheviewofhumannaturemostprevalentamongtheFoundingFatherswasthat A) menabhorpowerandtheburdensthatcomewithit. B) peopleareself-interestedinacquiringwealthandpower. C) humannaturecanbeperfected,giventherightsocialandpoliticalinstitutions. D) peoplearebasicallycooperativeandcommunity-oriented. E) peoplearedisorganizedandwithoutvision. Answer: B


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64) DelegatestotheConstitutionalConventiongenerallyagreedoneachofthefollowingEXCEPT A) questionsofhumannature. B) theneedforalimitedgovernment. C) theobjectandnatureofarepublicangovernment. D) causesofpoliticalconflict. E) issuesofequality. Answer: E


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65) TheFoundingFathersbelievedthatamajorsourceofpoliticalconflictwasthe A) governmentsattempttopreserveprivateproperty. B) absenceofmajorityrule. C) unequaldistributionofproperty. D) religiousdifferencesinsociety. E) Indiantribes. Answer: C


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66) The________,offeredasaproposalattheConstitutionalConvention,calledforeachstateto beequallyrepresentedinCongress. A) EqualRightsAmendment(ERA) B) NewJerseyPlan C) ConnecticutCompromise D) three-fifthscompromise E) VirginiaPlan Answer: B


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67) MostdelegatestotheConstitutionalConventionbelievedthatthesecretofgoodgovernment isa A) centralizedgovernment. B) balancedgovernment. C) governmentthatisopenandnotsecretive. D) popularlycontrolledgovernment. E) strongexecutive. Answer: B


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68) TheVirginiaandNewJerseyPlansintroducedattheConstitutionalConventiondiffered mainlyoverwhether A) statesshouldsendequalnumbersofrepresentativestoCongress. B) thereshouldbeapresident. C) thestatesorthenationalgovernmentshouldregulateinterstatecommerce. D) thereshouldbealegislativebranchatthenationallevel. E) slaveryshouldbepermittedinthecountry. Answer: A


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69) WhichofthesewasNOToneofthebigthreedisagreementsattheConstitutionalConvention? A) whattodoaboutslavery B) whoshouldhavetherighttovote C) whetherornotthestatesshouldhaveanequalnumberofvotesinCongress D) whetherthecourtsshouldhavethepowerofjudicialreview E) issuesofequality Answer: D


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70) AccordingtotheConstitution,eachstatewasentitledtohowmanysenators? A) asmanyasitwantedtosend B) none C) one D) Itdependedonthestatespopulation. E) two Answer: E


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71) AsoriginallyestablishedbytheConstitution,theHouseofRepresentativeshadhowmany membersfromeachstate? A) seven B) one C) two D) Itdependedonthestatespopulation. E) none Answer: D


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72) Atthetimeoftheconstitutionalconvention,slavery A) existedonlyinGeorgiaandtheCarolinas. B) waspermittedinallthirteenstates. C) wasillegalonlyinMassachusetts. D) wasprohibitednorthoftheMason-Dixonline. E) wasprohibitedbytheConnecticutCompromise,whichwasneverputintoeffect. Answer: C


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73) TheConnecticutCompromiseattheConstitutionalConvention A) resolvedtheimpassebetweenthosewhofavoredtheNewJerseyPlanandthosewho preferredtheVirginiaPlan. B) addedtheBillofRightstotheConstitutioninordertolessenconcernsabouttoomuch powerforthenewgovernment. C) settledthedisputeoverwhetherslaveryshouldbeallowedinthefinalconstitution. D) threwouttheideaofhavingamonarchyintheUnitedStates,optinginsteadforan indirectlyelectedpresident. E) involvedalloftheseelements. Answer: A
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74) TheConstitutionalConventiondealtwithslaveryby A) prohibitingitonlynorthoftheMason-Dixonline. B) recognizingitbyprovidingforthereturnofescapedslaves. C) prohibitingitaftertwentyyears. D) countingtheslavesasafullpartofthepopulationforthepurposesofrepresentationin theHouse. E) emancipatingslavesontheprincipleofequality. Answer: B


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75) Ontheissueofslaves,theConstitutionspecified A) thatagradualendtoslaverymustbeworkedoutbyCongressandthestateswithinten years. B) thatslaverywouldbebannedbeginningin1800. C) aboundary,knownastheMason-Dixonline,southofwhichslaverywouldbelegal. D) Nothing.Itwastoocontroversialasubjectandthedelegatescouldnotagreeonanything regardingit. E) thatslaveswouldcountasthree-fifthspersonsforcountingthenationspopulationand determiningseatsintheHouse. Answer: E
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76) Indeterminingcongressionalrepresentationandtaxation,theConstitution A) countedslavesasthree-fifthsofaperson. B) didnotcountslaves. C) countedslavesthesameasfreepersons. D) wassilentontheissueofhowslaveswouldbecounted,insteadleavingtheissuetoeach statetodecide. E) countedslavesasone-halfofaperson. Answer: A


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77) Regardingtherighttovoteinnationalelections,theframersoftheConstitution A) requiredthatallfree,adultmaleswithpropertyworthatleast$50beallowedtovote. B) decidedtoleaveituptotheindividualstatestodeterminevoterqualificationsintheir ownstates. C) finallygrantedwomentherighttovote. D) includedarequirementthatallfree,adultmalesbeallowedtovote. E) providedthatfreemenandwomenovertheageof20beallowedtovote. Answer: B


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78) WhichofthefollowingwasNOToneoftheeconomicdifficultiesthewritersofthe Constitutionattemptedtoaddress? A) somestateskeptprintingvirtuallyworthlessmoney B) thetariffsstateshaderectedagainstoneanothertoprotecttheirstate-madeproducts C) lackofunemploymentcompensationandwelfarepayments D) thedifficultyoftheContinentalCongressinraisingmoneyfromthestates E) AlloftheseweredealtwithintheConstitution. Answer: C


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79) ThedebateatthePhiladelphiaConventionovereligibilitytovotewasresolvedby A) allowingallmales,butnofemalestovote. B) requiringvoterregistrationbeforeonewouldbeeligibletovote. C) requiringuniversalmanhoodsuffrage. D) leavingituptotheindividualstates. E) permittingallcitizensover21tovote. Answer: D


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80) AmajorpurposeoftheeconomicprovisionsintheConstitutionwasto A) promoteamoreequaldistributionofwealthinthecountry. B) guaranteethestatesasignificanteconomicrole. C) preserveandstrengthenthefarmeconomytothedisadvantageofmanufacturing. D) establishacomprehensivesetofsocialwelfareprogramstoassistpeopleintimesof need. E) createastrongnationalgovernmentsoastobringstabilityoutofeconomicchaos. Answer: E


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81) WhichofthefollowingsituationswasNOTconsideredaneconomicproblembythewritersof theConstitution? A) Statesputuptariffsagainstproductsfromotherstates. B) Papermoneywasvirtuallyworthlessinsomestates. C) Theeconomywasinarecession. D) Stateswerepassinglawsfavoringdebtorsovercreditors. E) Nationaltaxesweretoohigh. Answer: E


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82) ComparedtothegovernmentundertheArticlesofConfederation,theConstitutiongavethe centralgovernment A) farfewerpowers. B) totalcontroloftheeconomy. C) aboutthesameeconomicpowers. D) moreeconomicpowers. E) almostnoeconomicpowers. Answer: D


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83) Inordertoputthenationaleconomyonsoundfooting,theConstitutionobligatedthenew governmentto________allthegovernmentdebtsincurredundertheContinentalCongress. A) forgive B) renegotiateatlowerinterestrates C) renegotiateathigherinterestrates D) repay E) negate Answer: D


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84) TheframersoftheConstitutiongavethechiefeconomicpolicymakingroleto A) thecourts. B) theFederalReserveBoard. C) thepresident. D) Congress. E) thestates. Answer: D


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85) TheConstitutionprohibitedthestatesfromdoingeachofthefollowingEXCEPT A) harboringrunawayslaves. B) placingdutiesonimportsfromotherstates. C) printingpapermoney. D) establishingarepublicanformofgovernment. E) interferingwithlawfullycontracteddebts. Answer: D


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86) ThedelegatestotheConstitutionalConventiondidnotworryaboutpreservingindividual rightsforallofthefollowingreasonsEXCEPT A) everystatehaditsownbillofrights. B) theywereconstructingalimitedgovernmentthatcouldnotthreatenpersonalfreedoms. C) theyincludedabillofrightsinArticleV. D) theydispersedpowersothateachbranchorlevelcouldconstraintheother. E) thevariousstateswerealreadydoingasufficientjobofprotectingindividualrights. Answer: C


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87) EachofthefollowingviolationsofindividualrightsisforbiddenintheoriginalConstitution EXCEPT A) passingexpostfactolaws. B) strictlimitsontheprosecutionoftreason. C) passingbillsofattainder. D) suspensionofthewritofhabeascorpus. E) suspensionoffreedomofspeech. Answer: E


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88) ThegovernmentdesignedattheConstitutionalConventionallowedthevoterstodirectlyelect A) boththeHouseandSenate. B) thepresidentandallmembersofCongress. C) onlytheSenate. D) onlythepresident. E) onlytheHouseofRepresentatives. Answer: E


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89) MadisonianprinciplesintheConstitutionwerebasedon A) statesrights. B) aconcentrationofpower,sothattheminorityfactioncoulddominatethegovernment. C) thebeliefthatgovernmentshouldalwaysbedominatedbythemajority. D) concernthatgovernmentwouldbedominatedbyamajorityorminorityfaction. E) theideasofagroupofprofessorsatMadisonUniversity. Answer: D


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90) TheoneelementofgovernmentthatMadisonsplanplacedwithindirectcontrolofthevoters wasthe A) Senate. B) presidency. C) Congress. D) HouseofRepresentatives. E) SupremeCourt. Answer: D


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91) TwokeyelementsoftheMadisonianmodelwereto A) keepmostofthegovernmentbeyondthecontrolofapopularmajorityandseparatethe powersofdifferentinstitutions. B) promotestatepowerwhileseparatingthepowersofdifferentnationalinstitutions. C) keepasmuchofthegovernmentaspossiblebeyondthecontrolofapopularmajority andextendtherighttovotetoeveryone. D) combinethepowersofdifferentinstitutionsandcreateapowerfulpresidency. E) requireasystemofchecksandbalancesandextenddemocracy. Answer: A
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92) ThesystemofchecksandbalancesintheConstitutionmeansthat A) amajoritycaneasilymanipulatethesystem,butaminoritycannot. B) changesingovernmentpolicycanbemadewithrelativeease,withfewobstaclestostop apopularnewforce. C) wehaveadirectdemocracy,withallbranchesequallyaccessibletostrongpublic pressure. D) changeusuallycomesslowly,ifatall,andmoderationandcompromisearetypicalinour politicalsystem. E) eachbranchofgovernmenthasitsownpowersindependentoftheother. Answer: D
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93) TheMadisonianrequirementthateachbranchofgovernmentacquiretheconsentoftheothers formanyofitsactionscreatedasystemof A) confederatedgovernment. B) checksandbalances. C) constitutionalrepublic. D) cross-cuttingrequirements. E) separationofpowers. Answer: B


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94) TheMadisoniansystem A) isaformofdirectdemocracy. B) encourageschange. C) hasaconservativebiasfavoringthestatusquo. D) discouragesmoderationandcompromise. E) bothCandD Answer: C


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95) UndertheMadisonianmodel,peopledesiringchange A) findagovernmentthatishighlyresponsiveandactsquicklyanddecisively. B) mustusuallyhaveasizablemajority. C) havenochanceofvictory. D) needonlywinatonepointinthepolicymakingprocess. E) needjustasimplemajorityover50 percent. Answer: B


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96) TheFederalistPaperswere A) essaysinsupportofratificationoftheconstitution. B) essayswrittenthatwerecriticaloftheconstitution. C) newspaperswhichbackedtheFederalistpartyinearlyUnitedStateselections. D) theoriginalnameoftheconstitutionwrittenbytheConstitutionalConvention. E) thenotesthatGeorgeWashingtontookattheConstitutionalConvention. Answer: A


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97) RatificationoftheConstitution A) neededtheapprovalofninestates. B) neededtheapprovalofamajorityofthepeople. C) occurredwhenitwasapprovedbythedelegatestotheConstitutionalConvention. D) neededtheapprovalofallthestates. E) wasbytwo-thirdsvoteoftheContinentalCongress. Answer: A


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98) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheAnti-FederalistsisFALSE? A) TheAnti-Federalistswerebasicallyunpatrioticandun-American. B) TheAnti-Federalistsfoughttopreventratificationofthenewconstitution. C) TheAnti-Federalistsbelievedthatthenewgovernmentwasanenemyoffreedom. D) TheAnti-Federalistsbelievedthenewgovernmentwoulderodefundamentalliberties. E) TheAnti-FederalistsbelievedthenewConstitutionwasaclass-baseddocument. Answer: A


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99) TheAnti-Federalistsbelievedthatthenewconstitution A) wasathinlydisguisedattempttoabolishafederalformofgovernmentintheUnited States. B) wasanenemyoffreedomanddesignedtogivecontrolofthegovernmenttoarichelite. C) createdanewgovernmenttooweaktobeeffective,andtheypreferredamonarchyto ensurestability. D) wastoodemocraticandwouldleadtotyrannyofthemassesagainstthewealthy. E) withwhateverfaultsitmighthave,wastheyoungnationsbesthopeforaworkable government. Answer: B
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100) OppositiontoratificationoftheConstitutionwasbasedonthebeliefthatitwould A) provideforelitecontrol,endangerliberty,andweakenthestates. B) producemoredemocraticelementsthandesirableforastrongcentralgovernment. C) givetoomuchpowertothestates. D) promotepluralism,whichwouldthreatenliberty. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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101) TheBillofRightswasaddedtotheConstitution A) duringtheratificationprocess,beforefinalratificationoftheconstitution. B) duringtheConstitutionalConvention,attheinsistenceofThomasJefferson. C) aftertheratificationprocesswascomplete,andpartlytofulfillapromisetothosewho supportedratification. D) in1865aftertheunionvictoryintheCivilWar. E) piecebypieceduringthefirsthundredyearsofitsoperation. Answer: C


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102) RatificationoftheConstitutionwasdoneby A) thevotersineachstatecastingopenballots. B) specialconventionsineachstate. C) thestatelegislaturesapprovingthedocument. D) approvalbytheSupremeCourt. E) majorityvoteofthedelegatesattheConstitutionalConvention. Answer: B


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103) TheConstitutionwasratifiedby A) popularvoteineachofthestates. B) specialconventionsineachofthestates. C) theelectoralcollege. D) staterepresentativestotheConstitutionalConvention. E) thestatelegislatures. Answer: B


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104) TheamendmentsthathavebeenaddedtotheConstitutionhavemadeit A) moreegalitariananddemocratic. B) moreelitistandundemocratic. C) moreprotectiveofpropertyrights. D) weakerandlesssignificanttoAmericansociety. E) muchmoreliketheEuropeanconstitutionsitoriginallycondemned. Answer: A


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105) Constitutionalamendmentsareusuallyratifiedby A) stateconventionscalledbytwo-thirdsvoteinCongress. B) anationalconvention. C) amajorityoftheSupremeCourt. D) atwo-thirdsvoteineachhouseofCongress. E) legislaturesofthree-fourthsofthestates. Answer: E


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106) Themostimportanteffectoftheconstitutionalamendmentshasbeento A) expandlibertyandequality. B) reinforceelitecontrolofgovernment. C) expandthepowersofthestates. D) strengthenthecapitalisteconomy. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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107) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheEqualRightsAmendment(ERA)isFALSE? A) TheERAwasopposedbymanysouthernstates. B) TheERAwasproposedbyCongressin1978. C) PublicopinionpollsshowedlittlesupportfortheERAafter1960. D) TheERAwasfirstproposedin1923. E) TheERAneverbecamepartoftheConstitution. Answer: C


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108) ToproposeaformalamendmenttotheConstitution,oneneedstohavea A) three-quartersvoteinCongress. B) nationalconventionrequestedbyhalfofthestates. C) majorityvoteoftheSupremeCourt. D) two-thirdsvoteinCongress. E) thepresidentsapproval. Answer: D


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109) ThefailureoftheEqualRightsAmendmentshowedthat A) Congresswasunwillingtosupportameasureopposedbyastrongminorityofthe public. B) anationalmajorityinfavorofanamendmentisnotsufficienttoaddittothe Constitution. C) moststatesdidnotwanttograntconstitutionalequalitytowomen. D) weareademocracy,andmajorityopinionprevails. E) menarepigs,stillunwillingtograntwomenequalrights. Answer: B
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110) WhichofthefollowingisestablishedbythewrittenConstitution? A) therighttoanabortion B) mediacoverageoftheHouseandSenate C) politicalparties D) AllofthesearementionedinthewrittenConstitution. E) NoneofthesearementionedinthewrittenConstitution. Answer: E


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111) InformalchangestotheConstitutionhavereflectedchangesinallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) technology. B) politicalpractice. C) judicialinterpretation. D) constitutionalamendments. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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112) Howhastheelectoralcollegechangedfromtheoriginalintentoftheframers? A) Affirmativeactionprogramshavemadethestudentbodymuchmorediverse,although standardshavealsobeenlowered. B) Thepresidentmustnowbeelectedbytwo-thirdsvoteoftheelectoralcollegeratherthan asimplemajority. C) Thenumberofelectorshasdecreaseddramatically. D) Almostallelectorsnowvoteforthepresidentialcandidatewhowinsthemostpopular votesintheirstate. E) Today,theelectorsvoteforwhomtheypersonallyfeelwouldmakethebestpresident. Answer: D
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113) TheSupremeCourtinMarburyv.Madison (1803)assertedthepoweroftheCourtto A) checktheactionsoftheotherbranchesthroughjudicialreview. B) nullifyconstitutionalamendments. C) confirmpresidentialappointments. D) determineitsownsizeandmakeup. E) impeachthepresident. Answer: A


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114) Politicalpartiesareanimportantexampleofthe A) ThirdAmendment. B) formalamendmentprocess. C) unwrittenconstitution. D) wishesofthefounders. E) rigidityoftheConstitution. Answer: C


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115) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutjudicialinterpretationisFALSE? A) JudicialinterpretationcanprofoundlyaffecthowtheConstitutionisunderstood. B) Thepowerofjudicialreviewgivescourtstherighttodecidewhetherlegislativeactions areinaccordwiththeConstitution. C) ThepowerofjudicialinterpretationisexplicitlystatedintheConstitution. D) InthecaseofMarburyv.Madison,theSupremeCourtdecideditwouldbetheoneto decideconstitutionaldisputes. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C
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116) Thedevelopmentofthetwo-partysystemisanexampleofinformalconstitutionalchange through A) politicalpractice. B) technology. C) judicialinterpretation. D) increasingdemandsonpolicymakers. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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117) TheUnitedStatesConstitution A) liststheexecutivedepartmentsthatarerequiredtoadvisethepresident. B) doesnotprescribethefunctionandstructureofgovernmentindetail. C) isoneoftheoldestandlongestconstitutionsintheworld. D) givesparticulardetailtothefunctionofthejudiciary. E) wasmodeledontheBritishConstitution. Answer: B


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118) WhichofthefollowingisFALSEabouttheConstitution? A) Itcreatesmanygovernmentaccesspointswheregroupscanattempttoinitiateorblock policychanges. B) Itdiscourageshyperpluralism. C) Itplacesmanylimitsonthegovernmentspowers. D) Itprotectsindividualliberty. E) Itcreatesgovernmentgridlockandinaction. Answer: B


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119) Somescholarshavesuggestedthataconsequenceofseparationofpowersandchecksand balanceshasbeen A) theinabilityofgroupstogettheirgrievancesheard. B) fragmentedpolicymakingprocesses. C) thetyrannyofthemajority. D) streamlined,buthasty,governmentdecisionmaking. E) politicalinstability. Answer: B


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120) TheseparationofpowersandthechecksandbalancesestablishedbytheConstitution A) allowalmostallgroupssomeplaceinthepoliticalsystemwheretheirdemandsfor publicpolicycanbeheard. B) haveactedtodiscouragethegrowthofgroupsinAmericansociety. C) havemadetheUnitedStatesoneofthemostdemocraticcountriesintheworld. D) createsomanyobstaclesthatgroupshavenoplacefortheirpolicydemandstobeheard. E) arebasicallyundemocraticsinceonlyelitescanformulatepolicieswithinthesystem. Answer: A


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True/FalseQuestions
1) Burningtheflagisalegallyprotectedformofpoliticalexpression. Answer: TRUE
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2) AConstitutionisneverneutral. Answer: TRUE


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3) TheDeclarationofIndependencewaswrittenprimarilybyJamesMadison. Answer: FALSE


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4) ThephilosophyofthewritersoftheConstitutionwasbasedinpartonthebeliefthatthe principalobjectofgovernmentwasthepreservationofproperty. Answer: TRUE


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5) TheAnnapolismeetingof1787producedthefirstrealreformoftheArticlesofConfederation. Answer: FALSE


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6) MostdelegatestotheConstitutionalConventionin1787heldacynicalviewofhumannature. Answer: TRUE


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7) AccordingtoJamesMadison,factionsarisefromtheunequaldistributionofwealth. Answer: TRUE


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8) TheConnecticutCompromisegivesmorepowertotheHouseofRepresentatives. Answer: FALSE


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9) Thethree-fifthscompromiseattheConstitutionalConventionresolveddelegatesdifferences overtheissueofstaterepresentation. Answer: FALSE


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10) TheConnecticutCompromiseattheConstitutionalConventionledtoanagreementthatslaves wouldbecountedasthree-fifthspersonsinthecensusforpurposesofdetermining representationinCongress. Answer: FALSE


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11) Thefoundersbelievedthatstategovernments,wheremostofthegovernmentalactivitywas expectedtotakeplace,wouldactaschecksonthepowerofthenationalgovernment. Answer: TRUE


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12) TheConstitutionobligatedthenewgovernmenttorepayallthepublicdebtincurredunder theContinentalCongressandtheArticlesofConfederation. Answer: TRUE


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13) ThesystemofchecksandbalancesandtheseparationofpowersintheConstitutionhavea conservativebiasbecausetheyfavorthestatusquo. Answer: TRUE


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14) ThosewhoopposedtheratificationoftheConstitutionwereknownasFederalists. Answer: FALSE


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15) TheConstitutionwasunanimouslyapprovedandsignedbyeverydelegateattendingthe ConstitutionalConvention. Answer: FALSE


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16) TheBillofRightshadtobeaddedtotheConstitutionbeforeanystateswouldratifyit. Answer: FALSE


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17) ThepresidenthasnoformalroleinamendingtheConstitution. Answer: TRUE


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18) NearlyeverysuccessfulamendmenttotheConstitutionhasbeenproposedbyanational convention. Answer: FALSE


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19) InformalchangestotheConstitutionhavebeenrareandineffective. Answer: FALSE


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20) TheConstitutionrequiresamemberoftheelectoralcollegetovoteforthecandidatepreferred byhisorherstateselectorate. Answer: FALSE


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21) TheConstitutionusuallymeanswhattheSupremeCourtsaysitmeans. Answer: TRUE


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22) TheConstitutionwasintendedtobestatic. Answer: FALSE


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23) TheConstitutioncreatedaRepublic. Answer: TRUE


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24) AmendmentstotheConstitutionoverthenationshistoryhaveexpandedtheAmerican electoratebyextendingtherighttovotetowomen,non-whites,and18year-olds,thusfurther democratizingoursystemofgovernment. Answer: TRUE


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25) Technologyhashadtheeffectofdiminishingtheseparationofthepeoplefromthosewho exercisepower. Answer: TRUE


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26) WomenweregiventherighttovoteintheNineteenthAmendment,passedin1820. Answer: FALSE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) A(n)________isanationsbasiclaw. Answer: constitution
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2) TheDeclarationofIndependencewaswrittenprimarilyby________. Answer: ThomasJefferson


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3) AccordingtoLocke,governmentmustbebasedon________,theideathatgovernmentderives itsauthorityfromthepeople. Answer: theconsentofthegoverned


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4) BrieflydescribethecharacteristicsofthedelegateswhometinPhiladelphia. Answer: Aselectgroupofeconomicandpoliticalnotables;theyweremostlywealthyplanters, successfullawyersandmerchantsandmenofindependentwealth.Manywerecollege graduatesandmosthadpracticalpoliticalexperiences.Mostwerecoastalresidents,and asignificantnumberwereurbanites.


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5) TheDeclarationofIndependenceincludedmanyofthesameideasearlierexpressedbythe Englishphilosopher________. Answer: JohnLocke


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6) ExplainwhytheAmericanRevolutionisconsideredaconservativerevolution. Answer: Itdidnotdrasticallyalterthecolonistswayoflife;itsprimarygoalwastorestorerights thecolonistsfeltwerealreadytheirsasBritishsubjects.


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7) DescribetheeventsassociatedwithShaysRebellion,andtheirsignificanceforthewritingof theConstitution. Answer: Answerswillvary.


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8) The________Compromisesettledthedisputebetweenlargestatesandsmallstatesatthe ConstitutionalConventionoverrepresentationinCongress. Answer: Connecticut


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9) WhatwastherationaleforobligatingthenewAmericangovernmenttorepayallthepublic debtincurredundertheArticlesofConfederation? Answer: ItwouldensurethatmoneywouldflowintotheAmericaneconomyandwouldalso restoretheconfidenceofinvestorsintheyoungnation.


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10) Whatisarepublic? Answer: Aformofgovernmentinwhichthepeopleselectrepresentativestogovernthemand makelaws.


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11) ThearticleswrittenunderthepseudonymPubliustoencourageratificationofthe Constitution,explainingthedocumentdetail-by-detail,wereknowncollectivelyasthe ________. Answer: FederalistPapers


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12) TheBillofRightsconstitutesthefirst________amendmentstotheConstitution. Answer: ten


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13) HowareformalamendmentstotheConstitutionproposedandratified? Answer: Anamendmentmaybeproposedeitherbyatwo -thirdsvoteineachhouseofCongress orbyanationalconventioncalledbyCongressattherequestoftwo -thirdsofthestate legislatures.Anamendmentmayberatifiedeitherbythelegislaturesofthree -fourthsof thestatesorbyspecialstateconventionscalledinthree-fourthsofthestates.
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14) The________waspassedbyCongressin1972bylargemajorities,thenratifiedbyamajority ofstates,butfellthreestatesshortofthenumberrequiredinordertobeaddedtothe Constitution. Answer: EqualRightsAmendment


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15) WhatistheEqualRightsAmendmentandwhydiditfail? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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16) InthecaseofMarburyv.Madison,theSupremeCourtclaimedforitselfthepowerof________. Answer: judicialreview


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17) WhatisthesignificanceoftheSupremeCourtcaseofMarburyv.Madison(1803)? Answer: TheSupremeCourtasserteditsrighttodeterminethemeaningoftheConstitution, resultingintheestablishmentoftheCourtspowerofjudicialreviewoveractsof Congress.


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18) Theinformalinfluencesonconstitutionalchangeinclude________,________,and________. Answer: judicialinterpretation;changingpoliticalpractice;increasingdemandsonpolicymakers.


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EssayQuestions
1) ExplainhowthecolonialexperienceandtheideasofJohnLockeinfluencedtheDeclarationof IndependenceandtheUnitedStatesConstitution.
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2) Discusshowthepowerinstatelegislatureschangedaftertherevolution.Howdidthese changesdifferinNorthernandSouthernstates?Whatdothesechangessuggestaboutthe natureoftherevolutionitself?


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3) DescribethemajorfeaturesoftheArticlesofConfederationandexplainwhytheArticles failed.
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4) DescribethestrengthsandweaknessesofthenationalgovernmentundertheArticlesof Confederation.WouldyoucalltheConstitutionanimprovement?Explain.
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5) WhatwastheeconomicconditionofthecountryatthetimeoftheConstitutionalConvention? Whatwerethemajoreconomicissuesattheconventionandhowweretheyresolved?Why wereeconomicissuessoimportanttothefounders?


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6) WhatwerethepersonalcharacteristicsofthedelegatestotheConstitutionalConvention? Whatweretheirbasicphilosophicalviewsandhowdidtheseviewsaffectthedocumentthey ultimatelyapproved?


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7) SomehavereferredtotheConstitutionasaconservativevictory.Inwhatwayswerethe framerslessinterestedinrepublicanlibertythaninpropertyandsocialorder?Wasthis necessaryforthecountryssurvival,orwasitselfish?Explain.


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8) AttheConstitutionalConvention,therewasconsensusonsomepolicyissuesandconflict necessitatingcompromiseonothers.Identifytheseissuesanddescribehowtheconvention dealtwiththem.


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9) Describethefoundersattitudestowarddemocracy.WhatspecificfeaturesoftheConstitution reflectthissentiment?
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10) HowwastheissueofslaveryresolvedattheConstitutionalConvention?Wasthisnecessary fornationalsurvival?Explain.


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11) DescribethemajorelementsoftheMadisonianmodelasembodiedintheConstitution.Why didtheFoundingFathersmakethismodelsofundamentaltothedocument?


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12) DescribesomeofthekeychecksandbalancesintheUnitedStatesgovernmentasestablished bytheConstitution.Doesthisleadtomoresmoothandefficientgovernment?Whyorwhy not?


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13) DescribewhichgroupsinsocietytheFederalistsandAnti-Federalistsrepresented.Howdid thepoliticalviewsoftheFederalistsandAnti-Federalistsdiffer?


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14) SummarizethemajorargumentsoftheFederalistsandAnti-Federalists.Whatwerethemajor politicalcompromisesandmanipulationsusedtoensureratificationoftheConstitution?


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15) WhatwasthesignificanceofthefirsttenamendmentstotheUnitedStatesConstitution?Were theyintendedtoextendortolimitthepowerofthecentralnationalgovernment?Explain.


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16) IdentifyandexplaintheformalmethodofamendingtheConstitution.Giveexamplesofboth successfulandunsuccessfulamendments.


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17) HowcantheConstitutionbeamended?Isthisprocessmeanttoencourageordiscourage changes?Explainandevaluate.


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18) SomearguethattheConstitutionhasbeendemocratizedovertheyears.Explainwhatis meantbydemocratization,andgiveexamplesusingreferencestorelevantConstitutional amendments.


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19) EvaluatethedemocraticnatureoftheoriginalandcurrentConstitutionwithitsamendments. DoestheConstitution,withitschecksandbalancesandseparationofpowersfacilitateor impedeeffectivepolicymaking?Userelevantexamples.


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20) ExplainwhatthefoundersintendedthescopeofthenewUnitedStatesgovernmenttobe.Has thestructurecreatedbythefoundersactuallylimitedgovernmentormadeitmoreaccessible tocitizens?


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Chapter3 Federalism
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) ThegovernmentsresponsesinthewakeofHurricaneKatrinaunderscores A) theneccesityofcomplyingwiththeletterandthespiritoftheThirdAmendment. B) thetensionsbetweenCongressandthepresident. C) theabilityoftheU.S.militarytomobilizeanddeployquickly. D) thecomplexityofAmericanfederalism. E) alloftheabove Answer: D
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2) Federalismis A) asystemofsharedpowerbythestateandnationalgovernments. B) thesameasunitarygovernment. C) solegovernmentauthorityinthenationalgovernment. D) solegovernmentauthorityinthestates. E) athree-branchgovernmentwithasystemofchecksandbalances. Answer: A


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3) Federalismis A) uniquetotheUnitedStatesalone. B) practicedbyabouthalfthenationsworldwide. C) practicedinabouthalftheAmericanstates. D) practicedbynearlyallofthe190nationsworldwide. E) practicedbyfewerthan20nationsworldwide. Answer: E


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4) Aformofgovernmentalstructureinwhichthenationalgovernmentisweakandmostorall powerisinthehandsofitscomponents(e.g.,states)isknownas A) federalism. B) statist. C) aconfederation. D) parliamentary. E) aunitarygovernment. Answer: C


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5) Theworkingsofthefederalsystemaresometimescalled A) internalrelations. B) intergovernmentalrelations. C) intrastaterelations. D) interstaterelations. E) internationalrelations. Answer: B


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6) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrue? A) Fewcountrieshavefederalsystems. B) Mostfederalsystemsaredemocracies. C) Authoritarianregimesgenerallydonotusefederalistsystems. D) Nounitarygovernmentsaredemocratic. E) Onlysomedemocraciesusefederalsystems. Answer: D


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7) Mostofthegovernmentsintheworldtodayare________,inwhichallpowerresidesinthe centralnationalgovernment. A) unitary B) federalist C) nationalist D) confederations E) fiscal Answer: A


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8) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisTRUE? A) TheAmericanstateshaveunitarygovernments. B) Federalismisthetypicalwaynationsorganizetheirgovernments. C) GreatBritainhasafederalsystem. D) MostEuropeancountriesareconfederations. E) noneoftheabove Answer: A


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9) Aunitarysystemisawayoforganizinggovernmentsothat A) powerisconcentratedinstateandlocalgovernments. B) nationalandstategovernmentshaveseparatepowersoverdifferentareasandpeople. C) powerisconcentratedinacentralgovernment. D) bothnationalandstatelevelsofgovernmenthaveauthorityoverthesamelandand people. E) everysinglegovernmentisindependentoftheothersandpossessesitsownspecialized powerandauthority. Answer: C


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10) Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofaconfederation? A) stategovernmentsintheUnitedStates B) theUnitedNations C) OPEC D) Britain E) France Answer: B


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11) Howisaunitarysystemdifferentfromafederalone? A) Thenationalgovernmentcancoinmoney,conductforeignrelations,anddeclarewar. B) Thenationalgovernmentcanchangetheboundariesofstates,orabolishthem. C) Stategovernmentshavepoliticalautonomyandcannullifynationallaws. D) Administrativesubunits,suchasstates,cancollecttaxes,conductelections,andmake lawsindependentlyofthenationalgovernment. E) bothBandC Answer: B


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12) Federalismisawayoforganizinganationsothat A) poweriscentralizedinstateandlocalgovernment. B) bothnationalandstatelevelsofgovernmenthaveauthorityoverthesamelandand people. C) thereisonefederalgovernmentandallregionalgovernmentsareadministrative subunitsofit. D) poweriscentralizedinthenationalgovernment. E) therearethreebranchesofgovernmentandasystemofchecksandbalances. Answer: B
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13) Whichoneofthefollowingcountrieshasfederalismasitsmethodofgoverning? A) Canada B) China C) France D) Kenya E) Noothercountryusesfederalism. Answer: A


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14) Thefederalsystem A) decreasesjudicialpower. B) centralizesourpolitics. C) decreasesopportunitiesforpoliticalparticipation. D) decreasesthenumberofgovernmentofficeholders. E) decentralizesourpolitics. Answer: E


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15) WhichofthefollowingisNOTaneffectoffederalism? A) Itsimplifiesthegovernmentalsystem. B) Courtsarecalledupontobereferees,andtheygainpower. C) Itdecentralizespoliticalpower. D) Itcreatesmoreaccesspointstogovernment. E) Itincreasesbureaucracy. Answer: A


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16) Thepowertodirectlyregulatesuchthingsasdrinkingages,marriageanddivorce,andsexual behaviorhasbeengranted A) toallgovernmentsbytheBillofRights. B) tothenationalgovernment. C) tothepresident. D) tostategovernments. E) toboththestateandnationalgovernments. Answer: D


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17) Statesareresponsibleformostpublicpoliciesdealingwitheachofthefollowingissues EXCEPT A) economicissues. B) socialissues. C) policepowers. D) familyissues. E) moralissues. Answer: A


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18) Lawsthatdirectlyregulateabortion,drinkingages,marriageanddivorce,orsexualbehavior arepolicyprerogativesthatbelongto A) thebureaucracy. B) thestates. C) Congress. D) localgovernments. E) federalcourts. Answer: B


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19) AllofthefollowingareexamplesofhowfederalismdecentralizesourpoliciesEXCEPT A) federalincometax. B) regulationofabortion. C) deathpenalty. D) fundingofeducation. E) homelandsecurity. Answer: A


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20) WhichoftheseisNOTamongthefactorsthattendtoleadtothecreationofafederalformof governmentinacountry? A) largepopulation B) diversepopulation C) largelandarea D) theexistenceofmultiplereligions E) industrialization Answer: E


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21) Inourfederalsystem,thepowersofthestategovernmentsareultimatelygrantedby A) theirstatesSupremeCourt. B) thepeopleoftheirstate. C) theirstatelegislature. D) theUnitedStatesConstitution. E) theUnitedStatesgovernment. Answer: D


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22) AstheframerswrotetheConstitutiontheyhadnopracticalchoicebuttoadoptafederal systemforallbutwhichofthefollowingreasons? A) Theconfederationhadclearlyfailedinmanagingthecountrysproblems. B) Thepopulationwastoodispersedforaunitarysystemtowork. C) AmericansloyaltytostategovernmentswasstrongerthanitwastotheUnitedStates. D) Americahadalwayshadafederalsystemanditwouldhavebeentooradicaland disruptiveachangetoadoptanothersystem. E) Thecountrystransportationandcommunicationsystemsweretooprimitivefora unitarygovernmenttowork. Answer: D
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23) Fromclean-airlegislationtowelfarereforms,thestatesconstitutea________todevelopand testpublicpoliciesandsharetheresultswithotherstatesandthenationalgovernment. A) majorroadblock B) nationallaboratory C) neglectedresource D) lastchance E) severereluctance Answer: B


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24) Almosteverypolicythenationalgovernmenthasadoptedhasoriginatedwith A) theSenate. B) thestates. C) theHouseofRepresentatives. D) theSupremeCourt. E) thepresident. Answer: B


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25) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutfederalismisFALSE? A) FederalismwashotlydebatedattheConstitutionalConvention. B) Eighteenth-centuryAmericanshadlittleexperienceinthinkingofthemselvesas Americansfirstandstatecitizenssecond. C) Therewasnootherpracticalchoicein1787buttocreateafederalsystemofgovernment. D) LoyaltytostategovernmentswassostrongthattheConstitutionwouldhavebeen resoundinglydefeatedhadittriedtoabolishthem. E) Noneoftheabove;allareTRUE. Answer: A
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26) ThesupremacyclauseoftheConstitutionstatesthatallofthefollowingarethesupremelaw oftheland,EXCEPT A) lawsofthenationalgovernment(whenconsistentwiththeConstitution). B) theUnitedStatesConstitution. C) stateconstitutions. D) treatiesofthenationalgovernment(whenconsistentwiththeConstitution). E) bothCandD Answer: C


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27) TheConstitutionssupremacyclause A) doesnotapplytostateandlocalmatters. B) givesthestatessuperiorityoverthenationalgovernmentsConstitutionandlaws. C) madetheConstitution,thelawsofthenationalgovernment,andthenational governmentstreatiesthesupremelawoftheland. D) isvagueaboutwhichlevelofgovernmentshouldprevailinadisputeinvolving federalism. E) makesthepresidentsupremeinanyconstitutionalconflictswiththeothertwobranches. Answer: C
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28) TheeffortsofCandyLightnerandMothersAgainstDrunkDriving(MADD)toraisethelegal drinkingageto21areanexampleof A) thesupremacyofstategovernmenttoregulateitsownaffairs. B) theconstitutionalauthorityofthenationalgovernmenttoimposepoliciesonstate governments. C) statesactingaspolicyinnovators. D) theunconstitutionalityofagediscrimination. E) theabilityofthenationalgovernmenttoinfluencestatepolicy. Answer: E
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29) Thesupremacyclause A) establishestheConstitution,lawsofthenationalgovernment,andtreatiesasthe supremelawoftheland. B) establishestheSupremeCourtasthefinalarbiterinallcivilandcriminaldisputes. C) declaresthatthenationalgovernmentissuperiortothestatesineveryconcern. D) statesthatpowersnotdelegatedtotheUnitedStatesbytheConstitution,norprohibited bythestates,arereservedtothestates. E) statesthatthepeoplearethesupremeauthorityintheUnitedStatesandthatthe governmentshallbesubservienttothem. Answer: A
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30) TheprimarythrustoftheoriginalintentandwordingoftheTenthAmendmentisthat A) statelegislatureshavetheultimateauthoritytodeterminewhatastategovernments powersare. B) stateshavecertainpowersthatthenationalgovernmentcannotencroachupon. C) thenationalgovernmentcantakecontrolofastategovernmentduringanational emergency. D) nationallawsoverridestatelawswhenthereisaconflictbetweenthetwo. E) boththestatesandnationalgovernmentareboundbythelimitationsintheBillof Rights. Answer: B
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31) IntheConstitution,thepowerstocoinmoney,toenterintotreaties,andtoregulatecommerce withforeignnationsandamongthestatesweregivento A) neithertheindividualstatesnorthenationalgovernment. B) thenationalgovernment. C) theindividualstates. D) theSenateonly. E) boththeindividualstatesandthenationalgovernment. Answer: B


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32) TheTenthAmendment A) declaresthatthenationalgovernmentissuperiortothestatesineveryconcern. B) establishestheConstitution,lawsofthenationalgovernment,andtreatiesasthe supremelawoftheland. C) establishestheSupremeCourtasthefinalarbiterinallcivilandcriminaldisputes. D) establishesthenumberofelectoralvoteseachstatecancastintheelectoralcollege. E) statesthatpowersnotdelegatedtotheUnitedStatesbytheConstitution,norprohibited bythestates,arereservedforthestates. Answer: E
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33) Onlythenationalgovernmentisallowedto A) levytaxes. B) regulatecommercewithforeignnations. C) takeprivatepropertyforpublicpurposes. D) makeandenforcelaws. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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34) WhatwasthemaincriticismofthenationalbankcreatedbytheUnitedStatesgovernment? A) Itwasprintingtoomuchworthlesspapermoneywhichdebtorswereusingtopayoff theirdebts. B) Itwaschargingexorbitantinterestratesonitsloans. C) Itwasborrowingtoomuchmoney,puttingtheUnitedStatesgovernmenthopelesslyin debt. D) Itwasaninstrumentoftheeliteandgavethenationalgovernmenttoomuchcontrolof theeconomy. E) Itdidnotefficientlydistributemoneytothestates. Answer: D
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35) WhichofthesewasNOTaprincipleestablishedinthecaseof McCullochv.Maryland? A) Stategovernmentsareforbiddenspendingmoremoneythantheyraiseeachyear,while thereisnosuchrequirementonthenationalgovernment. B) Thenationalgovernmentcanestablishanationalbank,eventhoughtheConstitution doesnotsayitcan. C) Thenationalgovernmentissupremetothestateswhenitisactingwithinitssphereof action. D) Thenationalgovernmenthascertainimpliedpowersthatgobeyonditsenumerated powers. E) Statelawspreemptnationallawswhenthenationalgovernmentclearlyexceedsits constitutionalpowersandintrudesuponstatepowers. Answer: A
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36) InitsMcCullochv.Marylanddecision,theSupremeCourtruledinfavorof A) judicialrestraint. B) judicialreview. C) thesupremacyofthenationalgovernmentoverthestates. D) thesupremacyofthestatesoverthenationalgovernment. E) Marylandinadisputewiththenationalgovernment. Answer: C


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37) TheMcCullochv.Marylandcasedealtwithwhatspecificgrievance? A) astatetaxinganationalbank B) tollbridgesoninterstateroads C) thelocationofMarylandscapitalcity D) astatecoiningitsownmoney E) importtaxesongoodsmadeinotherstates Answer: A


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38) Theprincipleofthesupremacyoffederallawoverstatelawwasaffirmedin A) Marburyv.Madison. B) theTenthAmendment. C) UnitedStatesv.Darby. D) McCullochv.Maryland. E) thepresidentialelectionof1804. Answer: D


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39) TheSupremeCourtcaseofMcCullochv.Maryland (1819) A) establishedBaltimoreasthecapitalofMaryland. B) statedthattheConstitutiongaveCongressimpliedpowers. C) establishedtheprincipleofjudicialreview. D) establishedthesupremacyofstategovernments. E) recognizedthatCongresswaslimitedtoitsenumeratedpowers. Answer: B


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40) Theprinciplethatthenationalgovernmenthascertainimpliedpowersthatgobeyondits enumeratedpowerswasfirstelaboratedintheSupremeCourtsdecisionin A) UnitedStatesv.theStates. B) Gibbonsv.Ogden. C) Mirandav.Arizona. D) McCullochv.Maryland. E) Marburyv.Madison. Answer: D


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41) TheenumeratedpowersofCongressandthenationalgovernmentarethose A) specificallyspelledoutintheConstitution. B) setoutinthefirsttenamendments. C) involvingtaxes,spending,andfiscalpolicy. D) notspecificallyspelledoutintheConstitution,butnonethelessacknowledged. E) requiringratificationbythestates. Answer: A


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42) Federalpoliciestoregulatefoodanddrugs,buildinterstatehighways,protectconsumers,try tocleanupdirtyairandwater,anddomanyotherthingsarealljustifiedas________of Congress. A) impliedpowers B) categoricalgrants C) constitutionallyspecifiedpowers D) reservedpowers E) enumeratedpowers Answer: A
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43) TheConstitutionsprovisionthatCongresshastherighttomakealllawsnecessaryand properforcarryingintoexecutionitspowersisoftenreferredtoasthe A) enumeratedpowers. B) heartoffiscalfederalism. C) UnwrittenAmendment. D) elasticclause. E) privilegesandimmunities. Answer: D


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44) IndeterminingthepowerofCongresstoregulatecommerceinthecaseofGibbonsv.Ogden (1824),theSupremeCourt A) prohibitedCongressfromregulatingbusinessactivityonthegroundsitviolatedprivate propertyrights. B) listedtheimpliedpowersofCongressandthenationalgovernment. C) definedcommerceverynarrowlyinconsideringtherightofCongresstoregulateit. D) listedtheenumeratedpowersofCongressandthenationalgovernment. E) definedcommerceverybroadly,encompassingvirtuallyeveryformofcommercial activity. Answer: E
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45) TheConstitutionstatesthatCongresshasthepowertoestablishpostoffices.Thisisan exampleof A) enumeratedpowers. B) delegatedpowers. C) impliedpowers. D) reservedpowers. E) sharedpowers. Answer: A


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46) WhichofthefollowingfederalpoliciesexemplifiestheimpliedpowersofCongress? A) environmentalprotectionlaw B) incometax C) theregulationofinterstatecommerce D) theprovisionofanarmyandanavy E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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47) Federalpoliciestoregulatefoodanddrugs,buildinterstatehighways,andprotectconsumers arealljustifiedas A) presidentialprerogatives. B) enumeratedpowersofCongress. C) delegatedpowersofCongress. D) impliedpowersofCongress. E) bothCandD Answer: D


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48) TheSupremeCourtcaseofGibbonsv.Ogden A) definedthemeaningoftheelasticclause. B) settledthecontestedpresidentialelectionof1824. C) definedcommerceasvirtuallyeveryformofcommercialactivity. D) establishedtheprincipleofimpliedpowers. E) establishedthesupremacyofthenationalgovernment. Answer: C


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49) Enumeratedpowersarethosethatare A) reservedforthestates. B) statedintheConstitution. C) impliedintheConstitution. D) involvingmoneymatters. E) grantedspecificallytothepresident. Answer: B


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50) AbrahamLincolnannouncedinhis1861inauguraladdressthathewouldwillinglysupporta constitutionalamendmentto A) prohibitstatesfromsecedingfromtheUnion. B) returntheUnitedStatestoaconfederation,withgreaterpowersgiventothestates. C) establishtheUnitedStatesasaunitarysystem,wherestateswouldhavetoobeyall nationalgovernmentdecisions. D) outlawslavery. E) guaranteeslavery. Answer: E
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51) TheSupremeCourtcaseofPrintzv.UnitedStates A) enhancedthepowersofCongressbyexpandingitsinterpretationofcommerce. B) deniedCongressthepowerofregulatinggunsinschoolzones. C) voidedthecongressionalmandateintheBradyHandgunViolencePreventionAct requiringlocalcommunityofficialstoconductbackgroundchecksonprospectivegun purchasers. D) affirmedtheprovisionsoftheBradyHandgunViolencePreventionAct. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C
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52) Inthe1950sand1960s,theproclamationofstatesrightswasusuallymadebythoseopposing thenationalgovernmentseffortsintheareaof A) theVietnamWar. B) abortionrights. C) civilrightsforAfricanAmericans. D) theinterstatehighwaysystem. E) theKoreanWar. Answer: C


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53) TheConstitutionrequiresthatstatesgive________tothepublicacts,records,andciviljudicial proceedingsofeveryotherstate. A) privilegesandimmunities B) dueprocess C) fullfaithandcredit D) someconsideration E) extradition Answer: C


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54) Contractsbetweenbusinessfirmscanbeenforcedacrossstateboundariesaspartofthe constitutionalprovisionof A) interstatecompacts. B) privilegesandimmunities. C) impliedpowersofthestates. D) extradition. E) fullfaithandcredit. Answer: E


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55) Amarriagelicenseissuedinonestateisvalidandhonoredinallstatesunderthe constitutionalprovisionof A) separationofpowers. B) fullfaithandcredit. C) nationalsupremacy. D) nationallicensure. E) privilegesandimmunities. Answer: B


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56) Thefactthatadriverslicensefromonestateisvalidinotherstatesisanexampleof A) privilegesandimmunities. B) extradition. C) impliedpowers. D) fullfaithandcredit. E) unmandatedreciprocity. Answer: D


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57) Theconstitutionalrequirementthatthestatesreturnapersonchargedwithacrimeinanother statetothatstatefortrialorimprisonmentisknownas A) forfeiture. B) extradition. C) privilegesandimmunities. D) fullfaithandcredit. E) theelasticclause. Answer: B


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58) Onerecentlycontroversialapplicationofthefullfaithandcreditprovisionofthe Constitutionisfor A) extradition. B) birthcertificates. C) samegendermarriages. D) bigamy. E) abortion Answer: C


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59) Extraditionistherequirementthatstates A) providesanctuaryforfederalcriminals. B) cannotdiscriminateagainstcitizensofotherstates. C) recognizeeachotherspublicacts,records,andciviljudicialproceedings. D) mustreturnapersonchargedwithacrimeinanotherstatetothatstatefortrialor imprisonment. E) enforcefederallawwithintheirstate. Answer: D


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60) In________federalism,thepowersandpolicyassignmentsofthedifferentlevelsof governmentaredistinct,likealayercake. A) fiscal B) dual C) tripartite D) cooperative E) antiAnswer: B


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61) Thenationalgovernmenthasexclusivecontroloverforeignandmilitarypolicy,thepostal system,andmonetarypolicy,whilethestateshaveexclusivecontroloverotherspecificareas. Thisdivisionofresponsibilitiesreflects A) dualfederalism. B) dividedgovernment. C) tripartitefederalism. D) cooperativefederalism. E) fiscalfederalism. Answer: A
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62) InSaenzv.Roe,theSupremeCourtruledthat A) Californiawasrequiredtorecognizethelegalityofsamesexmarriages. B) Californiacouldnotrequireanewresidenttowaitoneyearbeforebeingeligiblefor welfarebenefits. C) Californiacouldwithholdeducationalbenefitsfromchildrenofillegalimmigrants. D) Californiawasrequiredtoofferbilingualeducationprogramsinthepublicelementary schools. E) Californiacouldnotprovidewelfarebenefitstoillegalimmigrants. Answer: B
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63) Atuitiondifferencebetweenin-stateandout-of-statestudentsisanexampleof A) dualfederalism. B) federalexceptionstothefullfaithandcreditprovision. C) fullfaithandcreditbeingextendedtoallstudents. D) howstatesmakeexceptionstotheprivilegesandimmunitiesclause. E) projectgrantstothestates. Answer: D


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64) Iftheallocationofpowerinacooperativefederalsystemwerecomparedtoacakeitwouldbe mostlike A) alayercakewithtwodistinctlayers. B) asingle-layercake. C) acakewalk:whogetswhatisrandom. D) fiftymarbledcupcakes. E) alayercakewithmanylayers. Answer: D


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65) Iftheallocationofpowerunderdualfederalismwerecomparedtoacakeitwouldbemost like A) amarbledcakewheretheflavorsblendintoeachother. B) anangelfoodcakefluffywithlittlesubstance. C) NewYorkcheesecakeheavyandcrushingunderitsownweight. D) alayercake,withtwodistinctlayers. E) acupcake. Answer: D


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66) Overtime,therehasbeenagradualchangefromadualfederalismtoa(n)________ federalism. A) unitary B) single C) tripartite D) cooperative E) fiscal Answer: D


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67) In________federalism,thepowersandpolicyassignmentsofdifferentlevelsofgovernment arelikeamarblecake,withmingledresponsibilitiesandblurreddistinctionsbetweenlayersof government. A) fiscal B) mixed C) dual D) cooperative E) tripartite Answer: D
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68) Indualfederalism, A) thestategovernmentsassumegreaterfiscalresponsibility. B) thereareonlytwobranchesofgovernment. C) thefederalgovernmentassumesgreaterfiscalresponsibility. D) powersaresharedbetweenstatesandthefederalgovernment. E) statesandthenationalgovernmenteachremainsupremewithintheirownspheres. Answer: E


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69) Incooperativefederalism, A) statesandthenationalgovernmenteachremainsupremewithintheirownspheres. B) responsibilitiesaremingledanddistinctionsareblurredbetweenthelevelsof government. C) powersandpolicyassignmentsofthelayersofgovernmentaredistinct. D) statesaresupremeoverthenationalgovernment. E) bothAandB Answer: B


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70) SincetheratificationoftheConstitution,Americanfederalismhasgraduallychangedfrom A) cooperativetodualfederalism. B) statedominationtonationaldomination. C) dualtocooperativefederalism. D) aunitarytoafederalsystem. E) afederalsystemtoaunitaryone. Answer: C


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71) Whichofthefollowingstatementsaboutfederalismisfalse? A) Incooperativefederalism,sometimesevenblameissharedwhenprogramsdonotwork well. B) TheAmericansystemhasalwaysbeenneatlyseparatedintopurelystateandpurely nationalresponsibilities. C) Incooperativefederalism,policyassignmentsaresharedbetweenstatesandthenational government. D) Cooperativefederalismtodayrestsonseveralstandardoperatingprocedures. E) None;allaretrue. Answer: B
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72) Federalsupportforpubliceducationisanexampleofa A) pragmaticfederalism. B) dualfederalism. C) cooperativefederalism. D) layercakefederalism. E) separationofpowers Answer: C


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73) Fundingfortheinterstatehighwaysystemisanexampleof A) dualfederalism. B) cooperativefederalism. C) tripartitefederalism. D) aunitarysystemofgovernment. E) nationalfederalism. Answer: B


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74) TheNationalDefenseEducationAct,theElementaryandSecondaryEducationAct,andthe InterstateHighwaySystemareallexamplesof A) dualfederalism. B) cooperativefederalism. C) triangulation. D) layercakefederalism. E) unitaryfederalism Answer: B


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75) WhichofthefollowingisNOTastandardoperatingprocedureofcooperativefederalism today? A) distinctlyseparatedpowersofstateandnationalgovernments B) federalgrants-in-aid C) sharedadministrationofprograms D) sharedfinancingofgovernment E) federalguidelinesimposedonstates Answer: A


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76) WhichofthefollowingdoesNOTcharacterizethestandardoperatingprocedureof cooperativefederalismtoday? A) federalguidelines B) grants-in-aid C) sharedcosts D) separateanddistinctrolesforthenationalandstategovernments E) sharedadministration Answer: D


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77) Standardoperatingproceduresincooperativefederalismincludeeachofthefollowing EXCEPT A) sharedadministration. B) sharedcosts. C) federalfundingwithnostringsattached. D) federalguidelines. E) categoricalandblockgrants. Answer: C


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78) Incooperativefederalism,inordertoqualifyforfederalgrantmoney,citiesandstatesmust A) matchfederalfundingdollarfordollar. B) proposestandardoperatingprocedures. C) allowfederalagenciestoadministerthefunds. D) followfederalguidelinesforadoptingandenforcingfederallaws. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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79) Federalregulationofstategovernmentsisusuallyaccomplishedthrough A) UnitedStatesSupremeCourtdecisions. B) presidentialdecrees. C) attachingconditionstograntsitgivesthem. D) federalizationofastatesnationalguard. E) direct,executiveorders. Answer: C


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80) About________ofthefundsstateandlocalgovernmentsspendcomesfromthefederal government. A) 33percent B) 25percent C) 50percent D) 75percent E) 90percent Answer: B


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81) Federalaidtostateandlocalgovernmentsaccountsforhowmuchoffederalspending? A) 33percent B) 50percent C) 2percent D) 18percent E) 75percent Answer: D


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82) Themaininstrumentthenationalgovernmentusestoinfluencestategovernmentsis A) grants-in-aid. B) mandates. C) judicialreview. D) theTenthAmendment. E) presidentialdecrees. Answer: A


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83) Fiscalfederalismis A) thepatternofspending,taxing,andprovidinggrantsinthefederalsystem. B) thedistinctseparationofnationalgovernmentspendingversusstateandlocal governmentspending. C) thefederalgovernmentsregulationofthemoneysupplyandinterestrates. D) thefederalincometax. E) asharingoflocalandnationalresourcespracticedinothercountriesbutnotinthe UnitedStates. Answer: A
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84) Thepatternofspending,taxing,andprovidinggrantsinthefederalsystemiscalled A) economicfederalism. B) dualfederalism. C) cooperativefederalism. D) fiscalfederalism. E) monetaryfederalism. Answer: D


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85) Themaininstrumentthenationalgovernmentusesforbothaidingandinfluencingstatesand localitiesis A) judicialdecisions. B) politics. C) grants-in-aid. D) mandates. E) revenuesharing. Answer: C


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86) Ofallthefundsspentbystateandlocalgovernments,federalaidaccountsforabout A) two-thirds. B) one-half. C) one-fourth. D) threepercent. E) one-third. Answer: C


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87) Theprincipaltypeoffederalaidforstatesandlocalitiesis A) categoricalgrants. B) disasterloans. C) revenuesharing. D) blockgrants. E) urbanrenewalgrants. Answer: A


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88) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueaboutcategoricalgrants? A) Thefederalgovernmentislesslikelytoapplyconditionstothesegrantstodaythaninthe 1970s. B) Thereareseveralhundredspecificpurposesorcategoriesforwhichthesegrantscanbe used. C) Virtuallyeveryoneisenshroudedinrulesandregulationsforitsuse. D) Aprojectgrantisthemosttypicaltypeofcategoricalgrant. E) Categoricalgrantsaremoniesthatcanbespentinbroadcategoriesoffunctions. Answer: A
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89) Themaintypeoffederalaidtostateandlocalgovernmentsisintheformof A) blockgrants. B) formulagrants. C) categoricalgrants. D) projectgrants E) revenuesharing. Answer: C


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90) Therequirementofadrinkingageprovisionbeforestatescanreceivefederalhighwayaidis anexampleof A) astringattachedtocategoricalgrants. B) animportantelementoftheformulausedtocalculateformulagrants. C) aprojectgrantsupportedbytheinterestgroups. D) theeffortsofstateagenciestogetfederalfunds. E) anunfundedmandate. Answer: A


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91) Themostcommontypeofcategoricalgrantis A) blockgrants. B) arescissionfund. C) projectgrants. D) disasterrelief. E) revenuesharing. Answer: C


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92) Aprojectgrantis A) moneyawardedforpublichousinginurbanareasofthenation. B) awardedmoreorlessautomaticallytostatesorcommunities. C) awardedonthebasisofcompetitiveapplication. D) restrictedtoconstructionprojects. E) distributedonthebasisofpopulation,percapitaincome,percentageofruralpopulation, orsomeotherfactor. Answer: C


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93) ProgramssuchasMedicaidandAidforFamilieswithDependentChildren,whereapplicants automaticallyqualifyforaidiftheymeettherequirements,areexamplesof A) dualfederalism. B) projectgrants. C) formulagrants. D) blockgrants. E) welfare. Answer: C


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94) IncontrasttotheDemocraticCongressofrecentdecades,thenewRepublicanmajorityin Congressispassingmorefederalaidintheformof A) revenuesharing. B) categoricalgrants. C) blockgrants. D) taxcredits. E) taxexpenditures. Answer: C


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95) ThefactthattheformerRepublicanmajorityinCongressprefersblockgrantstocategorical grantsindicatesthat A) theywanttoincreasefederalaidtostategovernments. B) theywantfederalmoneytobespentattheneighborhoodlevelratherthanthestatelevel. C) theywanttodecreasefederalaidtostategovernments. D) theywantthefederalgovernmenttoexerciselessauthorityoverthestates. E) theyintendtoraisemoremoneyfromstategovernmentstoreducethefederalbudget deficit. Answer: D
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96) Inresponsetocomplaintsfromstateandlocalgovernmentsaboutthepaperworkand requirementsattachedtomostgrants,Congresshasestablished________tosupportprograms inareaslikecommunitydevelopmentandsocialservices. A) formulagrants B) blockgrants C) projectgrants D) categoricalgrants E) computerizedgrantapplications Answer: B
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97) Onthewhole,federalgrantdistributionfollowstheprincipleof A) universalism. B) stinginess. C) cronyism. D) tothevictorsgothespoils. E) needs-testing. Answer: A


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98) Projectgrants A) havenostringsattached. B) areawardedonthebasisofcompetitiveapplications. C) aredistributedaccordingtoaspecificformula. D) areautomaticallygiventostatesandcommunities. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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99) Grantsforspecificprogramsdistributedaccordingtocommunitydemographicfactors,suchas populationorincome,are A) formulagrants. B) categoricalgrants. C) revenuesharinggrants. D) projectgrants. E) blockgrants. Answer: A


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100) MedicaidandAidforFamilieswithDependentChildrenareexamplesof A) categoricalgrants. B) formulagrants. C) projectgrants. D) stategrants. E) blockgrants. Answer: B


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101) Grantsthataregivenmoreorlessautomaticallytostatesorcommunities,whichhave discretionindecidinghowtospendthemoneyarecalled A) projectgrants. B) discretionarygrants. C) formulagrants. D) categoricalgrants. E) blockgrants. Answer: E


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102) Abroadprogramforcommunitydevelopmentwouldmostlikelybesupportedthrougha(n) A) formulagrant. B) enterprisezone. C) projectgrant. D) categoricalgrant. E) blockgrant. Answer: E


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103) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutfederalblockgrantsisFALSE? A) Blockgrantswerecreatedtolessenthepaperworkandstringsattachedtomany grants-in-aid. B) Congresshasestablishedanunlimitednumberofblockgrantstosupportnarrowly definedprograms. C) TheRepublicanCongressisincreasingblockgrants. D) Stateshavediscretionindecidinghowtospendblockgrantmoney. E) Theyprovidethestatesmoreflexibilityinspending. Answer: B
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104) Thelargestpercentageoffederalgrantstostatesandlocalitiesisintheareaof A) defense. B) health. C) transportation. D) education. E) homelandsecurity. Answer: B


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105) Expansionsofmandatedprogramsbythenationalgovernmentpresentespeciallydifficult fundingproblemsfor A) Congress. B) federaltaxpayers. C) stateandlocalgovernments. D) foreigngovernments. E) therecipientoftheserviceorprogram. Answer: C


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106) In1995,theRepublicanmajorityinCongress,incontrasttopreviousDemocraticCongresses, A) limitedtheuseofunfundedmandates. B) prohibitedthestatesfromusingunfundedmandates. C) limitedtheuseofblockgrants. D) avoidedfundedmandates. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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107) Medicaidisanexampleof A) afederalgrantprogramthatproducesconsiderablecompetitionbetweenthestates. B) afederalgrantprogramthatreceiveslittlesupportfromthepoliticalparties. C) afederalblockgrant. D) afederalgrantprogramthatputsaneconomicstrainonthestates. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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108) WhichofthefollowingismostequitablydistributedinAmerica? A) income B) accesstoeducation C) taxes D) credit E) federalaidtostatesandcities Answer: E


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109) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisTRUE? A) Federalgrantscanputanunwantedfinancialburdenonstates. B) WhenCongressimposesaprogramonthestates,italsoprovidesthefundsforthe program. C) CongressdecreasedfundingofMedicaidinthe1980storelievestatefinancialburdens. D) Statesarealwaysseekingincreasesingrantprograms. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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110) Anumberofstateshavesuedthefederalgovernmentforreimbursementoffundsonthe groundsthat A) overcrowdedprisonsareaformofcruelandunusualpunishment. B) Trickquestion!Statescannotsuethefederalgovernment. C) ithasnorighttocharteranationalbank. D) thefederalgovernmentisntpreventingillegalimmigrationintotheirstates. E) theFederalReserveBoardhaspushedinterestratestoohigh,increasingstateborrowing costs. Answer: D
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111) ________haveusuallyfoundtheindividualstategovernmentstobemoresympatheticthan thenationalgovernmenttotheirdemands. A) Feminists B) Civilrightsadvocates C) Businessinterests D) Thosefavoringtheclosingofmilitarybases E) Supportersoforganizedlabor Answer: C


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112) Sometimesstatestackleproblemsthataregenerallyconsiderednationalproblems.Thisis mostlikelytooccurwhenthefederalgovernmentactsinawaythatmoststateresidentsdo notlike.Anexampleofthisis A) statefundingforstemcellresearchinCalifornia. B) loweringtheminimumwage. C) collectingtaxesonpurchasesmadeontheInternet. D) restrictionsonthechemicalsthatcanbeusedfordevelopingdigitalphotographs. E) localschoolboardpoliciesaboutwhichtextbooksareappropriate. Answer: A
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113) Businessinterestshavetraditionallyfoundtheirdemandsreceivedmostfavorablyby A) stategovernments. B) thecourts. C) Congress. D) thepresident. E) cities. Answer: A


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114) FederalismisadvantageousfordemocracyforeachofthefollowingreasonsEXCEPT A) allowsforagreaterdiversityofopiniontobereflectedinpublicpolicies. B) increasesthenumberofdecisionsandcompromisesmadeatthenationallevel. C) increasesaccesstogovernment. D) allowsmoreopportunitiesforpoliticalparticipation. E) allowscustomizationofpoliciesforlocalneeds. Answer: B


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115) FederalismcontributestodemocracybyeachofthefollowingwaysEXCEPT A) easingtheburdensonthenationalgovernmentsoitcanfunctionmoreeffectively. B) increasingtheopportunitiesforgovernmenttoberesponsivetodemandsforpolicies. C) increasingaccesstogovernment. D) havingstategovernmentsaddthousandsofelectedofficesforwhichcitizensmayvoteor run. E) providingameansforunifiedpublicpolicy. Answer: E


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116) Asaresultofourfederalformofgovernment,thedeathpenaltyintheUnitedStates A) ismandatory. B) isinviolationoftheEighthAmendment. C) ispermissibleatthefederallevel,butbannedatthestatelevel. D) variessubstantiallybystate. E) ispermissiblebecauseitisnotconsideredcruelandunusualpunishment. Answer: D


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117) EachofthefollowingisconsideredadisadvantageoffederalismfordemocracyEXCEPT A) localinterestsmaybeabletothwartnationalmajoritysupportofcertainpolicies. B) powerfulinterestsinastatecanusethestateasapowerbasetopromotetheirinterests. C) voterturnoutratesinstateandlocalelectionsareevenlowerthaninnationalelections. D) largenumberofgovernmentsintheUnitedStatesmakeexercisingdemocraticcontrol moredifficult. E) policydiversitycandiscouragestatesfromprovidingservicesthatwouldotherwisebe available. Answer: B
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118) Spendingonpubliceducationillustrates A) cooperationbetweenstatesandfederalgovernmentforunifiedpolicy. B) theadvantagesoffiscalfederalism. C) thediversityinthequalityofeducationamongstatesasaresultoffederalism. D) thenationalcurriculumthatexistsintheUnitedStates. E) advantagesofrelyingonstatestosupplypublicservices. Answer: C


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119) HowmanygovernmentsarethereintheUnitedStates? A) 538 B) over100,000 C) 51 D) one E) 50 Answer: B


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120) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSE? A) Thefederalgovernmenthasgivenbillionsofdollarsinsubsidiestoprivateindustries. B) Thenationalgovernmenttookadirectinterestineconomicaffairsfromthevery foundingoftherepublic. C) Asthecountrybecamemoreindustrializedmanyinterestsaskedthenational governmenttorestrainmonopoliesandencourageopencompetition. D) Asthecountrybecamemoreindustrializedandurbanized,economicinterestgroups turnedtothestategovernmentsratherthanthefederalgovernmentforhelp. E) Thenationalgovernmenthasincreasinglyinvolveditselfintheeconomicmarketplace. Answer: D
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121) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSE? A) Federalismreducesdecisionmakingandconflictatthenationallevel. B) Federalismreducestheopportunitiesforpoliticalparticipation. C) Federalismallowsthediversityofopinionwithinthecountrytobereflectedindifferent publicpoliciesamongthestates. D) ThereareoverahalfmillionelectedofficialsintheUnitedStatesasaresultofthefederal system. E) Thefederalsystemensuresthateachstatecanestablishapowerbasetopromoteits interests. Answer: B
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122) Overthelast125yearsthepeopleoftheUnitedStateshaveturnedincreasinglytothenational governmenttosolveproblemsorprovideassistancebecause A) theTenthAmendmentgaveincreasedpowertothenationalgovernment. B) aproblemorpolicyoftenrequirestheauthorityandresourcesofthenational government. C) ofcorruptionatthestatelevel. D) wehaveaunitarygovernment. E) ofpersistentcorruptioninstateandlocalgovernment. Answer: B
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123) Americas________societymakesitmoresensibletohaveSocialSecurityadministeredona nationalratherthanastate-by-statebasis. A) electronic B) freeenterprise C) mobile D) multi-ethnic E) aging Answer: C


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124) Today,thenationalgovernmentspendsroughly________ofthegrossdomesticproduct. A) 15percent B) 20percent C) 2.5percent D) 9percent E) 44percent Answer: B


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125) TheproportionoftheUnitedStatesgrossnationalproductspentbystateandlocal governmentshas________since1929. A) increasedatamuchfasterratecomparedtothenationalgovernment B) increased,butnotnearlyasfastasthenationalgovernments C) droppedconsiderably D) remainedsteady E) droppedslightly Answer: B


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126) Today,roughly________ofthegrossdomesticproductisspentbystateandlocal governments. A) 7.5percent B) 25percent C) 10percent D) 15percent E) 1percent Answer: E


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127) Therapidgrowthofthenationalgovernmentislargelyduetothefactthat A) thediversityofinterestswithinandamongthestatesrequireanationalfocus. B) statesareconstitutionallyprohibitedfrommaintainingindependentdefenseforcesand policies. C) thestateshavefailedtoadequatelyrepresenttheirinterests. D) theConstitutionrequiresthatmostprogramsbeadministeredbythenational government. E) mostproblemsandpoliciesrequiretheauthorityandresourcesofthenational government. Answer: E
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128) Since1929,thenationalgovernmentsshareofAmericangovernmentalexpenditureshas A) dropped. B) remainedthesame. C) approachednearly100percent. D) grownrapidly. E) grownataslowerratethanthestatesshare. Answer: D


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129) Today,thenationalgovernmentspendsabout A) atenthofourgrossdomesticproduct. B) ahalfofourgrossdomesticproduct. C) 100percentofourgrossdomesticproduct. D) afifthofourgrossdomesticproduct. E) athirdofourgrossdomesticproduct. Answer: D


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130) Whichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthestategovernmentsisaccurate? A) Theycarryoutvirtuallyallthefunctionstheyalwayshave,whilethenational governmenthastakenonnewfunctions. B) Thenationalgovernmenthastakenawaynearlyallthefunctionsthestatesusedto perform. C) Thenationalgovernmenthastakenawayabouthalfthefunctionsthestatesusedto perform. D) Therehasbeenasharpdecreaseintheproportionofgrossnationalproductspentby statesandlocalitiessince1929. E) Theirpolicyfunctionshavenearlybeentakenoverbythenationalgovernment. Answer: A
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True/FalseQuestions
1) ThefederalgovernmentimmediatelytookresponsibilityforitsanemicresponsetoHurricane Katrina. Answer: FALSE
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2) FederalismisuniquetotheWesternHemisphere. Answer: FALSE


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3) TheUnitedNationsisanexampleofaconfederation. Answer: TRUE


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4) Mostnationsoftheworldhavefederalsystems. Answer: FALSE


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5) Mostfederalsystemsaredemocracies,althoughmostdemocraciesarenotfederalsystems. Answer: TRUE


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6) ThefederalsystemintheUnitedStatescentralizesourpolitics. Answer: FALSE


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7) TheTenthAmendmentissometimescalledthesupremacyclause,becauseitreinforcesthe powerofthenationalgovernmentoverthestategovernments. Answer: FALSE


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8) TheConstitutionspecificallydeniedstatesthepowertocoinmoney,toenterintotreaties,orto taximportsorexports. Answer: TRUE


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9) TheSupremeCourthasruledthattheTenthAmendmentdoesnotgivestatespowersuperior tothatofthenationalgovernmentforactivitiesnotmentionedintheConstitution. Answer: TRUE


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10) ThewordfederalismisabsentfromtheConstitution. Answer: TRUE


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11) McCullochv.Marylandwasavictoryforthoseadvocatingthestatesrightspositionassupreme overthenationalgovernment. Answer: FALSE


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12) InGibbonsv.Ogden,theSupremeCourtruledthatnationalgovernmentspowertoregulate interstatecommerceencompassesvirtuallyeveryformofcommercialactivity. Answer: TRUE


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13) Inrecentyears,theSupremeCourthasscrutinizedCongresssuseofthecommerceclausewith askepticaleye,overturningcongressionallegislationinvariousdecisions. Answer: TRUE


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14) CongressoncemadeanexceptiontothefullfaithandcreditprovisionoftheConstitutionby passingtheDefenseofMarriageAct,whichallowsstatestonotrecognizesame -sexmarriages conductedinotherstates. Answer: TRUE


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15) TheConstitutionsaysthatthestatesmustreturnapersonchargedwithacrimeinanother statetothatstatefortrialorimprisonment. Answer: TRUE


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16) MostpoliticiansandpoliticalscientiststodayarguethatAmericasfederalistsystemhas movedawayfromadualfederalismtoacooperativefederalism. Answer: TRUE


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17) Statesallowmanyexceptionstotheprivilegesandimmunitiesclause. Answer: TRUE


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18) MostofficialsatboththestateandnationallevelsagreedwithReagansreductioninfederal fundsforstateandlocalgovernments. Answer: FALSE


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19) Stateandlocalagenciescanobtaincategoricalgrantsonlybyapplyingforthem,andthenby meetingcertainqualifications. Answer: TRUE


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20) Categoricalgrantsandblockgrantsarethetwomajortypesoffederalaidtostateandlocal governments. Answer: TRUE


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21) Thepercentageoffederalaidtostateandlocalgovernmentsintheformofblockgrantsbegan decreasingin1995asthenewRepublicanmajorityinCongresspassedmorefederalaidinthe formofformulagrants,includinggrantsforwelfareprograms. Answer: FALSE


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22) Withmorethan$400billioninfederalgrantsatstake,moststatesandmanycitieshave establishedfull-timestaffsinWashington. Answer: TRUE


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23) Federalgrantsarenotoriousforbeingpoorlydistributed.Somestatesandregionsreceivethe lionsshare,otherscomeawaywithalmostnothing. Answer: FALSE


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24) Onlyschooldistrictsinthepoorestcommunitiesreceivefederalassistance. Answer: FALSE


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25) Federalaidtostatesandcitiesismoreequitablydistributedthanincome,accesstoeducation, ortaxesintheUnitedStates. Answer: TRUE


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26) ThefederalsystemofgovernmentincreasesopportunitiesforparticipationinAmerican politics. Answer: TRUE


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27) Afternearly200yearsofwidelydifferentpractices,theentireUnitedStatesnowhasauniform deathpenaltylaw. Answer: FALSE


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28) Stategovernmentshavegainedpowerrelativetothefederalgovernmentoverthepast century. Answer: FALSE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) Mostgovernmentsintheworldtodayarenotfederalist,but________. Answer: unitary
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2) Accordingtothesupremacyclause,whatthreeitemsarethesupremelawoftheland? Answer: theConstitution,lawsofthenationalgovernment(whenconsistentwiththe Constitution)andtreaties(whichcanbemadeonlybythenationalgovernment)


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3) WhatistheTenthAmendment,andhowhasitbeeninterpretedbythecourts? Answer: TheConstitutionalamendmentstatingthatThepowersnotdelegatedtotheUnited StatesbytheConstitution,norprohibitedbyittothestates,arereservedtothestates respectively,ortothepeople.Itisinterpretedtomeanthatstateshaveindependent powersoftheirownnotthatstatepowersaresuperiortothoseofthenational government.


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4) The________statesthatthepowersnotdelegatedtothenationalgovernmentbythe Constitution,norprohibitedbyittothestates,arereservedtothestatesrespectively,orthe people. Answer: TenthAmendment


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5) Initsdecisionof1819,knownas________,theSupremeCourtruledthatthefederal governmentwassupremeoverthestates. Answer: McCullochv.Maryland


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6) TheConstitutionsprovisionthatCongresshasthepowertomakealllawsnecessaryand properforcarryingintoexecutionitsspecifiedpowersisknownasthe________clause. Answer: elastic


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7) Compareandcontrastenumeratedpowersandimpliedpowers. Answer: Enumeratedpowersarepowersofthefederalgovernmentthatarespecifically identifiedintheConstitution,includingthepowertocoinmoney,regulateitsvalue, andimposetaxes.Impliedpowersarepowersofthefederalgovernmentthatgo beyondthoseenumeratedintheConstitution,assuggestedbythephrasethatCongress hasthepowertomakealllawsnecessaryandproperforcarryingintoexecutionthe powersenumeratedinArticle1.


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8) Whyisthenecessaryandproperclausesometimesreferredtoastheelasticclause? Answer: Becausehundredsofcongressionalpoliciesinvolvepowersnotspecificallymentioned intheConstitution,andthesearejustifiedasimpliedpowersofCongress.


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9) Inwhatwayshasthepolicyissueofequalitybeenanissueoffederalism? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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10) ArticleIVoftheConstitutionrequiresthatstatesgive________tothepublicacts,records,and civiljudicialproceedingsofeveryotherstate. Answer: fullfaithandcredit


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11) Therequirementthatstatesmustreturnapersonchargedwithacrimeinanotherstatetothat statefortrialorimprisonmentisknownas________. Answer: extradition


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12) Thecornerstoneofthenationalgovernmentsrelationswiththestateandlocalgovernmentsis ________federalism:thepatternofspending,taxing,andprovidinggrantsinthefederal system. Answer: fiscal


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13) ________arethemaininstrumentthenationalgovernmentusestoinfluencestatesand localities. Answer: Grants-in-aid


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14) ________isthepolicyareathatreceivesthelargestpercentageoffederalgrants. Answer: Healthcare


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15) Whatisacategoricalgrant,andhowisitdifferentfromablockgrant? Answer: Categoricalgrantscanbeusedonlyforspecificpurposesofstateandlocalspending, andcomewithstringsattached.Blockgrantsaregivenmoreorlessautomaticallyto statesorcommunitiestosupportbroadprogramsinareassuchascommunity developmentorsocialservices.


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16) Thewithholdingoffederalfundsforoneprogramifastatedoesnottakeactioninanother areaisa(n)________. Answer: cross-oversanction


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17) Aconditionononefederalgrantthatisextendedtoallactivitiessupportedbyfederalfundsis a(n)________. Answer: cross-cuttingrequirement


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18) ________occurwhenaconditionononefederalgrantisextendedtoallactivitiessupportedby federalfunds,regardlessoftheirsource. Answer: Cross-cuttingrequirements


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19) A(n)________occurswhenthefederalgovernmentrequiresstateandlocalgovernmentsto complywithfederalrulesunderthreatofpenaltyorasaconditionofreceiptofafederalgrant. Answer: mandate


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EssayQuestions
1) Definethetermfederalismandcompareandcontrastitwithunitaryandconfederation governments.Giveexamplesofeach.
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2) DescribeAmericanfederalismandcontrastfederalismtounitarygovernment.Foracountry liketheUnitedStates,isfederalismanappropriatesystem?Explain.
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3) Whyisfederalismconsideredsoimportant?Explainhowfederalismdecentralizespoliticsand policies.
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4) DescribethefederalsystemasformulatedintheoriginaldesignoftheConstitution.Explain howfederalismhasevolvedorchangedsincethewritingoftheConstitution,particularlyin termsoftheestablishmentofnationalsupremacy.


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5) ListsomeofthepowersspecificallygrantedtothestategovernmentsbytheConstitution.List someofthepowersspecificallydeniedthestatesbytheConstitution.Dothepowersgranted anddeniedseemwise?Explain.


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6) Brieflydescribeandstatethehistoricalsignificanceofthe McCullochv.Marylanddecision.Did theSupremeCourtissueafairdecisionordidthisundermineaproperbalanceinfederalism? Explain.


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7) ExplainwhathappenedintheSupremeCourtcasesof McCullochv.MarylandandGibbonsv. Ogden?Whatistheimportanceofeachcasetothedistributionofpowersbetweenthestates andthenationalgovernment?


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8) ExplaintherelationshipsandobligationsbetweenthestatesintheAmericanfederalsystem. Usespecificexamplestoillustrateyouranswer.
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9) Compareandcontrastdualfederalismandcooperativefederalism.Whatarethestandard operatingproceduresforcooperativefederalism?
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10) Definewhatismeantbyfiscalfederalism.Howisitmanifestedthroughthefederalgrant system?Whataretheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofeachofthedifferenttypesofgrants?


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11) Whatmeansandstrategiesdothestatesandcommunitiesusetocompetewitheachotherfor federaldollars?Underwhatcircumstancesmightthestatesandlocalitiesnotwanttoreceive federalaid?


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12) TowhatextentdidtheRepublicanmajority,firstelectedinmid1990s,limitthescopeof government?Towhatextentdiditenhancethescopeofgovernment?


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13) Whataretheadvantagesanddisadvantagestodemocracyunderafederalsystem?Ifyouwere draftingtheConstitutiontoday,wouldyouopttocontinuefederalismortrysomethingelse? Explain.


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14) Discusshowfederalismcreatesamoredemocraticpoliticalsystem.
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15) Explainandgivespecificexamplesoftheadvantagesanddisadvantagesoffederalismfor democraticgovernment.


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16) Generally,howdothe50statesandWashington,D.C.differintheirlawsregardingstate welfarebenefits?Onper-capitaspendingonpubliceducation?Isthisaprobleminacountry liketheUnitedStates,orastrengthofoursystem?Explain.


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17) Describehowourfederalsystemallocatesresponsibilitiestostateandfederalgovernments. Havetheseresponsibilitieschangedovertime?Howhasfederalisminfluencedthescopeof government?


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Chapter4 CivilLibertiesandPublicPolicy
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) Civillibertiesare A) freedomsthatarenotspecifiedintheConstitutionorinstatutorylaws,butmakeupthe UnwrittenConstitution. B) therightstovoteandparticipateinthepoliticalprocessinademocracy. C) lawsthatprovideandsetlimitsononesfreedoms. D) citizensrightstoequaltreatmentunderthelaw. E) individuallegalandconstitutionalprotectionsagainstthegovernment. Answer: E
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2) Americanscivillibertiesaresetdownin A) theDeclarationofIndependence. B) theBillofRights. C) ArticleIoftheConstitution. D) nowrittendocumentorlaw. E) thePreambletotheConstitution. Answer: B


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3) The________isthefinalinterpreterofthecontentandscopeofAmericanscivilliberties. A) president B) Congress C) SupremeCourt D) AmericanCivilLibertiesUnion E) Constitution Answer: C


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4) Civillibertiesconsistof A) legalandconstitutionalprotectionsagainstthegovernment. B) therighttobetreatedequallyunderthelaw. C) thecumulativedecisionsoftheSupremeCourt. D) therightofcitizenstosuegovernment. Answer: A


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5) AtthetimeoftheratificationoftheConstitution, A) allstateshadbillsofrightsbuttherewasnonationalBillofRights. B) thenationalBillofRightsalsoappliedtothestates. C) therewerenobillsofrightsintheUnitedStates. D) boththenationalgovernmentandthestateshadbillsofrights. E) thenationalgovernmenthadaBillofRightsbut,therewerenostatebillsofrights. Answer: A


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6) TheBillofRightswaswrittenandproposedby A) theUnitedStatesSupremeCourtin1796. B) theFirstCongressoftheUnitedStatesin1789. C) theConstitutionalConventionin1787. D) PresidentGeorgeWashingtonin1789. E) PresidentThomasJeffersonin1801. Answer: B


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7) TheBillofRightswasadoptedprimarilyinresponseto A) theSpanishInquisition. B) Britishabusesofthecolonistscivilliberties. C) theabusescommittedbytheUnitedStatesContinentalArmyduringtheRevolutionary War. D) thehorrorsoftheFrenchRevolution. E) ShaysRebellion. Answer: B


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8) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheBillofRightsisFALSE? A) TheBillofRightswaswrittenbytheFirstCongressoftheUnitedStates. B) TheBillofRightsconsistsofthefirsttenamendmentstotheConstitution. C) MoststateconstitutionsdidnothaveaBillofRightsatthetimeoftheConstitutional Convention. D) ManystatesmadeadoptionofaBillofRightsaconditionofratificationofthe Constitution. E) TheConstitutionof1787containednoBillofRights. Answer: C


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9) Inthecaseof________,theSupremeCourtruledthattheBillofRightsrestrainedonlythe nationalgovernment,notstatesandcities. A) Mirandav.Arizona B) Barronv.Baltimore C) NewYorkv.theUnitedStates D) Engelv.Vitale E) Gitlowv.NewYork Answer: B


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10) Thegreatfreedomsofspeech,press,religion,andassemblyarecontainedinthe A) First,Second,ThirdandFourthAmendments. B) FourthAmendment. C) SecondAmendment. D) ThirdAmendment. E) FirstAmendment. Answer: E


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11) TheSupremeCourtdecisioninBarronv.Baltimore (1833)maintainedthattheBillofRights intendedtoprevent A) boththenationalandstategovernmentsfromviolatingcivilrights. B) citiesfromtakingprivatepropertywithoutdueprocess. C) onlythenationalgovernmentfromabridgingcivilliberties. D) thestatesfrominfringingonindividualrights. E) theUnitedStatesgovernmentfromgrantingtitlesofroyalty. Answer: C
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12) Today,________applytothestates. A) alloftheBillofRightsexcepttheFirstAmendment B) alloftheBillofRights C) noneoftheBillofRights D) fouramendmentsoftheBillofRights E) allbutfiveprovisionsoramendmentsoftheBillofRights Answer: E


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13) Beginningwiththecaseof________in1925,theSupremeCourtbegantorulethattheBillof Rightsapplieddirectlytothestates,aswellastothenationalgovernment. A) UnitedStatesv.BillofRights B) Mirandav.Arizona C) Engelv.Vitale D) Barronv.Baltimore E) Gitlowv.NewYork Answer: E


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14) IndecidingtoincorporatepartsoftheBillofRightsintostatelawssince1925,theSupreme Courthasreliedonthedueprocessclauseofthe A) FirstAmendment. B) Twenty-sixthAmendment. C) FourteenthAmendment. D) FifthAmendment. E) EighteenthAmendment. Answer: C


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15) The________includestheclauseCongressshallmakenolawrespectinganestablishmentof religion. A) FifthAmendment B) FirstAmendment C) SecondAmendment D) ReligiousRightsAmendment E) FourteenthAmendment Answer: B


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16) Theincorporationdoctrineinvolves A) applicationoftheBillofRightstothestates. B) thegovernmentspowertoregulatecorporations. C) theproceduresforcreatingacitygovernment. D) theinterpretationofthecommerceclause. E) theextensionofjudicialreviewtostatecourts. Answer: A


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17) ThomasJeffersonarguedthattheFirstAmendmentcreatedawallofseparationbetween A) thegovernmentandthepeople. B) theCongress,thepresident,andtheSupremeCourt. C) thepeopleandtheSupremeCourt. D) churchandstate. E) menandwomen. Answer: D


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18) UnlikeGreatBritainandmanyothernations,theUnitedStatesdoesnothavean________ churchthatisofficiallysupportedbythegovernmentandrecognizedasanationalinstitution. A) ecclesiastical B) adjudicated C) imperial D) incorporated E) established Answer: E


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19) Today,________have(has)anestablishedchurchthatisofficiallysupportedbythe government. A) theUnitedStates B) nonation C) GreatBritain D) allnations E) boththeUnitedStatesandGreatBritain Answer: C


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20) InGitlowv.NewYork(1925),thedecisionthatstatescouldnotabridgethefreedomsof expressionprotectedbytheFirstAmendmentwasbasedonthe A) FifthAmendment. B) NewYorkStateConstitution. C) FourteenthAmendment. D) FirstAmendment. E) exclusionaryruleofthejudiciary. Answer: C


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21) ThesignificanceofGitlowv.NewYork (1925)wasthat A) aprovisionoftheBillofRightswasappliedtothestatesforthefirsttime. B) thenationalgovernmentwaspreventedfromviolatingtheBillofRights. C) astateconstitutionhadprecedenceovertheUnitedStatesConstitutionwithinthatstate. D) theBillofRightswasinterpretedasrestrainingonlythenationalgovernmentandnot citiesorstates. E) theU.S.Constitutionhasprecedenceoverthestateconstitutionwithinthestate. Answer: A
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22) Aidtoparochialschoolswasfirstpassedinthe1960sattherequestof A) RichardM.Nixon. B) JimmyCarter. C) JohnF.Kennedy. D) LyndonJohnson. E) BarryGoldwater. Answer: D


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23) InLemonv.Kurtzman,theSupremeCourtestablishedthataidtochurch -relatedschoolsmust doallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) haveasecularpurpose. B) inhibitreligion. C) notadvancereligion. D) notcreateexcessivegovernmententanglementwithreligion. E) treatallreligionsequally. Answer: B
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24) Theabridgmentofcitizensfreedomtoworship,ornottoworship,astheypleaseisprohibited bythe A) dueprocessclause. B) establishmentclause. C) freeexerciseclause. D) freedomofreligion. E) SecondAmendment. Answer: C


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25) IndealingwithFirstAmendmentcasesinvolvingreligion,theSupremeCourthasruledthat A) theConstitutiondoesnotprotectanti-religiousbeliefsandpractices. B) suchquestionsshouldberesolvedatthestateandlocallevelsofgovernment. C) whileallreligiousbeliefsareconstitutionallyprotected,allreligiouspracticesarenot. D) governmentmustnotinterferewithanyexpressionofreligiousfaith. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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26) IntheLemonv.Kurtzmandecisionof1971,theSupremeCourtruledthat A) anyaidofanysorttochurch-relatedschoolsisnotconstitutional,becauseitviolates church-stateseparation. B) aidtochurch-relatedschoolsisfullyconstitutional,andcanbeusedforanypurposes neededbytheschools. C) spokenprayersinpublicschoolswereunconstitutional. D) aidtochurch-relatedschoolsmustbeforsecularpurposesonly,andcannotbeusedto advanceorinhibitreligion. E) devotionalBible-readinginpublicschoolswasunconstitutional. Answer: D
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27) IntheEngelv.Vitalecaseof1962,theSupremeCourtruledthat________was(were) unconstitutional. A) prayersdoneasclassroomexercisesinpublicschools B) theConnecticutstatutebarringthedistributionofbirthcontrolinformation C) segregation D) priorrestraint E) policesearchorseizurewithoutanauthorizedwarrant Answer: A


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28) TheSupremeCourthasinterpretedtheestablishmentclauseoftheFirstAmendmentas A) groundsfordenyingfederalaidtochildrenattendingparochialschools. B) merelypreventingtheestablishmentofanationalchurch. C) prohibitingschool-organizedBible-readingandprayerinpublicschools. D) allowingnondenominationalschoolprayer. E) alloftheabove Answer: C


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29) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutreligionandpoliticsisFALSE? A) ManyschooldistrictshavesimplyignoredtheSupremeCourtsbanonschoolprayer andholdprayersintheirclassrooms. B) ThereligiousdiversityinAmericahasmadeitdifficulttoestablishonestatereligion suchasBritainhas. C) TheSupremeCourthasneverpermittedtheclaimofreligiousfreedomtopermitevery sortofbehavior. D) EffortsareunderwaytoamendtheConstitutiontopermitschoolprayer. E) Inrecentyears,religiousissuesandcontroversieshavebecomelessvisibleinpolitical debate. Answer: E
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30) InLemonv.Kurtzman(1971),theSupremeCourtruledthat A) statescanprohibitpornographydespitethefreedomofthepress. B) aidtochurch-relatedschoolsmusthaveasecularlegislativepurpose. C) religiousfreedomtakesprecedenceovercompulsoryeducationlaws. D) anofficialprayeratapublic-schoolgraduationviolatedtheconstitutionalseparationof churchandstate. E) voluntaryprayerinpublicschoolsisunconstitutional. Answer: B


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31) TheSupremeCourthasruledthatgovernmentaidtochurch -relatedschools A) isacceptableforthingssuchasfieldtripsandteachersalaries,butnotfortextbooksor transportationtoschool. B) ispermittedwhentheaidisforanon-religiouspurpose. C) isacceptableiftheschoolisaffiliatedwithamajorreligionbutnotforsmall,fringe religioussects. D) violatestheEstablishmentClause. E) doesnotconstituteanestablishmentofreligion. Answer: B
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32) Governmentaidtoreligiousschoolshasbeenamajorissue A) sincetheCivilWar. B) sincethecolonialera. C) sincethemid1960s. D) sinceratificationoftheBillofRights. E) sincethegrowthofthefundamentalistmovementinthe1980s. Answer: C


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33) WhichofthefollowingisNOTafreeexerciseissue? A) animalsacrifice B) religioususeofpeyote C) teacherledprayersinpublicschools D) whetherAmishchildrenmustgotoschool E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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34) In2005,theSupremeCourtfoundthattwoKentuckycountiesviolatedtheestablishment clauseoftheFirstAmendmentby A) establishingEnglishastheofficialfirstlanguageoftheStateofKentucky. B) bypostingtheTenCommandmentsasawayofpromotingreligion. C) banningintelligentdesignfromthecurriculum D) providinganinefficientsystemofpubliceducation. E) requiringstudentstosaythePledgeofAllegiance. Answer: C


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35) Duringthe1980s,theSupremeCourt________thedisplayingofChristmasnativityscenesand Hanukkahmenorahsonpublicproperty. A) refusedtohearcaseschallenging B) firstpermittedandthenprohibited C) upheldtheconstitutionalityof D) declaredunconstitutional E) encouraged Answer: C


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36) Infreeexercisecases,theSupremeCourt A) allowsthegovernmenttointerferewithreligiouspracticesaslongasitisnotspecifically aimedatreligion. B) permitsthegovernmenttointerferewithreligiouspractices. C) prohibitsprayerinpublicschoolsbutpermitsgovernmentaidtoreligiousschools. D) prohibitsthegovernmentfrominterferingwithreligiouspractices. E) neverallowsthegovernmenttointerferewithreligiouspractices. Answer: A


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37) Inregardtothefreeexerciseclause,theSupremeCourthasmadeeachofthefollowingrulings EXCEPT A) polygamymaybejustifiedforMormonsonreligiousgrounds. B) theAirForcecanenforceitsdresscodeevenagainstreligiouslybaseddresschoices. C) Amishparentsmaytaketheirchildrenoutofschoolaftertheeighthgrade. D) peoplecouldbecomeconscientiousobjectorstowaronreligiousgrounds. E) publicschoolscannotrequireJehovahsWitnessestoattendflagsalutingceremonies. Answer: A


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38) TheSupremeCourtruledthatfreedomofreligiouspracticewasmoreimportantthantheright ofthegovernmenttointerfereindecidinginfavorof A) aMormonwhojustifiedpolygamyonreligiousgrounds. B) therightofAmishparentsinWisconsintotaketheirchildrenoutofpublicschoolafter theeighthgrade. C) therightofanorthodoxJewishAirForcecaptaintowearhisyarmulkedespitethestrict militarydresscode. D) theLouisianalawrequiringschoolsthattaughtDarwiniantheorytoteachtheBibles versionofcreationaswell. E) ChristianScientistsreligiousoppositiontoscientificmedicaltreatmentforthemselvesor theirchildren. Answer: B
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39) Freedomofexpression A) hassometimesbeenlimitedwhenitconflictswithotherrightsandvalues. B) isprotectedbytheFourthandFifthAmendments. C) isanabsoluterightprotectedbytheFirstAmendment. D) includesfreedomofspeechandpress,butnotactions. E) wouldnotprotectapoliticalrallytoattackanoppositioncandidatesstandonissues. Answer: A


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40) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutfreedomofexpressionisFALSE? A) Universitiescannotprohibitracial,religious,orsexualinsults. B) ObscenityandlibelarenotprotectedbytheFirstAmendment. C) PicketingisconsideredsymbolicspeechandreceivesFirstAmendmentprotection. D) Governmentcanlimitexpressionmoreeasilythanitcanlimitaction. E) Holdingapoliticalrallytoattackanoppositioncandidatesstandonimportantissues getsFirstAmendmentprotection. Answer: D


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41) ________referstoagovernmentscensorshipofmaterialbeforeitispublished. A) Theexclusionaryrule B) Probablecause C) Equalprotection D) Priorrestraint E) Justcause Answer: D


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42) InwhatcasedidtheSupremeCourtrulethatanewspaper,nomatterhowoutrageousits opinions,mustbeallowedtopublishwithoutpriorrestraint? A) Wisconsinv.Yoder B) Mirandav.Arizona C) Nearv.Minnesota D) NewYorkTimesv.Sullivan E) Mappv.Ohio Answer: C


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43) Theextentofanindividualsorgroupsfreedomfrompriorrestraintdependson A) whetherthenationisatwar. B) nothingitisabsolute. C) themoodsoftheSupremeCourtjustices. D) whotheindividualorgroupis. E) theConstitution. Answer: D


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44) InitsNearv.Minnesotadecisionof1931,theSupremeCourtruledthat A) thestategovernmentcouldnotusepriorrestrainttoshutdownanoutspoken newspaper. B) aschoolnewspaperwasnotapublicforumandcouldberegulatedinanyreasonable mannerbyschoolofficials. C) stateshadthepowertousepriorrestraintbroadly,butthenationalgovernmentdidnot. D) aCIAagentcouldnotpublishapersonalmemoirwithoutclearingitthroughtheagency. E) stateswereprohibitedfrompublishingnewspapersbecausethatamountedto governmentcensorshipofthepressandconstitutedtheestablishmentofagovernment monopoly. Answer: A
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45) TheSupremeCourthaspermittedpriorrestraintofwhichofthefollowing? A) highschoolnewspapers B) compactdiscsby2LiveCrew C) thePentagonPapers D) anewspaperthatcalledlocalofficialsJewishgangsters E) Ithaspermittedpriorrestraintofallofthese. Answer: A


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46) ThePentagonPapersdealtwith A) adocumentedhistoryofUnitedStatesinvolvementintheVietnamWarwhichthe governmentwantedkeptsecret. B) adocumentedhistoryofUnitedStatesinvolvementintheKoreanWarwhichthe governmentwantedkeptsecret. C) prisonersofwarfromWorldWarII. D) secretagreementsbetweentheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnion. E) alloftheabove Answer: A
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47) WhichofthefollowingelementsoftheBillofRightswasextendedtothestatesbythe SupremeCourtcaseofNearv.Minnesota? A) freedomofspeech B) freedomofthepress C) righttocounselinfelonycases D) grandjuryrequirement E) righttoprivacy Answer: B


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48) Timeandtimeagain,theSupremeCourthasprotectedfreedomofthepressby A) rulinginfavorofstrictlibellaws. B) strikingdownpriorrestraint. C) refusingtoallowthesubpoenaofreporters. D) relaxingdueprocessprocedures. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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49) ThecaseofNearv.Minnesota(1931) A) ruledthatnewspaperscouldnotpublishsecretinformationthatthreatensnational security. B) ruledthatstatescannotprohibitanimalsacrifice. C) heldthatgovernmenthadillegallyissuedapriorrestraint. D) identifiedanexceptiontotheConstitutionalguaranteesbarringgovernmentcensorship ofthepress. E) upheldMinnesotasrighttoclosedownanewspapermakingslanderousremarks. Answer: C
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50) Priorrestraintismostoftenconsideredacceptableonthegroundsof A) libel. B) obscenity. C) nationalsecurity. D) cruelandunusualpunishment. E) religiousfreedom. Answer: C


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51) InthecaseofDennisv.UnitedStates,theSupremeCourt A) upheldthefederallawbanningtheNazipartyintheUnitedStatesandprohibitingits activities. B) upheldtheconvictionsofCommunistpartyofficialswhohadbeensenttoprison becauseoftheirbeliefs. C) overturnedtheconvictionsofCommunistpartyofficialswhohadbeensenttoprison becauseoftheirbeliefs. D) ruledthatburningadraftcardwasnotcoveredunderfreespeech. E) overturnedthefederallawagainstburningordesecratingtheAmericanflag,arguing thatitviolatedfreespeech. Answer: B
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52) InthecaseofNewYorkTimesv.UnitedStates in1971,theSupremeCourtruled A) againstpermittingracyadvertisementsformassageparlors,saunas,andescortservices whichcouldbedeemedobscene. B) againstpriorrestraintinthecaseofthePentagonPapers,whichallowedthemtobe published. C) thatthegovernmentcannotfilelibelsuitsagainstnewspapers,because,itwouldresultin governmentcensorship. D) infavorofpermittingracyadvertisementsformassageparlors,saunas,andescort servicesasfreedomofspeech. E) infavorofpriorrestraintinordertopreventpublicationofthePentagonPapers. Answer: B
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53) InSchenckv.UnitedStates(1919),JusticeHolmessaidthatspeechcanberestrictedwhenit A) isutteredbygovernmentofficialsinanefforttoestablishareligion. B) provokesaclearandpresentdangertopeople. C) advocatestheviolentoverthrowoftheUnitedStates. D) isspokenratherthannon-verbalorsymbolic. E) isexpressedonprivateproperty. Answer: B


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54) Constitutionalprotectionsoffreespeechare________onprivateproperty. A) completelyinvalidated B) fullyprotected C) diminished D) untested E) unchanged Answer: C


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55) Ashieldlaw A) givesreporterstherighttowithholdinformationfromthecourts. B) givesjudgestherighttoissueagagorder. C) protectscertainreligiouspracticesnotcoveredbySupremeCourtrulings. D) preventsthecourtsfromclosingcriminaltrialstothepress. E) preventsreportersfromdisclosingsecretgovernmentinformation. Answer: A


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56) TheSupremeCourtruledinBranzburgv.Hayes (1972)thatintheabsenceofshieldlaws, A) therightofafreetrialpreemptsthereportersrighttoprotectsources. B) thatnewspaperfilesareprotectedbytheFirstAmendment. C) thatreportershavemorerightsthanothercitizens. D) judgescanbarcamerasfromthecourtroom. E) noneoftheabove Answer: A


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57) InRothv.UnitedStates,theSupremeCourtheldthat A) outdoordrive-inscouldnotbebarredfromshowingafilmwhichincludednudity. B) thepossessionofchildpornographywasnotcoveredbyanyrighttofreespeechor press,andcouldbemadeacrime. C) thegovernmentcannotprohibitdiscriminationagainstwomenpriestsbychurches becauseitwouldviolatethefreeexerciseofreligion. D) obscenityisnotwithintheareaofconstitutionallyprotectedfreespeech. E) thefilmCarnalKnowledge,whichhadcriticalacclaimbutasexualthemeandexplicit scenes,couldnotbebanned. Answer: D
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58) Theprinciplethatobscenityisnotwithintheareaofconstitutionallyprotectedspeechor presswasestablishedin A) Rothv.UnitedStates. B) Osbornev.Ohio. C) Millerv.California. D) UnitedStatesv.Snepp. E) Ohiov.PussycatTheater. Answer: A


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59) Obscenityis A) equatedwithnuditybytheSupremeCourt. B) clearlydefinedasitpertainstobothfreedomofthepressandfreedomofspeech. C) prohibitedintheFirstAmendment. D) amatteroffederalstandardsratherthanstateorlocalstandards. E) notprotectedundertheConstitution. Answer: E


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60) InZurcherv.StanfordDaily,theSupremeCourtruledthat A) theStanfordDailyhadcompletecontroloveritsphotographfiles. B) theStanfordDailymustceasepublicationofmilitarystrategypapers. C) theStanfordDailymustopenitsfilesforuseaspoliceevidence. D) theStanfordDailymustdisclosethelocationofitsreporters. E) theStanfordDailyiscontrolledbytheUniversitypresident,notstatelaws. Answer: C


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61) In________,theCourtclarifieditsdoctrineofwhatwasobscene,includingsuchgaugesas whethermaterialappealedtomerelyaprurientinterestinsex,andwhetheritlackedserious artistic,literary,politicalorscientificmerit. A) Osbornev.Ohio B) Engelv.Vitale C) Millerv.California D) Nearv.Minnesota E) FederalCommunicationsCommissionv.Stern Answer: C
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62) InMillerv.California(1971),theCourtruledthatdecisionsregardingwhetherornotmaterial wasobsceneshouldgenerallybemadeby A) Congress,throughstatutorylaw. B) lowerfederaljudgesastheyseefit,butinconformancewiththeFirstAmendment. C) localcommunities,withsomeguidelinesprovidedbytheCourtitselfabouthowtomake suchjudgments. D) theSupremeCourtitself,onacase-by-casebasis. E) individualpersonsintheirownprivatelives. Answer: C
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63) Millerv.California(1973) A) achievedaworkabledefinitionoflegalobscenity. B) abolishedpornographicmaterialonlywhenitinvolvedchildren. C) resultedinuniformstatelawsregulatingobscenity. D) statedthatlocalcommunitiesshouldhavemoreresponsibilityoverdecidingwhat constitutesobscenity. E) prohibitedhangingasacruelandunusualpunishment. Answer: D


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64) TheCommunicationsDecencyActbanningobscenematerialandcriminalizingthe transmissionofindecentspeechorimagestoanyoneundertheageof18was A) affirmedbytheCourt. B) opposedbyChristiangroups. C) overturnedbytheSupremeCourt. D) thefirstregulationofobscenityaffirmedbytheCourt. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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65) AttheurgingoffeministsandconservativeChristians,somecitieshavebannedpornography onthegroundsitdehumanizesandendangerswomen.Howhavethecourtsdealtwiththese bans? A) TheyhaveupheldthembasedontheEqualProtectionClauseoftheFourteenth Amendment. B) Theyhaverefusedtoreviewthem. C) TheyhavestruckthemdownasviolationsoftheFirstAmendment. D) TheyhaveupheldthembasedontheFirstAmendment. E) Thecourtshavebeenerratic,allowingsomeordinancesandrevokingothers. Answer: C
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66) InthecaseofNewYorkTimesv.Sullivan (1964),theSupremeCourtruledthat A) governmentofficialscannotsuenewspapersforlibelsincethiswouldentailprior restraintofthepress. B) thePentagonPaperscouldbelegallypublisheddespitethegovernmentsdesiretokeep thematerialsecret. C) thepublicationofthePentagonPaperscouldbelegallybarredasamatterofnational security. D) statementsmadeaboutpoliticalfigures,howevermalicious,canneverbedeemed libelous. E) statementsmadeaboutpoliticalfiguresarelibelousonlyifmadewithmaliceand recklessdisregardforthetruth. Answer: E
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67) Thepublicationofstatementsknowntobefalsethataremaliciousandtendtodamagea personsreputationiscalled A) obscenity. B) symbolic. C) slander. D) libel. E) fraud. Answer: D


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68) WhathappenedwhenJacksonville,Florida,triedtobanmovieswithnudityinthemfrom beingshownatdrive-intheatersongroundsofobscenity? A) TheCourtupheldthebantoprotectcitizensrightstoprivacy. B) TheSupremeCourtruledthatallnuditycannotbedeemedobscene. C) Thebanwasupheldtohelpthecommunityriditselfofapublicnuisanceandpotential traffichazard. D) TheCourtruledthatX-ratedmovieswereprotectedundertheFirstAmendment. E) ariot Answer: B
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69) Theprinciplethatstatementsaboutpublicfiguresarelibelousonlyifmadewithmaliceand recklessdisregardforthetruthwasestablishedin A) Texasv.Johnson. B) NewYorkTimesv.Sullivan. C) Osbornev.Ohio. D) theAnti-DefamationActof1952. E) HustlerMagazinev.Falwell. Answer: B


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70) WhichofthefollowingstatementsregardinglibelisFALSE? A) Publicfiguresareprotectedagainstlibelsincepublicationsmustprovethatwhatthey wroteistrueandnotmalicious. B) Libelcasesareverydifficultforpublicfigurestowin. C) Libellawsdoinhibitthepresstosomeextent. D) GeneralWilliamWestmorelandfailedtoprovelibel. E) Itismoredifficultforapublicfigurethanaprivateindividualtowinalibelsuit. Answer: A


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71) WearinganarmbandandburningaUnitedStatesflagareexamplesof________:actionsthat donotconsistofspeakingorwritingbutthatexpressanopinion. A) commercialspeech B) symbolicspeech C) obscenity D) thefreeexerciseclause E) unspokenspeech Answer: B


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72) Symbolicspeech A) consistsofspeechcriticizingthesymbolsofgovernment. B) cannotbeprohibitedbecauseitistoovagueforgovernmenttolegislateagainst. C) hasbeenruledasdisruptiveandasacriminalactivity. D) consistsofactionthatexpressesanopinion. E) isprohibitedundertheFirstAmendment. Answer: D


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73) Advertisingisconsideredaformof________,and,accordingtothedecisionsoftheSupreme Court,issubjecttogreaterrestrictionsonfreespeechthanreligiousorpoliticalspeech. A) symbolicspeech B) paidspeech C) imagedexpression D) propaganda E) commercialspeech Answer: E


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74) Commercialspeechonradioandtelevisionisregulatedby A) stateandlocalgovernments. B) nogovernmentagency,assuchwouldbeaviolationofthefreedomofspeech. C) theFederalCommunicationsCommission. D) theFederalTradeCommission. E) theBureauofConsumerAffairs. Answer: D


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75) Oneofthemostregulatedformsofspeechis A) symbolicspeech. B) obscenity. C) libel. D) unintendedspeech. E) commercialspeech. Answer: E


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76) Thecontentandnatureofradioandtelevisionbroadcastingareregulatedby A) thePublicBroadcastingSystem. B) theFederalCommunicationsCommission. C) theFederalTradeCommission. D) theDepartmentofCommerce. E) nogovernmentagency,asanysuchregulationwouldbeaviolationofthefreedomsof speechandthepress. Answer: B


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77) WhichofthefollowingstatementsconcerningthepublicairwaysisFALSE? A) TheFCCrestrictstheuseofobscenewordsonpublicairways. B) Thesamerestrictionsthatapplytoradioandtelevisionalsoapplytonewspapers. C) Abouttwo-thirdsofAmericanhomeshavecableTV. D) Cabletelevisionhasfewerrestrictionsplacedonthemthanthepublicairways. E) TheFederalCommunicationsCommission(FCC)regulatesradioandtelevision broadcasting. Answer: B


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78) In2000,theSupremeCourtruledthat A) governmenthadalegitimateinterestinprotectingsexuallyexplicitmaterialoncable stations. B) governmenthadnorighttoregulatesexuallyexplicitmaterialoncablestations. C) governmenthadalegitimateinterestinprohibitingsexuallyexplicitmaterialoncable stations. D) governmentregulationofsexuallyexplicitmaterialoncablestationsmustbenarrowly tailoredtopromotethegovernmentsinterestinprotectingchildren. E) governmenthadalegitimateinterestinprotectingsexuallyexplicitprintmaterial. Answer: D
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79) Thecontent,nature,andexistenceofradioandtelevisionbroadcastingisregulatedby A) theNationalBroadcastingBoard. B) thestates. C) Congress. D) theFederalCommunicationsCommission. E) noone,becausetodosowouldviolatethefreedomofthepressasappliedto broadcasters. Answer: D


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80) FreedomofassemblyincludestherighttodoallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) riot. B) parade. C) protest. D) picket. E) demonstrate. Answer: A


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81) Inthecaseof________,theSupremeCourtruledthatrequiringanorganizationtoturnover itsmembershiplistswasanunconstitutionalrestrictiononfreedomofassociation. A) PlannedParenthoodv.Casey B) NAACPv.Alabama C) Nearv.Minnesota D) Mappv.Ohio E) UnitedStatesv.CommunistParty Answer: B


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82) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutfreedomofassemblyisFALSE? A) Freedomofassemblyisoftenneglectedalongsidethegreatfreedomsofspeech,press, andreligion. B) Withoutfreedomofassemblywewouldnothavetherighttoformpoliticalpartiesor interestgroups. C) Freedomofassemblyincludestherighttoassembleandtherighttoassociate. D) NazishavetheconstitutionalrighttomarchthroughaheavilyJewishcommunity. E) Freedomofassemblyallowsgroupstodemonstrateatanytime,atanyplace,orinany mannertheywish. Answer: E
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83) InthecaseofNAACPv.Alabama(1958),theSupremeCourtruledthat A) Alabamacouldnotrequiresegregatedschools. B) theFirstAmendmentsfreedomofassemblydoesnotincludefreedomofassociation. C) thestateofAlabamawasunlawfullyrestrictingtheNAACPsfreedomofassociation. D) picketinginresidentialneighborhoodscanberestricted. E) theNAACPhadtoturnoveritsmembershiplisttothegovernment. Answer: C


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84) InthecaseoftheNazisproposed1977marchonSkokie,asuburbnorthofChicagowithmany HolocaustsurvivorswhichhaddeniedtheNazisapermittomarch,theSupremeCourt,ayear afterthefact,letstandalowercourtrulingthat A) communitieshavetherighttoimposelocalstandardsontherighttomarch. B) NazisandCommunistsareamongaselectlistofgroupsthatbecauseoftheir anti-democraticnaturearenotprotectedbytheFirstAmendment. C) theNaziscouldonlymarchiftheypubliclyrepudiatedthemurderousactionsofthe NazisbeforeandduringWWII. D) certaingroupsaresopredisposedtoviolencethattheirfreedomofassemblyisnot guaranteed. E) nocommunitycoulduseitspowertograntparadepermitstostiflefreeexpressionor freedomofassembly. Answer: E
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85) MostofthewordingoftheBillofRightsconcerns A) therightsofpeopleaccusedofcrimes. B) therighttobeararms. C) freedomofreligionandtheestablishmentclause. D) freedomofspeechandfreedomofthepress. E) freedomsofexpression. Answer: A


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86) TherightsofaccusedpersonsincludedintheBillofRightswereoriginallyintendedtoprotect theaccusedin A) federalcivilcases. B) federalcriminalcases. C) localcivilandcriminalcases. D) politicalarrestsandtrials. E) policecustody. Answer: D


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87) WhichofthefollowingisanaccuratestatementabouttheBillofRightsanditsrelevancetothe stagesofthecriminaljusticesystem? A) Therightsofaccusedpersonsareprotecteduptothepointofactualarrest. B) Therightsofaccusedpersonsareprotecteduptothepointofbeingconvictedofacrime. C) TheBillofRightsdoesnotapplytoaccusedcriminals. D) Therightsofaccusedpersonsareprotecteduptothepointofthetrialitself. E) Therightsofaccusedpersonsandconvictedcriminalsareguaranteedateverystage, fromgatheringofevidencetotheimpositionofpunishment. Answer: E
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88) Unreasonablesearchesandseizuresarespecificallyforbiddeninthe A) SixteenthAmendment. B) FifthAmendment. C) SecondAmendment. D) TenthAmendment. E) FourthAmendment. Answer: E


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89) Topreventabuseofpolicepower,theConstitutionrequiresthatnocourtmayissue________ unlessprobablecauseexiststobelievethatacrimehasoccurredorisabouttooccur. A) awritofhabeascorpus B) apriorrestraint C) anexclusionaryrule D) asearchwarrant E) anyoftheabove Answer: D


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90) Viewingthestagesofthecriminaljusticesystemasaseriesoffunnelsofdecreasingsizetells usthat A) mostarrestsresultinatrial. B) mosttrialsresultinaguiltyverdict. C) manymoretrialsareheldthanprosecutions. D) thelikelihoodofbeingpunisheddecreasesasonemovesthroughthesystem. E) manymorearrestsoccurthantrials. Answer: E


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91) Unlesstheywitnessacrime,policeofficerscannotarrestasuspectwithout A) dueprocess. B) asearchwarrant. C) informingthemoftheirMirandarights. D) probablecause. E) awritofhabeascorpus. Answer: D


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92) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheBillofRightsandtherightsoftheaccusedis FALSE? A) ThegreatmajorityofthewordsintheBillofRightsdealwiththerightsoftheaccused ratherthanfreedomsofexpression. B) TheBillofRightscoverseverystageofthecriminaljusticesystem. C) ThelanguageoftheBillofRightsregardingtherightsoftheaccusedisoftenvague. D) Defendantsrightsarewell-definedintheBillofRights. E) Mostdefendantsrights,asprovidedintheBillofRights,havebeenincorporatedbythe states. Answer: D
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93) Inthecaseof________,theSupremeCourtruledthattheprotectionagainstunreasonable searchandseizureappliedtothestateandlocalgovernments,aswellasthenational government,thusnationalizingtheexclusionaryrule. A) Mirandav.Arizona B) Gideonv.Wainwright C) Rothv.UnitedStates D) UnitedStatesv.NewYork E) Mappv.Ohio Answer: E
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94) Eversince1914,thecourtshaveused________topreventillegallyseizedevidencefrombeing introducedintothecourtroom. A) priorrestraint B) theMirandarule C) probablecause D) searchwarrants E) anexclusionaryrule Answer: E


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95) Theexclusionaryrule,whichwasappliedtostategovernments,aswellasthefederal governmentinMappv.Ohio(1961),meantthat A) federalagentsmaymakearrestsforstatecrimes. B) stategovernmentsareexcludedfromprosecutingfederalcrimes. C) searchesbypolicecouldnotbemadewithoutalegalsearchwarrant. D) probablecausemustbeestablishedpriortoarrest. E) unlawfullyobtainedevidencecouldnotbeusedincourt. Answer: E


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96) TheFifthAmendmentforbids A) cruelandunusualpunishment. B) forcedself-incrimination. C) illegalsearchesandseizures. D) thegovernmentestablishmentofanationalreligion. E) alloftheaboveexceptD Answer: B


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97) The________Amendmentforbidsforcedself-incrimination,statingthatnopersonshallbe compelledtobeawitnessagainsthimself. A) First B) Twenty-sixth C) Fifth D) Fourth E) Ninth Answer: C


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98) InthecaseofMirandav.Arizona,theSupremeCourtruledthat A) illegallyobtainedevidencecannotbeusedinatrial. B) policemustinformanysuspectofaseriesofrights,includingtheconstitutionalrightto remainsilent. C) thedeathpenaltycouldbeimposedforthemostextremeofcrimes. D) defendantsinallfelonycaseshavearighttocounsel,evenifthestatehastoprovide suchlegalassistance. E) thepolicemustshowprobablecausebeforemakinganarrest. Answer: B
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99) InwhatcasedidtheSupremeCourtrulethatsuspectsmustbetoldoftheirconstitutional rightstoremainsilent,thatwhattheysaycanbeusedagainstthem,andoftheirrighttohave anattorneypresentduringanyquestioning? A) Gideonv.Wainwright B) Nearv.Minnesota C) Plucennikv.UnitedStates D) Mirandav.Arizona E) Mappv.Ohio Answer: D
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100) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEabouttheSupremeCourtsdecisioninMirandav.Arizona? A) Mirandasinnocenceorguiltwasnotatissue;hisrightshadbeenviolated,sohis convictionwasoverturned. B) TheCourtsdecisiongreatlyrelievedmembersofpolicedepartmentsthroughoutthe country. C) TheCourtruledthatMirandawasinnocent,andMirandalaterbecameafamouspublic defenderinthelocalcourts. D) TheCourtruledthatMirandasconstitutionalrightshadnotbeenviolatedandthathe couldbelegallyexecuted. E) TheCourtconcludedthatMirandawasinnocent,overturnedhisconviction,andordered himfreedfromprison. Answer: A
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101) FifthAmendmentprotectionagainstself-incriminationmeansthat A) youhavearighttoconfrontwitnessesagainstyou. B) youcanbegrantedimmunityfromprosecutioninexchangeforyourtestimony. C) asadefendantyouhavearighttocounsel. D) youcannotbeforcedtobeawitnessagainstyourself. E) policeofficersmayusewhateverforceisnecessarytoprotectthemselvesfromharmin arrestsituations. Answer: D


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102) FifthAmendmentrightswereexpandedtoincludeguidelinesforpoliceinterrogation proceduresinthefamouscaseof A) Californiav.Simpson. B) Dennisv.UnitedStates. C) Gideonv.Wainwright. D) Mirandav.Arizona. E) Mappv.Ohio. Answer: D


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103) TheMirandaRule A) hasbeenstrengthenedbytheCourtinrecentyears. B) wasopenlywelcomedbypolicedepartmentsthroughoutthecountry. C) hasmadepoliceinterrogationseasier. D) wasbasedontheprobablecauseclauseoftheFourthAmendment. E) hasrequiredallpoliceofficerstoinformaccusedpersonsoftheirrights. Answer: E


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104) Today,courtsmustprovidealawyerforadefendant A) wheneverimprisonmentcouldbeimposed. B) onlyinfelonycasesorwherecivilfinesexceeding$10,000couldbelevied. C) whenevertheypleadnotguilty. D) onlyincapitalcaseswherethepunishmentwouldbeexecution. E) immediatelyafterbeingarrested. Answer: A


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105) Inthe1963caseof________,theSupremeCourtruledthatdefendantsinallfelonycaseshada righttocounsel,andiftheycouldnotaffordtohirealawyer,onemustbeprovided. A) Mappv.Ohio B) Engelv.Vitale C) Gideonv.Wainwright D) Mirandav.Arizona E) NationalBarAssociationv.UnitedStates Answer: C


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106) AccordingtotheConstitutionandtheBillofRights,howmanymembersshouldtherebeona jury? A) aminimumofsix B) aminimumoftwelve C) betweensixandtwelve D) amaximumoftwelve E) nospecificationsaremadeastojurysize Answer: E


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107) Mostcriminalcasesaresettledin A) theSupremeCourt. B) pleabargaining. C) municipalandcountycourts. D) districtcourt. E) thejuryroom. Answer: B


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108) TheSupremeCourtcaseofGideonv.Wainwright A) extendedtherighttocounseltoeveryoneaccusedofafelony. B) prohibitedgovernmentofficialsfromissuinggagorderstothemedia. C) ruledthatillegallyseizedevidencecannotbeusedincourt. D) gaveonlythoseaccusedofcapitalcrimestherighttocounsel. E) setguidelinesforpolicequestioningofsuspects. Answer: A


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109) TheSixthAmendmentrighttocounselinfederalcourtswasexpandedinthefamous1963 SupremeCourtcaseof A) Greggv.Georgia. B) Gideonv.Wainwright. C) Arizonav.theUnitedStates. D) Mappv.Ohio. E) Mirandav.Arizona. Answer: B


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110) Mostcasesaresettledthrough A) pleabargaining. B) pauperspetitions. C) judicialtribunals. D) trialbyajudge. E) trialbyjury. Answer: A


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111) TheEighthAmendmenttotheConstitution A) isthefreedomofprivacy. B) forbidscruelandunusualpunishment. C) istherighttobeararms. D) grantswomenequalrightsincludingtherighttovote. E) protectsfreedomofassembly. Answer: B


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112) WhatwastheSupremeCourtsdecisioninHamdamv.Rumsfeld? A) TerroristsarenotentitledtoprotectionbytheBillofRights. B) TheproceduresfortryingprisonersatGuantanamoBay,Cubawereinsufficientfor ensuringafairtrial. C) TheGenevaConventiondoesnotapplybecausetheenemycombatantsarenotsoldiers inarecognizedarmy. D) Thepresidenthasinherentpowertofightthewaronterrorasheseesfit.Therefore,the presidentcanestablishjudicialproceduresonhisown. E) alloftheabove Answer: B
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113) Cruelandunusualpunishmentisforbiddenbythe A) self-incriminationclause. B) SixthAmendment. C) EighthAmendment. D) exclusionaryclause. E) FifthAmendment. Answer: C


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114) Therighttoaspeedytrialandtheprohibitionagainstcruelandunusualpunishment A) areincludedintheBillofRights,butarerathervagueandsubjecttotheinterpretationof thecourtsthemselves. B) aresoimportantthattheywereamongthefewcivillibertiesactuallyguaranteedbythe originalconstitution. C) arenotguaranteedbytheBillofRightsbut,howevervagueintheirwording,are consideredvitaltoourcourtsystem. D) wereruledunconstitutionalin1976becausetheyweresoill-definedastobe meaningless. E) areincludedintheBillofRights,areself-evident,andhavenotrequiredmuchcourt interpretation. Answer: A
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115) InGreggv.Georgia(1976),concerningapplicationsoftheEighthAmendment,theSupreme Courtruledthat A) onlythefederalgovernment,andnotthestates,canimposethedeathpenalty. B) executionbyelectrocutioniscruelandunusualpunishment. C) Georgiasdeathpenaltylawwasfreakishandrandom. D) capitalpunishmentisanextremesanction,butitissuitabletothemostextremeof crimes. E) thedeathpenaltyconstitutescruelandunusualpunishment. Answer: D
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116) WhichofthefollowingisNOTprotectedintheFirstAmendment? A) righttoprivacy B) rightofpeopletopetitionthegovernmentforaredressofgrievances C) noestablishmentofreligion D) freedomofspeech E) freedomofthepress Answer: A


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117) WhereistherighttoprivacyfoundintheConstitution? A) TenthAmendment B) FirstAmendment C) SixthAmendment D) NinthAmendment E) noneoftheabove Answer: E


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118) WhichofthefollowingisNOTspecificallystatedintheBillofRights? A) righttoprivacy B) protectionagainstdoublejeopardy C) righttobeararms D) freedomofspeech E) Allofthesearespecificallystated. Answer: A


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119) InRoev.Wade,theSupremeCourtruledthatinthethirdtrimesterofpregnancy A) statescanbanabortionexceptwhenthemothershealthisindanger. B) statesareprohibitedfromfundingtheabortionsofpoorwomen. C) statescannotbanabortionunlessthemotherslifeisindanger. D) statescannotbanabortion. E) thefederalgovernment,butnotthestates,isprohibitedfromfundingabortionsforpoor women. Answer: A


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120) TheSupremeCourtsRoev.Wade decisionwasissuedin A) 1979. B) 1954. C) 1973. D) 1991. E) 1985. Answer: C


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121) TheSupremeCourtruledinitsRoev.Wade decisionthat A) eachstateandnotthefederalgovernmenthasauthoritytodeterminewhethertopermit orprohibitabortioninthatstate. B) allrestrictionsonabortionsatanystageofapregnancywereaviolationofawomans righttoprivacy. C) abortionwasmurder. D) abortionwastobeallowedonlyincasesofrapeorincest,orwhenthelifeofthe pregnantwomanwasindanger. E) abortioncouldnotbeprohibitedbyanystateduringthefirsttrimesterofpregnancy. Answer: E
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122) SinceitsRoev.Wadedecision,theSupremeCourthas A) generallymovedtoallowstatesmoreroomtoregulateabortions(e.g.,waitingperiods) thanwastrueinRoe. B) notmovedaninchfromitsdramaticoriginalruling. C) greatlyextendedtherightofawomantomakeherowndecisionaboutterminatingher pregnancy. D) reverseditselfwithinthelastfewyears,andhasnowoverturnedtheRoedecision. E) beensilentonthepoliticallydivisiveissueofabortion. Answer: A
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123) TheideathattheConstitutionguaranteesarighttoprivacywasfirstenunciatedin A) Griswoldv.Connecticut. B) Marburyv.Madison. C) Roev.Wade. D) Websterv.ReproductiveHealthServices. E) PlannedParenthoodv.Casey. Answer: A


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124) TherighttoprivacywasappliedtothestatesbytheSupremeCourtcaseof A) Gitlowv.NewYork. B) Gitlow,Near&Mappv.theStates. C) Mappv.Ohio. D) Nearv.Minnesota. E) Griswoldv.Connecticut. Answer: E


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125) Themostimportantapplicationofprivacyrightshascomeintheareaof A) abortion. B) birthcontrol. C) sexualpreference. D) pornography. E) thedeathpenalty. Answer: A


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126) TheSupremeCourtcaseofRoev.Wade (1973)ruledthat A) abortionsarenotprotectedundertheConstitution. B) astatecannotforbidabortionsduringthefirsttrimesterofpregnancy. C) astatecannotregulateabortionsunderanycircumstances. D) familyplanningservicescannotprovidewomenanyabortioncounseling. E) statesmustpermitabortionsondemandduringallninemonthsofpregnancy. Answer: B


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127) TheabortiondecisioninRoev.Wade (1973)wasjustifiedbytheSupremeCourtlargelyonthe groundsof A) thefreedomofreligionclauseoftheFirstAmendment. B) thefreeexerciseclauseoftheFirstAmendment. C) therightofprivacyimpliedintheBillofRights. D) ourconstitutionalrighttolife. E) newadvancesinmedicaltechnology. Answer: C
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128) Inthe1992caseofPlannedParenthoodv.Casey,theSupremeCourtruledthatabortion A) couldbecompletelyoutlawedbyindividualstates. B) mustbefundedbystategovernmentswhenthemothercannotaffordit,oritwouldbea violationoftheEqualProtectionClause. C) restrictionscouldbeimposedbystatesiftheydidnotinvolveundueburdensonthe womenseekingabortions. D) fundingbyanylevelofgovernmentwasunconstitutional. E) wasafundamentalright,andanyrestrictionsonsucharighthadtobejudgedbya strictscrutiny. Answer: C
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129) Inrecentyears,theSupremeCourthas A) increasedprotectionofwomensphysicalaccesstoabortionclinics. B) restrictedwomensphysicalaccesstoabortionclinics. C) permittedstatestoclosedownincreasingnumbersofabortionclinics. D) prohibiteddemonstrationswithinsightofabortionclinics. E) donenothingtoprotectwomensphysicalaccesstoabortionclinicsdespitethecallsof manywomensgroups. Answer: A


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130) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheSupremeCourtandabortionisFALSE? A) TheSupremeCourthasforbiddenanystateregulationofabortionduringthefirst trimester. B) TheSupremeCourtupheldastatelawrequiringteenagerstosecuretheconsentofat leastoneparentbeforeobtaininganabortion. C) TheCourtpermitsstatestorequirea24-hourwaitingperiodbeforegettinganabortion. D) TheCourtallowsstatestorequireawomantogiveherhusbandadvancenoticeofan abortion. E) TheSupremeCourtpermitsstatestoforbidtheuseofanystatefundstopayfor abortions. Answer: D
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131) Civilliberties A) reflectthewishesofthemajority. B) neverconflictwitheachother. C) makegovernmentlessdemocratic. D) limitwhatthemajoritycanaskthegovernmenttodo. E) wereestablishedinthe1960s. Answer: D


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132) Civillibertiesrelatingtodefendantsrightshaveoftenbeenusedto A) breakupfactions. B) enhancethepowerofthecourts C) enhancediversity. D) protectindividualrights. E) gainapleabargain. Answer: D


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133) InPlannedParenthoodv.Casey,theSupremeCourt A) struckdownalawrequiringminorstonotifyoneorbothparentsorajudgebefore obtaininganabortion. B) changeditsstandardforevaluatingrestrictionsonabortionfromoneofstrictscrutiny ofanyrestraintsonafundamentalrighttooneofundueburdenthatpermitsmore regulation. C) specifiedthatfamilyplanningservicesreceivingfederalfundscouldnotprovidewomen anycounselingregardingabortion. D) affirmedaprovisionrequiringamarriedwomantotellherhusbandofherintenttohave anabortion. E) madeabortionsforminorsillegal. Answer: B
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True/FalseQuestions
1) TheSupremeCourtoftheUnitedStatesisthefinalinterpreterofthescopeofthecivilliberties ofAmericans. Answer: TRUE
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2) TheTwenty-sixthAmendment,ratifiedin1971,hasbeenusedbytheSupremeCourtto incorporatemostoftheBillofRightsintostatelaws. Answer: FALSE


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3) InZelmanv.Simmons-Harris,theSupremeCourtallowedstatevoucherstobeusedtopay tuitionatreligiousschools. Answer: TRUE


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4) Inmostcases,courtshaveruledthatteacherscannotdiscusscreationismasanalternativeto evolution,buttheycandiscussintelligentdesign. Answer: FALSE


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5) TheSupremeCourthasneverpermittedreligiousfreedomtobeanexcuseforanyandall behaviors. Answer: TRUE


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6) Itisunconstitutionaltoprayinschool. Answer: FALSE


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7) Thecourtsoftenissueinjunctionsprohibitingthepublicationofmaterial,especiallyinthearea ofnationalsecurity. Answer: FALSE


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8) InDennisv.UnitedStates(1951),theSupremeCourtoverturnedprisonsentencesofseveral UnitedStatesCommunistpartyleaders,andcriticizedthecaseagainstthemaspurelypolitical andaviolationoffreespeech. Answer: FALSE


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9) Nonationwideconsensusexiststhatoffensive,pornographicmaterialshouldbebanned. Answer: TRUE


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10) Slanderreferstomakingspokenstatementsknowntobefalsethataremaliciousandtendto damageapersonsreputation,andthecourtshaveruledthatsuchspokendefamationsarenot protectedbyfreedomofspeech. Answer: TRUE


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11) Privateindividualshavealowerstandardtomeetforwinninglawsuitsforlibelthanpublic figures. Answer: TRUE


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12) Commercialspeech,suchasadvertising,isrestrictedfarmoreextensivelythanexpressionsof opiniononreligious,political,orothermatters. Answer: TRUE


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13) Commercialspeechisregulatedmorerigidlythanothertypesofspeech. Answer: TRUE


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14) In2000,theCourtheldthatstudent-ledprayeratfootballgameswasunconstitutional. Answer: TRUE


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15) TheBillofRightsallowsagrouptoholdaspontaneousdemonstrationanytime,anywhere, andanywayitchooses. Answer: FALSE


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16) AccordingtoarecentSupremeCourtdecision,publicuniversitiescanbanmilitaryrecruiters fromtheircampuses. Answer: FALSE


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17) Beforemakinganarrest,policeneedwhattheConstitutioncallsprobablecausetobelievethat someoneisguiltyofacrime. Answer: TRUE


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18) TheRehnquistCourthasdiligentlyhonoredtheexclusionaryrule,butmadeexceptionstothe Mirandaruling. Answer: FALSE


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19) TheFifthAmendmentforbidsforcedself-incrimination,statingthatnopersonshallbe compelledtobeawitnessagainsthimself. Answer: TRUE


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20) PresidentGeorgeW.Bushorderedeavesdroppingontheinternationaltelephoneandemail communicationsofthosewithintheUnitedStates. Answer: TRUE


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21) InthedecadessincetheMirandadecision,theSupremeCourthasmadenoexceptionstoits requirements. Answer: FALSE


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22) TherighttoprivacyisspecificallyguaranteedintheBillofRights. Answer: FALSE


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23) TheSupremeCourthasruledthatthedeathpenaltyviolatestheequalprotectionofthelaw guaranteedbytheFourteenthAmendment. Answer: FALSE


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24) NowheredoestheBillofRightsexplicitlystatethatAmericanshavearighttoprivacy. Answer: TRUE


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25) InthecaseofRoev.Wade(1973),theSupremeCourtoutlawedanystatelawstorestricta womansrighttoanabortionatanypointinherpregnancy. Answer: FALSE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) ThefirsttenamendmentstotheConstitutioncomprisethe________. Answer: BillofRights
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2) SupremeCourtdecisionsextendingtheBillofRightstocovertheactionsofthestateshave beenbasedonthe________Amendment. Answer: Fourteenth


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3) ExplainthesignificanceofGitlowv.NewYork totheFourteenthAmendment. Answer: TheSupremeCourtinterpretedtheFourteenthAmendmenttosaythatstatescouldnot abridgethefreedomsofexpressionprotectedbytheFirstAmendment;itbeganthe developmentoftheincorporationdoctrine,thelegalconceptunderwhichtheSupreme CourthasnationalizedtheBillofRights.


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4) TheFirstAmendments________clauseprohibitsthegovernmentfromorganizingor recognizinganofficialnationalchurch. Answer: establishment


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5) ________referstoagovernmentscensorshipactionthat,inadvance,preventsmaterialfrom beingpublished. Answer: Priorrestraint


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6) DescribehowtheSupremeCourthasevaluatedfreedomofspeechwithrespecttoobscenity ontheInternet. Answer: CongresshasrecentlydecidedthattheInternetisnottheelectronicequivalentofthe printingpressandthusdoesnotdeservethefree-speechprotectionoftheFirst Amendment.Instead,itregardstheInternetasabroadcastmedium,subjectto governmentregulation.


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7) Definepriorrestraint.HowhastheSupremeCourtdealtwiththisissue? Answer: Priorrestraintiswhenagovernmentpreventsmaterialfrombeingpublished.The SupremeCourthasconsistentlystruckdownpriorrestraintonspeechandpress.


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8) InthefamouscaseofSchenckv.UnitedStates,JusticeHolmeswroteinhisrulingthat governmentcanlimitfreespeechonlyifsuchspeechprovokesa(n)________ofsubstantive evils. Answer: clearandpresentdanger


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9) Whatistheprincipleofclearandpresentdanger? Answer: EnunciatedbyJusticeHolmesinSchenckv.UnitedStates;thatgovernmentcanlimitfree speechonlyifsuchspeechprovokessuchdangerofsubstantiveevils.


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10) AnutterancenotprotectedbytheFirstAmendmentis________,thepublicationofstatements knowntobefalseandmaliciousandthattendtodamageapersonsreputation. Answer: libel


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11) HowhastheSupremeCourtdealtwiththeissueoflibel? Answer: Libel,thepublicationoffalsestatementsthataremaliciousanddamageapersons reputation,isapplieddifferentlytoprivateandpublicindividualsPublicofficialshave toprovethatwhoeverwroteorsaiduntruestatementsaboutthemknewthestatements wereuntrueandintendedtoharmthem;privateindividualsonlyhavetoshowthatthe statementswerefalsehoodsandtheauthorwasnegligent.


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12) Wearinganarmbandandburningaflagareexamplesof________:actionsthatdonotconsist ofspeakingorwriting,butthatexpressanopinion. Answer: symbolicspeech


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13) Whatismeantbysymbolicspeech? Answer: actionsthatdonotconsistofspeakingorwritingbutthatexpressanopinion


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14) Beforemakinganarrest,policeneedwhatthecourtscall________tobelievethatsomeoneis guiltyofacrime. Answer: probablecause


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15) Inalongstandingpolicycriticizedbymany,thecourtshaveuseda(n)________toprevent illegallyseizedevidencefrombeingintroducedinthecourtroom. Answer: exclusionaryrule


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16) WhatistheexclusionaryruleandhowhasitbeenusedbytheSupremeCourt? Answer: therulethatevidence,nomatterhowincriminatingcannotbeintroducedintoatrialifit wasnotconstitutionallyobtained;anincreasinglyconservativeCourtmadesome exceptionstotheexclusionaryrulebeginninginthe1980s,establishingagoodfaith exceptiontotherule


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17) WhatisthesignificanceoftheSupremeCourtcaseofGideonv.Wainwright? Answer: extendedtherighttoanattorneytoanyoneaccusedofafelonyinastatecourt


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18) HowhastheSupremeCourtdealtwiththeissueofcapitalpunishment? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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19) InwhatwaydoestheConstitutionguaranteearighttoprivacy? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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20) TheSupremeCourtsdecisioninthe1973caseof________gavewomentherighttoan abortionduringthefirsttrimesterofpregnancy,thusoverturningtheabortionrestrictionsof moststates. Answer: Roev.Wade


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21) HowdoesthescopeoftheAmericangovernmentaffecttheprotectionofcivilliberties? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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EssayQuestions
1) HowwouldyoucharacterizethefirsttenamendmentstotheConstitution?Why,taken together,arethesesosignificant?Doyouconsiderthemtoonarrow,toobroad,oraboutright? Explain.
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2) HowandwhyhavetheprovisionsoftheBillofRightsbeenincorporatedintostatelaws?Do youthinkthisisaninfringementontherightsofthestates,orappropriatetoprotectnational civillibertiesinallcases?Explain.


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3) ExplainhowtheBillofRightswasextendedtothestates.CitekeySupremeCourtcasesto illustrateyouranswer.
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4) Whatistheestablishmentclauseandthefreeexerciseclause?Whatcontroversieshavearisen intheUnitedStatesovertheissueoffreedomofreligion,andhowhavetheybeenresolved?
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5) HowhaveissueslikeprayerandBiblereadinginpublicschoolsbeensettledbytheSupreme Court,andwhy?Howhighwouldyouconstructthewallofseparationbetweenchurchand state,andwhy?


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6) DescribetheSupremeCourtsdecisionsregardingfreedomofexpression.Howhavethe Courtsdecisionsprotectedorextendeddemocracy?Limiteddemocracy?
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7) Explainhowthefreedomsofspeechandpresshavebeencompromisedinthenameofpublic orderandtherightofafairtrial.
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8) TheFirstAmendmentstatesthatCongressshallmakenolaw...abridgingthefreedomof speech,orofthepress...UnderwhatcircumstanceshastheSupremeCourtdecidedthatitis constitutionaltoabridgefreedomofspeechandpress?Giveexamplesofspecificcasesto illustrateyouranswer.


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9) DescribethehistoricaldevelopmentofSupremeCourtdecisionsregardingfreepress/fairtrial, andobscenity,citingspecificcourtcases.WhatarethemainfeaturesoftheCourtscurrent postureinthisarea?


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10) HowhastheCourtdealtwithobscenitycasesandtheverydefinitionofobscenity?Should obscenitybeprotectedasfreedomofexpression,orshouldlocalcommunitiesbeallowedtoset standardsofwhatisandisnotobscene?Explain.


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11) Compareandcontrastthecivillibertyissuesinvolvedinthedifferenttypesofspeechsuchas obscenity,libel,symbolicspeech,commercialspeech,andspeechoverthepublicairways.


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12) WhyhaveflagburningandwearingablackarmbandbeenprotectedbytheCourt?Doyou thinkthisisappropriateornot?Explain.


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13) ShouldfreedomofassemblyincludetherightofgroupsliketheAmericanNaziparty,theKu KluxKlan,theCommunistBrigade,andsimilargroupstomarchandholdrallies?Explain youranswerandwhyothersmightargueotherwise.


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14) Explainthetwofacetsofthefreedomofassembly.Whatrestrictionshavebeenputontheright toassemble?


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15) Presenttheargumentthattheextensionofdefendantsrightshavehurtthepoliceand benefitedcriminals.Whatspecificcourtdecisionshaveextendeddefendantsrightsandhow?


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16) DescribethespecificprovisionsoftheBillofRightsinregardtothosebroughtbeforethe criminaljusticesystem.WhydoyouthinktheBillofRightsissoexplicitinthesematters,and doyouapprovethesesafeguards?Explain.


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17) DescribethevariouswaysinwhichtheConstitutionprotectstherightsoftheaccusedthrough thestagesofthecriminaljusticesystem.Giveexamplesofhowtheseprotectionshavebeen challengedinthecourts.


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18) DescribethesignificanceoftheSupremeCourtrulingsinMirandav.ArizonaandGideonv. Wainwright.DoyouthinktheCourtwasproperlyenforcingprovisionsoftheBillofRightsin thesecasesoroverreaching?Explain.


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19) WhatistheSupremeCourtscurrentstanceonthedeathpenalty?Doyouagreewithit?Do youthinkthatthedeathpenaltyviolatestheEighthAmendment?Explain.Forwhatcrimes,if any,isthedeathpenaltyjustified?


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20) OneofthegreatestdebatesconcerningAmericanscivillibertiesliesintheareaofprivacy rights.Howdoestherighttoprivacyrelatetotheissueofabortion?Explainhowthecourts havedealtwiththisissue.


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21) DescribethesignificanceoftheSupremeCourtsRoev.Wade ruling?DidtheCourtoverstepits authority,ordiditproperlyextendtherightofprivacyinthiscase?HowhavelaterCourt decisionschangedRoe?Explain.


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22) HowhavecivillibertiesaffecteddemocraticgovernmentintheUnitedStates?Whatarethe basicconflictsbetweencivillibertiesanddemocracy?


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23) Explainwhythetextconcludesthatanexpansionofindividualfreedommayrequirean expansionofthescopeofgovernment.


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Chapter5 CivilRightsandPublicPolicy
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) Policiesthatextendbasicrightstogroupshistoricallysubjecttodiscriminationareknownas A) civilrights. B) civilliberties. C) humanrights. D) suffrage. E) affirmativeaction. Answer: A
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2) Civilrights A) istheothertermforcivilliberties. B) arepoliciesthatextendbasicrightstogroupshistoricallysubjecttodiscrimination. C) involvetheprinciplesofcriminaljustice. D) consistoflegalandconstitutionalprotectionsagainstthegovernment. E) canbedividedintothegreatpoliticalfreedomsandprotectionsatthebarofjustice. Answer: B


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3) Thephraseallmenarecreatedequalcomesfromthe A) BillofRights. B) Constitution. C) famouspamphlet,CommonSense. D) DeclarationofIndependence. E) Bible. Answer: D


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4) Theconceptthateveryoneshouldhavethesamechanceiscalledequalityof A) distribution. B) fate. C) rewards. D) results. E) opportunity. Answer: E


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5) Americansocietygenerallyemphasizesequal A) payforequalwork. B) results. C) rewards. D) distribution. E) opportunity. Answer: E


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6) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisTRUE? A) TheAmericanRevolutionwasfoughtprincipallyinthenameofequality. B) ThedelegatestotheConstitutionalConventiondidnotresolvethetensionbetween slaveryandtheprinciplesoftheDeclarationofIndependence. C) WomensrightswerehotlydebatedattheConstitutionalConvention. D) Mostcolonistswereeagertodefendslavery. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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7) ThomasJefferson,whowroteintheDeclarationofIndependenceWeholdthesetruthstobe selfevident,thatallmenarecreatedequal,believed A) thatslaverywasimmoral. B) intheprincipleofequalrewards. C) thatblacksweregeneticallyinferiortowhites. D) thattherewerenodifferencesamonghumanbeings. E) thatallpeoplearecreatedequalatbirth,butbecomeunequalovertime. Answer: C


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8) TheFourteenthAmendmentwasoneofthreepassed A) duringthe1960s. B) directlyfollowingtheCivilWar. C) duringGeorgeWashingtonsadministration. D) duringtheDepressionofthe1930s. E) rightaftertheRevolutionaryWar. Answer: B


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9) TheFourteenthAmendmentspecificallyforbidsthestatesfromdenyingtoanyone A) freedomonthebasisofrace. B) freedomofprivacy. C) therighttovoteonthebasisofrace. D) equalprotectionofthelaws. E) therighttovoteonthebasisofsex. Answer: D


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10) ThefirstandonlyplaceinwhichtheideaofequalityappearsintheConstitutionisinthe A) FourteenthAmendment. B) NinthAmendment. C) Preamble. D) FirstAmendment. E) DeclarationofIndependence. Answer: A


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11) TheconceptofequalitybeforethelawwasintroducedtotheConstitutioninthe A) FourteenthAmendment. B) Preamble. C) FifteenthAmendment. D) SixteenthAmendment. E) ThirteenthAmendment. Answer: A


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12) Overthelast100years,theprovisionsoftheFourteenthAmendmenthavebecomethevehicle for A) extendingtherighttovotetonon-whites,women,and18-year-olds. B) expansiveconstitutionalinterpretationtooutlawarbitraryclassificationswhichdeny equalityunderthelaw. C) limitingthenationalgovernmentsabilitytointerfereinmattersaffectingindividual states. D) governmentregulationofbusinessandindustry. E) alloftheabove Answer: B
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13) StandardsofreviewusedbytheSupremeCourtindiscriminationcasesincludeallofthe followingEXCEPT A) inherentlysuspect. B) morethanreasonable. C) reasonable. D) intermediate,betweenreasonableandinherentlysuspect. E) cautious. Answer: B


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14) Thecourtshaverecentlyruledthat,undertheFourteenthAmendment,racialandethnic classificationsbystatesinregardtoanymatter A) arereasonable. B) areunconstitutional. C) areinherentlysuspect. D) arenottheproperbusinessofthefederalcourtstoconsider,butareuptothestates individually. E) arearbitrary,butusuallyreasonable. Answer: C
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15) ClassificationsbyraceandethnicityhavenowbeenruledbytheCourttobeacceptableonlyin A) matterswhereincertainracesorethnicgroupsshowgreatertalentorlessaptitude. B) lawspassedbyCongress,notthosepassedbytheindividualstates. C) regardtorulesandregulationsofthearmedforces. D) lawsseekingtoremedypreviousdiscrimination. E) mattersinvolvingnationalsecurity. Answer: D


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16) Equalprotectionofthelaws A) meansthatlawscannotestablishdifferentstandardsforthetreatmentofdifferent groups. B) isguaranteedintheoriginalConstitution. C) meansthatstateshavetomaketheirlawspromoteequalityamongpersons. D) providesarigidstandardforconstitutionalinterpretation. E) doesnotdenystatestreatingclassesofcitizensdifferentlyiftheclassificationis reasonable. Answer: E
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17) TheSupremeCourthasruledthatracialandethnicclassificationsare A) legaliftheyarereasonable. B) notcoveredbytheFourteenthAmendment. C) inherentlysuspect. D) neverpermissible. E) exemptfromtheconstitutionalpenumbrasoftheBillofRights. Answer: C


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18) Classificationsbasedongenderhavebeenruledtobe________bythedecisionsoftheCourt inthepastseveralyears. A) reasonable B) strictlyunconstitutional C) sexist D) inherentlysuspect E) somewherebetweeninherentlysuspectandreasonable Answer: E


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19) ThefirstAfricanimmigrantstoAmericawere A) clergy. B) smallshopkeepers. C) kidnapvictims. D) farmers. E) Nigerianivorytraders. Answer: C


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20) Todaytheequalprotectionclauseisinterpretedbroadlyenoughtodoallofthefollowing EXCEPT A) reapportionstatelegislatures. B) prohibitjobdiscrimination. C) permitsexualharassment. D) forbidracialsegregationinthepublicschools. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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21) Inthecaseof________,theSupremeCourtruledthatablackman,slaveorfree,waschattel andhadnorightsunderawhitemansgovernment;italsoruledthatCongresshadnopower tobanslaveryinthewesternterritories. A) Plessyv.Ferguson B) Craigv.Boren C) DredScottv.Sandford D) Brownv.BoardofEducation E) Amosv.Colorado Answer: C
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22) InthecaseofDredScottv.Sandford,theUnitedStatesSupremeCourt A) votedunanimouslytodeclareslaveryunconstitutionalandbarbaric,thuscausingthe southernstatestosecede. B) ruledthatalladultAfrican-AmericanmenhadarighttovoteundertheConstitution. C) outlawedsegregationlawswhichseparatedblacksandwhitesinallpublicplaces. D) ruledthatablackman,slaveorfree,waschattel,andupheldslaveryitselfas constitutional. E) forthefirsttimeplacedageographiclimitontheexpansionofslavery,banningitwestof theMississippiRiver. Answer: D
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23) TheDredScottv.SandfordrulingwashandeddownbytheSupremeCourt A) afewyearsaftertheCivilWar. B) in1896. C) duringtheCivilWar. D) inthe1950s. E) afewyearspriortotheCivilWar. Answer: E


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24) The________AmendmentoutlawedslaveryintheUnitedStates. A) Thirteenth B) Nineteenth C) Tenth D) First E) EqualRights Answer: A


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25) TheThirteenthAmendment A) forbadeslaveryandinvoluntaryservitude. B) gaveAfricanAmericanstherighttovote. C) repealedtheTwelfthAmendment. D) establishedtheprincipleofseparatebutequal. E) repealedProhibition. Answer: A


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26) TheThirteenthAmendmentwaspassed A) in1920. B) in1850. C) inthe1960s. D) asoneoftheoriginalBillofRights. E) attheendoftheCivilWar. Answer: E


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27) TheconstitutionaltrailforsecuringequalrightsforallAmericanswasblazedprimarilyby A) women. B) HispanicAmericans. C) AsianAmericans. D) theAmericanIndians. E) AfricanAmericans. Answer: E


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28) InDredScottv.Sandford(1857),ChiefJusticeTaneydeclaredthat A) theimportationofslavesintotheUnitedStateswasillegal,butslaveryitselfwasnot. B) Congresshadnoauthoritytobanslaveryintheterritories. C) aslavewhohadescapedtoafreestatebecameafreeman. D) slaveryisinherentlyunconstitutional. E) slaverycanbepracticedintheso-calledfreestates. Answer: B


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29) Slaverywasdeclaredunconstitutionalbythe A) ThirteenthAmendment. B) FourteenthAmendment. C) JimCrowlaws. D) BillofRights. E) DredScottv.SandfordSupremeCourtcase. Answer: A


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30) JimCrowlawswerethosewhich A) wereenactedbySouthernwhitesinthelatenineteenthcenturytosegregateAfrican Americansfromwhites. B) theNorthenforcedintheSouthintheReconstructionerafollowingtheCivilWar, grantingrightstoformerslaves. C) soughttoendsegregationandbringtheracesintoclosercontactwithoneanother. D) justifiedslaveryandsetcodesforslavesbehavior. E) establishedslaveryandcontractlawregulatingtheslavetrade. Answer: A
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31) TheSupremeCourtsdecisioninthecaseofPlessyv.Ferguson A) forthefirsttimeestablishedraceasasuspectclassificationandruledthatformerslaves mustbegrantedlandorotherwisecompensatedfortheiryearsofforcedlabor. B) outlawedslavery. C) statedthattheprincipleofseparatebutequalpublicfacilitiesforAfricanAmericanswas constitutional. D) statedthattheprincipleofseparatebutequalpublicfacilitiesforAfricanAmericanswas unconstitutional. E) ruledthatslaveswerechattelpropertyandentitledtonorightsundertheConstitution. Answer: C
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32) Inthecaseof________,theSupremeCourtruledthatsegregationofracesbylawwas constitutionalsolongasthefacilitiesthatwereseparatewerealsoequal. A) Amosv.Alabama B) Brownv.BoardofEducation C) Plessyv.Ferguson D) Craigv.Boren E) DredScottv.Sandford Answer: C


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33) JimCrowlaws A) imposedlegalsegregationonAfricanAmericansintheSouthaftertheCivilWar. B) wereanattempttoreimposeslaveryintheSouthaftertheCivilWar. C) gaveAfricanAmericanstherighttovoteinlocalelectionsintheSouth. D) grantedformerslavesfreelandincompensationfortheiryearsofunpaidlabor. E) allowedAfricanAmericanstoholdstateandfederalofficesintheSouthaftertheCivil War. Answer: A


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34) InthecaseofPlessyv.Ferguson, A) housingdiscriminationwasforbidden. B) theprincipleofseparatebutequalwasoverturned. C) schoolbusingwasallowedtoremedyracialsegregation. D) UnitedStatescitizenshipandallrightsthatgowithitweregrantedtoformerslaves. E) theprincipleofseparatebutequalwasusedtojustifysegregation. Answer: E


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35) Duringthefirsthalfofthetwentiethcentury,theSupremeCourt A) paidmoreattentiontotheseparatethantotheequalpartoftheseparatebutequal doctrine. B) allowedsegregationinthearmedforces. C) upheldthelegalityofall-whiteprimaries. D) declaredallJimCrowlawsunconstitutional. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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36) Legalsegregationoftheraceswasdeclaredunconstitutionalinthe1954landmarkruling knownas A) Kingv.UniversityofKansas. B) Plessyv.Ferguson. C) DredScottv.Sandford. D) Craigv.Boren. E) noneoftheabove Answer: E


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37) TheBrownv.BoardofEducation decisionoverturnedtheSupremeCourts1896rulingin A) Craigv.Boren. B) DredScottv.Sandford. C) Marburyv.Madison. D) Amosv.Alabama. E) Plessyv.Ferguson. Answer: E


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38) InBrownv.BoardofEducation(1954),theSupremeCourt A) orderedtheTopekaschooldistricttospendmoremoneyonblackschools. B) enunciatedtheprincipleofequalbutseparate. C) ruledthatthevisiblesignsofeducationweresubstantiallyequalbetweenblackschools andwhiteones. D) enunciatedtheprincipleofseparatebutequal. E) ruledthatschoolsegregationwasinherentlyunequal. Answer: E


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39) TheSupremeCourtsrulinginBrownv.BoardofEducation wasbasedonthelegalargument thatsegregationviolatedthe________Amendment. A) Fourteenth B) First C) Twenty-sixth D) Nineteenth E) EqualRights Answer: A
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40) Defactoeducationalsegregationoccurs A) byforcedschoolbusingtoseparatetheraces. B) byforcedschoolbusingtointegratetheraces. C) whensegregatedclassroomsoccurwithinanintegratedschool. D) bylaw. E) bytherealityofneighborhoodschoolslocatedinareasthathappentoberacially segregated. Answer: E


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41) Dejureeducationalsegregationoccurs A) byconstitutionalamendment. B) bylaw. C) byforcedschoolbusingtointegratetheraces. D) bytherealityofneighborhoodschoolslocatedinareasthathappentoberacially segregated. E) fromday-to-daydependingonchangingenrollmentsataparticularschool. Answer: B


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42) Inthecaseof________,theSupremeCourtupheldfederalcourtrulingsorderingbusingof studentstoachieveraciallybalancedschools. A) Craigv.Boren B) Plessyv.Ferguson C) Brownv.BoardofEducation D) UnifiedTransportationCo.vMadisonCounty E) Swannv.Charlotte-Mecklenberg CountySchools Answer: E
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43) TheimmediatereactiontoBrownv.BoardofEducation (1954)was A) thebusingofstudentstoachieveraciallybalancedschools. B) theclosingofschoolsinTopeka,Kansas. C) passageoftheTwenty-thirdAmendmenttooverturntheBrowndecision. D) thedesegregationofpublicschoolsintheSouth. E) increasedenrollmentinprivateschoolsbywhitesintheSouthandathreattoclose publicschools. Answer: E
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44) AfterBrownv.BoardofEducation (1954),schoolintegrationintheSouth A) wasunaffectedbythedecision. B) endedabruptly. C) wascompletedwithinthreeyears. D) neverchanged. E) proceededveryslowly. Answer: E


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45) ThecaseofSwannv.Charlotte-MecklenbergCountySchools (1971) A) prohibitedbusingforschoolintegration. B) permittedjudgestoachieveraciallybalancedschoolsthroughbusing. C) ruledthatschoolsmustsetasideafederaljudge-determinednumberofspotsforblacks beforetheywouldbeconsidereddesegregated. D) gavestatelegislaturesthepowertodetermineschooldesegregationproceduresineach state. E) ruledthatschoolscouldnotlimitthenumberofblackstudentsenrolledinaneffortto minimizedesegregation. Answer: B
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46) Theoneinstitutionmostresponsibleforputtingcivilrightsgoalsonthenationspolicyagenda was A) Congress. B) thepresidency. C) thecourts. D) thepoliticalparties. E) thestategovernments. Answer: C


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47) AllofthefollowingweretacticsoftheCivilRightsMovementEXCEPT A) marches. B) civildisobedience. C) sit-ins. D) busboycotts. E) noneoftheabove Answer: E


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48) TheCivilRightsActof________,themostimportantlawsincetheEmancipation Proclamation,maderacialdiscriminationillegalinpublicaccommodationsthroughout America. A) 1947 B) 1964 C) 1984 D) 1974 E) 1954 Answer: B
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49) The________Amendment,adoptedin1870,guaranteedtherightofAfricanAmericanstovote atleastinprinciple. A) Nineteenth B) Thirteenth C) First D) Fifteenth E) Fifth Answer: D


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50) TheCivilRightsActof1964 A) maderacialdiscriminationillegalinplacesofpublicaccommodation. B) forbadediscriminationinemploymentonthebasisofrace,color,nationalorigin, religion,orgender. C) prohibitedgenderdiscriminationintheworkplace. D) bothAandB E) neitherAnorB Answer: D


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51) Suffragerefersto A) thepracticeofdefactoslaveryratherthandejure slavery. B) thelegalsegregationoftheracesorofmenandwomeninhotels,motels,restaurants, andotherpublicplaces. C) thehardshipsenduredtoobtaincivilrightsforAfricanAmericansandequalrightsfor women. D) thelegalrighttovote. E) thepracticeofshacklingslavesworkinginfieldssotheycouldnotrunaway. Answer: D
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52) Thelegalrighttovoteisreferredtoas A) civilliberties. B) thegrandfatherclause. C) civilrights. D) suffrage. E) coverture. Answer: D


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53) ThegrandfatherclausewaspassedbyOklahomaandothersouthernstatesto A) excludeblacksfromhavingtherighttovoteinprimaryelections,thoughtheycouldvote ingeneralelections. B) guaranteetheequalrightsofseniorcitizensinemployment. C) denyAfricanAmericanstherighttovote. D) denylandtoanyonewhosegrandfatherswerenotwhite. E) distributelandtoformerslavesonthebasisofhowmanygenerationstheyhadserved onaparticularplantation. Answer: C
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54) Thegrandfatherclausewas________bytheSupremeCourtinthe1915decision, Guinnv. UnitedStates. A) overlooked B) established C) declaredagediscrimination D) foundunconstitutionalandoutlawed E) upheldasconstitutional Answer: D
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55) TheCivilRightsActof1964 A) establishedthefirstaffirmativeactionprograms. B) endeddiscriminationinthepurchaseorrentalofhousing. C) endedthewhiteprimary. D) guaranteedminoritygroupstherighttovote. E) guaranteedequalaccesstohotels,restaurants,andotherpublicaccommodations. Answer: E


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56) Blackswerefirstgiventhelegalrighttovotebythe A) CivilRightsActof1964. B) Twenty-fourthAmendment. C) FifteenthAmendment. D) VotingRightsActof1965. E) EmancipationProclamation. Answer: C


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57) TorenderAfrican-Americanvotesineffective,severalsouthernstatesusedthe________,a devicethatpermittedpoliticalpartiestochoosetheirnomineesinelectionsofflimitstoblacks. A) suffrage B) grandfatherclause C) polltax D) hiddenballot E) whiteprimary Answer: E


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58) TheTwenty-fourthAmendment,ratifiedin1964, A) prohibiteddiscriminationinemploymentorpublicaccommodationsbasedonrace. B) grantedNegroestherighttovote. C) outlawedtheuseofliteracytestsinordertoregistertovote. D) outlawedthegrandfatherclauseandthewhiteprimary. E) prohibitedtheuseofpolltaxesinfederalelections. Answer: E


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59) Polltaxesforfederalelectionswereoutlawedinthe A) VotingRightsAct. B) CivilRightsActof1964. C) SupremeCourtsGuinnv.UnitedStates decisionof1915. D) Twenty-fourthAmendment. E) TaxReformActof1963. Answer: D


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60) OneconsequenceoftheVotingRightsActof1965was A) dramaticincreaseinthenumberofAfricanAmericansregisteredtovote. B) increasedaccessofblackstopublicaccommodations. C) theincreaseduseofgerrymandering. D) decreasedinvolvementoffederalofficialsinstateelectionprocedures. E) anincreaseinsegregation. Answer: A


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61) Thewhiteprimary A) wastheexaminationvotershadtopassbeforebeingallowedtovote,designedto preventblacksfromvotingbecausetheyhadbeendeniededucationalopportunities. B) deniedblackstherighttorunforofficeinprimaryelectionsintheSouth. C) excludedblacksfromprimaryelections,thusdeprivingthemofavoiceinthereal electoralcontestsintheSouth. D) deniedblackstherighttovoteinallsouthernelections. E) allowedblackstovoteonlyinRepublicanprimariesintheheavilyDemocraticSouth. Answer: C
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62) Native-AmericanIndiansweremadecitizensoftheUnitedStatesin A) 1964. B) 1924. C) 1789. D) 1868. E) TheywerenevermadecitizensoftheUnitedStates. Answer: B


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63) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutNativeAmericansisFALSE? A) NativeAmericansaretheoldestminoritygroupintheUnitedStates. B) NativeAmericansareguaranteedaccesstothepolls,housing,andtojobs. C) NativeAmericansweremadecitizensoftheUnitedStateslongbeforeAfrican Americansreceivedthesamestatus. D) TheIndianClaimsActof1946establishedameanstosettlefinancialdisputesarising fromlandstakenfromtheIndians. E) NativeAmericansarethepoorestminoritygroupintheUnitedStates. Answer: C
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64) HispanicAmericanscompriseapproximately________percentoftheUnitedStates population. A) 14 B) 5 C) 22 D) 10 E) 20 Answer: A


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65) ThefastestgrowingminoritygroupintheUnitedStatesis A) NativeAmericans. B) AfricanAmericans. C) JapaneseAmericans. D) HispanicAmericans. E) AsianAmericans. Answer: E


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66) InthecaseofKorematsuv.UnitedStates,theSupremeCourt A) ruledthattheremovalofJapaneseAmericansfromthewestcoastandtheirplacementin internmentcampsduringWorldWarIIwasbarbaricandunconstitutional. B) ruledjustpriortoWorldWarIIthatJapaneseAmericanslivingintheUnitedStateshad toberepatriatedtoJapan. C) upheldtheconstitutionalityoftheUnitedStatesatomicbombingofHiroshimaand Nagasaki. D) upheldtheconstitutionalityoftheremovalofJapaneseAmericansfromthewestcoast andtheirplacementininternmentcampsduringWorldWarII. E) ruledthatrestrictionsonJapaneseownershipoflandintheUnitedStateswere unconstitutional. Answer: D
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67) TheSupremeCourtcaseofKorematsuv.UnitedStates (1944) A) upheldtheconstitutionalityoftheinternmentofJapaneseAmericansduringWorldWar II. B) ruledthatpublicdiscriminationagainstJapaneseAmericansisunconstitutional. C) setthestagefortheextensionofequalrightstoJapaneseAmericans. D) awardedbenefitstoJapaneseAmericansinternedduringWorldWarII. E) upheldtheprohibitionoftheownershipoflandbypeopleofJapanesedescent. Answer: A
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68) Thewomensrightsmovementwaslaunchedwiththesigningofthe A) FeministManifesto. B) EmancipationProclamation. C) SenecaFallsDeclaration. D) EqualRightsAmendment. E) DeclarationofIndependence. Answer: C


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69) Coverture A) wasthecombinationofelectricshocktherapyanddrugsonceusedtocure homosexualsoftheirhomosexuality. B) wasthelegaldoctrinethatdeprivedmarriedwomenofanyidentityseparatefromthat oftheirhusbands. C) isatermusedtodescribethetimewhenminoritygroupswilloutnumberCaucasiansof Europeandescent. D) wastheprincipleusedtojustifytheinternmentofJapaneseAmericansduringWorld WarII. E) wasthelegaldoctrineusedtodiscriminateagainstNativeAmericansbyplacingthemin reservations. Answer: B
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70) TheNineteenthAmendment A) gavewomentheconstitutionalrighttovote. B) outlawedthepolltaxinfederalelections. C) repealedProhibition. D) gaveAfricanAmericanstheconstitutionalrighttovote. E) endedslavery. Answer: A


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71) The________gavewomentheconstitutionalrighttovote. A) BillofRights B) FifteenthAmendment C) Twenty-fourthAmendment D) EqualRightsAmendment E) NineteenthAmendment Answer: E


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72) Fromabout1920-1960,thefeministmovement A) experiencedgreatgrowthandactivity. B) wasinaperiodofhibernation. C) waspreoccupiedwithwinningtherighttovote. D) concentratedonanti-warcauses. E) firstcoalescedasasignificantpoliticalmovementintheUnitedStates. Answer: B


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73) AlicePaulauthoredtheEqualRightsAmendment,andunsuccessfullypushedforitspassage beginninginthe A) 1960s. B) 1970s. C) 1920s. D) 1980s. E) 1940s. Answer: C


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74) Womenwerefirstgiventherighttovotebythe A) SuffrageActof1880. B) EqualRightsAmendment. C) FifteenthAmendment. D) VotingRightsAct. E) NineteenthAmendment. Answer: E


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75) Whichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheimmediateconsequenceofwomenreceivingthe righttovoteisFALSE? A) Manysupportersoftherighttovoteacceptedthetraditionalmodelofthefamily. B) Thefeministmovementgainedsteamimmediatelyaftertherighttovotewassecured. C) Winningtherighttovotedidnotautomaticallygivewomenequalrights,pay,and status. D) Manystatelawscontinuedtoenshrinethetraditionalviewofthefamilyinpublicpolicy. E) Gainingtherighttovotedidnoteliminatemanyofthechallengesfacingwomen. Answer: B
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76) AfterpassageoftheNineteenthAmendmentin1920,publicpolicytowardwomenwas dominatedby A) protectionism. B) theprincipleofequality. C) coverture. D) matriarchalism. E) economic,butnotpolitical,advances. Answer: A


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77) Thefeministmovementwasreborn A) whenwomenbecameinvolvedinthewareffortduringWorldWarII. B) whentheSupremeCourtmadeitsdecisioninRoev.Wade. C) aftertheCivilWarwhenwomenbecameinspiredbytheemancipationoftheslaves. D) duringtheCivilRightsmovementofthe1950sand1960s. E) whentheEqualRightsAmendmentwasfirstintroducedinthe1920s. Answer: D


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78) BettyFriedansbook,________,publishedin1963,encouragedmanywomentoquestion traditionalassumptionsandtoasserttheirrights. A) AHandmaidsTale B) TheSecondSex C) TheFemaleEunuch D) WomenandEconomics E) TheFeminineMystique Answer: E


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79) In________,theSupremeCourtruledthatanyarbitrarysex -basedclassificationviolatedthe equalprotectionclause. A) RegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniav.Bakke B) DredScottv.Sandford C) Swannv.Charlotte-MecklenbergCountySchools D) Reedv.Reed E) Roev.Wade Answer: D
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80) InthecaseofCraigv.Boren,theSupremeCourtruledthat A) sexclassificationswouldbetreatedbytheCourtasinherentlysuspect. B) racialclassificationswereconstitutionaliftheyhaveacompelling,legitimate,and rationalpurpose. C) itwouldemployamediumscrutinystandard:sexdiscriminationwouldbetreatedas neithervalidnorinvalid. D) sexclassificationswouldbetreatedbytheCourtasvalid. E) allsexclassificationswereunconstitutional. Answer: C
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81) InthecaseofReedv.Reed(1971),theSupremeCourt A) struckdownanOklahomalawsettingdifferentlegaldrinkingagesformenandwomen. B) declaredthatawomansplaceisinthehome. C) prohibitedsexualdiscriminationinpublicschools. D) heldthatanyarbitrarysex-basedclassificationviolatedtheequalprotectionclauseofthe FourteenthAmendment. E) declaredthatwomenareentitledtohalfthecommunitypropertyofamarriagewhen thereisadivorce. Answer: D
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82) TheSupremeCourthasvoidedeachofthefollowingsexualdiscriminationlawsEXCEPTlaws that A) providedforalimonypaymentstowomenonly. B) madestatutoryrapeacrimeformenonly. C) setahigheragefordrinkingformenthanforwomen. D) closedastatesnursingschooltomen. E) providedchildsupportforwomenonly. Answer: B


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83) WhichofthefollowingisTRUE? A) Manysexdiscriminationcaseshaveinvolvedmenseekingequalitywithwomen. B) TheSupremeCourtfirststruckdownalawonthebasisofsexdiscriminationin1920. C) TheSupremeCourthassofarstruckdownonlyahandfuloflawsfordiscriminatingon thebasisofgender. D) Allofthesearetrue. E) Noneofthesearetrue. Answer: A


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84) TheEqualRightsAmendmentfailedbecause A) itwasvetoedbythePresident. B) theSupremeCourtvoideditasunconstitutional. C) itdidnotwintherequiredtwo-thirdsvoteineachchamberofCongress. D) itwasrejectedbytheUnitedStatesSenate. E) itfellthreestatesshortofsufficientratification. Answer: E


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85) The________bannedgenderdiscriminationinemploymentbylaw. A) CivilRightsActof1964 B) FairLaborStandardsAct C) SupremeCourtrulinginNationalOrganizationforWomenv.BankofAmerica D) NineteenthAmendment E) GenderEquityActof1972 Answer: A


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86) Inconsideringgenderdiscriminationinemploymentandbusinessactivity,theSupremeCourt hasruledthatanyprerequisitesbasedongenderorappearance A) fallwithinthepenumbraofthecommerceclause,andthusenjoyitsconstitutional protection. B) areunconstitutional. C) musthaveadirectrelationshipwiththedutiesrequiredinaparticularposition,orare otherwisediscriminatory. D) canbeacceptedasnon-discriminatoryiftherequirementshavealongstandingtradition intheindustry. E) aremattersofprivatebusinessconcernandthereforenotundertheprotectionofthe Constitution. Answer: C
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87) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheEqualRightsAmendment(ERA)isFALSE? A) TheERAwasratifiedin1982. B) TheERAbattlestimulatedvigorousfeministactivity. C) TheERAbattlestimulatedvigorousanti-feministactivity. D) TheERAwasfirstintroducedinthe1920s. E) CongresspassedtheERAin1972. Answer: A


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88) TheUnitedStatesSupremeCourthashandeddowneachofthefollowingdecisions concerninggenderdiscriminationinemploymentandbusinessactivityEXCEPT A) requiringthefederalgovernmenttogivewomenequalpayforjobsofcomparableworth. B) prohibitinggenderdiscriminationinprivatebusinessandserviceclubs. C) voidinglawsandrulesbarringwomenfromjobsthrougharbitraryheightandweight requirements. D) protectingwomenfrombeingrequiredtotakemandatorypregnancyleavesfromtheir jobs. E) Noneoftheabove;thecourthashandeddowneachofthedecisionsabove. Answer: A
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89) Theissueof________dealswithwomenseekingtoredressthefactthatjobstraditionallyheld bymentendtopayfargreatersalariesthanjobsrequiringsimilarskillsbutaretraditionally heldbywomen. A) genderequality B) affirmativeaction C) feminizedwagescales D) comparableworth E) thelacepurse Answer: D
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90) Comparableworthreferstotheissueof A) payingmenandwomenequivalentsalariesforjobsrequiringsimilarskills. B) governmentsubsidizationofwomenwhochoosetoworkathome. C) theinherentdignityandequalityofwomenwithmen. D) reducedworkresponsibilitiesforwomenworkerswithchildren. E) equalvotingrightsandaccesstopublicofficeforwomen. Answer: A


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91) WhichofthefollowingisTRUE? A) Womenareprohibitedfromservingascombatpilots. B) Womenareprohibitedonnavywarships. C) Womenarenowallowedingroundcombatunits. D) Bothmenandwomenmustregisterforthedraftatage18. E) noneoftheabove Answer: E


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92) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutwomeninthemilitaryisFALSE? A) Congresshasopenedalltheserviceacademiestowomen. B) Women,aswellasmen,arenowrequiredtoregisterforthedraft. C) Statutesandregulationsprohibitwomenfromservinginmostcombatsituations. D) WomenhaveservedineverybranchofthearmedservicessinceWorldWarII. E) Womendonothaveaceilingontheranktheycanachieve. Answer: B


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93) ThePersianGulfWarshowedthat A) womencouldserveascombatpilots. B) womenwouldnotvolunteerforcombatpositions. C) thereisnoplaceinthemilitaryforwomen. D) womendidwellinthemilitary,butshouldnotserveincombatpositions. E) womensmilitaryperformancewasinferiortomens. Answer: A


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94) In1993,theSupremeCourtruledthatsexualharassmentissexdiscriminationthatviolatesthe CivilRightsActwhen A) thetargetobjectsasecondtimetotouching,bodylanguage,ordirtytalk. B) itcausesseverepsychologicalinjury. C) theworkplaceenvironmentbecomeshostileorabusive. D) anemployeecannolongerperformhisorherjob. E) thetargetsuffersanervousbreakdown. Answer: C


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95) InFaragherv.CityofBocaRaton (1998),theSupremeCourtheldthat A) schooldistrictscanbeheldliableforsexualharassment. B) themilitarycannotberesponsibleforsexualharassmentatconferences. C) employersareresponsibleforpreventingandeliminatingsexualharassment. D) governmententitiesarenotresponsibleforpreventingsexualharassment. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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96) The1991conventionoftheTailhookAssociationofnavalaviatorsexperiencedacelebrated caseofsexualharassmentwhen A) thecommandingofficerscatteredhispubichairsuponthedesksofsomeofhisfemale secretaries. B) thecommander-in-chiefofthearmedforcesaskedafemaleaviatoruptohishotelroom ostensiblyforbusinessandthenunzippedhispants,showedherhispenis,andaskedfor oralsex. C) somemensecretlyvideotapedtheirsexualencountersandthenshowedthematthe convention. D) maleaviatorslinedahotelhallwayandgropedandkissedwomentryingtogettotheir rooms. E) Allofthese;itwasareallysordidaffair. Answer: D
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97) The1991conventionoftheTailhookAssociationconventionbroughtattentiontotheproblem of A) thefailureoftheEqualRightsAmendment. B) homosexualactivityinthearmedservices. C) comparableworth. D) sexualharassment. E) sexualdiscriminationinthecourts. Answer: D


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98) Thegrayliberationmovementrefersto A) elderlyhomosexualsseekingequality. B) thoseseekinglawsthatbreakdownracialbarriersandpromoteharmony. C) anti-pollutionactivistswhoseektoreducesmog. D) thosefightingfortherightsoftheelderly. E) thosefightingforequalrightsandjusticeforthedisabled. Answer: D


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99) ThefastestgrowingagegroupintheAmericanpopulationis A) GenerationX. B) peopleintheir80s. C) infants. D) teenagers. E) baby-boomers. Answer: B


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100) Agediscriminationlawshave A) allowedchildrenbetweentheagesof12and18toleavetheirparents. B) loweredtheminimumcompulsoryretirementageto55. C) requiredemployerstohireacertainpercentageofpeopleovertheageof50. D) deniedfederalfundstoanyinstitutiondiscriminatingagainstpeopleoverforty. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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101) In1990,Congressenactedthe________,afar-reachinglawtoprotectaparticulargroupof Americansfromdiscrimination,ignoringthosewhoclaimedthepricetagwouldbetoohigh. A) GayandLesbianCivilRightsBill B) Native-AmericansInclusionAct C) AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct D) ChildrensRightsAct E) ImmigrantGrantAct Answer: C


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102) TheRehabilitationActof1973 A) entitlesallchildrentoafreepubliceducationappropriatetotheirneeds. B) increasedtheamountoffinancialaidtodisabledpeople. C) guaranteedfree,lifetimemedicalcareandphysicaltherapyforVietnamWarveterans. D) addedhandicappedpeopletothelistofAmericansprotectedfromdiscrimination. E) prohibitsemploymentdiscriminationagainstthedisabled. Answer: D


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103) TheAmericanswithDisabilitiesActof1990 A) requiredallgovernmentalbuildingstohavewheelchair-accessibleentrancesand facilities. B) addedAIDSvictimstothelistofhandicappedpersons. C) prohibitedemploymentdiscriminationagainstthedisabled. D) addedhandicappedpeopletothelistofAmericansprotectedfromdiscrimination. E) requiredanaffirmativeactionprogramforthedisabled. Answer: C


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104) OppositiontoCivilRightslawsforthehandicappedhasbeenjustifiedprimarilyonthebasis ofthe A) inabilityofdisabledpersonstohandlemostemploymentrequirements. B) fearthatlawswillleadtoaquotasystemtohiredisabledpersons. C) highcostofprogramstohelpthedisabled. D) fearthatthedisabledwilltakejobsawayfromable-bodiedpersons. E) alloftheabove Answer: C


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105) Homophobiarefersto A) fearandhatredtowardgaymenandlesbianwomen. B) thetendencytobesexuallyattractedtomembersofonesownsex. C) thedevelopmentofpositivestereotypesconcerninggaymenandlesbianwomen. D) promotingtheCivilRightsofgaymenandlesbianwomen. E) anattitudeoftoleranceandacceptancetowardgaymenandlesbianwomen. Answer: A


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106) Affirmativeactionseekstomovebeyond A) equalresultstoequalopportunity. B) equalopportunitytoequalresults. C) equalopportunitytoequalrights. D) equalrightstoequalopportunity. E) negativismtopositivisminhumanrelations. Answer: B


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107) Thepublicpolicypathsforwomenandminoritiesconvergedinthedebateabout A) affirmativeaction. B) theEqualRightsAmendment. C) militaryservice. D) gayrights. E) comparableworth. Answer: A


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108) Thegoalofaffirmativeactionistomovetoward A) equalfacilities. B) equalopportunity. C) equalresults. D) equalpay. E) comparableworth. Answer: C


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109) Thestrongestandmostcontroversialformofaffirmativeactionis A) busing. B) comparableworth. C) numericalquotas. D) comparativeworth. E) equalopportunity. Answer: C


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110) TheSupremeCourtruledagainstsomeofthebasicprinciplesofaffirmativeactioninwhichof thefollowingcases? A) MetroBroadcastingInc.v.FederalCommunicationsCommission B) Fullilovev.Klutznick C) RegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniav.Bakke D) UnitedSteelworkersofAmerica,AFL-CIOv.Weber E) alloftheabove Answer: C


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111) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutaffirmativeactionisFALSE? A) Theconstitutionalstatusofaffirmativeactionhasnotbeenveryclear. B) Affirmativeactionputsanemphasisonequalresultsandnotmerelyequalopportunities. C) Affirmativeactionhasbeenusedtoestablishspecialprovisionstoensurethataportion ofschooladmissionsgotominoritiesandwomen. D) PollingdatashowsthatmostAmericanssupportaffirmativeaction. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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112) ThecaseofRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniav.Bakke dealtwith A) affirmativeaction. B) sexualharassment. C) therighttoestablishagaystudentorganization. D) comparableworth. E) paidmaternityleave. Answer: A


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113) InthecaseofRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniav.Bakke,theUnitedStatesSupremeCourt A) upheldallaffirmativeactionprogramsasjustifiedandconstitutional. B) ruledthattheUniversityofCalifornia-Davismedicalschoolcouldnotdiscriminate againstwomen,AfricanAmericans,orotherminoritygroups. C) outlawedallaffirmativeactionprogramsasunconstitutional. D) ruledthatstate-runnursingschoolscouldnotdiscriminateagainstmeninadmissionsto theirprograms. E) upheldaffirmativeactionprograms,butlimitedtheirscope,andoutlawedracialquota set-asides. Answer: E
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114) Inthecaseof________,theSupremeCourtruledthataffirmativeactionprogramswerenot unconstitutional,buttheycouldnotinvolveaset-asidequotaofspotsavailableonlyto membersofparticulargroups. A) Craigv.Boren B) Korematsuv.UnitedStates C) RegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniav.Bakke D) Reedv.Reed E) Roev.Wade Answer: C
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115) Inits1995rulinginAdarandConstructorsv.Pena,theSupremeCourt A) changeddirectionandbegantocurtailfederaluseofaffirmativeactionprograms. B) outlaweddiscriminationagainstwomenintheconstructionindustry. C) mandatedanexpansionoffederalaffirmativeactionprograms. D) upheldfederalaffirmativeactionprogramsasconstitutional. E) broadenedthescopeofstateandlocalaffirmativeactionprogramsthatitconsiders constitutional. Answer: A


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116) InthecaseofRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniav.Bakke,theCourt A) refusedtoallowtheadmissionofBakketoUniversityofCalifornia-Davis. B) wasunitedinitsdecision. C) orderedthatUniversityofCalifornia-Daviscouldnotuseraceasacriterionfor admission. D) ruledthatnursingschoolscannotdiscriminateagainstmenintheiradmissions procedures. E) ruledthatapublicuniversitycouldnotsetasideaquotaofspotsforparticulargroups. Answer: E
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117) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutSupremeCourtrulingsconcerningaffirmativeaction isFALSE? A) TheCourthasapprovedpreferentialtreatmentofminoritiesinpromotions. B) TheCourthasruledthataffirmativeactioncanexemptrecentlyhiredminoritiesfrom traditionalworkrulesspecifyinglasthired,firstfiredorderoflayoffs. C) TheCourthasorderedquotasforminorityunionmemberships. D) TheCourthasruledthatpublicemployersmayuseaffirmativeactionpromotionplans tocountertheunderrepresentationofwomenandminoritiesintheworkplace. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B
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118) Affirmativeactionprogramsarereferredtobycriticsas A) negativereaction. B) reversediscrimination. C) positivenegativism. D) comparableworth. E) degenderizing. Answer: B


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119) Supportersofaffirmativeactionbelievethat A) affirmativeactionproducessoimportantasocialgoalthatsomereversediscriminationis acceptable. B) meritistheonlyfairbasisfordistributingbenefits. C) discriminationiswrong,evenwhenitspurposeistorectifypastinjustices. D) anyformofquotasystemisunjust. E) somediscriminationisacceptable. Answer: A


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120) Whenproposition209waspassedinCaliforniain1996,itbanned A) affirmativeactioninpublichiring,contracting,andeducationaladmissions. B) affirmativeactioninfederalhiring. C) affirmativeactiononbehalfofhomosexuals. D) affirmativeactionintheprivatesector. E) affirmativeactiononbehalfofwomen. Answer: A


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121) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSE? A) Civilrightspolicieshaveexpandedthepowerofgovernment. B) Thesteadyexpansionofcivilrightshasbroughtmoregroupsintothedemocratic process. C) Currentcivilrightspoliciesconformtotheeighteenth-centuryideaoflimited government. D) TherightsensuredbytheFirstAmendmentareessentialtoademocracy. E) LyndonJohnsonwaspresidentwhencivilrightslegislationwaspassedinthe1960s. Answer: C
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True/FalseQuestions
1) Historically,equalityinAmericansocietyhastendedtoemphasizeequalresults. Answer: FALSE
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2) ThewordequalitydoesnotappearintheoriginalConstitution. Answer: TRUE


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3) TheBillofRightsdoesnotrefertoequality. Answer: TRUE


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4) TheFourteenthAmendmentforbidsslaveryandgrantstherighttovotetoAfricanAmericans andothernon-whitesintheUnitedStates. Answer: FALSE


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5) Scottv.SandfordwastheSupremeCourtslandmarkdecisionthatdeclaredslaverywas unconstitutionalinalltheUnitedStates. Answer: FALSE


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6) InPlessyv.Ferguson,theSupremeCourtprovidedaconstitutionaljustificationforsegregation, establishingtheseparatebutequaldoctrine. Answer: TRUE


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7) Dejuresegregationisthatwhichisdonebylaw. Answer: TRUE


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8) TheCivilRightsActof1964maderacialdiscriminationillegalinhotels,motels,restaurants, andotherplacesofpublicaccommodation,andforbademanyformsofjobdiscrimination. Answer: TRUE


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9) TheTwenty-fourthAmendmentoutlawedthegrandfatherclause,whichwasstillbeingused untilthe1960stodenyAfricanAmericanstheirconstitutionalrighttovote. Answer: FALSE


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10) TheIndianBillofRightswasadoptedasTitleIIoftheCivilRightsActof1968,applyingmost oftheprovisionsoftheConstitutionsBillofRightstotribalgovernments. Answer: TRUE


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11) TheMexicanAmericanLegalDistrictingElectionForce(MALDEF)ismodeledafterNAACP. Answer: TRUE


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12) Therearenowabout1000electedHispanicofficialsintheUnitedStates. Answer: FALSE


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13) InKorematsuv.UnitedStates,theSupremeCourtruledthatthepublicorderrequiringJapanese AmericanstoberemovedfromthewestcoastduringWorldWarIIandplacedininternment campswasracistandunconstitutional. Answer: FALSE


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14) InearlyAmericansociety,marriedwomencouldhavenolegalidentityseparatefromthatof theirhusbands. Answer: TRUE


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15) WiththeratificationoftheNineteenthAmendment,adultwomenthroughouttheUnited Stateswereallowedtovoteinthepresidentialelectionof1920. Answer: TRUE


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16) Afterwinningtherighttovoteforwomen,thefeministmovementgainedmomentuminthe 1920s. Answer: FALSE


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17) Manyofthelitigantsincasesraisingconstitutionalquestionsaboutsexualdiscriminationhave beenmenseekingequalitywithwomenintheirtreatmentunderthelaw. Answer: TRUE


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18) TheEqualRightsAmendmenttotheConstitution,designedtoguaranteewomenequality underthelaw,failedtoberatified. Answer: TRUE


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19) TitleIXoftheEducationActof1972forbidsracialdiscriminationinfederallysubsidized educationprograms(whichincludealmostallcollegesanduniversities). Answer: FALSE


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20) Women,aswellasmen,arenowrequiredtoregisterforthemilitarydraft. Answer: FALSE


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21) Beforetheadventofthecontemporaryfeministmovement,theSupremeCourtupheld virtuallyanyinstanceofgender-baseddiscrimination. Answer: TRUE


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22) AIDSvictimsareconsideredhandicappedandincludedunderlawsprotectingtherightsof thedisabled. Answer: TRUE


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23) InthecaseofRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniav.Bakke,theSupremeCourtruledthatrace couldneverbeconsideredinadmissionspolicies,anddeclaredallaffirmativeactionprograms tobeunconstitutional. Answer: FALSE


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24) Since1995,theSupremeCourthasconsistentlysupportedtheuseofaffirmativeactioninboth thepublicandprivatesector. Answer: FALSE


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25) TheSupremeCourthasbeenconsistentovertheyearsinsupportingtheprincipleof affirmativeaction,interpretedprimarilyastheuseofquotasinhiringandpromotion. Answer: FALSE


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26) AdarandConstructorsv.Penavoidedfederalaffirmativeactionprogramsingeneral. Answer: FALSE


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27) Civilrightslawsincreasethescopeandpowerofgovernment. Answer: TRUE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) Americanstendtofavorequalityof________ratherthanequalresults. Answer: opportunity
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2) Thephraseequalprotectionofthelawsisfoundinthe________. Answer: FourteenthAmendment


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3) BrieflyexplaintheprimarysignificanceoftheFourteenthAmendment. Answer: OneofthreeamendmentspassedaftertheCivilWar,theFourteenthAmendmentisthe firstandonlyplaceinwhichtheideaofequalityappearsintheConstitution.


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4) Inthecaseof________,theSupremeCourtruledthatablackmanwaschattelwhohadno rightsunderawhitemansgovernment,andthatCongresshadnopowertobanslaveryinthe westernterritories. Answer: DredScottv.Sandford


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5) CompareandcontrasttheSupremeCourtcasesof Plessyv.Ferguson andBrownv.Boardof Education. Answer: Answerswillvary.


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6) TheSupremeCourtsdecisioninBrownv.BoardofEducation overturnedtheseparatebutequal doctrineanearlierCourthadestablishedinthe1896caseof________. Answer: Plessyv.Ferguson


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7) The________Amendment,adoptedin1870,guaranteedAfricanAmericanstherighttovote, thoughitproveddifficulttoenforceformanydecades. Answer: Fifteenth


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8) WhatwerethemainprovisionsoftheCivilRightsActof1964? Answer: maderacialdiscriminationillegalinpublicplaces,forbadediscriminationin employment,createdtheEEOC,providedforwithholdingfederalgrantsfromstateand localgovernmentsthatpracticedracialdiscrimination,strengthenedvotingrights legislation,authoredtheJusticeDepartmenttoinitiatelawsuitstodesegregatepublic schoolsandfacilities


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9) WhatweresomeofthemethodsusedbysouthernstatestodenyAfricanAmericanstheright tovoteafterpassageoftheFifteenthAmendment? Answer: polltaxes,whiteprimaries,grandfatherclause


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10) EarlystrategiesofNativeAmericanstosecuretheircivilrightsincluded________,whilemore recentlytheyhavebeguntousethecourts. Answer: financialclaimsandprotest


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11) TheSupremeCourtupheldtheconstitutionalityoftheUnitedStatesgovernmentsdecisionto removetheJapaneseAmericansfromthewestcoastandplacethemininternmentcamps duringWorldWarIIinwhatfamouscase? Answer: Korematsuv.UnitedStates


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12) The________wasappliedtoSanAntonio,Texas,andasaresulthelpedLatinoselectMayor HenryCisneros. Answer: VotingRightsActof1965


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13) The________Amendmentguaranteedsuffragetowomen. Answer: Nineteenth


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14) TheUnitedStatesConstitutionwaschangedbyamendmenttoallowadultwomenthroughout thecountrytherighttovotebeginninginthepresidentialelectionof________. Answer: 1920


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15) Theissueoftraditionalwomensjobsbeingpaidconsiderablylessthantraditionalmensjobs requiringsimilarskillsoreffortiscalled________. Answer: comparableworth


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16) Whatismeantbytheprincipleofcomparableworth? Answer: theissueraisedwhenwomenwhoholdtraditionallyfemalejobsarepaidlessthanmen forworkingatjobsrequiringcomparableskill


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17) Sexualharassmentthatissopervasiveastocreateahostileorabusiveworkenvironmentisa formofgenderdiscrimination,whichisforbiddenbythe________. Answer: 1964CivilRightsAct


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18) Theblind,deaf,andmobility-impairedweregivennewprotectionagainstemployment discrimination,andemployerswererequiredtomakereasonableaccommodationstotheir needsinthe________of1990. Answer: AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct


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19) TheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtsdecisionintheRegentsofthe UniversityofCaliforniav.Bakke caselimitedthescopeof________programs,andseverelyrestrictedtheuseofset -aside quotas. Answer: affirmativeaction


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20) WhatwasthesignificanceoftheSupremeCourtcaseof Regentsofthe UniversityofCaliforniav. Bakke(1978)? Answer: thecaseinwhichtheSupremeCourtruledthatastateuniversitycouldnotadmitless qualifiedindividualssolelybecauseoftheirrace;eliminatedtheuseofquotasbystate governments


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21) In1996,Californiavoterspassed________,whichbannedstateaffirmativeactionprograms basedonrace,ethnicity,orgenderinpublichiring,contracting,andeducationalprograms. Answer: Proposition209


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EssayQuestions
1) Compareandcontrasthowtheissuesofequalityforblacksandwomenweretreatedinthe ConstitutionalConventionandintheConstitutionitself.Whatconstitutionalamendments subsequentlyaddressedissuesofequalityforthesetwogroups?
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2) WhatweretheviewsandconceptionsofequalityduringtheearlyyearsoftheAmerican republic?WhatdoestheConstitutionsayaboutequalityandcivilrights?
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3) HowhasthenotionofequalitychangedintheUnitedStatessinceourfoundingasarepublic? Haveexpandedrightsforwomen,AfricanAmericans,NativeAmericans,andothergroups madethenationmoretrulyequal?Explain.


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4) Theequalprotectionclausehasbeenusedextensively.Describeitssignificance,andhow courtshaveusedittoruleonmattersrelatedtoracialandgenderequality.Doyouapproveof thisuseoftheclause?Explain.


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5) DescribetheSupremeCourtdecisionintheScottv.Sandford caseandexplainitssignificance. AftertheCivilWar,whatlawswerepassedtoundotheDredScottcaseandprovidegreater rightsforAfricanAmericans?Whydidtheseproveinsufficient?Explain.


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6) DescribethethreeerasthatdelineateAfrican-AmericansstruggleforequalityinAmerica. ExplainhowtherolesofthecourtandCongresschangedthroughthethreeeras.
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7) Howhasthestruggleforequalityamongotherracialminoritygroupscomparedtothatof AfricanAmericans?Usespecificexamplestoillustrateyouranswer.
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8) Thehistoryofthestruggleforequalityislinkedwiththehistoryofindividuals.Whowere/are someoftheindividualsinvolvedinthestruggleforequalityamongAfricanAmericans, women,andothergroups?Howhavetheychangedconditionsforthegrouptheyrepresent?


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9) WhatwassodramaticabouttheSupremeCourtsdecisioninBrownv.BoardofEducation?How didthedecisionaffectschoolsinitsimmediateaftermath?ShouldtheCourthavebeenmore aggressive,orless?Explain.


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10) AlthoughtheFifteenthAmendmentspecificallyguaranteedtherighttovoteforAfrican Americans,whatlegaldevicesdidsouthernstatesusetogetaroundit?Howandwhenwere thesedevicesremoved?Explain.


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11) Otherthanwomenandracialandethnicminorities,whatothergroupshavesoughtoverthe pastfewdecadesforgreaterrecognitionoftheircivilrights?Withwhatsuccess?Doyouagree thatthesegroupsareentitledtosimilarcivilrightsprotection?Explain.


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12) Whoarethenewentrantsunderthecivilrightsumbrella?Explainhowtheirstruggleshave differedfromthoseoftheAfrican-Americansandwomen.


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13) DiscussrecentSupremeCourtdecisionsregardingtherightsofhomosexuals.Towhatextent havethesedecisionsexpandedequalitytohomosexuals?Whatsocialfactorslimitthelikely expansionofequalitytohomosexuals?


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14) Whatisthepurposeofaffirmativeactionprograms?Analyzeargumentsforandagainstthe useofaffirmativeactionprogramsinboththepublicandprivatesectors.


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15) Whatismeantbyaffirmativeaction?Howhavethecourtsruledonaffirmativeaction?Give examples.


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16) ExplaintheSupremeCourtsrulinginAdarandConstructorsv.Pena.Howdidthisdecision differfromearlierones?Towhatextentdidthisdecisionvoidfederalaffirmativeaction programs?


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17) Howhascivilrightsaffecteddemocraticgovernmentandthescopeofgovernmentinthe UnitedStates?Whatarethebasicconflictsbetweencivilrightsanddemocracy?


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18) Explainhowcivilrightslawsexpandboththescopeandpowerofgovernment,citingspecific courtdecisionsandfederallawsasevidence.


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Chapter6 PublicOpinionandPoliticalAction
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) Thescienceofpopulationchangesis A) polling. B) anthropology. C) popuology. D) demography. E) thecensus. Answer: D
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2) ThemostvaluablemethodforunderstandingdemographicchangesinAmericaisthe A) StatisticalAbstractoftheUnitedStates. B) publicopinionpoll. C) census. D) turnoutinpresidentialelections. E) InternalRevenueServicestatisticaltaxabstracts. Answer: C


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3) ________isthedistributionofthepopulationsbeliefsaboutpoliticsandpolicyissues. A) Randomsampling B) Directmail C) Politicalsocialization D) Publicopinion E) Politicalideology Answer: D


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4) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheAmericanpeopleisFALSE? A) Thereareabout295millionAmericans. B) MostAmericansviewculturaldiversityasoneoftheleastappealingaspectsoftheir society. C) Americaisoneofthemostculturallydiversecountriesintheworld. D) Americawasfoundedontheprincipleoftoleratingdiversity. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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5) Thescienceofpopulationchangesiscalled A) publicopinion. B) demography. C) politicalscience. D) census. E) popuology. Answer: B


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6) Publicopinionisdefinedinthetextas A) opinionswhichareexpressibleinpublic,asopposedtothemoretruthfulprivate opinionswhichmostindividualsarereluctanttostatepublicly. B) beliefsaboutgovernmentheldbyamajorityofpeople. C) opinionssolicitedfromarandomsampleofthepublic. D) thedistributionofthepopulationsbeliefsaboutpoliticsandpolicy. E) widelyheldbeliefsaboutthepublicsroleinpoliticsandpolicy. Answer: D


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7) Byconstitutionalrequirement,thegovernmentconductstheUnitedStatesCensusevery A) twoyears. B) year. C) fiveyears. D) presidentialelectionyear. E) tenyears. Answer: E


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8) TheUnitedStatesConstitutionrequiresthatthegovernmentconductanactualenumeration ofthepopulationevery A) tenyears. B) 25years. C) year. D) fiveyears. E) presidentialelectionyear. Answer: A


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9) ThefirstcensusintheUnitedStateswasconductedin A) 1900. B) 1790. C) 1970. D) 1850. E) 1800. Answer: B


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10) Anissuethatbecamecontroversialregardingthe1990censuswas A) inclusionofimmigrants. B) costofthecensus. C) theundercountofminoritygroups. D) theovercountofurbanites. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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11) The2000censusindicatedthatthelargestminoritypopulationiscomprisedof A) illegals. B) AfricanAmericans. C) AsianAmericans. D) Hispanics. E) NativeAmericans. Answer: D


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12) ApproximatelywhatpercentofAfricanAmericanslivebelowthepovertyline? A) 28 B) 42 C) 25 D) 6 E) 17 Answer: C


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13) Thelargestracial/ethnicminoritygroupintheUnitedStatesis A) AfricanAmericans. B) AsianAmericans. C) NativeAmericans. D) Hispanics. E) AfricanAmericansandHispanicsaretiedinsize. Answer: D


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14) ApproximatelywhatpercentofAsianAmericansholdacollegedegree? A) 32 B) 49 C) 12 D) 22 E) 60 Answer: B


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15) Theleasthealthy,poorest,andleasteducatedracial/ethnicgroupintheUnitedStatesis A) AfricanAmericans. B) NativeAmericans. C) AsianAmericans. D) Hispanics. E) Caucasians. Answer: B


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16) ThemostrecentwaveofimmigrationsinceWorldWarIIhasconsistedprimarilyof A) Africans. B) HispanicsandAsians. C) northwesternEuropeans. D) southernandeasternEuropeans. E) refugeesfromcommunistcountries. Answer: B


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17) DemographicchangesintheUnitedStatespopulationcouldtranslatetopoliticalconsequences throughtheprocessof A) politicalsocialization. B) politicalacculturation. C) reapportionment. D) politicalassimilation E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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18) Thetermminoritymajorityreferstothefactthat A) themajorityinAmericahasalwaysbeenacollectionofminorityethnicgroups. B) minoritygroupshavebeenabletoimposetheirwilluponthemajority. C) Americawillsoonceasetohaveawhitemajorityandtogethertheminoritygroupswill becomeamajority. D) AfricanAmericansarethelargestminoritygroupintheUnitedStates. E) HispanicAmericanswillsoonbecomethelargestminoritygroupintheUnitedStates. Answer: C


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19) AfricanAmericanscomprisewhatproportionoftheAmericanpopulation? A) about30percent B) about25percent C) about12percent D) about20percent E) about5percent Answer: C


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20) HispanicscompriseapproximatelywhatpercentoftheAmericanpopulation? A) 13percent B) 5percent C) 23percent D) 18percent E) 28percent Answer: A


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21) Thelargestcomponentoftheminoritymajorityisthe A) Asianpopulation. B) Caucasianpopulation. C) Hispanicpopulation. D) Native-Americanpopulation. E) African-Americanpopulation. Answer: C


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22) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSE? A) Hispanicsareprimarilyconcentratedintheruralareas. B) Inthe2000Census,theHispanicpopulationoutnumberedtheAfrican -American population. C) AfricanAmericanshaverecentlybeenexercisingagooddealofpoliticalpower. D) about24percentofAfricanAmericanscurrentlyliveunderthepovertyline. E) noneoftheabove Answer: A
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23) UnlikeHispanicswhohavecometoAmericatoescapepoverty,therecentinfluxofAsianshas beendrivenby A) upper-classeliteswhofearedpoliticalpersecution. B) civilwars. C) anewclassofprofessionalslookingforgreateropportunity. D) ethnicminoritiesseekingrefugefromhumanrightsviolations. E) BandConly Answer: C


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24) NativeAmericanstendtobe A) thepoorestgroupinAmerica. B) theleasteducatedgroupinAmerica. C) theleasthealthygroupinAmerica. D) alloftheabove E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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25) TheSimpson-MazzoliAct A) representedacrackdownonillegalaliensbyrequiringthatemployersdocumentthe citizenshiporlegitimateimmigrantstatusofworkersorpaystifffines. B) requiresthatstateskeeptheirpollsopenforatleasttenhoursonelectiondayinorderto facilitateparticipation. C) establishedfederalguidelinesandregulationsfortakingpublicopinionpolls. D) reformedthejuryproceduresinfelonycases,particularlytheunanimousverdict requirement. E) requiredthatthehomelessbecountedinthe1990census. Answer: A
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26) The________Actrequiredthatasof1987,employersdocumentthecitizenshiporlegal immigrantstatusoftheiremployees,orfacesubstantialcriminalpenaltiesforfailingtodoso. A) NationalOrigins B) Simpson-Mazzoli C) NationalLaborRelations D) Hatch E) ImmigrantEmployment Answer: B


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27) Theleast-healthy,thepoorest,andtheleast-educatedgroupintheAmericanmosaicarethe A) HispanicAmericans. B) AppalachianCaucasians. C) Native-AmericanIndians. D) AsianAmericans. E) AfricanAmericans. Answer: C


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28) TheSimpson-MazzoliAct A) requiredemployerstodocumentthecitizenshipoftheiremployees. B) grantedamnestytoallillegalaliens. C) establishedaNationalIdentificationCardthatallAmericanswillhavetopossessbythe year2000inordertogetemployment. D) placedalimitonthenumberofMexicanimmigrantsallowedintheUnitedStatesper year. E) requiredallimmigrantstoregisterwiththeImmigrationandNaturalizationService. Answer: A
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29) TheworstoffofAmericasminoritygroupsare A) NativeAmericans. B) homosexuals. C) AsianAmericans. D) AfricanAmericans. E) HispanicAmericans. Answer: A


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30) Politicalculturerefersto A) asetofbeliefsabouttheroleofgovernmentinsociety. B) howtrulyAmericansomeoneis. C) anoverallsetofvalueswidelysharedwithinasociety. D) ahighdegreeofhomogeneityinpoliticalopinions. E) politicalpartyaffiliation. Answer: C


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31) OverthelastfiftyyearsmuchofAmericaspopulationgrowthhasoccurred A) ontheEastCoast. B) eastoftheMississippiRiver. C) northoftheMason-Dixonline. D) intheWestandSouth. E) intheMidwest. Answer: D


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32) Between1990and2000, A) statesintheSouthwestwerelosingpopulation. B) theSunbeltcontinuedtoexperiencerapidpopulationgrowth. C) theMidwestbecamethefastest-growingregioninthecountry. D) theFrostbelthadbeguntogainpopulationagain. E) thePacificCoaststateswerethefastest-growingregionofthecountry. Answer: B


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33) ________occursaftereverycensustoreallocatethe435seatsintheUnitedStatesHouseof Representatives,reflectingshiftsinthepopulationofthestatesand,thus,howmanyseats eachstateisallotted. A) Equalization B) Restructuring C) Politicalsocialization D) Reapportionment E) Demography Answer: D
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34) Reapportionmentoccursaftereverycensustoreallocateseatsin A) theSenate. B) thepresidentscabinet. C) theSupremeCourt. D) theHouseofRepresentatives. E) boththeHouseofRepresentativesandtheSenate. Answer: D


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35) Nationwide,thefastestgrowingagegroupiscomposedof A) thoseunder13yearsold. B) one-year-olds. C) thosebetween13-21yearsold. D) thoseover65yearsold. E) thosebetween21-30yearsold. Answer: D


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36) WhichofthefollowingstateshasincreaseditsrepresentationintheHousefromjustsevenin 1900to53today? A) Florida B) Texas C) NewYork D) California E) Georgia Answer: D


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37) Reapportionment A) candramaticallyshiftpoliticalpowerbetweentheregions. B) affectshowmuchfederalaidpopulationgroupscanreceive. C) changesthestatesnumberofrepresentativesintheUnitedStatesSenate. D) hasmostrecentlyincreasedcongressionalrepresentationforNewEngland. E) rarelyoccurs. Answer: A


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38) Theprocessthroughwhichanindividualacquireshisorherparticularpoliticalorientations, includinghisorherknowledge,feelings,andevaluationsregardinghisorherpoliticalworld, isknownas A) politicalorientation. B) demography. C) politicalsocialization. D) politicalideology. E) politicalindoctrination. Answer: C
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39) Onecanpredicthowthemajorityofyoungpeoplewillvotesimplyby A) knowingthepoliticalleaningoftheirparents. B) knowingthepoliticalleaningoftheirfriends. C) knowingtheirrace. D) knowingthepoliticalleaningoftheirteachers. E) knowingtheirage. Answer: A


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40) Politicalsocializationisdefinedas A) thedistributionofthepopulationsbeliefsaboutpoliticsandpolicyissues. B) thevariouspoliticalrolesthatindividualsplayinsociety. C) acoherentsetofvaluesandbeliefsaboutpublicpolicy. D) theprocessthroughwhichanindividualacquireshisorherparticularpolitical orientations. E) theactivitiesusedbycitizenstoinfluencetheselectionofpoliticalleadersorthepolicies theypursue. Answer: D
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41) Thefamilysroleinpoliticalsocializationiscentralbecause A) parentstendtopurposivelyguidetheirchildrenspoliticalorientations. B) ofchildrenstendenciestorebelagainstparentsandtheirbeliefs. C) thefamilyputsemphasisonformalpoliticaleducation. D) ofitsmonopolyontimeandemotionalcommitment. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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42) Bothauthoritariananddemocraticpoliticalsystemsseektoteachcitizens,especiallyyouth,the positiveaspectsoftheirpoliticalsystemsbecause A) youtharemostgullible. B) itenhancesrulingelitespoliticalpoweroverthecitizenry. C) bothtypesofpoliticalsystemsrelydirectlyoncitizensupport. D) youthwillthengrowuptobesupportivecitizens. E) youththinkalike. Answer: D


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43) Accordingtomanyobservers,thenewparentinthesocializationprocesshasbecome A) schools. B) interestgroups. C) themassmedia. D) themother. E) friendsandpeers. Answer: C


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44) ThemostobviousintrusionofthegovernmentintoAmericassocializationisthrough A) politicalparties. B) thefamily. C) schooling. D) themassmedia. E) criminallaws. Answer: C


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45) Governmentsthroughouttheworldusetheschoolstohelpwiththe________ofyoung people. A) randomsampling B) politicalsocialization C) voterregistration D) civildisobedience E) demography Answer: B


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46) Asonebecomesmoresocializedwithage,onespoliticalorientations A) becomelessimportant. B) changeasonespositionintheagingorderchangestheirlifeconditions. C) growfirmer. D) lackcommitment. E) fluctuatemore. Answer: C


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47) Oneoftheeffectsofgrowingolderonpoliticallearningandpoliticalbehavioristhat A) politicalparticipationincreaseswithage. B) peoplebecomemoreliberalwithage. C) interestinpoliticsdecreaseswithage. D) thestrengthofonespartyattachmentdeclineswithage. E) politicalignoranceincreaseswithage. Answer: A


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48) Publicopinionpollingwasfirstbegunin1932by A) GeorgeGallup. B) theDemocraticparty. C) LouisHarris. D) theAssociatedPress. E) HenryLuce. Answer: A


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49) Becauseitwouldbeprohibitivelyexpensivetoaskeverycitizenhisorheropiniononawhole rangeofissues,pollsrelyonwhatiscalleda(n)________ofthepopulation. A) extraction B) sample C) census D) slice E) demography Answer: B


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50) Inpublicopinionpolling,asampleassmallasabout________peoplecanfaithfullyrepresent theuniverseofAmericans. A) 10,000 B) 1,500 C) 20,000 D) 5,000 E) 50,000 Answer: B


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51) Thekeytotheaccuracyofpublicopinionpollsis A) politicalideology. B) polygraphs. C) samplingerror. D) thelargerthesizeofthesample,thebetter. E) randomsampling. Answer: E


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52) Samplingerrordescribes A) howmanysamplesasurveyestimateisbasedon. B) whatpercentageofthesampleprovidedanswerstothequestions. C) howcloseasampleestimateistotherealpopulationvalue. D) howoftenasamplestatisticiscorrect. E) howmanysamplesareincorrect. Answer: C


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53) Randomsamplinginpublicopinionpollingoperatesontheprinciplethat A) whichanswerstoincludeinaggregatepollresultsmustbeselectedbychanceinorderto maximizeaccuracy. B) everyoneshouldhaveanequalprobabilityofbeingselected. C) thequestionstobeaskedofagivenrespondentmustbeselectedrandomlysothatall respondentsareaskedthesamequestionthesamenumberoftimes. D) thelargerthenumberofpeoplewhoarepolled,thegreateraccuracyofthepoll. E) bothBandC Answer: B
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54) Randomsamplingisconsidered A) desirable,butnotnecessary,foranaccuratepollofpublicopinion. B) anunsophisticatedwayofmeasuringpublicopinion,butonethatsometimesyields accurateresults. C) highlyunreliable,butthecheapestwaytomeasurepublicopinion. D) thekeytotheaccuracyofopinionpolls. E) adangerouswaytomeasurepublicopinion. Answer: D


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55) Thelevelofconfidenceaboutapublicopinionpollisreferredtoas A) theconfidenceindex. B) samplingerror. C) thesample. D) randomsampling. E) demographiccertainty. Answer: B


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56) In1936,theLiteraryDigestwronglypredictedthedefeatofPresidentFranklinRoosevelt, havingpolledovertwomillionpeople.Theproblemwas A) theypolledtoofewpeople. B) itusedexitpollingratherthanentrypollingandconductedthepolltoofarinadvanceof theelection. C) theypolledtoomanypeoplewhowerenotanaccuraterepresentationoftheAmerican electorate. D) theypolledtoomanypeople. E) theyfailedtotakeintoaccountthatpeoplesometimeslieinpolls,anddidnottake precautionstopreventthis. Answer: C
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57) Arelativelysmallproportionofpeoplewhoarechosenasrepresentativeofthewholeiscalled a(n) A) quotasample. B) population. C) census. D) sample. E) cohort. Answer: D


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58) Publicopinionpollsareonlyestimatesbecause A) samplesoffewerthenonemillionpeoplearetoosmall. B) allsurveyshaveasamplingerror. C) pollsterssometimeshavetomakeeducatedguessesabouttheresults. D) randomdigitdialinghasreplacedperson-to-personinterviewing. E) samplesarenotrepresentative. Answer: B


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59) Apollsterusingarepresentativesampleof1,500Americansfindsthat52percentsupport candidateXand48percentsupportcandidateY.Thepollstersconclusionshouldbethat A) theraceistooclosetocallbecauseofapossiblesamplingerror. B) thepollshouldberetakenusingrandomdigitdialing. C) thepollshouldberetakenwithalargersample. D) pollsareunreliablepredictorsofpoliticaloutcomes. E) Xislikelytowin. Answer: A


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60) Arandomsampleof1500-2000respondentswillproduceresultsfaroffthemarkabout ________ofthetime. A) 10percent B) 25percent C) 5percent D) 35percent E) 1percent Answer: C


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61) The1936LiteraryDigestpollunderestimatedthevoteforPresidentFranklinRooseveltby19 percentbecause A) thesamplewasdrawnfromtelephonebooksandmotor-vehiclerecords. B) theliteraryintelligentsiaasagroupneverdidlikeRoosevelt. C) thesamplewastoosmall. D) notenoughwomenwereinterviewed. E) peopledidnottellthetruth. Answer: A


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62) Mostpollingtodayisdone A) bymail. B) bycomputermodemandfax. C) atshoppingmalls. D) inperson. E) byphone. Answer: E


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63) Samplesofpublicopiniontodayareusuallyselectedthrough A) voterregistrationlists. B) citiesandtownsthroughoutthecountrybelievedtobebellwethers,whichaccurately representtheentirenation. C) selectiverespondentprofiles. D) randomdigitdialing. E) phonebooks. Answer: D


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64) WhichofthefollowingisNOTacriticismofmodernpolling? A) Carefulattentiontopollsisunwise,aspollsonlyreflectthepassiveattitudesofvoters. B) Politiciansusepollstofollowthecrowdratherthantoassertboldleadership. C) Pollscandistorttheelectionprocessbycreatingabandwagoneffect,wherepeoplewant tofollowthecrowd. D) Pollsaresubjecttoverywidemarginsoferror,yetaretreatedasaccuratemeasurements ofpublicopinion. E) alloftheabove Answer: D
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65) Today,mostpollingisdonethrough A) randomdigitdialing. B) entrypolls. C) door-to-doorinterviewing. D) man-on-the-streetinterviewing. E) exitpolls. Answer: A


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66) Concernsaboutrelianceofpollstersontelephonesurveyshaverecentlybeencausedby A) decreasedchancesoffindingpeopleathome. B) increaseduseofrandomdigitdialing. C) increasednon-listingofphonenumbers. D) increaseduseofcellphones. E) adecreaseinno-calllists. Answer: D


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67) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutpublicopinionpollingisFALSE? A) Publicopinionpollingstartedin1932withGeorgeGallup. B) Samplesizesaregettingsmaller,notlarger. C) Theamountofpublicopinionpollinghasincreasedinrecentyears. D) PublicopinionpollingisauniquelyAmericanphenomenon. E) Asampleof1,500peopleisenoughtorelativelyaccuratelyreflecttheuniverseof Americanpeople. Answer: D


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68) Accordingtothetext,publicopinionpollsare A) unimportantsincewhatpeoplesayandwhatpeopledoaretwodifferentthings. B) becominglessimportantasmorepeoplerecognizetheirinaccuracies. C) importantbecauseresultscanswaypeopletochangetheirpoliticalpreferences. D) largelymeaninglessbecausetheytendtomeasurepeoplesresponsestoanagendasetby thepollsterandassumptionsembeddedinthequestionsbythepollster. E) importantbecausepolicymakerscankeepintouchwithchangingopinionsontheissues. Answer: E


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69) Publicopinionpollscanweakendemocracyby A) drowningoutelectionissueswithasteadyfloodofpollresults. B) underminingthebandwagoneffectandencouragingvoterstosupportcandidates withoutregardfortheopinionsofothers. C) predictingthewrongwinnerinacloseelection. D) misleadingpoliticianswithdelayedandoutdatedinformationaboutchangingopinions ofthepublic. E) alloftheabove Answer: A
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70) Criticsofpollingthink A) itgivespoliticiansthewronginformation. B) itmakespoliticiansmoreconcernedwithfollowingthanleading. C) thepublicsopinionshouldnotbetakenintoaccount. D) itcouldleadtoatyrannyofthemajority. E) BandDonly Answer: B


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71) Adisadvantageoftelephonepublicopinionsurveysis A) thattheycostmorethanface-to-facesurveys. B) thattheyhavealowerresponseratethanface-to-faceinterviews. C) thatsomeindividualsdonotownphones. D) thattheyhavealowerresponseratethanmailinterviews. E) bothBandC Answer: E


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72) Anexitpollistaken A) justpriortotheelection,inordertogetalastreadingofthepublicsviews. B) tomeasureanofficeholderspopularityasheorsheisleavingoffice. C) aspeopleleavesupermarkets,shoppingmalls,sportingevents,ormovies,andarethus availableforinterviews. D) onelectionday,byinterviewingvotersastheyleavethepollingplace. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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73) For________,votingplacesarerandomlyselectedaroundthecountry,andinterviewersask everytenthpersonhowtheyvoted. A) absenteeballoting B) areferendum C) preventingvotingfraud D) reapportionment E) anexitpoll Answer: E


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74) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueaboutexitpolls? A) Peopleareaskedhowtheyvotedratherthanhowtheyplantovote. B) Mostpeoplearecontactedbytherandomdigitdialingmethod. C) Theyareusedbythemediatoprojectelectionwinnersbeforemostvoteshavebeen countedexceptincloseraces. D) Theyhavebeencriticizedinpresidentialelectionsfordeclaringawinnerbeforevotingis completedintheWest. E) Theyarebeingusedmoretodaythantheywereinthe1970s. Answer: B
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75) Pollresultscanvarywidelyif A) aquestionisaltered,evenslightly. B) basedonexitpolls. C) randomsamplingisused. D) thesampleistoolarge. E) politicalsocializationisnotconsidered. Answer: A


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76) In2000,exitpollsreceivedmuchoftheblameforthemediasinaccuratecalloftheFlorida result,butblamecouldalsobeplacedon A) mistakesinearlyreportingofvoteresultsinsomecounties. B) underestimatesoftheabsenteevote. C) theincompetenceofnewsanchorpersons. D) bothAandB E) bothAandC Answer: D


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77) Publicopinionanalystsagreethatthelevelofpublicknowledgeaboutpoliticsis A) prettygood. B) dismallylow. C) constantlyfluctuating. D) fair. E) surprisinglysharpandsophisticated. Answer: B


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78) Ifpublicopinionanalystsagreeaboutanythingitisthat A) thelevelofpublicknowledgeaboutpoliticsisdismallylow. B) peoplehavesomethingtosayaboutalmosteveryissue. C) peoplesviewsonpoliticsarecoherentandconsistent. D) peopledonothaveopinionsonmostcurrentpublicpolicyissues. E) peoplethinkaboutpoliticsinverymeaningfulandabstractways. Answer: A


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79) Publicopinionpollshaveshownthat A) mostpeoplecannametheirrepresentatives,butdonotknowhowtheygenerallyvotein Congress. B) peoplearemorelikelytorecognizeslogansfromTVcommercialsthanfamouspolitical figures. C) mostpeoplearewell-informedaboutpolitics,butknowlittleaboutgeography. D) onlyduringaninternationalcrisisarepeopleabletolocatespecificcountriesinvolvedin thecrisis. E) politicalknowledgeishighernowthanitwasfortyyearsago. Answer: B
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80) AccordingtoRussellNeuman,theparadoxofmasspoliticsisthattheAmericanpolitical systemworksaswellasitdoesgiven A) thefactthatelectedofficialstendtoignorepublicopinion. B) theinaccuracyofpublicopinionpollsgivingpoliticiansfalseinformationaboutwhat peoplewant. C) theinabilityofpeopletoexpresstheiropiniononissuesandcandidates. D) thatmostpeopledonotevenknowwhatbasicvaluestheywantupheld. E) thediscomfortinglackofpublicknowledgeaboutpolitics. Answer: E
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81) Sincethe1960s,Americanstrustingovernmenthas A) increased. B) decreased. C) stayedthesame. D) beenerratic. E) disappeared. Answer: B


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82) A________isacoherentsetofvaluesandbeliefsaboutpublicpolicy. A) policyagenda B) politicalideology C) demography D) publicopinion E) politicalsocialization Answer: B


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83) Followingthe1964election, A) publicinterestingovernmentdroppedslightlyforabriefperiod. B) publictrustingovernmentdroppedsignificantly. C) publicknowledgeaboutpoliticalaffairsimprovedsignificantly. D) publicinterestincampaignsincreased. E) presidentialapprovalincreasedsignificantly. Answer: B


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84) In1980,aboutwhatpercentageoftheAmericanpublicthoughttheycouldtrustgovernment mostofthetimeoralways? A) 75percent B) 33percent C) 50percent D) 25percent E) 60percent Answer: D


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85) AccordingtoMarcHetherington,whatisthelargestimpactofdecliningpoliticaltrust? A) decreasedrespectofAmericanpoliticiansintheforeignpres B) decreasedsupportforprogramsthataddresspovertyandracialinequality C) highertaxes D) increasedpoliticalignorance E) theinabilityofthepresidenttoaddresspressingforeignpolicyconcerns Answer: B


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86) Apoliticalideologyis A) theprocessthroughwhichanindividualacquireshisorherpoliticalskills. B) arelativelysmallproportionofpeoplewhoarechosenasrepresentativeofthewhole. C) thedistributionofthepopulationsbeliefsaboutpoliticsandpolicyissues. D) thesetofcoursesthatapoliticalsciencestudentmustcompletetoattainadegree. E) acoherentsetofvaluesandbeliefsaboutpublicpolicy. Answer: E


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87) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEaboutmostliberalsinAmericanpolitics? A) Theyfavorkeepingtaxesandgovernmentspendinglow. B) Theybelieveweshouldguardcarefullytherightsofdefendantsincriminalcases. C) Theyaresupportiveofprayerinpublicschools. D) Theyopposeabortion. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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88) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEofmostconservativesinAmericanpolitics? A) Theyfavorfreemarketsolutionstoproblemsratherthanlookingtothegovernmentfor regulatingbusiness. B) Theybelieveweshouldspendmuchlessonthemilitarybudget. C) Theyareinfavorofaffirmativeactionprograms. D) Theyareopposedtoprayerinpublicschools. E) Theyopposehighlevelsofforeignaid. Answer: A


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89) Apoliticalfigurewhoisinfavorofincreasedmilitaryspending,supportedfreedomofchoice onabortion,opposedaffirmativeactionprograms,wantedtotaxtherichmore,andfeltthe courtsshouldstopcoddlingcriminalsisa A) socialist. B) mixtureofliberalandconservative. C) liberal. D) conservative. E) populist. Answer: B
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90) Ingeneral,liberalideologysupports A) astrongcentralgovernmentthatsetspoliciestopromoteequality. B) individualsrespondinggenerouslytoeachothertosolvesocietysproblemswithout lookingtogovernmenttodoso. C) asmall,lessactivegovernmentthatgivesfreerreigntotheprivatesector. D) publicandgovernmentownershipofthemeansofproduction. E) stronglocalandstategovernmentsthatareclosertothepeople. Answer: A


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91) Liberalstendto A) supportlowertaxation. B) favormaintainingpeacethroughstrength. C) supportlowergovernmentspending. D) supportschoolprayer. E) noneoftheabove Answer: E


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92) ConservativeswouldtendtofavoreachofthefollowingEXCEPT A) affirmativeaction. B) lowtaxes. C) increasedmilitaryspending. D) free-marketsolutions. E) therighttolife. Answer: A


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93) Historicallydisadvantagedgroupstendto A) voteRepublican. B) voteDemocratic. C) voteforGreencandidates. D) voteLibertarian. E) voteasIndependents. Answer: B


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94) Comparedtomen,womenaremorelikelyto A) opposehigherlevelsofmilitaryspending. B) supportspendingonsocialservices. C) beindifferenttoissuesofgovernmentspending. D) supportmilitaryinterventionaroundtheworld. E) bothAandB Answer: E


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95) Thetermgendergaprefersto A) greatersuccessofmenthanwomenwhenrunningforoffice. B) greaterpovertyofwomenthanofmen. C) stablepatternwherewomentendtobemorelikelythanmentovoteDemocratic. D) higherpoliticalcontributionsmadebywomenthanofmen. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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96) ThemostliberalreligiousgroupinAmericaare A) ChristianRight. B) Jews. C) Catholics. D) Protestants. E) Muslims. Answer: B


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97) Accordingtotheclassicstudy,TheAmericanVoter,doneinthe1950s,mostAmericansfellinto thecategoryof A) groupbenefitsvoters. B) ideologues. C) no-issue-contentvoters. D) anti-ideologues. E) nature-of-the-timesvoters. Answer: A


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98) TheAmericanVoterstudyonideologicalsophisticationamongvotersinthe1950sshowedthat onlyasmallpercentageofAmericans A) hadnocoherentpoliticalideology. B) identifiedwithgroupsreflectingtheirowninterests. C) hadacoherentpoliticalideology. D) hadevertakenagovernmentorcivicscourse. E) linkedtheirowneconomicwell-beingwiththepartyinpower. Answer: C


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99) TheAmericanVoterstudyonideologicalsophisticationamongvotersinthe1950sshowedthat apluralityofAmericanswere A) groupbenefitsvoters. B) ideologues. C) nature-of-the-timesvoters. D) authoritarianpersonalities. E) no-issue-contentvoters. Answer: A


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100) Accordingtothecategoriesusedintheclassicstudy,TheAmericanVoter,thosewhovotedfora partyoutofroutine,orjudgedcandidatesstrictlybytheirpersonalitieswereclassifiedas A) groupbenefitsvoters. B) nature-of-the-timesvoters. C) ideologues. D) personalisticvoters. E) no-issue-contentvoters. Answer: E


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101) IftheexactsamemethodsareusedtoupdatetheanalysisofTheAmericanVoterstudy,one finds A) therearemoreno-issue-contentvotersthangroupbenefitvotersin1988. B) adramaticincreaseinthenumberofauthoritarianpersonalitiessince1956. C) onlysomeincreaseinthepercentageofideologuesin1988comparedto1956. D) halfasmanynature-of-the-timesvotersin1988thanin1956. E) ideologuesbecameapluralityin1988. Answer: C


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102) TheauthorsofTheAmericanVoter wouldagreewitheachofthefollowingstatementsEXCEPT A) Itisamisnomertospeakofelectionresultsasindicatingamovementofthepubliceither leftorright. B) Formostpeople,thetermsliberalandconservativearenotasimportantastheyarefor thepoliticalelite. C) Peoplewhothinkinideologicaltermsaremostlikelytoswitchpartiesfromoneelection tothenext. D) Eisenhowerstwoelectionvictoriesrepresentedashiftintheconservativedirection duringthe1950s. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C
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103) Whenpeoplevoteaccordingtothenatureofthetimes, A) partisanidentificationbecomesanevenstrongerinfluenceonaggregatevoting. B) theyarenotvotingwisely. C) theyaremoreinterestedinresultsthanideologyandjudgepresidentsbyresults. D) theyarenotmakingrationalchoices. E) theiropinionsarenotclearlyheard. Answer: C


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104) Recentpresidentialelectionshaveshown A) asharpturninpublicthinkingtomoreconservativepositionsonissues. B) thatvotersarelessinterestedinideologyorissuepositionsthanincandidatetraitssuch ascompetenceandintegrity. C) asharpturninpublicthinkingtomoreliberalpositionsonissues. D) adramaticgrowthofideologicalvoters. E) thatvotersaremoreinterestedinissuepositionsthanincandidateideology. Answer: B


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105) Inthepresidentialelectionof2004,________ofAmericansvoted. A) 69percent B) 55percent C) 39percent D) 59percent E) 45percent Answer: B


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106) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutpoliticalparticipationisFALSE? A) ThemassproteststhroughoutEasternEuropein1989wereanavalancheofpolitical participation. B) Politicalparticipationcanbeorganizedorindividual. C) PoliticalactivityisanimportantpartoftheeverydaylifeofmostAmericans. D) Generally,theUnitedStateshasaparticipatorypoliticalculture. E) Votingisonetypeofparticipation. Answer: C


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107) ThemostcommonformofpoliticalparticipationintheUnitedStatesis A) votinginpresidentialelections. B) votinginlocalelections. C) belongingtoapoliticalparty. D) writingletterstopublicofficials. E) workingonapoliticalcampaign. Answer: A


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108) SidneyVerbaandhiscolleaguesfoundthatwhilevoterturnoutdeclinedbetween1967and 1987, A) writingletterstotheeditorandcontactinggovernmentofficialsincreased. B) participatinginnon-politicalactivitiesincreased. C) protestingandgivingmoneytocandidatesincreased. D) contactinggovernmentofficialsandgivingmoneytocandidatesincreased. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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109) Protest A) involvesconsciouslybreakingalawthoughttobeunjust. B) usuallyinvolvestheuseofviolence,evenmurder,toachievedesiredresults. C) isconsideredaconventionalformofpoliticalparticipation. D) isdesignedtoachievepolicychangethroughdramaticandunconventionaltactics. E) requirescivildisobediencetobeeffective. Answer: D


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110) WhichofthefollowingistypicalofmostadultAmericanswhenitcomestopolitical participation? A) AmajorityofAmericanswillparticipateinaprotestsuchasademonstration,strike,or sit-inatleastonceintheirlives. B) Mostwillparticipateinalltwelvemajorkindsofpoliticalactivitiesatsomepointintheir lives. C) Mostwillvoteinanelection,butonlyaminorityofpeopledomorethanthatpolitically. D) Mosthavenevervotedinanelection. E) Mostwillvoteinanelectionanddooneortwootherpoliticalactivitiesusually contactinglocalofficials,joiningapoliticalclub,ordonatingmoneytoacandidate. Answer: C
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111) Politicalprotestis A) theuseofunconventionalanddramaticactionstoachievepolicychange. B) arecentphenomenoninAmericanpolitics. C) generallyineffectiveinbringingaboutchangesinpublicpolicy. D) againstthelawintheUnitedStates. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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112) Civildisobediencenecessarilyinvolves A) non-violentproteststoachievedesiredresults. B) consciouslybreakingalawthoughttobeunjust. C) workingwithinthelawstoachieveobjectives. D) riotingandviolencetoachievedesiredresults. E) AandDonly Answer: B


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113) ThemostfamouspractitionerofcivildisobedienceintheUnitedStatesduringthetwentieth centurywasthisNobelPeacePrizewinner, A) RobertF.Kennedy. B) MotherJones. C) JohnF.Kennedy. D) JesseJackson. E) MartinLutherKing,Jr. Answer: E


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114) Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofcivildisobedience? A) accidentallyfailingtopayincometaxontaxableincome B) theSupremeCourtthrowingoutacongressionalstatuteonthegroundsofits unconstitutionality C) cheatingonthistest! D) petitioningthegovernmenttolegalizethepossessionofmarijuanaandothercontrolled substances E) consciouslybreakingacityslawbypurposelyblockingentrancetoalegallyoperating abortionclinic Answer: E
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115) ________isconsciouslybreakingalawthatisthoughttobeunjust. A) Civildisobedience B) Protest C) Rebellion D) Boycotting E) Illegalpolitics Answer: A


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116) Civildisobedience A) usuallyinvolvestheuseofviolence. B) wasfirstusedbyDr.MartinLutherKingJr.,tocallattentiontotheinjusticeof segregationlaws. C) isintentionallyviolatingalawbelievedtobeunjustinordertobringaboutchange. D) occurswheneverapersonviolatesalawandseekstoavoidtheconsequences. E) alloftheabove Answer: C


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117) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEinregardtothevotinghabitsofAfricanAmericansand HispanicAmericans? A) Theyhavealwaysvotedaboutasmuchaswhitesdespitelegalbarriers. B) Thegapbetweentheirvoterturnoutandthatofwhiteshaswidenedconsiderablyover thepastthirtyyears. C) Membersofthesegroupsarelesslikelytovotethehighertheirincome. D) Membersofthesegroupsaremorelikelytovotethanwhitesofthesameincomelevel. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D
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118) WhichofthefollowinggroupswouldbeLEASTlikelytovoteinatypicalelection? A) middle-classminorityvoters B) poorwhitevoters C) richwhitevoters D) poorminorityvoters E) richminorityvoters Answer: B


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119) Oneofthereasonswhytheparticipationgapbetweenminoritygroupsandthenational averageisnolongerenormousisbecause A) minoritiesarenowthemajority,andtheiraverageisthenationalaverage. B) theeducationandincomelevelsofminoritiesarenolongersignificantlylowerthanthat ofwhites. C) largenumbersofminoritiesarenowrunningforimportantpoliticaloffices. D) educationandincomearenolongerconsideredgoodpredictorsofvotingbehavior. E) minoritieshaveagroupconsciousnessthatgivesthemanextraincentivetovote. Answer: E
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120) Thereisevidencethatwhenincomesandeducationallevelsareequal A) membersofthemajoritytendtobemorepoliticallyactivethanminorities. B) membersofminoritygroupstendtoparticipatemorethanmembersofthemajority. C) HispanicsparticipatemorethanwhitesandAfricanAmericansparticipatelessthan whites. D) Hispanics,AfricanAmericans,andwomentendtobelesspoliticallyactivethanwhite males. E) thepoliticalparticipationofmembersofminoritygroupsandthemajorityarealsoequal. Answer: B
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121) PresidentRonaldReaganarguedthat A) thenationalgovernmentshouldbeabolished,withthestatestakingoverinaveryloose confederationsystem. B) governmentwasnottheanswertothenationsproblems,governmentwastheproblem. C) thenationsproblemsrequiredmore,notless,governmentaction. D) thestatesdidnothaveenoughresourcestosolvetheirproblems,thereforetheirrole shouldbesharplyreducedandthenationalgovernmentshouldtakeovermanyofthe majorfunctionsofstategovernments. E) althoughgovernmenthadgrowntoofast,itshouldremainaboutthesamesize. Answer: B
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122) RecentpublicopinionpollshaveshownthatmostAmericans A) favortheideaofbiggovernmentinprinciple,butopposeitinpractice. B) opposetheideaofbiggovernmentinprinciple,butfavoritinpractice. C) opposebiggovernment. D) havestrongopinionsontheproperscopeofgovernment. E) favorbiggovernment. Answer: B


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True/FalseQuestions
1) IntheUnitedStates,acensusistakeneveryfiveyears. Answer: FALSE
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2) Inrecentyears,illegalimmigrantshaveoutnumberedlegalimmigrants. Answer: TRUE


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3) Asofthe2000census,amajorityofAmericanswereeitherAfricanAmerican,Hispanic,Asian, orNativeAmerican,meaningthattheUnitedStateshasbecomeaminoritymajoritynation. Answer: FALSE


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4) Between1980and1990,minoritypopulationsgrewatamuchfasterratethanthewhite population. Answer: TRUE


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5) ThemedianfamilyincomeofAsian-Americansisgreaterthanthatofnon-Hispanicwhites. Answer: TRUE


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6) Membersofminoritygroupsaredisproportionatelyundercountedinthecensus. Answer: TRUE


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7) IntheDakotas,overhalfoftheNativeAmericanslivedbelowthepovertylinein1990. Answer: TRUE


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8) Aftereachcensus,theUnitedStatesSenateisreapportionedtoreallocatehowmanySenate seatseachstatehasbasedonpopulationchanges. Answer: FALSE


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9) Mostofourknowledgeandopinionsaboutpoliticsislearnedthroughformal,in-class learning. Answer: FALSE


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10) Averagegrade-schoolyoungstersspendmoretimeeachweekinschoolthantheydo watchingtelevision. Answer: FALSE


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11) Foryears,Americanchildrenhavebeensuccessfullyeducatedinschoolaboutthevirtuesof capitalismanddemocracy. Answer: TRUE


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12) InpublicopinionpollingintheUnitedStates,arandomsamplingof1,000 -1,500people generallycanfaithfullyrepresenttheuniverseofpotentialvoters,withinasmallmarginof error. Answer: TRUE


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13) Themostimportantfeatureofapublic-opinionsurveyisthenumberofresponses. Answer: FALSE


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14) Agingincreasespoliticalparticipation,aswellasstrengthofpartyattachment. Answer: TRUE


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15) Differentwordingofquestionsinpublicopinionpollingcanproducedramaticallydifferent results. Answer: TRUE


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16) Themediasincorrectcallofthe2000FloridavoteforGorecanbeblamedsolelyonitsreliance onexitpolls. Answer: FALSE


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17) Exitpolls,normallytakenonweekendsaspeopleleavebusysupermarkets,shoppingmalls, sportingevents,andmovietheaterstendtobethemostreliableandtheeasiesttoconduct. Answer: FALSE


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18) Themostcriticizedtypeofpublicopinionpollistheelection-dayexitpoll. Answer: TRUE


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19) JacobsandShapirosresearchsuggeststhatconcernsaboutpoliticianspanderingtopoll resultsiswell-founded. Answer: FALSE


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20) PublicopinionpollsroutinelyfindthattheAmericanpublichasahighlevelofknowledge aboutthemajorpoliticalissuesthatcandidatesandgovernmentofficialstalkabout. Answer: FALSE


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21) Morepeopleknowtheirastrologicalsignthanknowthenameoftheirrepresentativesin Congress. Answer: TRUE


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22) Despitetheapparentglutofinformationfromthemedia,Americansdonotremembermuch aboutwhattheyareexposedtothroughthemedia. Answer: TRUE


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23) Ingeneral,liberalssupportfreedomofchoiceonabortion,areopposedtoschoolprayer,favor governmentregulationinthepublicinterest,andwanttospendmoremoneytohelpthepoor. Answer: TRUE


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24) MoreAmericanscallthemselvesliberalsthanmoderates. Answer: FALSE


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25) Since1964,thepublicstrustingovernmenthasdecreased,thoughtherewasaslightincrease intheearly1980s. Answer: TRUE


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26) Thegendergapreferstotheregularpatternbywhichwomenaremorelikelythanmento supportabortionrights. Answer: FALSE


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27) ThosewhoidentifythemselvesasbornagainChristiansarecurrentlythemostconservative demographicgroup. Answer: TRUE


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28) Publicopinionsurveysshowthatacceptanceofhomosexualsisincreasingamongliberalsbut decreasingamongmoderatesandconservatives. Answer: FALSE


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29) Althoughvoterturnouthasdeclinedrecently,otherformsofparticipationsuchascontributing moneyandcontactingofficialshaveactuallyincreased. Answer: TRUE


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30) Civildisobedienceinvolvesknowinglybreakingalawthoughttobeunjust. Answer: TRUE


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31) Thepoorestandleast-educatedAmericansarethosewhoaremostlikelytoturnoutandvote inelections. Answer: FALSE


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32) MorethanhalfofmostAmericanshavenoopiniononthescopeofgovernment,accordingto surveydatafrom2000. Answer: TRUE


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33) Youngpeoplearealwaysmoreliberalthantheelderly. Answer: FALSE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) Thedistributionofthepopulationsbeliefsaboutpoliticsandpolicyissuesisknownas ________. Answer: publicopinion
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2) Whatisthecensusandwhyisitsopoliticallyimportant? Answer: theactualenumerationofthepopulationconductedbythegovernmenteveryten years;itdeterminesthenumberofseatsintheHouseofRepresentativesallocatedto eachstate


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3) The1980slawthatrequiredemployerstodocumentthecitizenshiporlegalimmigrantstatus oftheiremployees,orsufferseverepenaltiesforfailingtodoso,wasthe________Act. Answer: Simpson-Mazzoli


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4) WhatwerethemainprovisionsoftheSimpson-MazzoliAct? Answer: requiresemployersdocumentthecitizenshipoftheiremployeesandallowsciviland criminalpenaltiesagainstemployerswhoknowinglyemployundocumented immigrants


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5) Themostrecentwaveofimmigrationhasconsistedlargelyof________and________. Answer: Asians;Hispanics


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6) WhathasbeentheregionalshiftinAmerica,andwhatareitspoliticaleffects? Answer: fromtheNortheasttotheWestandSouth;powerinCongresshasshiftedtotheWest andSouthduetoreapportionment


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7) Theprocessthroughwhichanindividualacquireshisorherparticularpoliticalorientation hisorherknowledge,feelings,andevaluationsregardinghisorherpoliticalworldis knownaspolitical________. Answer: socialization


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8) Explaintheprocessofreapportionment.WhyisitimportantinAmericanpolitics? Answer: theprocessofallocatingseatsintheHouseofRepresentativeseverytenyearsonthe basisoftheresultsofthecensus


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9) WhathavebeenthemainconsequencesofthegrayingofAmerica? Answer: increasedcostsoftheSocialSecurityprogram


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10) Whatistheimportanceofthefamilytotheprocessofpoliticalsocialization? Answer: Thefamilyhasamonopolyontimeandemotionalcommitmentduringchildhood.


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11) Thekeytotheaccuracyofpublicopinionpollsisthetechniqueof________,whichoperateson theprinciplethateveryoneshouldhaveanequalprobabilityofbeingselected. Answer: randomsampling


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12) Explainwhatismeantbysamplingerror. Answer: thelevelofconfidenceinthefindingsofapublicopinionpoll


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13) Whatisrandomdigitdialing,andwhyaremostpollsconductedthisway? Answer: atechniqueusedbypollsterstoplacetelephonecallsrandomlytobothlistedand unlistednumberswhenconductingasurvey;thisisdonetotoovercometheproblem thatagoodrepresentationwillnotbedrawnfrompublicly -availablenumbers


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14) A(n)________isconductedonthedayoftheelectionitself,withvotingplacesrandomly selectedandworkerssentouttoaskeverytenthvoterhowtheyvoted. Answer: exitpoll


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15) Whatareexitpollsandwhyhavetheybeensoseverelycriticized? Answer: publicopinionsurveysconductedatvotingplacesasvotersleavethepollsonelection daytobeabletopredictelectionwinnersasquicklyaspossible;announcingthese resultsbeforethepollsclosemaydiscouragecitizensfromvoting,andthepredicted resultsmayalsobeincorrect


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16) Apolitical________isasetofcoherentandconsistentpolicypreferences. Answer: ideology


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17) Religionis________predictiveofpoliticalideologythanitusedtobe. Answer: more


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18) WhatwerethemainfindingsofTheAmericanVoter study? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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19) Inthe2004presidentialelection,________percent ofadultAmericanscastballots. Answer: 55


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20) Tofollowhisconscienceandtodrawattentiontothecivilrightsstruggle,MartinLutherKing, Jr.,purposelypracticednonviolent________,consciouslybreakinglawsthathethought unjust. Answer: civildisobedience


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21) Inthe2006midtermelections,________ percent ofadultAmericanscastballots. Answer: 40


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EssayQuestions
1) Whatispublicopinion,andwhyissomuchtimeandeffortspentonmeasuringitinthe UnitedStates?Whattechniquesareusedtoobtainanaccuratereadingofpublicopinion?Are publicopinionpollresultsgenerallyaccurate?Explain.
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2) Describewhatismeantbymeltingpot.Whatdoesminoritymajoritymeanandwhyisit likelytobeincreasinglysignificantinAmericansociety?HowwillitchangeAmerica?Doyou thinkitwillhaveanyeffectonthequalityoflifeintheUnitedStates?Explain.


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3) Compareandcontrastthedifferentagentsofpoliticalsocialization.Whateffectdotheyhave onpoliticallearning?
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4) Whatismeantbythetermminoritymajority?Describethemajorminoritygroupsidentified inthetext,includingtheirrelativesize,politicalpowerandsocioeconomicstatus.
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5) WhateffectdoesthecensushaveonthemakeupofCongress?Whatstatesshowedthegreatest gainsinpopulationinthelastcensus?Howaretheyrewarded?Isthisafairsystem?Explain therationalebehinditandyouropinion.


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6) Describethemajorinfluencesononespoliticalsocialization,andhowthiscomesabout.From yourownperspective,whichinfluencesdoyouthinkcontributedmosttoyourpolitical attitudetoday?Explain.


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7) DescribewhatismeantbythegrayingofAmerica.
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8) Explainwhythefamilyiscentraltoindividualspoliticalsocialization.Describehowpatterns ofpartyidentificationacrossgenerationsareconsistentwiththis,usingevidencefromthe NationalElectionStudy.


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9) ArepublicopinionpollsabenefitoracursetoAmericanpolitics?Whatinfluencedotheyhave oncampaigns?Ongoverning?Whatdocriticspointtoasthekeyweaknessesofpublic opinionpolls?Doyouagree?Explain.


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10) Explainhowpublicopinionismeasured.Whatfactorsaffecttheaccuracyofpublicopinion polls?


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11) Howmuchattentionshouldpoliticalleaderspaytopublicopinionpolls?Discusshowand whyonemightarguethatpoliticalleadersshouldignorepollresults,andthendefendagainst thatargument.


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12) Presentacritiqueofpublicopinionpolling.Whateffectmightpublicopinionpollshaveonthe democraticprocessintheUnitedStates?


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13) Describehowpublicopinionpollsmakeoursystemmoredemocratic.Whatarepotential problemswithrelyingonthesepolls?


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14) Whathavepublicopinionpollstoldusabouttheextentofpoliticalinformationamongthe Americanpeople?CommentontheimplicationsthisholdsfordemocracyintheUnitedStates.


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15) Whatisapoliticalideology?Whatarethefourcategoriesintowhichthe TheAmericanVoter dividedtheAmericanelectorate?Towhichofthecategoriesdoyouthinkyoufit,andwhy? Dothesecategoriesstrikeyouasaccurate?Explain.


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16) WhatistheeffectofideologyonpublicopinioninAmerica?Dopeoplereallythinkin ideologicalterms?Doestheliberal-conservativedimensionadequatelycapturehow Americansfeelaboutpoliticalissues?


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17) DescribePresidentReagansviewonthescopeofgovernmentinAmerica.Towhatextentare theseviewsreflectedinAmericanpublicopinion?


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18) Towhatextentdoespoliticalparticipationreflectabiasinfavoroftheprivileged?Shouldthis matter?Why?


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19) HowdotheAmericanpeoplefeelaboutthescopeofthefederalgovernment?Whatdoesit meantosaythattheAmericansareideologicalconservativesandoperationalliberals?How havepublicattitudesonthesizeofgovernmentchangedovertime,andhowdoesitaffect publicpolicy?


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20) Defineprotestandwhyitisemployedinthepoliticalprocess.Whatiscivildisobedience? ShoulditbetoleratedinAmericanpoliticsorstrictlycurtailed?Howcancivildisobediencebe defended?Explain.


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Chapter7 TheMassMediaandthePoliticalAgenda
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) High-techpoliticsrefersto A) apoliticsinwhichthebehaviorofcitizensandpolicymakersisshapedbytechnology. B) aproposalfordirectdemocracythroughtheuseoftelephonevoting. C) afuturisticsocietyinwhichpoliticsiscontrolledbycomputers,freeingpeopleformore honorablepursuits. D) theuseofcabletelevisiontobroadcasttheworkingsofthegovernment. E) theabilityofgovernmenttoobservethebehaviorofcitizensthroughelectronicmeans. Answer: A
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2) Amediaeventis A) anewseventdeemedofsuchimportancetobreakintoregularprogrammingon televisionandradio. B) agatheringofpeopleworkinginthemediaindustry,oftenanawardsceremony. C) somenewsworthyoccurrencecoveredbyreportersofthevariousmedia. D) stagedprimarilyforthepurposeofbeingcoveredbythepress. E) asetupbythemediatoambushorembarrassaprominentperson. Answer: D


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3) A________isstagedbyacampaignprimarilyforthepurposeofbeingcoveredontelevision andinthepress. A) mediaevent B) TVcommercial C) politicalincident D) GetOuttheVoteeffort E) politicalplay Answer: A


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4) Mediaeventsare A) spontaneousoccurrencessuchastrainwrecksorassassinationsthatwenormallythink ofasnews. B) monopolizedbypoliticalelites. C) purposelystagedeventsheldinfrontofthemedia. D) spontaneouseventsusedtoenhanceimage. E) ineffectivewhenusedbypoliticalradicals. Answer: C


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5) Purposelystagedactivitiesheldinfrontofthemediaarecalled A) trialballoons. B) mediaevents. C) politicaldramas. D) pressconferences. E) news. Answer: B


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6) Approximately________ofpresidentialcampaignspendingisforTVads. A) 40percent B) 20percent C) 60percent D) 80percent E) 90percent Answer: C


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7) Accordingtothetext,RonaldReaganspresidencywascharacterizedby A) moreconcernandenergydevotedtothepresidentsmediaappearancesthaninany otheradministration. B) anumberofspontaneousmediaappearancesbythepresidentdesignedtotake advantageofhisHollywoodexperience. C) considerableanimositybetweenthemediaandtheadministration. D) Reagansfrequentfalsestatementswhichwerelaterdocumentedbyreporterstobeeither errorsordeliberatelies. E) attemptstoavoidmediaappearancesbythepresident. Answer: A
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8) NewsmanagementintheReaganWhiteHouseoperatedoneachofthefollowingprinciples EXCEPT A) talkabouttheissuesyouwanttotalkabout. B) controltheflowofinformation. C) expandreportersaccesstothepresident. D) revvinghelicopterenginessothepresidentwouldnotbeabletohearreporters questionsandnothavetoanswerthem. E) stayontheoffense. Answer: C


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9) UpuntilthepresidencyofFranklinRoosevelt, A) reportersdidnotaskpresidentsquestions,theysimplyreportedwhatpresidentsdid. B) presidentshelddailypressconferences. C) presidentsheldprivatechatswithreportersinaveryinformalsettingratherthanhold publicpressconferences. D) reporterssubmittedtheirquestionstopresidentsinwriting. E) reportershadfiresidechatswithpresidentsintheWhiteHouse. Answer: D


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10) Thefirstpresidenttomanipulatemediapoliticswithmanypressconferencesandfireside chatssuccessfullywas A) RonaldReagan. B) FranklinRoosevelt. C) LyndonJohnson. D) AbrahamLincoln. E) JohnF.Kennedy. Answer: B


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11) Inwhatwasaverydifferentera,thepresschosenottopointouttoreadersortophotograph thefactthatPresident________wasconfinedtoawheelchair. A) WarrenHarding B) HarryTruman C) DwightEisenhower D) LyndonJohnson E) FranklinRoosevelt Answer: E


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12) WhydidPresidentRooseveltbecomesilentduringthelastminuteofaradioaddressduringa reelectioncampaign? A) PoliticalprankstersfromtheRepublicanpartydisabledthepowersupplytotheradio station. B) Hewantedtoreducethesizeofhisopponentsaudience. C) TheradiostationdirectordislikedthepositionsRooseveltwastakingandcuthimoff. D) Hetalkedforsolongthathelosthisvoice. E) Theradiostationcuthimoffbecausehehadexceededhistimelimit. Answer: B
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13) Whichpresidentheldonethousandpressconferences,farmorethananyother? A) JohnF.Kennedy B) RichardNixon C) RonaldReagan D) FranklinRoosevelt E) BillClinton Answer: D


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14) WhentheFirstAmendmentwaswrittenguaranteeingfreedomofthepress, A) thepennypresswasprevalent. B) therewasvirtuallynodailypressinthiscountry. C) onlythelargestcitieshadadailypress. D) thepresswasownedbythegovernment. E) thetelegraphwasrevolutionizingthenewspaperindustryandstimulatingtherapid spreadofdailynewspapersthroughoutthecountry. Answer: B


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15) Priortothe1930s, A) pressconferenceswereheldtwiceaweek. B) thepresidentwasrarelydirectlyquestionedbythemedia. C) themediawasdominatedbyafewinfluentialnewspapers. D) image-buildingwasessentiallybuiltaroundradiobroadcasting. E) thepresidentcateredtothelocal,ratherthanthenational,press. Answer: B


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16) Thefirstpresidenttosuccessfullyutilizemediapoliticswas A) RonaldReagan. B) RichardNixon. C) GeorgeWashington. D) AbrahamLincoln. E) FranklinRoosevelt. Answer: E


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17) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutFranklinRooseveltandthenewsmediaisFALSE? A) Rooseveltusedpresidentialwrathtowarnreportersoffmaterialhedidnotwant covered. B) ThepressreveredRoosevelt. C) Rooseveltknewhowtofeedtherightstorytotherightreporter. D) ThepressoftenreportedonRooseveltshealthandconfinementtoawheelchair. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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18) Thecozyrelationshipbetweenpoliticiansandthepressinthetwentiethcenturylasteduntil A) theIranianHostageCrisis. B) WorldWarII. C) thecommercializationoftelevision. D) thebeginningofFranklinRooseveltspresidency. E) theVietnamWarandWatergate. Answer: E


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19) Theuseofdetective-likereportingmethodstounearthscandalsisknownas A) yellowjournalism. B) trialballoons. C) scientificjournalism. D) investigativejournalism. E) printjournalism. Answer: D


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20) Thecozyrelationshipbetweenpoliticiansandthepressendedwhen A) theVietnamWarandWatergatesouredthepressongovernment. B) thepressdiscoveredJohnF.Kennedyinacompromisingsituationwithawomanother thanhiswife. C) FranklinRooseveltchastisedthenewsreportshedeemedinaccurate. D) RonaldReaganbegantomanipulatethepresstohisadvantage. E) AbrahamLincolnnationalizedmajorUnionnewspapersduringtheCivilWar. Answer: A


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21) Todaysnewspeopleworkinanenvironmentof________towardgovernment. A) friendship B) cynicism C) hostility D) trust E) acceptance Answer: B


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22) Attheturnofthecentury,newspapermagnatesJosephandWilliamRandolphHearstushered intheeraof A) yellowjournalism. B) nickeltabloids. C) newspaperchains. D) pennypress. E) politicaladvertising. Answer: A


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23) ThefirstdailynewspaperinAmericawas A) theAssociatedPressestablishedin1841. B) TheNewYorkTimesestablishedin1800. C) printedinPhiladelphiain1783. D) theColonialGazetteprintedin1607. E) CommonSenseprintedin1776. Answer: C


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24) SinceKennedy, A) newscoverageofpresidentialcandidateshasbecomeincreasinglylessfavorable. B) thenewsmediahavereducedtheircoverageofpresidentialcandidates. C) theamountofnewscoverageofpresidentialcandidateshasincreaseddramatically. D) coverageofissuesinpresidentialcampaignshasincreaseddramatically. E) emphasisofcampaignreportinghaschangeddramaticallyfromwhytoasimpler, descriptivewhatformat. Answer: A


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25) ThomasPattersonfoundthatmediacoverageofpresidentialcandidateschangedfroma descriptiveframeworktoa(n) A) evaluativeframework. B) analyticalframework. C) empiricalframework. D) uniformframework. E) normativeframework Answer: B


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26) TheAssociatedPressisanexampleofa A) high-technologymedium. B) newspaperchain. C) massivemediaconglomerate. D) wireservice. E) tradeassociationactingasaninterestgroupfornewspapers. Answer: D


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27) Withover2,700reporters,photographersandeditors,________hasmorenewsgathering abilitythananyothernewsorganization. A) Gannett B) theAssociatedPress C) TheNewYorkTimes D) ColumbiaBroadcastingSystem E) KingFeaturesSyndicate Answer: B


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28) Thenationsmostinfluentialnewspaperanditsunofficialnewspaperofrecordis A) CongressionalQuarterly. B) USAToday. C) TheNewYorkTimes. D) theWallStreetJournal. E) theWashingtonPost. Answer: C


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29) Formostnewspapersinmedium-sizedcitiesandsmalltowns,theirprincipalsourcefor reportingnationalandworldnewsis A) USAToday. B) TheNewYorkTimes. C) CableNewsNetwork. D) TheAssociatedPress. E) TheWashingtonPost. Answer: D


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30) Since1960,newspapercirculationhasdeclinedfromonenewspaperforeverytwoadultsto slightlymorethanonenewspaperforevery________adults. A) twenty B) four C) fifteen D) ten Answer: B


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31) TheprincipalsourceofnewsandinformationformostAmericanstodayis A) newspapers. B) radiotalkshows. C) magazines. D) printmedia. E) thebroadcastmedia. Answer: E


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32) Inafamous,televisedspeechin1952tosavehisvice -presidentialcandidacy,________denied havingreceivedillegalgiftsandpayments,anddeclaredthatthefamilydog,Checkers,though agift,wouldnotbereturned. A) JohnSparkman B) RichardNixon C) LyndonJohnson D) SpiroAgnew E) DwightEisenhower Answer: B
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33) FollowingthefirstNixon-Kennedypresidentialdebateof1960,opinionpollsshowedthat A) thosewhowatchedontelevisionthoughtNixonhadwon,whilethosewholistenedover theradiothoughtKennedywon. B) thosewhowatchedontelevisionandlistenedovertheradioboththoughtKennedyhad won. C) thosewholistenedoverradiothoughtitwasadraw,whilethosewhowatchedtelevision thoughtKennedydidbetter. D) thosewhowatchedontelevisionandlistenedovertheradioboththoughtNixonhad won. E) thosewhowatchedontelevisionthoughtKennedyhadwon,whilethosewholistened overtheradiothoughtNixonwon. Answer: E
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34) FouroutoffivenewspaperreadersinAmericareadpapersownedby A) largecorporatechainslocatedoutoftown. B) fearlesslocaleditors. C) theAssociatedPress. D) televisionstations. E) theiremployees. Answer: A


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35) Seriousmagazinesofpoliticalnewsandopinionare A) basicallyreservedfortheeducatedeliteinAmerica. B) almostnonexistentintheUnitedStates. C) aprinciplesourceofnewsandinformationformostAmericans. D) rapidlydyingoutintheUnitedStates,butremainveryhealthyinEuropeandLatin America. E) amorecommonsourcefornationalandinternationalnewsthannewspapers. Answer: A


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36) TheprinciplesourceofnewsandinformationintheUnitedStatesis A) theprintmedia. B) magazinesandradio. C) newspapers. D) radiotalkshows. E) thebroadcastmedia. Answer: E


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37) Ingeneral,magazinesare A) politicallyconservative. B) basicallyreservedfortheeducatedelite. C) notamajorsourceofnewsintheUnitedStates. D) notreadverywidelyintheUnitedStates. E) amajorsourceofnewsintheUnitedStates. Answer: C


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38) NewspapermagnatesJosephPulitzerandWilliamRandolphHearsttriedtooutdoone anotherinsensationalreportingofwars,violence,corruption,andgossiparoundtheturnof thetwentiethcenturyinwhatisnowrememberedastheeraof A) yellowjournalism. B) investigativejournalism. C) tabloidjournalism. D) scandalism. E) hyperjournalism. Answer: A
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39) Televisionbecameextremelyimportantinpoliticalcampaignsbeginningin A) 1948. B) 1952. C) 1972. D) 1960. E) 1984. Answer: D


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40) RichardNixonbelievedhelostthe1960presidentialelectionbecause A) newscoverageofhiscampaignwasconsistentlybiasedagainsthim. B) theCubanMissileCrisisstolemediaattentionfromhiscampaign. C) ofvoterfraudinNewYorkCity. D) ofKennedysdramaticpledgenottoraisetaxes. E) hewassweatingandhadanuglybeardstubbleduringadebatewithKennedy. Answer: E


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41) Thefirsttelevised________occurredduringthe1960presidentialcampaign. A) electionreturns B) presidentialdebate C) nationalpoliticalconvention D) politicalcommercial E) presidentialpressconference Answer: B


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42) The1960presidentialdebatebetweenRichardNixonandJohnF.Kennedyillustratesthe A) propagandisticnatureofAmericanpresidentialcampaigns. B) roleofradiobroadcastingintheUnitedStates. C) importanceofexperienceinpresidentialpolitics. D) importanceofissuesinpresidentialdebates. E) poweroftelevisioninAmericanpolitics. Answer: E


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43) Televisionbecameespeciallyimportantinbringingtherealityof________hometoAmericaas itsfirstheavilytelevisedwar. A) theVietnamWar B) theKoreanWar C) WorldWarI D) thewarinIraq E) WorldWarII Answer: A


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44) TelevisioncoverageofthewarinVietnamhadtheeffectof A) generatingpopularsupportforthepresidentandthewar. B) hidingthetruehorrorsofthewarandthenumberofcasualtiesfromtheAmerican people.

C) exposinggovernmentalnaiveteandliesabouttheprogressofthewar.
D) dupingthepublicintobelievingthewarwouldsoonend. E) simultaneouslyunderminingsupportforthewarinNorthVietnamwhileboosting publicmoraleinSouthVietnam. Answer: C
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45) Individualsaged29andunderare A) morelikelythanolderindividualstospendtimegettingnews. B) lesslikelythanolderindividualstousetheInternetfornews. C) morelikelytorelyonnewspapersthanontelevisionasanewssource. D) lesslikelythanolderindividualstolearnaboutthepresidentialcampaignfromadaily newspaper. E) morelikelythanolderindividualstousenewsmagazinesasanewssource. Answer: D


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46) Narrowcastingrefersto A) mediaprogrammingfocusedentirelyonmediaevents. B) thetechnicalabilitytoblockaccesstobroadcastsignals. C) mediaprogrammingaimedataparticular(narrow)audience. D) mediaprogrammingdeliveredinbriefprogramsegments. E) politicaladvertisingbeingdevelopedforhomogeneousaudiences. Answer: C


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47) DuringthemilitarycampaigninAfghanistan,PresidentBushandtheWhiteHousefrequently watched________toseeeventsastheyhappened. A) Nightline B) GoodMorningAmerica C) closedcircuit,top-secretPentagonvideorelays D) CNN E) TheMacNeil/LehrerNewshour Answer: D


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48) CableNewsNetwork(CNN) A) hastakentheplaceofthethreemajornetworksasAmericansprimarysourcefornews. B) specializesinafter-the-factnewssummariesandin-depthanalysis. C) hasbroughttelevisionintoaneweraofbringingthenewstopeopleandpoliticalleaders asithappens. D) isagovernment-ownednewsagencythatspecializesininternationalnews. E) hashadmoreeffectonthemasspublicthanithashadonpoliticalelites. Answer: C


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49) Whichfothefollowingistrueaboutcablenewscasts? A) Hardnewsstoriescompriseabout22hoursofatypicaldayscablenewscast. B) Onlyabout11%ofthetimewasusedforwrittenandeditednewsstories. C) Cablenewsisheavilysubsidizedbythethefederalgovernment. D) Therearemoreregulationsforcablenewsthantheirareforbroadcastnews. E) Cablenewscastsaremoreconcernedwithincreasingthereputationofthenews organizationthanwithmakingprofit. Answer: B


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50) Whoisthemostlikelytovisitacandidateswebsite? A) thecandidatessupporters B) thecandidatesdetracters C) undecidedvoters D) unregisteredcitizens E) retiredAmericans Answer: A


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51) Toalargeextent,televisionnetworksdefinenewsaswhatis________toviewers. A) informative B) vitalinformation C) entertaining D) thought-provoking E) yetunknown Answer: C


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52) Mostnewsorganizationsassigntheirbestreporterstoparticular________,whicharespecific locationswherenewsfrequentlyemanates. A) beats B) digs C) theaters D) lighthouses E) chains Answer: A


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53) Todaysmassivemediaconglomeratescontrolnewspaperswithover________ofthenations dailycirculation. A) 53percent B) 30percent C) 50percent D) 80percent E) 33percent Answer: D


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54) Thebottomlinethatshapeshowjournalistsdefinethenews,wheretheygetthenews,and howtheypresentitis A) theirpersonalideology. B) theFirstAmendmentrighttofreedomofthepress. C) governmentregulations. D) profits. E) theirprofessionalvalues. Answer: D


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55) Newsiswhat A) thepublicbelievesarethemostimportantpoliticalissuesfacingthecountry. B) governmentofficialswantittobe. C) istimelyanddifferent. D) hasthegreatestimpactonthemostpeople. E) journalismprofessorssayitis. Answer: C


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56) Televisionnewsprogramsaretailoredto A) ahighlyeducatedaudience. B) afairlylowlevelofaudiencesophistication. C) maleaudiencesintheirtwentiesandthirtieswithhighdisposableincomes. D) whitemiddle-classAmerica. E) anurbanpopulation. Answer: B


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57) Reportersandtheirofficialsourcesusuallyhavea(n)________relationship. A) hostile B) disinterested C) adversarial D) conspiratorial E) symbiotic Answer: E


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58) Atrialballoonisa A) methodusedbythemediatoforceapoliticianorpublicofficialtoadmittolyingtoa reporter. B) pieceofinformationleakedtopoliticiansfromareporterinordertoconfirmanother source. C) sensationalcriminaltrialthatattractsinflatedmediacoverage. D) directivebyjudgestodenyaccesstoreportersincertainsensitivecases. E) methodusedbypublicfiguresofleakingcertainstoriestoreporterstoseewhatthe politicalreactionwillbe. Answer: E
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59) Publicofficialsoftenleak________toreporterstoseewhatthepoliticalreactionwillbe. A) trialballoons B) soundbites C) beats D) oilednews E) talkingheads Answer: A


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60) Trialballoonsreferto A) marketingsurveysconductedtodetermineaudiencepreferencesinmediacoverageand programming. B) mediaexperimentswithdifferenttypesofnewscoveragetoseewhatthepublicreaction willbe. C) impromptupresidentialnewsconferences. D) informationleakedtothemediatoseewhatthepoliticalreactionwillbe. E) themediastendencytodefinenewsasinformationthatisentertainingtotheaverage viewer. Answer: D
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61) DuringthefirstPersianGulfWar,reporters A) hadveryfreemovementbutonlylimitedaccesstoaccuratemilitaryinformationona timelybasis. B) werebarredfromcoveringthewarorspeculatingaboutitfromthetimetheairstrikes beganuntiltheentirewarwasover. C) weredeniedfreedomofmovementandhadonlylimitedaccesstoaccuratemilitary informationonatimelybasis. D) werefrequentlycapturedbyIraqitroopsandsentencedtolongjailsentencesfor reportinginformationunfavorabletotheIraqigovernment. E) hadveryfreemovement,andaccesstoaccuratemilitaryinformationalmost immediately. Answer: C
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62) Mostnewscoverageisperhapsbestdescribedas A) superficial. B) thorough. C) complex. D) superlative. E) metacognitive. Answer: A


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63) AfterthePersianGulfWar,fifteenmajornewsorganizationssentaletter A) condemningPresidentBushforkillingtensofthousandsofretreatingIraqitroops. B) citingadozeninstancesofblatant,falsepropagandathathadbeengiventhembyIraqi officialsduringthewar. C) complainingthatthePentagonsrulesforreportingthewarweredesignedtocontrolthe news. D) congratulatingthePentagonforitsbrilliantwareffort. E) complainingthattheyhadbeenbarredbythePentagonfromfilmingUnitedStates planeskillingtensofthousandsofretreatingIraqitroopswavingwhiteflagsof surrender. Answer: C
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64) Anewapproachtoreportingintroducedduringthe2003Iraqwarwasto A) usemoresatellitecoverage. B) embedreporterswithtroops. C) distributedetailedmilitaryplanstojournalistsinadvance. D) allowreporterstomovearoundontheirown. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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65) Mosttelevisionnewsanalysisreports A) runovertenminutes. B) runaboutfiveminutes. C) runaboutsevenminutes. D) lastlessthanaminute. E) runabouttwominutes. Answer: D


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66) Newscoveragebytheprintandbroadcastmediaisgenerally A) veryideologicallybiased. B) comprehensive. C) detailed. D) controversial. E) superficial. Answer: E


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67) Televisionnewscoveragecharacteristically A) haslittleimpactonshapingpoliticalopinions. B) lacksin-depthanalysis. C) emphasizespolicyissues. D) focusesonCongressionalpoliticsmorethanpresidentialpolitics. E) focusesonwhatelitesthinkisimportant. Answer: B


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68) Astechnologyhasenabledthemediatopassalonginformationwithgreaterspeed,news coveragehasbecome A) lessbiased. B) lesscomplete. C) randomized. D) morebiased. E) morecomplete. Answer: B


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69) Soundbitesare A) shortclipsofapoliticalspeechlastingfifteensecondsorless. B) leaksbyofficialsourcesusedtotestthepoliticalwaters. C) negativenewscoveragereceivedbyapublicfigure.Theyhurt! D) aformofcensorshipwidelyusedinGreatBritain. E) negativepoliticaladvertisementsthatofferquickattacksononesopponent. Answer: A


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70) Acatchylineiswhatismostimportantfora A) beat. B) soundbite. C) leak. D) trialballoon. E) presidentialpressconference. Answer: B


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71) Duringthe1992electioncampaign,CBSNewspromisedto________,butthenchangedits policywhenitprovedtobeunworkable. A) followcampaignadswithfactualanalysis B) reformthesoundbiteprocess C) bancoverageofpolls D) floatnotrialballoons E) giveequaltimetoeachcandidateoneachnewsbroadcast Answer: B


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72) Ratherthancoverentirespeechesbypoliticalfigures,televisionnewstypicallyprovides ________offifteensecondsorless. A) trialballoons B) beats C) soundbites D) leaks E) newssnacks Answer: C


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73) In2004,theaveragesoundbiteofapresidentialcandidateshowntalkingonthenightlynews averaged A) lessthantenseconds. B) aboutthirtyseconds. C) abouttwominutes. D) aboutninetyseconds. E) aboutaminute. Answer: A


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74) Theaverageamountofairtimethatapresidentialcandidatehasbeengiventotalk uninterruptedontheTVnews A) hasincreaseddramaticallysince1960. B) hasincreaseddramaticallysince1980. C) hasdeclineddramaticallysincethe1960s. D) hasbeenremarkablyconsistentovertheyears. E) hasincreasedslightlysince1970. Answer: C


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75) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttelevisionnewsisFALSE? A) Theonlyhighlyregardedin-depthnewsshowsontelevisionarewatchedbyveryfew viewers. B) Studieshaveshownthattelevisiongivesonlyskimpyattentiontotheissuesduringa presidentialcampaign. C) Thecomplexissuesoftodayaredifficulttotreatinashortnewsclip. D) Televisionanalysisofnewseventshasbeenrapidlyincreasing. E) Televisionnewsislessdetailedthanthatpresentedinnewspapers. Answer: D
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76) A2002surveyof1,149journalistsfoundthat,comparedtothegeneralpublic,journalistswere twiceaslikelytoconsiderthemselves A) Democrats. B) radicals. C) Republicans. D) conservatives. E) policyentrepreneurs. Answer: A


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77) Ina2002surveyof1,149journalists, A) morewerefoundtoidentifythemselvesasDemocratsthanasRepublicans. B) amajorityexpressednopartypreferencewhatsoever. C) theywereaboutevenlysplitintheirpartypreferencesbetweenRepublicansand Democrats. D) morewerefoundtoidentifythemselvesasRepublicansthanasDemocrats. E) alargemajoritywerefoundtobebothideologicallyneutralandhavenopreferencefor onepartyovertheother. Answer: A
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78) Onesurveyofjournalistsin2002foundthat________wereRepublican. A) 19percent B) 60percent C) 54percent D) 30percent E) 44percent Answer: A


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79) Onesurveyofjournalistsin2002foundthat________wereDemocrats. A) 37percent B) 29percent C) 60percent D) 45percent E) 85percent Answer: A


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80) AstudybytheLosAngelesTimes inthemid-1980sfoundthatreporterswere________aslikely tocallthemselvesliberalasthegeneralpublic. A) twice B) half C) one-third D) just E) not Answer: A
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81) Theoverridingbiasinthenewsistowardstoriesthat A) includetalkingheads. B) aretriangular. C) areliberal. D) drawlargeaudiences. E) target-specificaudiences. Answer: D


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82) Atalkingheadisa A) nicknameforapoliticaljournalist. B) shotofapersonspeakingdirectlyintothetelevisioncamera. C) secretsourcefornewsleaks. D) publicrelationsexpert. E) memberoftheseminalpunkbandofthe1980sthathadamajorpoliticalinfluenceon youth. Answer: B


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83) Ashotofapersonsfacespeakingdirectlyintothetelevisioncameraisknownasa A) superfacial. B) talkinghead. C) headshot. D) soundbite. E) mugshot. Answer: B


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84) WhichofthefollowingisLEASTlikelytofascinatetelevisionnewsviewers? A) violence B) scandal C) disaster D) atalkinghead E) abreakingcrimestory Answer: D


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85) Thenewsdoesnotmirrorrealitybecause A) journalistsaremoreliberalthanmostpeople. B) thenumberofpotentialnewsstoriesislimited. C) journalistsmustselectstoriesthatwilldrawthelargestaudience. D) journalistsaremoreconservativethanmostpeople. E) thenewsmediaarebiasedtowardthecoverageofpoliticalevents. Answer: C


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86) Whenjournalistsselectstoriestocover,theoverridingbiasistoward A) storiesaboutthepersonalityquirksofpoliticalcelebrities. B) internationalandforeignpolicystories. C) storiesthatwilldrawthelargestaudience. D) storiesinvolvingthemostimportantpolicyissuesoftheday. E) storiesthattargetspecificaudiences. Answer: C


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87) Atalkingheadisareferenceto A) atelevisiontalkshowhost. B) ashotofapersonsfacetalkingdirectlytothecamera. C) anewsleakthatisdiscretelypassedtoareporterinapublicwashroom. D) atelevisionnewsanchor. E) atelevisiontalkshow. Answer: B


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88) Theearliestsurveystudiesoftheeffectofthemediaonpublicopinion,whichevaluatedits impactonvotingbehavior,offered A) muchevidencethatmediaactioninfluencedpoliticalcampaignoutcomes. B) apolicyagendainterpretation. C) theobservationthatDemocraticcontrolofCongresswaspartlyduetomediabiasin newscoverage. D) theminimaleffectshypothesis. E) thehypodermicneedlemodel. Answer: D
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89) Criticsoftheminimaleffectshypothesisaboutthemediaseffectonpublicopinionpointto themediasrolein A) howvoterscasttheirballots. B) concealingproblemsthatexistbyignoringthem. C) shapingwhatpriorityAmericansattachtoproblems. D) whetherpeoplechoosetovote. E) mobilizingvoterturnout. Answer: C


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90) AstudybyShantoIyengarandDonaldKindersuggestedthattelevisionnewscan A) concealproblemsthatactuallyexist. B) makesomethingoutofnothing. C) influencethecriteriabywhichthepublicevaluatespoliticalleaders. D) affecthowpeoplevote. E) produceahypnoticeffectthatmakesviewersvulnerabletosubtle,subconscious messages. Answer: C


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91) Themediaseemtohavetheleasteffectintermsof A) howpeoplevote. B) howpeopleevaluatepoliticalleaders. C) whatAmericansthinkabout. D) theimportancepeopleattachtoproblems. E) whovotes. Answer: A


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92) The________isthelistofsubjectsorproblemstowhichgovernmentofficials,andpeople outsideofgovernmentcloselyassociatedwiththoseofficials,arepayingsomeserious attentiontoatanygiventime. A) A-List B) plumbook C) prioritizationschedule D) catalogofcurrentissues E) policyagenda Answer: E
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93) Agenda-settingeffectsonpublicopinionareanexampleofhow A) themediainfluenceindividualsvotechoices. B) themediahaveabiasinfavorofthestatusquo. C) themediacueindividualsaboutwhatpoliticalissuesareimportanttothinkabout. D) themediahavealiberalbias. E) themediahavenobias. Answer: C


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94) Agendasettingeffectsareespeciallystrongforthe A) youngergenerationwhodistrustthemedia. B) politicallyknowledgeablewhotrustthemedia. C) politicallyignorantwhotrustthemedia. D) televisionaudiencewhotruststhemedia. E) older,morepoliticallyexperiencedindividuals. Answer: B


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95) TheimpactofTVnewsisthatit A) familiarizesthepublicwithissuesthroughitsemphasisonheadlinereading. B) alterstheprioritiesAmericansattachtoacircumscribedsetofproblems. C) influencesthegovernmentalagendabecausepolicymakersandpolicyentrepreneurs dependonit. D) haslittleinfluenceonthepublicagendabecausemostviewersarelesseducated. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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96) Thepolicyagendais A) asetofissuesorproblemsthatthepublicconsidersimportant. B) ascheduleofbillsbeforeCongress. C) alistofprioritiestowhichgovernmentofficialsaddresstheirtimeandenergies. D) alinkageinstitutionbetweenpeopleandgovernment. E) alloftheabove Answer: C


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97) Peoplewhoinvesttheirpoliticalcapitalinaparticularissueareoftencalled A) talkingheads. B) policywonks. C) policyentrepreneurs. D) politicalinvestors. E) policyspecialists. Answer: C


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98) WhichofthefollowingareNOTnormallypolicyentrepreneurs? A) massmedia B) appointedgovernmentofficials C) interestgroups D) electedgovernmentofficials E) politicalparties Answer: A


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99) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutpolicyagendasisFALSE? A) Interestgroups,politicalparties,andthepresidentareallexamplesofthosewhopush fortheirprioritiestotakeprecedence. B) Scoresofissuescompeteforattentionfromthegovernment. C) Thepolicyagendareceivessomeseriousattentionatanygiventime. D) Onlygovernmentofficialsdeveloppolicypriorities. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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100) Apolicyentrepreneuris A) anelectedorappointedpublicofficial. B) acandidateseekingacareerinelectiveoffice. C) someonewhoworkstogetideasonthegovernmentspolicyagenda. D) aknowledgespecialistinapolicyarea. E) someonewhousespoliticsforself-gain. Answer: C


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101) ThemediausuallyreportonAmericassocialproblemsinamannerthat A) encouragesgovernmenttotakeonmoreandmoretasks. B) suggestsgovernmentcanreallynotbetrustedtotakeonmoretasks. C) isneithercriticalnorpositive. D) displaysalackofrealsensitivity. E) hasoftenbeendescribedasbenignneglect. Answer: A


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102) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueaboutthemediainAmerica? A) Themediaarguethatiftheirnewsissuperficial,itisbecausethatiswhatpeoplewant. B) Themediadoabetterjobcoveringthehorseraceaspectofpoliticsthanofcovering substantiveissues. C) Reportersoftenseethemselvesinareformismrole,crusadingagainstfoulplayand unfairness. D) Theirskepticismaboutgovernmentalhonestyandefficiencyleadsthemtoopposegiving governmentgreaterresponsibilities. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D
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103) Morethananyotherdevelopmentinthetwentiethcentury,theriseoftelevisionbroadcasting hasreinforced________intheAmericanpoliticalprocess. A) interest B) individualism C) behavioralism D) participation E) democratization Answer: B


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104) Thewatchdogorientationofthepresshelpsto A) increaseconfidenceingovernment. B) restrictpoliticians. C) de-emphasizeindividualism. D) educatethemasspublic. E) assistpoliticiansinleadingthemasspublic. Answer: B


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105) Thewatchdogorientationofthepresscanbecharacterizedas A) reformist. B) liberal. C) libertarian. D) conservative. E) partisan. Answer: A


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106) Themediainevitablyencouragethegrowthofgovernmentwhenthey A) focusonpolicyissues. B) reapplyfortheirbroadcastlicenses. C) uncovergovernmentwaste. D) actasawatchdog. E) focusoninjusticeinsociety. Answer: E


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True/FalseQuestions
1) Amediaeventisstagedprimarilyforthepurposeofbeingcoveredbyreporters,cameras,etc. Answer: TRUE
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2) RonaldReaganspresidencyoftenappearedasaperformancewithwell -choreographed appearances. Answer: TRUE


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3) RonaldReaganwasthefirstpresidenttoholdfrequentpressconferencesandgivefireside chatstoreassurethepublic. Answer: FALSE


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4) FranklinRooseveltwasthefirstpresidentwhowascloselyscrutinizedbythemedia. Answer: FALSE


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5) LyndonJohnsonandRichardNixonfelttheywerehoundedoutofofficebythepress. Answer: TRUE


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6) Therelativelycozyrelationshipthatexistedbetweenpoliticiansandthepressduringthe twentiethcenturylasteduntiltheVietnamWarandWatergate. Answer: TRUE


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7) Investigativejournalismhascontributedtogreaterpubliccynicismandnegativismabout politics. Answer: TRUE


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8) ThomasPattersonfoundthatsince1960,thefocusofthepressscoverageofcampaignissues hasshiftedfrompolicystatementstocampaigncontroversies. Answer: TRUE


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9) Theresultsofapolltakenafterthefirsttelevisedpresidentialdebatein1960showedthatmost wholistenedtothedebateonradiothoughtKennedyhadwon,whilethosewhowatchedon televisionthoughtNixonhadwon. Answer: FALSE


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10) TelevisionhadverylittleimpactonRichardNixonsearlypoliticalcareerduringthe1950sand 1960s. Answer: FALSE


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11) Mediatechnologyhashelpedtowidelydisseminateinformationtoproduceamoreinformed societyinAmerica. Answer: FALSE


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12) Asthenumberofcablechannels,politicaljunkieswillfindmorepoliticalinformationreadily availablethaneverbefore. Answer: TRUE


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13) Narrowcastingreferstopoliticiansexclusiveuseoftelevisionincommunicatingwith constituents. Answer: FALSE


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14) InCanadaandmostofEurope,themajornetworksaregovernmentowned. Answer: TRUE


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15) Toalargeextent,televisionnetworksdefinenewsaswhatisentertainingtotheaverage viewer. Answer: TRUE


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16) Inmanyothercountries,majortelevisionoutletsareownedbythegovernment. Answer: TRUE


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17) Over90%ofAmericansreceivemostoftheirnewsfromcabletelevision. Answer: FALSE


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18) Throughtheuseofblogs,Americancitizensareabletochallengemediainterpretationsof politicalevents. Answer: TRUE


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19) Astelevisionnewsaudiencesdeclined,networkexecutivesdecreedthatnewshadtobecome moreprofitable.Newsdivisionssharplyreducedtheircosts,andtriedtoraisethe entertainmentvalueoftheirbroadcasts. Answer: TRUE


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20) Numerousstudiesshowthatjournalistsrelyalmostexclusivelyonestablishedsourcestoget theirstories. Answer: TRUE


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21) DuringtheGulfWar,reportersfreedomofmovementandobservationwasseverelyrestricted bytheUnitedStatesgovernment. Answer: TRUE


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22) EmbeddedreporterswereakeyfeatureofnewscoverageinthePersianGulfWarinthe early1990s. Answer: FALSE


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23) In2000theaveragesoundbitelastedtensecondsorless. Answer: TRUE


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24) Therearemanygoodexamplesofinvestigativereportingmakingadifferenceinpoliticsand government. Answer: TRUE


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25) MostjournalistsidentifythemselvesasRepublicans,butstrivetoreportthenewsobjectively. Answer: FALSE


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26) Themajorityofstudieshaveshownthatthemedia,especiallynewspapers,tendtohavea liberalbias. Answer: FALSE


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27) AccordingtoJohnKingdon,policyentrepreneursarealwaysingovernment. Answer: FALSE


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28) Politicalelitestendtodominatethemediasuchthatthepoorandminoritygroupsareunable touseitfortheirbenefit. Answer: FALSE


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29) Inordertoconveyalong-termpositiveimageviathemedia,policyentrepreneursoftenmake campaigncontributions. Answer: FALSE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) A(n)________isstagedbypoliticalcampaignsorofficeholders,amongothers,primarilyfor thepurposeofbeingcoveredbyreportersandtherebygainingexposure. Answer: mediaevent
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2) Whataremediaeventsandhowaretheyused? Answer: eventspurposelystagedforthemediathatlookspontaneous;usedbypoliticianstoget freemediacoverage


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3) Thefirstpresidentreallytomastermediapolitics,usingfrequentpressconferencesand reassuringfiresidechats,was________. Answer: FranklinD.Roosevelt


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4) Therearetwomajorcategoriesofmedia:the________media,whichincludesnewspapersand magazines,andthe________media,whichconsistofradioandtelevision. Answer: print;broadcast


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5) The________isconsideredtheunofficialnewspaperofrecordfortheUnitedStates. Answer: NewYorkTimes


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6) ________istheuseofdetective-likemethodstounearthscandals,scams,andschemes,putting reportersinadversarialrelationshipswithpoliticalleaders. Answer: Investigativejournalism


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7) In1960,RichardNixonandJohnKennedyappearedtogetherinthefirsttelevised________. Answer: presidentialdebate


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8) Explaintheimportanceofthe1960presidentialdebate. Answer: signaledthatthevisualpoweroftelevisionwaskeytocampaignsandelections: individualswhoheardthedebateonradiothoughtthatNixonhadwon,thosewho watcheditontelevisionthoughtthatKennedyhadwon


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9) MediaoutletsthatdoNOTappealtoarelativelybroadaudiencebutinsteadfocusona specificallydefinedaudiencesinterestaresaidtobeengagedin________. Answer: narrowcasting


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10) WhateffectdidtheVietnamWarhaveonthenewsmedia? Answer: Theywerelesslikelytobelievegovernmentofficialsinreportingaboutforeignaffairs.


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11) HowhastheCableNewsNetwork(CNN)changedtelevisionnewsreporting? Answer: Itnowbringsthenewslivetopeopleandleaders.


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12) Mostnewsorganizationsassigntheirbestreporterstoparticular________,whicharespecific locationswherenewsfrequentlyemanates,suchastheWhiteHouse. Answer: beats


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13) Informationleakedtoreporterstoseewhatthepoliticalreactionwillbeisknownasa(n) ________. Answer: trialballoon


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14) Whatisatrialballoon,andwhatpurposedoesitserve? Answer: anintentionalnewsleadforthepurposeofassessingthepoliticalreaction


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15) Ratherthancoverentirepoliticalspeeches,networkstendtoprovidemostly________of fifteensecondsorlessontheeveningnews. Answer: soundbites


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16) Whataresoundbites?Howdoestheiruseinfluencethenatureofthenews? Answer: shortvideoclipsofapproximately15secondsorless;resultsincandidatesbeingless abletocontroltheirmessages,morelikelytoproducemessagesthatcanbecoveredin shortclips


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17) Seeinga(n)________,whichisslangforashotofapersonspeakingdirectlytothetelevision camera,isnotstimulatingenoughformostviewers. Answer: talkinghead


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18) Whatarepolicyentrepreneurs,andhowdotheytrytogettheirissuesonthegovernments agenda? Answer: peoplewhoinvesttheirpoliticalcapitalinanissue;theydependheavilyonthemedia togettheirmessageout,issuingpressreleases,holdingpressconferences,writing letters,convincingreportersandcolumniststotelltheirside,tradingonpersonal contactsandsometimesstagingdramaticevents


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EssayQuestions
1) Describetherelationshipbetweenthemassmediaandthepresident,andhowithaschanged overthelastseveraldecades.IncludeexamplesofhowvariouspresidentssuchasGeorge Bush,RonaldReagan,RichardNixon,andFranklinRoosevelthaveinteractedwiththemedia, i.e.,howmuchandunderwhatcircumstances.
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2) CompareandcontrasttherolesofthedifferenttypesofmediainAmericanpolitics.In particular,examinethedifferenttypesofmediaintermsofwherepeoplegettheirnews,the leveloftrustineachtype,andhoweachmediatypereportsthenews.


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3) Hastheincreaseininformationtechnologiesinsocietycreatedamoreinformedcitizenry? Whyorwhynot?Whatclaimsdothecommercialmediamakeregardingwhycitizensareor arenotinformed?


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4) Mostdescribegovernmentandelectionnewscoverageassuperficial,narrow,andlimited. ExplainwhatfactorscontributetothesetendenciesinnewscoverageintheUnitedStates.Who dogovernmentofficialsandcandidatesblameforthenatureofnewscoverage?Whodo journalistsblame?


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5) Whateventshelpedtomaketelevisionthemostimportantnewsmediuminthecountry?Are peoplegettingthenewstheyneedfromthissource?Isthewidelyheldbeliefthatseeingis believingappropriate?Explain.


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6) Howdonewsorganizationsgetmostoftheirnews?Whatroledobeats,trialballoons,and leaksplay?Istheprocessofnews-gatheringfairandlogical?Explain.
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7) HowhavetheInternetandcabletelevisionimpactedAmericanpolitics?
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8) Explainhowthemediadeterminewhatisnews,andhowitispresentedtothepublic.
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9) HowdothenewsmediashapewhatpeoplebelieveabouttheAmericanpoliticalsystem?Give examplesfromresearchinthisarea.
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10) Whatroledothemediaplayindefiningthepolicyagenda?Howcanthemediabeusedby policyentrepreneurstoachievetheirobjectives?IssuchuseaproblemoravirtueinAmericas democraticsystem?Explain.


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Chapter8 PoliticalParties
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) Apoliticalpartyis A) lessinterestedinwinningelectionsthaninparticularpublicpolicy. B) agroupofpeoplewhoagreeoneverythingandorganizeannuallytowinelections. C) anarrowinterestgroupseekingadvantagethroughelections. D) ateamofmenandwomenwithsimilarbeliefsseekinglegitimatecontrolofthe governmentbythroughelections. E) anorganizationdevotedtoimplementingpolicyinthepublicinterest. Answer: D
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2) ThelargestsegmentofanAmericanpoliticalpartyisdescribedas A) theparty-out-of-power. B) theparty-in-the-electorate. C) theparty-in-government. D) thepartyvolunteers. E) thepartyorganization. Answer: B


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3) Inthedescriptionofpoliticalpartiesasthree-headedpoliticalgiants,whichofthefollowing isNOTconsideredoneofthosethreeheads? A) theparty-in-government B) theparty-out-of-power C) theparty-in-the-electorate D) thepartyasanorganization E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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4) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEofpoliticalpartiesintheUnitedStates? A) Tobeamemberofaparty,allyouhavetodoisclaimtobeone. B) Partiesrequiredues. C) TheyaremorepowerfulthantheirEuropeancounterparts. D) Partiesissuemembershipcardstoallmembers. E) Partymembersagreeonallmajorissuesortheywillbeexpelledfromtheparty. Answer: A


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5) Thekeyspokespersonsforpoliticalpartiescomefromwhichofitsmajorcomponents? A) theparty-in-the-electorate B) thepartyasanorganization C) theparty-out-of-power D) theleaders-of-the-party-organization E) theparty-in-government Answer: E


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6) Apoliticalpartyisbestdefinedas A) agroupofmenandwomenorganizedforthesolepurposeofinfluencingpublicpolicy. B) anorganizedteamofmenandwomenwithapoliticalagenda. C) anygroupofmenandwomenwithaformalmembershipandapoliticalorsocial purposestatedintheirby-laws. D) ateamofmenandwomenseekingcontrolofthegoverningapparatusbygainingoffice inadulyconstitutedelection. E) acoalitionofintereststryingtoinfluencegovernmentpoliciesfortheirbenefit. Answer: D


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7) Accordingtothethree-headedpoliticalgiantmodelofpoliticalparties,thelargest componentofanAmericanpartyisthe A) partyasanorganization. B) party-in-the-states. C) partyCongress. D) party-in-the-electorate. E) party-in-government. Answer: D


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8) IntheUnitedStates,tobecomeamemberofapoliticalpartyyouneedto A) payannualdues. B) officiallyjointhatpartybyattendingapartymeeting. C) holdamembershipcard. D) registerwiththatpartyatyourprecinctoffice. E) claimtobeamember. Answer: E


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9) Thepeoplewhokeepthepartyrunningbetweenelectionsandmakeitsrulesaremembersof whichheadoftheparty? A) party-in-the-electorate B) permanentparty C) partyasanorganization D) party-in-government E) party-in-the-states Answer: C


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10) Theparty-in-governmentrefersto A) registeredpartyvoterswhoholdcivilservicejobsinthegovernmentandareinfluencing policy. B) winningcandidateswhobecomethemainspokespersonsforthepartythatnominated them. C) coalitionsofinterestsandideologiesthatsupportapartyscandidates. D) partyworkerswhoholdpatronagejobsinthegovernmentandcaninfluencepolicy. E) partymemberswhoperpetuatetheparty,makeitsrules,andkeepitrunning. Answer: B
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11) Thepoliticalparty-in-the-electorateisdefinedaspeoplewho A) voteforthecandidatesfromoneparty. B) registerasmembersofaparty. C) workforapartyscandidates. D) identifywithaparty. E) walkdoor-to-doortomeetthevotersandpersonallycampaignfortheirpartys candidates. Answer: D


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12) Almostalldefinitionsofpoliticalpartieshavewhichofthefollowingincommon? A) Partieshaveformalorganizations. B) Partieshaveamassfollowing. C) Partiestrytowinelections. D) Partiesarerunbyelites. E) Partieshavelimitedpolicyagendas. Answer: C


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13) Whichisalinkageinstitution? A) SupremeCourt B) ExecutiveOfficeofthePresident C) Congress D) alloftheabove E) noneoftheabove Answer: E


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14) Apartysendorsementtoofficiallyrunforofficeasthecandidateofthatpartyiscalled A) aballot. B) aticket. C) anomination. D) aconfirmation. E) anappointment. Answer: C


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15) PoliticalpartiesperformallofthefollowingtasksEXCEPT A) pickpolicymakersandruncampaigns. B) enforcerigidadherencetotheirpolicypositions. C) advocatepublicpolicies. D) coordinatepolicymaking. E) givecuestovoters. Answer: B


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16) As________,politicalpartiesservetheroleoftranslatinginputsfromthepublicintooutputs frompolicymakers. A) coalitions B) superdelegates C) politicalconverters D) machines E) linkageinstitutions Answer: E


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17) Linkageinstitutions A) helplinkthethreebranchesofgovernmenttogethertoachievecoherentpolicies. B) areusedtoimplementpublicpolicies. C) linkpoliticalpartiestothegovernment. D) translateinputsfromthepublicintooutputsfromthepolicymakers. E) linkthepresidenttomembersofhis/herpartyinCongress,sotheycancoordinatetheir policiesingovernment. Answer: D


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18) Americanpoliticalpartiestendtotakemiddle-of-the-roadstandsonmajorissues A) onlybecausethepartyscandidatesaresoafraidofalienatingthoseondifferentsidesof issues. B) whilethepublictendstohavestrongeropinions C) inspiteofevidencethatmoreextremepositionsgeneratemoreexcitementandlikelihood forelectoralvictory. D) becausemostoftheAmericanelectoratearecentrist. E) becausemostoftheAmericanelectoratedonothavepoliticalopinions. Answer: D
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19) Rational-choicetheoryassertsthat A) thepartiesshouldnotbeexpectedtodifferentiatethemselvesinanyway. B) moreextremistpartypositionsgivethepublicasensethatthingscanreallybechanged, andusuallywinelections. C) thewisepartyselectspoliciesinwhichittrulybelieves,andgivesthevotersachanceto votethemupordownonprinciple. D) thewisepartyselectspoliciesthatarewidelyfavored. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D
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20) Thetheorythatseekstoexplainpoliticalprocessesandoutcomesasconsequencesof purposivebehavioriscalledthe A) rational-choicetheory. B) behaviorism. C) means-endstheory. D) cognitivetheory. E) goalstheory. Answer: A


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21) Comparedto1952,recentpollsonpartyidentificationhaveshownthat A) morepeopletodayidentifythemselvesasDemocrats. B) therearemoreindependentsthanthereareDemocratsorRepublicans. C) thepercentageofDemocratshasincreasedonlyslightly,whilethepercentageof Republicanshasdeclined. D) boththepercentagesofbothDemocratsandRepublicansinthecountryhaveincreased. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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22) Ticket-splittingisbestunderstoodas A) votingwithonepartyforoneofficeandanotherforotheroffices. B) votingforDemocraticcandidatesforpresidentandRepublicancandidatesforCongress. C) atacticusedtocommitvoterfraud,whichenablesavotertocastmultipleballots. D) stayingwiththesamepartyinanelection,votingdownthepartyslineforeveryrace. E) votingforRepublicancandidatesforpresidentandDemocraticcandidatesforCongress. Answer: A


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23) TheupsurgeofpartisanindependenceamongAmericanssince1952 A) hascomemostlyattheexpenseoftheRepublicans. B) hasnotharmedeitherparty. C) hascomemostlyattheexpenseoftheDemocrats. D) hasoccurredmostlyamongminorpartyidentifiers. E) hasharmedbothpartiesequally. Answer: C


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24) In2004,Americansweremostlikelytoconsiderthemselves________,andleastlikelyto considerthemselves________. A) Independents;Democrats B) Republicans;Democrats C) Independents;Republicans D) Democrats;Independents E) Democrats;Republicans Answer: C


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25) MostAmericansare A) liberal. B) moderate-liberals. C) moderate. D) conservative. E) non-ideological. Answer: C


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26) Inrecentelections,thetrendsinpartyidentificationintheUnitedStateshavebeen A) anincreaseinthepercentageofDemocratsandadeclineinthepercentageof Independents. B) anincreaseinthepercentagesofDemocratsandRepublicansandadeclineinthe percentageofIndependents. C) anincreaseinthepercentageofDemocratsandadeclineinthepercentageof Republicans. D) adecreaseinthepercentageofDemocratsandanincreaseinthepercentageof Independents. E) afairlyconstantpercentageofDemocrats,Republicans,andIndependents. Answer: D
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27) Ticket-splittingrefersto A) switchingmembershipinpoliticalparties. B) theprocedureusedtoconductcomputerized,automatedvotecounting. C) votingwithonepartyinonepresidentialelection,andanotherpartyinthenext presidentialelection. D) votingforonepartyforoneoffice,andanotherpartyforotheroffices. E) votingforapartyotherthantheoneyouidentifywith. Answer: D


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28) Intermsoforganizationalstructure,Americanpoliticalpartiesare A) organizedmorebyregionsofthecountrythanatthestateornationallevel. B) decentralizedandfragmented. C) tightlycontrolledorganismsthatexerttremendouscontrolovercandidates. D) operatedontheprincipleofdemocraticcentralism:Localandstateorganizationscontrol thenationalorganizations. E) centralizedandhierarchical. Answer: B


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29) PowerinthemajorUnitedStatespoliticalpartiesis A) fragmentedamonglocal,state,andnationalpartyorganizations. B) concentratedinthestateparties,withnationalandlocalorganizationsplayingonly minorroles. C) hierarchicallydistributedfromthenationaltolocallevels. D) centralizedinnationalpartyorganizations. E) concentratedinpartymachinesatthelocallevel. Answer: A


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30) Fromthelate-nineteenthcenturythroughtheNewDealyears,manyofAmericaslargest citiesweredominatedby A) corruptbutpopularpartymachines. B) theSocialistparty. C) theCommunistparty. D) mayorswhorefusedtoallowelections. E) superdelegateswhocontrolledeverything. Answer: A


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31) Partymachinesinlargecitiesreliedprimarilyon________torewardfriendsandpunish enemies. A) localjudges B) patronage C) citypolicedepartments D) thecivilservicemeritsystem E) thirdparties Answer: B


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32) Apartymachineisakindoflocalpartyorganizationthat A) threatenstheefficiencyofstateandnationalpartyorganizations. B) specializesincomputerizedmassmailingsbothtoraisefundsandinfluencevoterson behalfoftheircandidates. C) usesspecificandmaterialinducementstowinpartyloyaltyandpower. D) remainsstronginmostlargeAmericancities. E) hasrecentlycometodependheavilyonethnicgroupsupport. Answer: C


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33) Patronage A) iscommonlyusedbypoliticalpartiestoday. B) isanincentivegivenbynationalpartyoffices. C) isthedeferencethatelectedofficialsgivetotheircampaigncontributorsinmakingpolicy decisions. D) isbasedonmeritandcompetence. E) wasaninducementofjobsandfinancialrewardsgivenforpoliticalreasonsbyparty machines. Answer: E
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34) ________hassomeofthestrongestpartiesinAmerica. A) Hawaii B) Pennsylvania C) NewYork D) Texas E) California Answer: B


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35) Since1960,statepartyorganizations A) havebegunselectingcandidatesforstateoffices. B) havebeenestablishedforthefirsttimeasthenationalorganizationshaveweakened. C) havevirtuallydisappearedasthenationalunitshavetakenontheirfunctions. D) havebegunselectingcandidatesforCongress. E) havebecomemuchmorepowerfulandorganized. Answer: E


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36) Aboutwhichstatehasitbeensaidthatthepoliticalpartiesaresoweakastobealmost nonexistent? A) Pennsylvania B) NewYork C) Texas D) Alaska E) California Answer: E


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37) Inclosedprimaries, A) votersmayvoteforcandidatesfromeitherparty. B) votersmaychooseonelectiondaywhichpartyprimarytheywanttoparticipatein. C) onlyvoterswhohaveregisteredinadvancewiththepartycanvote. D) votersmayvoteformultiplecandidates. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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38) Inopenprimaries, A) votersmaychooseonelectiondaywhichpartyprimarytheywanttoparticipatein. B) votersmayvoteforcandidatesfromeitherparty. C) onlyvoterswhohaveregisteredinadvancewiththepartycanvote. D) votersmayvoteformultiplecandidates. E) noneoftheabove Answer: A


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39) Inblanketprimaries, A) votersmaychooseonelectiondaywhichpartyprimarytheywanttoparticipatein. B) onlyvoterswhohaveregisteredinadvancewiththepartycanvote. C) votersmayvoteforcandidatesfromeitherparty. D) votersmayvoteformultiplecandidates. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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40) Closedprimaries A) depressvoterturnout. B) encouragepartyloyalty. C) discouragepartyloyalty. D) costlessthanopenprimaries. E) havefewerundercounts. Answer: B


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41) Blanketprimaries A) costlessthanopenprimaries. B) discouragepartyloyalty. C) depressvoterturnout. D) encouragepartyloyalty. E) havefewerundercounts. Answer: D


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42) Americannationalpartiesarebestdescribedas A) controlledfromthebottom(locallevel)up. B) looseaggregationsofstateparties. C) bicameralinnature. D) centralizedorganizationsbasedinCongress. E) powerful,centralizedorganizationsbasedinWashington,D.C. Answer: B


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43) Eachpartyholdsanationalconventionevery A) sixyears. B) year. C) fouryears. D) fiveyears. E) twoyears. Answer: C


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44) Thesupremepowerwithineachofthepartiesis A) thestatepartyorganizations. B) thepresident. C) theSupremePartyCourt. D) thenationalconvention. E) thenationalcommittee. Answer: D


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45) Keepingthepartyoperatingbetweenconventionsisthejobofthe A) nationalcommittee. B) regionaloffices. C) electedofficials. D) congressionalleadership. E) majorityorminoritywhip. Answer: A


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46) ThechairpersonofthepartythatcontrolstheWhiteHouseisnormallyselectedby A) membersofthepartyinCongress. B) acommitteeofstatechairpersons. C) thepresident. D) closedprimary. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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47) Everypoliticalpartydependsuponwhatthetextcallsa________,meaningasetof individualsorgroupssupportingit. A) systemofpatronage B) coalition C) setofsuperdelegates D) powerbase E) linkageinstitution Answer: B


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48) Thepartynationalcommittees A) selectthepartyspresidentialcandidate. B) arecomposedofeachpartysmembersofCongress. C) meetonceeveryfouryears. D) writeandapprovethepartysplatform. E) keepthepartyoperatingbetweenconventions. Answer: E


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49) Theday-to-dayactivitiesofthenationalpartyaretheresponsibilityofthe A) congressionalpartyleaders. B) nationalchairperson. C) president. D) nationalcommittee. E) nationalconvention. Answer: B


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50) Votersandcoalitionsofvotersareattractedtodifferentpartieslargelyby A) selectiveperception. B) theirperformanceandpolicies. C) thecharismaoftheircandidates. D) tradition. E) theirsocio-economicstatus. Answer: B


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51) Politicalcandidatesmakemanypromiseswhenrunningforoffice.Inelectingone,thepublic canexpect A) specificimplementationofthepromisetodifferfromthegeneralpromisemadeduring thecampaign. B) fewtobecarriedoutbecausepoliticalpromisesaremadetobebroken. C) thatforeverybrokenpromise,manymorewillbekept. D) asignificantgapbetweenpartyplatformandpoliticalperformance. E) bothAandD. Answer: C
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52) TheAmericanpoliticalpartiesfallfarshortoftheresponsiblepartymodelforallofthe followingreasonsEXCEPT A) theyaretoodecentralized. B) thereisnomechanismforthepartiestodisciplineofficeholders. C) theirpresidentialcandidatesignorethepartyplatform. D) theircandidatesareusuallyself-selected. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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53) AstudyofmajorpartyplatformsbyGeraldPomperfoundthatthepartiesbroketheir promises A) tenpercentofthetime. B) halfthetime. C) two-thirdsofthetime. D) overninetypercentofthetime. E) athirdofthetime. Answer: A


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54) Apartyerarefersto A) aperiodofhistoryinwhichthereisonedominantmajoritypartythatwinsmost elections. B) theperiodbetweentwoelections,duringwhichthetwopartiesareassessedastohow powerfultheyarerelativetoeachother. C) aperiodofyearsduringwhichapartyisbornandbeginstoruncandidatesforoffice. D) thelifespanofapartyfromitsbeginningtoend(e.g.,theWhigs). E) aperiodoftimeduringwhichthereisonedominantmajoritypartythatwinsall elections. Answer: A
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55) Apartyerabegins,orismademorecertain,with A) thedefeatofanincumbentpresident. B) acriticalelection. C) thefoundingofanewmajorparty. D) partycompetition. E) acongressionalelection. Answer: B


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56) Acriticalelectioninvolvesandacceleratesaprocesscalled A) partisantransformation. B) electoralexamination. C) proportionalrepresentation. D) partyrealignment. E) democraticrejuvenation. Answer: D


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57) PartyrealignmentsintheUnitedStates A) occurwhenapartymakesdramaticchangesinitspositionsonissues. B) involvethedeathofonepartyandthebirthofabrandnewone. C) areslightadjustmentsofpoliticalallegianceamongvotersinatleastoneregionofthe country. D) happenaftermostpresidentialelections,andoccasionallyin -between. E) arerareeventsintheUnitedStates,usuallyassociatedwithamajornationalcrisisor trauma,inwhichonepartysmajoritydominationisreplacedwithanothers. Answer: E
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58) Realignmentsaretypicallyassociatedwith A) amajorreorganizationoftheexecutivebranch. B) thecreationofnewstates. C) onepartywinningthepresidencywhiletheothercontrolsCongress. D) amajorcrisisortraumainthenation. E) changesinelectionlaws. Answer: D


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59) ThefirstpartysystemintheUnitedStatesconsistedofthe A) DemocratsandWhigs. B) FederalistsandWhigs. C) DemocratsandRepublicans. D) FederalistsandDemocratic-Republicans. E) Democratic-RepublicansandWhigs. Answer: D


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60) ThedominantpoliticalpartyinAmericasfirstpartysystemwasthe A) Democratic-Republicans. B) Whigs. C) Republicans. D) Democrats. E) Federalists. Answer: A


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61) TheDemocratic-Republicanswerealsoknownasthe A) Jeffersonians. B) Madisonians. C) Whigs. D) Federalists. E) Hamiltonians. Answer: A


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62) ThelastFederalistpresidentwas A) AlexanderHamilton. B) JohnAdams. C) AndrewJackson. D) AbrahamLincoln. E) ThomasJefferson. Answer: B


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63) AtthebeginningofpartydevelopmentintheUnitedStates, A) partiestriedtodefeateachotherinelections. B) thereweremanysmallparties,eachrepresentinganarrowinterest. C) wehadaone-partysystemwhereonepowerfulpartydominatedthegovernmentand blockedthecreationofnewparties. D) partiessoughttodestroyeachother. E) partiesweremerelythepersonalfollowingofcertaincharismaticindividuals. Answer: D


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64) ThefirstAmericanpoliticalpartyevolved A) fromthesupportersofGeorgeWashingtonsfirstcampaignforpresident. B) outofThomasJeffersonseffortstogettheDeclarationofIndependenceadopted. C) outofpublicdisgustovertheduelbetweenAaronBurrandAlexanderHamilton, leadingtocallstosolveconflictsthroughpeacefulpartycompetition. D) duringtheConstitutionalConvention. E) outofAlexanderHamiltonseffortstogetCongresstoestablishanationalbank. Answer: E


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65) Thepolicypositionsstatedinpartyplatformsare A) ofsomeimportancebecausetheyareunambiguousstatementsofwhereapartystands. B) intendedtogetacandidateelected,nottobeimplemented. C) oflittleimportancebecauseonly10to25percentofthepositionsareacteduponby government. D) veryimportantbecausenearlythree-fourthsofthemresultinpolicyactionwhenthe partyisinpower. E) neverimportantbecauselessthanone-thirdofthemresultinpolicyactionwhenthe partyisinpower. Answer: D
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66) PartyerasinAmericanpoliticsareperiodsoftimeinwhich A) partisanidentificationisathighlevelsandpoliticalpartynomineeswinmostelections ratherthanindependentcandidateswhoareunaffiliatedwithaparty. B) partyorganizationsgrowverystrong,areabletocontrolthepolicypositionsoftheir candidates,andwinvotesbyprovidingjobsandgovernmentservicestoloyalparty supporters. C) politicaldominancefrequentlyshiftsfromonepartytotheother. D) onepartydominates. E) onepartywinseverypresidentialelection. Answer: D
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67) Criticalelectionsalwaysresultinthe A) widespreadpublicquestioningoftheAmericanelectionprocessaccompaniedbycalls foritsreform. B) displacementoftheminoritypartybythemajorityparty. C) formationofnewpoliticalparties. D) successfulbidbyathirdpoliticalparty. E) formationofnewcoalitionsforeachpoliticalparty. Answer: E


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68) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutpartyrealignmentisFALSE? A) Partyrealignmentsaretypicallyassociatedwithamajorcrisisortrauma. B) PartyrealignmentswereassociatedwiththeCivilWarandwiththeGreatDepression. C) Partyrealignmentstransformthepartysystem. D) Partyrealignmentinvolvesareconfigurationofthedemographicgroupssupportingthe parties. E) PartyrealignmentsoccurofteninAmericanpoliticallife. Answer: B


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69) Americasfirstandshortest-livedmajorpoliticalpartywasthe A) Anti-Federalistparty. B) Whigparty. C) Democratic-Republicanparty. D) Federalistparty. E) Independenceparty. Answer: D


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70) Thefirstpartysystem(1796-1824)wascharacterizedby A) professionalpoliticiansrunningforoffice. B) thedominanceofthepresidencybytheFederalistparty. C) thedominanceoftheRepublicanparty. D) thedominanceofthenortherncapitaliststates. E) thedominanceoftheDemocratic-Republicanparty. Answer: E


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71) AndrewJacksonwasthefirstpresidentidentifiedasa(n) A) Independent. B) Democrat. C) Republican. D) Democratic-Republican. E) Whig. Answer: B


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72) InthesecondpartysysteminUnitedStateshistory,theelectioncontestswerebetweenwhich twomajorparties? A) DemocratsandWhigs B) DemocratsandRepublicans C) FederalistsandWhigs D) RepublicansandWhigs E) FederalistsandAnti-Federalists Answer: A


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73) DuringthesecondpartysysteminUnitedStateshistory,MartinVanBurenarguedthat A) politicalpartieswereharmingthecountrybecausetheypromotedfactionalism,petty bickering,anddisunity. B) theWhigsshouldbethesoleparty,astheyweretheonlylegitimaterepresentativesof thepeople. C) theDemocratsshouldbethesoleparty,astheyweretheonlylegitimaterepresentatives ofthepeople. D) theRepublicansshouldbethesoleparty,astheyweretheonlylegitimaterepresentatives ofthepeople. E) agoverningpartyneededaloyaloppositionpartytorepresentpartsofsocietythatit couldnot. Answer: E
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74) Theelectionof1828thatbroughtAndrewJacksontothepresidencywassignificantbecauseit A) begantheascendancyoftheNewDealcoalitionaroundtheDemocraticparty. B) markedtheriseoftheWhigs. C) wasthefirsttimetheRepublicanpartycontrolledCongress. D) forgedanewpoliticalcoalition. E) markedthebeginningofthedominanceofnorthernindustrialists. Answer: D


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75) TheWhigparty A) wasnamedafterthewigsthattheearlyaristocratssuchasGeorgeWashingtonwore. B) dominatedthesecondAmericanpartyerabetween1828and1856. C) forgedacoalitionofwesterners,southerners,andnewimmigrants. D) believedinbroadeningpoliticalopportunity,eliminatingvestigesofelitism,and mobilizingthemasses. E) wasonlyabletowinthepresidencywhenitnominatedaging,butpopular,military heroes. Answer: E
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76) TheRepublicansemergedasapowerfulpoliticalpartyinthe A) 1890s. B) 1790s. C) 1930s. D) 1850s. E) 1820s. Answer: D


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77) TheRepublicanpartybeganasthe A) partyofbigbusinessinterests. B) principalanti-slaveryparty. C) principalpro-slaveryparty. D) partyofstatesrightsandsilvermoney. E) partyoftheNewDeal. Answer: B


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78) TheRepublicanshadalongperiodasthecountrysdominantmajorityparty,whichended A) in1992. B) in1980. C) withtheCivilWar. D) in1932. E) in1896. Answer: D


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79) TheDepressionofthe1930sgaverisetowhatiscalled A) econo-politics. B) partycompetition. C) theEraofDividedGovernment. D) theNewDealcoalition. E) theRepublicanresurgence. Answer: D


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80) TheNewDealcoalitionwasresponsibleforelectingandreelecting A) Socialistpartycandidates. B) Democrats. C) Republicans. D) Whigs. E) Democratic-Republicans. Answer: B


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81) WhowasthepresidentwhobroughttogethertheoriginalNewDealcoalitioninsupportofhis candidacy? A) WoodrowWilson B) LyndonJohnson C) JohnF.Kennedy D) FranklinD.Roosevelt E) HerbertHoover Answer: D


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82) TheRepublicanpartyrosetoprominenceinthelate1850sasthe A) FreeSilverparty. B) PartyOfTheWealthyElite. C) GoldStandardparty. D) Anti-slaveryparty. E) PartyofRuralFarmers. Answer: D


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83) Theelectionof1896isconsideredawatershedbecauseit A) entrenchedwesternfarmersandsilveritesintheRepublicanparty. B) shiftedthepartycoalitionsandentrenchedtheRepublicansinpowerforanother generation. C) gaveRepublicanscontroloftheSouth. D) markedtheriseofthePopulistparty,whichdominatedAmericanpoliticsuntilthe Depression. E) broughttheindustrialworkingclassesandWallStreetintereststogetherintothe Democraticfold. Answer: B
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84) TheRepublicanslosttheelectionof1932primarilydueto A) thenominationofapopularwarherobytheDemocrats. B) HitlerselectionaschancellorofGermanyandtheRepublicansfailuretopreventit. C) risingpoliticalandeconomicinstabilityinEurope. D) thefailureoftheRepublicanstoholdontothesupportofurbanindustrialists. E) PresidentHerbertHoovershandlingoftheDepression. Answer: E


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85) WhichofthefollowinggroupswasNOTpartoftheNewDealcoalition? A) AfricanAmericans B) Southerners C) membersoflaborunions D) wealthyNewEnglanders E) CatholicsandJews Answer: D


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86) Betweenthe1930sandthe1960s,peopleattractedtotheDemocraticpartyincluded A) ProtestantsandJews. B) urbanworkingclassesandintellectuals. C) northernersandtherich. D) farmersandruraldwellers. E) thecollege-educatedandbusinessowners. Answer: B


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87) TheNewDealcoalitionmadethe________partytheminoritypartyfordecades. A) Socialist B) Federalist C) Whig D) Republican E) Democratic Answer: D


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88) Since1968,Americanpoliticshasbeencharacterizedby A) dividedgovernment. B) theNewDealcoalition. C) RepublicancontrolofboththeCongressandpresidency. D) DemocraticcontrolofthepresidencyandRepublicancontrolofCongress. E) DemocraticcontrolofboththeCongressandpresidency. Answer: A


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89) Inelectionssince1968, A) theDemocratshavedominatedboththepresidencyandtheCongress. B) theRepublicanshavedominatedboththepresidencyandtheCongress. C) partycontrolofbothCongressandthepresidencyhasshiftedfromonepartytotheother atleasteveryotherelection. D) theDemocratshavedominatedthepresidency,whiletheRepublicanshavedominated Congress. E) theRepublicanshavedominatedthepresidency,whiletheDemocratshavedominated theCongress. Answer: E
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90) Peoplegraduallymovingawayfrombothpartiesisreferredtoas A) partisandrift. B) coalitionpolitics. C) realignment. D) dealignment. E) alignment. Answer: D


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91) Partydealignmentissymbolizedby A) the1992electionofapresidentandCongressofthesameparty. B) therecentpatternofone-partycontrol. C) arenewedcommitmenttoAmericastwomajorpoliticalparties. D) therecentpatternofdividedgovernment. E) theRepublicantakeoverofCongressin1994. Answer: D


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92) Loyaltytoapoliticalpartyhas________overthepastthirtyyears. A) increasedslightly B) increasedsignificantly C) decreased D) remainedaboutthesame E) virtuallydisappeared Answer: C


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93) Overthepastthirtyyears,therehasbeenamarkedrisein A) supportforboththemajorandminorparties. B) supportfortheDemocraticparty. C) supportforboththeDemocraticandRepublicanparties. D) supportforminorparties. E) partyneutrality. Answer: E


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94) Whatsortofrealignmenthasoccurredinthecurrentpartyera? A) aSouthernrealignment B) arural/urbanrealignment C) aculturalrealignment D) anentirerealignment E) anage-basedrealignment Answer: A


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95) In1968theDemocraticpartywastornapart,leavingthedoortothepresidencyopenfor RepublicanRichardNixonprimarilydueto A) thefailureofPresidentJohnsonsWaronPoverty. B) thesuddenevaporationoftheNewDealcoalition. C) theabandonmentoftheDemocraticpartybyAfricanAmericans. D) PresidentJohnsonsVietnamWarpolicies. E) theseverityofthemid-60srecession. Answer: D


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96) From1968to1992, A) theRepublicansdominatedthepresidencywhiletheDemocratsdominatedCongress. B) arealignmentoccurredthatdestroyedtheNewDealcoalition. C) theRepublicansbecamethemajorityparty. D) theRepublicansdominatedthefederalgovernmentwhiletheDemocratsdominated stategovernments. E) theDemocratsexperiencedaslow,creepingascendancethatculminatedintheir gainingcontroloftheentiregovernmentwiththeelectionofBillClinton. Answer: A
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97) Partydealignmentmeansthe A) theinabilityofthepartiestodealwiththenationsproblems. B) lackofpartycohesioninCongress. C) realignmentofpartycoalitions. D) increasinginabilityofminoritypartiestowinelections. E) decreasinginfluenceofbothpartiesonvotersandgovernment. Answer: E


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98) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthirdpartiesintheUnitedStatesisFALSE? A) Thirdpartiesoftenbringnewissuestothepoliticalagenda. B) ThirdpartiesareararephenomenainAmericanhistory. C) Thirdpartieshavebroughtnewgroupsintotheelectorate. D) Third-partycandidatesalmostneverwinofficeintheUnitedStates. E) ThirdpartieshavehadimportanteffectsonAmericanpolitics. Answer: B


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99) RossPerotscandidaciesforpresidentin1992and1996wereanexampleofwhattypeof third-partycampaign? A) asplit-levelparty B) apartyespousinganextremeideologicalposition C) asplinterparty D) apartyservingasanextensionofoneindividualscandidacy E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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100) In2000,GreenpartycandidateRalphNaderforcedmoreattentionon________issuesand drewawayasmallpercentageofvotesfromAlGore. A) budgetary B) environmental C) health D) nationalsecurity E) welfare Answer: B


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101) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEaboutmostthird-partycampaignsinAmericanhistory? A) Theyalmostneverwinoffice. B) Theyoccasionallysucceed. C) Theyusuallybecomemajorpoliticalpartiesovertime. D) Theyhavebeenmostsuccessfulatpromotingpartydealignment. E) Theyfrequentlyaresuccessful. Answer: A


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102) Anexampleofasplinterpartywouldbe A) theProhibitionistparty. B) thePoorManspartyof1952. C) theLibertarianparty. D) RossPerotsUnitedWeStand. E) GeorgeWallacesAmericanIndependents. Answer: E


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103) Criticallyaffectingtheelectoralcollegevote,bringingnewissuestothepublicagenda,and ventingpopulardiscontentareimportantrolesplayedby A) intra-partyfactions. B) splintergroupsinamultipartysystem. C) thetwo-partysysteminthwartingextremeorunconventionalviews. D) thirdpartiesinatwo-partysystem. E) partiesbasedonasingleissueinamultiple-issuesociety. Answer: D


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104) Thefirsttrueanti-slaverypartywasthe A) FreeSoilparty. B) Anti-slaveryparty. C) Populistparty. D) Progressiveparty. E) Republicanparty. Answer: A


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105) Inmanyotherdemocracies,thesystemofawardingseatsinthenationallegislature,unlikein theUnitedStates,isoneof A) single-memberdistricts. B) intellectualmeritalone. C) winner-take-all. D) virtualrepresentation. E) proportionalrepresentation. Answer: E


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106) Aproportionalrepresentationsystemforelectingmemberstoanationslegislatureismore likelytoleadtoa A) situationlikethatoftheUnitedStates,withonlytwomajorpartiesasrivals. B) centralizationandunificationofpoliticalforceswithinthenation. C) singlepartyholdingalltheseats. D) moderatingofpoliticalconflict. E) greaternumberofpoliticalpartiesholdingseats. Answer: E


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107) IftheUnitedStateshadamultipartysystem, A) thirdpartieswouldcometodominatepolitics. B) thenecessityforcoalitionswouldbeeliminated. C) eachpartywouldhavemoredistinctpolicypositions. D) peoplewouldhavetopayduestobelongtoaparty. E) eachpartywouldmovetotheideologicalcenter. Answer: C


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108) Inawinner-take-allsystem, A) coalitiongovernmentsarecommon. B) unlessapartywins,thereisnorewardforthevotesitgets. C) ifnosinglepartygetsamajorityvote,arunoffelectionisheldbetweenthetoptwo parties. D) legislativeseatsareallocatedaccordingtoeachpartyspercentageofthenationwide vote. E) thepartywinningthemajorityofthevoteswinsalltheseatsupforelectioninthe legislature. Answer: B
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109) Inproportionalrepresentationsystems, A) whoevergetsthemostvoteswinstheelection. B) eachdemographicgroupisallocatedacertainnumberofpositionsinthegovernment,in proportiontothatgroupspercentageofthepopulation. C) coalitiongovernmentsusuallylastformanyyears. D) legislativeseatsareallocatedaccordingtoeachpartyspercentageofthenationwide vote. E) everypartygetsrepresentedinthelegislature. Answer: D
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110) TheAmericantwo-partysystempromotes A) theorganizationofpoliticalpartiesaroundspecialinterests. B) theweaknessofcentristpositionsonpolicyissues. C) moderationinconflictandambiguouspolicypositions. D) greaterconflict,butclearpolicychoices. E) competitiveelections. Answer: C


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111) Advocatesofthe________believethatpartiesshouldpresentdistinct,comprehensive programsforgoverningthenationandcarrythemout. A) differentiationapproach B) McGovern-FraserCommission C) responsiblepartymodel D) rational-choicetheory E) partyrealignment Answer: C


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112) Theresponsiblepartymodelholdsthatpartiesshould A) notusewedgeissuesthatcausetheotherpartyssupporterstofightwitheachother duringthecampaign. B) avoidmakingpromises. C) keeptomiddle-of-the-roadpositions. D) presentclearalternativestovoters. E) avoidideologicalstands. Answer: D


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113) Inwhatwaydoweakpoliticalpartiesaffectthescopeofgovernment? A) Theymakeitdifficultforpoliticianstohelptheirconstituents. B) Theyallowpresidentstoexpandthescopeofforeignpolicy,whiletheydecreasethe domesticscopeofgovernment. C) Beingweak,theyareunabletocounteractthepowerofgovernmentsothescopeof governmentgrows. D) Sinceitisharderforthemtoenactlegislation,itishardforthemtoeitherexpandor decreasethescopeofgovernment. E) Theyhavehadnorealeffectonthesizeandpowerofgovernment. Answer: D
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114) TheweakeningofpartycontroloverAmericanpolitics A) isinpartduetotheincreasinginfluenceofthemedia. B) isleadingtoamultipartysysteminthiscountry. C) threatensdemocracy. D) threatenstheveryexistenceofpoliticalparties. E) leadstofewerdifferencesbetweenpartyplatforms. Answer: A


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True/FalseQuestions
1) Accordingtorational-choicetheory,voterswanttomaximizethechancethatpoliciesthey favorwillbeadoptedbygovernment,andpartieswanttowinoffice;thus,inordertowin office,thewisepartyselectspoliciesthatarewidelyfavored. Answer: TRUE
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2) Eachpartyholdsanationalconventioneverytwoyearstobringdelegatestogether,hear speeches,passthepartyplatform,attempttoprojectacertainimage,and,duringpresidential electionyears,tonominatecandidatesforpresidentandvicepresident. Answer: FALSE


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3) Criticalelectionsoccuronlyrarely,butdramaticallyshakeuptheAmericanpoliticalsystem andinvolveamajorrealignmentofthecoalitionsmakingupthemajorpoliticalparties. Answer: TRUE


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4) ThirdpartiesalmostneverwinofficeintheUnitedStates,buttheysometimeshaveaneffect ontheelectoralcollegevoteandhaveservedassafetyvalvesforexpressingpopular discontent. Answer: TRUE


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5) Day-to-dayactivitiesofthenationalpartyaretheresponsibilityofthepartysnational committee. Answer: FALSE


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6) Organizationally,statepartiesareontheupswingthroughoutthecountry. Answer: TRUE


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7) Startingabout1968,agradualrealignmentoccurredintheSouth,notedprimarilyfor moderateRepublicansswitchingovertotheDemocraticParty. Answer: FALSE


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8) ThirdpartiesintheUnitedStateshavehistoricallyhadnoimpactonAmericanpolitics. Answer: FALSE


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9) Thewinner-take-allsystemintheUnitedStatesdiscouragessmallparties. Answer: TRUE


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10) Since1968,neitherpartyhasbeencompletelyandconsistentlydominant,andtheUnited Stateshasbeeninaneraofdividedgovernment. Answer: TRUE


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11) Americasweakpoliticalpartystructuremakesitalmostimpossibleforpoliticianstofocus theireffortsongettingmorefromthegovernmentfortheirownconstituents. Answer: FALSE


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12) OneofthebiggestrivalsofAmericanpoliticalpartiesisthemedia. Answer: TRUE


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13) PartyrealignmentisarareeventinAmericanpolitics. Answer: TRUE


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14) Thecontrolthatpartieshaveoverwhoisselectedastheirnomineeislessnowthanitwasin the1960s. Answer: TRUE


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15) CoalitiongovernmentsarerelativelyrareinEuropeandemocracies. Answer: FALSE


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16) IndividualmembersofCongressreceivegreatpressuretofollowpartypolicy,whichleadsto coherentpartyprogramsbeingpassedbyCongress. Answer: FALSE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) Apartysendorsementofacandidateiscalleda(n)________. Answer: nomination
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2) ________theoryseekstoexplainpoliticalprocessesandoutcomesasconsequencesof purposefulbehavior:Votersseekoutcandidateswhosupporttheirpolicies,andthewise partyselectspoliciesthatarewidelyfavored. Answer: Rational-choice


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3) Votingforcandidatesofdifferentpartiesfordifferentofficesisknownas________. Answer: ticket-splitting


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4) Whatismeantbyticket-splittingandwhatisitsimpact? Answer: votingwithonepartyforoneofficeandwithanotherpartyforotheroffices;often resultsindividedgovernment


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5) Thepatronagesystemofhiringgovernmentworkerswasakeyinducementofferedby ________. Answer: partymachines


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6) Whatispatronage,andhowwasitused? Answer: akeyinducementusedbypartymachines,wherejobs,promotionsorcontractsare givenforpoliticalreasonsratherthanformeritorcompetencealone


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7) In________,onlypeoplewhohaveregisteredinadvancewiththepartycanvoteforthat partyscandidates,thusencouraginggreaterpartyloyalty. Answer: closedprimaries


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8) In________,votersarepresentedwithalistofcandidatesfromalltheparties.Voterscanthen selectsomeDemocratsandsomeRepublicansiftheylike. Answer: blanketprimaries


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9) In________,voterscandecideonelectiondaywhethertheywanttoparticipateinthe DemocraticorRepublicancontests. Answer: openprimaries


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10) Inacriticalelection,party________takesplace,withnewcoalitionsformedwithnewissues, andanewdominantpartyeramadeclear. Answer: realignment


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11) Whatismeantbytheprocessofpartyrealignment,andhowdoesitoccurintheUnitedStates? Answer: thedisplacementofthemajoritypartybytheminorityparty,usuallyduringacritical electionperiod;answerswillvary


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12) From1932to1964,theDemocratsdominatedwithwhatwasknownasthe________coalition. Answer: NewDeal


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13) Whatwastheimportanceoftheelectionof1896? Answer: arealigningelectionthatentrenchedtheRepublicansasthemajoritypartyforanother generation


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14) Since1968,theDemocratshavetendedtodominateinCongressandtheRepublicanshave tendedtodominateinthepresidency;theresultisthatthispartyeraisknownasoneof ________. Answer: dividedgovernment


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15) Compareandcontrastthephenomenaofpartydealignmentandpartyneutrality. Answer: Answerswillvary.


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16) Although________almostneverwinofficeintheUnitedStates,theysometimestipthe balanceintheelectoralcollege,andserveonoccasionassafetyvalvesforpopulardiscontent. Answer: thirdparties


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17) MostEuropeancountriesdonotusethewinner-take-allsystemofelectingmemberstotheir nationallegislatures,butinsteaduseasystemof________whichallowsevensmallpartiesto frequentlyhavesomememberselected. Answer: proportionalrepresentation


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18) Whatisthedifferencebetweenawinner-take-allsystemandaproportionalrepresentation system? Answer: Winner-take-allsystemsawardlegislativeseatsonlytothecandidateswhocomein firstintheirconstituencies.Proportionalrepresentationsystemsthatawardlegislative seatstopoliticalpartiesinproportiontothenumberofvoteswoninanelection.


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19) Advocatesofthe________modelbelievethatpartiesshouldbemoredisciplined,committed, andspecific;themajoritypartyshouldimplementitsprogramsaspromised;theminority partyshouldstatespecificallywhatitwoulddoifinpower;andthemajoritypartywould acceptresponsibilityfortheperformanceofthegovernment. Answer: responsibleparty


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20) WhattwomajoreffectsdoweakpoliticalpartiesintheUnitedStateshaveonthescopeof government? Answer: WeakpartiesareassociatedwithamorelimitedscopeofgovernmentthaninWestern Europeandemocracies,whichhavestronganddisciplinedpartiesbecausetheycannot amassthemajoritiestheyneedtopassmajor(governmentexpanding)legislation.On theotherhand,weakpartiesalsomakeitdifficulttosaynotovariousdemandson government.


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EssayQuestions
1) Presentevidencetosupporttheargumentthatpoliticalpartieshavewaninginfluenceon Americanpolitics.
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2) DescribethethreemajorcomponentsofanAmericanpoliticalparty,andwhatthemajortasks ofapartyare.Whyisourpoliticalsystemsoreliantonpartiestoorganizepublicopinion? Explain.


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3) DescribethenatureandfunctionsofpoliticalpartiesinAmerica.Whatmajortasksdothe partiesperform?
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4) AccordingtoSchattschneider,democracyisunthinkablesaveintermsoftheparties.Expand onthiscomment,explainingwhatitisthatpartiesdo,andwhythesethingsaresoimportant todemocracy.Providespecificexamples,asneeded.


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5) Whatisrational-choicetheory?EvaluatetheDownsmodelforarationalpoliticalpartyand presentagraphthatdepictsthemodel.
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6) Evaluatetheclaimthatinademocracycandidatesshouldsaywhattheymeantodoifelected andbeabletodowhattheypromisedoncetheyareelected.Towhatextentdopartypromises resultinpublicpolicy?Whatchangesdotheadvocatesoftheresponsiblepartymodel suggestinordertoensurethatpartypromisesbeturnedintopublicpolicy?


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7) Explaintheroleofthepartyintheelectorate.Whatrecenttrendsareoccurringinparty identification,andwhateffectdoesthishaveonpartypoliticsandelections?
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8) Describeandevaluatepartyorganizationatthelocal,state,andnationallevels.Whathave beentherecenttrendsinthedistributionofpartypower?
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9) Compareandcontrastthetwomajorpartyplatformsonthefollowingissues:abortion,the environment,healthcare,taxes,defensespendingandeducation.
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10) Dopartieskeeptheircampaignpromises?Forwhatpurposeisapartyplatform,andhowwell doesitpredictthepoliciesthepartyattemptstocarryoutwhenitscandidateswinoffice?In youropinion,areAmericastwopoliticalpartiessufficientlydifferent,ortoomuchthesame? Explain.


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11) Describethesignificanceofacriticalelection,partyrealignment,andwhatismeantbya partyera.Doyouthink1992wasacriticalelection?Why,orwhynot?


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12) BrieflydescribethefivemajorpartyerasinUnitedStateshistory,whichpartywasdominant andwhichwassecondaryineach,andexplainthereasonsforthedominantpartyssuccess.Be specific.


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13) UsingexamplesfromthehistoryofpartyerasintheUnitedStates,explainthepatternand processofshiftingpartydominance.


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14) Somepoliticalscientiststalkaboutapartydealignmentinprocesstoday.Whatismeantby this,andwhatevidencedotheygiveforit?Howdoespartyneutralityfitintothisargument? Explain.


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15) DescribetheimpactofthirdpartiesinAmericanelections.Whatarethedifferenttypesofthird parties.Howsuccessfulhavetheybeen?Whatroledotheyserveinthesystem?Wouldyou prefertoseemorepartiestochoosefromontheballot?Why,orwhynot?


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16) ExplaintheroleofthirdpartiesinAmericanpolitics.Giveexamplestoillustrateyouranswer.
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17) SomehavearguedthatAmericaswinner-take-allsystemfailstoadequatelyrepresent differencesofopinioningovernment.Wouldyouprefertoseeproportionalrepresentation? Whatareitsstrengthsandweaknesses?Explain.


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18) Describetheresponsiblepartymodel,andexplainwhyitsadvocatesbelieveitwouldmakefor amoredemocraticgovernmentintheUnitedStates.Doyouagree?Whatdoyouthinkareits strengthsandweaknesses?Explain.


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19) Explaintheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofatwo -partysystemcomparedtoamultiparty system.WhatwouldtheUnitedStatesbelikeifithadamultipartysystem?


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20) Whatistheroleoflinkageinstitutions?WhatarethemainlinkageinstitutionsintheUnited States?Howdopoliticalpartiesperformalinkagefunction?


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Chapter9 NominationsandCampaigns
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) A(n)________isapartysofficialselectionofacandidatetorunforoffice. A) appointment B) nomination C) conversion D) imprimatur E) endorsement Answer: B
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2) Inmostadvancedindustrializedcountries,electioncampaignsare A) endlessaffairs,sometimeslastingayearormore. B) notlimitedbylaw. C) limitedbylawtotwoweeks. D) limitedbylawtonomorethantwomonths. E) limitedbylawtothreemonths. Answer: D


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3) Nominationforpublicofficeis A) apartysselectionofacandidate. B) beingappointedtoagovernmentpost. C) awininkeystateprimaries. D) avictoryinthegeneralelection. E) theincumbentsselectionofacandidate. Answer: A


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4) Thewayinwhichcandidatesattempttomanipulatemoney,themedia,andmomentumto achievethenominationisthrough A) campaignstrategy. B) primaries. C) charisma. D) propaganda. E) partysupport. Answer: A


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5) Inmostadvancedindustrializedcountries,nationalcampaigns A) areevenlessdignifiedthanintheUnitedStates. B) occuronceeveryfouryears. C) arelimitedbylawtonomorethantwomonths. D) arelongerthanAmericanelections. E) occuronlyonceeverysevenyears. Answer: C


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6) Thespecificgoalofthepresidentialnominationgameisto A) winthemajorityofvotescastinpresidentialprimaries. B) winthemajorityofvotescastinpresidentialcaucuses. C) winthemajorityofdelegatevotesinordertowinthepartynomination. D) winamajorityofvotesintheelectoralcollege. E) beattheotherpartyscandidateinthegeneralelection. Answer: C


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7) TheDemocraticandRepublicancandidatesforpresidentareformallynominatedbythe A) presidentialcaucuses. B) presidentialprimaries. C) electoralcollege. D) nationalpartyconventions. E) nationalcommittees. Answer: D


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8) Tobethepresidentialcandidateofamajorpoliticalparty,apersonmust A) winamajorityofpartyprimariesinthestates. B) firstbenominatedbytheelectoralcollege. C) winamajorityofthedelegatesatthepartysnationalconvention. D) winamajorityofthedelegateselectedfromstatecaucuses. E) havetheendorsementofincumbentpartyleaders. Answer: C


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9) Thefirstpresidentialcaucusofthecampaignseasonistraditionallyheldin A) Delaware. B) California. C) Minnesota. D) NewHampshire. E) Iowa. Answer: E


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10) Caucusesareusuallyorganizedlike A) bi-legislatures. B) theoriginalConstitutionalConvention. C) winner-take-allelectionsystems. D) pyramids. E) theelectoralcollege. Answer: D


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11) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEaboutthepresidentialnominationprocess? A) Inmoststates,itisthepartyleadershipthatchoosesthedelegates,andordinaryparty votershavenosay. B) Inmoststates,presidentialprimariesareheldwiththenationalconventiondelegates allocatedtoeachcandidateinroughproximitytotheirpercentageofpopularvote. C) Inmoststates,caucusesofinterestedpartyvotersareheldtobeginthedelegateselection process;onlyasmallpercentageofpartyvotersattend,butitisopen. D) Presidentialcandidatesarechosenbytheirpartyssenatorsandrepresentativesin Congress. E) Althoughcaucusesorpresidentialprimariesareheldinallstates,thesearemerebeauty contests;conventiondelegatesarechosenearlierbypartyofficialswhoareuninterested intheopinionsofpartyvoters. Answer: B
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12) Today,statepresidentialcaucusesare A) openonlytopartyactivistswhohavespentadesignatedamountoftimeonbehalfofthe partyoritscandidates. B) smallmeetingsofthepartyscountyleadersheldtoselectnationalconventiondelegates withnootherinput. C) specialmeetingsofstatepartyleaderswhoelecttheirstatesdelegatestothenational convention. D) opentoallregisteredpartyvoters,orthosewhoclaimpartyallegianceinstateswithno partyregistration. E) heldinmoststatesinordertoselectnationalconventiondelegates. Answer: D
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13) Precinct-levelpresidentialcaucuses A) directlychoosenationalconventiondelegates. B) determinehowmanyvotesthatstatewillcastforeachofthepresidentialcandidatesat thenationalconvention. C) haveabsolutelynothingtodowithchoosingdelegatestothemajorpartiesnational nominatingconventions. D) choosedelegatestostateconventionswheredelegatestothenationalconventionare selected. E) choosedelegatestocountycaucuses/conventionswheredelegatestothestateconvention areselected,thenthestateconventionchoosesnationalconventiondelegates. Answer: E
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14) Today,mostdelegatestoeachmajorpartysnationalconventionarechosenby A) statepartychairpersonspriortoanycaucusorpresidentialprimary. B) statepresidentialprimaries. C) thepreviousnationalconvention. D) statepresidentialcaucuses. E) alotterysystem. Answer: B


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15) Thepresidentialprimarywasbegunintheearlytwentiethcentury,moststronglypushedby A) DemocraticpartyleadersinCongress. B) RepublicanpartyleadersinCongress. C) politicalreformerswhowantedtotakenominationsoutofthehandsofpartybosses. D) partybosseswhowantedtotakenominationsoutofthehandsofpoliticalreformers. E) themembersoftheelectoralcollege. Answer: C


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16) TheDemocraticNationalConventionin________ledtoseriousreformsinthemethodsitused tochooseitsconventiondelegates. A) 1936 B) 1968 C) 1952 D) 1984 E) 1992 Answer: B


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17) FollowingtheDemocraticNationalConventioninChicagoin1968,thepartychoseto A) limitattendanceatfutureconventionstotheelectedofficersofthepartysorganizations nationwide. B) limitattendanceatfutureconventionstothepartysnationwideelectedgovernment officeholders. C) tightenupitsconventiondelegateselectiontokeepitfrombeingoverrunbywomen, minorities,youth,andsingle-issuegroups. D) allowpartyofficersandDemocraticofficeholders,manyofwhomhadnotbeenseatedat recentconventions,toserveassuperdelegates. E) openupitsprocessofchoosingdelegatestothenationalconventioninordertorespond todemandsforgreaterinclusionfromwomen,minorities,youth,andothergroups. Answer: E
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18) Thefirstpresidentialcaucusisheldin A) Iowa. B) Michigan. C) NewHampshire. D) Nebraska. E) NewYork. Answer: A


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19) Instateswithcaucuses, A) supportersofcandidatestrytogetelectedasdelegatesthroughapyramidofmeetings. B) thestatelegislatureselectsthestatesdelegatestothenationalconventions. C) partyleadersselectdelegatesaccordingtotheirowncandidatepreferences. D) candidatesappointsupporterstoserveasdelegates. E) delegatesarechosenthroughgeneralelectionofacandidate. Answer: A


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20) Today,amajorityofthedelegatestothenationalconventionareselectedthrough A) statepartyconventions. B) partycaucuses. C) presidentialprimaries. D) localpartyconventions. E) statelegislatures. Answer: C


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21) TheMcGovern-FraserCommission A) chosepresidentialcandidatesfortheDemocraticparty. B) investigatedviolationsofcampaignfinancelawin1968. C) establishedthedatesofpresidentialprimaries. D) hadamandatetomaketheDemocraticpartyconventionsmoredemocratic. E) strengthenedtheroleofthepartysnationalcommittee. Answer: D


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22) TheMcGovern-FraserCommissionwassetuptoreform A) thefinancingoffederalelectioncampaigns. B) therulesforselectingdelegatestotheDemocraticNationalConvention. C) therulesforselectingdelegatestoboththeDemocraticandRepublicanNational Conventions. D) partyfund-raising. E) therulesforselectingdelegatestotheRepublicanNationalConvention. Answer: B


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23) TheMcGovern-FraserCommissionmadethedelegateselectionprocessoftheDemocratic partymoredemocraticby A) givingthepowerofselectingdelegatestopartyofficials. B) increasingthenumberofdelegateschosen. C) weakeningthepowerofpartyleaderstochooseconventiondelegates. D) encouragingtheuseofpresidentialcaucusesratherthanprimaries. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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24) TheopeningupoftheprocesstochoosedelegatestotheDemocraticNationalConventionin theimmediateaftermathof1968wasspearheadedby A) theMcGovern-FraserCommission. B) theKernerCommission. C) anactofCongress. D) PresidentJohnson. E) theWarrenCommission. Answer: A


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25) TheadditionofsuperdelegatestotheDemocraticnationalconventionswasspearheadedby A) thosewhofelttheWarrenCommissionhadledtounrepresentativedelegateselection. B) PresidentJimmyCarter. C) theMcGovern-FraserCommission. D) thosewhofelttheMcGovern-FraserCommissionhadopenedupthedelegateselection processtoomuch. E) theWarrenCommission. Answer: D


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26) FewdevelopmentshavechangedAmericanpoliticsasmuchas A) campaignfinancereformsinthe1970s. B) theproliferationofpresidentialprimaries. C) thecreationofPACs. D) expandednumberofTVnewsshows. E) talkradio. Answer: B


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27) WhichofthefollowingwasNOTareasonfortheDemocraticpartyaddingsuperdelegatesto itsnationalnominatingconventions? A) thesensethatpartyinsidersandelectedofficialswouldbemorelikelytosupportthe mostelectablecandidate B) theneedforestablishingapeerreviewtotheprocess,withinputfrompoliticianswho oftenknowthecandidatesbest C) theinsistenceoftheMcGovern-FraserCommissiontohavesuperdelegatesplayamajor veto-likerole D) thefeelingthatearlierreformshadgiventoolittlesaytothepartysstateandnational leaders,withdisastrouselectionresults E) noneoftheabove Answer: C
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28) TheworkoftheMcGovern-FraserCommissionappointedduringtheturbulentChicago Conventionof1968wasareflectionofconcernover A) thecatastrophicdefeatofGoldwaterin1964. B) theRepublicansimageasapartyofefficiency. C) thedecliningstrengthofDemocraticpowerinCongressandstategovernorships. D) elitecontroloftheparty. E) RichardNixonsgrowingpopularityandthefearthathecoulddefeattheDemocratic nomineeinthefall. Answer: D
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29) Superdelegates A) arespecialdelegateschosenbypopularelection. B) areeachabletocastthreevotesattheirnationalconventionratherthanthestandardone vote. C) aredelegatesuncommittedtoaspecificcandidate. D) havehelpedmakethedelegationmorerepresentativeofthepopulation. E) havehelpedrestoreanelementofpeerreviewtotheprocessofchoosingapresidential candidate. Answer: E
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30) Thedatesofthedifferentpresidentialprimariesanddelegateallocationsareestablishedby A) thenationalparties. B) theConstitution. C) federallaw. D) ajointagreementmadebythemajorcandidatesinbothparties,usuallyfollowingagreat dealofrancor. E) statelaws. Answer: E


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31) Foracandidate,themostimportantanddesirableresultoftheearlynominationcontestsis A) doingwellinastatehighlyrepresentativeoftheentireUnitedStatespopulation. B) doingbetterthanexpected,thuswinninganimageasthepartysfrontrunnerandholder ofmomentum. C) winningthehighestnumberofnationalconventiondelegates. D) winningallofitselectoralvotes. E) winningthehighestnumberofvotes. Answer: B


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32) RunningfortheRepublicanpresidentialnominationin1980,GeorgeBush,announcedinthe earlygoingthathehadthebigMOareferencetothefactthat A) hehadwonmoredelegatesinMissouri. B) hehadthemomentumhavingwoninIowa. C) financialcontributorswereheavilyonhisside. D) hehadbeenendorsedbyMoeShepp,traditionallyoneoftheRepublicanpartysbiggest campaigncontributors. E) hehadwonmorevotesinNewHampshire. Answer: B
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33) In2004almostthree-fourthsoftheRepublicanandDemocratdelegateswerechosenwithin ________oftheNewHampshireprimary. A) sixmonths B) twoweeks C) twomonths D) sixweeks E) fourweeks Answer: D


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34) TheNewHampshireprimaryisimportantbecause A) NewHampshirehasaverylargenumberofdelegates. B) NewHampshireisaparticularlytypicalstate. C) itistheprimaryheldclosesttothetimeoftheconvention. D) itisthefirstprimary. E) itinvolvesthefirstcaucuses. Answer: D


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35) Therulesdeterminingthewayinwhichtheprimariesaresetupandthedelegatesare allocatedaremadeby A) theelectoralcollege. B) theConstitution. C) Congress. D) theFederalElectionCommission. E) statelegislaturesandstateparties. Answer: E


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36) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheNewHampshirepresidentialprimaryisFALSE? A) ConsiderableamountofmoneyandtimeisspentonpolitickinginNewHampshireprior totheprimary. B) ThereistremendousmediacoverageoftheNewHampshireprimary. C) NewHampshireholdsthefirstpresidentialprimaryoftheyear. D) AllthepresidentialcandidatesspendconsiderabletimeinNewHampshirepriorto primaryday. E) noneoftheabove Answer: E
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37) Thestatethathasdisproportionatepowerbecauseitholdsthefirstpresidentialprimaryeach electionyearis A) NewYork. B) California. C) Iowa. D) NewHampshire. E) RhodeIsland. Answer: D


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38) TheBigMorefersto A) achievingmomentuminthenominationcampaign. B) thepath-breakingpresidentialcampaignofMorrisMoUdall. C) theoverwhelmingneedformoneyinapresidentialcampaign. D) theimportanceoftheMissouriprimaryinthepresidentialnominationcampaign. E) themomentinwhichacandidatereceivesenoughdelegatestoreceivethenomination. Answer: A


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39) Inachievingmomentum,nothinghelpsacandidatemorethan A) earlyunexpectedprimaryandcaucusvictories. B) winningwhereawinwasexpected. C) aunanimousvoteatthenationalnominatingconvention. D) closingthegapinthelaststagesofthecampaign. E) strongcompetition. Answer: A


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40) WhichofthefollowingisNOTacriticismofthecurrentsystemofpresidentialprimariesand caucuses? A) Prominentofficeholdersfinditdifficulttotaketimeoutfromtheircurrentdutiestorun. B) Themediadonothaveenoughofaroleinthisprocess. C) Toomuchattentionispaidtotheearlyones. D) Moneyplaystoobigarole. E) Manycandidatesdropoutearlybeforemoststateshaveheldtheirprimaryorcaucus. Answer: B


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41) IowaandNewHampshirehavebeenespeciallyimportantinthenominationprocessoverthe pastseveraldecadesbecausetheyhelpcandidatesto A) buildmomentum. B) generatemediaattention. C) generatemoney. D) alloftheabove E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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42) Approximately________ofeligiblevoterscastballotsinpresidentialprimaries. A) 75percent B) 65percent C) 35percent D) 50percent E) 20percent Answer: E


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43) Votersinpresidentialprimariesandcaucusestendtobe A) verysimilartotherestoftheUnitedStatespopulationintermsofeducationandincome. B) olderandmoreaffluentthantheUnitedStatespopulationasawhole. C) minoritiesandnotablyyoungerthanthegeneralpopulation. D) somewhatlesseducatedandsomewhatpooreronaveragethantheUnitedStates populationasawhole. E) farlesseducatedandmuchpooreronaveragethantheUnitedStatespopulationasa whole. Answer: B
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44) Inmostcaucusstates,about________oftheregisteredvoterstypicallyshowupforparty presidentialcaucuses. A) 60percent B) 20percent C) 35percent D) 5percent E) 50percent Answer: D


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45) Criticsoftheprimaryandcaucussystempointtothefactthat A) disproportionateattentiongoestothelatercaucusesandprimaries. B) noprecedentforthemiswrittenintotheConstitution. C) onlythebestknowncandidateshaveachanceofwinningtheprimariesandcaucuses. D) participationinprimariesandcaucusesisunrepresentativeofthepublicatlarge. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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46) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSE? A) About5percentofregisteredvoterstypicallyshowupforcaucuses. B) About50percentofthepopulationvotesintheNovemberpresidentialelection. C) Votersinprimariesandcaucusestendtoberepresentativeofvotersatlarge. D) About20percentofthepopulationvotesinpresidentialprimaries. E) Morepeoplevoteinprimariesthanattendcaucuses. Answer: C


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47) Criticsofprimariesandcaucusescontendthatthepresidentialkingmakersarenow A) partybosses. B) thefewwhovoteinthecaucusesandprimaries. C) themedia. D) interestgroups. E) statepartyorganizations. Answer: C


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48) ProponentsofanationalprimaryarguethatitwoulddoeachofthefollowingEXCEPT A) bringdirectnessandsimplicitytothenominationprocess. B) nolongerallowvotesinonestatetohavemorepoliticalimpactthanvotesinanother. C) lengthenthetimeofthecampaign. D) concentratemediacoverageandincreaseinterestandunderstanding. E) increaseinterestinmorestates. Answer: C


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49) Criticsofanationalprimaryarguethat A) thecampaignwouldbelengthened. B) obscurecandidateswouldreceivetoomuchofanadvantage. C) themediawouldhavelittleimpact. D) nocandidatewouldreceiveamajority,thusarun-offelectionwouldbeneeded. E) Allofthesecouldhappen. Answer: D


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50) Presidentialnominatingconventionshavenotrequiredmorethanoneballottochoosethe partysofficialnomineesince1952,largelyduetothe A) rulechangethatacandidateneedonlywinapluralityofvotesattheconventionrather thanamajoritytogainthenomination. B) changesinpartyrulesrequiringanominationonthefirstballot. C) endoftheboss-dominatedcaucussystem. D) roleoftelevision,andthedesireofbothpartiestounitebehindonecandidateinadvance inordertopresentashowofharmony,ratherthanbickering,tothosewhotunein. E) changesinfederallawrequiringpartiestohavetheirnominationsvirtuallyassured beforetheconventionsbegin. Answer: D
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51) Withtheadventoftelevision, A) presidentialcaucuseswerereplacedbyprimaries. B) televisioncoverageofconventionsincreasedsteadily. C) multiballotconventionsdied. D) conventionsbecameshorter. E) Alloftheseoccurred. Answer: C


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52) Conventionsarenotasimportantastheyoncewereinthat A) weknowwhoisgoingtowinthepresidentialnominationbeforetheconventionmeets. B) thereislessdramaandfanfare. C) rousingcredentialsfightsandkeynotespeechesareathingofthepast. D) theyhavenottakenmorethanoneballottonominateapresidentsince1952. E) theynolongeradoptpartyplatforms. Answer: A


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53) Overtheyears,televisioncoverageofnationalpartyconventionshas A) receivedincreasinglyhighNielsenratings. B) becomemoredramatic. C) shiftedtolocalaffiliatereportersfocusingontheirstatedelegationsandawayfromthe nationalnetworkanchors. D) beenscaledback. E) steadilyincreased. Answer: D


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54) Onewayinwhichconventionsaremoreimportantthantheyoncewereisthatthey A) placelimitsonpoliticalrepresentation. B) choosethepartysorganizationalleadershipforthenextfouryears. C) nowdecideduringtheweekoftheconvention,andthroughmuchpoliticalbickering, whotheirpresidentialnomineewillbe. D) developthepartyspolicypositions. E) involvemoremoneyandgreaternumbersofpeople. Answer: D


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55) Thepartysplatformisdrafted A) aftertheconvention,byacommitteemadeupexclusivelyofsupportersofthewinning nominee. B) beforetheconvention,byacommitteewhosemembersarechoseninroughproportionto eachcandidatesstrength. C) aftertheconvention,byacommitteeofpartymemberschoseninroughproportionto eachcandidatesstrength. D) duringtheconvention,usuallyinthemorninghourswhencamerasarenotrolling. E) bythepartyspresidentialnomineeinthedaysaftertheconventionisover. Answer: B
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56) Thevice-presidentialnomineeisusually A) selectedbythepresidentialnomineeintheweeksaftertheconvention. B) aclosefriendfromthesamestateasthepresidentialnominee. C) therunner-upforthepresidentialnomination,andoftensomeonewhomthe presidentialnomineedoesnotlike. D) selectedbythedelegateswithoutarecommendationfromthepresidentialnominee. E) selectedbythedelegatesassomethingofaformality,asthevastmajorityalwaysvotefor whomeverthepresidentialnomineepicks. Answer: E
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57) Thefinalmajoreventofeachpartysnationalconvention,duringthelasthourorsoonthe fourthandfinalnight,isthe A) adoptionofthepartyplatform. B) acceptancespeechbythepresidentialcandidate. C) roll-callvoteforthepresidentialnomination. D) keynotespeech. E) inauguralballandchampagnepartytohonorthenewnominee. Answer: B


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58) Bycustom,thevice-presidentialnomineeischosen A) throughacompetitivewideopenroll-callvoteonthefinalday. B) onthebasisofthesecondlargestnumberofdelegates. C) onthebasisofthepresidentialnomineesrecommendation. D) bytheelectoralcollege. E) bytheplatformcommittee. Answer: C


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59) Providingselectinformationandarequestformoneytolistsofpeoplewhohavesupported candidatesofsimilarviewsinthepastisafrequentlyusedpoliticaltechniqueknownas A) softmoney. B) conversion. C) directmail. D) fundraising. E) caucusing. Answer: C


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60) Oneofthemosteffectivemethodsofraisingmoneyforanelectioncampaignhasbeentheuse of A) 1-800numbers. B) massmeetings. C) door-to-doorsolicitation. D) directmail. E) televisionadvertising. Answer: D


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61) Thelargestexpenditureinacampaignbudgetforthepresidencyorastatewideofficetoday wouldalmostcertainlybe A) travel,hotels,andfoodforthecandidateandcampaignstaff. B) televisionadvertising. C) thesalariesofthecampaignmanager,pollster,counsel,andotherstaff. D) directmail. E) buttons,signs,carbumperstickers,billboards,andbrochures. Answer: B


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62) Mostpoliticalcoveragebythemediaduringapresidentialcampaign A) istheresultofsuccessfulmanipulationbythecampaigns. B) focusesonthesubstanceofthekeyissuesvoterscareabout,andhowthecandidates standonthem. C) dealswiththecampaigngame:whosaheadinthepolls,whatcandidateXsnew strategywillbe,andspeculation. D) isanalysisoftheinterestgroupsandcampaigncontributorswhoarebackingeach candidate,andwhytheyarebackingthem. E) dealswiththecandidatespersonalcharacterflawsandfamily. Answer: C
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63) Mostofthemoneyspentonpresidentialcampaignsthesedaysisspenton A) computerservices. B) airtravel,hotels,andmeals. C) directmail. D) printing. E) themedia. Answer: E


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64) Newscoverageofpresidentialcampaignstendstoemphasize A) campaignstrategiesandpollresults. B) thecandidatespositionsontheissues. C) thevotingandperformancerecordsofthecandidatesintheircurrentoffices. D) faircoverageofallthecandidates. E) debatesbetweenthecandidates. Answer: A


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65) Mediacoverageofacandidatescampaignisafunctionof A) howcandidatesspendtheiradvertisingbudget. B) thefreeattentiontheygetasnewsmakers. C) thenatureoftheirpolicyagenda D) bothAandB E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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66) Oneofthemajorfunctionsofpolicyadvisorsinacampaignisto A) managethecampaignfinances. B) keepthecandidateinformedontheissues. C) planadcampaigns. D) handlethedetailsofcandidatescheduling. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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67) Thememberofapresidentialcampaignwhohelpsreportersmaketheirdeadlineswithstories thatthecampaignwouldliketoseereportedisthe A) presssecretary. B) medialiaison. C) propagandist. D) directorofpublicrelations. E) mediaconsultant. Answer: A


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68) TheFederalElectionCampaignAct A) providedpublicfinancingforSenateandHouseraces. B) requiredbroadcasterstoprovidefreeairtimetoeachmajorcandidateforfederaloffice. C) endedpublicfinancingforpresidentialcampaigns. D) requiredallcandidatesforfederalofficetodiscloseallcontributionsmadetotheir campaigns. E) removedspendinglimitsfrompresidentialcampaigns. Answer: D


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69) WhichofthefollowingdidtheFederalElectionCampaignActNOTdo? A) requiredisclosureofcampaigncontributionsbyallcandidatesforfederaloffices B) providepublicfinancingforthepresidentialnomineesofbothmajorparties C) providepublicfinancingofHouseandSenateraces D) limitpresidentialcampaignspending E) providepublicfinancingofSenateraces Answer: C


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70) TheFederalElectionCommission A) administersallelectionsintheUnitedStatesfromschoolboardtopresidentwithastaff of160,000. B) tabulatesandcertifiesthevotesinallfederalelections. C) isabipartisanbodyresponsibleforadministeringcampaignfinancelawsandenforcing compliancewiththoselaws. D) isanon-partisanpoliticalorganizationwhichhassoughtforoverfiftyyearstoreform campaignfinancing. E) istheRepublicanpartyswatchdogorganizationwhichmonitorsfund-raisingand spendingbyDemocraticcandidates. Answer: C
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71) Theadministrationofthecampaignfinancelawsandtheenforcementofcompliancewith theirrequirementsishandledbythe A) FairPoliticalPracticesCommission. B) CampaignFinanceBureauoftheDepartmentoftheTreasury. C) DepartmentofJustice. D) FederalElectionCommission. E) GovernmentAccountingOffice. Answer: D


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72) ThegroupresponsibleforadministeringandenforcingtheFederalElectionCampaignActis the A) FederalElectionCommission(FEC). B) NationalCommitteeforanEffectiveCongress. C) PoliticalActionCommittee(PAC). D) FederalUnethicalCampaignKommisars. E) electoralcollege. Answer: A


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73) AccordingtotheFederalElectionCampaignAct,candidatesmust A) disclosewhocontributedtotheircampaigns,andhowthemoneywasspent. B) rejectanycontributionsofPoliticalActionCommitteesthatexceed$1,000. C) applyforfederalfundsiftheyarerunninginapresidentialelection. D) raisetheirowncampaignfunds. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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74) The1974FederalElectionCampaignAct A) placedlegallimitsontotalcampaigncontributions. B) placedlegallimitsonpresidentialcampaignspending. C) requiredprivateratherthanpublicfinancingofprimariesandelections. D) prohibiteddisclosureofcampaignfundsources. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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75) Inthe1976caseofBuckleyv.Valeo,theSupremeCourtruledthat A) thelimitationontheamountofmoneypersonscouldcontributetotheirownelection campaignsviolatedfreespeech,andwasunconstitutional. B) presidentialelectioncampaignscouldnotbepaidforbytaxdollars. C) theforceddisclosureofcontributionstofederalelectionsviolatedfreedomofassociation, andwasthereforeunconstitutional. D) thelimitationontheamountofmoneypeoplecouldcontributetotheirownelection campaignswasnotaviolationoffreespeech,andwasconstitutional. E) congressionalandstatelegislativedistrictsmustbeofequalpopulationand reapportionedeverytenyears. Answer: A
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76) Thefundsallocatedtopublicfinancingofpresidentialcampaignsbasedonincometax check-offshave A) stayedataboutthesamelevel. B) beenruledunconstitutional. C) increasedsubstantially. D) decreasedsubstantially. E) beeneliminatedbyCongress. Answer: D


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77) Softmoneyis A) moneydonatedbyapersontohisorherowncampaign. B) cashcontributionsthatarenottraceableandinsomesituationsillegal. C) smalldonationsthat,whileimportanttoacampaign,arenotasimportantaslarger contributions. D) moneyloanedtoacampaign,butexpectedtobepaidback. E) moneydonatedtopartiesratherthancandidates,thusnotsubjecttocontributionor spendinglimits. Answer: E
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78) ________resultedfromanamendmentin1979totheoriginalCampaignReformAct,which allowspartiestoraiseandspendmoneyonvoterregistrationandothercampaignmaterials withoutlimitsonspendingorthesizeofcontributionsthattheycanaccept. A) Partydiscretionaryfunding B) Thepartyexpenditureexemption C) Softmoney D) Theexpenditurewaiver E) Institutionalassistance Answer: C
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79) Donating$200,000toapoliticalpartytohelpitspresidentialnomineeinsomewhatindirect waysis A) legal,andknownassoftmoney. B) illegalundertheMcCain-FeingoldAct. C) ofunclearlegalityandthesubjectofacontroversialandvagueSupremeCourtruling. D) legal,andknownasaPACcontribution. E) illegalundertheFederalElectionCampaignAct(FECA). Answer: B


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80) OneoftheprovisionsoftheMcCain-FeingoldActof2002wasto A) increasethelimitonindividualcontributionsto$5,000. B) increasetheamountoffederalmoneypresidentialcandidatescanspend. C) increasethelimitonsoftmoneycontributions. D) increasethelimitonindividualcontributionsfrom$1,000to$2,000. E) increasethelimitonindividualcontributionsto$10,000. Answer: D


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81) InBuckleyv.Valeo(1976),theSupremeCourt A) ruledthatthewildlyunequalcampaignexpendituresofcandidatesforgovernment officewereaviolationoftheEqualProtectionclauseoftheFourteenthAmendmentand orderedCongressandthestatestodevelopmechanismstoassureequalfundingofall majorcandidates. B) limitedtheactivitiesofPoliticalActionCommittees. C) struckdownthepartoftheFederalElectionCampaignActthatrestrictedtheamount individualscouldcontributetotheirowncampaign. D) statedthattheFederalElectionCommissionhadnopowertoenforcecompliancewith theirrequirements. E) declaredtheFederalElectionCampaignActunconstitutional. Answer: C
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82) Softmoneyconsistsofmoney A) providedthroughpublicfinancing. B) forvoterregistrationdrivesandcampaignmaterialatthegrass-rootslevel. C) thatisillegallygiventoacampaign. D) thatindividualscontributetotheirowncampaign. E) givendirectlytoacandidate. Answer: B


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83) Thehydraulictheorysaysthatmoneyalwaysfindsawaytogetaroundlegalobstacles.Thus, whenthesoftmoneyloopholewasclosed,howdidmoneycontinuetofinditswayinto politicalcampaigns? A) throughtheMcCain-Feingoldloophole B) throughdensemoney C) through527Groups D) throughthegardenhoseloophole E) throughbuyingbulkpurchasesofbookstoavoidlimitsoncampaigncontributions Answer: C
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84) PACisanacronymfor A) thePartisanActivitiesCommission. B) politicalaccessconveyance. C) politicalactioncommittee. D) power-as-cash. E) positiveactioncampaign. Answer: C


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85) TheMcCain-FeingoldActof2002didallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) barredgroupsfromrunningissueadwithin60daysofageneralelectioniftheyreferto afederalcandidateandarenotfundedthroughaPAC. B) bannedsoftmoneycontributions. C) increasedtheamountthatindividualscouldgivetocandidatesform$1,000to$2,000. D) indexedthelimitonindividualcontributionstoinflationinfutureyears. E) noneoftheabove Answer: E


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86) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEaboutPACs? A) TheymustreporttheircontributionstotheFederalElectionCommission. B) Theyarenotrequired,butencouraged,toreporttheircontributionstotheFederal ElectionCommission. C) Theirnumbershavedeclinedprecipitouslyinrecentyears. D) Mostexistforaboutthelengthofacampaign,thendieouttobereplacedwithnewones inthenextelectioncycle. E) Theycancontributeanunlimitedamountofmoneytoanycampaign,solongasthe contributionismadepublicly. Answer: A
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87) PACsare A) committeesformedtolobbygovernmentofficialsinbehalfoftheirinterests. B) statecommissionsorganizedtoreformcampaignfinancingpractices. C) committeesorganizedbyinterestgroupstochannelmoneytopartiesandcandidates. D) subcommitteesoftheFEC. E) groupsorganizedbypoliticalactiviststoincreasevoterparticipation. Answer: C


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88) Averyimportantgroundruleconcerningthebehaviorofpoliticalactioncommitteesis A) theyarenotallowedtocontributetopresidentialcampaigns. B) therearestrictlimitsonthenumberofcandidateseachPACcancontributeto. C) allexpendituresmustbemeticulouslyaccountedfortotheFEC. D) theycanonlycontributetopoliticalpartiesorgeneralfunds,nottospecificcandidates. E) bothAandD Answer: C


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89) CriticsofthePACsystemareconcernedthat A) PACsarenotregulated. B) theytendtosupportonlyRepublicancandidates. C) PACsaretooweakandineffectivetocontributetoastrongdemocracy. D) onlythelargestandmostpowerfulinterestgroupscanaffordtoformPACs. E) PACsmaycontrolwhattheelectoralwinnersdoonceinoffice. Answer: E


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90) DefendersofPACspointoutthatthey A) arelimitedtocontributingonly$1,000percandidate. B) canpotentiallybuyvotes. C) havebeenveryeffectiveatenforcingcampaignreformlawsandreducingunethical campaignpractices. D) tendtosupportthosewhoagreewiththeminthefirstplace. E) givemostoftheirmoneytochallengers. Answer: D


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91) MostPACsgivemoneyto A) candidateswhodisagreewiththem,butwhoarelikelytobebought. B) candidatesofonlyonepoliticalparty. C) candidateswhoalreadyagreewiththeminthefirstplace. D) thepartiesandletthemdistributemoneyamongtheircandidatesastheyseefit. E) challengerstryingtounseatincumbents. Answer: C


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92) AccordingtopoliticalscientistGaryJacobsonsresearch,aCongressionalincumbentwho spendsatremendousamountofmoneytogetreelected A) ismorelikelytolose. B) ismorelikelytowin. C) islikelytowinbyalandslideofover70percentofthevote. D) islikelytogetahigherpercentageofthevote. E) isnomoreorlesslikelytowinthanacandidatespendinglittlemoney. Answer: A


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93) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutPoliticalActionCommittees(PACs)isFALSE? A) AllPACexpendituresmustbemeticulouslyaccountedfortotheFEC. B) PACshaveproliferatedinrecentyears. C) TheinfluenceofPACsisparticularlyimportantinpresidentialcampaigns. D) CandidatesneedPACsbecausehigh-techcampaigningisexpensive. E) PACscontributemoneybeforeandafterelections. Answer: C


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94) TheuseofPACmoneyinpresidentialcampaignsis A) particularlyinfluential. B) lessimportantthaninCongressionalcampaigns. C) abletothrowthevictoryintheNewHampshireprimarytothecandidatefavoredby themostPACs. D) unregulated. E) illegal. Answer: B


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95) ResearchhasshownthatthecostofAmericanelectioncampaignsis A) highcomparedtoothercountries. B) decreasingwhentherisingcostoflivingistakenintoaccount. C) perperson,aboutthesameasaDVDmovie. D) onlyabout25centspervoter. E) anationalscandal. Answer: C


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96) Whatbotherspoliticiansmostabouttherisingcostsofhigh-techcampaigningis A) thatfund-raisinghascometotakeupsomuchoftheirprecioustime,distractingthem fromlegislation. B) thatsomanygoodpeoplecannotaffordtorunforreelection. C) theyfeellikewhoreswhowilldoanythingforacampaigncontribution. D) theincreasinginfluenceofPACs. E) thedecliningnumberofPACsthattheyreliedonforlargecampaigncontributions. Answer: A


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97) Therelationshipbetweencampaignspendingandelectoralsuccessisthat A) spendingmorethanyouropponentdoesnotassurevictory. B) thecandidatewhospendsthemostissuretowin. C) themoreincumbentsspend,themorelikelytheyaretobereelected. D) theamountofmoneyspentandwinningareentirelyunrelated. E) noneoftheabove Answer: A


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98) Whoopposespublicfinancingofcampaignsthemost? A) liberals B) conservatives C) challengers D) incumbents E) independents Answer: D


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99) AccordingtoHerbertAlexandersdoctrineofsufficiency, A) thereisaminimumamountofmoneythatcandidatesmustspendtohaveachanceat winning. B) candidateswithlargepersonalfortunesarealmostguaranteedvictory,unlesstheir opponentisofroughlyequalnetworth. C) inordertowinacandidatemusthavemoremoneythanhisorheropponent. D) thewealthiercandidatealwayswins. E) acandidatessenseofself-worth,notmoney,ismostimportanttoasuccessful campaign. Answer: A
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100) Manypoliticalscientistsbelievethat A) thesizeofacampaignwarchestisthesoledeterminantofwhowinselections. B) mostvotersareimmunetoreinforcementoractivationinacampaign,butaresusceptible toconversion. C) politiciansoverestimatethepowerofhowimportantagoodcampaignistovictory. D) incumbentshavenogreateradvantageinnamerecognitionthanmostchallengers. E) politiciansunderestimatethepowerofhowimportantagoodcampaignistovictory. Answer: C


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101) Campaignsstrengthenvotercommitmenttotheusualpartyorthecandidatetheypreviously supportedbyemphasizing________aspartoftheircampaignstrategy. A) conversion B) reinforcement C) activation D) persuasion E) directmail Answer: B


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102) Whichofthefollowinghavebeenfoundtobemostsuccessfullyaffectedbycampaigns? A) conversion B) reinforcementandactivation C) reinforcement,activation,andconversion D) reinforcementandconversion E) activationandconversion Answer: B


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103) Campaignsaremosteffectivein A) gettingpeopletocontributetimeandmoney. B) convertingvotersfromonecandidatetoanother. C) reinforcingexistingpreferencestowardcandidates. D) educatingpeopleontheissues. E) shapinghowthemediawillportrayacandidatetothepublic. Answer: C


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104) Mostpeoplepaylittleattentiontocampaigns, A) andareasunfamiliarwiththenamesofincumbents,aswiththenamesofchallengers. B) anddonotcareaboutpartyidentificationofcandidates. C) andhaveaselectiveperceptionabouteventsandcandidates. D) butarequitesubjecttohavingtheirmindschangedbyastrongcampaign. E) Allofthesearetrue. Answer: C


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105) Whichofthefollowingfactorsweakenpoliticalcampaignseffectsonvoters? A) selectiveperception,partyidentification,andincumbentnamerecognition B) negativeadvertising,partyidentification,andincumbentnamerecognition C) campaignexpenditures,partyidentification,andincumbentnamerecognition D) selectivemobilization,partyidentification,andincumbentnamerecognition E) selectivemobilization,negativeadvertisingandincumbentnamerecognition Answer: A


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106) Theselectiveperceptionofmostvotersmeansthatthey A) aresusceptibletohavingtheirmindschangedfairlyeasilybyeffectivecampaigns. B) makerationalchoicesaboutthepurposivebenefitstothemselvesofvotingfora particularcandidate. C) keepafairlyopenmindregardingthecandidatesduringtheelectioncampaign,and choosebasedonrationalanalysis. D) paymostattentiontothingstheyalreadyagreewith,andinterpreteventsaccordingto theirownpredispositions. E) areskepticalofallcandidatesandviewallcampaigningassuspect. Answer: D
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107) Americaspartynominationsystemcouldbestbedescribedas A) openandentrepreneurial. B) rationalandbureaucratized. C) informal,butrational. D) ameritocracy. E) anapprenticeshipsystem. Answer: A


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108) TheprocessofselectingAmericasleadershasalmostnodowntimebeforeitrevsupallover again.Thisisreferredtoas A) thepermanentcampaign. B) therevolvingdoor. C) revolvingelections. D) electionmania. E) accountability. Answer: A


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109) ThroughoutAmericanhistory,presidentialcampaignshavebecome A) dirtieranddirtier. B) shorterandshorter. C) moreandmoresecretive. D) moreandmoredemocratic. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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110) Comparedtomostotherdemocraticsystems,nominationsandcampaignsintheUnitedStates A) requirelesscommitmentoftimeonthepartofthecandidate. B) aredecidedmorebypartybossesthanthegeneralpublic. C) tendtobemoreopen. D) tendtobeshorter. E) involvelessmoney. Answer: C


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111) Partyoutsidershave________gettingelectedintheUnitedStatesthaninothercountries. A) aboutthesamechanceof B) nochanceof C) amucheasiertime D) asomewhatmoredifficulttime E) amuchlesslikelychanceof Answer: C


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112) Inwhatmajorwaydopresidentialcampaignsservetostimulatebiggovernment? A) Publicfinancingofpresidentialcampaignsisatremendousdrainonthefederalbudget. B) Secretserviceprotectionforthecandidatesinvolvesagreatdealofexpenseand personnel. C) Candidatesmakepromisestoparticulargroupsandstatessomuchondifferent campaignstops,andmanyofthepromisesinvolvemoregovernmentspendingandnew orbiggerprograms. D) Theadministrationofelectionsandcampaignfinancelawscontributeinalargewayto increasedgovernmentsize. E) alloftheabove Answer: C
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113) Thefactthatcandidatesmusttailortheirappealstotheparticularinterestofeachmajorstate tendstoresultin A) numerouscampaignpromisesaddinguptonewgovernmentprograms. B) increasedpublicinterestinthecampaign. C) limitingthescopeofgovernment. D) amoreopenanddemocraticprocess. E) atilttowardstatesrightsattheexpenseofthenationalgovernment. Answer: A


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True/FalseQuestions
1) Inmostindustrializedcountries,politicalcampaignsareshorterbutcostnearlyasmuchas campaignsintheUnitedStates. Answer: FALSE
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2) Traditionally,Iowaholdsthefirstpresidentialprimarytochoosedelegatestoeachpartys nationalconventions. Answer: FALSE


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3) Mostnationalconventiondelegatesareselectedbypartyleadersineachstate,withonlya smallnumberreallycomingfromeitherpresidentialprimariesorcaucuses. Answer: FALSE


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4) Atonetime,allstatepartiesselectedtheirdelegatestothenationalconventioninameetingof statepartyleaders. Answer: TRUE


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5) Unlikepartyconventiondelegatespriorto1968,mostoftodaysdelegatestoDemocratic conventionshavefewtiestoexperiencedpoliticiansorthepartyorganization. Answer: TRUE


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6) TheDemocraticpartyhasbeenmorepreoccupiedsince1968withpartyefficiencyand winningelectionsratherthanwithbroadeningrepresentationinthepartyandopeningupits process. Answer: FALSE


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7) TheMcGovern-FraserCommissionresultedinamorehigh-techandefficientDemocratic party. Answer: FALSE


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8) Morepeoplecastballotsinpresidentialprimariesearlyintheprocessthaninthegeneral electioninNovember. Answer: FALSE


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9) Theextendedlengthofthenominationprocessadvantagesindividualswhoalreadyhold prominentpoliticalpositions. Answer: FALSE


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10) Candidatespolicypositionsreceivemoremediaattentionthandoestheircampaignstrategy. Answer: FALSE


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11) Amajorproblemwiththeregionalprimaryproposalistheadvantagegainedbytheregion thatgoeslast. Answer: FALSE


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12) Thenationalpoliticalconventionshavebeenremovedofmostoftheirdramainthepastfew decades,partlyasaresultoftelevisioncoverage. Answer: TRUE


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13) Politicalscientistsgenerallyagreethatwehaveenteredapoliticalerawherecandidatesslick imagesandslogansdominateelectoralpoliticsanddeterminetheoutcomeofelections. Answer: FALSE


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14) Politicalpartyconventionsareusuallyfilledwithhighdrama. Answer: FALSE


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15) Anytimeovertwentypercentofthedelegatestotheplatformcommitteedisagreewiththe majority,theycanbringanalternativeminorityplanktotheconventionfloorfordebate. Answer: TRUE


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16) TheFederalElectionCommissionadministerscampaignfinancelawsandenforcescompliance withtheirrequirements. Answer: TRUE


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17) Presidentialnomineesofeachpartygetafixedamountofmoneyfromthefederaltreasuryto coveralltheirofficialcampaignexpensesforthegeneralelection. Answer: TRUE


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18) Moneysomeonecontributestohisorherowncampaignisnotsubjecttolimits,andisknown assoftmoney. Answer: FALSE


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19) Theamountofmoneyanindividualcancontributetotheirowncampaignislimitedto$1,000. Answer: FALSE


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20) Themostimportantgoalofanymediacampaignissimplytogetattention. Answer: TRUE


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21) 527groupscannotexplicitlyurgecitizenstovotefororagainstacandidate. Answer: TRUE


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22) PACsarecreatedbybusinessassociations;laborunionsareprohibitedfromformingthem. Answer: FALSE


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23) TheRepublicanpartyisaformofaPAC. Answer: FALSE


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24) Politicalactioncommitteescanspendunlimitedamountsofmoneyifsuchactivitiesarenot coordinatedwiththecampaign. Answer: TRUE


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25) Asof2003,theFederalElectionCommissionreportedthattherewere10,000PACs. Answer: FALSE


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26) Researchontheeffectivenessofpoliticalcampaignsindicatesthatcampaignsmostlyconvert; onlyrarelydotheyactivate. Answer: FALSE


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27) Mostpeoplepayrelativelylittleattentiontopoliticalcampaigns. Answer: TRUE


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28) Inmostraces,agoodcampaigncanmakeabigdifferencetowhowinsandloses. Answer: FALSE


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29) ThechancetowinhighofficeintheUnitedStatesisopentoalmostanyhighlyskilled politicianwithevenasmallelectoralbase. Answer: TRUE


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30) Thehighcostofcampaignsoftendiscouragesgoodcandidatesfromcompetingforhigher politicaloffices. Answer: TRUE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) Thewayinwhichcandidatesattempttomanipulatemoney,mediaattentionandmomentum towinanelectioniscalled________. Answer: campaignstrategy
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2) A(n)________isapartysofficialendorsementofacandidateforoffice. Answer: nomination


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3) Thequadrennialmeetingofpoliticalpartydelegatesfromallfiftystatesisthe________. Answer: nationalpartyconvention


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4) Iowaandanumberofotherstatesholdapresidential________,ratherthanaprimary,in ordertobegintheprocessofchoosingdelegatestothenationalconvention. Answer: caucus


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5) Today,mostdelegatestotheDemocraticandRepublicannationalconventionsareselectedin ________. Answer: presidentialprimaries


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6) Anelectioninwhichvotersinastategotothepollsandvoteforapresidentialcandidateor delegatespledgedtooneisa(n)________. Answer: presidentialprimary


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7) ________areDemocraticpartyleaderswhoareassignedabouttenpercentofthedelegateslots atthenationalconvention. Answer: Superdelegates


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8) TheDemocraticpartyreformstoopenupitsprocessofchoosingdelegatestothenational conventiontobemorerepresentativeoftheAmericanpeoplewasputinplacebythe________ Commission. Answer: McGovern-Fraser


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9) Thefirststatetoholdapresidentialprimaryineverypresidentialelectionyearis________. Answer: NewHampshire


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10) WhyistheNewHampshirepresidentialprimarysoimportant? Answer: Itisthefirstprimaryofthepresidentialelectionseasonandthuskeytoestablishing positivecandidateimages.


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11) TheimpactofPACcontributionsonpresidentialcampaignsislikelytobe________thantheir impactoncongressionalraces. Answer: less


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12) Explaintheprosandconsforhavinganationalprimarytoselectpresidentialcandidates. Answer: Answerswillvary.


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13) Whatarethemainfunctionsofpoliticalpartyconventionstoday? Answer: Theyarearallying-pointforpartymembers,theydevelopthepartyspolicypositions, andtheypromotepoliticalrepresentation.


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14) Atthepartynominatingconventions,thedelegateslistentospeeches,nominatecandidates, andpasstheparty________,itsofficialstatementofitsgoalsandpoliciesforthenextfour years. Answer: platform


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15) ThefederalagencythatregulatesPACsisthe________. Answer: FederalElectionCommission


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16) Softmoneycontributionsweremadeillegalby________. Answer: theMcCain-FeingoldActof2002


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17) Themailingofinformationandarequestformoneyusinglistsofpeoplewhohavesupported candidatesofsimilarviewsinthepastiscalled________. Answer: directmail


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18) Explainthetechniqueofdirectmail.Whyisitimportanttoapoliticalcampaign? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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19) The________,abipartisanbodyofsixmembers,administersthenationscampaignfinance lawsandenforcescompliancewiththeirrequirements. Answer: FederalElectionCommission


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20) WhatarethemainprovisionsoftheFederalElectionCampaignAct? Answer: createdtheFEC,createdthePresidentialElectionCampaignFund,providedpartial publicfinancingforpresidentialprimaries,providedfullpublicfinancingformajor partycandidatesinthegeneralelection,requiredfulldisclosureofcampaign contributions,limitedcontributions


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21) AnamendmenttoFECA(1974)madeiteasierforpoliticalpartiestoaccepthugedonations knownas________moneytofinancevoterregistrationandthedistributionofcampaign material(buttons,yardsigns,pamphlets,etc.). Answer: soft


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22) ________extendedtherightoffreespeechtoPACs,enablingthemtospendunlimited amountsofmoneyifsuchexpendituresarenotcoordinatedwithacandidatescampaign organization. Answer: Buckleyv.Valeo


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23) WhatisthesignificanceoftheSupremeCourtsdecisioninBuckleyv.Valeo(1976)? Answer: extendedtherightoffreespeechtoPACs


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24) TightlycontestedracesforCongresscansometimescostasmuchas$________million. Answer: $1million


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25) Whatismeantbysoftmoneyinapoliticalcampaign,andwhyisitimportant? Answer: politicalcontributionsearmarkedforparty-buildingexpensesatthegrass-rootslevelor forgenericpartyadvertising;answerswillvary


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26) Manybusinessgroups,labororganizations,andothermajorinterestgroupshaveformed ________,inwhichtheycollectivelycontributemoneytocandidateswhofavororarelikelyto favortheirinterestsorpositions. Answer: politicalactioncommittees


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27) Oneofthefactorsthatweakenstheimpactcampaignscanhaveonvotersisthatpeoplehavea remarkablecapacityfor________,payingmostattentiontothingstheyalreadyagreewith andinterpretingeventsaccordingtotheirownpredispositions. Answer: selectiveperception


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28) The________isarguedtodepresscitizensinterestandinvolvementincampaignsbecauseits lengthsimplyoverwhelmsthem. Answer: permanentcampaign


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EssayQuestions
1) WhatgaverisetotheMcGovern-FraserCommission,andwhatchangesdiditmakein delegateselection?Wasthelateradditionofsuperdelegatesmeanttostrengthenorweaken whatthecommissionhaddone?
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2) Describehowthecaucusandpresidentialprimarydifferfromoneanotherinselecting delegatestothenationalpartynominatingconventions.Whichdoyouthinkisabetter method?Why?


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3) Evaluatethestrengthsandweaknessesofthepresentprimaryandcaucussystemofselecting nationalconventiondelegates.Wouldyoufavoramovetoadifferentsystem,orprefertokeep theprocessasis?Bespecific,andexplain.


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4) WhyareIowaandNewHampshireespeciallyimportanttoeachpartyintheprocessof selectingnationalconventiondelegates?Shouldtheyhavethissortofpower?Explain.
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5) ForwhatpurposedoAmericasmajorpartiesholdnationalconventions?Howhavethey changedoverthelastfewdecades,andwhy?Aretheystillworthholding?Why,orwhynot? Explain.


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6) Howhavenationalpartyconventionschangedovertime?Whathappensattheconvention andwhatarethemajorfunctionsoftheconventiontoday?
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7) Howhascampaigningchangedinthemodernhigh-techsociety?Evaluatehowtechnology haschangedcampaigning.ArethesechangesgoodorbadforAmericansociety?
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8) Describethevariousstaffmembersnecessaryforamodernpresidentialcampaign.Whatdo manyofthesetaskssayabouttheimportanceofissuesasopposedtotheimportanceof image?


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9) Whyisorganizationimportanttoapoliticalcampaign?Howaremostpoliticalcampaigns organized?Whatfactorsareessentialforawell-organizedcampaign?
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10) Describethesignificanceofmoneyinamodernpresidentialelectioncampaign.Howdoesthe governmentregulatethefund-raisingandexpendituresofpresidentialcampaigns?Isthe governmentregulationadequate?Explain.


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11) Describeandevaluatetheroleofmoneyinpoliticalcampaigns,anditsimpactonthe distributionofpoliticalpowerinAmerica.


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12) DescribethecurrentfundingsystemforfederalelectionsintheUnitedStates.Assessthe advantagesanddisadvantagesoffullpublicfinancingoffederalelections.Whowould benefitfromsuchapolicy?Why?


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13) Explainhowapoliticalactioncommitteeworks.Howarepoliticalactioncommittees regulated?Evaluatetheinfluenceofpoliticalactioncommittees.


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14) DescribewhataPACis,andwhyitissignificant.WhatroledoPACsplayinmajorelection campaignsintheUnitedStates?ArePACsareflectionofdemocracyinaction,athreatto democracy,orsomethinginbetween?Explain.


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15) Whydopoliticalcampaignsrarelyaffectanindividualsvotingintention?
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16) EvaluatepoliticalcampaignsinAmericaintermsoftheirroleinthedemocraticprocess.How dotheymakeoursystemmoredemocratic?Whatlimitscampaignsfrommakingoursystem moredemocratic?


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17) Describethethreekeyeffectscampaignscanhaveonvoters,andnotewhichtwoofthethree aremostsignificant,andwhy.Ifyouwererunningacampaign,whatwouldbeyour emphasis?Why?


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Chapter10 ElectionsandVotingBehavior
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) LegitimacyintermsofAmericanelectionsmeans A) thepublicissatisfiedwiththequalificationsandthepolicypositionsofthecandidates. B) thepublicisnearlyunanimouslyhappywiththeresults. C) theelectionisnearlyunanimouslyacceptedasafairandfreemethodtoselectpolitical leaders. D) thepublicisgenerallynotsatisfiedwiththecandidates,theresults,orthemethodsby whichelectionsareheld. E) thebestcandidateisselected. Answer: C
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2) ElectionsintheUnitedStatesperformwhichofthefollowingfunctions? A) makeorratifylegislation B) selectpartynominees C) selectofficeholdersfromamongpartynominees D) bothBandC E) alloftheabove Answer: E


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3) WhichofthefollowingfunctionsdoelectionsLEASTserve? A) selectingpublicofficials B) makingandcoordinatingpublicpolicy C) providingregularaccesstopoliticalpower D) providinglegitimacytothepoliticalsystem E) connectingcitizenstogovernmentofficials Answer: B


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4) CaliforniasfamousProposition13,inwhichvotersfrustratedbyalackofactionbytheir legislatureforcedanissueontheballotandvotedtolimittheriseinpropertytaxes,wasan exampleof A) adirectprimary. B) anindirectprimary. C) aninitiative. D) areferendum. E) avoteroverride. Answer: C


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5) CaliforniasProposition209,whichintendedtoendaffirmativeactionprogramsinthestate,is anexampleof A) adirectprimary. B) anindirectprimary. C) aninitiative. D) areferendum. E) avoteroverride. Answer: C


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6) DanielSmitharguesthatinitiativestypicallystemfrom A) broadpublicdemandforthepolicy. B) theactionsofadedicatedpolicyentrepreneur. C) thenaturalemergenceofpolicyissues. D) responsiveelectedofficials,workingincoalition. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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7) Theinitiativeisputontheballotasaresultof A) thegovernorsorder. B) aSupremeCourtruling. C) apetitionsignedbyacertainpercentageofthevotersinthepreviouselection. D) publicopinionpollsshowingstrongsupportforacertainmeasurenotacteduponbythe legislature. E) aspecial,legallyconstitutedconventionvotingtoplaceitthere. Answer: C


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8) Ofthefollowing,whichisthemostdirectformofdemocracy? A) initiative B) referendum C) directprimary D) presidentialelection E) recall Answer: A


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9) Theinitiativepetition A) isusedtoselectpartynomineesforcongressionalandstateoffices. B) enablesvoterstoputproposedlegislationontheballot. C) isanelectioninwhichvotersapproveordisapprovealegislativeact. D) isneededforacandidatetogethisorhernameontheballot. E) isapetitionthatinitiatesarecallelectiontodeterminewhetheranelectedofficialshallbe removedfromoffice. Answer: B


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10) ExamplesofissuesaddressedinrecentinitiativesincludeallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) endingaffirmativeaction. B) settingmaximumclaimsizes. C) payingcollegegraduatestoresideinastateforanumberofyears. D) electiondayregistration. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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11) Anelectionwherebyvotersaregiventhechancetoapproveordisapprovesomelegislativeact orconstitutionalamendmentiscalled A) areferendum. B) aninitiativepetition. C) adirectprimary. D) adirectelection. E) aratificationelection. Answer: A


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12) Areferendumisanelection A) inwhichcitizenscanproposetheirownlegislation. B) forjudicialoffices. C) forchoosingpartynomineesforstateoffices. D) wherebyvotersaregiventhechancetoapproveordisapprovesomelegislativeactor constitutionalamendment. E) todeterminewhethertoremoveanelectedofficialfromofficebeforetheendoftheir term. Answer: D
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13) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueaboutelectionsinAmericansociety? A) Theysocializeandinstitutionalizepoliticalactivity. B) Theyprovideregularaccesstopoliticalpower. C) Theyareacceptedaslegitimate,fair,andfreemethodstoselectpoliticalleaders. D) Thevastmajorityofeligiblecitizenscastballots,evenforlocalraces. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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14) Inthe1800electionpresidentialcandidateswerenominatedby A) theirpartieselectedrepresentativesinCongress. B) theirpartiesnominatingconvention. C) theirpartiesvotersinprimaryelections. D) theelectoralcollege. E) thepresident. Answer: A


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15) WhichofthefollowingdoesNOTcharacterizepresidentialelectionsaround1800? A) Thecandidatesbarnstormedthecountrycampaigningandgivingspeeches. B) Mostofthecampaigningwasdonebystateandlocalpartyorganizations. C) Campaignsweredirectedatstatelegislators,notthevoters. D) Newspapercoverageofthecampaignwasextremelybiasedanddishonest. E) Allofthesedescribethepathetic,sordid,sorrystateofearlyAmericanelections weve comealongwaybaby! Answer: A
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16) Whichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthe1800presidentialelectionisTRUE? A) The1800electionwasultimatelydecidedintheHouseofRepresentatives. B) The1800electionwasthefirstoneinwhichthecandidateswerechosenbyparty conventions. C) Forthefirsttimethefocusofthe1800electionwasonthecitizenvoters. D) Thecandidatesinthe1800electionvigorouslycampaignedineachofthestates. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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17) Theelectionof1800was A) decidedbythedirectvoteofthepeople. B) decidedbytheelectoralcollege. C) decidedbytheHouseofRepresentatives. D) overturnedbytheSupremeCourt. E) decidedbythefullCongress. Answer: C


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18) Thepresidentialelectionof1800was A) thefirstuseofdirectprimariesintheUnitedStates. B) decidedbytheHouseofRepresentativesafteratieintheelectoralcollege. C) notablefortheimportanceofkeyconventionspeechestoswingthevotesintheelectoral eollege. D) thefirsttransitionofpowerbetweenpartiesaccomplishedbyvotersballotsinthe historyoftheworld. E) influencedbymediaintentonforcingincumbentoutofoffice. Answer: D
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19) Thepresidentialelectionof1800representsthefirst A) useofpartynominatingconventions. B) timetheSenateelectedthepresident. C) useoftheelectoralcollege. D) peacefultransferofpowerintheworldbetweenpartiesviatheelectoralprocess. E) timethevotersdirectlyelectedthepresidentialelectors. Answer: D


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20) Intheoriginalconstitutionalsystem, A) eachpresidentialelectorcasttwoballotsandthetopvote-getterwasnamedpresident andtherunner-upbecamevicepresident. B) theSenateelectedthepresidentandtheHouseofRepresentativeselectedthevice president. C) eachpresidentialelectorcastoneballotforoneofthepresident/vicepresidentteams running. D) thestatelegislatureselectedthepresidentandvicepresident,withthecandidategetting thesecondmostvotesbecomingvicepresident. E) thepresident,onceelectedbytheelectoralcollege,chosethevicepresident. Answer: A
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21) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEofthepresidentialelectionof1800? A) ThecandidatestraveledthroughoutthesmallernumberofUnitedStatesatthetimeto campaignforvotes. B) Itwasagentlemanlycontestinwhichpartisansonbothsidesshowedrespectforthe opposition. C) Itwascarefullyandobjectivelycoveredinthenewspapersoftheday,withlogical reasoningandrespectforbothcandidatesinarticlesandeditorials. D) Itwasthefirstpeacefultransferofpowerbetweenpartiesviatheelectoralprocessinthe historyoftheworld. E) alloftheabove Answer: D
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22) Intheelectoralcollegevoteintheelectionof1800,therewasatiebetween A) ThomasJeffersonandJohnAdams. B) JohnAdamsandJamesMadison. C) JohnAdamsandAaronBurr. D) ThomasJeffersonandAaronBurr. E) GeorgeWashingtonandThomasJefferson. Answer: D


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23) Theissueoffreesilver(toincreasetheamountofcurrencyincirculation)waschampionedin theelectionof1896by________,whosemostfamousorationwashisCrossofGoldspeechat theDemocraticnationalconvention. A) GroverCleveland B) WilliamMcKinley C) WilliamJenningsBryan D) TheodoreRoosevelt E) WoodrowWilson Answer: C
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24) In1896,wholikedsilvermoney? A) debtors B) bankers C) exporters D) Easternmanufacturers E) coincollectorsanddealers Answer: A


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25) Thefirstpeacefultransferofpowerbetweenpartiesviatheelectoralprocessinthehistoryof theworldoccurredasaresultofthepresidentialelectionof A) 1796. B) 1800. C) 1860. D) 1896. E) 1789. Answer: B


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26) Theelectionof1896waslargelyfoughtovertheissueof A) war. B) economics. C) racerelations. D) governmentcorruption. E) theownershipoflandinthewest. Answer: B


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27) Whichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheelectionof1896isFALSE? A) Themainissueintheelectionof1896wasthegoldstandardandtariffs. B) WilliamJenningsBryanbrokewithtraditionandcampaignedextensivelyinperson. C) TheelectionresultedintheDemocratsbecomingfirmlyentrenchedasthemajorityparty intheNortheastandMidwest. D) Nearly80percentoftheeligibleelectoratevotedin1896. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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28) Thewinnerofthepresidentialelectionof1896was A) TheodoreRoosevelt. B) WilliamMcKinley. C) GroverCleveland. D) WilliamJenningsBryan. E) UlyssesGrant. Answer: B


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29) Theelectionof1896leftalegacyofapoliticalalignmentthatenduredforseveraldecades, wherein A) theDemocratswonthemorepopulousNortheastandMidwest,andtheRepublicans wonintheSouthandWest. B) theDemocratswontheSouthandWest,whiletheRepublicanswoninthemore populousNortheastandMidwest. C) theDemocratswontheMidwestandtheSouth,whiletheRepublicanswoninthe NortheastandWest. D) theDemocratswonintheNortheastandWest,whiletheRepublicanswoninthe NortheastandSouth. E) theRepublicansswepttheSouth,andtheDemocratswoninallotherregions. Answer: B
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30) BecauseBushsleadoverGoreintheinitialcountwaslessthanone-tenthofonepercent, Floridalawmandated A) thattheFloridastatelegislaturevotetodeclareBushthewinner. B) theoutcomeoftheelectionbedeterminedbytheFloridaSupremeCourt. C) theSecretaryofStatetocertifytheresults. D) anautomaticrecount. E) athirty-dayextensionforabsenteeballots. Answer: D


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31) InBushv.Gore(2000),theUnitedStatesSupremeCourtruledthat A) theFloridaSupremeCourtdidnothavejurisdictionoverthepresidentialelectionlegal issues. B) althougharecountwaslegal,thesame(ormoreprecise)standardsforevaluatingballots wouldhavetobeappliedinallcounties. C) thebutterflyballotwasunconstitutional. D) thetimeusedtorecountballotscouldextendpastDecember12,whentheFlorida electorswouldmeet. E) punchcardballotswereillegalifnotusedinallcounties. Answer: B
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32) Accordingtoexitpolls,________wasamajorreasonvotersselectedBushin2004. A) welfarereform B) healthcarereform C) thewaronterrorism D) freedomofspeech E) strategicvoting Answer: C


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33) Inthe2004election,JohnKerrywonvotesamongthosemostconcernedwith A) theeconomy,healthcare,andeducation. B) thefairnessofthetaxsystem. C) theenvironment,theeconomy,andtransportationissues. D) theenvironmentandurbanaffairs. E) civilrights,theenvironment,andtheeconomy. Answer: A


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34) Suffragemeans A) therighttovote. B) turningouttovote. C) votingforthewinner. D) votingfortheloser. E) thestruggleforequalrightsforwomen. Answer: A


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35) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEaboutAmericanelectionsoverthepast100years? A) Thesuffragehasbroadened,andtheturnouthasincreased. B) Thesuffragehasbroadened,andtheturnouthasdecreased. C) Thesuffragehasnarrowed,andtheturnouthasincreased. D) Thesuffragehasnarrowed,andtheturnouthasdecreased. E) Suffragehasbroadened,buttherehasbeennochangeinturnout. Answer: B


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36) Suffragerefersto A) atypeofelectionuniquetotheUnitedStates. B) therighttovote. C) avoterregistrationsystem. D) voterturnoutrates. E) votingproceduresintheelectoralcollege. Answer: B


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37) Astherighttovotehasbeenextended, A) voterturnouthasincreasedproportionately. B) proportionatelyfewerofthoseeligiblehavechosentovote. C) thenumberofcandidatesrunningforofficehasincreased. D) voterturnouthasactuallyremainedaboutthesame. E) thescopeofAmericangovernmenthasshrunk. Answer: B


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38) ThenearlytwocenturiesofAmericanelectoralhistoryhasbeencharacterizedby A) consistentlycloseelections. B) increasingvoterturnouts. C) expansionoftherighttovote. D) aproliferationofpresidentialcandidates. E) alloftheabove Answer: C


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39) ThehighpointofvoterturnoutintheUnitedStateswasin A) 1896. B) 1932. C) 1972. D) 1968. E) 1960. Answer: A


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40) PeoplearemorelikelytovoteforallofthefollowingreasonsEXCEPTifthey A) haveahighsenseofcivicduty. B) haveahighsenseofpoliticalefficacy. C) areabletoseepolicydifferencesthataffecttheirinterests. D) believethatsomepoliciesofonepartyarebalancedbyotherpoliciesoftheotherparty. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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41) AnthonyDownstheoryofrationalvotingbehaviorpredictsthatpeoplewillvoteifthey A) canaffordthetimeandenergytodoso. B) thinkonepartywillgivethemmorepolicybenefitsthantheother. C) thinktheirvotewillmakethedifferenceforaparticularcandidate. D) identifywithaparticularcandidate,eventhoughtheydoubtthatonevotecanmakea difference. E) feelobligatedtodoso. Answer: B


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42) Thoselargelyindifferenttotheresultsofanelection,butwhodecidetovoteanywaytoshow supportfordemocraticgovernmentarecalled________voters. A) guilt-driven B) civic-duty C) regime-maintenance D) patrioticdisaffected E) disaffected Answer: B


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43) Thegreateronessenseofpoliticalefficacy,the A) lesslikelyoneistovote. B) morelikelyoneistovote. C) greateroneschanceofbeingdefeatedinanelection. D) lesslikelyoneistoviewtheelectionprocessintheUnitedStatesaslegitimate. E) morelikelyoneistoseedifferencesbetweentheparties. Answer: B


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44) Politicalefficacyreferstothebeliefthat A) thecostsofvotingoutweighthebenefits. B) significantpolicydifferencesexistbetweentheparties. C) oneshouldalwayssupportdemocraticgovernment. D) ordinarypeoplecaninfluencethegovernment. E) governmentisveryinefficientandneedstobestreamlined. Answer: D


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45) Largelytopreventcorruptionassociatedwithstuffingballotboxes,statesadopted________ aroundtheturnofthetwentiethcentury. A) theelectoralcollege B) primaryelections C) votingmachines D) voterregistration E) thesecretballot Answer: D


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46) Voterregistrationwasbegunaroundtheturnofthetwentiethcentury A) toencouragevotingthroughadvancenotice. B) bypartybossestodiscouragepeoplefromvoting. C) tomakeelectionsmoreethical. D) toallowforthesecretballot. E) todiscouragepatronage. Answer: C


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47) Voterregistrationprocedureswereadoptedaroundtheturnofthecenturyasameansto A) preventAfricanAmericansfromvoting. B) increasevoterparticipation. C) preventcorruptionassociatedwithstuffingballotboxes. D) increasethenumberofpotentialvoters. E) establishminimumvotingqualifications,suchaspassingthePoliticalLiteracyTestora civiceducationcourse. Answer: C


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48) Comparedtoothercountries,theUnitedStatesholds________electionsforvariousoffices. A) farfewer B) somewhatfewer C) aboutthesamenumberof D) more E) twiceasmany Answer: D


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49) AmajorreasoncitedforAmericaslevelofvoterturnoutcomparedtootherindustrialized countriesis A) badweatherincertainpartsoftheUnitedStatesonelectionday. B) greaterinterestindemocracyintheUnitedStates. C) registrationismorecumbersomeintheUnitedStates. D) registrationismorecumbersomeinothernations. E) Americanshighsenseofpoliticalefficacy. Answer: C


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50) Comparedtootherindustrializeddemocracies,theUnitedStateshasa________voterturnout. A) muchhigher B) slightlyhigher C) slightlylower D) muchlower E) rising Answer: D


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51) WhichofthefollowingcountrieshasalowervoterturnoutratethantheUnitedStates? A) Australia B) GreatBritain C) Switzerland D) Italy E) France Answer: C


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52) Whichofthefollowingcountrieshasthelowestvoterturnoutrate? A) Australia B) UnitedStates C) Italy D) France E) Bulgaria Answer: B


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53) VoterturnoutintheUnitedStatesismuchlowerthaninothercountriesinpartbecause A) oftheuniqueAmericanrequirementofvoterregistration. B) Americansareaskedtovotelessoftenanddonotsustaininterestintheelectoralprocess. C) Americansvoteforfewerpoliticalofficesandlackasenseofpoliticalefficacy. D) thechoiceofferedAmericansisgreaterthaninothercountries,whichconfusespotential voters. E) ofthestridentpositionstakenbytheparties,whichalienatemiddle-of-the-roadvoters. Answer: A


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54) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSE? A) UnliketheUnitedStates,thegovernmentsofmostdemocraciestaketheresponsibilityof seeingtoitthatalloftheireligiblecitizensareonthevotinglists. B) Americangovernmentaskscitizenstovotefarmoreoftenthanmostdemocracies. C) Americansareexpectedtovoteforamuchnarrowerrangeofpoliticalofficesthanmost democracies. D) ThechoiceofferedAmericansatelectionsisnotasgreatasinotherdemocracies. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C
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55) Whichofthesewouldbemostlikelytovote? A) awell-educated,middle-agedgovernmentworker B) ayoungsouthernerwithoutahighschooldiploma C) awell-educatedseniorcitizenwhousedtoworkforabigcorporation D) ayoungsouthernhighschoolteacher E) amiddle-agedprofessorataprivateuniversity Answer: A


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56) WhichofthefollowingisINCORRECT? A) Congressrequiresvoterregistrationnationwide. B) TheMotorVoterActallowseligiblevoterstoregisterbycheckingaboxontheirdrivers licenseapplication. C) InNorthDakota,youdonthavetoregistertovote. D) Inafewstates,youcanregistertovoteonelectionday. E) Somestatesletyouregisteratsupermarkets. Answer: A


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57) Amongthestatesthatallowvoterregistrationatthepollsonelectionday,voterturnoutrates are A) higherthaninotherstates. B) impossibletocompute. C) nodifferentthaninotherstates. D) lowerthanthenationalaverage. E) decliningovertimeandatahigherratethaninotherstates. Answer: A


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58) Approximatelyhowmanystatesallowvoterstoregisteratthepollsonelectionday? A) 6 B) 14 C) 34 D) 44 E) 49 Answer: A


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59) TheMotorVoterActof1993 A) requiresstatestoprovidetransportationforcitizenswhoareunabletogettothepollson theirownefforts. B) requiresstatestomailvoterregistrationformstoallindividualsholdingdriverslicenses. C) requiresstatestoregisterindividualstovotewhentheyapplyfor,orrenew,their driverslicense. D) establisheddrive-inpollingplacestomakevotingmoreconvenientandincreasevoter turnout. E) requiresthefederalgovernmenttoregisterindividualstovotewhentheyapplyforor renewtheirdriverslicense. Answer: C
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60) TheimpactoftheMotorVoterActof1993wasevidencedin A) higherregistrationandhigherturnoutin1996and2000. B) higherregistrationandlowerturnoutin1996and2000. C) nochangesineitherregistrationorturnoutin1996and2000. D) lowerregistrationandhigherturnoutin1996and2000. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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61) Thegroupofpeoplewiththelowestvoterturnoutrateis A) collegegraduates. B) youngpeople. C) women. D) seniorcitizensover70. E) unionmembers. Answer: B


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62) Accordingtothetext,themostimportantfactoraffectingvoterturnoutis A) education. B) gender. C) ideology. D) race. E) geography. Answer: A


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63) Highlyeducatedindividualsaremorelikelytovotebecause A) theyaresmarter. B) theyseemorepolicydifferencesbetweencandidates. C) theyhavealowersenseofpoliticalefficacy. D) mostofthemarewhitemales. E) theyhavemoreinfluence. Answer: B


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64) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutvoterparticipationisFALSE? A) Aspeopleage,theirlikelihoodofvotingincreases. B) Minoritygroupswithhighlevelsofincomeandeducationhaveahigherturnoutrate thanwhiteswithcomparablestatus. C) Menaremorelikelytovotethanwomen. D) Individualswhohavelivedatthesameaddresslongeraremorelikelytovotethanthose whohavemoved. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C
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65) Whichofthefollowingcharacteristicswouldmakeonemorelikelytovoteinanelection? A) havingacollegedegree B) beingayoungadult C) havingalowincome D) beingacollegestudent E) bringawelfarerecipient Answer: A


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66) Peoplewithhigherthanaverageeducation A) arenomoreandnolesslikelytovotethanpeopleoflowereducationallevels. B) aremorelikelytovotethanpeopleoflowereducationallevels. C) aresomewhatlesslikelytovotethanpeopleoflowereducationallevels. D) aremuchlesslikelytovotethanpeopleoflowereducationallevelsbecausetheyknowit wontdoanygood. E) aremorelikelytovotethanhighschooldropouts,butlesslikelytovotethanthosewith highschooldiplomas. Answer: B
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67) Themandatetheoryofelections A) isbasedontheeconomictheoryofrationaldecisionmaking. B) explainsvotersdecisionsaccordingtoanevaluationofthecandidatespersonality. C) saysthatpeoplevoteforcandidatesbecausetheywantthemtocarryoutcertainpolicies. D) explainsvotersdecisionsaccordingtopartyidentification. E) isbasedonthesociologicaltheoryofirrationalbehaviorism. Answer: C


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68) Themandatetheoryofelectionsismostoftencitedastheproperwaytoviewelectionsby A) thedefeatedcandidate. B) thewinningcandidate. C) politicalscientists. D) everybody. E) themedia. Answer: B


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69) Themandatetheoryofelectionsistheideathat A) acandidatemustgetatleastsixtypercentofthevotetowin. B) acandidatemustgetamajorityofthevotescast(fiftypercentplusone)inordertotake office. C) theelectionwinnerhasauthorizationfromthevoterstocarryouthisorherpromised policies. D) inordertoimproveturnoutratesintheUnitedStates,votingmustbemadealegal requirementofallcitizens,withthefailuretovoteresultinginasmallfine. E) acandidatemustgetatleastseventy-fivepercentofthevotetowin. Answer: C
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70) ________arecrucialformanyvotersbecausetheyprovidearegularperspectivethrough whichvoterscanviewthepoliticalworld. A) Partyidentifications B) Civicduties C) Directprimaryelections D) Initiativepetitions E) Partyplatforms Answer: A


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71) Politicalscientiststendtofocusoneachofthefollowingmajorelementsofvotersdecisions EXCEPT A) voterspartyidentification. B) votersideologyandworldview. C) votersevaluationofthecandidates. D) thematchbetweenvoterspolicypositionsandthoseofthecandidatesandparties. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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72) Studieshaveshownthatduringthe1960sand1970s, A) votingaccordingtopoliticalpartyidentificationincreased. B) DemocratsvotedalongpartylinesmorethanRepublicans. C) theholdofthepartiesonvoterserodedsubstantially. D) politicalpartyidentificationnolongeraffectedvotingbehavior. E) largenumbersofpeoplewhohadbeeneligibletovotebutnevervotedsurgedintothe electorate. Answer: C


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73) Overthelastfivedecades,votingbasedprimarilyonpartyidentificationhas A) completelydisappeared. B) declinedsharply. C) stayedalmostexactlythesame. D) increased. E) increasedsharply. Answer: B


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74) Manyvotershavecometofeelthattheynolongerneedthepartiestoguidetheirelectoral choicesbecause A) thepartieshavebecomesomuchalikethatitmakeslittledifference. B) moderntechnologymakesitpossibleforthemtoevaluateandmaketheirowndecisions aboutthecandidates. C) thepartiestendtorelyongroupsthatleanheavilyintheirfavor. D) onceinoffice,candidatesrarelyfollowthepartylineanyway. E) partieshavebecomethecaptivesofpowerfulinterestgroupsthatcontrolthecandidates, andthecandidatesdontlookoutfortheinterestsofordinarypeople. Answer: B
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75) ResearchbyRosenbergandMcCaffertydiscoveredthat A) acandidatesimageandappearanceisthemostimportantfactorinhowapersonvotes. B) lesseducatedvotersaremorelikelytoviewcandidatesintermsoftheirpersonal attributes. C) itispossibletomanipulateacandidatesappearanceinawaythataffectsvoterschoices. D) acandidatesimageandappearancehasnorealimpactonvotingbehavior. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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76) Whichoftheseistheleastimportantdimensionofacandidatesimage? A) intelligence B) integrity C) reliability D) competence E) experience Answer: A


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77) ________occurswhenpeoplebasetheirchoicesinanelectionontheirownissuepreferences. A) Civicduty B) Suffrage C) Retrospectivevoting D) Policyvoting E) Agendasetting Answer: D


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78) Avotersupportingacandidatebasedspecificallyoncomparingthecandidatesstancesonthe issuesofabortionrights,healthcare,andgovernmentaidtoeducationtothevotersown preferencesonsuchissuesisanexampleof A) retrospectivevoting. B) policyvoting. C) civicduty. D) initiative. E) agendasetting. Answer: B
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79) Researchhasfoundthatthosemostlikelytoviewthecandidatesintermsoftheirpersonal attributesare A) minorityvoters. B) college-educatedvoters. C) low-incomevoters. D) womenvoters. E) non-voters. Answer: B


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80) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEabouttheelectoralcollege? A) Onveryrareoccasions,anelectorhasvoteddifferentlyfromthepopularvotewinnerof hisstate. B) Itisscheduledtobephasedoutin2006,thoughsomestillargueitsusefulnessandwant torescindthephase-out. C) Itisusedinnearlyhalfofthedemocraticnationsaroundtheworld. D) Anelectorhasnevervoteddifferentlyfromthepopularvotewinnerofhisstate. E) noneoftheabove Answer: A
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81) Theelectorsintheelectoralcollegeare A) themembersofCongressfromeachstate,whovotestrictlyaccordingtowhowonthe majorityoftheirstatesvotes. B) themembersoftheHousefromeachstate,whovotestrictlyaccordingtowhowonthe majorityoftheirdistrictsvotes. C) selectedbystateparties,usuallyasarewardforfaithfulservicetothepartyoverthe years. D) abipartisangroupofpoliticalscientists,publicofficials,jurists,andotherrespected individualschosenbythegovernorofeachstate. E) selectedbystatelegislatureswellinadvanceofthepresidentialelection,andeachelector voteshisorherownconscienceastowhowouldbethebestpresident. Answer: C
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82) Theelectoralcollegewasoriginallyestablishedinorderto A) providedirectelectionofthepresidentbythepeople,althoughitsoperationhashadthe oppositeeffect. B) merelycertifytheresultsofthepeopleschoiceforpresidentandvicepresident. C) givethenationselitethepowertochoosethepresidentandvicepresidentratherthan thepeopledirectly. D) insurehighvoterturnoutsinelectionsthroughoutthecountry. E) givelegitimacytothepresidency,whichwasregardedsuspiciouslybymostpeopleas anotherpotentialmonarchy. Answer: C
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83) AsprovidedintheConstitution,howareelectoralvotesallocatedforeachstate? A) EachstatehasasmanyelectoralvotesasithasmembersintheHouseofRepresentatives. B) EachstatehasasmanyelectoralvotesasithasmembersinboththeHouseandthe Senate. C) EachstatehasasmanyelectoralvotesasithasmembersintheSenate. D) Eachstateisproportionedtotheirpopulation,withallstateshavingatleastonevote. E) Eachstatecaststwoelectoralvotes. Answer: C


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84) ElectorsintheelectoralcollegemeetintheirstatesinDecember(followingtheNovember generalelection)toofficiallycasttheirballots,thenmailtheirvotesto A) theHouseofRepresentatives. B) thepresident. C) thevicepresident. D) theSupremeCourt. E) theFederalElectionCommission. Answer: C


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85) Ifnocandidatereceivesanelectoralcollegemajority, A) arunoffelectionisheldnationwidebetweenthetoptwovote-getters. B) thecandidatewiththepluralityofelectoralvotesisautomaticallyelected. C) theHouseofRepresentativeschoosesamongthetopthreeelectoralvotewinners. D) theelectoralcollegetakesasecondballotbetweenthetoptwovote -getters,andthe candidatewhowinsthemajorityiselected. E) Congressisfreetoelectthepresident. Answer: C
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86) IfthepresidentialelectionisthrownintotheHouseofRepresentatives, A) eachstatesHousedelegationmaycastonlyonevote,regardlessofitsnumberof representatives. B) eachstatesHousedelegationcastsasmanyvotesasithaselectoralvotes. C) eachHousememberhasonevoteandmajorityrules. D) theHousevoteissubjecttovetobythepresident. E) eachHousememberhasonevotebutasixtypercentmajorityisrequiredtowinthe presidency. Answer: A
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87) ExceptinMaineandNebraska,theelectoralcollegesystemoperatesineachstateonthe principleofallocatingelectoralvotesonthebasisof A) winner-take-all. B) proportionalrepresentation. C) allocatingelectoralvotesbasedonthewinnerineachcongressionaldistrict. D) amixtureofwinner-take-allandproportionalrepresentation. E) majorityrule. Answer: A


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88) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheelectoralcollegeisFALSE?w A) EachstatehasasmanyelectoralvotesasithasUnitedStatessenatorsand representatives. B) Everystatehasawinner-take-allsystemwhereelectorsvoteasablocforthewinner. C) ElectorsmeetintheirstatesinDecemberandmailtheirvotestothevicepresident. D) Ifnocandidatereceivesanelectoralmajority,thentheelectionisthrownintotheHouse ofRepresentatives. E) Somestateshaveawinnertakeallsystemwhereelectorsvoteasablocforthewinner. Answer: B
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89) Ifapresidentialcandidatedoesnotreceiveamajorityofelectoralcollegevotes,thenthe presidentischosen A) bypopularvote. B) bytheJusticesoftheSupremeCourt. C) bytheHousewithonevoteforeachstate. D) bytheSenatewithtwovotesforeachstate. E) bymajorityvoteoftheentireCongressinajointsession. Answer: C


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90) Researchonvotingbehaviorhasshownthat A) policyvotinghasbecomesomewhateasierthaninthepast. B) acandidatesimageisnotasimportanttodayasitwasinthepast. C) Americanstendtoidentifywiththeunderdog. D) partyidentificationhasbecomemoreimportantinvotingdecisions. E) policyvotinghasbecomeharderthaninthepast. Answer: A


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91) Policyvotinghasincreasedinrecentyearsprimarilybecause A) themediaispayingcloserattentiontotheissuesratherthanthehorserace. B) candidatesareregularlyforcedtotakesomeclearstandsinordertoappealtotheirown partysprimaryvoters. C) votersingeneralhavebecomemoresophisticatedandeducatedabouttheissues. D) policyissuesareofgreaterconsequencethantheywereinthepast. E) votersfrustratedbytheinactionofCongresshaveturnedtotheinitiativeprocesstoenact specificpoliciesplacedrightontheballot. Answer: B
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92) WhichisFALSEregardingtheelectoralcollege? A) Whoeverwinsthemostvotesintheelectoralcollegewins,evenifthatisntamajority. B) MaineandNebraskadonotusethewinner-take-allsystem. C) Electorscanvoteforwhomevertheywant,regardlessofhowtheirstatesvotersvoted. D) InmoststatesALLtheelectorsvoteforwhomeverwonthemostvotesintheirstate,even ifthatwasntamajority. E) Theelectorsthemselvesareselectedbystateparties. Answer: A


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93) Thegreaterthepolicydifferencesbetweenthecandidates, A) theclosertheelection. B) themorelikelyvoterswillbeabletosteergovernmentpoliciesbytheirchoices. C) thelowertheturnoutinthegeneralelection. D) themorelikelyvoterswillmakechoicesbasedonpersonalitytraits. E) thehigherthevoterturnoutintheelection. Answer: B


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94) In________,incumbentswhoprovidedesiredresultsarerewarded;thosewhofailtodosoare punished. A) indirectprimaries B) initiatives C) referendums D) retrospectivevoting E) incentivevoting Answer: D


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95) Ifengagedinretrospectivevoting,anindividualwouldask: A) Whathaveyoudoneformelately? B) Whowilldomoreformenextyear? C) Whoisthemoreattractivecandidate? D) WhyshouldIvoteatall? E) Whowillbeloweringtaxes? Answer: A


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96) WhenPresidentHerbertHooverandtheRepublicanswerecrushedintheelectionof1932, voterswererespondingtotheseverityoftheGreatDepressionunderHooverspresidencyby A) retrospectivevoting. B) indirectprimaryvoting. C) directprimaryvoting. D) initiative. E) irrationalchoicevoting. Answer: A


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97) Retrospectivevotingreferstovotingfor A) acandidatewhopromisestocontinuepoliciesthathavemadeyoufeelbetteroff. B) acandidatebecauseofhisorherpaststandsontheissues. C) thesamepartyandcandidateselectionafterelection. D) differentpartiesandcandidateselectionafterelection. E) candidatesfornostalgicreasonsbecausetheypromisetoreturnthecountrytosome goldenageinitspast. Answer: A


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98) Thetypeofpublicpolicythatseemstohavethegreatesteffectonelectionstodayis A) foreignpolicy. B) socialpolicy. C) economicpolicy. D) militarypolicy. E) racialpolicies. Answer: C


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99) Electionshaveatendencytoexpandthescopeofgovernmentbecause A) somanypeoplebecomeinvolvedintheprocess. B) votersliketofeelthattheyaresendingamessagetogovernmenttoaccomplish something. C) somuchmoneyisinvolvedincampaigns. D) electionsopenopportunitiesformoregovernmentemployment. E) becausetheyaresoexpensivetoconduct. Answer: B


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100) Whilethethreatofelectoralpunishmentconstrainspolicymakers,italsohelpstoincrease generalizedsupportfor A) theprivatesector. B) individualistic,ratherthan,collectivepolicysolutions. C) governmentanditspowers. D) incumbentswhohavedoneagoodjob. E) unelectedgovernmentofficialsinthebureaucracy. Answer: C


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True/FalseQuestions
1) MostAmericansacceptthelegitimacyoftheelectionprocessandresults,whatevertheirown biasesorapathy. Answer: TRUE
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2) Initiativepetitionstypicallyrequirefortypercentofthenumberofvotesintheprevious electiontobeplacedontheballot. Answer: FALSE


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3) Thepresidentialelectionof1800marksthefirsttimeinwhichthecandidatespersonally campaignedfortheoffice. Answer: FALSE


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4) In1800,afterabitterelectioncontestfoughtmostlyinthepartisanpress,ThomasJeffersonlost thepresidencytoJohnAdams,thuscreatingthefirstpeacefultransferofpowerinAmerica fromonepartytoanother. Answer: FALSE


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5) FollowingtheBryan-McKinleycontestof1896,themostenduringpoliticalalignmentin Americanhistorytookhold:theindustrialEastandMidweststronglyRepublican;theless populous,agrarianSouthandWeststronglyDemocratic. Answer: TRUE


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6) In2004GeorgeW.BushbecamethefirstRepublicanpresidentsinceWilliamMcKinleytowin asecondterm. Answer: FALSE


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7) TheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtultimatelydeterminedthatGeorgeW.Bushwasthewinner ofthe2000presidentialelection. Answer: TRUE


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8) BecauseBushhadwonthe2000electionbysuchanarrowmargin,hegovernedinahighly congenial,bipartisanmanner,whichstrengthenedhiscandidacyamongDemocratsinthe2004 election. Answer: FALSE


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9) The2004electionhadsurprisinglylittletodowiththewaronterrorismandthewarinIraq. Answer: FALSE


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10) Therewerenonotableregionaldifferencesinthe2004presidentialvote. Answer: FALSE


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11) AccordingtoAnthonyDowns,ifyouaretrulyindifferentbetweenthepartiesitisrationalto abstain. Answer: FALSE


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12) Notonlydoesyourvoteprobablynotmakemuchdifferencetotheoutcome,butvotingis somewhatcostly. Answer: TRUE


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13) Voterregistrationwasbegunaroundtheturnofthetwentiethcenturyinordertohandlethe growingvotingpopulationandtoknowhowmanyballotstoprintandhowmanypoll watcherswouldbeneeded. Answer: FALSE


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14) VoterturnoutintheUnitedStatesisnotthehighestintheworld,butitissubstantiallyhigher thanparticipationratesinGreatBritain,France,Germany,andItaly. Answer: FALSE


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15) NorthDakotahasnovoterregistration,andseveralstatesallowvoterstoregisteronelection dayitself. Answer: TRUE


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16) VoterturnoutinstateandnationalelectionsincreasedsignificantlyafterCongresspassedthe MotorVoterActof1993. Answer: FALSE


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17) YoungadultsaremuchlesslikelytovotethanseniorcitizensintheUnitedStates. Answer: TRUE


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18) Thescholarlyconsensusisthatpoliticianslistenmoretogroupswithhigherturnoutrates,as theyknowtheirfatemaybeintheirhands. Answer: TRUE


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19) Mostpoliticalscientistssubscribetothemandatetheoryofelectionswhichacceptsthat citizensvoteforthecandidatewhosepolicypromisestheyfavor,thusthewinnerhasapolicy mandatefromthepeopletocarryouthisorherpromisedpolicies. Answer: FALSE


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20) Themostwidelyacceptedtheoryofvotingbehavioramongpoliticalscientistsisthemandate theoryofelections. Answer: FALSE


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21) Researchhasshownthatduringthe1950s,votersrarelyreliedonissuestodecidetheirvotes. Answer: TRUE


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22) Candidateambiguityaboutpolicypositionsmakespolicyvotingeasier. Answer: FALSE


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23) Policyvotingiseasiertodaybecauseoftheroleofthemediainarticulatingtheissues. Answer: FALSE


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24) BecauseGeorgeW.Bushhastakenstrongandclearstandsontaxcuts,thewaronterror,and otherissues,manyconsiderhimtobeaparticularlypolarizingfigure. Answer: TRUE


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25) Inretrospectivevoting,votersrewardorpunishtheincumbentbasedonanevaluationofthe incumbentspastperformanceofimportancetothevoters. Answer: TRUE


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26) Electionsmakepeoplemorelikelytoseegovernmentastheirservantinsteadoftheirmaster. Answer: TRUE


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27) The2000presidentialelectionwasdecidedbytheU.S.SupremeCourt. Answer: TRUE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) Manystatesgivevotersthechancetoapproveordisapprovesomelegislativeactor constitutionalamendmentinanelectionknownasa(n)________. Answer: referendum
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2) Whatisthedifferencebetweenaninitiativepetitionandareferendum? Answer: Thereferendumisastate-levelmethodofdirectlegislationthatgivesvotersachanceto approveordisapproveproposedlegislationoraproposedconstitutionalamendment. Aninitiativeisaprocesswherebyvotersmayputproposedchangesinthestate constitutiontoavoteifsufficientsignaturesareobtainedonpetitionscallingforsucha referendum.


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3) ________statescurrentlyallowtheuseofinitiatives. Answer: Twenty-four


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4) Whywasthepresidentialelectionof1800particularlyimportant? Answer: thefirstpeacefultransferofpowerbetweenpartiesviatheelectoralprocessinworld history(Adamsv.Jefferson;Adamswon)


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5) AlthoughhegavethememorableCrossofGoldspeechattheDemocraticnational conventionin1896andbroketraditionthatyearbytakingtothecampaignstumpinpersonas theDemocraticnominee,________losttoWilliamMcKinley. Answer: WilliamJenningsBryan


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6) Regionally,Bushranstronginthe________andMountainWest,whereasGorewasstrongin the________andthe________. Answer: South;Northeast;PacificCoaststates


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7) Theelectoralcollegeoutcomein2004hingedononebattlegroundstate:________. Answer: Ohio


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8) Bushwonthepopularvotein2004byabout________percent. Answer: 3
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9) Why,accordingtoAnthonyDowns,wouldanindividualdecidethatitwasrationaltovote? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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10) Thosewhovotestrictlyoutofasenseof________areoftenindifferentaboutwhowins,but wanttoshowtheirsupportfordemocraticgovernment. Answer: civicduty


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11) Thosewithhigherincomesscorehigheronpolitical________,orthebeliefthatordinary peoplecaninfluencethegovernment. Answer: efficacy


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12) Whatarepoliticalefficacyandcivicduty,andhowdotheyaffectindividualsdecisionsabout whetherornottovote? Answer: Politicalefficacyisthebeliefthatonespoliticalparticipationreallymatters,thatones votecanactuallymakeadifference.Civicdutyisthebeliefthatinordertosupport democraticgovernment,acitizenshouldalwaysvote.Bothhelptoexplainwhypeople vote.


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13) DescribethemajorfeaturesoftheMotorVoterActof1993.Whateffecthasithadonvoter registration?Voterturnout? Answer: madevoterregistrationeasierbypermittingpeopletoregistertovoteatthesametime theyapplyfortheirdriverslicense;increasedregistrationbutminimaleffectson turnout


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14) The________ofelectionsistheideathatthewinnerofanelectionwonbecausethevoters chosethatcandidatespolicypromisesoveranother,andthusthewillofthepeopleistoenact thosepolicypromisesintolaw. Answer: mandatetheory


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15) Explainandevaluatethemandatetheoryofelections. Answer: Answerswillvary.


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16) WhatcriteriadoAmericansusuallyusetoevaluatepoliticalcandidates? Answer: partyidentification,candidateevaluationsandpolicyvoting


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17) HowhasthenatureofpolicyvotingchangedintheUnitedStates? Answer: Itiseasiertoengageinpolicyvotingtodaythanitwasinthe1950sand1960s.


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18) Itisthe________,notthepopularvote,thatactuallydeterminesthepresidentoftheUnited States. Answer: electoralcollege


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19) Whathappensifnocandidatereceivesanelectoralcollegemajority? Answer: TheelectionisthrownintotheHouseofRepresentatives,whichmustchoosefrom amongthetopthreeelectoralvotewinners.


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20) ________iscastingaballotinanelectionbasedonrewardingincumbentswhoprovide desiredresultsandpunishingthosewhofailtodoso. Answer: Retrospectivevoting


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21) Explainthetheoryofretrospectivevoting. Answer: atheoryofvotinginwhichvotersessentiallyaskthissimplequestion:Whathaveyou doneformelately?


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EssayQuestions
1) WhyiselectorallegitimacysuchanimportantaspectofAmericaspoliticalsystem?Isthis senseoflegitimacydeserved,inyouropinion?Ifourelectionsareacceptedaslegitimate,why dontmorepeoplevote?Explain.
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2) Describewhatinitiativesandreferendumsareandwhatpurposetheyserve.Wouldyoulike toseemorelegislationsubjecttodirectvotesofthepeopleordoyouprefertohavethe legislaturesandCongressrepresentthepeoplesinterestsmoreindirectly?Explain.


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3) Brieflydescribethemajorissuesandeventsoftheelectionsof1800,1896,and2000.How engagedwastheAmericanpublicineachoftheseelections?
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4) WhydoesthetextrefertoGeorgeW.Bushsfirsttermaspolarizing,andhowwasthis reflectedinthe2004electionresults?
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5) CommentonsomeofthemanywaysinwhichelectionshavechangedthroughoutAmerican history.Giveexamplestoillustrateyouranswer.
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6) Compareandcontrastthepresidentialelectionsof1800,1896,and2004.Whatfactorsmade eachelectionuniqueandimportant?Whatweresomeofthemajorchangesbetweenthese elections?


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7) DescribewhovotesinUnitedStateselectionsandwhostayshome.Whichgroupshavethe highestturnoutrates?Whichhavethelowest?Explainwhyyouthinksomegroupsaremore, andsomeless,likelytovote.


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8) HowdoesthevoterturnoutrateintheUnitedStatescomparetotheotherindustrialized nationsoftheworld?Whyisthisso?Whatevidenceistherethateasingvoterregistration wouldincreaseturnout?Wouldyoutakeanyspecificstepstoraisevoterturnout?Explain.


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9) Describehowthecompositionoftheelectorateisbiased.Whattypesofindividualsvote?Does itmatter?Inwhatsenseisvoterturnoutofthesegroupsrational?
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10) Whatisthemandatetheoryofelections,andwhobelievesinit?Accordingtopolitical scientists,whatarethethreemajorelementstoavotersdecision?Fromwhatyouobserved duringthe2004election,whichelement(s)doyouthinkwasmostimportanttomostvoters? Explain.


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11) Describeandevaluatethefactorsthatinfluenceavotersdecisiontochooseaparticular candidate.


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12) Howdoestheelectoralcollegesystemwork?Doyoupreferittodirectpopularelection?Who servesinthiscollege?Describetheoutcomeofthe2000presidentialcampaign.Whoobjected? Diditthreatenthelegitimacyofourpoliticalsystem?


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13) Explainhowtheelectoralcollegesystemworks.Evaluatethesystem.Isitcompletely antiquatedordoesitstillserveapurpose?


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14) Describewhatismeantbyretrospectivevoting,includingexamplesofhowithasaffected presidentialelections.IsretrospectivevotinganappropriatewaytochooseaPresidentand otherpublicofficials?Isretrospectivevotingadequate,orwouldyoupreferothercriteria? Explain.


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15) Whatarethetwomajortasksaccomplishedbyelectionsaccordingtodemocratictheory?Why isitoftendifficultforvoterstovotebasedonacandidatespublicpolicypreferences?Doesthis weakendemocracy?Explain.


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16) Describethemajordifferencesinvoterbehaviorbetween1960and2004?
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17) EvaluateelectionsinAmericaintermsoftheirroleinthedemocraticprocessandtheireffect onthescopeofgovernment.Howdoelectionsaffect,andhowaretheyaffectedby,public policy?


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18) Inwhatsenseistherelationshipbetweenelectionsandpublicpolicyatwo -waystreet?That is,howdoelectionsaffectpublicpolicy?Andhowdoespublicpolicyaffectelections?


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Chapter11 InterestGroups
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) ThecaseinvolvingEliLillyandCompanyillustrateshow A) littleinfluencespecialinterestsactuallyhaveonCongress. B) specialinterestscanstillbribemembersofCongress. C) specialinterestscampaigncontributionscaninfluencecongressionalaction. D) Congresscanregulatetheactivitiesofspecialinterests. E) theincreasingimportanceofmultinationalcorporations. Answer: C
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2) AccordingtoJamesMadisoninFederalistPaperNo.1,thewaytopreventanyonegroupfrom havingtoomuchpoweristo A) eliminatemostgroups. B) increasethescopeandnumberofgroups. C) strictlyregulatethem. D) makethemunconstitutional. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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3) Sincethe1960s,thenumberofinterestgroupshas A) remainedconstant. B) risenrapidly. C) declinedslightly. D) declinedsharply. E) fluctuatedupanddownasnewissuesdevelopedandothersfadedaway. Answer: B


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4) Therightofinterestgroupstoorganizeis A) protectedbytheConstitution. B) protectedbytheFederalElectionCampaignAct. C) protectedbystatelaws. D) protectedbytheBillofRights. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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5) Theterminterestgroupcanbegenerallydefinedas A) anorganizationthatseeksacollectivegood,theachievementofwhichwillnot specificallyormateriallybenefitthemembershiporactivistsoftheorganization. B) agroupthathasanarrowinterest,dislikescompromise,andsingle-mindedlypursues itsgoal. C) allpeoplewhosharesomecommoninterestregardlessofwhethertheyjoinan organizationpromotingthatinterest. D) anorganizationofpeoplewithsimilarpolicygoalsenteringthepoliticalprocesstotryto achievethoseaims. E) anorganizationofpeoplewhoshareacommoninterestwhoruncandidatesinelections sympathetictothatinterest. Answer: D
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6) Anorganizationofpeoplewithsimilarpolicygoalsenteringthepoliticalprocesstotryto achievethoseaimsiscalled A) apoliticalparty. B) apoliticalactioncommittee. C) aninterestgroup. D) acollective. E) apoliticalcorporation. Answer: C


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7) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtypicalofAmericaninterestgroups? A) Theyfrequentlylooktothebureaucracyorthejudicialprocesstoachievetheirpolicy goals. B) Theyruntheirownslateofcandidatesforofficeinmanypartsofthecountry. C) Mosthaveahandfulofkeypoliciestopush,andarepolicyexpertsinthoseareas. D) Unlikepoliticalparties,theyarenotfacedwiththeconstraintoftryingtoappealto everyone. E) Theymostlyrepresentdiffuse,non-economicinterests. Answer: B


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8) Americanpoliticalpartiesdifferfrominterestgroupsinthatparties A) arepolicyspecialists. B) arepolicygeneralists. C) arepolicy-driven. D) donottakepositionsonpolicyissues. E) haveanarrowerscopethaninterestgroups. Answer: B


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9) OneofthemaindifferencesbetweenAmericanpoliticalpartiesandinterestgroupsisthat A) interestgroupsareconcernedwithmoreissues. B) interestgroupsconcentrateononlyonepolicyarena. C) politicalpartiesruncandidatesforoffice. D) interestgroupslimittheirmembership. E) politicalpartiesarepolicyspecialists. Answer: C


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10) InEurope,interestgroups A) donotexist. B) oftenformpoliticalparties. C) existbutarenotaspowerfulasintheUnitedStates. D) havethesameroleandpowerasintheUnitedStates. E) donothavethesameconstitutionalprotectionthattheyhaveintheUnitedStatesand arefrequentlypersecuted. Answer: B


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11) Inmanycountrieswithmultipartysystemsandproportionalrepresentation,interestgroups A) frequentlywinamajorityofseatsinthenationallegislature. B) frequentlywinsomeseatsinthenationallegislature. C) frequentlyruncandidatesforseatsinthenationallegislature,butthesecandidates almostneverwin. D) arebarredfromrunningcandidatesforoffice. E) areguaranteedbylawseatsinthenationalparliamentinproportiontotheirpercentage ofthegeneralpopulation. Answer: B
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12) Aninterestgroupismorelikelytoformitsownpoliticalpartywhere A) voterschoosetheirlegislatorsinsingle-memberdistricts. B) voterschoosetheirlegislatorsindual-memberdistricts. C) voterschoosetheirlegislatorsusingproportionalrepresentation. D) thegovernmenthasabicamerallegislature. E) thereisastrongtwo-partysystem,andthemajorpartiesignoretheirdemands. Answer: C


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13) Accordingto________theorists,interestgroupscompeteandcounterbalanceoneanotherin thepoliticalmarketplace. A) elitist B) hyperelitist C) pluralist D) hyperpluralist E) freemarket Answer: C


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14) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSE? A) Withproportionalrepresentationsystems,allittakesisbetweenoneandfivepercentof thevoteforapartytowinseatsinthenationallegislature. B) InmanyScandinaviancountries,farmerspartieshavelongbeeninexistence. C) ManynewinterestgroupsinEuropehaveformedpartiesonthebasisofsharedvalues. D) GreenpartiesinEuropehaveneverbeenabletowinenoughvotestoenterthenational legislature. E) PartiesaremorelikeinterestgroupsinEuropethanintheU.S. Answer: D
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15) Thesuccessesofcivilrightsandwomensrightsgroupsinredirectingthecourseofpublic policy,oncetheywereorganized,ispointedtoasevidencetosupportthe________theorythat Americanpoliticsisopenandnotaproblem. A) pluralist B) hyperpluralist C) elite D) hyperelitist E) freemarket Answer: A
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16) ThegrouptheoryofpoliticsofferedbypluralisttheoristsarguesallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) groupsprovideakeylinkbetweenpeopleandgovernment. B) noonegroupislikelytobecometoodominant. C) groupsareallofequalstrength. D) groupsusuallyplaybytherulesofthegame. E) differentgroupswinatdifferenttimes. Answer: C


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17) Theideathatjustafewgroupshaveallthepowerisassociatedwith A) elitetheory. B) pluralisttheory. C) hyperpluralisttheory. D) democratictheory. E) syndicalism. Answer: A


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18) Apluralisticinterpretationofinterestgrouppoliticswouldmaintainthat A) allgroupsaresubjecttocorruptpracticesandtacticsinvolvingviolence. B) thedegreeoforganizationofagrouphasnoeffectonitsabilitytoinfluencepolicy. C) alllegitimategroupscanaffectpublicpolicybymeansofonepoliticalresourceor another. D) whengroupscompetethepublicinterestisnotserved. E) theoveremphasisongroupsinAmericahassubmergedthevalueoftheindividualand leadtogovernmentpoliciesthatsuppressindividualinterests. Answer: C
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19) Accordingtothegrouptheoryofpolitics, A) allgroupsareequal. B) groupsdonotcompete. C) groupsdonotplaybytherulesofthegame. D) groupsweakinoneresourcecanuseanother. E) mostpoliticalinfluencecomesfromindividualsspeakinginthenameofgroupsbut actuallyactingontheirownpersonalagenda. Answer: C


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20) Theideathatinterestgroupactivitybringsrepresentationtoallisassociatedwith A) elitetheory. B) pluralisttheory. C) hyperpluralisttheory. D) democratictheory. E) republicanism. Answer: B


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21) Whichofthefollowingtheoriesoffersthemostpositiveinterpretationoftheeffectofinterest groupsonAmericandemocracy? A) pluralist B) hyperpluralist C) elite D) hyperelitist E) freemarket Answer: A


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22) Pluralistsarguethatlobbying A) isdominatedbywealthycorporationsandthewealthiestindividualsandisadangerto thedemocraticsystem. B) isopentoallandisthereforenottoberegardedasaproblem. C) bysomanyinterestgroupswhogetwhattheywantindicatesthattherelationbetween groupsandgovernmenthasgrowntoocozy. D) mustbesuspendeduntiltighterregulationscanbeputintoplacetoprotectthepublic interest. E) hasnoeffectonpolicymaking. Answer: B
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23) ________theoristsareimpressedbyhowinsignificantmostorganizedinterestgroupsare. A) Pluralist B) Hyperpluralist C) Elitist D) Pluralistandhyperpluralist E) Deconstruction Answer: C


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24) Elitisttheoristsarguethat A) groupsweakinoneresourcecanuseanother,andalllegitimategroupsareabletoaffect publicpolicybyonemeansoranother. B) thefactthattherearenumerousgroupsprovesnothing,becausemostgroupsare extremelyunequalinpower. C) thegovernmenthastreatedallinterestgroupdemandsaslegitimate,andunwisely chosentoadvancethemall. D) thelargerthegroup,thefurtheritwillfallshortofprovidinganoptimalamountofa collectivegood. E) governmentsshouldbecontrolledbyaselectgroupofwell-educated,cultured,wealthy personswhounderstandthelawsofeconomicsandcanrunthemostefficient government. Answer: B
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25) The________theoristsarguethatthepowerofthefewisfortifiedbyanextensivesystemof interlockingdirectorates,andthatwealthycorporationsprevailwhenitcomestomajor decisionsbygovernment. A) pluralist B) hyperpluralist C) elitist D) hyperelitist E) pyramid Answer: C
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26) ThepluralisttheoryofAmericanpoliticsmaintainsthat A) theextensiveorganizationofcompetinggroupsisevidencethatinfluenceiswidely dispersedamongthem. B) theproliferationofinterestgroupsresultsinpoliticalstagnation. C) thelargestinterestgroupswillcometodominatepolicymaking. D) althoughgroupsoftendonotplaybytherulesofthegame,theydorepresentthe Americanpublicatlarge. E) thesloganonourmoney,epluribusunum,isaccurateinthesensethatoutofthemany competinggroupsinAmerica,asingleunifiedAmericanpurposehasbeenforged. Answer: A
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27) Thepresenceandpowerofmultinationalcorporationsillustrates A) elitetheory. B) pluralisttheory. C) hyperpluralisttheory. D) democratictheory. E) globalunitytheory. Answer: C


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28) Elitetheoristsemphasizethepowerof A) subgovernments. B) businessleaders. C) congressionalstaffmembers. D) publicinterestlobbies. E) presidents. Answer: B


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29) Elitistviewsofinterestgroupsemphasizethat A) groupsareessentiallyequalintheirpowerandthuscanceleachothersinfluenceon policymakers. B) asystemofinterlockingdirectoratesreinforcesthepowerofthefewdominantgroups. C) groupcompetitionweakenstheabilityofanyonegrouptodominate. D) becausetherearesomanygroups,theireffectonpolicyisinsignificant. E) theleadersofpowerfulinterestgroupstendtothinktheyaresuperiortotheaverage citizenandthustheydemandspecialprivilegesfromgovernmentnotaccordedtherest ofsocietyinordertomaintainthemselvesasaprivilegedelite. Answer: B
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30) Interestgroupliberalismiscriticizedespeciallyby________theorists. A) pluralist B) hyperpluralist C) elitist D) hyperelitist E) social-conservative Answer: B


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31) Interestgroupliberalismholdsthat A) thefactthattherearenumerousinterestgroupsprovesnothing,becausegroupsare extremelyunequalinpower. B) interestgroupswinsomeandlosesome,butnogroupwinsorlosesallthetime. C) whenoneinterestgroupthrowsitsweightaroundtoomuch,itsopponentsarelikelyto intensifytheirorganizationandthusrestorebalancetothesystem. D) virtuallyallpressuregroupdemandsarelegitimate,andthejobofgovernmentisto advancethemall. E) theroleofgovernmentistoleaventhenaturalinequalitiesofthefreemarketsystemand thatentailspayingmoreattentiontotheneedsofeconomicallyweakinterestgroupsand lessattentiontoeconomicallypowerfulgroups. Answer: D
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32) Interestgroupliberalismisassociatedwithwhichofthefollowingcriticisms? A) Inanefforttopleaseandappeaseeveryinterest,agenciesproliferate,conflicting regulationsexpand,programsmultiply,andthebudgetsskyrocket. B) Realpowerisheldbyrelativelyfewpeople,keygroups,andinstitutionsthatgetnearly alltheywantfromgovernment. C) Interestgroupswinsomeandlosesome,butnogroupwinsorlosesallthetime,and democraticgovernmentiswellservedbytheircompetition. D) TheframersoftheConstitutionintendedthatgroupsservetobargainforvarious interestsinAmericansociety,andthishasprovenawiseandrelativelyfair,opensystem. E) Theinterestgroupsystemisdominatedbyliberalinterestgroupswhohavebeen successfullypushinganagendathathasmadeithardforthepolicetofightcrime, contributedtodecliningmoralvaluesandbankruptedthegovernmentwithgiveaways towelfarefreeloaders. Answer: A
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33) Interestgroupliberalismispromotedby A) ideologicallyliberalinterestgroupsandnotconservativegroups. B) onegroupwinningandanotherlosinginthecompetitionforgovernmentactionor funding. C) subgovernments. D) hyperpluralists. E) alloftheabove Answer: C


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34) ThecriticismthatgovernmentrefusestomaketoughchoicesbetweenXorY,instead pretendingthereisnoneedtochooseandtryingtofavorbothismostoftenmadeby________ theorists. A) pluralist B) hyperpluralist C) elitist D) hyperelitist E) rationalchoice Answer: B
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35) Theideathattoomanygroupsaregettingtoomuchofwhattheywantisassociatedwith A) elitetheory. B) pluralisttheory. C) hyperpluralisttheory. D) democratictheory. E) proliferationtheory. Answer: C


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36) Interestgroupliberalismrefersto A) governmentfreedomtofavorsomeinterestgroupsoverothers. B) governmentsexcessivedeferencetointerestgroups. C) theliberalpoliticalideologyofmostinterestgroups. D) theproliferationofthenumberofinterestgroups. E) thestrongtendencyofinterestgroupstobacktheDemocraticpartyandnotthe RepublicanpartyandthatkeepstheDemocraticpartyinpower. Answer: B


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37) Allsubgovernmentshavethesamegoal A) protectingthepublicinterest. B) attackingthegovernmenthead-on. C) protectingtheirself-interest. D) electingthemostqualifiedpeopletooffice. E) tojointhemaingovernment. Answer: C


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38) SubgovernmentsarecomposedofkeyinterestgroupleadersinterestedinpolicyX,the governmentagencyinchargeofadministeringpolicyX,andthe________handlingpolicyX. A) congressionalcommitteesandsubcommittees B) federalcourts C) publicrelationsofficers D) politicalcandidates E) localgovernments Answer: A


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39) WhichofthefollowingisNOToneofthemajorelementsofthesubgovernmentsystematthe nationallevel? A) interestgroup B) congressionalcommittee C) federalcourt D) federalagency E) bureaucrats Answer: C


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40) Thehyperpluralistcomplaintthatinterestgrouppoliticscreatessubgovernmentsrefersto A) thecooperativeeffortsofgroupleaders,governmentagencies,andmembersof congressionalcommitteesandsubcommitteestopromotespecialinterests. B) thepowerofinterestgroupsindetermininggovernmentpolicies. C) theconflictofinterestcreatedwhengovernmentagenciespromotegroupinterests. D) theuseofpaidlobbyistsoncongressionalcommitteesandsubcommittees. E) theproliferationofspecializedlocalgovernmentsoverthelastthirtyyears,manyof whicharedesignedtoservicesomespecialinterest. Answer: A
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41) Ahyperpluralistinterpretationofgrouppoliticswouldmaintainthat A) groupsweakinoneresourcecansubstituteotherresourcestoinfluencepolicydecisions. B) groupshavebecomesopowerfulthatgovernmentendsupaidingeverypossible interest. C) thefactthattherearenumerousgroupsprovesnothing,becausegroupsareunequalin power. D) groupsprovideakeylinkagebetweenpeopleandgovernment. E) Allofthesearetrue. Answer: B
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42) WhichofthefollowingideasisNOTassociatedwithhyperpluralism? A) Groupshavebecometoopowerfulinthepoliticalprocess. B) Interestgroupliberalismisaggravatedbynumeroussubgovernments. C) Tryingtopleaseeverygroupresultsincontradictoryandconfusingpolicy. D) Politicalpowerishighlyconcentrated. E) Thedominanceofaneconomicelite. Answer: D


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43) A(n)________groupiscomposedofallpeoplewhomightbegroupmembersbecausethey sharesomecommoninterest. A) potential B) interest C) actual D) single-issue E) latent Answer: A


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44) Thefree-riderproblemrefersto A) unrelatedamendmentsbeingaddedtoapieceoflegislationinordertobypassusual procedures. B) potentialmembersofagroupfailingtojointheactualgroup,astheyknowtheywill receivethesamebenefitswhethertheyareactivemembersornot. C) legislatorswhofacenoelectionopponents,andthusareautomaticallyreelected. D) masstransitscofflawswhoendangergovernmentaidtosubways,buses,andcommuter trainsbynotbeingofficiallycounted. E) welfarefraudandthecostsitimposesongovernmentandtaxpayers. Answer: B
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45) PartofOlsonsLawofLargeGroupsistheargumentthat A) thelargerthepotentialgroup,thelesslikelypotentialmembersaretocontribute. B) thelargerthepotentialgroup,themorelikelypotentialmembersaretocontribute. C) potentialgroupsizedoesnothaveanymeasurableaffectonthewillingnessofpotential memberstocontribute. D) anactualgroupandapotentialgrouparevirtuallythesamewhenitcomesto effectiveness. E) thesmallerthegroupthelesslikelythepotentialmembersaretocontribute. Answer: A
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46) AccordingtoOlsonsLawofLargeGroups, A) thelargerthegroup,thefurtheritwillfallshortofprovidinganoptimalamountofa collectivegood. B) thesmallerthegroup,thefurtheritwillfallshortofprovidinganoptimalamountofa collectivegood. C) themorelevelsofauthoritywithinagroup,themorefaithitsmemberswillhaveinit. D) themorelevelsofauthoritywithinagroup,thelessfaithitsmemberswillhaveinit. E) thelargerthegroup,themorelikelyitistowin. Answer: A
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47) ________helpstoexplainwhypublicinterestlobbieshaverelativelysmallproportionsof actualmembers. A) Thefree-riderproblem B) Specialinterestliberalism C) Theriseofpoliticalactioncommittees D) Tougherregulationofalllobbyists E) OlsonsLawofLargeGroups Answer: A


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48) AccordingtoOlsonsLawofLargeGroups, A) thelargerthegroup,themoreeffectiveitwillbe. B) thesmallerthegroup,themoreeffectiveitwillbe. C) thesizeofagroupdoesnotdetermineitseffectiveness,theleadershipstructureisthe key. D) allgroupshavealifecycleofbirth,growth,maintenance,anddecline,althoughmany neverdeclinecompletely. E) largegroupsaremoredemocratic. Answer: B
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49) Consumerorganizationssufferfrom A) amicuscuriaebriefs. B) classactionsuits. C) OlsonsLawofLargeGroups. D) right-to-worklaws. E) hyperpluralism. Answer: C


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50) Thebiggestobstacletotheeffectivenessoflargegroupsisthe A) difficultyoffindingeffectiveleadership. B) problemofraisingfundsandattractinggovernmentsupport. C) formationofcounter-groupstoopposethem. D) discrepancybetweenpotentialandactualmembership. E) governmentregulationsonlobbyingactivities. Answer: B


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51) Allpeoplewhomightbegroupmembersbecausetheysharesomecommoninterestmakeup A) anactualgroup. B) apotentialgroup. C) acollectivegroup. D) aninterestgroup. E) aprobablegroup. Answer: B


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52) Whichofthefollowinggroupshasthelargestpotentialmembership? A) NationalAssociationfortheAdvancementofColoredPeople B) NationalOrganizationforWomen C) AmericanMedicalAssociation D) AirTransportAssociationofAmerica E) AmericanPoliticalScienceAssociation Answer: B


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53) Whichofthefollowinggroupsclaimsthesmallestshareofitspotentialmembers? A) NationalConsumersLeague B) UnitedStatesSavingsandLoanLeague C) TobaccoInstitute D) AirTransportAssociation E) AmericanMedicalAssociation Answer: A


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54) Acollectivegoodrefersto A) goodsandservicesthatarepubliclyowned. B) benefitsthataccruetothegroupthatsoughtthem. C) somethingofvaluethatbenefitsboththeactualandpotentialmembersofagroup. D) apublicpolicythatisinthepublicinterest. E) goodsandservicescollectedfortheneedy. Answer: C


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55) Anexampleofacollectivegoodis A) food. B) employment. C) cleanair. D) housing. E) alloftheabove Answer: C


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56) Thefree-riderproblemreferstothedifficultyof A) smallgroupsinraisingenoughmoneytoinfluencepolicy. B) groupsinorganizingalltheirpotentialmembers. C) actualgroupsincollectingduesfrommembers. D) potentialgroupsinreceivingtheirshareincollectivegoods. E) alltaxpayershavingtopayforpublicservicesandpaymentsthatgoonlytothepoor. Answer: B


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57) AccordingtoMancurOlson, A) largegroupsarethemosteffectivegroups B) thebiggerthegroup,thesmallerthefree-riderproblem. C) thelargerthegroup,thefurtheritwillfallshortofprovidinganoptimalamountofa collectivegood. D) thelargerthegroup,themoreeffectiveitisininfluencingpublicpolicies. E) thekeytogrouppoweristoformbroadcoalitionswithothergroups,making themselvesnearlyinvincible. Answer: C
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58) Anadvantageforsmallgroupsisthat A) free-riderscanbeforcedoutoftheorganization,creatingmoreunity. B) itiseasiertoreconciledivergentinterestsinsmallgroups. C) thereismoreatstakeforeachmember,makingiteasiertoorganizeandactivateall members. D) collectivegoodsdonothavetosharewiththebiginterests. E) theyareabletohideinthepoliticalprocesssothatopposinggroupsarenotableto organizeagainstthem. Answer: C
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59) AccordingtoMancurOlson,smallinterestgroupsgenerallyare________comparedtoall othergroups. A) insignificant B) incoherent C) lessfocused D) moreeffective E) moredemocratic Answer: C


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60) Anadvantageofsingle-issuegroupsistheir A) financialresources. B) poolofpotentialmembers. C) poolofactualmembers. D) intensity. E) diversity. Answer: D


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61) Asingle-issuegroupisonethatisallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) focusedonnarrowinterest. B) unabletocompromise. C) organizesonthenationallevelonly. D) single-mindedlyinpursuingitsgoal. E) intenselycommittedtoapolicygoal. Answer: C


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62) Single-issuegroups A) includememberswithnarrow,uncompromisinginterests. B) havehadlittleeffectontheoutcomesofelections. C) mainlyfocusontheissueofabortion. D) arenottakenseriouslybecausetheylackalargeconstituency. E) tendtofocusontheirspecificeconomicinterestratherthanoncollectivesocialissues. Answer: A


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63) Single-issuegrouppoliticshasbeenespeciallyemotionalovertheissueof A) consumerism. B) equality. C) abortion. D) foreignpolicy. E) affirmativeaction. Answer: C


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64) OneofthemajorinducementsoftheAmericaninterestgroupsystemisthatit A) providestoomuchrepresentation. B) distractsgovernmentofficials. C) isbiasedtowardthewealthy. D) stiflestheexpressionofnewinterests. E) isdominatedbysingle-issuegroups. Answer: C


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65) By2000,thenumberofgroupslistedintheEncyclopediaofAssociations wasover A) 5,000. B) 1,000. C) 10,000. D) 20,000. E) 50,000. Answer: D


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66) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutinterestgroupsisFALSE? A) ThemajorityofgroupsnowhavetheirheadquartersinWashington,D.C. B) Thereareanenormousnumberofhighlyspecializedandseeminglytrivialgroups. C) Almosteverygrouphasastaffandpublications. D) Thegrowthrateofinterestgroupshasslowedinrecentyears. E) Groupsaremorediversetodaythaninpastdecades. Answer: D


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67) Technologicalimprovementsincommunicationhavecausedinterestgroupsto A) consolidate. B) sharplyincreaseinnumber. C) sharplydeclineinnumber. D) moveoutofWashington,D.C. E) formbroadcoalitionstoexpandtheirclout. Answer: B


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68) ________isacommunicationbysomeoneotherthanacitizenactingonhisorherownbehalf, directedtoagovernmentdecisionmaker,particularlyinthelegislativeandexecutivebranch, withthehopeofinfluencinghisorherdecision. A) Electioneering B) Anamicuscuriaebrief C) Lobbying D) Litigation E) Campaigning Answer: C
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69) ThreebasicstrategiesemployedbyinterestgroupsareallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) lobbying. B) implementation. C) electioneering. D) litigation. E) goingpublic. Answer: B


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70) WhichofthefollowingisNOToneofthebasicinterestgroupstrategiesinAmerica? A) lobbying B) runningcandidatesforoffice C) litigation D) electioneering E) implementation Answer: B


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71) Acommunicationbysomeoneotherthanacitizenactingonhisorherownbehalf,directedto agovernmentaldecisionmakerwiththehopeofinfluencinghisorherdecisionisadefinition of A) campaigning. B) lobbying. C) electioneering. D) litigation. E) apolicyoutput. Answer: B


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72) WhichofthefollowingisNOTawayinwhichalobbyistcanhelpamemberofCongress? A) obtaininggroupsupportforthepoliticiansreelection B) introducinglegislationinCongress C) providingvaluableinformationonspecializedpolicyareas D) helpingwithpoliticalstrategy E) assistingwiththecostoftravelingbetweentheirhomedistrictandWashington,D.C. Answer: B


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73) Accordingtothetext,oneofthemostcommonfunctionoflobbyistsisto A) provideinformationandideastomembersofCongress. B) recruitformerofficeholderstohelpwithpublicrelations. C) convertmembersofCongresstothepointofviewthelobbyistsrepresent. D) actuallyintroducenewlegislation. E) raisefundsforpreferredpoliticalcandidates. Answer: A


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74) Thetextidentifiestwotypesoflobbyists, A) full-timeemployeesandconsultants. B) policyexpertsandlegalspecialists. C) attorneysandnon-attorneys. D) thosebasedinWashington,D.C.,andthosebasedelsewhere. E) oldschoolandmodernstylelobbyists. Answer: A


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75) Manyinterestgroupsinvolvethemselvesin________tohelpgetthosetheyconsidertobethe rightpeopleintoofficeortokeepthemthere. A) lobbying B) electioneering C) litigation D) policymaking E) recruitment Answer: B


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76) LobbyistsprovidemembersofCongressallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) helpwithaccomplishingtheirlegislativegoals. B) information. C) campaignstrategyandorganizationalhelp. D) ideasandinnovations. E) Noneoftheabove;lobbyistsprovidealloftheabovetomembersofCongress. Answer: E


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77) Accordingtothetext,theleasteffectiveactivityoflobbyistsinCongressis A) contributingtocampaigns. B) providinginformation. C) activatingmembersofCongresstovoteonlegislation. D) convertingmembersofCongresstothelobbyistspositions. E) bothAandB Answer: D


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78) Accordingtothetext,lobbyingworksbest A) withpeoplewhoareundecidedaboutapolicy. B) whenlargeamountsofmoneyareinvolved. C) onpeoplealreadycommittedtothelobbyistspolicyposition. D) whenthelobbyistusespressuretactics. E) whenthelobbyiststartscryingandpleading. Answer: C


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79) Politicalactioncommittee(PAC)moneygoesoverwhelminglyto A) Independents. B) challengers. C) incumbents. D) Democrats. E) Republicans. Answer: C


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80) PoliticalActionCommitteesareprimarilyameansusedbyinterestgroupsfor A) lobbying. B) electioneering. C) litigation. D) policymaking. E) politicalaction. Answer: B


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81) Interestgroupsseekingtoexertinfluenceontheelectoralprocesscanhonestlyandopenly funnelmoneyintothecampaigncoffersoftheirsupportersthrough A) lobbying. B) electioneering. C) PoliticalActionCommittees. D) subgovernments. E) electronicbanking. Answer: C


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82) MostPACmoneygoesoverwhelminglytoincumbentsbecauseincumbents A) needmoremoneyduetotherestraintsofbeinginoffice. B) havealreadybeenboughtoffbyinterestgroups. C) havealreadybecomefriendsandsupportersoflobbyists. D) arethemostlikelytobeabletoreturntheinvestment. E) havetheneedforlargeamountsofmoneytomaintainthemselvesinpower. Answer: D


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83) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueaboutPoliticalActionCommittees? A) TherearefarmorePACsnowthantherewerein1974. B) MostPACmoneygoestochallengersratherthanincumbents. C) SomePACscontributetobothchallengerandincumbent,playingitsafe. D) OnlyahandfulofcandidateshavecompletelyresistedthelureofPACmoney. E) PACscontributebeforeandafterelections. Answer: B


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84) SteveSovernsLASTPACandCommonCause A) agreethatallcandidatesandofficeholdersshouldnotacceptmoneyfrompoliticalaction groups. B) disagreeontheissueofwhetherPACsengageininfluencepeddling. C) disagreeontheissueofwhetherelectioneeringisanappropriatepolicyarenaforinterest groups. D) agreethatthe$5,000limitonPACcontributionsmakessuchcontributionsmeaningless inmultimillion-dollarpresidentialcampaignsandshouldberescinded. E) agreethattheincometaxcheck-offtosupportpublicfinancingofpresidentialcampaign shouldbeeliminated. Answer: A
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85) Themostsuccessfultacticthatcivilrightsandenvironmentalgroupshaveusedtoinfluence policyis A) litigation. B) electioneering. C) lobbying. D) mediaadvertising. E) protestdemonstrations. Answer: A


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86) ________arewrittenargumentssubmittedtothecourtsinsupportofonesideofacase. A) Classactionlawsuits B) Litigations C) Amicuscuriaebriefs D) Publicinterestlobbies E) Openingarguments Answer: C


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87) Anamicuscuriaebriefis A) onewhichenablesagroupofsimilarlysituatedplaintiffstocombinesimilargrievances intoasinglesuittopursuearemedyforpastwrongs. B) anoralorwrittenappealofacourtdecisionmadebyaninterestgroupwhichispartyto theparticularcase. C) anoralorwrittenappealofacourtdecisionmadebyaninterestgroupnotpartytoa particularcase. D) awrittenargumentsubmittedtothecourtsinsupportofonesideofacase. E) thewrittenstatementofacourtsdecisioninacaseexplainingthereasonsforthe decision. Answer: D
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88) Literally,amicuscuriaemeans A) legalopinion. B) legalargument. C) friendofthecourt. D) curiousobserver. E) letthedecisionstand. Answer: C


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89) Amicuscuriaebriefs A) arewrittenexplanationsofacourtdecision. B) arelawsuitssubmittedbyinterestgroups. C) consistofwrittenargumentssubmittedtothecourtsinsupportofonesideofacase. D) enablegroupsofsimilarlysituatedplaintiffstocombinesimilargrievancesintoasingle suit. E) arelegalargumentssubmittedbythepresidentsattorneysadvocatingtheUnitedStates governmentspositioninanimportantfederalcourtcase. Answer: C
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90) ________enablesagroupofsimilarlysituatedplaintiffstocombinesimilargrievancesintoa singlesuit. A) Anamicuscuriaebrief B) Apublicinterestsuit C) OlsonsLawofLargeGroups D) Aclassactionlawsuit E) Acollectivecivilsuit Answer: D


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91) Flightattendantswona(n)________againsttheairlineindustrysregulationthatall stewardesseshadtobeunmarried. A) amicuscuriaebrief B) writofhabeascorpus C) billofattainder D) classactionlawsuit E) administrativeappeal Answer: D


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92) Classactionlawsuits A) consistofwrittenargumentssubmittedtothecourtsinsupportofonesideofacase. B) consistoflawsuitsbroughttothecourtsbyoneparticularsocialclassinsociety. C) enableagroupofsimilarlysituatedplaintiffstocombinesimilargrievancesintoasingle suit. D) enableorganizedinterestsgroupstosuethefederalgovernmentoveraparticularissue. E) askacourttotakeactionagainstaparticulargrouptostopthemfrominjuringanother groupfinancially. Answer: C
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93) Ingoingpublicinterestgroups A) extendmembershiptoabroaderrangeofpeople. B) useadvertisingandpublicrelationstoenhancetheirimage. C) bringclassactionsuitsagainsttheiropponents. D) issuestock. E) opentheirdecision-makingmeetingstothegeneralpublic. Answer: B


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94) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutinterestgroupsgoingpublicisFALSE? A) Interestgroupscarefullycultivatetheirpublicimages. B) Interestgroupsmarketnotonlytheirstandonissuesbuttheirreputationsaswell. C) Moreandmoreorganizationshavelaunchedexpensivepublicrelationsefforts. D) Thepublicrelationsofmostgroupstendtobecharacterizedbyhardsellandbias. E) AandConly Answer: D


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95) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSE? A) IntheAmericaneconomy,governmentdirectlydetermineswages,prices,andprofits. B) PublicpolicyinAmericahaseconomiceffectsthroughregulations,taxadvantages, subsidiesandcontracts,andinternationaltrade. C) Evenaminorchangeingovernmentregulatorypolicycancostindustriesagreatdealor bringincreasedprofits. D) Howthetaxcodeiswrittendetermineswhetherpeopleandproducerspayalotora littleoftheirincomestothegovernment. E) BandDonly Answer: A
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96) Economicgroups A) arethosewhichrequireindividualstopayduestobemembers. B) consistonlyofcorporations,ratherthanindividuals,asmembers. C) arethosegroupsinterestedinwages,prices,andprofits. D) lobbyonbehalfofallconsumers. E) arethosegroupsthatprovideinformationtoCongress. Answer: C


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97) Right-to-worklawsaremoststronglysupportedby A) unemployedcitizens. B) businessgroups. C) unionofficials. D) thefeministandcivilrightsmovements. E) illegalimmigrants. Answer: B


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98) Theunionshop A) servesastheheadquartersofanorganizedlaborgroup. B) sellsonlygoodsmadebylaborersaffiliatedwithaunion. C) requiresthatallemployeesinaunionizedbusinessjointheunion. D) isaretailstorewhoseemployeesareunionized. E) bothBandD Answer: C


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99) Right-to-worklaws________theunionshop. A) takeaneutralstancetoward B) require C) legalize D) outlaw E) regulate Answer: D


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100) Theunionshop A) outlawsunionmembershipasaconditionofemployment. B) offerslow-costconsumergoodstounionmembers. C) requiresnewemployeestojointheunionrepresentingthem. D) issupportedbybusinessgroups. E) isabusinessownedbyaunion,hasatax-exemptstatus,andisnotallowedtocollect profits. Answer: C


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101) Right-to-worklaws A) guaranteefullemployment. B) outlawunionmembershipasaconditionofemployment. C) requireemployeestojointheunionrepresentingthem. D) offergovernmentjobstounemployedworkers. E) requirewelfarerecipientstoworkfortheirwelfarechecks. Answer: B


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102) BusinessPACs A) havesofarbeenassociatedonlywithmultinationalcorporations. B) arethemostvisibleofWashingtonlobbies. C) haveincreasedmoredramaticallythananyothercategoryofPACs. D) havenotbeenaseffectiveaslaborandconsumerPACs. E) contributemoretoDemocratsthantoRepublicans. Answer: C


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103) Environmentalgroups A) areanexampleofaneconomicinterestgroup. B) grewdramaticallyafterthefirstEarthDayin1970. C) supportnuclearpowerasacleanalternativetocoalmining. D) havehadverylittleinfluenceonCongressandstatelegislatures. E) tendtoavoidenergyissues,whileconcentratingonthepreservationofwilderness. Answer: B


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104) Oneofthereasonsthatbusinessdoesnotalwaysgetwhatitwantsis A) businessgroupsoftenhavedifferentinterestsandwantdifferentthings. B) ithaslimitedresourcestospendoninfluencinggovernmentpolicy. C) ithasoftenusedineffectivelobbyingtechniques. D) itisarelativelyweakclusterofinterestgroups. E) noneoftheabove Answer: A


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105) Thefirst________inApril1970helpedtospuronanumberofenvironmentalgroups. A) EarthDay B) smogalert C) seriousoilspill D) nuclearpowerplantaccident E) nuclearplantexplosion Answer: A


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106) Publicinterestlobbiesarethoseorganizationsthat A) emphasizeequalrightsandequalityofopportunityinAmerica. B) eschewthesubgovernmentsystemandoperatewithinviewofthepublic,oftenthrough townmeetings. C) havelargememberships,usuallyamillionormore. D) seekacollectivegood,theachievementofwhichwillnotselectivelyandmaterially benefitmembersoractivists. E) focusexclusivelyonpublicexpendituresdirectedtowardSocialSecurity. Answer: D
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107) Environmentalgroupshavebeenmostsuccessfulat A) stoppingstripmining. B) haltingthetrans-Alaskanpipeline. C) thwartingtheexpansionofthenuclearpowerindustry. D) stoppingthedevelopmentofcommercialsupersonicaircraft. E) protectingthereefertoadandotherendangeredspecies. Answer: C


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108) Thatsuccessfullobbyingeffortsbyconsumergroupsbenefitsallconsumers,andnotjust groupmembers,isanexampleof A) interestgroupliberalism. B) electioneering. C) lobbying. D) afree-riderproblem. E) OlsonsLawofLargeGroups. Answer: D


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109) Organizationsseekingacollectivegoodthatmaynotbenefitthemdirectlyarecalled A) commodityassociations. B) protestgroups. C) publicinterestlobbies. D) single-issuegroups. E) altruisticlobbies. Answer: C


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110) The________istheoldestandlargestoftheAfrican -Americangroupswhichhavefoughtfor equalityatthepolls,inhousing,onthejob,ineducation,andinallotherfacetsofAmerican life. A) UrbanLeague B) CongressofRacialEquality C) NationalAssociationfortheAdvancementofColoredPeople D) RainbowCoalition E) NationalAfrican-AmericanOrganization Answer: C
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111) TheFairShareprogramisaneffortbythe A) NationalOrganizationofWomentorenewthefightfortheEqualRightsAmendment. B) NationalAssociationfortheAdvancementofColoredPeopletonegotiateagreements withbusinessestoincreaseminorityhiringandtheuseofminoritycontractors. C) NationalOrganizationofWomentogetequalpayforcomparablework. D) NationalAssociationfortheAdvancementofColoredPeopletodesegregateprivate clubs. E) AmericanTaxpayersUniontoraisethewagesandcutthetaxesoflower -and middle-incomepeople. Answer: B
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112) TheNationalOrganizationforWomen A) wasfirstformedinthenineteenthcenturytohelpwomengaintherighttovote. B) wasprimarilyresponsibleforratificationoftheEqualRightsAmendment. C) isnolongeraformidableforceforwomensrights. D) nowworksfortheenactmentofindividualstatutes(laws)toprotectwomensrights ratherthanaconstitutionalamendment. E) isacounter-interestgroupformedbyPhyllisSchlaflytoopposetheWomensLiberation MovementandtheEqualRightsAmendment. Answer: D
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113) Inadditiontofightingsegregationanddiscrimination,civilrightsinterestgroupshavealso focusedon A) broadereconomicproblems. B) theenvironment. C) transportation. D) housingquality. E) genderequality. Answer: A


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114) The________movementwasspurredbyasingleperson:RalphNader. A) Americanlabor B) moderncivilrightsmovement C) consumer D) anti-VietnamWar E) gayrights Answer: C


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115) CommonCauseisanexampleof A) apublicinterestlobby. B) asubgovernment. C) interestgroupliberalism. D) asingle-issuegroup. E) afor-profitlobby. Answer: A


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116) Anexampleofapublicinterestgroupis A) CommonCause. B) AmericanMedicalAssociation. C) NationalOrganizationforWomen. D) NationalAssociationofManufacturers. E) NationalRifleAssociation Answer: A


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117) AccordingtoRobertSalisbury,theincreaseinlobbyingactivityhasresultedin A) greatercloutforbusinessandindustrygroups. B) lessdemocracy. C) lesscloutoverallforinterestgroups. D) governmentbyminorityinterests. E) elitistpolicymaking. Answer: C


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118) Thegrowthofbothinterestgroupsandthescopeofgovernmentoverthepastseveraldecades represents A) theformerincreasingthelatter. B) thelatterincreasingtheformer. C) bothAandB D) thelatterdecreasingtheformer. E) NeitherAnorB;thereisnorelationshipbetweenthetwo. Answer: C


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True/FalseQuestions
1) Akeydifferencebetweeninterestgroupsandpoliticalpartiesisthatinterestgroupsarepolicy generalists. Answer: FALSE
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2) Thehyperpluralisttheoryarguesthatinterestgroupactivitybringsrepresentationtoall, groupscompeteandcounterbalanceoneanotherinthepoliticalmarketplace,andlobbyingis notaproblem. Answer: FALSE


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3) Sincethe1960s,theproportionoftheAmericanpublicbelievingthatbiginterestsdominate thegovernmenthasdeclinedsomewhat. Answer: FALSE


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4) Elitetheoryarguesthatafewgroups(primarilythewealthy)havemostofthepower. Answer: TRUE


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5) Hyperpluralistsmajorcriticismoftheinterestgroupsandthegovernmenthavebecometoo conflictual. Answer: FALSE


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6) Smallergroupsaregenerallymoreeffectivethanlargergroups. Answer: TRUE


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7) Thefree-riderproblemislessseriouswhenwhattheactualgroupisseekingisacollective good. Answer: FALSE


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8) OlsonsLawofLargeGroupshelpsexplainthedistinctadvantageofsmallgroupsinlobbying fortheirgoals. Answer: TRUE


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9) Thedevelopmentofsophisticatedtechnologyhasresultedintheconsolidationanddecreasein thenumberofinterestgroups. Answer: FALSE


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10) Asthenumberofinterestgroupshasincreasedoverthepastseveraldecades,thediversityof thegroupshasremainedthesame. Answer: FALSE


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11) Mostlobbyingisdirectedtowardactivatingandreinforcingonessupporters. Answer: TRUE


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12) Whengoingpublic,mostinterestgroupsemphasizeasoftsellandreasonedanalysis. Answer: TRUE


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13) Interestgroupsoccasionallyfileamicuscuriae briefswhichenableagroupofsimilarlysituated plaintiffstocombinesimilargrievancesintoasinglesuit. Answer: FALSE


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14) Mostofthestateswithright-to-worklawsareintheSouth,whichtraditionallyhashadthe lowestpercentageofunionizedworkers. Answer: TRUE


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15) ThepeakoftheAmericanlabormovementoccurredinthe1970s,when33percentofthe nonagriculturalworkforcebelongedtoaunion. Answer: FALSE


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16) MostenvironmentalgroupstracetheiroriginstoEarthDay,April22,1970,orsometimesoon thereafter. Answer: TRUE


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17) Equalityinterestsrefertotheclusterofgroupsseekingequalprotectionunderthelaw. Answer: TRUE


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18) TheConsumerProductsSafetyCommissionisanexampleofapublicinterestlobby. Answer: FALSE


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19) Therecentincreaseinthenumberofinterestgroupsisevidencethatthepowerof subgovernmentsisincreasing. Answer: FALSE


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20) InterestgroupliberalismispromotedbythenetworkofsubgovernmentsintheAmerican politicalsystem. Answer: TRUE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) Whatarethekeydifferencesbetweeninterestgroupsandpoliticalparties? Answer: Answerswillvary.
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2) ________theoryarguesthatjustafewgroups,primarilytheverywealthy,havemostofthe powerintheUnitedStates. Answer: Elite


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3) WhatdidTheodoreLowimeanbyinterestgroupliberalism? Answer: thegovernmentsexcessivedeferencetointerestgroups


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4) ________arecomposedofkeyinterestgroupleadersinterestedinpolicyX,thegovernment agencyinchargeofadministeringpolicyX,andthemembersofcongressionalcommitteesand subcommitteeswhichhandlepolicyX. Answer: Subgovernments(orIrontriangles)


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5) Whataresubgovernments?Whyaretheyimportant? Answer: anetworkofgroupswithintheAmericanpoliticalsystemthatexerciseagreatdealof controloverspecificpolicyareas,composedofinterestgroupleadersinterestedina policy,governmentagenciesresponsibleforadministeringthatpolicyandthemembers ofcongressionalcommitteesandsubcommitteesresponsibleforthepolicy;alsoknown asirontriangles


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6) Apotentialgroupconsistsof________. Answer: allthepeoplewhomightbeinterestgroupmembersbecausetheysharesomecommon interest


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7) A(n)________issomethingofvalue,suchascleanair,thatcannotbewithheldfroma potentialgroupmember,thuscausingthefreeriderproblem. Answer: collectivegood


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8) AccordingtoOlsonsLawofLargeGroups,the________thegroup,thefurtheritwillfallshort ofprovidinganoptimalamountofacollectivegood. Answer: larger


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9) Whatismeantbyacollectivegood,andhowdoesthisconceptsuggestaproblemforinterest groups? Answer: somethingofvaluethatcannotbewithheldfromagroupmember


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10) Oneofthemajorfactorsassociatedwiththeincreaseininterestgroupsoverthepastseveral decadesis________. Answer: newtechnology


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11) Whatistheimportanceofamicuscuriae briefsandclassactionlawsuitstotheeffortsofinterest groupstoinfluencepolicy? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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12) Interestgroupscontributemoneytoelectioncampaignsthroughwhatarecalled________. Answer: PoliticalActionCommittees(PACs)


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13) Atacticusedbylawyerstomaketheviewsofinterestgroupsheardbeforethejudiciaryisthe filingof________,whichconsistofwrittenargumentssubmittedtothecourtsinsupportof onesideofacaseandoutlinehowthegroupswelfarewillbeaffectedbythecasesoutcome. Answer: amicuscuriaebriefs


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14) ________lawsoutlawtheunionshopinmanystates. Answer: Right-to-work


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15) TheoldestandlargestofgroupsseekingpoliticalequalityforAfricanAmericansisthe ________. Answer: NationalAssociationfortheAdvancementofColoredPeople(NAACP)


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16) TheNationalOrganizationforWomenwasunsuccessfulinsecuringpassageofthe________, butremainsactiveinthefightagainstsexualdiscrimination. Answer: EqualRightsAmendment


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17) ________areorganizationsthatseekacollectivegood,theachievementofwhichwillnot selectivelyandmateriallybenefitthemembershiporactivitiesoftheorganization. Answer: Publicinterestlobbies


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EssayQuestions
1) Defineinterestgroups.WhatdoAmericansgenerallyfeelaboutinterestgroups?Whatare someofthecommoncharacteristicsofgroupstoday?HowdointerestgroupsintheUnited Statesdifferfromgroupsinotherdemocracies?
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2) Describethedifferencesbetweenthepluralist,hyperpluralist,andelitetheoriesinregardto theroleplayedbyinterestgroupsinAmericansociety.
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3) Compareandcontrasthowapluralist,elitistandhyperpluralistwoulddescribethemost significantfeaturesoftheinterestgroupsystemtoday.
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4) Compareandcontrasthowpluralist,elite,andhyperpluralisttheoriesexplaintheroleof interestgroupsintheUnitedStates.Specifically,aregroupsgoodorbadinfluencesonpublic policy?Howpowerfularethey?Whoseinterestsdotheyserve?


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5) WhatisOlsonsLawofLargeGroups,andhowdoesitpertaintothepowerofvariousinterest groupsinAmericanpolitics?Howdoesthefree-riderproblemfitintoOlsonsscheme?Does Olsonslawseemcorrecttoyou?Explain.


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6) Discusshowsize,intensity,andresourcesdeterminethelikelyeffectivenessofaninterest group.Provideexampleswhereappropriate.
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7) Explainwhatfactorsworktomakeaninterestgroupsuccessful.
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8) Whatisasingle-issuegroup?Whatpowerdoesasingle-issuegroupoftenhaveregardlessof itssize?Whatissueoverthepasttwentyyearsormorehasgivenrisetomanysingle -issue groupsoneachside?WhateffectdoyouthinksuchgroupshaveonAmericanpolitics? Explain.


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9) ExplainandevaluatetheroleofmoneyininterestgroupsintheUnitedStates.Whathasbeen theimpactofPoliticalActionCommittees(PACs)onU.Spolitics?
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10) Describeandevaluatethemethodsinterestgroupsuseinpursuingtheirpolicygoals.
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11) Describewhatlobbyistsdo,andhoweffectivetheyare.Towardwhomismostlobbying directed,andwhy?Explain.


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12) Explainwhatmethodsgroupsusetoinfluencepublicpolicy,andwhytheysometimeswin andsometimeslose.


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13) WhydointerestgroupsformPoliticalActionCommittees?TowhomdoesmostofthePAC moneygo,andwhy?ArePACsathreattoAmericandemocracy?Explain.


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14) Howcaninterestgroupsuselitigationtoachievetheirgoals?Whyhaslitigationbeena particularlypowerfultoolforenvironmentalgroups?Isthisanoutletthatoughttobe encouragedwithinoursystem?Explain.


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15) CompareandcontrastthedifferenttypesofeconomicinterestgroupsintheUnitedStates. Whattypeofeconomicinterestgrouphasbeenmostsuccessfulandwhy?


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16) ExplainwhatSalisburymeanswhenheclaimsthatmanygroupshavecometoWashington outofneedanddependenceratherthanbecausetheyhaveinfluence.Doyouagreeor disagree?Why?


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17) Discussthepositiveandnegativecontributionsinterestgroupsmaketoourdemocracy.
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Chapter12 Congress
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) WhichofthefollowingdidtheframersoftheConstitutionconceiveofasthecenterof policymakinginAmerica? A) thepresident B) thepeople C) Congress D) thecourts E) theSupremeCourt Answer: C
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2) TheforemostattractionforthejobofservinginCongressis A) asalaryfourtimestheincomeofthetypicalAmericanfamily. B) generousretirementbenefits. C) thepowertomakekeypublicpolicydecisions. D) travelbenefits. E) employmentopportunitiesafterleavingoffice. Answer: C


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3) WhichofthefollowingisNOToneoftheperquisiteswhichgowiththejobofbeingamember ofCongress? A) asalaryofover$150,000 B) subsidizedhousingintheVirginiaorMarylandsuburbsofD.C. C) freeuseofthemailstocommunicatewithconstituents D) freeofficespaceinWashington,D.C.,andintheconstituencyfromwhichelected E) abudgettosupportofficestaff Answer: B


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4) ________privilegesrefertothefreeuseofthemailsenjoyedbyCongress. A) Franking B) Conmail C) Junket D) Procurement E) E-mail Answer: A


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5) ThemostprominentcharacteristicofaCongresspersonsjobis A) prestige. B) hardwork. C) highpay. D) travel. E) the30-hourworkweek. Answer: B


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6) AmythaboutmembersofCongressisthatthey A) generallyareeducatedandcomefromhigh-statusoccupations. B) tendtodeveloppolicyspecialties. C) areespeciallyeffectiveincarryingouttheirconstituentservice. D) areoverpaid,underworked,corrupt,andineffective. E) areoverwhelminglymale. Answer: D


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7) TheUnitedStatesHouseofRepresentativeshas________members. A) 638 B) 100 C) 435 D) 80 E) 535 Answer: C


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8) TheUnitedStatesSenatehas________members. A) 50 B) 100 C) 435 D) 438 E) 535 Answer: B


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9) Howmanysenatorsareelectedfromeachstate? A) one B) two C) four D) itdependsonastatespopulation E) thesamenumberasithaselectorsintheelectoralcollege Answer: B


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10) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEabouttheminimumagerequirementsformembersof CongresssetforthintheConstitution? A) Onemustbeatleast21yearsofagetoserveintheHouseofRepresentatives. B) Onemustbeatleast30yearsofagetoserveintheSenate. C) Onemustbeatleast35yearsofagetoserveineithertheHouseortheSenate. D) TherearenoagerequirementsformembersofCongress. E) TheagerequirementsarethesamefortheHouseandtheSenate. Answer: B


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11) ThemembersoftheSenatecloselyreflectthenationintermsof A) race. B) gender. C) economicstatus. D) prioroccupation. E) noneoftheabove Answer: E


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12) TheincomeandoccupationsofmembersofCongress A) typicallyreflectthepluralisticnatureofAmericansociety. B) areveryclosetotheaveragefoundamongtheirconstituency. C) would,forthemostpart,makethemmembersoftheeliteinAmericansociety. D) havenorealimpactonpublicpolicymaking. E) placesover90percentoftheminthemillionairebusinesspersonclass. Answer: C


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13) AfricanAmericansconstitute________oftheUnitedStatesSenate. A) lessthan10percent B) approximately35percent C) roughlyhalf D) welloverhalf E) about20percent Answer: A


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14) Intermsofreligion,mostmembersofCongressare A) Catholic. B) Jewish. C) Protestant. D) born-againChristians. E) atheists. Answer: C


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15) ThemostcommonprioroccupationformembersofCongressis A) business. B) law. C) education. D) publicservice. E) statelegislator. Answer: B


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16) Relativetothetotalpopulation,themostunderrepresentedgroupinCongressis A) AfricanAmericans. B) Hispanics. C) women. D) Jews. E) homosexuals. Answer: C


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17) Overall,membersofCongresscan________oftheAmericanpeople. A) possiblyclaimsubstantiverepresentation,butnotdescriptiverepresentation B) possiblyclaimdescriptiverepresentation,butnotsubstantiverepresentation C) claimbothsubstantiveanddescriptiverepresentation D) claimneithersubstantivenordescriptiverepresentation E) possiblyclaimbothsubstantiveanddescriptiverepresentation Answer: A


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18) MillionaireSenatorEdwardKennedysponsoringabilltohelpthepooranddisadvantaged wouldbeanexampleof A) descriptiverepresentation. B) substantiverepresentation. C) eliterepresentation. D) constituentrepresentation. E) frankingprivileges. Answer: B


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19) Incumbentsarethose A) alreadyholdingoffice. B) runningforofficeforthefirsttime. C) whohavebeendefeatedinanelection. D) retiredmembersofCongress. E) runningforanoffice. Answer: A


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20) Inmostcongressionalelections,challengers A) outspendanincumbent. B) win. C) arebetterknownthanincumbents. D) lose. E) spendroughlyasmuchmoneyasincumbents. Answer: D


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21) ThesinglemostimportantadvantagetosomeonetryingtogetelectedtoCongressis A) beinganincumbent. B) havingmoremoneytospendoncampaigning. C) beingcharismaticandphotogenic. D) havingacleanrecord. E) winningtheendorsementofthetopleadersoftheirparty. Answer: A


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22) ComparisonbetweenmembersoftheHouseandSenateconcerningtheimpactofincumbency ontheirreelectionchancesshowsthatoneofthereasonsthatsenatorshaveasmaller advantageisbecausethey A) havebecomeover-specializedaspolicymakers. B) aremorelikelytobeheldaccountableoncontroversialissues. C) arelessvisible. D) havelongertermsthatincreasethechanceofscandal. E) representmorehomogenousconstituencies. Answer: B
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23) Reasonsthatincumbentsenatorshavegreatercompetitionthanincumbentmembersofthe HouseincludeallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) anentirestateismorediversethanacongressionaldistrict,providingmoreofabasefor opposition. B) senatorshavelesspersonalcontactwiththeirconstituencies. C) votersarelesslikelytoknowtheissuepositionsoftheirsenatorsthantheir representatives. D) senatorstendtodrawmorevisiblechallengers. E) senatechallengersarebetterfundedthanHousechallengers. Answer: C
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24) Whichofthesecandidateswouldmostlikelygetelected? A) arepresentativerunningforreelection B) asenatorrunningforreelection C) anincumbentrepresentativechallengingasenator D) achallenger E) anincumbent Answer: A


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25) ComparedtomembersoftheHouse,senatorsare A) morelikelytohavepersonalcontactwiththeirconstituents. B) morelikelytofacedifficultreelectionopponents. C) lesslikelytofacedifficultreelectionopponents. D) lesslikelytousetelevisionintheirreelectioncampaigns. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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26) Studieshaveshownthatpresidential________inanelectionhavelittleeffectonthesuccessof thepartyscandidatesfortheHouseandSenate. A) coattails B) junkets C) vetoes D) headwinds E) scandals Answer: A


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27) WhichofthefollowingisNOToneofthethreeprimaryactivitiesthatmembersofCongress engageintoincreasetheprobabilityoftheirreelection? A) advertising B) credit-claiming C) position-taking D) oversight E) Noneoftheabove;oversightisaformofposition-taking. Answer: D


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28) AnexampleofcaseworkbyamemberofCongressis A) writinganewslettertosendouttoconstituents. B) helpingaconstituentgaincitizenship. C) votingforabilldesiredbyconstituents. D) workingwithacaucusonapublicpolicythataffectshisorherconstituents. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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29) Theporkbarrelandcaseworkareexamplesof A) opportunitiesforcredit-claimingbymembersofCongress. B) advertisingtechniques. C) descriptiverepresentation. D) position-taking. E) congressionalcontinuity. Answer: A


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30) Anespeciallyimportantassetforincumbentsrunningforreelectionistheir A) servicetoconstituents. B) votingrecords. C) supportbypartyleadersinCongress. D) presidentialsupport. E) invisibility. Answer: A


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31) The________isthelistoffederalprojects,grants,andcontractsavailabletocities,businesses, colleges,andinstitutionswhichmembersofCongressseektolocateintheirdistricttopromote theinterestsoftheirconstituency. A) casework B) porkbarrel C) frank D) junket E) Treasurersregister Answer: B
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32) FederalgrantsandcontractsthatmembersofCongresstrytoobtainfortheirconstituentsare collectivelyreferredtoas A) theporkbarrel. B) casework. C) publicservice. D) perquisites. E) affirmativeaction. Answer: A


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33) MembersofCongressengageineachofthefollowingactivitiesthatincreasetheprobabilityof theirreelectionsEXCEPT A) advertising. B) partyvoting. C) credit-claiming. D) positiontaking. E) spendmuchoftheirtimeawayfromCongressandintheirhomedistricts. Answer: B


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34) Whataccountsforthesuccessofcongressionalcandidates? A) theirhighlyrepresentativepolicypositions B) presidentialcoattails C) economicforces D) advertising,credit-claiming,andposition-taking. E) goodlooks Answer: D


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35) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueaboutincumbents? A) Theyusuallywinelections. B) Theyusuallyhavemoremoneythantheirchallengers. C) Theyusuallyhavehighernamerecognitionandvisibilitythantheiropponents. D) Theyusuallyfaceverytoughchallengers,especiallyinracesfortheHouse. E) Theyusuallyhavetheirpartysendorsement. Answer: D


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36) Whichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthosewhochallengeincumbentmembersofthe HouseisTRUE? A) Theyareusuallynotwell-known. B) Theyareusuallyexperiencedlegislators. C) Theyusuallyhaveawell-establishedorganizationalbacking. D) Theytendtobewell-financed. E) Theyusuallyconductpublicopinionpollsandonlyruniftheyhaveagoodchanceof winning. Answer: A
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37) IntheHouseracesof2004,thetypicalincumbentoutspentthetypicalchallengerby A) 2to1. B) 4to1. C) 6to1. D) 15to1. E) 20to1. Answer: D


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504

38) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutmoneyinCongressionalelectionsisFALSE? A) ItcostsmoremoneytoelectapresidentthantoelectamemberofCongress. B) Mostofthemoneyspentincongressionalelectionscomesfromindividuals. C) AboutaquarterofthefundsraisedingeneralelectioncontestscomefromPACs. D) PoliticalActionCommitteesoftenmakecontributionsaftertheelection. E) PACsoftenswitchsidesandgivemoneytothecandidatetheyoriginallyopposed. Answer: A


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39) Theroleofpartyidentificationinvoterschoicesincongressionalcampaignsis A) extremelyimportant,andincreasinglyso. B) moderatelyimportant,eventhoughpartyidentificationisnotasstrongasitusedtobe. C) slightlyimportantinafewdistricts,notimportantinmostothers. D) notimportantatall,andneverreallyhasbeen. E) muchlesssignificantthaninpresidentialcampaigns. Answer: B


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40) Partyloyaltyatthevotingboothis A) strongerthanitwasagenerationago. B) nolongeragoodindicationofvotingbehavior. C) stillagoodpredictorofvotingbehavior. D) almostnonexistenttoday. E) greateramongDemocratsthanamongRepublicans. Answer: C


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41) Houseincumbentstypicallyreceive A) aboutthesameamountofcontributionsfromPACsaschallengers. B) lessfromPACsthanchallengers. C) muchmorefromPACsaschallengers. D) generoussupportfromtheirpartycampaigncommittees. E) noneoftheabove. Answer: D


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42) Onaverage,mostofthemoneyraisedbyacandidateforCongresscomesfrom A) politicalparties. B) individualcontributions. C) thecandidatesownsavings. D) PoliticalActionCommittees. E) loans. Answer: B


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43) AsinglePoliticalActionCommittee A) hasnolimitontheamountofmoneyitcanspendonacandidate. B) canatmostaccountforonlyasmallpercentageofawinnerstotalspending. C) usuallyputsallitseffortsintoonecandidate. D) cangainthemostinfluencebygivingmoneytocandidateswhodisagreewiththem. E) canmakeorbreakacandidateinaparticularlyclosecongressionalelection. Answer: B


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44) WhenPoliticalActionCommitteescontributemoneytomembersofCongresstheyareusually seeking A) accesstopolicymakers. B) votesonspecificlegislation. C) toinstallapreferredchallengerinoffice. D) tocreateamorepluralisticCongress. E) toliterallybuyopposinglegislatorsvotes. Answer: A


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45) Whichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheroleofmoneyincongressionalelectionsis FALSE? A) Outspendingyouropponentbyalargemarginisnoguaranteeofsuccess. B) Themorechallengersspend,themorevotestheyreceive. C) Challengersusuallyoutspendincumbents. D) Inopenseats,thecandidatewhospendsthemostusuallywins. E) Incumbentsbenefitlessfromcampaignspendingthanchallengers. Answer: C


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46) AllofthefollowingmayincreasethelikelihoodthatanincumbentisdefeatedEXCEPT A) nationalpoliticaltidalwaves. B) redistricting. C) campaignfunding. D) scandals. E) astrongchallenger. Answer: C


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47) Aftereachfederalcensus, A) theofficeoftheSpeakeroftheHousechangeshands. B) thesizeofCongressincreases. C) themembershipoftheHouseisreapportioned D) theSenatereapportionsitsmembership. E) alloftheabove Answer: C


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48) Occasionally,amajorpoliticaltidalwaverollsacrossthecountryandthrowslargenumbersof incumbentsofagivenpartyoutofoffice.Whendidthislastoccur? A) 1994 B) 1980 C) 1974 D) 1964 E) 1954 Answer: A


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49) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutCongressisFALSE? A) Congressisacollectionofgeneraliststryingtomakepolicyonspecializedtopics. B) MembersofCongressaresurroundedbypeoplewhoknow(orclaimtoknow)more thantheydo. C) MembersofCongressareoftenunsureofwhatisbeingvotedonwhenaroll-callvoteis called. D) Membersfrequentlyasktheircolleagueshowtovote. E) noneoftheabove Answer: E
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50) NebraskaslegislatureistheonlyoneintheUnitedStatesthatisNOT A) electedbythevoters. B) unicameral. C) bicameral. D) tricameral. E) undertermlimits. Answer: C


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51) Bicameralismmeansthatalegislativebodyisone A) withtwohouses,providingchecksandbalancesonpolicymaking. B) inwhicheachstatehastwosenators,providingequalrepresentationofthestates. C) inwhichincumbentshaveabetterchanceofbeingreelected,providingcontinuityin policymaking. D) thatmustsharepowerwithapresident,providingmoreefficientpolicymaking. E) inwhichthereareonlytwopoliticalparties. Answer: A


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52) Tobesenttothepresident,abillmustbepassedby A) theHouse. B) theSenate. C) eithertheHouseortheSenate. D) boththeHouseandtheSenate. E) amajorityvoteofCongress,regardlessofwhichhousethevotescomefrom. Answer: D


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53) TheHouse________Committeereviewsmostbillscomingfromothercommitteesbeforethey goontothefullHouse,thusperformingatrafficcopfunction. A) Appropriations B) WaysandMeans C) Rules D) Authorization E) Review Answer: C


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54) Articlesofimpeachmentmustbepassedby A) eithertheHouseortheSenate. B) boththeHouseandtheSenate. C) theSenate. D) theHouse. E) theSupremeCourt. Answer: D


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55) Houseseatsareupforelectionevery A) twoyears. B) fouryears. C) sixyears. D) eightyears. E) fiveyears. Answer: A


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56) ASenateseatisupforelectionevery A) twoyears. B) fouryears. C) sixyears. D) eightyears. E) fiveyears. Answer: C


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57) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEabouttheSenateascomparedtotheHouse? A) morecentralizedwithstrongerleadership B) senioritymoreimportantindeterminingpower C) moreinfluentialonthebudget D) moreinfluentialinforeignaffairs E) smallerinnumber,lesspowerfulandlessprestigious Answer: D


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58) AccordingtotheConstitution,revenuebillsmustoriginateinthe A) InternalRevenueService. B) FederalReserveSystem. C) House. D) Senate. E) TreasuryDepartment. Answer: C


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59) NomineestotheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtmustbeconfirmedby A) theSenate. B) theHouse. C) eithertheHouseortheSenate. D) boththeHouseandtheSenate. E) thepresident. Answer: A


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60) AccordingtotheConstitution,onceimpeached,federalofficialsarethentriedinthe A) SupremeCourt. B) House. C) Senate. D) DepartmentofJustice. E) UnitedStatesDistrictCourtfortheDistrictofColumbia. Answer: C


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61) TheHouseRulesCommittee A) hasitsmembersappointedbytheHousemajorityleader. B) issimilartotheSenateRulesCommittee. C) usuallyretainsindependencefromtheHouseleadership. D) reviewsmostbillscomingfromcommitteebeforetheygotothefullHouse. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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62) TheConstitutiongivestheHouseofRepresentativesthepowerto A) initiateallrevenuebills. B) ratifyalltreaties. C) confirmpresidentialnominations. D) tryimpeachedofficials. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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63) OneofthekeydifferencesbetweentheHouseandSenateisthattheHouse A) hasweakerleadership. B) ismoreinfluentialonforeignaffairs. C) hasmorepolicyspecialization. D) islesscentralized. E) islessinstitutionalized. Answer: C


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64) OneofthekeydifferencesbetweentheHouseandSenateisthattheSenate A) ismorecentralized. B) islessdependentonseniorityfordeterminingpower. C) hasalowerturnoverrate. D) hasstrongerleadership. E) hasmoreanarchy. Answer: B


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65) TherealdifferencesbetweentheHouseandtheSenatelieintheir A) ideology. B) memberscharacteristics. C) organizationandcentralizationofpower. D) roleinpolicy. E) powerrelativetoeachother. Answer: C


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66) Thefilibuster A) isuniquetotheSenate. B) isuniquetotheHouse. C) isallowedinboththeHouseandtheSenate. D) hasbeenruledunconstitutional. E) hasbeenprohibitedinboththeHouseandSenate. Answer: A


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67) ________memberspresentandvotingcanhaltafilibusterbyvotingforcloture. A) Sixty B) Seventy C) Eighty D) Fifty-one E) Seventy-five Answer: A


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68) Thefilibusterisatechniqueusedinthe A) HousetodelaylegislationuntilafullHousecanconvene. B) Senatetoprolongdebateinordertokillabill. C) Senatetobypasscommitteesinvotingoncontroversialissues. D) Housetoallowmoretimetodebatecontroversialpolicies. E) HouseandSenatetopreventavoteonabill. Answer: B


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69) Tocutoffdebateandendafilibusterisknownas A) franking. B) coattails. C) cloture. D) overriding. E) hushing. Answer: C


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70) Toendafilibusterrequires________memberspresentandvotingtocutoffdebate. A) 50 B) 60 C) 75 D) 99 E) 218 Answer: B


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71) WhichofthefollowingcongressionalofficesismandatedbytheConstitution? A) SpeakeroftheHouse B) HouseandSenateMajorityLeader C) PresidentoftheHouse D) PresidentoftheUnitedStates E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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72) WhichofthefollowingdoestheSpeakerNOTplayarolein? A) makingcommitteeassignments B) presidingovertheHousewhenitisinsession C) recommendingwhichmembersshouldbeexpelledfromtheHouseforfailuretosupport thepartyspositionsonbills D) assigningmostbillstocommittees E) appointingthepartyslegislativeleaders Answer: C


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73) The________isnextinlineafterthevicepresidenttosucceedapresidentwhoresigns,diesin office,orisimpeached. A) Senatemajorityleader B) Senateminorityleader C) Housemajorityleader D) SpeakeroftheHouse E) ChairoftheJointChiefsofStaff Answer: D


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74) Theminoritywhip A) assiststhemajorityleaderinparty-linevotes. B) becomestheSpeakerautomaticallyiftheSpeakerresigns. C) representsAfricanAmericans,HispanicAmericans,andAsianAmericansineach chamberofCongress. D) keepsacloseheadcountonkeyvotes,andattemptstokeeppartymembersinline. E) isusedtopunishmemberswhodonotvotewiththerestoftheirparty. Answer: D


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75) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthemajorityleaderoftheHouseofRepresentativesis FALSE? A) Themajorityleaderexercisessubstantialcontroloverwhichbillsgetassignedtowhich committees. B) ThemajorityleaderisthemainsteppingstonetothejobofSpeakeroftheHouse. C) ThemajorityleaderisresponsibleforschedulingbillsintheHouse. D) Themajorityleaderisresponsibleforroundingupvotesonbehalfofthepartysposition onlegislation. E) HeorsheistheprincipalallyoftheSpeaker. Answer: A
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76) The________hasthejobofpresidingovertheSenate,breakingtieswhennecessary. A) majorityleader B) majoritywhip C) minorityleader D) vicepresident E) Speaker Answer: D


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77) ThemostpowerfulpersonintheSenateisthe A) majorityleader. B) vicepresidentoftheUnitedStates,whoservesaspresidentoftheSenate. C) chairoftheRulesCommittee. D) Speaker. E) presidentoftheUnitedStates. Answer: A


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78) Mostimportantcongressionalactivityisdone A) onlegislatorsvisitstotheirhomedistricts. B) inmeetingsofstandingcommitteesandtheirsubcommittees. C) ontheHousefloor. D) ontheSenatefloor. E) intheWhiteHouse. Answer: B


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79) MostofthebusinessofCongresstakesplace A) incongressionaldistricts. B) ontheflooroftheHouseandSenate. C) incommitteesandsubcommittees. D) duringeveningsocialfunctions. E) intheRulescommittees. Answer: C


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80) A________committeeisoneappointedforalimited,specificpurpose,suchasthatsetupto investigatetheWatergatescandal. A) standing B) select C) conference D) joint E) special Answer: B


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81) Appropriations,Judiciary,andArmedForcesareallexamplesof________committees. A) standing B) select C) conference D) joint E) rule Answer: A


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82) WhentheHouseandtheSenatepassdifferentversionsofthesamebill A) theHousebillischangedtoconformwiththeSenatebill. B) theSenatebillischangedtoconformwiththeHousebill. C) aconferencecommitteeisappointedtoresolvedifferences. D) ajointcommitteeisappointedtoresolvedifferences. E) thepresidentmayselectwhichbilltoenactintolaw. Answer: C


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83) Legislative________istheprocessofmonitoringthebureaucracyanditsadministrationof policy. A) franking B) stonewalling C) overview D) oversight E) supremacy Answer: D


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84) WhenmembersofCongressholdahearingtoquestionacabinetmemberonhowalawis beingcarriedout,theyareengagingin A) agenda-setting. B) filibustering. C) legislativeoversight. D) casework. E) congressionaladministration. Answer: C


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85) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutcongressionalcommitteesisFALSE? A) Unlessacommitteegivesabillafavorablereportitalmostnevercanbeconsideredby thefullHouseorSenate. B) Themostimportantoutputofthecommitteeisthemarkedupbill. C) Membersofthecommitteeusuallyserveasfloormanagersofthebill. D) Membersofthecommitteeactascue-giverstowhomothermembersturnforadvice. E) noneoftheabove Answer: E


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86) ThesenioritysystemgaveadecisiveedgetoHousemembersfrom________districts. A) Republican B) suburban C) older D) safe E) competitive Answer: D


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87) HouseandSenatecommittees A) allhaveanequalnumberofRepublicansandDemocrats. B) allhaveamajorityofmembersfromthemajoritypartyinthatchamber. C) musthavetheirmembershipapprovedbythepresident. D) arenon-partisan,andthussomecommitteesarenearlyallDemocratsandothersnearly allRepublicans. E) arepopulatedbythehiredstaffmembersofCongress,freeingtheelectedmembersfor moreimportantwork. Answer: B
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88) MembersofCongressseekcommitteesthatwillhelpthemachieveeachofthefollowinggoals EXCEPT A) reelection. B) influenceinCongress. C) asalaryincrease. D) opportunitytomakepolicyinareastheythinkareimportant. E) opportunitytomakepolicyinareasimportanttotheirconstituents. Answer: C


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89) Traditionally,Congressionalcommitteechairpersonshavebeenchosenthrough A) thesenioritysystem. B) partyrank. C) popularitywithmajorityleaders. D) amajorityvotebycommitteemembers. E) themeritsystem. Answer: A


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90) MembersofCongresswhoinformallybandtogetheringroupstopromoteandprotectmutual interests(e.g.,mushroomgrowers)formwhatarecalled A) subcommittees. B) committees. C) caucuses. D) junkets. E) interestgroups. Answer: C


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91) CaucusesinCongress A) presscommitteestoholdhearings. B) pushtheirpreferredlegislation. C) mobilizevotesforfavoredlegislation. D) alloftheabove E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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92) Congressionalreformsofthe1970s A) professionalizedtheoperationofCongressandmadeitmuchmoreefficient. B) decentralizedpoweranddemocratizedCongress. C) wereaimedatrootingoutscandalandcorruption. D) endedthetwo-partymonopolyofCongressandbroughtnewpartiesintoCongress. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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93) Republicancongressionalreformsinthe1990sincludedallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) committeechairswereallowedtochoosethechairsofsubcommitteesontheir committees. B) bothcommitteeandsubcommitteechairswerelimitedtothreeconsecutivetwo -year termsaschair. C) somesubcommitteeswereeliminated. D) committeechairsweregivencompletecontroloverthetimingofbillsunder consideration. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D
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94) Whichofthefollowingisresponsibleforrespondingtocongressionalrequestsforinformation andprovidingnon-partisanstudies? A) CongressionalResearchService B) CongressionalBudgetOffice C) GeneralAccountingOffice D) WaysandMeansCommittee E) OfficeoftheMajorityLeader Answer: A


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95) CommitteestaffisresponsibleforallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) providingservicestoconstituents. B) organizinghearings. C) writinglegislation. D) monitoringtheexecutivebranch. E) coordinatingwithcongressionaloffices. Answer: A


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96) Whichofthefollowingofficesisresponsibleformakingeconomicprojectionsaboutthe performanceoftheeconomy,thecostsofproposedpolicies,andtheeconomiceffectsoftaxing andspendingalternatives? A) CongressionalResearchService B) CongressionalBudgetOffice C) GeneralAccountingOffice D) WaysandMeansCommittee E) FederalReserve Answer: B
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97) Only________canformallysubmitabillforcongressionalconsideration. A) membersoftheHouse B) senators C) membersoftheHouseorsenators D) thepresident E) theSpeakeroftheHouse Answer: C


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98) MostbillsformallysubmittedforconsiderationinCongress A) arepassedandsignedintolaw. B) arepassed,butvetoedbythepresident. C) aredefeatedinclosefinalvotesonthefloorsofonechamber. D) arequietlykilledoffearlyintheprocess. E) passonehouse,butarekilledintheotherhouse. Answer: D


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99) Basically,Congressisa(n)________decision -makingbody. A) reactiveandcumbersome B) activeandsmooth C) unifiedandconsistent D) radicalandhasty E) retroactive Answer: A


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100) ThepresidentsmostcommonmethodofattemptingtoinfluenceCongressisto A) callupwaveringmembers. B) offertocampaignformembers. C) holdregularmeetingswiththepartysleadersinCongress. D) invitemembersofCongresstotheWhiteHouse. E) usethevetopower. Answer: C


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101) PresidentialleadershipofCongressinpromotingthechiefexecutivesprogramsis A) dominant,withaheavyhandusuallyconvincingwaveringmembers. B) asmooth,generallysuccessfulenterprise. C) atthemargins,asafacilitator. D) nonexistent. E) proactive,substantive,andadversarial. Answer: C


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102) ThepartiesinCongressaremostcohesive A) onforeignpolicyissues. B) whenelectingtheirofficialleaders. C) oneconomicpolicy. D) militarymatters. E) duringfloorvotes. Answer: B


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103) TheEnglishpoliticianandphilosopherEdmundBurkefavoredtheconceptoflegislatorsas ________,usingtheirbestjudgmenttomakepolicyintheinterestsofthepeople. A) constituentrobots B) trustees C) instructeddelegates D) politicos E) judges Answer: B


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104) Someprefertheconceptoflegislatorsas________,mirroringthepreferencesoftheir constituents. A) trustees B) politicos C) instructeddelegates D) uninstructeddelegates E) pollsters Answer: C


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105) Thebestwayconstituentscaninfluencecongressionalvotingonlegislationisto A) signpetitions. B) writelettersorsendtelegrams. C) faxorcallintheiropinions. D) electarepresentativeorsenatorwhoagreeswiththeirviews. E) demonstrateonthestepsofthecapitol. Answer: D


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106) Onatypicalissue,theprimarydeterminantofacongressionalmembersvoteis A) constituentpreferencesasindicatedbyextensivepolling. B) thepositionofthepresident. C) personalideology. D) thetossofacoin. E) thepositionoftheirpartyleaders. Answer: C


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107) Legislatorswhousetheirbestjudgmenttomakepolicyintheinterestsofthepeoplearecalled A) trustees. B) instructeddelegates. C) politicos. D) attentiveleaders. E) opinionleaders. Answer: A


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108) MostmembersofCongresswouldbeconsidered A) trustees. B) instructeddelegates. C) politicos. D) ambassadors. E) attentiveleaders. Answer: C


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109) Constituenciesinfluencepolicymostlyby A) theinitialchoiceoftherepresentative. B) influencingcongressionalleaders. C) empoweringthepresidentinhisnegotiationswithCongress. D) buyingvotesthroughelectioncontributions. E) lobbyingSenators. Answer: A


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110) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutconstituencyinfluenceisFALSE? A) Itisdifficultevenforwell-intentionedlegislatorstoknowwhatpeoplewant. B) Legislatorswhosevotesonroutineissuesareoutofstepwiththeirconstituentsarerarely reelected. C) Onsomecontroversialissues,legislatorsignoreconstituentopinionatgreatperil. D) Onobscureissueslegislatorscansafelyignoreconstituencyopinion. E) Lettersreceivedbylegislatorsaremorelikelytoconveyextremistratherthanmoderate opinions. Answer: B
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111) IntherelationshipbetweenlobbyistsandmembersofCongress, A) membersofCongresscanignoreandembarrasslobbyists. B) lobbyistsholdthegreaterpower. C) membersofCongressdependonlobbyistsforreelection. D) lobbyistspaymembersofCongresstopassordefeatbills. E) lobbyistsspendmostoftheireffortsonconvertingopponentstotheircause. Answer: A


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112) IfCongresshasincreasedthescopeofgovernmentitisbecause A) memberstypicallysufferfromPotomacfever. B) membersareby-spendingliberals. C) thatiswhatconstituencieswant. D) thatiswhatCongressionalstafferswant. E) itisrespondingtothepolicyexpertiseprovidedbythebureaucracy. Answer: C


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True/FalseQuestions
1) ThetypicalmemberoftheHouseofRepresentativesservesonsixcommitteesand subcommittees,thetypicalsenatorisamemberoftencommittees. Answer: TRUE
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2) ItisdifficultforCongresstogetanythingdone. Answer: TRUE


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3) ToserveintheUnitedStatesSenateonemustbeatleastthirtyyearsold. Answer: TRUE


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4) MostmembersofCongressareProtestants. Answer: TRUE


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5) HouseincumbentstendtobemorevulnerableinelectionconteststhanSenateincumbents. Answer: FALSE


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6) Morethan90percentoftheincumbentsintheHouseofRepresentativesseekingreelection win. Answer: TRUE


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7) Onlyabout20percentofAmericanscanaccuratelyguesshowtheirrepresentativevotedonan issueinCongress. Answer: TRUE


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8) MembersofCongressarenotsubstantiallyaffectedintheirreelectionbidsbytheupsand downsoftheeconomy. Answer: TRUE


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9) Mostcongressionaladvertisingtakesplacebetweenelectionsandtakestheformofcontact withconstituents. Answer: TRUE


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10) Incongressionalelections,challengersreceivemorePACmoneythanincumbents. Answer: FALSE


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11) PACsoftenmakecontributionsAFTERelections Answer: TRUE


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12) MostPACsgivelessthanthe$5,000limittocandidates. Answer: TRUE


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13) Inopenraces,candidateswhospendthemostusuallywin. Answer: TRUE


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14) TheCongressisaunicamerallegislature. Answer: FALSE


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15) TheHouseofRepresentativesismoreinstitutionalized,centralized,andhierarchicalthanthe Senate. Answer: TRUE


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16) FilibustersoccurintheSenate,butnottheHouse. Answer: TRUE


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17) Sixtysenatorspresentandvotingcanhaltafilibusterbyvotingforclotureondebate. Answer: TRUE


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18) IfabillpassesboththeHouseandtheSenate,butindifferentforms,itgoestoajoint committee. Answer: FALSE


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19) SelectcommitteeshavemembershipdrawnfrombothhousesofCongress. Answer: FALSE


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20) TheHousestillstrictlyfollowsthesenioritysystem,whereinthemajoritypartymemberofthe committeewhohasservedthelongestautomaticallyservesaschair. Answer: FALSE


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21) Congressislesslikelytoexerciseitsoversightpowerswhenitiscontrolledbythepresidents party. Answer: TRUE


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22) TheexplosionofcaucusesinCongresshasmadetherepresentationofinterestgroupsin Congressamoredirectprocess. Answer: TRUE


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23) Aspartofthecongressionalreformsofthe1970s,Congresssubstantiallydecreasedits oversightactivities. Answer: FALSE


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24) InvotingonbillsinCongress,differencesbetweenthepartiesaresharpestonquestionsof socialwelfareandeconomicpolicy. Answer: TRUE


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25) ThestrongestinfluenceonhowamemberoftheHouseofRepresentativeswillvoteishisor herpartyleadership. Answer: FALSE


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26) Becausemostissuesarecontroversialtotheirconstituentsbackhome,legislatorsseldomcast votesbasedontheirownideologyastheprimedeterminant. Answer: FALSE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) Whatarefrankingprivileges,andwhyaretheysometimescontroversial? Answer: thefreeuseofthemailsystemtocommunicatewithconstituents
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2) Asenatormustbeatleast________yearsofage,amemberoftheHouseatleast________. Answer: 30:25


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3) WhatisthedominantprioroccupationformembersofCongress? Answer: law


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4) Thesinglemostimportantfactaboutcongressionalelectionsisthat________. Answer: incumbentsusuallywin


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5) MembersofCongresshelpingconstituentsasindividualsbycuttingthroughsome bureaucraticredtapeisknownas________. Answer: casework


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6) Compareandcontrastcaseworkandporkbarrel. Answer: CaseworkincludesactivitiesofmembersofCongressthathelpconstituentsas individuals,suchascuttingthroughbureaucraticredtape.Porkbarrelincludesthelist offederalprojects,grantsandcontractsavailabletocities,businesses,collegesand institutionsavailableinacongressionaldistrict.


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7) Why,accordingtoFiorina,iscredit-claimingmoreeffectivethanposition-takingfor incumbents? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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8) Whatistheroleofpartyidentificationincongressionalelections? Answer: Althoughpartyloyaltyatthevotingboothisnotasstrongasitwasagenerationago,it isstillagoodpredictorofvotingbehavior,withnearly90percentofvoterswhoidentify withapartyvotingfortheHousecandidateoftheirparty.


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9) ToincreasechangeinthemembershipofCongress,severalstatesenacted________inthe 1980s. Answer: termlimitations


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10) Whataretheargumentsforandagainstcongressionaltermlimitations? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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11) WhatarethefunctionsoftheHouseRulesCommittee? Answer: giveseachbillarulethatdetermineswhenthebillgetsonthecalendar,allowstimefor debateandsometimesspecifiesthekindofamendmentsthatmaybeoffered


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12) A(n)________consistsoftyingupthelegislativeagendawithcontinuousspeechesonthe floorsoabillyouopposecannotcometoavote. Answer: filibuster


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13) Whatisafilibuster,andhowisitused? Answer: astrategyuniquetotheSenatewherebyopponentsofapieceoflegislationtrytotalkit todeath,basedonthetraditionofunlimiteddebate


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14) Compareandcontrasttherolesofmajorityleader,minorityleader,andpartywhips. Answer: ThemajorityleaderistheprincipalpartisanallyoftheSpeakeroftheHouseorthe partysmanagerintheSenate.Theminorityleaderistheprincipalleaderofthe minoritypartyintheHouseofRepresentativesorintheSenate.Whipsarepartyleaders whoworkwiththemajorityleaderorminorityleadertocountvotesbeforehandand leanonwavererswhosevotesarecrucialtoabillfavoredbytheparty.


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15) ________areformedwhentheSenateandtheHousepassaparticularbillindifferentforms. Answer: Conferencecommittees


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16) ________givesCongressthepowertopressureexecutivebranchagenciesandsecure compliancewithcongressionalwishes. Answer: Oversight


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17) HowdoesCongressperformitsoversightfunction? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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18) Whatisthesenioritysystem,andhowhasitchangedovertheyears? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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19) AninformalgroupingofmembersofCongresswhobandtogethersharingsomeinterestor characteristiciscalleda(n)________,andthereareover100suchgroups. Answer: caucus


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20) Describetherelativesizeofpersonalstaff,asopposedtocommitteestaffandstaffagencies. Whatdoespersonalstaffgenerallydevotetheirtimeto? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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21) The________respondstocongressionalrequestsforinformation,andprovidesmemberswith nonpartisanresearch. Answer: CongressionalResearchService


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22) The________reviewstheactivitiesoftheexecutivebranchtoseeifitisfollowingthe congressionalintentoflaws,andinvestigatestheefficiencyandeffectivenessofpolicy implementation. Answer: GeneralAccountabilityOffice


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23) Whatisthedifferencebetweentheroleoflegislatorsastrustees,instructeddelegates,and politicos? Answer: Trusteesusetheirbestjudgmenttomakepolicyintheinterestsofthepeople,while instructeddelegatesmirrorthepreferencesoftheirconstituentsandpoliticosadopt bothtrusteeandinstructeddelegaterolesastheystrivetobebothrepresentativesand policymakers.


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EssayQuestions
1) DescribethegeneralcharacteristicsofthemembersofCongressandtheiraveragedaily activities.WhataretheattractionsandbenefitsofbeingamemberofCongress?
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2) DescribehowCongressisdemographicallyatypicaloftheUnitedStatespopulation.Doesthis presentaproblemforlegitimatedemocraticgovernment?Why,orwhynot?
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3) CommentontherepresentativenessofCongress.ArethemembersofCongresstruly representativeoftheAmericanpeopleandtheoverallneedsofthenation?Whateffectdo PACsandinterestgroupshaveontherepresentativenessofCongress?


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4) Describetheadvantagesofincumbentsincongressionalelections.Whatreformshavebeen suggestedtolimittheeffectsofincumbency?Wouldyousupportsuchreform?
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5) Explainandevaluatetheroleofmoneyincongressionalelections.Giveexamplestoillustrate youranswer.
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6) DescribethestructureofpoweranddecisionmakingintheCongressandevaluatetheimpact ofthatstructureonpolicymaking.
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7) DescribethepowersoftheSpeakeroftheHouse,themajorityandminorityleaders,andthe whips.Whatlimitstotheirleadershippowersexistintheirrespectiveparties?
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8) ListandbrieflydescribethedifferenttypesofcommitteesinCongress.Whatroledothe committeesplayintheCongressionalprocess?
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9) ExplainhowthesystemofcommitteesandsubcommitteesworksinCongress.Giveexamples toillustrateyouranswer.
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10) Whatarecongressionalcaucuses?Whatroledotheyplay,andhowmuchinfluencedothey have?Giveexamplestoillustrateyouranswer.


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11) CompareandcontrastthedifferenttypesofstaffthatworktosupportCongress.Howlarge arethesestaffs?Whatservicesdotheyprovide?


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12) Explainthelegislativeprocessandtherelativeimportanceofkeyindividualsandgroupsin thatprocess.Whathappenstomostbills?Describetheprocedurebywhichabillbecomeslaw.


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13) HowcanthePresidentinfluencecongressionalaction?DoyouthinkthePresidentistoo powerfulornotpowerfulenoughindealingwithCongress?Explain.


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14) IdentifythesourcesofinfluenceonmembersofCongressandevaluatetheirimpacton policymaking.


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15) HowimportantispartymembershiptoasenatorormemberoftheHouseincastingavote? Arevotesonsomeissuesmoreorlesslikelytofollowpartylines?Whatotherfactorsinfluence howanindividuallegislatorcastsavote?


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16) ExplainhowmembersofCongressreconciletheconflictingjobsofrepresentingconstituents andmakingeffectivepublicpolicy.Inyouranswer,besuretodiscussthecommitteesystem, congressionalelections,andtheroleofpoliticalpartiesandinterestgroupsinCongress.


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17) DescribetheconflictingconceptsofmembersofCongressservingastrusteesversusas instructeddelegates.Whichroledoesalegislatormostfrequentlyplay?Whichconceptmost appealstoyou?Explain.


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18) EvaluateCongressasademocraticinstitution.WhatreformsdemocratizedCongress? Evaluatewhetherthereisatradeoffbetweenrepresentativenessandeffectiveness.


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19) TheauthorsnotethatsomearguethatCongressistooresponsivetoconstituents,and, especially,toorganizedinterests....(whileothers)arguethatCongressistooinsulatedfrom ordinarycitizens.Evaluatetheevidenceforeachviewfromthroughoutthechapter.


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20) Discussaspectsofcongressionalmembership,elections,organizationanddecisionmaking thatmightleadthepublictobecriticalofCongressasaninstitution.Towhatextentissuch criticismwell-founded?


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Chapter13 ThePresidency
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) Theprincipalreasonthatpresidentshavetroublegettingthingsdoneisthat A) mostareweakandindecisiveanddonottrytodomuch. B) theyareoftenupstagedorunderminedbytheirownvicepresidents. C) otherpolicymakerswithwhomtheydealhavetheirownagendas,interests,andsources ofpower. D) theyarefrequentlyoverruledbytheSupremeCourt. E) thepresidencyismostlyaceremonialjobandthepresidentisnotexpectedtodomuch. Answer: C
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2) AsRichardNeustadthasargued,presidentialpowerisprobablybestunderstoodasthepower to A) persuade. B) command. C) control. D) harass. E) veto. Answer: A


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3) RichardNeustadthasarguedthatpresidentialpoweristhepowerto A) instruct. B) command. C) educate. D) control. E) persuade. Answer: E


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4) Americanswantastrongpresident, A) butdonotlikeaconcentrationofpower. B) anddonotcarewhetherthestrengthisusedforgoodorforill. C) andwouldliketoabolishallchecksonpresidentialpower. D) butdonotexpectmuchfromanypresident. E) butwantanevenstrongerCongress. Answer: A


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5) Americanstendto A) havelowexpectationsforthepresident. B) preferaconcentrationofpowerinthepresidency. C) haveahighdegreeoftrustinstrongleadershipandpoliticalauthority. D) lookbacklonginglyonthegreat,powerfulpresidents. Answer: D


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6) AccordingtotheConstitution,apresidentmustbeatleast________yearsofage. A) 35 B) 30 C) 40 D) 25 E) 21 Answer: A
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7) Allpresidentsbutonehavebeen A) Protestant. B) Catholic. C) HareKrishna. D) atheist. E) EvangelicalChristian. Answer: A


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8) AccordingtotheoriginalConstitution,thepresidentmustbe A) atleast35yearsold. B) aresidentoftheUnitedStatesforatleastfiveyears. C) acitizenoftheUnitedStatesforatleasttenyears. D) awhiteman. E) alloftheaboveexceptD Answer: A


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9) Howmanypresidentswerepoliticalscientists? A) abouthalfofthem B) one C) allbutoneofthem D) two E) allofthem Answer: B


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10) Whichpresidentwasapoliticalscientist? A) RonaldReagan B) JamesMadison C) RichardNixon D) BillClinton E) WoodrowWilson Answer: E


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11) ________waswidelyregardedtobetheworstandmostineffectivepresident. A) WarrenHarding B) RichardNixon C) RonaldReagan D) BillClinton E) AndrewJohnson Answer: A


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12) SinceWorldWarII,UnitedStatespresidentshave A) exceptforBillClinton,firstservedasvicepresident. B) hadverysimilarcareerbackgrounds. C) allpreviouslyservedasgovernors. D) comefromadiversityofcareerexperiences. E) allservedasUnitedStatessenators. Answer: D


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13) TheTwenty-secondAmendment,passedin1951, A) providedforthepresidentialandvicepresidentialcandidatestorunasateam. B) gaveimpeachmentpowerstoCongress. C) limitedpresidentstotwotermsofoffice. D) providedforthedirectelectionofthepresidentbythepeople. E) granted18-year-oldstherighttovote. Answer: C


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14) Thetwo-termlimitwasplacedonthepresidencyby A) anactofCongresspassedafterFranklinD.Rooseveltsdeath. B) theTwenty-secondAmendment. C) thePresidentialPowersActof1951. D) theTwenty-fifthAmendment. E) ArticleIIoftheoriginalConstitution. Answer: B


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15) ________tookoveraspresidentuponthedeathofFranklinRooseveltin1945,andeventually orderedthedroppingoftheatomicbombsonJapanesecities. A) TheodoreRoosevelt B) DwightEisenhower C) HarryTruman D) LyndonJohnson E) JohnF.Kennedy Answer: C


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16) Aspresident,________launchedtheGreatSocietyathomewhileescalatingtheVietnam Warabroad. A) LyndonJohnson B) HarryTruman C) RichardNixon D) GeraldFord E) DwightEisenhower Answer: A


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17) Appointedtothevicepresidencyin1973duetoavacancy,hewastheonlyonetobecome presidenthavingrunforneitherthepresidencyorvicepresidencyintheprecedingelection. A) LyndonJohnson B) NelsonRockefeller C) RonaldReagan D) GeraldFord E) JimmyCarter Answer: D


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18) WhichofthefollowingpresidentswasaRepublican? A) HarryTruman B) JohnKennedy C) LyndonJohnson D) JimmyCarter E) RichardNixon Answer: E


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19) Theonlypresidenttoresignhisofficewas A) WarrenHarding. B) JimmyCarter. C) LyndonJohnson. D) SpiroAgnew. E) RichardNixon. Answer: E


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20) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSE? A) Forover10percentofAmericanhistory,thepresidencyhasbeenoccupiedbyan individualnotelectedtotheoffice. B) Inthetwentiethcentury,almostone-thirdofourpresidentswereaccidental Presidents. C) Aboutoneinfivepresidentsgotthejobbecausetheywerevicepresidentwhenthe incumbentpresidentdiedorresigned. D) Mostpresidentshaveservedtwoormorefullterms. E) MostpresidentialelectionsaredecidedbyCongress. Answer: D
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21) Priortohiselectionaspresident,________hadbeenawell -knownactorandservedfortwo termsasgovernorofCalifornia. A) GeorgeBush B) RonaldReagan C) JimmyCarter D) RichardNixon E) EarlWarren Answer: B
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22) Impeachmentisroughlythepoliticalequivalentofa(n) A) exoneration. B) admissionofguilt. C) indictmentincriminallaw. D) guiltyverdict. E) firing. Answer: C


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23) Inordertoimpeachapresident,ittakes A) aunanimousvoteoftheSupremeCourt. B) atwo-thirdsvoteintheSenate. C) amajorityvoteintheHouseofRepresentatives. D) atwo-thirdsvoteintheHouseofRepresentatives. E) amajorityvoteintheSenate. Answer: C


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24) Impeachmentofapresidentmeansthatthepresidentis A) convictedofacrime. B) indictedbytheHouse. C) removedfromoffice. D) triedbytheSenate. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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25) Inordertoconvictandremoveanimpeachedpresident,ittakes A) atwo-thirdsvoteintheSenate. B) amajorityvoteintheSenate. C) amajorityvoteintheHouseofRepresentatives. D) atwo-thirdsvoteintheHouseofRepresentatives. E) bothBandD Answer: A


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26) OncetheHousevotesforimpeachment,thepresident A) mustleaveoffice. B) isfinedorsentencedtoprison. C) istriedbytheSupremeCourt. D) istriedbytheSenate. E) mustbeindictedbyaGrandJurybeforebeingremovedfromoffice. Answer: D


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27) ThescandalsurroundingRichardNixonsadministrationthatledtoimpeachmenthearings wasknownas A) Iran-Contra. B) theCampDavidAffair. C) Watergate. D) Checkers. E) TeapotDome. Answer: C


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28) Theorderofsuccessiontothepresidency,shouldthepresidentbeunabletofulfillhisorher dutiesis A) VicePresident,PresidentProTemoftheSenate,SpeakeroftheHouse,cabinetmembers inorderthattheirdepartmentwascreated. B) VicePresident,SpeakeroftheHouse,PresidentProTemoftheSenate,ChiefJusticeof theSupremeCourt,Cabinetmembersinorderthattheirdepartmentwascreated. C) VicePresident,SpeakeroftheHouse,PresidentProTemoftheSenate,Cabinetmembers intheorderthattheirdepartmentwascreated. D) VicePresident,ChiefJusticeofSupremeCourt,PresidentProtemoftheSenate,Speaker oftheHouse. E) VicePresident,SpeakeroftheHouse,PresidentProTem,Cabinetmembersintheorder thattheirdepartmentwascreated. Answer: C
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29) TheTwenty-fifthAmendment,ratifiedin1967, A) createdameansforselectinganewvicepresidentwhentheofficebecamevacant. B) granted18-year-oldstherighttovote. C) limitedthepresidenttotwotermsinoffice. D) specificallyforcedRichardNixonfromoffice. E) providedforthedirectelectionofthepresidentbythepeople. Answer: A


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30) UnderthetermsoftheTwenty-fifthAmendment,whilethevicepresidentisservingasacting president, A) anewelectionmustbeheldwithinsixmonths. B) theelectoralcollegedetermineswhentheincapacitatedpresidentcanreclaimthe presidency. C) therecuperatedpresidentcannotreclaimhisformerjob. D) therecuperatedpresidentcanreclaimtheOvalOfficethroughasetprocedure. E) theSenateandtheHousemustvoteinasecretballotonwhetherornottoreinstatethe recuperatedpresident. Answer: D
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31) AccordingtotheTwenty-fifthAmendment,intheeventofavacancyinthevicepresidency, A) theelectoralcollegeelectsanewvicepresident. B) theSpeakeroftheHouseisautomaticallythenewvicepresident. C) theofficeremainsvacantuntilasubsequentnationalelectiontakesplace. D) theCongresspicksanewvicepresidentfromalistoffivenamessubmittedbythe president. E) thepresidentnominatesareplacement,whomustbeconfirmedbybothhousesof Congress. Answer: E
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32) TheConstitutionframers A) wereunanimousinwantingasinglepresidenttoleadthecountry. B) wereunitedinwantingastrongchiefexecutive. C) wereunitedinwantingachiefexecutivesimilartotheprimeministerofGreatBritain. D) generallywantedapresidentwithlimitedauthorityandresponsibilities. E) hopedtocreateamonarchyintheUnitedStates. Answer: D


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33) Thepresidentspowercanbestbeunderstoodas A) verylimitedandlargelyceremonial. B) alwaysthedominantfigureintheAmericanpoliticalsystem. C) sharedwithotherbranchesofgovernmentaspartoftheMadisoniansystemofchecks andbalances. D) unlimitedandabsolute. E) originallyintendedtobeunlimitedandabsolute,butgraduallyweakenedovertime. Answer: C


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34) TheConstitution A) providesalistofspecificpowersandimpliedpowersreservedforthepresident. B) placesthepowerofthepresidencyabovetheotherbranchesofgovernment. C) requiresCongresstodelegatespecificareasofpresidentialpower. D) saysremarkablylittleaboutpresidentialpower. E) B,C,andDareallcorrect. Answer: D


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35) Inordertopreservethebalanceofpoweringovernmentwithoutjeopardizingthe independenceofthepresidency,theframers A) refusedtogivethepresidentpowersintheareaofnationalsecurity. B) createdaweakexecutive. C) checkedthosepowersthattheybelievedtobemostdangerous. D) limitedthepresidenttoadministrativepowers. E) limitedpresidentstotwotermsofofficesotheycouldnotbecomeelectedmonarchs. Answer: C


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36) WhichofthefollowingisNOTaconstitutionalpowerofthepresident? A) serveasCommanderinChiefofthearmedforces B) signorvetolegislationpassedbyCongress C) appointfederaljudgeswiththeadviceandconsentofamajorityoftheSenate D) enactlegislationbyissuingdecrees E) Allofthesearethepresidentsconstitutionalpowers. Answer: D


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37) Thepresidenthastheconstitutionalauthoritytomaketreatieswithothernations,subjectto theagreementof A) amajorityofboththeHouseandtheSenate. B) amajorityoftheSenate. C) two-thirdsoftheSenate. D) two-thirdsoftheHouse. E) amajorityoftheHouse. Answer: C


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38) Thefoundingfathersenvisionedapresidencythatwould A) bebetterorganizedthantodayspresidency. B) havefewerresponsibilitiesthantodayspresidency. C) havegreatercontrolovertheCongressthantodayspresidency. D) havegreaterpowersthantodayspresidency. E) clearlybethedominantbranchofgovernment. Answer: B


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39) TheodoreRooseveltandWoodrowWilson A) werethefirstpresidentstoexercisepowerbeyondthespecificpowersgrantedtothe presidentintheConstitution. B) developedtheroleofthepresidentasmanageroftheeconomy. C) setaprecedentforpresidentstoserveasworldleaders. D) weretheonlytwopresidentstoeverhavetheiractionsdeclaredunconstitutionalbythe SupremeCourt. E) wereamongtheleasteffectivepresidents. Answer: C
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40) Aprimaryresourceavailabletopresidentsforcontrollingthebureaucracyis A) controlofthefederalbudget. B) theirunlimitedpowertoofferpatronagepositionsinthebureaucracy. C) thepowertoappointtop-leveladministrators. D) theirabilitytodismissorfiremostmembersofthebureaucracy. E) alloftheabove Answer: C


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41) Inrecentyears, A) presidentshavebeenlessconcernedabouttheirappointmentpower. B) presidentshavepaidcloserattentiontoappointingofficialswhowillberesponsivetothe presidentspolicies. C) presidentshavepaidlessattentiontoagencyrulesandregulations. D) therehasbeenatrendtowarddecentralizeddecisionmakingintheWhiteHouse. E) therehasbeenatrendtowardcentralizeddecisionmakingintheWhiteHouse. Answer: B


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42) Aconstitutionaldutyofthevicepresidentisto A) presideovertheSenateandcastthedecidingvoteintheeventofatie. B) attendthefuneralsofforeignleadersonbehalfofthepresident. C) presideovertheHouseandcastthedecidingvoteintheeventofatie. D) raisefundsforpartycandidates. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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43) Traditionally,avicepresident A) hasnoformalconstitutionalpowers. B) laterbecomespresident. C) isanimportantadvisortothepresident. D) haslittleresponsibility. E) bothCandD Answer: D


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44) Thepresidentscabinet A) wasprovidedforandelaborateduponbytheConstitution. B) haschangedverylittlesince1960. C) tendstoserveasacollectiveboardofdirectors. D) consistsofexecutivebranchleaderswhoadvisethepresidentonpolicyandadminister governmentdepartments. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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45) Thepresidentialcabinet A) istheelectronicallylockedvaultwherethepresidentkeepshistopsecretpapers. B) isgiventremendouspowerundertheConstitution. C) includes,bylaw,aminimumoftwosittingmembersofCongressatalltimes. D) consistsoftheheadofeachexecutivedepartment,plusanyadditionalgovernment officialsthepresidentdesignates. E) canvetoactionsbythepresident. Answer: D


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46) Whichofthefollowingisamemberofthecabinet? A) directoroftheFederalBureauofInvestigation B) SpeakeroftheHouse C) secretaryofthenavy D) WhiteHouseChiefofStaff E) noneoftheabove Answer: E


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47) Cabinet-levelexecutivedepartmentsarecreatedby A) Congress. B) theConstitution. C) thepresident. D) rarelyheldnationalreferendums. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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48) Theheadofeachcabinet-levelexecutivedepartmentisappointedbythepresidentand A) mustbeconfirmedbyamajorityoftheHouse. B) isnotsubjecttoHouseorSenateapproval. C) mustbeconfirmedbyamajorityoftheSenate. D) mustbeconfirmedbyamajorityofboththeHouseandtheSenate. E) mustbeconfirmedbytwo-thirdsoftheSenate. Answer: C


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49) Thecabinetdepartmentresponsibleformakingforeignpolicyandhandlingtreaty negotiationsis A) interior. B) justice. C) foreignaffairs. D) defense. E) state. Answer: E


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50) Thetwooldestcabinetdepartmentsare A) stateanddefense. B) interiorandjustice. C) treasuryandjustice. D) stateandtreasury. E) educationandstate. Answer: D


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51) Thenewestcabinetdepartmentis A) commerce. B) agriculture. C) interior. D) homelandsecurity. E) transportation. Answer: D


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52) TheNationalSecurityCouncil A) linksthepresidentskeyforeignandmilitarypolicyadvisors. B) iscomposedoftheheadsofthethreebranchesofthearmedservicesandmakes recommendationstothepresidentoncombatstrategy. C) wasestablishedbyPresidentRoosevelttomanageforeignanddomesticintelligence operations. D) wascreatedbylegislationtokeepthepresidentinformedonforeignaffairs. E) helpsthepresidentmakepolicyonsuchmattersasinflationandunemployment. Answer: A
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53) TheOfficeofManagementandBudgetiscomprisedof A) politicalappointeesandcareerofficials. B) politicalappointees,careerofficials,andcongressionalstaffers. C) allpoliticalappointees. D) allcareerofficials. E) economists. Answer: A


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54) TheOfficeofManagementandBudget,theNationalSecurityCouncil,andtheCouncilof EconomicAdvisorsare A) membersoftheWhiteHousestaff. B) advisorybodiesoftheDepartmentofState. C) policymakingbodiesoftheExecutiveOfficeofthePresident. D) partofthepresidentscabinet. E) thekeyliaisonagenciesbetweenthepresidentandCongress. Answer: C


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55) Thebudgetaryimplicationsofthepresidentsbudgetareprovidedtothepresidentby A) ExecutiveBudgetOffice. B) DepartmentoftheTreasury. C) CouncilofEconomicAdvisors. D) InternalRevenueService. E) OfficeofManagementandBudget. Answer: E


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56) Theagencythatreviewslegislativeproposalsforthepresidentisthe A) CouncilofEconomicAdvisors. B) NationalSecurityCouncil. C) OfficeofManagementandBudget. D) LegislativeExecutiveAgency. E) ExecutiveLegislativeAgency. Answer: C


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57) Thepartoftheexecutivebranchofgovernmentthatthepresidentseesdailyandreliesheavily onforinformation,policyoptions,andanalysisisthe A) vicepresident. B) presidentscabinet. C) WhiteHousestaff. D) ExecutiveOfficeofthePresident. E) CouncilofEconomicAdvisors. Answer: C


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58) ThesystemofWhiteHousemanagementemployedbyPresidentJohnKennedywas A) todispersehisauthoritytonumerousaides,eachofwhohadpowerfuldecision-making power. B) unusuallyclosed,withonlythepresidentandhistwoclosestaidesinvolvedinmost majordecisions. C) topersonallytakechargeofeventheminordetailsofdecisionmaking. D) achainofcommandwithachiefofstaffwhocontrolledalmostallaccesstothe president. E) suchthatmanyaidesequallyparticipatedinthedecision-makingprocess. Answer: E
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59) JohnF.Kennedyswheel-and-spokessystemofmanagementwascharacterizedby A) ahierarchicalorganizationwithachiefofstaffatthetop. B) manyaideswithequalstatusbalancedagainstoneanotherinthedecision -making process. C) thepresidentsinvolvementineveryadministrativedetail. D) aclosed,smallnetworkofcomputersthatdirectlylinkedthepresidenttohisclosest advisorsthroughe-mailmessages. E) astreamlined,fast-paced,andefficientdecision-makingstyle. Answer: B
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60) TheorganizationandimportanceoftheWhiteHousestaffdependon A) thepresidentsChiefofStaff. B) agendaschedulesandformalrulesofdebate. C) thepersonalstyleofthepresidentinoffice. D) thelegalauthoritygranteditbyCongress. E) ahierarchyofaccesstothepresident. Answer: C


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61) PresidentClintonsdecisionmakingstylewas A) toimmersehimselfinthedetailsofpolicyandrunanopenWhiteHouse,solicitingthe adviceofalargenumberofaides. B) tosetupachainofcommandinwhichalladvicewassentupwardtohisChiefofStaff whothenpresentedClintonwiththedecision-makingoptions. C) highlyorganizedanddecisive,withthepresidentactuallyflippingacointodecide issueswherehisadvisorsareevenlydivided. D) todelegatesomuchdecisionmakingauthoritytohisaidesthatthemediaoftencallthem hishandlers. E) toremainhighlyisolatedandmakemostdecisionsinconsultationonlywithhistwo closestadvisors. Answer: A
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62) Thepresidentwhowasknownastheconsummatedelegatorbecausehedispersedauthority tohisadvisorswas A) JohnF.Kennedy. B) GeorgeBush. C) RonaldReagan. D) JimmyCarter. E) LyndonJohnson. Answer: C


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63) GeorgeW.Bushsmanagementstyleis A) wheelandspokes. B) chaotic. C) hierarchical. D) transitional. E) todelegate. Answer: E


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64) ApresidentialvetooflegislationpassedbyCongress A) canbeoverturnedonlybymajorityvoteoftheSupremeCourt. B) cannotbeoverturned. C) canbeoverturnedbyamajorityvoteofboththeHouseandtheSenatetooverridethe veto. D) canbeoverturnedbyatwo-thirdsvoteofeithertheHouseortheSenatetooverridethe veto. E) canbeoverturnedbyatwo-thirdsvoteofboththeHouseandtheSenatetooverridethe veto. Answer: E
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65) Thepocketvetocanonlybeused A) whenanewpresidentisabouttotakeoffice. B) duringapresidentialelectionyear. C) whenCongressisinsession. D) onappropriationsbills. E) whenCongressisadjourned. Answer: E


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66) TheConstitutiongivesthepresidentthepowertoinfluencethelegislativeprocessthroughhis responsibilityto A) makelawsbydecreewithouttheconsentofCongressinsomesituations. B) directthebusinessofCongressandinitiateimpeachment. C) reportonthestateoftheunionandvetoactsofCongress. D) recommendlegislationandmakeappointments. E) managetheeconomy,leadtheparty,anddealwithnationalcrises. Answer: C


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67) Whenapresidentvetoescongressionallegislation, A) Congressmustformajointcommitteetoaddressthepresidentscomplaints. B) theSupremeCourtdetermineswhetherthelawwilltakeeffect. C) Congresscanoverridethevetobyatwo-thirdsvoteinbothhouses. D) thereisnothingCongresscandoaboutit. E) onehouseofCongresscanoverridethevetoifitvotestodosowithatwo -thirdsvote. Answer: C


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68) Apocketvetoisthesituationinwhichthepresident A) vetoesparticularitemsinaspendingbill. B) letsabilldiebyneithersigningnorvetoingitafterCongresshasadjourned. C) rejectsaCongressionaloverride. D) letsabillbecomelawbyneithervetoingnorsigningit. E) sendsalawbacktoCongresswiththereasonsforrejectingit. Answer: B


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69) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthepresidentialvetoisFALSE? A) AlmosthalfofallvetoedbillshavebeenoverriddenbyCongress. B) Presidentscannotvetoonlypartsofabill. C) EventhethreatofapresidentialvetocanbeaneffectivetoolforpersuadingCongressto givemoreweighttopresidentsviews. D) Thepresidentialvetoisaninherentlynegativeresource. E) Thepresident,unlikemostgovernors,cannotusealine-itemveto. Answer: A


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70) In1998,theSupremeCourtruledinClintonv.CityofNewYork that A) a1996lawgrantingthepresidenttheauthoritytoproposerescindingfundsin appropriationbillswasunconstitutional. B) thepocketvetowasunconstitutional. C) thattheClintonimpeachmentvotewasunconstitutional. D) thatthepresidentcouldnotline-itemvetograntmoniestourbanareas. E) noneoftheabove Answer: A
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71) In1996,Congresspassedalawgivingthepresidenttheauthoritytoproposerescindingfunds inappropriationsbills.Later, A) Congressoverturnedthelaw. B) PresidentClintonchosenottousesuchauthority. C) PresidentClintonuseditsuccessfully. D) theSupremeCourtvoidedthedecision. E) PresidentBushvoidedthedecision. Answer: D


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72) TheprimaryobstacletopartyunityinCongressisthe A) multiplicityofpartiesrepresented. B) lackofpresidentialleadership. C) separationofpowers. D) bicamerallegislature. E) lackofconsensusonpolicyissuesamongpartymembers. Answer: E


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73) Whenconstituencyopinionandthepresidentsproposalsconflict,membersofCongressare morelikelyto A) votewiththepresident. B) votewiththeirconstituents. C) seekanelectronicvoteratherthanavoicevote. D) notvote. E) voteaccordingtotheirownideology. Answer: B


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74) Presidentialcoattailsrefersto A) presidentialfavorstothosewhosupportthepresidentspolicies. B) theformalconstitutionalpowersofthepresident. C) theabilityofmembersofCongresstohidebehindthepresidentontoughissues. D) voterscastingtheirballotsforcongressionalcandidatesofthepresidentspartywhowill supportthepresident. E) withholdingofpresidentialfavorsfromthosewhoopposethepresidentspolicies. Answer: D


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75) Presidentialcoattailsrefersto A) voterswhosupportthepresidentcastingtheirballotsforcongressionalcandidatesofthe presidentsparty. B) thetendencyforthepresidentspartytolosecongressionalseatsinmidtermelections. C) fund-raisingpartiesthepresidenthoststoraisemoneyforcongressionalcandidates. D) thepresidentspowertoappointmembersofhisownpoliticalpartytocabinetpostsand aspersonaladvisors. E) membersofCongressvotingaccordingtothewishesofthepresident. Answer: A
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76) Recentelectionstudiesshow A) thepresidentspartyusuallygainsseatsinCongressinmid-termelections. B) adiminishingconnectionbetweenvoterspresidentialandcongressionalvoting. C) thatthepartyofthewinningpresidentialcandidatehasbeengaininganincreasing numberofseatsincongress. D) thatpresidentialcoattailsnolongerexist. E) thatmanycongressionalracesaredeterminedbypresidentialcoattails. Answer: B


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77) Amid-termelectionis A) oneinwhichtheincumbentisrunningforreelection. B) acongressionalelectionthatisnotaccompaniedbyapresidentialelection. C) heldeverytwoyears. D) aspecialelectionthatmayremoveanofficialfromofficeinthemiddleoftheterm. E) apresidentialelectionthatoccursduringasessionofCongress. Answer: B


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78) Inmid-termelections,the A) presidentscoattailsarethestrongest. B) presidentspartytypicallygainsseats. C) presidentalmostalwayswinsreelection;apresidentwhodoesnotistheexception. D) presidentusuallydoesnotbecomeinvolved. E) presidentspartytypicallylosesseats. Answer: E


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79) Moststudiesshowthat A) presidentialcoattailsareincreasingincertainregions. B) presidentialcoattailsrarelyaffectelections. C) presidentialcoattailsarestrongerinmidtermelections. D) presidentialcoattailsarestrongerthanever. E) presidentialcoattailsaffectRepublicansmorethanDemocrats. Answer: B


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80) Theimpactofpublicapprovalordisapprovalofthepresidentonthesupportthatthe presidentreceivesinCongressis A) irrelevant. B) nottooimportant,thoughitoccasionallyhasaminoreffect. C) representedinthetextbytheequations\3Dpx\2D1. D) extremelyimportant,andswaysnearlyallmembersofCongressoneveryvote. E) important,butusuallyatthemarginsonmostpolicies. Answer: E


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81) Thepoliticalresourcethathasthemostpotentialtoturnasituationofstalematebetweenthe presidentandCongressintoonesupportiveofthepresidentslegislativeproposalsis A) presidentialleadership. B) thepresidentspartyleadership. C) presidentialrewardsandsanctions. D) publicapproval. E) thethreatofveto. Answer: D


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82) Highpublicapprovalofthepresident A) hasnoeffectoncongressionalelections. B) givesthepresidentlesscontroloverCongress. C) onceachievedisusuallysustainedfortheremainderofhis/herpresidency. D) providesacoverformembersofCongresstocastvotestowhichtheirconstituentsmight otherwiseobject. E) allowsmembersofCongressthefreedomtovoteaccordingtotheirideologyratherthan party. Answer: D
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83) Anelectoralmandate________thepresidentslevelofsupportinCongress. A) doessevereharmto B) usuallyhasapositiveeffecton C) increasesbyafactorof2.5 D) hasnoeffecton E) guaranteesasharpincreasein Answer: B


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84) Electoralmandates A) aretheproceduresusedbytheelectoralcollegetotallythepresidentialelectoralvotes. B) occurmostofteninmid-termelections. C) consistoftheperceptionthatthevotersstronglysupportthewinnerspositions. D) aretheconstitutionalrequirementsthatfederalelectionsbeheldonthesecondTuesday ofNovemberofevennumberedyears. E) havenorealeffectonhowCongresssupportsthepresident. Answer: C


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85) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutpresidentialbargainingisFALSE? A) Thepresidentialbargainingtakesavarietyofforms. B) Thepresidentneedstobargainonlywithenoughpeopletoprovideamajority. C) BargainingintheformofprovidingspecificbenefitsformembersofCongressiscritical tocreatingpresidentialcoalitions. D) ThepresidentdoesnothavetobargainwitheverymemberofCongresstoreceive support. E) Presidentsbargainingabilityisenhancedbystrongpublicapproval. Answer: C
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86) Accordingtothetext,twostrategiesusedsuccessfullybyPresidentReaganinachievinghis objectiveswere A) movingslowlyandlettingCongresssetthepriorities. B) movingslowlyandsettingpriorities. C) lyingandforgetting. D) movingfastandsettingpriorities. E) movingfastandlettingCongresssetthepriorities. Answer: D


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87) Theprimarygoalofthepresidentslegislativestrategyisusually A) towinonallfinalvotes. B) tosettheagenda. C) towinthesupportofallfellowpartisans. D) blocklegislationheopposes. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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88) Thepresidentsroleinthelegislativeprocess A) isespeciallyimportantininfluencingCongresssagenda. B) usuallyputsher/himinconflictwithCongress. C) isusuallyminorbecauseCongressoperatesindependentlyfromthepresident. D) ismosteffectiveindomesticpolicy. E) atleastuntil1995,hasbeentoreacttoandmodifycongressionalinitiatives. Answer: A


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89) StudieshaveshownthatonceonetakesintoaccountthestatusoftheirpartyinCongressand theirstandingwiththepublic,presidentsrenownedfortheirlegislativeskillsare A) twiceassuccessfulinwinningcongressionalsupportthanotherpresidents. B) mostlikelytoreshapethecontoursofthepoliticallandscape. C) mostlikelytobeabletocreateopportunitiesforpoliticalchange. D) nomoresuccessfulinobtainingcongressionalsupportthanthoseconsideredlessadept atdealingwithCongress. E) muchmoresuccessfulingainingsupportfortheirdomesticpoliciesthanfortheir foreignpolicies. Answer: D
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90) Thepresidentslegislativeskillscompetewithotherfactorsinfluencingcongressionalvoting, includingallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) ideology. B) constituencynews. C) PACspending. D) partisanship. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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91) Amongthepresidentsconstitutionalpowersasamakerofforeignpolicyisthepowerto A) ratifypeacetreaties. B) appropriateforeign-aidfunds. C) extenddiplomaticrecognitiontoforeigngovernments. D) declarewar. E) alloftheabove Answer: C


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92) WhichofthefollowingisNOToneofthepresidentspowersasthenationschiefdiplomat? A) negotiatingexecutiveagreementswhichdonotrequirecongressionalapproval B) mediatingdisputesbetweennationsotherthantheUnitedStates C) declaringwaragainstanadversary D) extendingdiplomaticrecognitiontoanation E) negotiatingtreatieswithothernations Answer: C


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93) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheroleofthepresidentaschiefdiplomatisFALSE? A) Presidentialdiplomacycaninvolvenegotiatingconflictsbetweenothernationsandnot theUnitedStates. B) Senateapprovaloftreatiesnegotiatedbythepresidentisalmostautomatic. C) Thepresidenthasthesolepowertonegotiatetreatieswithothernations. D) Indomesticpolicymaking,aschiefdiplomat,thepresidentmustrelyprincipallyon persuasiontolead. E) Allofthesearefalse. Answer: B
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94) SomebelievetheWarPowersResolutioncouldbesuccessfullyoverturnedbytheSupreme Courtbecauseit A) wasvetoedbyPresidentNixon. B) wasnotratifiedwithintheconstitutionallymandatedseven -yearperiod. C) usesalegislativeveto,whichmayviolatetheseparationofpowers. D) interfereswiththepresidentspowertodeclarewar. E) wasreallyaimedattheVietnamWaronly. Answer: C
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95) TheWarPowersResolution A) prohibitedthepresidentpowerfromcommittingAmericantroopswithoutcongressional approval. B) establishedthechainofcommandofthearmedforcesintheeventthepresidentis incapacitated. C) gavethepresidenttheformalpowertodeclarewarinthecaseofnuclearattack. D) mandatedthewithdrawalofforcesaftersixtydaysunlessCongressdeclaredwaror grantedanextension. E) establishedthecodeprotocolsthatlaunchnuclearmissilesinordertopreventaccidental orunauthorizedmissilelaunches. Answer: D
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96) TheWarPowersResolutionmaybeconsideredunconstitutionalbecause A) itsuseofthelegislativevetomaybeconsideredaviolationofthedoctrineofseparation ofpowers. B) itviolatesthepresidentspowertodeclarewar. C) itviolatesthepresidentspowerasCommanderinChief. D) itwasstruckdownbytheSupremeCourt. E) itviolatesthecongressionalpowertoappropriatefundsforthemilitary. Answer: A


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97) Duringthe1991GulfWar, A) theWarPowersResolutionwasignored. B) Congresscutofffundingaftersixtydays. C) PresidentBushdidnotseekcongressionalsupportfortheoperation. D) CongresspassedaresolutionauthorizingthepresidenttouseforceagainstIraq. E) CongressadoptedaformaldeclarationofwaragainstIraq. Answer: D


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98) IntheUnitedStatesshowdownwithSaddamHusseininJanuary1991, A) CongressdeclaredwaronIraq. B) CongressvotedagainstusingforceagainstIraq,butPresidentBushusedforceanyway. C) CongresspassedaresolutionauthorizingthepresidenttousemilitaryforceagainstIraq. D) aftergrantingPresidentBushathirty-dayextension,CongressinvokedtheWarPowers Resolutionandeffectivelyplacedaninety-daylimitoncombat. E) Congressdidnotvoteondeclaringwarorauthorizingmilitaryforce,preferringtoletthe presidentactalone. Answer: C
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99) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutcrisesisFALSE? A) ThereweremoreimmediatecrisesearlyinAmericanhistorythantherearetoday. B) Mostcrisesoccurintherealmofforeignpolicy. C) Crisesarerarelythepresidentsdoing. D) Thepresidenthasbecomemoreprominentinhandlingcrisesthanotherbranchesof government. E) Itiseasierforanindividualpresidenttomanagecrisesthanitisforcongressional leaderstodoso. Answer: A
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100) CongresssroleinnationalsecuritypolicyhastypicallyincludedallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) supportorcriticismofthepresident. B) initiationofpolicy. C) oversightoftheexecutivebranch. D) topassauthorizationsandappropriationsforpresidentialactions. E) monitoringconstituentopinionsonnationalsecurity. Answer: B


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101) ThetypicalmemberofCongresssupportsthepresidentonnationalsecurityroll-callvotes A) veryrarely. B) about75percentofthetime. C) almostalways. D) only38percentofthetime. E) slightlymorethanhalfthetime. Answer: E


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102) Referencesbycommentatorsonthepresidencytotherebeingtwopresidenciesreferto A) thepresidentascandidateandthepresidentaselectedleader. B) thefirsttermandthesecondtermofapresident. C) whatthepresidentoriginallyproposestoaccomplishandwhatthepresidentactually doesaccomplish. D) thedifferencesbetweenpublicandprivatepresidentialactions. E) nationalsecurityanddomesticpolicy. Answer: E


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103) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutpresidentsgoingpublicisFALSE? A) Presidentsarenotpassivefollowersofpublicopinion. B) Presidentsappearancesareoftenstagedpurelytoobtainthepublicsattention. C) Inrecentyears,presidentshaveaveragedmorethanonepublicappearanceevery weekdayoftheyear. D) DwightEisenhowerwasthefirstpresidenttousepresidentialspeechestogainpolicy support. E) JohnF.Kennedywasthefirsttelevisionpresident. Answer: D
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104) HowdidtheWhiteHouseCommunicationsOfficechoreographGeorgeW.Bushsaddress fromtheAbrahamLincolnannouncingtheendofmajorcombatoperationsinIraq? A) TheyplacedaMissionAccomplishedbanneroverthepresidentshead. B) TheypositionedtheAbrahamLincoln sothattheshorelinewasnotvisible. C) Theytimedtheevensothatthesunwouldcastafavorablelightonthepresident. D) Thecoordinatedtheshirtsofthecrewmembers. E) alloftheabove Answer: E
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105) Thehigherthepresidentstandsinthepolls, A) thelesssupportheneedsinCongress. B) theshorterthepresidentscoattails. C) thelessneedthereisforpresidentialpublicappearances. D) theeasieritistopersuadeotherstosupportpresidentialinitiatives. E) thelesslikelyhewillinitiatenewpolicyventures. Answer: D


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106) Amongrecentpresidents,theaverageapprovalratingsinthepublicopinionpollshavebeen A) higherattheendofthepresidentstermthanatthebeginning. B) over75percent. C) higheratthebeginningofthepresidentstermthanattheend. D) below40percent. E) slowlyrisingoverthecourseofapresidentsterm(s). Answer: C


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107) Onaverage,thosewhoidentifywiththepresidentspartygiveapprovalmorethan________ percentagepointshigherthandothosewhoidentifywiththeoppositionparty. A) 10 B) 20 C) 40 D) 30 E) 50 Answer: C


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108) Theprimaryfactorinfluencingwhetherornotapersonapprovesordisapprovesofa presidentsjobperformanceis A) age. B) geographiclocation. C) gender. D) politicalpartyidentification. E) presidentialpersonality. Answer: D


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109) Atthebaseofpresidentialevaluationsisthe A) publicslongstandingsuspicionofexcessivepresidentialpower. B) lackofwell-definedopinionsamongmostpeople. C) predispositionofmanypeopletobecriticalofgovernmentandpoliticsingeneral. D) publicsindifferencetothepresident. E) predispositionofmanypeopletosupportthepresident. Answer: E


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110) Thebasicunderpinningofapprovalordisapprovalofapresidentis A) thepresidentsabilitytogether/hisprogrampassedbyCongress. B) personalitycharacteristics. C) politicalpartyidentification. D) thestateoftheeconomy. E) thebehaviorofthemedia. Answer: C


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111) Accordingtopublicopinionpolls,presidentsseemtobemostpopular A) justbeforetheyleaveoffice. B) aftertheyhaveintroducedtheirfirstlegislativepackagetoCongress. C) whentheyfirstenteroffice. D) aftertheyleaveoffice. E) duringmid-termelections. Answer: C


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112) Changesinpresidentialapprovallevelsappeartobedueprimarilyto A) thepresidentspersonality. B) howthemediatreatthepresident. C) thefinancialelitesresponsestopresidentialpolicies. D) thepublicsevaluationofhowthepresidentishandlingpolicyareas. E) howthepresidentspoliciesaffectpeopleindividually. Answer: D


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113) Rallyevents A) arespecificanddramaticeventsthatrelatetointernationalrelations,directlyinvolving theUnitedStatesandthepresident. B) haveanenduringimpactonapresidentspublicapproval. C) involveeconomicupsurgesthatdramaticallyincreasepresidentialpopularity. D) havenoeffectonpresidentialpopularityeventhoughpresidentsusethemforthat purpose. E) occurfrequentlyduringapresidentsadministration. Answer: A
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114) ThesurgeinPresidentGeorgeBushsapprovalratingsduringandimmediatelyfollowingthe GulfWarin1991wasanexampleof A) thebandwagoneffect. B) arallyevent. C) thebullypulpit. D) presidentialcoattails. E) apocketveto. Answer: B


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115) TheultimateweaponinthepresidentsarsenalofresourcestoinfluenceCongressisprobably A) mediasupport. B) interestgroupsupport. C) her/hisfundraisingability. D) mobilizationofthepublic. E) thesupportofWallStreetandtheFederalReserveBoard. Answer: D


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116) Presidentialpressconferences A) givethepresidentachancetobespontaneous. B) havenotbeenusedsincetheNixonadministration. C) arenotveryusefulmeansofelicitinginformation. D) arerequiredbytheConstitutionwithoutsayinghowoften. E) aresmall,intimatemeetingswiththepresident. Answer: C


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117) Thepresidents________servesastheprincipalconduitofinformationfromtheWhiteHouse tothepressonadailybasis. A) presssecretary B) vicepresident C) ChiefofStaff D) SecretaryofInformation E) DomesticPolicyAdvisor Answer: A


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118) Theindividualwhoconductsdailypressbriefingsandservesasaconduitofinformationfrom theWhiteHouseisthe A) NationalSecurityAdvisor. B) MinisterofInformation. C) presidentssecretary. D) ChiefofStaff. E) presssecretary. Answer: E


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119) MostofthenewscoverageoftheWhiteHouse A) isclassanalysisthatseekstoexplainwhichsocio-economicgroupsarebenefitingfrom orbeinginjuredbythelatestpolicies. B) focusesonthemostvisiblelayerofpresidentspersonalandofficialactivities. C) focusesonthefundamentalprocessesoperatingintheexecutivebranch. D) isconcernedwiththesubstanceofpolicies. E) isconcernedwithforeignpolicyissues. Answer: B


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120) Alargenumberofstudieshaveconcludedthatthenewsmediaare A) moderatelybiasedtowardliberalideology. B) notbiasedonanysystematicbasis,andthenewsistypicallycharacterizedbyneutrality. C) slightlybiasedtowardtheDemocrats. D) stronglybiasedtowardtheDemocrats. E) slightlybiasedtowardtheRepublicans. Answer: B


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121) Newscoverageofpresidentsandtheiractivities A) usuallyfocusesonthepersonalityofthepresident. B) isnotsystematicallybiasedinanydirection. C) tendstofocusonthesubstanceofpresidentialpolicies. D) hasaheavyliberalbias. E) istypicallyunfavorabletowardtheWhiteHouse. Answer: B


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122) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthepresidencyanddemocracyisFALSE? A) Thereislittleprospectofthepresidencybeingathreattodemocracy. B) FromthetimetheConstitutionwaswrittentherehasbeenafearthatthepresidency woulddegenerateintoamonarchy. C) Concernsoverpresidentialpoweraregenerallycloselyrelatedtopolicyviews. D) ConcernsaboutatyrannicalpresidencywereprevalentintheReaganadministrationdue tohisabilitytoimposehiswillonCongress. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D
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True/FalseQuestions
1) TheTwenty-secondAmendmentset80asthemandatoryretirementageforUnitedStates presidents. Answer: FALSE
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2) Mostpresidentshaveservedtwofulltermsinoffice. Answer: FALSE


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3) IttakesamajorityvoteintheHousetoimpeachthepresident. Answer: TRUE


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4) TheTwenty-fifthAmendmentpermitsthevicepresidenttobecomeactingpresidentifthevice presidentandthepresidentscabinetdeterminethatthepresidentisdisabledorifthe presidentdeclareshisowndisability. Answer: TRUE


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5) TheFoundersreadilyagreedtotheformthattheofficeofthepresidentshouldtake,aswellas thepowersitshouldexercise. Answer: FALSE


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6) TheresponsibilitiesofthepresidentscabinetaredescribedintheConstitution. Answer: FALSE


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7) ThemainjobofthevicepresidentistoserveasthepresidentsChiefofStaff. Answer: FALSE


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8) TheCouncilofEconomicAdvisorsreviewslegislativeproposalsfromthecabinetandother executiveagenciessotheycandeterminewhethertheywantanagencytoproposethese initiativestoCongress. Answer: FALSE


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9) TheNationalSecurityCouncilisformallycomposedofthepresident,thevicepresidentand thesecretariesofstateanddefense. Answer: TRUE


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10) TheWhiteHousestaffhasapproximately100members. Answer: FALSE


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11) TheFirstLadyhasnoofficialgovernmentalposition. Answer: TRUE


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12) MostpresidentialvetoesareoverriddenbyCongress. Answer: FALSE


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13) Whenconstituencyopinionandthepresidentsproposalsconflict,membersofCongress even ifofthesamepartyasthepresidentaremorelikelytovotewiththeirconstituency. Answer: TRUE


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14) PresidentsfrequentlywithholdfavorsfrommembersofCongressinordertogettheirsupport. Answer: FALSE


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15) Liketreaties,executiveagreementsrequiresenatorialapproval. Answer: FALSE


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16) TheWarPowersResolutionof1973wasaimedatgivingthepresidentgreaterpowertosend UnitedStatestroopsandwagewarwithouthavingtoseekapprovalorcontinued authorizationfromCongress. Answer: FALSE


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17) Congresstendstoaccordthepresidentoverwhelmingsupportonnationalsecuritypolicy. Answer: FALSE


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18) Thepresidentshoneymoonperiodofhighapprovalratingsisincreasinglyfleeting,butitis alsotruethatdeclinesinapprovalarenotinevitable. Answer: TRUE


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19) Citizensseemtofocusonthepresidentseffortsandstandsonissuesratherthanon personality(popularity)orsimplyhowpresidentialpoliciesaffectthem(thepocketbook). Answer: TRUE


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20) DespitethefactthatRonaldReaganandBillClintonwereskilledincommunications,they generallysawpublicopinionmovingagainstthem. Answer: TRUE


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21) Thepresidentisoftenportrayedbythepressinanegativelight,eventhoughitispresentedin aneutralmanner. Answer: TRUE


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22) Thepressoftenportraysthepresidentwithanauraofdignityandtreatshimwithdeference, despiteatendencytofocusonnegativethemes. Answer: TRUE


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23) AllsevenofthepresidentssinceLyndonJohnsonhavechampionedconstraintson governmentandlimitsonspending. Answer: TRUE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) The________limitspresidentstotwoterms. Answer: Twenty-secondAmendment
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2) DescribeandexplainthesignificanceoftheWatergatescandal. Answer: Answerswillvary.


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3) ________developedtheroleofthepresidentasmanageroftheeconomy. Answer: FranklinD.Roosevelt


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4) Whatroledoesthevicepresidentplay?Giveexamples. Answer: Constitutionally,thevicepresidentpresidesovertheSenateandvotesinthecaseofties amongthesenators.Heorsheissometimesinvolvedinpolicydiscussionsand importantdiplomacy.Butmostlyheorshejustwaits.


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5) The________istheunitthatlinksthepresidentskeyforeignandmilitarypolicyadvisors. Answer: NationalSecurityCouncil


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6) The________helpthepresidentmakepolicyoninflation,unemploymentandothereconomic matters,andisconsideredpartoftheExecutiveOfficeofthePresident. Answer: CouncilofEconomicAdvisors


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7) WhatistheroleandimportanceoftheOfficeofManagementandBudget? Answer: OneofthethreeagencieswithintheExecutiveOfficeofthePresident,theOMB performsbothmanagerialandbudgetaryfunctions,withitsmainresponsibilityto preparethepresidentsbudget.


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8) Describewhatismeantbythepresidentbeingthechieflegislator? Answer: emphasizesthepresidentsimportanceinthelegislativeprocess,includinggivingthe StateoftheUnionaddress,tryingtoshapetheCongressionalbudgetandhavingthe abilitytovetolegislation


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9) IfCongressadjournswithintendaysaftersubmittingabill,thepresidentcansimplyletitdie withouteithersigningitorofficiallyvetoingit.Thisisknownasthe________. Answer: pocketveto


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10) Compareandcontrasttheveto,pocketveto,andtheline-itemveto. Answer: AvetoistheconstitutionalpowerofthepresidenttosendabillbacktoCongresswith thereasonsforrejectingit.ApocketvetoisavetothattakesplacewhenCongress adjournswithin10daysofsubmittingabilltothepresident,whosimplyletsitdieby neithersigningnorvetoingit.Alineitemvetowouldallowthepresidenttoveto selectedportionsofabill,asinthecaseofCongress1996lawthatgrantedthepresident theauthoritytoproposerescindingfundsinappropriationsbillsandtaxprovisionsthat applytoonlyafewpeople.
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11) Whatismeantbypresidentialcoattails,andhoweffectivearethey? Answer: occurwhenvoterscasttheirballotsforcongressionalcandidatesofthepresidentsparty becausetheysupportthepresident;coattailsseemtohaveweakenedrecently,andfew racesaredeterminedbythem.


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12) IntheCongressionalmid-termelections,thepresidentspartytendsto________seats. Answer: lose


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13) Whencanapresidentclaimamandate?Whatistheimportanceofamandate? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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14) Intheroleofthenations________,thepresidenthasthesolepowertonegotiatetreatieswith othernations. Answer: ChiefDiplomat


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15) Apresidentfrequentlyhastodealwitha(n)________,ofteninforeignpolicy,whichisa sudden,unpredictable,andpotentiallydangerousevent. Answer: crisis


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16) Explainwhatismeantbyacrisis.Whatisthepresidentsroleinacrisis,andwhyisacrisis situationimportanttoapresident? Answer: asudden,unpredictableandpotentiallydangerouseventrequiringthepresidentto playtheroleofcrisismanager;answerswillvary


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17) Changesinpresidentialapprovallevelsreflectthepublicsevaluationofhowthepresidentis handling________. Answer: policiessuchaseconomy,warandforeignaffairs


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18) WhatdidthebannerhungbytheBushadministrationontheaircraftcarriertheAbraham Lincolnsay? Answer: MissionAccomplished


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19) Anunusualexampleofthepresidentsuccessfullymobilizingpublicopinioninsupportof pressuringCongresstoactwasRonaldReaganssuccessfulpushfora________in1981. Answer: taxcut


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20) Thepresidents________servesastheconduitofinformationfromtheWhiteHousetothe media,conductingdailybriefings,readingpreparedannouncements,andanswering questions. Answer: presssecretary


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21) Whatdutiesdoesthepresidentspresssecretaryhave? Answer: conductdailypressbriefings,arrangeprivateinterviewsandphotoopportunitieswith WhiteHouseofficialsandmaketravelarrangementsforreporterswhenthepresident leavesWashington


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22) Mostnewscoverageofthepresidentcanbedescribedasa(n)________. Answer: bodywatch.


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23) Towhatextentdoestheofficeofthepresidencyenlargethescopeofgovernment?Whyor whynot?Providespecificexamplesfromvariouspresidenciestosupportyouranswer. Answer: Answerswillvary.


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EssayQuestions
1) Explainwhy,asRichardNeustadtargued,presidentialpoweristhepowertopersuade,rather thantocommand.
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2) Describetheconstitutionalprocessofremovingapresidentfromoffice.Howoftenhasthis processbeenseriouslyattempted?Withwhatresults?Isthisprocessappropriateorwouldyou recommendchanges?Explain.


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3) DescribethecircumstancessurroundingPresidentClintonsimpeachment.Whatspecific chargeswerebroughtagainsthim?Ofwhatchargeswasheconvicted?
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4) CompareandcontrasttheConstitutionalpowersofthepresidentwiththeinformalexpansion ofpresidentialpower.
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5) ListandbrieflydescribetheConstitutionalpowersofthepresident.Whicharethemost important,andwhy?
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6) Identifyanddescribetheindividualsandorganizationsthatmakeuptheexecutivebranchof government.
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7) Describetheprocessbywhichapresidentcanvetoabill.WhatrecoursedoesCongresshave torespondtoaveto,andhowoftenisthisrecoursesuccessful?Wouldyoufavoraline-item vetoforthepresident?Why,orwhynot?


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8) Describethemajorstrengthsandweaknessesofthepresidentinhisroleaschieflegislator. Whatfactorsstrengthenhisabilitytopasslegislationheprefers?Whatfactorsweakenhis abilitytopasslegislation?


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9) ExplainthepowerrelationshipbetweenthepresidentandCongress.Howdoesthepresidents politicalpartyandpublicsupportaffectthisrelationship?
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10) Howimportantispublicsupportforthepresidentinachievinglegislativepriorities?How doesthepresidentgoaboutsolicitingpublicsupport?Doyouthinkthepresidentshould avoidsuchsolicitationsornot?Explain.


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11) Describetherelativeimportanceofpublicapprovalandlegislativeskillsasresources presidentsusetoworkwithCongress.Doesonedependontheother?Giveexamples.


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12) WhyisthepresidentgiventhepowerasthenationsChiefDiplomatandtheCommanderin Chiefofthearmedforces?WhatchecksdoesCongresshaveonthepresidentsnational securityprerogatives?Arethesesufficient?Explain.


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13) Explaintheroleofthepresidentinnationalsecuritypolicy.Inparticular,whatpowersdoes thepresidenthaveintimesofwarandnationalcrisis?


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14) Describethenatureofthepublicpresidency.Howdoespublicopinionaffectthepowerof thepresident,andhowcanpresidentsgainandusepublicsupporttotheiradvantage?


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15) Whyispublicapprovalpossiblythegreatestresourceapresidenthas?Howdopresidents seektoincrease,orsustain,theirlevelofpublicapproval?


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16) Whyisthepressimportanttothepresident?Howcanpresidentsusethepresstotheir advantage,andwhatadvantagesmightthepresshaveoverthepresident?


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17) Somefoundingfathersfearedthatthepresidentmightbecomeamonarchifgiventoomany powers.Commentontheargumentthatthepresidencycanbeathreattodemocracy.What implicationsmightapowerfulpresidenthaveforthesizeofgovernmentinAmerica?


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Chapter14 TheCongress,ThePresident,andtheBudget: ThePoliticsofTaxingandSpending


Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) Abudgetdeficitoccurswhenexpendituresexceed A) revenues. B) borrowing. C) appropriations. D) authorizations. E) inflation. Answer: A
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2) Mostoftodaysfederaldebtwasrunupbygovernmentborrowingduring A) WorldWarII. B) the1980s. C) theVietnamWar. D) theGreatDepression. E) theColdWar(1947-1989). Answer: B


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3) Approximatelywhatpercentageoftheannualfederalbudgetpaysinterestonthenational debt? A) 13 B) 15 C) 21 D) 9 E) 6 Answer: D


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4) WhichofthefollowingisNOTcurrentlyoneofthemajorsourcesoffederalrevenue? A) personalincometaxes B) socialinsurancetaxes C) borrowing D) excisetaxes E) corporateincometaxes Answer: D


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5) InPollockv.FarmersLoanandTrustCo. (1895),theUnitedStatesSupremeCourtruledthat A) theincometaxwasconstitutional. B) thenationalsalestaxwasunconstitutional. C) banksandcorporationsmustpayhighertaxes. D) theincometaxwasunconstitutional. E) businessincometaxeswereunconstitutionalbutindividualincometaxeswere constitutional. Answer: D


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6) TheSixteenthAmendment,ratifiedin1913, A) explicitlypermittedCongresstolevyanincometax. B) limitedthetotalincometaxCongresscouldlevyonanindividual. C) setuptheSocialSecuritysystem. D) forbadeCongressfromlevyinganincometax,butwaslaterrepealed. E) requiredthefederalgovernmenttobalanceitsbudgeteachyearbutitwasrepealed duringtheGreatDepression. Answer: A


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7) A(n)________isapolicydocumentallocatingtaxesandexpenditures,oraseriesofgoalswith pricetagsattached. A) balancesheet B) procurement C) fiscalregister D) apportionment E) budget Answer: E


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8) Abudgetis A) ablueprintforwhatthegovernmentshoulddo. B) apolicydeterminationofhowmuchtospend. C) apolicydocumentallocatingburdens(taxes)andbenefits(expenditures). D) passedbythepresidentscabinet. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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9) Congresswasofficiallygiventhepowertolevyanincometaxthroughthe A) SixteenthAmendment. B) SupremeCourtcaseofPollockv.FarmersLoanandTrustCo. (1895). C) revenueclauseoftheoriginalConstitution. D) InternalRevenueAct. E) BalancedBudgetAmendment. Answer: A


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10) Thefederalgovernmentsbudgetismainly A) atechnicaldocumentintendedtoensurethattaxrevenueswillbesufficienttomeet expenditures. B) alinebylineaccountingoftaxexpendituresthatisrequiredannuallybythe Constitution. C) anaccountingtoolthatpermitsthegovernmenttokeeptrackofitsassetsandliabilities. D) alistofthewaysinwhichthegovernmenthasspentitsmoney. E) apolicystatementthatallocatesburdensandbenefitsbyattachingpricetagstopolicy goals. Answer: E
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11) AccordingtoAaronWildavsky,budgetingisaprocessmostconcernedwith A) makingsureeverycitizenreceivesafairamountofgovernmentbenefits. B) translatingfinancialresourcesintohumanpurposes. C) keepingthegovernmentrunningonaday-to-daybasis. D) keepingexpendituresbalancedwithtaxes. E) redistributingthenaturaldistributionofwealthinacapitalisteconomyinafairermore civilizedwaythanthepushandshoveoffreeenterprise. Answer: B


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12) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtheresponsibilityoftheInternalRevenueService? A) investigatingandprosecutingthousandsoferranttaxpayersornonpayersoffederal taxes B) establishingtheannualtaxratesthatAmericansofdifferentincomesmustpay C) auditingmorethanonemilliontaxpayersannually D) collectingthefederalincometax E) AllofthesearetheIRSsresponsibilities. Answer: B


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13) Incometaxes A) providethelargestsourceoffederalrevenue. B) werefirstusedin1915aftertheSixteenthAmendmentwaspassed. C) weredeclaredconstitutionalinPollockv.FarmersLoanandTrustCo. D) yieldabout11centsofeveryfederalrevenuedollar. E) Allofthesearetrue. Answer: A


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14) Inorderofdecreasingamounts,thesourcesoffederalrevenueinclude A) individualincometax,excisetax,corporateincometax,andsocialinsurancereceipts. B) individualincometax,socialinsurancereceipts,borrowingandcorporateincometax. C) socialinsurancereceipts,corporateincometax,individualincometax,andborrowing. D) corporateincometaxes,personalincometaxes,borrowingandsocialinsurancetaxes. E) borrowing,individualincometax,socialinsurancereceipts,andcorporateincometax. Answer: B


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15) Corporationstodaypay A) incometaxeswhichaccountformostfederalrevenue. B) incometaxeswhichaccountformorefederalrevenuethanindividualincometaxes. C) incometaxeswhichaccountformuchlessfederalrevenuethanindividualincometaxes. D) noincometaxes. E) capitalgainstaxesandpropertytaxesinsteadofincometaxes. Answer: C


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16) Theincometaxisgenerallyprogressive,meaningthat A) itincreasesincrementallyonanannualbasis. B) thosewithmoreincomepayhigherratesoftaxontheirincome. C) thosewithmoreincomepaymoreintaxesthanthosewithlessincome. D) itisanewerformoftaxationthanexciseandsalestaxes. E) itisbetterthanaflattax. Answer: B


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17) SocialSecuritytaxesare A) paidforbyemployeesandemployers. B) paidforbyemployeesonly. C) paidforbyemployersonly. D) taxespaidonSocialSecuritybenefits. E) leviedandcollectedbystategovernments. Answer: A


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18) Socialinsurancetaxes A) areearmarkedforaspecificpurpose. B) havegrownverylittleinrecentyears. C) gointothegovernmentsgeneralmoneyfund. D) arepaidonlybyemployers. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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19) Thefastestgrowingsourceoffederalrevenuehasbeen A) feesforservices. B) SocialSecuritytaxes. C) personalincometaxes. D) borrowing. E) corporateincometaxes. Answer: B


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20) Thegovernmentborrowsmoneyprincipallyby A) sellingbonds. B) maintainingnumerousdepartmentalcreditcardaccounts. C) printingmorecurrency. D) obtainingloansfromforeigngovernments. E) obtainingloansfromtheFederalReserve. Answer: A


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21) WhocanpurchaseUnitedStatesgovernmentbonds? A) financialinstitutions B) citizens C) corporations D) mutualfunds E) alloftheabove Answer: E


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22) Thefederaldebt A) consistsofallthemoneyborrowedovertheyearsbythenationalgovernmentandstill outstanding. B) ismoneyowedtoforeignnationsbytheUnitedStatesgovernmentwhenitimportsmore goodsthanitexports. C) isallmoneyborrowedovertheyearsbythefederalgovernmentandowedtostate governments. D) isthedifferencebetweentheamountofannualtaxreceiptsandgovernment expenditures. E) ismoneyowedbytaxpayerstotheUnitedStatesgovernment,butneverpaid. Answer: A
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23) ThefederaldebtintheUnitedStates A) isthedifferencebetweenfederalgovernmentrevenuesandexpendituresinagivenyear. B) hasincreasedduetothebudgetdeficitcausedbythedifferencebetweenrevenuesand expenditures. C) waseliminatedduetoGeorgeW.Bushseffortstobalancethebudget. D) consistsoftheinterestthatgovernmentmustpayonthebudgetdeficit. E) isjustunder$1,000,000,000. Answer: B


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24) Unlikestateandlocalgovernments,thefederalgovernmentisborrowingprimarilyfor A) itsday-to-dayexpenses. B) futuredevelopmentneeds. C) militarydefense. D) printingmoney. E) itscapitalneeds. Answer: A


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25) ________arerevenuelossesattributabletoprovisionsofthefederaltaxlawswhichallowa specialexemption,exclusion,ordeduction. A) Taxdividends B) Fiscalseepages C) Treasurybills D) Taxreductions E) Taxexpenditures Answer: E


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26) Taxexpendituresconsistof A) thewaytaxesarespentbythefederalgovernment. B) taxexemptions,deductions,andexclusions. C) taxespaidbyemployersforsocialinsuranceprograms. D) directgrants-in-aidtoindividualsbythegovernment. E) theamountofdeficitcausedbyrevenueshortfalls. Answer: B


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27) Thefederalincometaxdeductionformortgageinterestonanowner -occupiedhomeisan exampleofa A) taxrebate. B) negativeincometax. C) federallyguaranteedloan. D) taxexpenditure. E) taxrefund. Answer: D
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28) Anexampleofataxexpenditureis A) alowertaxrateforlowerincomefamilies. B) directgovernmentsupportofacharity. C) thesocialsecuritysystem. D) ataxdeductionforthemortgageinterestpaidbyhomeowners. E) thepurchaseofaStealthBomberbythePentagon. Answer: D


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29) TheOfficeofManagementandBudgetestimatesthatthetotaltaxexpendituresismorethan ________ofthefederalgovernmentstotalreceipts. A) 30percent B) 10percent C) 25percent D) 40percent E) 50percent Answer: A


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30) Taxexpenditurestendtomostbenefit A) lower-incomepeopleandthepoor. B) lower-middleclasspeopleandsmallbusinesses. C) thegovernment. D) middle-andupper-incomepeopleandcorporations. E) stateandlocalgovernmentsandschooldistricts. Answer: D


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31) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutPresidentReagans1981taxcutisFALSE? A) Taxeswereindexedtothecostofliving. B) Corporatetaxeswereincreased. C) Federaltaxeswerereducedby25percent. D) Itprovidednewtaxincentivesforpersonalsavingandinvestment. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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32) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutPresidentReagans1981taxcutisTRUE? A) Itreducedthefederalgovernmentstaxexpenditures. B) Itprovidednewtaxincentivesforpersonalsavingandinvestment. C) Itspreadthetaxburdenmorefairlyamongtaxpayers. D) Itledtoamajorreductioninthefederaldeficits. E) Ithelpedcurbinflation. Answer: B


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33) WhichofthefollowingwasNOTaprovisionofPresidentReagans1985taxsimplification program? A) Itremovedseveralmillionlow-incomeindividualsfromthetaxrolls. B) Iteliminatedorreducedthevalueofmanytaxdeductions. C) Itincreasedthenumberoftaxexpendituresavailabletobusinesses. D) Itreducedthenumberoftaxbracketstotwo. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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34) Beginningin1985,federalincometaxeswere________tothecostofliving,sothat governmentnolongergotalargerpercentagewheninflationpushedincomesintohigher bracketswhilethetaxratesstayedthesame. A) raised B) added C) indexed D) lowered E) flat-rated Answer: C
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35) PresidentReagans1981taxcutsweremostbeneficialto A) low-incomefamilies. B) themiddleclass. C) thegovernment. D) high-incomefamilies. E) thestates Answer: D


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36) In1993,CongressagreedtoPresidentClintonsproposalto A) cutSocialSecurityexpenditures. B) decreasethetopcorporateincometaxrate. C) raisetheincometaxrateforfamiliesinthehighestincomebrackets. D) eliminateallenergytaxes. E) establishnationalhealthinsurance Answer: C


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37) TheUnitedStatesgovernmentsannualbudgetisnowapproximately A) $2.75trillion. B) $15trillion. C) $775billion. D) $12trillion. E) $11.3trillion. Answer: A


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38) Comparedtomostothercountrieswithdevelopedeconomies,thenational,state,andlocal governmentsintheUnitedStatestax A) abouttwiceasheavily. B) aboutoneandahalftimesasmuchpercapita. C) aboutfourtimesasheavily. D) less. E) ataboutthesamerate. Answer: D


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39) ComparedtootherWesternnations,Americastotalgovernmentexpenditureasapercentage oftheGrossDomesticProduct(GDP)is A) oneofthelargest,butdropping. B) aboutaverage. C) thehighestandincreasing. D) oneofthelargest. E) oneofthesmallest. Answer: E


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40) Whichofthefollowingcountrieshavethesmallesttotaltaxrevenuesasapercentageoftheir grossdomesticproduct? A) Sweden B) Canada C) Germany D) UnitedStates E) UnitedKingdom Answer: D


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41) Thefederalbudgetconsumes________ofAmericasgrossdomesticproduct. A) 20percent B) 30percent C) 50percent D) 25percent E) 12percent Answer: C


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42) Inorderofdecreasingamounts,federalexpendituresinclude A) nationaldefense,interestonthenationaldebt,anddirectpaymentstoindividuals. B) interestonthenationaldebt,nationaldefense,anddirectpaymentstoindividuals. C) nationaldefense,directpaymentstoindividuals,andstateandlocalgrants. D) directpaymentstoindividuals,nationaldefense,andinterestonthenationaldebt. E) noneoftheabove Answer: E


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43) Americasnational,stateandlocalgovernmentsspendanamountequalto________ofthe GDP. A) 20percent. B) 30percent. C) 50percent. D) 25percent. E) 12percent. Answer: A


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44) Duringthe1950sandearly1960s,overhalfthefederalbudgetwasspenteveryyearon A) agriculturalsubsidiesandprograms. B) Medicare. C) theinterstatehighwayprogram. D) theDepartmentofDefense. E) SocialSecurity. Answer: D


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45) Fromthemid-1960stotheearly1980s,thebiggestchangeingovernmentspendingwasthe A) ratificationandimplementationoftheTwenty-eighthAmendment,theBalancedBudget Amendment. B) abandonmentofthegoldstandardandthecreationoftheFederalReserveSystem. C) growthofnewbudgetingtechniquessuchaszero-basedbudgeting. D) increaseinsocialserviceexpendituresanddeclineindefensespending. E) eliminationoftaxexpenditures. Answer: D


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46) Themilitaryindustrialcomplexrefersto A) theglobalnetworkofbasesthattheDepartmentofDefensemaintains. B) thecloserelationshipbetweendefenseofficialsandthecorporationsthatsupplytheir hardwareneeds. C) thecompetitionbetweenthemilitaryandcivilianindustriesforgovernmentdollars. D) thegovernment-ownedindustriesthatmanufacturemilitaryweaponsandlarge equipment. E) thePentagonandthebuildingsthatsurroundit. Answer: B
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47) ThebudgetoftheDepartmentofDefense A) decreasedinthe1990s. B) constitutesthebulkoftheuncontrollableexpendituresoftheUnitedStatesbudget. C) constitutesoverhalfofallfederalexpenditures. D) isthedrivingforceintheexpansionofthefederalbudget. E) hasincreaseddespitetheendoftheColdWar. Answer: A


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48) Thepurchasingofmilitaryhardwareisknownas A) regalia. B) procurement. C) requisitioning. D) appropriations. E) mobilization. Answer: B


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49) Thebiggestexpenditureinthefederalbudgettodayis A) foreignaidprograms. B) welfareprogramsforthepoor. C) interestonthedebt. D) incomesecurityprograms. E) defense. Answer: D


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50) TheSocialSecurityAct,whichsetuptheSocialSecuritysystem,waspassedin A) 1935. B) 1913. C) 1865. D) 1962. E) 1929. Answer: A


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51) TheSocialSecurityActwaspassedundertheadministrationofPresident A) FranklinD.Roosevelt. B) DwightD.Eisenhower. C) HerbertHoover. D) LyndonJohnson. E) AbrahamLincoln. Answer: A


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52) In1965,________wasaddedtotheSocialSecurityprogramtoprovidehospitalandphysician coveragetotheelderly. A) Medplan B) Healthmark C) Medicare D) Medicaid E) disability Answer: C


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53) Medicare A) isgivenonlytothosewhodonothaveprivateinsurance. B) isadministeredseparatelyfromthesocialsecuritysystem. C) providesonlyhospitalcoveragetothepoor. D) isthemostexpensiveofallthewelfareprograms,providingbasicmedicalcareforthe poor. E) providesbothhospitalandphysiciancoveragetotheelderly. Answer: E


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54) Thebiggestsliceofthefederalbudgetpiebelongsto A) lawenforcement. B) nationaldefense. C) educationaid. D) incomesecurityexpenditures. E) healthexpenditures. Answer: D


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55) By1990,theSocialSecuritysystemwasfinancedbyapayrolltaxof A) 2percent. B) 5percent. C) 7.5percent. D) over15percent. E) 10percent. Answer: D


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56) Amajorfeatureofincrementalbudgetingisthatit A) providessmallincreasesinthecurrentbudgetoverthepreviousyearsbudget. B) greatlyinflatesgovernmentspendingeachyear. C) fragmentsthebudgetintomanysmallitems,makingithardtoplanaunifiedbudget. D) reducescurrentbudgetsbysmallamountsoversuccessiveyears. E) reevaluatesthebudgetarybaseonwhichpastbudgetswerebuilt. Answer: A


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57) Anexampleofincrementalbudgetingis A) reviewinganagencysbudgettoestablishalowerbase. B) Carterszero-basedbudgeting. C) reducinganagencysbudgetalittleeachyear. D) givinganagencyalittlemorethanithadlastyear. E) breakingabudgetintoitscomponentpartsandreviewingeachpartindividually. Answer: D


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58) Whichofthefollowingisnotafeatureofincrementalbudgeting? A) Mostofthedebateandattentionarefocusedontheproposedincrement. B) Agenciesmustjustifytheirentirebudgetrequest. C) Verylittleattentionisfocusedonthebudgetarybase. D) Thebudgetforanygivenagencytendstogrowbyalittlebiteveryyear. Answer: B


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59) ________referstotheconceptthatinthespendingappropriationsprocess,thebestpredictor ofthisyearsbudgetislastyearsbudgetplusalittlebitmore. A) Inflation-plusbudgeting B) Indexing C) ProgramPlanning-BudgetingSystems D) Incrementalism E) MinimalistBudgeting Answer: D


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60) Themostprevalentmodelofbudgetarydecisionmakinginpracticeis A) program-planningbudgeting. B) incrementalism. C) zero-basedbudgeting. D) line-itembudgeting. E) rationalpartybargaining. Answer: B


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61) WhichofthefollowingisNOTassociatedwithincrementalbudgeting? A) Anagencyorprogrammustproveitstillmeritsitsveryexistenceeveryyear. B) Mostofthebudgetdebateandattentionisoveranincreaseintheagencysfunding. C) Agenciesandprogramstendtosafelyassumetheywillreceiveatleastwhattheyhad lastyear. D) Thebudgetforanygivenagencytendstogrowabiteveryyear. E) Agenciesoftenpadtheirbudgetsalittlebit. Answer: A


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62) Budgetitemsmandatedbylaworbyapreviousobligationareknownas A) uncontrollableexpenditures. B) increments. C) fiscalmandates. D) bearerbonds. E) procurements. Answer: A


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63) SocialSecuritypaymentsareanexampleofa(n) A) increment. B) indexing. C) apportionment. D) controllableexpenditure. E) entitlement. Answer: E


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64) Anuncontrollableexpenditureinthefederalbudgetisdefinedas A) expendituresexceedingrevenuessoastorequireborrowingtocoverthedifference. B) anexpenditurethatisrequiredbycurrentlaworapreviousgovernmentobligationto peopleautomaticallyeligibleforsomebenefit. C) anannualincrementalincreaseinthecostofaprogram. D) oneinwhichmoremoneymustbeappropriatedtohandleanationalcrisis. E) thegovernmentsallowanceformeetingbudgetrequests. Answer: B


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65) SocialSecurityprograms,interestonthenationaldebt,andmilitarypensionsareexamplesof A) taxexpenditures. B) uncontrollableexpenditures. C) revenuesources. D) taxloopholes. E) incrementalexpenditures. Answer: B


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66) Thebiggestuncontrollableexpenditureinthefederalbudgetis A) governmentretirementbenefits. B) interestonthenationaldebt. C) veteransaid. D) nationaldefensespending. E) theSocialSecuritysystem. Answer: E


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67) Anestimated________ofthefederalbudgetisconsidereduncontrollable,unlessCongress changesalaworexistingbenefitlevels. A) two-thirds B) 80percent C) one-half D) one-third E) one-fifth Answer: A


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68) Approximatelywhatpercentageofthefederalbudgetisuncontrollable? A) one-fourth B) two-thirds C) almostallofit D) one-half E) one-third Answer: B


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69) Theultimatepowertodeterminehowmuchthegovernmentwilltaxandspend,andwhatit willspendtaxesfor,lieswith A) theTreasuryDepartment. B) thecourts. C) thepresident. D) Congress. E) thebureaucracy. Answer: D


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70) IntheHouseofRepresentatives,itisthe________Committeethatwritestaxcodes,subjectto theapprovalofCongressasawhole. A) WaysandMeans B) Appropriations C) Budget D) Revenue E) Finance Answer: A


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71) Agenciesinvariablypadtheirbudgetrequestsbecause A) theywantthealmostinevitablebudgetcutstobebearable. B) Congresswouldviewalowerrequestasasignofweakness. C) itisanacceptedpartofzero-basedbudgeting. D) theirconstituenciesexpectmorebenefits. E) costoverrunsalmostalwaysputthemoverbudget. Answer: A


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72) IntheSenate,the________Committeeisresponsibleforwritingtaxcodes,subjecttothe approvalofCongressasawhole. A) Revenue B) Budget C) Appropriations D) WaysandMeans E) Finance Answer: E


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73) Thebudgetcyclebeginsintheexecutivebranch________monthsbeforethefiscalyearbegins. A) 11 B) 19 C) three D) seven E) 24ormore Answer: B


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74) TheDirectoroftheOfficeofManagementandBudget A) isacareerofficial. B) iselectedbytheCouncilofEconomicAdvisors. C) isacongressionalappointee. D) isapresidentialappointeerequiringapprovaloftheSenate. E) isappointedbytheSenateFinanceCommittee. Answer: D


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75) The________isresponsibleforsupervisingpreparationofthefederalbudgetandadvisingthe presidentonbudgetarymatters. A) TreasuryDepartment B) OfficeofManagementandBudget C) SenateFinanceCommittee D) GeneralAccountingOffice E) BureauoftheBudget Answer: B


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76) UntilCongresspassedtheBudgetandAccountingActof1921, A) agenciesoftheexecutivebranchsenttheirbudgetrequestsdirectlytothepresident,who alonehadtheauthoritytoapproveandfundthebureaucracy. B) agenciesoftheexecutivebranchsenttheirbudgetrequeststothesecretaryofthe treasury,whoforwardedthemontoCongress,withthepresidentplayinglittleornorole intheentireprocess. C) therewasnofederalincometaxintheUnitedStates. D) theUnitedStateshadnoformalizedbudgetprocess. E) thefederalbudgethadtobebalanced,bylaw. Answer: B
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77) BeforethepresidentsubmitsherbudgettoCongress,theOfficeofManagementandBudget (OMB)coordinatestherequestsof A) thegovernors. B) individuallegislators. C) thesubjectmattercommitteesofCongress. D) executiveagencies. E) interestgroups. Answer: D


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78) Theheadsofexecutiveagenciessendtheirbudgetrequeststothe A) OfficeofManagementandBudget. B) Congressionaltaxcommittees. C) president. D) TreasuryDepartment. E) CongressionalBudgetOffice. Answer: A


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79) Agenciesbehaviorandbudgetsareaudited,monitored,andevaluatedforCongressbythe A) CongressionalBudgetOffice. B) president. C) InternalRevenueService. D) OfficeofManagementandBudget. E) GeneralAccountingOffice. Answer: E


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80) TheOfficeofManagementandBudgetparcelsoutmoneytogovernmentagenciesandis accountableto A) theInternalRevenueService. B) Congress. C) thesecretaryofthetreasury. D) thepresident. E) theCongressionalBudgetOffice. Answer: D


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81) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheOfficeofManagementandBudget(OMB)is FALSE? A) TheOMBadvisesthepresidentonbudgetarymatters. B) TheOMBisoneofthefewgovernmentagenciescreatedbytheConstitution. C) TheOMBsupervisespreparationofthefederalbudget. D) GovernmentagenciessendtheirbudgetestimatestotheOMB. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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82) OncetheOfficeofManagementandBudgethaspreparedthefederalbudget, A) itissenttotheTreasuryDepartmentforimplementation. B) thepresidentmakesrevisionsandsubmitsittoCongress. C) itiseithersignedintolaworvetoedbythepresident. D) Congressmustvoteitupordownasapackagewithintendays. E) itimmediatelybecomeslaw. Answer: B


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83) AccordingtotheConstitution,allfederalappropriationsmustbeauthorizedby A) theGeneralAccountingOffice. B) theOfficeofManagementandBudget. C) thepresident. D) Congress. E) thesecretaryofthetreasury. Answer: D


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84) TheCongressionalBudgetandImpoundmentControlActof1974setupallofthefollowing EXCEPT A) aBudgetCommitteeineachhouseofCongress. B) theCongressionalBudgetOffice. C) theOfficeofManagementandBudget. D) afixedbudgetcalendarmandatedbylaw. E) bothAandB Answer: C


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85) TheCongressionalBudgetandImpoundmentActof1974requiresthat A) thepresidentimpoundthosemoneysappropriatedbyCongresswhichexceedfederal revenues. B) Congressdevelopabudgetonthebasisofthepresidentsbudget,throughcoordinated effortsoftheCBOandtheOMB. C) Congressdevelopabudgetbyaddinguptherequestsofallthegovernmentagencies. D) Congressimpoundthatportionofthepresidentsbudgetinexcessofgovernment revenues. E) Congressagreeonabudgetaccordingtoafixedschedule,withtargetfiguresforthetotal budgetsize. Answer: E
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86) ThecongressionalequivalentoftheOfficeofManagementandBudgetisthe A) CongressionalOfficeofFinance. B) JointCommitteeonWaysandMeans. C) JointCommitteeontheBudget. D) GeneralAccountingOffice. E) CongressionalBudgetOffice. Answer: E


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87) OneoftheimportantpurposesoftheCongressionalBudgetActof1974isto A) requirethefederalgovernmenttobalanceitsbudget. B) forceCongresstoconsiderthebudgetasawholeratherthanintermsofindividual appropriations. C) restorebudgetarycontroltotheappropriationscommitteesandsubcommittees. D) delegateeffectivebudgetaryauthoritytothepresident. E) giveCongressalmostexclusivecontroloverthefederalbudget. Answer: B


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88) ThemainpurposeoftheCongressionalBudgetOfficeisto A) adviseCongressontheconsequencesofitsbudgetdecisions. B) actasaliaisonwithinterestgroups. C) prepareCongressownoperatingbudgetforsalariesandsupplies. D) receivereportsandrecommendationsfromcommittees. E) advisethepresidentoncongressionalprioritiesinthebudget. Answer: A


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89) Tosetalimitontotalgovernmentspending,bothhousesofCongressarerequiredtopassa(n) ________everyApril,bindingCongresstoatotalexpenditurelevel,orbottomline,ofall federalspendingforallprograms. A) budget B) budgetresolution C) omnibusappropriationspackage D) circumscriptionbill E) authorizationbill Answer: B
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90) Abudgetresolution A) revisesprogramauthorizationstoachieverequiredsavings. B) resolvesthedifferencesbetweenHouseandSenateversionsofthebudget. C) isanactofCongressthatestablishesadiscretionarygovernmentprogramoran entitlement. D) mustbepassedtoactuallyfundprogramsestablishedbyauthorizationbills. E) setslimitsonexpendituresbasedonrevenueprojections. Answer: E


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91) Congressattemptstobinditselftoatotalexpenditurelevelthatshouldformthebottomlineof allfederalspendingforallprogramsbypassing A) azero-basedbindingresolution. B) abudgetreconciliation. C) abudgetresolution. D) anappropriationsbill. E) anauthorizationbill. Answer: C


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92) Budget________revisesprogramauthorizationstoachieverequiredsavings. A) impoundment B) realignment C) closure D) appropriation E) reconciliation Answer: E


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93) Abudgetreconciliation A) reconcilesthedifferencesbetweenHouseandSenateversionsofthebudget. B) revisesprogramauthorizationstoachieverequiredsavings. C) isanactofCongressthatestablishesadiscretionarygovernmentprogramoran entitlement. D) mustbepassedtoactuallyfundprogramsestablishedbyauthorizationbills. E) setslimitsonexpendituresbasedonrevenueprojections. Answer: B


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94) An________billisanactofCongressthatestablishesadiscretionarygovernmentprogramor anentitlement,orthatcontinuesorchangessuchprograms. A) omnibus B) authorization C) impoundment D) appropriations E) enabling Answer: B


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95) Toactuallyfundaprogram,Congressmustpassan________bill. A) authorization B) expenditure C) appropriations D) omnibus E) impoundment Answer: C


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96) Whichofthefollowingwouldbeaspecificexampleofanappropriationsbill? A) Congressvotingtodiscontinuethefederalincometax B) abudgetresolutionpassedbybothHousesofCongress C) abillfundingtheDepartmentoftheInteriorforthefiscalyear D) abilltocontinuethespaceshuttleprogramforanotherfiveyears E) abillestablishinganationalhealthinsurancesystem Answer: C


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97) Failingtomeetitsownbudgettimetable,Congresshasfrequentlyresortedto________,which arelawsthatallowagenciestospendatthepreviousyearslevel. A) reconciliations B) revenueextensions C) appropriations D) continuingresolutions E) retrenchments Answer: D


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98) Anauthorizationbill A) providesthefundingfordiscretionaryprograms. B) authorizesthepresidenttospendspecificline-itemamountsinthefinalbudget. C) coversonlyoneyearatatime. D) setsthemaximumamountthatmaybespentforentitlementprograms. E) establishes,continues,orchangesadiscretionaryprogramoranentitlement. Answer: E


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99) Inordertoactuallyfundprogramsestablishedbyauthorizationbills,Congressmustpass A) abudgetresolution. B) abudgetreconciliation. C) anappropriationsbill. D) authorizationvouchers. E) acontinuingresolution. Answer: C


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100) TheBalancedBudgetandEmergencyDeficitControlActcalledforthepresidenttoorder ________,ifCongressfailedtomeetspecificdeficit-reductiongoals. A) reconciliations B) defundingdirectives C) re-authorizations D) continuingresolutions E) sequestrations Answer: E


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101) TheGramm-Rudman-HollingsAct A) mandatedmaximumallowabledeficitlevelsforeachyearuntil1993,whenthebudget wastobebalanced. B) requiredautomaticbudgetcuts,primarilyintheareaofdefense. C) frozeallUnitedStatesgovernmentexpendituresattheir1988levelsforthreeyearsinan efforttoeliminatethebudgetdeficits. D) allowedagenciestospendatthepreviousyearslevel. E) calledfortaxincreasestopayforfederalspending. Answer: A
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102) In1990,Congresssplitdiscretionaryspendingintothreecategories.Whichofthefollowing wasNOToneofthethreecategories? A) domestic B) defense C) debtservice D) international E) Noneoftheabove;debtserviceisapartofdomesticexpenditures. Answer: C


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103) Neartheendof1990,Congressapprovedamajorchangeinthemakingofbudgetpolicythat shiftedthefocusfromcuttingspendingto A) controllingincreasesinspending. B) eliminatinggovernmentprograms. C) increasingtaxes. D) increasingnon-taxrevenues. E) controllingthesizeofthedeficit. Answer: A


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104) By2002,thebudgetdeficithadincreasedagaindueto A) decreasedtaxrevenues. B) incometaxcutof2001. C) thefirstIraqwar. D) bothAandB E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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105) Someeconomistsarguethatlessaffluentvoterswillalwaysusetheirvotestosupportpublic policiesthat A) cutalltaxrates. B) redistributebenefitsfromtherichtothepoor. C) favorlargedefensebudgets. D) keeptaxeslow. E) increasespendingonforeignaidandinternationalprograms. Answer: B


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106) ________arenotunwillingvictimsofbiggovernmentanditsbigtaxesinademocracy,they areatleastitsco-conspirators. A) Citizens B) MembersofCongress C) Presidents D) Bureaucrats E) Politicalparties Answer: A


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107) Researchhasfoundthatthepublicsectorexpandsprincipally A) asaresultofliberalpoliticalpartiescontrollingthegovernment. B) asaresultofFederalReserveBoardmonetarypoliciesinfluencinginterestratesand currencyreserves. C) asafunctionofincreasedinternationaleconomiccompetition. D) inresponsetochangesineconomicandsocialconditionsthataffectthepublics preferencesforgovernmentactivity. E) inresponsetotheperceivedneedforincreaseddefenseexpenditures. Answer: D
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108) EconomistsAllenMeltzerandScottRichardarguethatthecostofgovernmentgrowsbecause A) democracyworksbestatthefederallevel. B) biggovernmentisnecessaryforthemaintenanceofacapitalistsystem. C) democracyisbynatureanexpensiveformofgovernmenttooperate. D) peopleinademocracyusethegovernmenttosecurebenefits. E) irontrianglespressurethegovernmenttoexpandtheirfavoredprograms. Answer: D


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True/FalseQuestions
1) Corporateincometaxestodayaccountforoverhalfofallfederalgovernmentrevenue. Answer: FALSE
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2) Corporatetaxesyieldalmosttwiceasmuchrevenueasindividualincometaxes. Answer: FALSE


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3) Thefederaldebtmakesitmoredifficultandexpensiveforindividualsandbusinessesto borrowmoneyfromprivatelenders. Answer: TRUE


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4) Thebulkofallthenetprivatesavingsinthecountrygoestothefederalgovernmentasit borrowsmoney. Answer: TRUE


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5) TaxexpendituresarereviewedregularlybyCongress. Answer: FALSE


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6) Onthewhole,taxexpendituresbenefitmiddle- andupper-incometaxpayersand corporations. Answer: TRUE


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7) AsapercentageofGDP,Americanspaylesstaxesthanthosewholiveinmostothercountries withdevelopedeconomies. Answer: TRUE


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8) In1993,CongressagreedtoPresidentClintonsproposaltodecreasetheenergytaxpaidby thosewithlowincomes. Answer: FALSE


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9) Thebudgetdeficitincreasedin2002inpartduetoGeorgeW.Bushs2001incometaxcuts. Answer: TRUE


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10) PresidentReaganstaxsimplificationplanof1985,amongotherthings,reducedthenumberof taxbracketsfromfifteentotwo. Answer: TRUE


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11) BeforeWorldWarII,theUnitedStatescustomarilydisbandedalargepartofitsmilitaryforces attheendofawar. Answer: TRUE


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12) Defensespendingremainsthebiggestsliceofthefederalbudgetpie. Answer: FALSE


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13) Two-thirdsofthefederalbudgetconsistsofwhatarecalleduncontrollableexpenditures. Answer: TRUE


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14) TheOfficeofManagementandBudgetservesasthemajorbudgetaryarmofCongress,andis frequentlyatoddswiththepresidentsbudgetoffice. Answer: FALSE


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15) TheCongressionalImpoundmentandControlActof1974hasfailedtobringspendinginline withrevenues. Answer: TRUE


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16) Congresswasabletobrieflybalancethebudgetinthemid -1980sthroughtheuseofthe BalancedBudgetandEmergencyDeficitControlAct. Answer: FALSE


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17) ThesizeoftheUnitedStatesfederalbudgettodayactuallydiscouragesnewprogramsorthe expandingofoldones. Answer: TRUE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) Thefederal________istheannualdisparitybetweenhowmuchmoneythegovernmenttakes in,andhowmuchitspends. Answer: deficit
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2) Whatisthenameoftheagencywhichisresponsibleforcollectingfederaltaxes? Answer: InternalRevenueService


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3) The________authorizedCongresstolevyataxonindividualsincome. Answer: SixteenthAmendment


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4) WhatareSocialSecuritytaxes,andhowdotheydifferfromothertaxes? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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5) Thefederaldebtismorethan$________trillion. Answer: 9
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6) Whatismeantbyataxexpenditure? Answer: revenuelossesthatresultfromspecialexemptions,exclusions,ordeductionsonfederal taxlaw


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7) Amongthemostimportantchangesofthetwentiethcenturyistheriseof________. Answer: largegovernments


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8) Theriseofthe________stateandthe________statehavebothcausedthesizeofthefederal governmenttoincrease. Answer: socialservice;nationalsecurity


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9) WhatistheSocialSecurityAct,andwhatisitsimportancetobudgeting? Answer: a1935lawpassedduringtheGreatDepressionthatwasintendedtoprovideaminimal levelofsustenancetoolderAmericansandthussavethemfrompoverty;theSocial Securityprogramisthelargestsocialpolicyofthefederalgovernment,accounting,with Medicare,foraboutone-thirdofthefederalbudget.


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10) ________suggeststhatthebestpredictionofabudgetislastyearsbudget,plusalittleextra. Answer: Incrementalism


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11) Howdoentitlementsaffectthebudgetingprocess? Answer: EntitlementsarepoliciesforwhichCongressobligatesitselftopayacertainlevelof benefitstoagroupofrecipients,withnolimitastothefundavailablefortheprogram. Becausealleligibleindividualsreceivethebenefits,itisdifficulttocutsuchprograms.


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12) ________programssuchasMedicareareconsidereduncontrollableexpendituresbecauseall eligiblepeoplehavealegalrighttothebenefits. Answer: Entitlement


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13) About________ofthenationalbudgetisuncontrollable,meaningthatCongresscanonly limitsuchexpendituresbychangingthelaw. Answer: two-thirds


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14) IntheHouseofRepresentatives,whichcommitteeisresponsibleforwritingtaxcodes? Answer: WaysandMeansCommittee


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15) WhatisthefunctionoftheGeneralAccountingOffice? Answer: assistsCongressbyauditing,monitoringandevaluatingwhatexecutiveagenciesare doingwiththeirbudgets


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16) Aspartofitsfixedbudgetarycalendar,Congressmustpassa(n)________everyApril. Answer: budgetresolution


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17) WhatkindofbillispassedbyCongresstofundanagencyorprogramwithaspecificdollar amount? Answer: appropriations


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18) Whatdoesanauthorizationbilldo? Answer: anactofCongressthatestablishes,continuesorchangesadiscretionarygovernment programoranentitlement;itspecifiesprogramgoalsandmaximumexpendituresfor discretionaryprograms.


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19) TheBalancedBudgetandEmergencyDeficitReductionActof1985isalsoknownas________, afteritsthreeprincipalcosponsors. Answer: Gramm-Rudman-Hollings


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20) WhatwerethemainprovisionsoftheGramm-Rudman-HollingsAct,andwhydiditfailto meetitsgoals? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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21) In1990,Congressdivideddiscretionaryspendingintowhatthreecategories? Answer: domestic,defense,andinternational


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EssayQuestions
1) Wheredoesthefederalgovernmentsmoneycomefrom,andwheredoesitgo?
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2) Explainhowtaxpoliciescanpromotetheinterestsofparticulargroupsorencouragespecific activities.Howsuccessfulhaveattemptsattaxreductionandtaxreformbeen?
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3) Brieflydescribehowtheriseofthesocialservicestateandtheriseofthenationalsecuritystate haveincreasedthescopeofgovernment.Werethesenecessarydevelopments?Explain.
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4) Identifyandevaluatethecausesandeffectsofincreasedgovernmentspendingorbig government.
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5) Presentanargument,withexamples,infavoroftheviewthattheriseofthesocialservicestate andtheriseofthenationalsecuritystatearethemaincausesofbiggovernmentinAmerica.
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6) Describetheroleofincrementalismanduncontrollablesinthebudgetprocessandwhat alternativeshavebeenofferedforeach.Isincrementalismnecessaryforanefficient bureaucracy?Inwhatsenseareuncontrollablesreallyuncontrollable?Why,orwhynot?


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7) Whatroledoentitlementsplayintheriseofthelargebudgetdeficits?Shouldthesebe controlled?Ifso,how?
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8) Whoisresponsibleforpreparingthepresidentsbudget,andhowhasthisprocessevolved? Whatsortofcalendarisfollowedinthisprocess?Doyouseeanynoticeableflawsinthis system?Explain.


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9) Listanddescribe,inbrief,thevariousactorswhoinfluencethebudgetaryprocess.Intotal,are theinterestsofdemocraticgovernmentserved?Bywhomandinwhatways?
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10) IdentifytheparticipantsandexplaintheprocessofbudgetmakingintheUnitedStates government.


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11) ComparetheroleofthepresidentwiththeroleofCongressinthebudgetaryprocess.Whodo youbelievehasthegreaterinfluenceandwhy?


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12) Since1974,Congresshasattemptedtoreformitsownbudgetaryprocess.Describekeyreforms thathavebeenmade,andassesstheirsuccessinlimitingthesizeofthefederaldeficits.


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13) Explainthevariousreformsinstitutedtoimprovethebudgetaryprocess.Howsuccessfulhave thereformsbeen?


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14) Whydosomeeconomistsattributethegrowthinthescopeofthegovernmenttotheequality ofthesuffrageinAmerica?Assessthelegitimacyofthisclaimandwhetherornotyouthinkit isapositiveornegativeaspectofdemocracy.


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15) Whyisitsodifficulttobringtheincreasingfederalbudgetundercontrol?
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16) Inwhatwaysistheverysizeofthefederalbudgetaninhibitiononaddingordramatically expandinggovernmentprograms?HowhasPresidentBushbeenaffectedbythis?


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Chapter15 TheFederalBureaucracy
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) Eachbureaucraticagencyiscreatedinitiallyby A) constitutionalprovision. B) thepresident. C) thebureaucracyitself. D) Congress. E) orderofafederalcourt. Answer: D
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2) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutbureaucraciesisFALSE? A) BureaucraticpowerextendstoeverycornerofAmericaneconomicandsociallife. B) BureaucraciesarescarcelyhintedatintheConstitution. C) Nothingbetterillustratesthecomplexityofmoderngovernmentthanitsmassive bureaucracies. D) Eachbureaucraticagencyiscreatedbythepresident. E) Howtomanageandcontrolbureaucraciesisacentralproblemofdemocratic government. Answer: D


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3) WhichofthefollowingisTRUEaboutthefederalbureaucracy? A) MostfederalbureaucratsworkinWashington,D.C. B) Thestateandlocalgovernmentshavefarmoreemployeesthanthefederalbureaucracy. C) Thesizeofthefederalbureaucracyhasgrowndramaticallyoverthepasttwentyyears. D) MostAmericansaredissatisfiedwiththeirencounterswithbureaucrats. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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4) StudieshavefoundthatmostAmericans A) dislikebureaucrats. B) areindifferentaboutbureaucraciesandbureaucrats. C) aresatisfiedwiththehelpreceivedfrombureaucrats. D) actuallylikebureaucracies. E) wantthegovernmentbureaucracydismantled. Answer: C


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5) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthesizeofbureaucraciesisFALSE? A) Stateandlocalpublicemployeesfaroutnumbercivilianfederalgovernmentemployees. B) AsapercentageofAmericastotalworkforce,federalgovernmentemploymenthasbeen growing. C) Almostallthegrowthinthenumberofpublicemployeeshasoccurredinstateandlocal governments. D) Federalgovernmentemploymentamountstoaboutthreepercentofallcivilianjobs. E) Noneoftheabove;alloftheabovestatementsareTRUE. Answer: B


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6) Asapercentageofthetotalworkforce,federalgovernmentemploymentis A) rapidlybecominggreaterthanemploymentintheprivatesector. B) greaterthanstateandlocalgovernmentemployment. C) rising. D) declining. E) stabilizing. Answer: D


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7) Theclassicconceptionofabureaucracywasadvancedby________,whoarguedthatthe bureaucracywasarationalwayforamodernsocietytoconductitsbusiness. A) MaxWeber B) ThomasJefferson C) JohnLocke D) CharlesL.Schultze E) JamesMadison Answer: A


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8) Inadditiontoahierarchicalauthoritystructure,MaxWeberarguedthatabureaucracy involvesallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) extensiverules. B) anincentivesystem. C) taskspecialization. D) themeritprinciple. E) hierarchicalauthoritystructure. Answer: B


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9) TheWeberiantheoryofbureaucraciesviewstheminthemostpositivelightas A) acquisitive. B) inefficient. C) monopolistic. D) hierarchical. E) democratic. Answer: D


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10) TheWeberianmodeldepictsabureaucracyas A) fundamentallydangeroustoademocraticsociety. B) inefficient,primarilyconcernedwithmaximizingitsbudget,andlargelyresponsiblefor thegrowthofmoderngovernment. C) wasteful,bloated,over-staffed,over-paidandarrogant. D) awell-organizedmachinewithplentyofworkingbuthierarchicalparts. E) amblingandgroping,affectedbychance,andlargelyoperatingbyalooselyrunstyleof trialanderror. Answer: D
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11) TheWeberianmodelviewsbureaucraciesas A) promotinggoodmonopolies. B) looselyorganizedandlooselyrun. C) largelyself-serving. D) efficientandnecessary. E) hinderingdemocracy. Answer: D


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12) WhichofthefollowingwouldNOTbeconsideredpartoftheWeberianmodelofbureaucracy? A) taskspecialization B) decentralizedauthoritystructure C) extensiverules D) impersonality E) AandDonly Answer: B


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13) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutbureaucraciesisFALSE? A) Bureaucraciesaresimplyawayoforganizingpeopletoperformwork. B) Thevastmajorityoftaskscarriedoutbygovernmentsarenoncontroversial. C) Bureaucraciesreceiveverylittlecreditwhentheyfunctionwell. D) Governmentbureaucracieshavebeenshowntobelessefficientandeffectivethanprivate bureaucracies. E) Bureaucraciesareprevalentinalllevelsofgovernment. Answer: D


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14) The________employsaboutone -fourthofallfederalcivilianworkers,morethananyother departmentoragency. A) DepartmentofEducation B) DepartmentofHealthandHumanServices C) DepartmentofDefense D) DepartmentofJustice E) DepartmentofLabor Answer: C
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15) Thereareroughly________civilianandmilitaryfederalgovernmentemployees A) 800,000 B) 3,000,000 C) 2,100,000 D) 4,000,000 E) 500,000 Answer: D


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16) Asawhole,thepermanentbureaucracyis A) nearlyallwhite,male,andwell-paid. B) overwhelminglyAfricanAmerican,female,andnotsowell-paid. C) morebroadlyrepresentativeoftheAmericanpeoplethanlegislators,judges,or presidentialappointees. D) betterpaidthanaresimilarjobsintheprivatesector. E) areflectionofparticipatorypolitics,sincemostgovernmentworkersarehiredthrough thepatronagesystem. Answer: C
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17) Asawhole,thepermanentfederalbureaucracyis A) lessdiverseintermsofthetypeofjobsthantheprivatesector. B) dominatedbywhitemales. C) morebroadlyrepresentativeoftheAmericanpeoplethantherestofthefederal government. D) composedofanAmericanelite. E) nowemploying15percentoftheAmericanworkforce. Answer: C


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18) ________isahiringandpromotionsystembasedonknowingtherightpeople,workinginan electioncampaign,makinglargepoliticaldonations,and/orhavingtherightconnectionsto winjobswiththegovernment. A) Thepatronagesystem B) ThefederalCivilService C) Thebureaucracy D) Thegoldengate E) Administrativediscretion Answer: A
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19) Patronageisahiringandpromotionsystembasedon A) knowingtherightpeople. B) civilserviceexams. C) talentandskill. D) thePendeltonAct. E) themeritprinciple. Answer: A


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20) Untilthelate-nineteenthcentury,mostgovernmentemployeesgottheirjobsthrough A) thepatronagesystem. B) themeritprinciple. C) hereditarypreferences. D) civilservicetesting. E) alotterysystem. Answer: A


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21) The________ActwaspassedpartlyasamemorialtothememoryofPresidentJamesGarfield, whowasassassinatedin1881. A) PendletonCivilService B) Treason C) VotingRights D) Hatch E) InterstateCommerce Answer: A


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22) ThePendletonActestablishedthe A) patronagesystem. B) federalcivilservice. C) OfficeofManagementandBudget. D) plumbook. E) InterstateCommerceCommission. Answer: B


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23) Therationaleforallcivilservicesystemsisbasedon A) patronage. B) themeritprinciple. C) theHatchAct. D) theplumbook. E) voluntaryservice. Answer: B


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24) TheHatchAct,passedin1940, A) establishedthepatronagesystemforfederalemployment. B) prohibitedthepresidentfromfiringtheheadsofindependentexecutiveagencies. C) prohibitsfederalcivilserviceemployeesfromactiveparticipationinpartisanpolitics. D) requiredthepublicationoftheplumbook. E) establishedthefederalcivilservice. Answer: C


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25) Oncehiredintothefederalbureaucracy,apersonisassigneda________rating,which determinesonessalaryrange. A) FederalRegister B) Weber C) GeneralSchedule D) stepladder E) plumbook Answer: C


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26) Thefederalcivilservicewascreatedby A) ArticleIVoftheConstitution. B) anexecutiveorderofPresidentArthur. C) theOfficeofManagementandBudget. D) themeritprinciple. E) thePendletonAct. Answer: E


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27) Therationaleforthecivilservicerestsonthe A) goalofcentralizinggovernmentemploymentatthefederallevel. B) desiretocreateanonpartisangovernmentserviceandpromotiononthebasisofmerit. C) GeneralScheduleratingsystemforpatronageappointees. D) theneedtoseparatemilitaryinstitutionsfromcivilianinstitutionstopreventundue militaryinfluence. E) needforjobreplacementswhenanewpartycomestopower. Answer: B


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28) Federalemployeesareprohibitedfromactiveparticipationinpartisanpoliticsthroughthe A) Twenty-fifthAmendment. B) PendletonAct. C) SupremeCourtrulinginDemocraticNationalCommitteev.Hayes. D) HatchAct. E) meritsystem. Answer: D


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29) Whichofthefollowingisalegitimatecriticismofthefederalcivilservice? A) Firingincompetentsisextremelydifficult. B) Workersarenotprotectedagainstpoliticalfirings. C) Itdoesnotoperateonthemeritprinciple. D) Toomanyfederalcivilservantsareactivelyinvolvedinpartisanpolitics. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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30) Whichofthefollowingwouldbeincludedinaplumbook? A) doctorsataVeteransAdministrationhospital B) postalcarriers C) thephonenumbersofaCongressmemberssexpartners D) Senatecommitteechairs E) Cabinetsecretaries Answer: E


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31) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthehiringandfiringofcivilservantsisFALSE? A) TheOfficeofPersonnelManagementhaselaboraterulesabouthiring,promotion,and firingofcivilservants. B) Thetopofthecivilserviceiscomposedofabout9,000membersoftheSeniorExecutive Service. C) Oncehired,civilservantsareassignedaGeneralSchedulerangingfromGS-1toGS-18. D) Duetothemeritsystem,itiseasytofireincompetentcivilservants. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D
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32) Theplumbooklists A) allfederalcontractsavailableforbid. B) topfederaljobsavailablebyPresidentialappointment. C) allcivilservicejobsaboveGS-12. D) jobopeningsintheprestigiousOfficeofPersonnelManagement. E) appealsfiledwiththeMeritSystemsProtectionBoard. Answer: B


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33) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutplumbookappointeesisFALSE? A) Mostpresidentsseekappointeeswithsympathyforsimilarpolicypositions. B) Ambassadorshipappointmentsoftengotolargecampaigncontributors. C) Plumbookappointeesareofteninstrumentalinchangingandreformingtheiragencies. D) Presidentsoftenconsidersex,region,andraceinmakingplumbookappointments. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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34) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueaboutpresidentialappointeestobureaucracies? A) Theyoftendonotknowtheirownagencysubordinatesverywell,muchlesspeoplein otheragencies. B) TheymustberecommendedbytheOfficeofPersonnelManagementsruleofthree. C) Aspoliticalappointees,theyareoftenunaccustomedtotheadministrativeroutines, budgetcycles,andlegalcomplexitiesoftheiragenciesordepartments. D) Theytendtospendfeweryearsintheirpositionsthanthoseinthecivilservice. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B
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35) AccordingtoHughHeclo,theplumbooksystemofrecruitingfederalemployeestendsto resultintheappointmentof A) talentedexpertswithprovenpartyloyalty. B) peoplewithaccesstotheInternet,butnotnecessarilythemostqualifiedpeople. C) seniorcivilservantstosensitiveposts. D) administratorswhodonotstaylongenoughintheirappointedpositiontobeeffective. E) largenumbersofwomenandminorities,justasitwasintendedtodo. Answer: D


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36) WhichCabinetdepartmentischargedwithoverseeingthenationsnationalresources? A) HomelandSecurity B) EnvironmentalProtectionAgency C) Defense D) State E) Interior Answer: E


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37) TherealworkofaCabinetdepartmentisdone A) bytheentireCabinet. B) bythepresidentsstaff. C) bytheundersecretaries. D) bythesecretary. E) inthebureaus. Answer: E


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38) Thelargestfederalagencybasedondollarsspentisthe A) DepartmentofDefense. B) DepartmentofJustice. C) StateDepartment. D) DepartmentofHealthandHumanServices. E) SocialSecurityAdministration. Answer: E


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39) Whichoftheseisthenewestgovernmentagency? A) DrugEnforcementAgency B) SocialSecurityAdministration C) DepartmentofHealthandHumanServices D) DrugInterdictionAgency E) CyberspaceCommission Answer: B


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40) TheCabinetdepartmentthathasthelargestbudgetistheDepartmentof A) HealthandHumanServices. B) Defense. C) Commerce. D) theTreasury. E) Education. Answer: A


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41) BureausinthefederalbureaucracyarealsoknownasallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) anadministration. B) anoffice. C) adepartment. D) aservice. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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42) TheInterstateCommerceCommissionandtheFederalReserveBoardareexamplesof A) dependentpresidentialboards. B) independentregulatoryagencies. C) governmentcorporations. D) Cabinetdepartments. E) independentexecutiveagencies. Answer: B


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43) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutindependentregulatorycommissionsisFALSE? A) Regulatorycommissionmemberscannotbefiredbythepresident. B) Regulatorycommissionsconsistoffivetotenmembers. C) Regulatorycommissionmembersareappointedbythepresidentandconfirmedbythe Senate. D) Regulatorycommissionmembersmaynotbedrawnfromtheranksofpresentorformer employeesoftheregulatedindustry. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D
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44) Anindependentregulatoryagencyisgovernedby A) asmallcommission,usuallywithfivetotenmembers,appointedbythepresidentand subjecttopresidentialfiring. B) membersoftheSeniorExecutiveServiceofthefederalcivilservice. C) asmallcommission,usuallywithfivetotenmembers,appointedbythepresidentfor fixedterms. D) asingleexecutiveappointedbyandremovablebythepresident. E) asingleexecutiveappointedbytheSenatecommitteeresponsiblefortheagencys oversight. Answer: C
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45) Thepartsofthefederalbureaucracywithresponsibilityfordifferentsectorsoftheeconomy, andmakingandenforcingrulesdesignedtoprotectthepublicinterest,arethe A) independentexecutiveagencies. B) independentregulatoryagencies. C) commercialministries. D) governmentcorporations. E) Cabinetdepartments. Answer: B


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46) TheGeneralServicesAdministrationandtheNationalAeronauticalandSpaceAdministration areexamplesof A) governmentcorporations. B) independentregulatoryagencies. C) Cabinetdepartments. D) presidentialadministrativeagencies. E) independentexecutiveagencies. Answer: E


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47) Independentregulatoryagencieshave A) completeindependencefromthepresident,buttheirpolicymakersareappointedby Congress. B) powerfulrule-making,dispute-settling,andenforcementauthority. C) norealenforcementpoweranymore,andremaintodayaspartofthefederal governmentonlyinaceremonialrole. D) noformaltiestoeitherthepresidentortheCongress. E) governingcommissionscomposedoflong-timefederalCivilServiceemployees. Answer: B
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48) AmtrakandtheUnitedStatesPostalServiceareexamplesof A) governmentcorporations. B) independentexecutiveagencies. C) Cabinetdepartments. D) executivecommercialagencies. E) independentregulatoryagencies. Answer: A


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49) Governmentcorporations A) operateanairline,manufacturesteel,andprovidehealthinsurance. B) provideservicesandchargeforthem. C) tendtobecapturedbyinterestgroups. D) areindependentregulatoryagencies. E) sellstockandpaydividends. Answer: B


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50) Anobstacletothesuccessfulimplementationofpublicpolicyis A) thefailureofCongresstopassauthorizinglegislation. B) theover-specializationofcivilserviceemployees. C) competitionbetweentheprivateandpublicsectors. D) unclearpolicygoalsandpoorlydesignedpolicies. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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51) Onceapolicydecisionhasbeenmade,suchasbypassingalegislativeactorissuingan executiveorder,thebureaucracyisresponsiblefor A) itsratification. B) itsimplementation. C) itsderegulation. D) fundingit. E) judgingitsmerits. Answer: B


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52) Themainjoboffederalbureaucratsisto A) advisethepresidentandCabinetoninternalaffairs. B) countervailthepowerofprivatecorporations,especiallymonopolies. C) competewiththeprivatesectorformonopolypower. D) protecttheinterestsoftheirconstituencies. E) implementandregulategovernmentpolicies. Answer: E


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53) Creatingnewagencies,developingguidelines,andcoordinatingresourcestoachieveapolicy goaliscalled A) bureaucratization. B) regulation. C) implementation. D) actualization. E) policymaking. Answer: C


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54) WhichofthefollowingisNOTareasonthatpolicyimplementationsometimesbreaksdownin thefederalbureaucracy? A) fragmentationofresponsibilities B) lackofstandardoperatingprocedures C) lackofclarityintheoriginalpolicydecision D) faultyprogramdesign E) lackofresources Answer: B


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55) VigorousdisputesovertheimplementationofTitleIXoftheEducationAmendmentsof1972 inregardtofundingforwomensathleticprogramsaroseprimarilydueto A) faultyprogramdesign. B) lackofclarityintheoriginalpolicydecision. C) adherencetoadministrativeroutine. D) fragmentationofresponsibilities. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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56) Section844ofTitleIXoftheEducationAmendmentsof1972 A) wasdeclaredunconstitutionalbytheSupremeCourt. B) specificallyprohibitssexdiscriminationincollegesports. C) wassupportedbymostcollegesanduniversities. D) wasvaguelywritten,eventuallyresultinginscoresofcourtcases. E) wasinterpretedbyCongresstoexcludecollegefootball. Answer: D


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57) AmajorcomplaintoftheFoodandDrugAdministrationis A) itslackofclarity. B) thefragmentationofresponsibilities. C) thatthereisnoadministrativediscretion. D) thattoomuchfoodiscontaminatedbydirtandrodents. E) theshortageofpersonnel. Answer: E


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58) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueaboutstandardoperatingprocedures? A) Theyprovideroutinerulestohelpbureaucratsmakenumerouseverydaydecisions. B) Eachfederaldepartmentandagencyhasaplumbookwhichlistsitsstandardoperating procedures. C) Theycansometimesbesoroutinizedthattheyaredifficulttochangeeveninthefaceof changingcircumstances. D) Theyarereferredtoasredtapebythosewhofindthemburdensome. E) Theyareusedbystreet-levelbureaucrats. Answer: B
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59) Standardoperatingprocedures A) usuallyprovetobeunjustanddiscriminatorywhenfollowedtotheletter. B) savetimeandbringuniformitytocomplexorganizations. C) werewaivedbytheReaganAdministrationinanefforttomakethebureaucracymore flexibleandcustomizethesolutionstoproblems. D) giveauthoritytoadministrativeactorstoselectamongvariousresponsestoagiven problem. E) arefrustratingandinappropriateinaddressingmostsituations. Answer: B
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60) StandardoperatingproceduresaccomplishallofthefollowingEXCEPT A) bringuniformitytocomplexorganizations. B) savetime. C) makepersonnelinterchangeable. D) reduceredtape. E) treatcitizensequally,regardlessofclassorrace. Answer: D


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61) ________istheauthorityofadministrativeactorstoselectamongvariousresponsestoagiven problem. A) Standardoperatingprocedure B) Administrativediscretion C) Administratorsdisposition D) Executivepower E) Deregulation Answer: B


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62) Standardoperatingproceduresbecomefrustratingtocitizensandobstaclestoactionwhen they A) donotdirectlyapplytoaparticularsituation. B) slowbureaucraticresponsestocitizensneeds. C) arenotspecificallycodified. D) transferpersonneltodifferentposts. E) arenotcloselyfollowed. Answer: A


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63) Theauthorityofadministrativeactorstoselectamongvariousresponsestoagivenproblemis called A) policyimplementation. B) selectivemanagement. C) themeritprinciple. D) thedefinitionofalternatives. E) administrativediscretion. Answer: E


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64) Administrativediscretionisgreatestwhen A) rulesandregulationsarenotwrittendown. B) whenstandardoperatingproceduresareused. C) anagencyhaselaboraterulesandregulations. D) aparticularagencyisthesubjectofmediacoverage. E) rulesdonotfitacase. Answer: E


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65) TheFederalAviationAdministrationsprotocolforforhijackingsassumedthat A) thepilotwouldbeabletoradioairtrafficcontrollersandalertthemtotheproblem. B) theFAAwouldbeabletopinpointtheaircraftinvolved. C) therewouldbeenoughtimeforthegovernmenttoformulatearesponse. D) thehijackerswouldbemotivatedinpartbyadesiretostayalive. E) Alloftheabove Answer: E


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66) Thosecivilserviceemployeeswhoareinconstantcontactwiththepublic(oftenahostileone) andhaveconsiderablediscretionareknownas A) street-levelbureaucrats. B) routinizers. C) GeneralSchedulefootsoldiers. D) theSeniorExecutiveService. E) civilservants. Answer: A


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67) Administrativepersonnelwhoexercisediscretion,payattentiontoroutine,anddealdirectly withclients, A) arecalledstreet-levelbureaucrats. B) arelimitedtohigh-levelpositionsintheadministration. C) implementfederalpolicies. D) arepartoftheSeniorExecutiveService. E) areusuallydismissedfornotfollowingstandardoperatingprocedures. Answer: A


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68) Whichofthefollowingwouldnotbeconsideredastreet-levelbureaucrat? A) amunicipalcourtjudge B) anassistantsecretaryintheDepartmentofTransportation C) awelfareworker D) amailcarrierwhodeliversmailexclusivelyinahigh-risebuilding E) apoliceofficer Answer: B


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69) Whenbureaucratsareaskedtoexecuteorderswithwhichtheydonotagree, A) theyusuallyignoretheorders. B) theyarelikelytolosetheirjobsiftheydonotfollowthroughwiththeorders. C) theycanfileaConflictOfInterestFormandwillbeexemptedfromthatdutybytheir boss. D) implementationfollowsstandardoperatingprocedures. E) slippageislikelytooccurbetweenpolicydecisionsandperformance. Answer: E


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70) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisFALSE? A) Bureaucratsareoftenfiredforusingtoomuchadministrativediscretion. B) Payraisesinthebureaucracytendtobesmallandacross -the-board. C) Removingappointedofficialsmaybepoliticallyembarrassingtothepresident. D) Agovernmentagencycannotexpandjustbecauseitisperformingaserviceeffectively andefficiently. E) noneoftheabove Answer: A
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71) Thediffusionofresponsibilitywithinthebureaucracy A) makesthecoordinationofpoliciesbothtime-consuminganddifficult. B) increasesadministrativediscretion. C) allowsforadiversityofopinionthusfacilitatingeffectiveadministration. D) helpsdiminishtheuseofadministrativediscretion. E) facilitatestheuseofinter-bureaucracystandardoperatingprocedures. Answer: A


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72) Proposalstoreorganizethegovernmentinordertosolvetheproblemofbureaucratic fragmentation A) areoftenopposedbyagenciesnotwantingtobesubmergedwithinabroader bureaucraticunit. B) tendtobesupportedbyRepublicanpresidents,whoadvocategovernmental centralization. C) areopposedbycongressionalcommittees,fearingtheywillbegivengreater responsibilitytooverseelargerandmorediverseagencies. D) aresupportedbyinterestgroups,whofeeltheycouldbettercontroltheregulatory programsofareorganizedbureaucracy. E) aresupportedandopposedforallofthesereasons. Answer: A
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73) TheVotingRightsActof1965 A) wasverydifficulttoimplementbecauseofthefragmentationofresponsibilityfor implementingit. B) wassuccessfullyimplementedthankstoitscleargoal,itsclearmethodstoachievethe goal,anditslackofbureaucraticfragmentation. C) failedtoachieveitspolicygoalsbecauseoftheoutrighthostilityofstreet -level bureaucrats. D) wasimpossibletoimplementbecauseofalackofclarityinthelegislation. E) AllbutDaretrue. Answer: B
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74) TheVotingRightsActof1965wassuccessfulforallofthefollowingreasonsEXCEPT A) itsgoalwasclear. B) itsimplementationwasstraightforward. C) theauthorityoftheimplementorswasplain. D) itwasuniversallysupported. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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75) Theuseofgovernmentauthoritytocontrolorchangesomepracticeintheprivatesectoris knownas A) socialism. B) regulation. C) oversight. D) executivereview. E) publicadministration. Answer: B


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76) Theuseofgovernmentalauthoritytocontrolorchangesomepracticeintheprivatesectoris called A) regulation. B) patronage. C) administrativediscretion. D) policyimplementation. E) publicadministration. Answer: A


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77) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutgovernmentregulationinAmericaisaccurate? A) TheConstitutionsetuponlysixregulatoryagencies;theothershavebeencreatedwithin thepast100yearsorso. B) TheFederalCommunicationsCommissionwasthefirstindependentregulatoryagency. C) Until1887,thefederalgovernmentmadealmostnoregulatorypoliciesandhadno regulatoryagencies. D) Regulatoryagenciestendedtobemorepopularintheearlyyearsofthenationshistory, thengrewmorecontroversialduringthelate-nineteenthcentury. E) bothAandC Answer: C
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78) InthecaseofMunnv.Illinois,decidedin1877,theUnitedStatesSupremeCourt A) ruledthatstatescouldnotimposecorporateincometaxes. B) ruledthattheCivilServiceSystemwasconstitutional. C) outlawedthepatronagesystem. D) heldthatgovernmenthadnorighttoregulatethebusinessoperationsofafirm. E) upheldtherightofgovernmenttoregulatethebusinessoperationsofafirm. Answer: E


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79) Until1887,thefederalgovernment A) hadalmostnoregulatorypolicies. B) wasinvolvedonlyinsocialregulation. C) ownedandoperatedmostofthemajorindustriesinthecountry. D) forbadethestatesfrompassingregulatorypolicies. E) wasinvolvedonlyineconomicregulation. Answer: A


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80) TheSupremeCourtcaseofMunnv.Illinois (1877) A) declaredthatregulationwasnotwithintherealmofstatepowers. B) firstestablishedtherighttoownpropertyasoneoftherightsoftheBillofRights. C) settheprecedentforderegulation. D) upheldtherightofgovernmenttoregulatethebusinessoperationsofafirm. E) upheldtheconstitutionalityoftheInterstateCommerceCommission. Answer: D


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81) Mostregulatoryagenciesadoptspecific________tocarryoutapolicy,basedonwhatthey believewastheintendedpurposeofthespecificpolicyathand. A) guidelines B) irontriangles C) incentivesystems D) mandates E) meritprinciples Answer: A


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82) WhateverstrategyCongresspermitsaregulatoryagencytouse,allregulationcontainsthe followingelementsEXCEPT A) somemeansofenforcingcompliance. B) agrantofpowerandsetofdirectionsfromCongress. C) asetofrulesandguidelinesbytheregulatoryagencyitself. D) anincentivesystemtomaximizeperformancebythoseregulated. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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83) AllregulationscontaineachofthefollowingelementsEXCEPT A) agrantofpowerandsetofdirectionsfromCongress B) somemeansofenforcingcompliancewithcongressionalgoalsandagencyregulations C) presidentialoversightandcontrolofenforcement D) asetofrulesandguidelinesbytheregulatoryagencyitself E) Alloftheseareelementsoftheregulatoryprocess. Answer: C


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84) WhenCongresspassesregulatorylegislationforwhichithasestablishedgoals,itthen A) grantspowertoregulatoryagenciestodevelopguidelinesandenforcecompliance. B) assignsresponsibilityforadministrationtoregulatoryagenciesandresponsibilityfor enforcementtothecourts. C) establishestheguidelinesthatregulatoryagenciesmustimplement. D) grantsinterestgroupsthepowertodeveloptherulesgoverningthenewpolicy. E) authorizesthepresidenttousehisadministrativediscretiontoimplementthelegislation. Answer: A


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85) Oneproposedsolutiontotheproblemoftheproliferationofregulatoryagenciesandpolicies hasbeen A) deregulation. B) deproliferation. C) budgetcuts. D) standardoperatingprocedures. E) theincentivesystem. Answer: A


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86) Deregulationhasresulted,atleastinpart,ineachofthefollowingEXCEPT A) environmentaldamage. B) theproliferationofgovernmentagencies. C) competitiveairlinefares. D) anexpensivebailoutofthesavingsandloanindustry. E) lessgovernmentoversightinsomekeyareas. Answer: B


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87) WhichofthefollowingisNOTanaccusationmadeagainsttheregulatorysystem? A) Excessiveregulationcontributedtothesavingsandloanindustrydisasterofthe1980s. B) Iftheproducerisfacedwithexpensiveregulations,costswillinevitablybepassedalong totheconsumerintheformofhigherprices. C) Regulationsdonotalwaysworkwell,andtheysimplycreatemassiveregulatory bureaucracies. D) Othernationshavelaxerregulationsonpollution,workersafety,andotherbusiness practices,thusAmericanexportsoftencostmore. E) Allofthesehavebeencriticismsofregulation. Answer: A
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88) EachofthefollowingisacriticismofregulationEXCEPTthatit A) lowersprices. B) doesnotwork. C) distortsmarketforces. D) istoocomplex. E) givesbureaucratstoomuchpower. Answer: A


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89) Mostofthegovernmentiscomposedof A) regulators. B) lawyers. C) bureaucrats. D) electedlegislators. E) politicians. Answer: C


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90) Executiveordersareissuedby A) independentregulatoryagencies. B) anyfederalagencyordepartment. C) Congress. D) membersoftheSeniorExecutiveService. E) thepresident. Answer: E


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91) WhichofthefollowingisNOTamethodapresidentcanusetocontrolthebureaucracy? A) issueexecutiveordersormoreinformalrequests B) rewritestatutestomakeinstructionsclearerastohowpoliciesareintended C) appointpeopletoheadanagencywhosharethepresidentsgoalsandstrategies D) tinkerwithanagencysrecommendedbudget E) requestacongressionaloversighthearing Answer: B


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92) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutCongressandthebureaucracyisFALSE? A) BureaucraciescanhelpCongressfindanswerstopolicyproblems. B) Bureaucracieshelpprovideservicestoconstituents. C) MembersofCongressoftenfindabigbureaucracycongenial. D) Congresshasfounditeasytocontrolthebureaucracy. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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93) CongresstriestocontrolthebureaucracythrougheachofthefollowingEXCEPT A) rewritinglegislation. B) influencingtheappointmentofagencyheads. C) holdinghearings. D) issuingcongressionalorders. E) bothAandB Answer: D


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94) Congresstriestocontrolthebureaucracythrough A) rewritinglawsandbudgetsandholdinghearings. B) deregulation. C) theuseofexecutiveordersandappointments. D) thecreationofirontriangles. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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95) Tolimitbureaucraticdiscretionandmakeitsinstructionsclearer,Congresscan A) deregulate. B) writenewandmoredetailedlegislation. C) holdcongressionalhearings. D) reregulate. E) threatentocutanagencysbudget. Answer: B


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96) AstheoversightpowersofCongressinregardtothebureaucracyhavebecomemore vigorous, A) Congressisincreasinglythepolicy-implementationbranchofgovernment. B) ithasbecomeeasiertoreininthebureaucracy. C) theyhavealsobecomemorefragmented. D) irontriangleshaveweakenedconsiderably. E) theamountofgovernmentcorruptionhasdecreaseddramatically. Answer: C


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97) AmajorproblemforpresidentsandCongressincontrollingbureaucraciesistheexistenceof A) theplumbook. B) SupremeCourtrulingscurbingthescopeoftheiroversight. C) irontriangles. D) standardoperatingprocedures. E) theincentivesystem. Answer: C


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98) Anirontriangleisalsoreferredtoas A) agovernmentcorporation. B) areversediagonal. C) asubgovernment. D) thealphabetsoupofAmericangovernment. E) anissuenetwork. Answer: C


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99) Anirontriangleconsistsof A) representativesoftheexecutive,legislative,andjudicialbranchesofthegovernment. B) thepresident,theheadofarelevantcongressionalcommittee,andtheheadofany regulatoryagency. C) abureaucraticagency,aninterestgroup,andacongressionalcommitteeor subcommittee. D) themetalstampusedtocertifythatthepresidenthasapprovedanewregulationandit nowtakeslegaleffect. E) thosefavoringregulationX,thoseopposingregulationX,andtheregulatoryagencyin chargeofoverseeingX. Answer: C
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100) A(n)________consistsofanadministrativeagency,aninterestgroup,andacongressional committeeorsubcommittee. A) issuenetwork B) independentexecutiveagency C) triumvirate D) administrativediscretiontriad E) irontriangle Answer: E


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101) Irontrianglesfacechallengesfromagrowingnumberof A) street-levelbureaucrats. B) subgovernments. C) plasticsandsoftermetals. D) administrativediscretions. E) issuenetworks. Answer: E


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102) Issuenetworksare A) agrowingparticipatoryforceinbureaucraticdecisionmakingwhosemembersinterest inissuesisintellectualoremotionalratherthanmaterial. B) thesameasirontriangles. C) therelativelynewtelevisionstationsthatspecializeinpoliticalcoverage. D) subjecttostandardoperatingprocedures. E) twoormoreagenciesthatshareregulatorypowerwhenapolicyorregulationaffects morethanoneregulatorybody. Answer: A
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103) Subgovernmentspromote A) centralizationofauthority. B) strongexecutivebranchcontrolofpolicymaking. C) thecontrolofthebureaucracybyCongress. D) decentralizedandfragmentedpolicymaking. E) presidentialcontrolofbureaucraticdiscretion. Answer: D


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104) Agroupofparticipantsinbureaucraticpolicymakingwithtechnicalpolicyexpertiseand intellectualandemotionalcommitmenttotheissueiscalled A) agovernmentcorporation. B) anirontriangle. C) asubgovernment. D) anissuenetwork. E) avestedcohort. Answer: D


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105) WhichofthefollowingisNOTanareainwhichanirontrianglehascontrolledfederalpolicy overthepastseveraldecades? A) nuclearpowerpolicy B) environmentalpolicy C) pesticidepolicy D) smoking&tobaccopolicy E) noneoftheabove Answer: B


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106) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueaboutirontriangles? A) TheypresenttremendousdifficultiesforCongressandthepresidentwhentheyattempt tocontrolthebureaucracy. B) Theyaddastrongdecentralizingandfragmentingelementtothegovernments policymakingprocess. C) Theyarealsoknownassubgovernments. D) Theyareindestructible. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D
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107) Irontrianglesarecomposedof A) primarilyiron,butalsometallic,alloys. B) bureaucraticagencies,interestgroups,andcongressionalcommittees. C) urbanbureaucracies,statebureaucracies,andfederalbureaucracies. D) congressionalcommittees,stategovernments,andbureaucraticagencies. E) senators,governors,anddepartmentheads. Answer: B


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108) In1887,Congressestablishedthefirstregulatoryagency,the________,andchargeditwith regulatingtherailroads,theirprices,andtheirservicestofarmers. A) DepartmentofTransportation B) RailroadCommission C) AmericanRailwayUnion D) FederalTradeCommission E) InterstateCommerceCommission Answer: E


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109) Whichofthefollowingstatementsaboutbureaucraciesandthescopeofgovernmentis FALSE? A) WhenthepresidentandCongresschosetoderegulatecertainareasoftheeconomyor cuttaxes,thebureaucracypreventedthemfromdoingso. B) Thefederalbureaucracyhasactuallyshrunkinsizerelativetothepopulationitserves. C) Thebureaucracyisnowexpectedtoplayanactiveroleindealingwithsocialand economicproblems. D) Thefederalbureaucracyhasnotgrownoverthepasttwogenerations. E) noneoftheabove Answer: A
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True/FalseQuestions
1) EachbureaucraticagencyiscreatedbyCongress,whichsetsitsbudgetandwritesthebasic policiesitistoadminister. Answer: TRUE
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2) MostfederalbureaucratsworkinWashington,D.C.,ortheD.C.metropolitanarea. Answer: FALSE


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3) Overthepasttwogenerations,thefederalbureaucracyhasshrunkinsizerelativetothe populationitserves. Answer: TRUE


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4) Bureaucraciesarealittlelikereferees:Whentheyworkwell,noonegivesthemmuchcredit, butwhentheyworkpoorly,everyonecallsthemunfair,incompetent,orinefficient. Answer: TRUE


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5) Scholarshavedemonstratedthatgovernmentbureaucraciesareefficientandeffectivethan privatebureaucracies. Answer: FALSE


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6) TheDepartmentofHealthandHumanServicesemploysthelargestnumberofcivilian workersinthefederalbureaucracy. Answer: FALSE


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7) Altogether,theDepartmentofDefenseemploysaboutone-halfoffederalcivilianworkersin additiontothe1.5millionmenandwomeninuniform. Answer: FALSE


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8) TheHatchActof1940prohibitscivilserviceemployeesfromactiveparticipationinpartisan politics. Answer: TRUE


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9) TheFederalTradeCommissionisanindependentregulatoryagencyofthefederal governmentwhichregulatestherailroadandtruckingindustries. Answer: FALSE


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10) Commissionmembersofindependentregulatorycommissionscanbefiredbythepresident. Answer: FALSE


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11) ThegovernmentestablishedAmtrakasthegovernmentcorporationprovidingpassenger railroadservicewhentheprivatepassengerrailroadsbecameasickindustrysomeyearsago. Answer: TRUE


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12) TheGeneralServiceAdministration(GSA),theNationalScienceFoundation(NSF),andthe NationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministrationareallexamplesofregulatoryagencies. Answer: FALSE


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13) Section844ofTitleIXoftheEducationActof1972isanexampleofclarityinlegislativegoals. Answer: FALSE


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14) PolicyproblemsthatCongresscannotresolvearelikelytobeeasilyresolvedbybureaucrats. Answer: FALSE


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15) Governmentagenciesarealwaysgiventhenecessaryresourcesandauthoritytoimplementa policybyCongress. Answer: FALSE


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16) StreetbureaucratsarethosecivilserviceemployeeswhohavethehighestGSratings. Answer: FALSE


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17) Mostbureaucratsareguidedbystandardoperatingprocedures(SOPs)tohelpthemmake numerouseverydaydecisionsbasedonaconsistent,setroutine. Answer: TRUE


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18) Astrongargumentforderegulationisthatthenumberandcomplexityofregulatorypolicies havemaderegulationtoocomplexandburdensome. Answer: TRUE


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19) OneofthestaunchestsupportersofderegulationwasPresidentRonaldReagan. Answer: TRUE


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20) SinceCongressholdsthepowerofthepurse,thepresidenthasnoauthorityoveranagencys budget. Answer: FALSE


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21) TheSupremeCourt,Congress,andthefederalbureaucracyheadedbythepresidentconstitute whatisoftencalledtheirontriangle. Answer: FALSE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) Theclassicconceptionof________wasadvancedbytheGermansociologistMaxWeber,who stressedthatitwasarationalwayformodernsocietytoconductitsbusiness:a well-organizedmachinewithplentyofworking,buthierarchical,parts. Answer: bureaucracy
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2) WhatarethemainelementsoftheWeberianmodelofbureaucracies? Answer: ahierarchicalauthoritystructure,taskspecialization,extensiverules,meritprinciple andimpersonality


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3) Onlythe________hasmorecivilianemployeesinthefederalbureaucracythandoesthe UnitedStatesPostalService. Answer: DepartmentofDefense


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4) Definethetermpatronageandgiveanexampleofhowitwasused. Answer: ahiringandpromotionsystembasedonpoliticalreasonsratherthanonmeritor competence;answerswillvary


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5) AfterPresidentJamesGarfieldsassassinationin1881,thenewpresidentpushedCongress intopassingthePendleton________Act. Answer: CivilService


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6) WhatisthefunctionoftheOfficeofPersonnelManagement? Answer: inchargeofhiringformostagenciesofthefederalgovernment


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7) Asanewadministrationpreparestotakecontrolofthegovernment,Congresspublishesthe ________,whichliststopfederaljobsavailablefordirectpresidentialappointment. Answer: plumbook


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8) TheSecuritiesandExchangeCommissionandtheFederalReserveBoardarebothexamplesof ________,eachgovernedbyasmallcommission,usuallywithfivetotenmembersappointed bythepresidentforfixedtermsandconfirmedbytheSenate. Answer: independentregulatoryagencies


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9) Whatareindependentexecutiveagencies?Giveanexample. Answer: governmentagenciesthatarenotregulatoryagenciesorgovernmentcorporationsyet whoseadministratorsareappointedbythepresidentandserveathispleasure;General ServicesAdministration,NationalScienceFoundation,NationalAeronauticsandSpace Administration


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10) Tohelpbureaucratsmakeeverydaydecisionsinaroutinemanner,theyarerequiredtofollow setrulesknownas________,whichsomecriticizeasredtape. Answer: standardoperatingprocedures


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11) Whyarestandardoperatingproceduresimportanttoanagency? Answer: Answerswillvary.


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12) Whatismeantbyadministrativediscretion,andwhenisitmostoftenused? Answer: theauthorityofadministrativeactorstoselectamongvariousresponsestoagiven problem;greatestwhenstandardoperatingproceduresdonotfitforacase


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13) ________bureaucratsarethosewhoareinconstantcontactwiththepublic(oftenahostile one)andhaveconsiderablediscretion;theyincludepoliceofficers,welfareworkers,andlower courtjudges. Answer: Street-level


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14) Thefirstfederalregulatoryagencywasthe________,setupin1887toregulatetherailroads, theirprices,andtheirservicestofarmers. Answer: InterstateCommerceCommission


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15) WhatisthesignificanceoftheSupremeCourtcaseofMunnv.Illinois (1877)? Answer: SupremeCourtcaseinwhichtheCourtupheldtherightofgovernmenttoregulatethe businessoperationsofafirm


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16) Listthethreeelementscontainedinallregulation. Answer: AgrantofpowerfromCongress,guidelinesissuedbyaregulatoryagency,andameans ofenforcement.


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17) Theideabehind________isthatthenumberandcomplexityofregulatorypolicieshavemade regulationtoocomplexandburdensome,andthatregulationraisesprices,distortsmarket forces,anddoesnotdowhatitsetsouttodo. Answer: deregulation


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18) Whatisanexecutiveorderandwhyaretheyissued? Answer: regulationsoriginatingfromtheexecutivebranch;usedbypresidentstocontrolthe bureaucracy


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19) Anirontriangleconsistsofa(n)________,aCongressionalcommitteeorsubcommittee,and abureaucraticagency. Answer: interestgroup


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20) Whatareissuenetworks?Explaintheirsignificance. Answer: consistofindividualswithtechnicalpolicyexpertiseandthosewhoaredrawntoan issueoutofintellectualoremotionalcommitmentsratherthanmaterialinterests;these individualsworkasidesubgovernments,complicatingtheircalculationsanddecreasing thepredictabilityofthoseinvolvedinsubgovernments


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EssayQuestions
1) HowdoestheAmericanpublicfeelaboutbureaucratsandbureaucracy?Whatarethemost prevalentmythsaboutbureaucracy?
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2) Describesomeofthemoreprevalentmythsaboutthefederalbureaucracy,andwhytheyare onlymyths.Whathasyourexperiencebeenwithgovernmentbureaucrats?Wouldyou recommendanychangesbasedonyourexperience?Explain.


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3) EvaluatethesizeoftheAmericanbureaucracy.Isthebureaucracytoobigortoosmall?
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4) Howweremostfederaljobsobtainedupuntilthelate-nineteenthcentury?Whatwasthekey eventthatpromptedthefederalgovernmenttostartthecivilservice?Whatisthecivilservice basedupon,andwhatareitsstrengthsandweaknesses?Explain.


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5) Whoarethebureaucratsandhowdotheybecomegovernmentworkers?Compareand contrastthetheoriesonwhatbureaucratsdoandhowtheybehave.
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6) Whatistheplumbook,andwhatisitsroleinstaffingthefederalbureaucracy?Howdoits officesdifferfromthosestaffedthroughthecivilservice?Howdothepeoplewhoservein plumbookjobsdifferfromcivilserviceemployees?Explain.


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7) Whatisanindependentregulatoryagency,andwhatdoesitdo?Brieflynametwoorthree examplesofsuchagencies.HowdotheydifferfromCabinetdepartmentsintermsof presidentialcontrol?Howdotheydifferfromgovernmentcorporations?Arethesedifferences appropriate?Explain.


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8) Identify,describe,andgiveexamplesofthefourbasictypesofbureaucracyinthefederal government.
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9) Identify,describe,andgiveexamplesoftheimplementationfunctionsofbureaucracies.
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10) Whyispolicyimplementationlefttothebureaucracy?Whataresomeoftheprincipalcauses ofimplementationbreakdown?Whatimprovementsdoyouthinkcouldbemadetolessenthe likelihoodofsuchbreakdowns?Explain.


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11) Explainwhytheimplementationprocesssometimesfails.Whataretheobstaclestosuccessful implementation?Asanexample,compareandcontrasttheimplementationofTitleIXofthe EducationAmendmentsof1972andtheVotingRightsActof1965.Whywasonemore successfullyimplementedthantheother?


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12) DescribethepurposeoftheVotingRightsActof1965.Whatfactorsmadeitasuccessfulcase ofimplementation?Whyarelawsandregulationsseldomthissuccessful?Explain.


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13) WhatmethodsareatthedisposalofpresidentsandCongresstocontrolthebureaucracy? Whicharemostwidelyused?Howeffectivearethey?Doyouthinkthesecontrolsare sufficient?Explain.


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14) DiscussthevariousmethodsusedbythepresidentandCongresstocontrolthebureaucracy. Whoisgenerallymoresuccessfulingettingthebureaucracytodowhatitwants?


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15) ExplainthemethodsthatpresidentsandCongressusetotrytocontrolthebureaucracy.Why isitdifficulttocontrolandreformthebureaucracyintheUnitedStates?


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16) Whatisanirontriangle,andwhatisitssignificanceinAmericangovernment?Givean example.Arethesenaturalgroupingswhichshouldbeencouragedoratleasttolerated,orare theyfundamentallydangeroustoademocracy?Explain.


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Chapter16 TheFederalCourts
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) ThegreatmajorityofAmericasjudicialbusinessistransactedin A) statecourtsoforiginaljurisdiction. B) TaxCourt. C) SupremeCourts. D) theUnitedStatescourtsofappeal. E) federalcourtsoforiginaljurisdiction. Answer: A
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2) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthecourtsisFALSE? A) SupremeCourtdecisionsmaydirectlyshapepeopleslives. B) MostofAmericanjudicialpolicyismadeintheSupremeCourt. C) ThegreatbulkofAmericanlegalbusinessistransactedintheless-noticedcourts. D) TheSupremeCourtdecidesahandfulofkeyissueseachyear. E) ThejudicialsystemintheU.S.is,atleastinprinciple,anadversarialone. Answer: B


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3) Oneofthedifferencesbetweencriminallawandcivillawisthatincivillaw A) thereisnochargethatalawhasbeenviolated. B) thereisnojury. C) thecasecannotbeappealed. D) thegovernmentcannotbeoneofthelitigants. E) commonlawtakesprecedentoverstatutorylaw. Answer: A


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4) Litigantsare A) theattorneys. B) theplaintiffandthedefendant. C) theplaintiffandtheplaintiffsattorney. D) thedefendantandthedefendantsattorney. E) plaintiffs. Answer: B


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5) Noteveryonecanchallengealaw.Litigantsmusthavewhatiscalled________,meaningthat theymusthaveaseriouspersonalstakeinthecase,typicallydeterminedbywhetherornot theyhavesustainedorareindangerofaninjury. A) standingtosue B) awritofmandamus C) staredecisis D) originaljurisdiction E) legalprerogative Answer: A


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6) Classactionsuits A) arethosewhichhavetodowithconstitutionalissues,thusbroadeningthestandingto sue. B) arefiledbystudentsseekingtoforceaschooldistricttoofferadditionalsectionsof perpetuallyover-enrolledcourses. C) permitasmallnumberofpeopletosueonbehalfofallotherpeoplesimilarlysituated. D) mayonlybefiledifallofthosewithastandingtosueagreetoparticipate. E) areroutinelyfiledbyteachersgroupstopreparethewayforlegalstrikes. Answer: C


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7) Courtsmayonlydecide________disputes. A) civil B) constitutional C) justiciable D) criminal E) classaction Answer: C


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8) Standingtosueisdeterminedby A) thejudiciarycommitteeofCongress. B) whetherornotthecaseinvolvesaclassactionsuit. C) theSolicitorGeneralsoffice. D) whetherornotthelitigantshaveaseriousinterestinacase. E) acourt-appointedjury. Answer: D


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9) Merelybeingataxpayerandbeingopposedtoalawdoesnotprovidethestandingnecessary tochallengethatlawincourtexceptincasespertainingto A) taxation. B) governmentalsupportforreligion. C) environmentalprotection. D) civilliberties. E) racialorsexualdiscrimination. Answer: B


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10) Classactionsuits A) permitasmallnumberofpeopletosueonbehalfofallotherpeoplesimilarlysituated. B) arecasesinwhichthegovernmentsuesonbehalfofgroupsofpeopleunabletogoto courtforavarietyofreasons. C) arecivilsuitsbroughttothecourtsbyinterestgroups. D) arecivilorcriminalcasesinvolvingdiscriminationonthebasisofincome. E) involvegroupsofpeoplesuingeachotherratherthanindividuals. Answer: A


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11) Oneconstraintonfederalcourtsisthattheymaydecideonly A) statutorylaw. B) appellatecases. C) justiciabledisputes. D) constitutionalissues. E) interstateconflicts. Answer: C


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12) AllofthefollowingareexamplesofstandingtosueEXCEPT A) havingsustainedadirectinjuryfromanotherparty. B) seriousinterestinthecase. C) raisingapoliticalquestion. D) havingsustainedadirectinjuryfromthegovernment. E) beingamemberofaclass Answer: C


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13) TheConstitutionspecificallyprovidedthattherewouldbeaSupremeCourt, A) andestablishedasystemoflowerfederalcourtsthroughoutthenation. B) butleftituptotheindividualstatestoestablishlowerfederalcourtsofgeneral jurisdiction. C) butleftittothediscretionofCongresstoestablishlowerfederalcourtsofgeneral jurisdiction. D) butleftituptotheSupremeCourtitselftoestablishlowerfederalcourtsofgeneral jurisdiction. E) andgrantedthePresidentthepowertoestablishanylowerfederalcourtshedeemed necessary. Answer: C
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14) Lowerfederalcourtsofgeneraljurisdictionwereestablishedby A) PresidentGeorgeWashington. B) theJudiciaryActof1789. C) theEleventhAmendment. D) theConstitution. E) theSupremeCourt. Answer: B


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15) Courtswith________hearcasesbroughttothemonappealfromalowercourt. A) staredecisis B) originaljurisdiction C) judicialreview D) justiciabledisputes E) appellatejurisdiction Answer: E


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16) Alegislativecourtis A) astate-levelcourt. B) theinitialleveloffederalcourtsformostdisputes. C) staffedbyjudgeswholacktheprotectionsagainstremovalorsalaryreductionswhilein office. D) staffedbyjudgeswhoserveforlife. E) onethatspecializesinthereviewoflegislationforitsconstitutionality. Answer: C


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17) Theentrypointformostlitigationinthefederalcourtsisinoneofthe________courts. A) appellate B) district C) Superior D) legislative E) municipal Answer: B


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18) Thereare________federaldistrictcourts. A) 53 B) 12 C) 9 D) 91 E) 50 Answer: D


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19) Courtsoforiginaljurisdictionare A) usuallyfederalcourts. B) trialcourts. C) highlyspecializedinthetypesofcasestheyhear. D) usuallyappellatecourts. E) thecourtsthatwereestablishedbytheoriginalConstitutionratherthanbyCongress. Answer: B


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20) Courtswithappellatejurisdiction A) determinethefactsaboutacase. B) reviewthelegalissuesinvolvedinacase. C) hearonlycriminalcases. D) havenooriginaljurisdiction. E) hearonlycivilcases Answer: B


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21) TheCourtofClaimsisa A) districtcourt. B) statecourt. C) legislativecourt. D) Constitutionalcourt. E) presidentialcourt. Answer: C


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22) WhichoneofthefollowingisNOTtrueaboutthefederaldistrictcourts? A) Eachdistricthasbetween2and27judges,withonejudgeusuallypresidingaloneover mostcases. B) Theyhearappealsfrommunicipal,county,andstatecourts. C) Theyaretheonlyfederalcourtsinwhichtrialsareheld,andjuriesmaybeimpaneled. D) Theyaretheentrypointsformostlitigationinthefederalcourtsystem. E) Allfederaldistrictcourtjudgesareappointedbythepresidentandconfirmedby Congress. Answer: B
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23) WhichofthefollowingisNOTunderthejurisdictionofthedistrictcourts? A) supervisionofbankruptcyproceedings B) supervisionofthenaturalizationofaliens C) admiraltyandmaritimelawcases D) themajorityofallcriminalcasesintheUnitedStates E) civilsuitsunderfederallaw Answer: D


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24) Theonlyfederalcourtsinwhichtrialsareheld,andinwhichjuriesmaybeimpaneled,arethe A) superiorcourts. B) legislativecourts. C) courtsofclaims. D) districtcourts. E) courtsofappeal. Answer: D


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25) About98percentofallcriminalcasesintheUnitedStatesareheardin A) federaldistrictcourts. B) appellatecourts. C) stateandlocalcourtsystems. D) theSupremeCourt. E) legislativecourts. Answer: C


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26) Animportantplayeratthedistrictcourtlevelineachdistrictisthe________,nominatedby thepresidentandconfirmedbytheSenate.Heorsheservesatthediscretionofthepresident. A) SolicitorGeneral B) countyclerk C) federalmarshal D) UnitedStatesattorney E) federalmagistrate Answer: D


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27) Mostcriminalandcivilcases A) aredecidedbyjurytrialinstatecourts. B) neverreachtrial,butaresettledoutofcourt. C) areappealedtoahighercourt. D) aredecidedbyajudgeinfederaldistrictcourt. E) eventuallyendupintheSupremeCourt. Answer: B


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28) Thevastmajorityofallcivilandcriminalcases A) beginandendinstatecourts. B) involvefederallaw,butaretriedinstatecourts. C) beginandendinfederalcourts. D) begininstatecourtsandareappealedtofederalcourts. E) involvestatelawsthataretriedinfederalcourts. Answer: A


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29) FederalmagistratesperformeachofthefollowingfunctionsEXCEPT A) presideoversometrials. B) issuewarrantsforarrest. C) hearmotionssubjecttoreview. D) prosecuteviolationsoffederallaw. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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30) TheUnitedStatesgovernmentisrepresentedincivilcasesindistrictcourtsbya A) districtjudge. B) UnitedStatesmarshal. C) federalmagistrate. D) UnitedStatesattorney. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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31) About75percentofthemorethan63,000casesheardintheUnitedStatescourtsofappeal comefrom A) challengestoordersofmanyfederalregulatoryagencies,suchastheSecuritiesand ExchangeCommission. B) theSupremeCourt. C) theSuperiorCourts. D) thedistrictcourts. E) thelegislativecourts. Answer: D
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32) ThejurisdictionofthedistrictcourtsextendstoeachofthefollowingEXCEPT A) federalcrimes. B) supervisionofbankruptcyproceedings. C) appealsfromstatecourts. D) admiraltyandmaritimelawcases. E) federalcivilsuits. Answer: C


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33) WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrueabouttheUnitedStatescourtsofappeal? A) Theyholdnoactualtrials,hearnotestimony,anddonotimpaneljuries. B) Theirfocusisoncorrectingerrorsofprocedureandlawthatoccurredintheoriginal proceedingsofthecase. C) TheirdecisionsarefinalandcannotbeappealedtotheSupremeCourt. D) Theirdecisionssetprecedentforallthecourtsandagencieswithintheirjurisdiction. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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34) Forhandlingcasesatthecourtsofappeallevel,theUnitedStatesisdividedinto________ judicialcircuits,includingonefortheDistrictofColumbia. A) 55 B) 26 C) 12 D) 51 E) 91 Answer: C


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35) Eachcourtofappealsnormallyhearscasesinpanelsconsistingof________judges. A) 9 B) 6 C) 12 D) 7 E) 3 Answer: E


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36) TheUnitedStatesCourtofAppealsfortheFederalCircuit A) decideswhichcaseswillandwillnotbeheardbytheSupremeCourt. B) screensallcasesgoingtotheSupremeCourt,fromwhichtheSupremeCourtdecides whichcasestotake. C) consistsoftheSupremeCourtitself. D) isresponsiblefordeterminingtheconstitutionalityoflawspassedbyCongress. E) consistsofjudgeswhohearappealsinspecializedcasessuchasthoseregardingpatents, copyrights,etc. Answer: E
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37) Appealsregardingpatentswouldbeheardby A) theUnitedStatesCourtofAppealsfortheFederalCircuit. B) theCourtofClaims. C) theSolicitorGeneral. D) aFederalDistrictCourt. E) theUnitedStatesSupremeCourt. Answer: A


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38) TheSupremeCourtconsistsofthechiefjusticeand________associatejustices. A) eight B) ten C) six D) twelve E) nine Answer: A


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39) ThefunctionsoftheSupremeCourtincludeeachofthefollowingEXCEPT A) maintainingnationalsupremacyinthelaw. B) resolvingconflictsamongthestates. C) reviewingtheevidenceincasesinvolvingcrimescommittedbypublicofficials. D) ensuringuniformityintheinterpretationofnationallaws. E) ruleoncasesacceptedfromlowercourts. Answer: C


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40) ThesizeoftheSupremeCourthasremainedthesamesince A) theJudiciaryActof1789. B) theTwelfthAmendmentwasratifiedin1804. C) PresidentRooseveltexpandeditin1937. D) theoriginalConstitutionspecifiedthenumberofjustices. E) PresidentUlyssesS.Granttookofficein1869. Answer: E


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41) TheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtsjurisdictionincludes A) appellatejurisdictionfrombothstateandfederalcourts. B) originaljurisdictiononlyincasesinvolvingforeigndiplomats. C) onlyappellatejurisdiction. D) originaljurisdictionincasesinvolvingcitizensfromonestateonlyifitinvolvesafederal question. E) alloftheabove Answer: A


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42) MostdecisionshandeddownbytheSupremeCourtarecasesinvolving A) originaljurisdiction. B) appealsfromstatecourts. C) federalfeloniesinvolvingexceptionalcircumstances. D) appealsfromlowerfederalcourts. E) appealsfromstatesupremecourts. Answer: D


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43) MostcasesheardbytheSupremeCourtcomefrom A) mattersoverwhichtheSupremeCourthasoriginaljurisdiction. B) statecriminalcourts. C) theUnitedStatesCourtofAppealfortheFederalCircuit. D) civilactionsfromlowerfederalcourts. E) civilactionsfromstatecourts. Answer: D


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44) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutfederaljudgesisFALSE? A) Allfederaljudgesarenominatedbythepresidentandconfirmedbyamajorityofthe Senate. B) Federaljudgesmayberemovedfromofficeonlybyconvictionofimpeachment. C) Membersofthefederaljudiciarycannothavetheirsalariesreduced. D) OnlysevenSupremeCourtjusticeshaveeverbeenremovedfromoffice. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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45) ThecustomarymannerinwhichtheSenatedisposesoffederaljudicialnominationsinone stateisthrough A) thesenioritysystem. B) senatorialcourtesy. C) majorityvote,usuallyalongpartylines. D) judicialreview. E) statesreview. Answer: B


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46) Senatorshavedominatedtheselectionofjudgesforthefederaldistrictcourtsthrough A) theircontrolofthebudget. B) theirpowerovercourtjurisdictions. C) theinfluenceoftheSenateJudiciaryCommittee. D) thecustomofsenatorialcourtesy. E) alloftheabove Answer: D


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47) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutsenatorialcourtesyisFALSE? A) Whenthereisavacancyforafederaljudgeship,therelevantsenatorwillsuggestoneor morenamestotheAttorneyGeneralandthepresident. B) Presidentsusuallycheckcarefullywiththerelevantsenatoraheadoftimesothatthey willavoidmakinganominationthatwillfailtobeconfirmed. C) Toinvokesenatorialcourtesy,therelevantsenatormustprovidedocumentedevidence whythenomineeisnotfitforoffice. D) Federaljudicialnominationsarenotconfirmedwhenopposedbyasenatorofthe presidentspartyfromthestateinwhichthenomineeistoserve. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C
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48) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutjudicialselectioninthelowercourtsisFALSE? A) Thepresidentusuallyhasmoreinfluenceintheselectionofjudgestothefederalcourts ofappealthantofederaldistrictcourts. B) Sittingjudgesmaybeaskedtoevaluateprospectivejudicialnominees. C) TheDepartmentofJusticeandtheFederalBureauofInvestigationconductcompetency andbackgroundchecksonprospectivejudicialnominees. D) Candidatesforjudicialnominationrarelycampaignforthepositionsthemselves. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D
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49) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheselectionofSupremeCourtjusticesisFALSE? A) ThepresidentusuallyreliesontheAttorneyGeneralandtheDepartmentofJusticeto identifyandscreencandidatesfortheCourt. B) SenatorsplayagreaterroleintherecruitmentofSupremeCourtjusticesthaninthe selectionoflowercourtjudges. C) Thepresidentusuallyoperatesunderfewerconstraintsinnominatingmemberstothe SupremeCourtthantothelowercourts. D) CandidatesfornominationtotheSupremeCourtusuallykeepalowprofile. E) noneoftheabove Answer: B
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50) About________ofnomineestotheSupremeCourtfailtobeconfirmed. A) 38percent B) 5percent C) 50percent D) 20percent E) 10percent Answer: D


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51) InitsinvestigationofSupremeCourtnominees,theSenateJudiciaryCommittee A) followsthecustomofsenatorialcourtesyandconfirmsnomineesapprovedbytheir homestatesenators. B) limitsitsinvestigationtothenomineesjudicialintegrityandexperience. C) isbasicallyarubberstampforthepresidentsnomination. D) mayprobeanomineesjudicialphilosophyingreatdetail. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D


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52) Inordertoconvincemoderatesenatorstojointhem,opponentsofanominationforthe SupremeCourttrytofocusonanominees A) mistrialrate. B) ideology. C) politicalactivities. D) competenceorethics. E) age. Answer: D


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53) Inordertodefeatajudicialnomination,opponentsintheSenateusuallymust A) getpublicsupportinoppositiontothenomination. B) beinthemajorityandbeintheoppositepartyasthepresident. C) beabletoquestionanomineescompetenceorethics. D) gettheAmericanBarAssociationontheirside. E) provethenomineesideologicalextremism. Answer: C


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54) PresidentReagansnominationofRobertBorkasanassociatejusticeontheSupremeCourt A) wasrejectedbytheSenate. B) wasrejectedbyboththeHouseandtheSenate. C) waswithdrawnafteritcametolightthatBorkhadsmokedmarijuanawhilealaw professoratHarvard. D) wasconfirmedbytheclosestmargininthetwentiethcentury. E) basedonBorksextensivelegalexperience. Answer: A


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55) SupremeCourtjusticeClarenceThomas A) hasnoidentifiableideology. B) isanideologicalmoderate. C) isanideologicalmoderatewhoadvocatesajurisprudenceoforiginalintent. D) isideologicallyliberal. E) isideologicallyconservative. Answer: E


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56) President________appointedmorewomen,AfricanAmericans,andHispanicstothefederal districtandcircuitcourtsthanallpreviouspresidentscombined. A) JimmyCarter B) LyndonJohnson C) RonaldReagan D) GeraldFord E) GeorgeBush Answer: A


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57) ThefirstwomanappointedtotheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtwas A) SandraDayOConnor. B) FrancesPerkins. C) HillaryClinton. D) CharlottePerkinsGilman. E) RuthBaderGinsberg. Answer: A


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58) WhocurrentlyservesontheSupremeCourtasthechiefjustice? A) WilliamRehnquist B) SamuelAlito C) HarrietMiers D) JohnRoberts E) DennisKucinich Answer: D


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59) Usuallymorethan90percentofpresidentsjudicialnominationsaremembersof A) theDepartmentofJustice. B) lawschoolfaculties. C) statelegislatures. D) theirownparty. E) Congress. Answer: D


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60) Whatpercentageofpresidentsjudicialnominationsaremembersoftheirownparties? A) almost80percent B) slightlymorethanhalf C) exceptforrareoccasions,100percent D) usuallymorethan90percent E) about75percent Answer: D


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61) Themostimportantfactorsinfluencingthepresidentsselectionofjudgesandjusticesappears tobe A) ideologyandpartisanship. B) raceandgender. C) judicialandelectiveexperience. D) geographyandreligion. E) theirlawschoolrank. Answer: A


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62) UnderRonaldReagansadministration,therewasastrongtendencytoappointfederaljudges onthebasisof A) ascriptivecharacteristics. B) experienceinthelawprofession. C) ideology. D) partisaninvolvement. E) theircontributionstoReaganspresidentialcampaign. Answer: C


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63) SupremeCourtjusticesoftentrytotimetheirretirement A) tomaximizetheirgovernmentretirementpension. B) insuchawayastomaximizetheirhistoricalimpact. C) sothatapresidentwithcompatibleviewswillchoosetheirsuccessor. D) sotheycanresigninprotestofamajormajoritydecisionthattheydisagreewith. E) nearelectiontimesothattheSupremeCourtnominationbecomesanelectionissue. Answer: C


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64) PresidentEisenhowersselectionofEarlWarrenandWilliamBrennantotheSupremeCourtis anexampleof A) theSenatemajoritystendencytorejectnomineesoftheopposingpoliticalparty. B) howreligionandregionwereonceimportantselectioncriteria. C) howapresidentcanmoldtheCourttohisideology. D) howpresidentscanbecomedisappointedwiththeirselections. E) theimportanceofpartisanshipintheselectionofjustices. Answer: D


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65) PresidentsaredisappointedwiththeirjudicialnominationstotheCourtabout________ percentofthetime. A) 33 B) 15 C) 10 D) 25 E) 50 Answer: D


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66) PresidentFranklinRooseveltsappointeestotheSupremeCourt A) liberalizedtheCourt. B) routinelyruledhisNewDeallegislationunconstitutional. C) madetheCourtmoreconservative. D) provedtohavenoeffectuponthedecisionsoftheCourt. E) provedtobegreatdisappointmentstohimonissueafterissue. Answer: A


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67) Oneofthemostimportantfactorsthatbringspotentialfederaljudgestotheattentionof senatorsandtheDepartmentofJusticeistheir A) standonissues. B) convictionrates. C) totalhonestyandintegrity. D) ideologicalneutrality. E) involvementinpartisanpolitics. Answer: E


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68) If________SupremeCourtjusticesagreetograntreviewofacase,itcanbescheduledfororal argumentordecidedonthebasisofthewrittenrecordalreadyonfilewiththeCourt. A) six B) two C) four D) nine E) amajorityof Answer: C


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69) ThemostcommonwayfortheSupremeCourttoputacaseonitsdocketisbyissuinga(n) ________,aformaldocumentthatcallsupacasewhichdealswithaConstitutionalquestionor inwhichstatelawsareclaimedtoviolatefederallaw. A) writofmandamus B) staredecisis C) amicuscuriaebrief D) percuriamdecision E) writofcertiorari Answer: E
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70) InorderfortheSupremeCourttohearoralargumentsordecideacaseonthewrittenrecord, A) amajorityofthejusticesmustagreetotakethecase. B) fourjusticesmustagreetotakethecase. C) thecasemustfirstbesenttoitbythepresident. D) onlythechiefjusticemustagreetotakethecase. E) alljusticesmustagreetotakethecase. Answer: B


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71) Awritofcertiorari A) meansthatjudgeshavedecidedacaseonthebasisofprecedent. B) freesadetainedpersonwhomacourthasfoundisbeingheldinviolationofdueprocess. C) isusedbytheSupremeCourttocallupacase. D) istheofficialrecordofacourtsdecision,statingthefactsofthecaseandtherationalefor thedecision. E) isusedtomoveacasefromacourtoforiginaljurisdictiontoafederaldistrictcourt. Answer: C


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72) The________isapresidentialappointeewhoisinchargeoftheappellatecourtlitigationof thefederalgovernment,worksoutoftheDepartmentofJustice,andcanhaveanimportant influenceontheSupremeCourt. A) AdjutantGeneral B) SolicitorGeneral C) UnitedStatesattorney D) AttorneyGeneral E) chiefjustice Answer: B
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73) WhichofthefollowingisNOTafunctionoftheUnitedStatesSolicitorGeneralsoffice? A) decidewhetherornottoappealcasesthegovernmenthaslostinthelowercourts B) reviewandmodifythebriefspresentedingovernmentappeals C) requiretheSupremeCourttoreviewagovernmentcaseonappeal D) representthegovernmentbeforetheSupremeCourt E) noneoftheabove Answer: C


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74) Inatypicalyear,theSupremeCourtissues________formalwrittenopinionsthatcouldserve asprecedent,andthusasthebasisofguidanceforlowercourts. A) morethan1,000 B) fewerthan100 C) between150and500 D) morethan500,butlessthan1,000 E) fewerthanten Answer: B


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75) A________isaSupremeCourtrulingwithoutexplanationwhichresolvesanimmediatecase buthasnovalueasprecedentbecausetheCourtdoesnotofferreasoningthatwouldguide lowercourtsinfuturedecisions. A) staredecisis B) writofcertiorari C) concurringopinion D) percuriamdecision E) writofmandamus Answer: D
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76) Thosewhoareinterestedintheoutcomeofacase,butarenotformallitigants,sometimes submit________briefs,raisingpointsofviewandpresentinginformationthattheyhopewill influencetheSupremeCourtsdecision. A) certiorari B) staredecisis C) amicuscuriae D) percuriamdecision E) concurring Answer: C
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77) PrincipalreasonsfortheCourtschoosingtohearacasewouldincludeeachofthefollowing EXCEPT A) conflictbetweendifferentlowercourtsontheinterpretationoffederallaw. B) casesthatinvolvemajorissues,likecivilliberties. C) disagreementbetweenamajorityoftheSupremeCourtandlowercourtdecisions. D) politicallyhotanddivisivecases. E) thejusticeslawclerksrecommenddoingso. Answer: D


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78) Thedecisiontoappealcasesthefederalgovernmenthaslostinthelowercourtsismadebythe A) majorityoftheSupremeCourt. B) SolicitorGeneral. C) president. D) chiefjustice. E) districtjudge. Answer: B


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79) Apercuriamdecisionisa A) decisionwithoutexplanation. B) decisionbythecourtnottohearacase. C) writtenopinionofacase. D) decisionthatcanbeusedasaprecedent. E) courtdecisionofnarrowscopethatcanbeissuedbyasinglejudgeinlimited circumstances. Answer: A


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80) Anamicuscuriaebriefmaybesubmittedby A) lawyersrepresentingeachsideofacase. B) ajudgetoajuryoutliningtheparametersajurymustfollowindecidingacase. C) thechiefjustice. D) groupsthatareinterestedintheoutcomeofacase,butarenotformallitigants. E) theactuallitigantsinacase. Answer: D


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81) ________opinionsarethoseofferedbyoneormoreSupremeCourtjusticesnotonlyto supportamajoritydecision,butalsotostressadifferentConstitutionalorlegalbasisforthe judgment. A) Amicuscuriae B) Dissenting C) Concurring D) Adjunct E) Differential Answer: C
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82) AwrittenopinioninaSupremeCourtcaseisa A) legalargumentsubmittedbyanattorneyinacaseseekingtoswayajusticesdecision. B) wayofestablishingtheCourtsagenda. C) statementofthelegalreasoningbehindadecision. D) formalityhandledbythechiefjusticeslawclerks. E) formofpressreleasewrittenbythechiefjustice. Answer: C


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83) AnopinionwrittentostressadifferentConstitutionalorlegalbasisforthejudgmentiscalled a(n) A) concurringopinion. B) dissentingopinion. C) amendingopinion. D) majorityopinion. E) minorityopinion. Answer: A


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84) Thevastmajorityofcasesreachingthefederalcourtsaresettledontheprincipleof________, meaningthatanearlierrulingshouldholdforthecasebeingconsidered. A) historicalauthority B) staredecisis C) amicuscuriae D) percuriamdecision E) certiorari Answer: B


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85) Allcourtsrelyheavilyupon________ thewaysimilarcaseswerehandledinthepastasa guidetocurrentdecisions. A) writsofcertiorari B) writsofmandamus C) precedent D) originalintent E) amicuscuriae Answer: C
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86) Staredecisismeansthatcasesare A) decidedusinganadversarialsystemofopposingsidesthroughwhichthetruth hopefullywillemerge. B) decidedonthegroundsofconstitutionality. C) oftenusedbyjudgestoineffectenactnewlawandpublicpolicy. D) decidedonthebasisofprecedent. E) appealableonlyonproceduralgroundsnotonevidence. Answer: D


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87) TheSupremeCourt________overruleisownprecedents. A) can B) can,buthasnottriedto C) willroutinely D) hastriedbuthasfailedto E) cannot Answer: A


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88) Judicial________referstohowandwhethercourtdecisionsaretranslatedintorealpolicy, affectingthebehaviorofothers. A) restraint B) intent C) action D) review E) implementation Answer: E


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89) ThecaseofablackmannamedVirgilHawkinswhotriedtogetadmittedtotheUniversityof FloridaLawSchoolillustrates A) howothercourtsandotherinstitutionsofgovernmentcanberoadblocksinthewayof judicialimplementation. B) howcontroversialissuesshapetheSupremeCourtagenda. C) theabilityoftheSupremeCourttoresolveissuesonceandforall. D) thewaysSupremeCourtjudgesenforcetheirdecisions. E) howtheSupremeCourtcanremoveallroadblocksinthewayofjudicial implementation. Answer: A
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90) WhichofthefollowingisNOToneoftheelementsinvolvedintheimplementationofjudicial decisionsaccordingtothecategoriesnotedbyCharlesJohnsonandBradleyCanon? A) institutionalizedpopulation B) interpretingpopulation C) consumerpopulation D) implementingpopulation E) definingpopulation Answer: A


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91) Theconceptoforiginalintentholdsthat A) judgesandjusticesshoulddeterminetheintentoftheframersoftheConstitution regardingaparticularmatteranddecidecasesinlinewiththatintent. B) thefoundersintendedjudgestousediscretion. C) itisnecessarytoadapttheprinciplesintheConstitutiontothedemandsofeachera. D) thefoundersembracedgeneralprinciplesthatareopentointerpretation. E) thefoundersintendedjudgestointerprettheConstitutionbutmakenewlawwhen necessary. Answer: A
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92) IntheimmediateaftermathoftheSupremeCourtsfamous Brownv.BoardofEducation decision,thepresidentandCongress A) refusedtoenforcespeedycompliancewiththeruling,thusseverelyweakening implementationoverthenextdecade. B) celebratedthefactthattheSupremeCourthadnowjoinedtheminsupportingswift compliancewithanewfederallaw. C) overruledtheSupremeCourtinarareinstanceofjudicialreview. D) workedquicklytoimplementthedecisionnationwide. E) proposedaConstitutionalamendmenttooverturntheCourtsdecision,althoughthe amendmentwasneverratifiedbythestates. Answer: A
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93) UntiltheCivilWar,thedominantquestionsbeforetheSupremeCourtregarded A) questionsoftherelationshipbetweenthefederalgovernmentandtheeconomy. B) presidentialpowers. C) thepowersandlegitimacyofthefederalgovernment. D) issuesofsocialandpoliticalequalityandtheexpansionoftherighttovote. E) theinterpretationofFirstAmendmentrights. Answer: C


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94) Marburyv.Madisonestablishedtheprincipleof A) Constitutionalpenumbra. B) nationalsupremacy. C) originalintent. D) judicialreview. E) staredecisis. Answer: D


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95) WhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheSupremeCourtcaseof Marburyv.Madison is FALSE? A) TheCourtestablisheditspowertoholdactsofCongressinviolationoftheConstitution. B) TheCourtruledpartoftheJudiciaryActof1789unconstitutional. C) TheCourtruledthatMadisonwasintherighttowithholdMarburyscommission. D) TheCourtruledthatithadnopowertorequirethatMarburyscommissionbedelivered. E) noneoftheabove Answer: C
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96) Judicialreviewmeans A) therightoftheCongresstodeterminewhetheradecisionoftheSupremeCourtisoris notConstitutional. B) thepowertoremoveSupremeCourtjusticesfromthebenchifdeemedunfittoretain office. C) therightofthepresidenttodeterminewhetheradecisionoftheSupremeCourtisoris notConstitutional. D) therightofthecourtstodeterminewhetherexecutiveorlegislativeactsareorarenot Constitutional. E) theSolicitorGeneralsoversightofthecourtstomakesurethatrulingsareuniform nationwideandthatproceduraldueprocessisbeingfollowedbyallcourts. Answer: D
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97) TheprincipleofjudicialreviewwasfirstestablishedexpresslyinwritingintheSupremeCourt decisionof A) UnitedStatesv.Nixon. B) McCullochv.Maryland. C) Marshallv.UnitedStatesCongress. D) Marburyv.Madison. E) Marshallv.Jefferson. Answer: D


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98) DuringtheearlyNewDealera,theSupremeCourtwasdominatedbyconservativeswho A) cametobeknownastheBadDealFiveforthwartingNewDeallegislationandwere impeachedandremovedasagroupbyCongress. B) viewedfederalinterventionintheeconomyasunconstitutional,anddeclaredseveral lawsinvalid. C) stronglysupportedfederalinterventionintheeconomy,andvotedtoupholdallNew Dealacts. D) overturnedtheprecedentofMarburyv.Madison andruledthattheSupremeCourthas nopowerofjudicialreview. E) wereimpeachedonebyonebyCongress. Answer: B
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99) TheproposaltoaddjusticestotheSupremeCourt,knownasthecourtpackingplanto critics,wasmadebyPresident________whowantedtobeabletoappointjusticesmore sympathetictohisphilosophythanthenineoldmen. A) DwightEisenhower B) HarryTruman C) FranklinRoosevelt D) RichardNixon E) JohnF.Kennedy Answer: C
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100) ThepresidentwhotriedtopacktheSupremeCourtbyincreasingitssizeinordertoeffecta sympatheticmajoritywas A) FranklinRoosevelt. B) HarryTruman. C) RichardNixon. D) DwightEisenhower. E) ThomasJefferson. Answer: A


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101) Themostliberalcourtofthemodernerahasbeenthe A) RehnquistCourt. B) MarshallCourt. C) WarrenCourt. D) TaftCourt. E) BurgerCourt. Answer: C


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102) OneofthemostactiveSupremeCourtsinshapingpublicpolicyinareasofdesegregationand therightsoftheaccusedwasthe A) WarrenCourt. B) RehnquistCourt. C) MarshallCourt. D) BurgerCourt. E) NixonCourt. Answer: A


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103) RichardNixonchose________asthenewchiefjusticein1969,hopingwiththisappointment tomovetheSupremeCourttowardamorestrictconstructioninterpretationofthe Constitutioninitssubsequentdecisions. A) JohnMarshall B) NelsonRockefeller C) WarrenBurger D) HarryBlackmun E) EarlWarren Answer: C
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104) InthecaseofUnitedStatesv.Nixon, theSupremeCourtruledthat A) PresidentNixondidnothavetohandoverWhiteHousetaperecordingstothecourts. B) JohnKennedyhadlawfullywonthepresidentialelectionof1960,andRichardNixons challengewasunfounded. C) PresidentNixonhadtohandoverWhiteHousetaperecordingstothecourts. D) PresidentNixonberemovedfromofficeandthatVicePresidentGeraldFordtakeover thepresidency. E) PresidentNixonwasguiltyofconspiracytoobstructjusticebyimpedingthe investigationoftheWatergateburglary. Answer: C
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105) TheRehnquistCourt A) hasslowlychippedawayatliberaldecisions. B) hasbeendeeplydividedbetweenliberalsandconservatives,andpersonalityconflicts haveaddedtoacourtinturmoil. C) createdarevolutioninconstitutionallaw. D) hasbeenadisappointmenttoconservatives. E) hasgonefurthertoshapepublicpolicythantheWarrenCourt. Answer: A


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106) Democratictheoristscriticizethecourtsonthegroundsthattheyare A) usedindiscriminately,leadingtolegalstagnation. B) notrepresentativeofthevictimizedupperandupper-middleclasses. C) notrepresentativeofthepeopleormajoritypublicopinion. D) andalwayshavebeenusedtopersecutevulnerableminorities. E) easilyswayedbyinterest-grouppressure. Answer: C


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107) StudiesofSupremeCourtdecisionsfoundthat A) theCourtpreferstobaseitsdecisionsontheConstitutionratherthannarrowerandmore contentioustechnicalgrounds. B) theCourtisusuallyoutoflinewithpublicopinion. C) thereisnocorrelationbetweenpublicopinionandCourtdecisions. D) theCourtisnormallyinlinewithpopularmajorities. E) theCourtrendersfewerdecisionsinelectionyears. Answer: D


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108) WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthecourtsandpluralismisFALSE? A) Almosteverymajorpolicydecisionthesedaysendsupincourt. B) Interestgroupsfinditdifficulttofindjudgeswhowillruleintheirfavor. C) Whengroupsgotocourt,theyuselitigationtoachievetheirpolicyobjectives. D) Thehabitofalwaysturningtothecourtsasalastresortcanaddtopolicydelay, deadlock,andinconsistency. E) Eventhoughthecourtsaretheleastdemocraticinstitution,groupscanstillusthemto achievetheirgoals. Answer: B
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109) Theviewthatjudgesshouldplayaminimalroleinpolicymakingiscalledjudicial A) jurisprudence. B) restraint. C) precedent. D) objectivity. E) neutrality. Answer: B


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110) Advocatesof________emphasizethatthecourtsmayalleviatepressingneeds,especiallyof thosewhoareweakpoliticallyoreconomically,leftunmetbythemajoritarianpolitical process. A) judicialactivism B) thejurisprudenceoforiginalintent C) judicialrestraint D) judicialimplementation E) judicialreview Answer: A
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111) Thejustificationusedbyfederalcourtsprimarilytoavoiddecidingcasesregardingconflicts betweenthepresidentandCongressisknownasthedoctrineof A) judicialactivism. B) politicalquestions. C) independentgrounds. D) staredecisis. E) judicialrestraint. Answer: B


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112) Asameanstoavoiddecidingsomecases,thefederalcourtshavedevelopedadoctrineof A) judicialprecedent. B) strictconstructionism. C) statutoryconstruction. D) judicialactivism. E) politicalquestions. Answer: E


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113) Whengivenachoice,thecourtsareleastlikelytodecideacaseonthebasisof A) standing. B) precedent. C) theConstitution. D) mootness. E) jurisdiction. Answer: C


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114) HowmanytimeshastheSupremeCourtruledafederallawunconstitutional? A) fewerthan200 B) morethan500 C) once D) never E) about1,000 Answer: A


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115) Casesthatinvolvestatutoryconstruction A) canbeoverturnedbyCongressbyclarifyinganexistinglaw. B) mustbedecidedaccordingtoastrictconstructionoftheConstitution. C) areusuallyprecedentsetting. D) involvepolicyissues. E) canonlybechangedthroughaConstitutionalamendment. Answer: A


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True/FalseQuestions
1) FederaljudgesarerestrictedbytheConstitutiontodecidingrealcasesorcontroversies broughtbeforeitactualdisputesratherthanhypotheticalones. Answer: TRUE
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2) Morethan90percentofcourtcasesbeginandendinthecourtoforiginaljurisdiction. Answer: TRUE


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3) ThemajorityofallthecriminalcasesintheUnitedStatesareheardinstateandlocalcourt systems,notinthefederalcourts. Answer: TRUE


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4) Thevastmajorityofcivilcasesthatcommenceinthefederalcourtsaresettledoutofcourt. Answer: TRUE


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5) Althoughmostfederallitigationendsindistrictcourt,alargepercentageofthesecasesthat districtcourtjudgesactuallydecideareappealedbythelosers. Answer: TRUE


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6) Mostofthecaseshandledinthefederaldistrictcourtsareroutine. Answer: TRUE


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7) AdistinguishingfeatureoftheAmericanjudicialsystemisthepotentialforappeals,aswellas thelengthoftimeittakestoreachafinalresolutionincases. Answer: TRUE


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8) TheConstitutionsetsthenumberofSupremeCourtjusticesatnine. Answer: FALSE


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9) OnlymembersoftheSupremeCourtarecalledjustices;allothersarecalledjudges. Answer: TRUE


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10) ThepresidentoperatesunderfarmoreconstraintsinnominatingmemberstotheSupreme Courtthantothelowercourts. Answer: FALSE


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11) TheSenatehasnotrejectedaSupremeCourtnomineethiscentury. Answer: FALSE


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12) SenatorsusuallydonotopposeapresidentnominatingaSupremeCourtjusticefromtheir statebecauseifasenatorobjects,thepresidentcansimplynominatesomeonefromanother state. Answer: TRUE


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13) Federaljudgeshavetypicallyheldofficeasajudgeorprosecutor,andoftentheyhavebeen involvedinpartisanpolitics. Answer: TRUE


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14) OneofthemostprominentcriteriaforselectiontotheSupremeCourtisgeographicdiversity. Answer: FALSE


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15) Amicuscuriaebriefsmayonlybefiledbyformallitigantsinaparticularcasebeingheardby theSupremeCourt. Answer: FALSE


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16) Thevastmajorityofcasesreachingthefederalcourtsaresettledonthebasisofstaredecisis. Answer: TRUE


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17) Precedentistypicallylessfirmlyestablishedincasesattheforefrontofthelaw. Answer: TRUE


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18) Strictconstructionistsargueforajurisprudenceoforiginalintent. Answer: TRUE


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19) Judicialdecisionsaremorelikelytobesmoothlyimplementedifimplementationis concentratedinthehandsofafewhighlyvisibleofficials. Answer: TRUE


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20) TherightofjudicialreviewwasfirstestablisheddefinitivelyinthecaseofMcCullochv. Maryland. Answer: FALSE


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21) Marburyv.MadisonwasthefirstcasethatstruckdownalegislativeactintheUnitedStates. Answer: FALSE


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22) TheSupremeCourtsitsinamarblepalaceandisinsulatedfromthenormalformsofpolitics. Answer: FALSE


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23) AdvocatesofjudicialactivismemphasizethattheSupremeCourtsdecisionsonsuchissuesas abortionandschoolprayergowellbeyondtherefereeroletheyfeelisappropriateforcourts inademocracy. Answer: FALSE


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24) Duringthetwentiethcentury,liberalsontheSupremeCourthaveengagedinjudicialactivism, butconservativeshavenot. Answer: FALSE


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ShortAnswerQuestions
1) In________lawcases,anindividualischargedwithviolatingaspecificlaw.Theoffensemay beharmfultoanindividualortosocietyasawhole,butineithercaseitwarrantspunishment, suchasimprisonmentorafine. Answer: criminal
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2) ________suitspermitasmallnumberofpeopletosueonbehalfofallotherpeoplesimilarly situated. Answer: Classaction


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3) Whatisaclassactionsuit?Whyaretheyimportant?Giveanexample. Answer: lawsuitspermittingasmallnumberofpeopletosueonbehalfofallotherpeople similarlysituated;reflectsabroadenednotionofstandingtosue,andusedavarietyof areas


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4) Whatisajusticiabledispute? Answer: arequirementthattobeheardacasemustbecapableofbeingsettledasamatteroflaw ratherthanonothergroundsasiscommonlythecaseinlegislativebodies


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5) Sometimesgroupsdonotdirectlyargueacaseforalitigantbutinsteadsubmita(n)________ thatseekstoinfluencethedecisionofthecourt. Answer: amicuscuriaebrief


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6) Courtswith________jurisdictionhearcasesbroughttothemonappealfromalowercourt, anddonotreviewthefactualrecord,onlythelegalissuesinvolved. Answer: appellate


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7) Thefederal________courtsarethecourtsoforiginaljurisdictionformostfederalcases;they hearnoappeals. Answer: district


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8) Explainthedifferencebetweenoriginalandappellatejurisdiction. Answer: Originaljurisdictionisjurisdictionofcourtsthathearacasefirst,usuallyinatrialand wherethecourtdeterminesthefactsaboutthecase.Appellatejurisdictionisjurisdiction ofcourtsthathearcasesbroughttothemonappealfromlowercourts,focusingonlegal issuesinvolvedratherthanthefactsofthecase.


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9) WhatisthedifferencebetweenConstitutionalcourtsandlegislativecourts? Answer: ConstitutionalcourtsarethedistrictandappealscourtscreatedbyCongressinthe JudiciaryActof1789,whilelegislativecourtsareestablishedbyCongressfor specializedpurposes.


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10) Inthe________CongresscreatedoursystemofConstitutionalcourts. Answer: JudiciaryActof1789


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11) ________casesinvolvecivilsuitsbetweencitizensofdifferentstatesorsuitsinwhichoneof thepartiesisacitizenofaforeignnationandthematterinquestionexceeds$75,000. Answer: Diversityofcitizenship


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12) ________issuewarrantsforarrest,determinewhethertoholdarrestedpersonsforactionbya grandjury,andsometimessetbail. Answer: Federalmagistrates


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13) ________areassignedtoeachdistricttoprotectthejudicialprocessandtoservethewritsthat thejudgesissue. Answer: UnitedStatesmarshals


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14) Amongitsmostimportanttasks,theSupremeCourtresolvesconflictsbetweenoramong ________. Answer: thestates


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15) Explaintheprocessofsenatorialcourtesy. Answer: Answerswillvary.


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16) WhichtwoSupremeCourtjusticeswerenominatedbyGeorgeW.Bush? Answer: SamuelAlitoandJohnRoberts


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17) Explainwhypreviousjudicialexperienceisnotthatimportantinnominatingindividualsto theSupremeCourt. Answer: TheSupremeCourtsworkissouniquecomparedtotheotherfederalcourtsthat previousjudicialexperienceisnotthatrelevantoruseful.


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18) ThemostcommonwayfortheSupremeCourttoputacaseonitsdocketisbyissuingtoa lowerfederalorstatecourta(n)________,whichisaformaldocumentthatcallsupacase. Answer: writofcertiorari


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19) TheSupremeCourtoccasionallyissuesa(n)________decision,whichisonewithoutawritten explanation.Suchadecisionresolvesanimmediatecasebuthasnovalueasprecedentbecause itdoesnotoffertheCourtsreasoning. Answer: percuriam


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20) ________briefsarewrittenbypartieswhoareinterestedintheoutcomeofacase,butarenot formallitigants.ThesebriefstrytoinfluencetheSupremeCourtbyraisingadditionalpointsof vieworpresentingnewinformation. Answer: Amicuscuriae


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21) Whatisapercuriamdecision? Answer: adecisionwithoutexplanationissuedbytheSupremeCourt


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22) Explaintheimportanceofamicuscuriae briefs. Answer: Answerswillvary.


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23) Allcourtsrelyheavilyupon________,thewaysimilarcaseswerehandledinthepast,asa guidetocurrentdecisions. Answer: precedent


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24) Judicial________referstohowandwhethercourtdecisionsaretranslatedintoactualpolicy, affectingthebehaviorofothers. Answer: implementation


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25) The1803SupremeCourtdecisionwhichincludedChiefJusticeJohnMarshallsassertionofthe rightofjudicialreviewwasthecaseof________. Answer: Marburyv.Madison


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26) WhatistheimportanceoftheSupremeCourtcaseofMarburyv.Madison? Answer: establishedtheSupremeCourtspowerofjudicialreviewoveractsofCongress


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27) Compareandcontrasttheprinciplesofjudicialrestraintandjudicialactivism. Answer: Judicialrestraintisajudicialphilosophyinwhichjudgesplayminimalpolicymaking roles,leavingthatdutystrictlytolegislatures.Judicialactivismisajudicialphilosophy inwhichjudgesmakeboldpolicydecisions,evenchartingnewconstitutionalground.


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28) Whatisthedoctrineofpoliticalquestions? Answer: adoctrinedevelopedbythefederalcourtsandusedasameansofdecidingsomecases, principallythoseinvolvingconflictsbetweenthepresidentandCongress


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EssayQuestions
1) DiscussthreedecisionsoftheSupremeCourtandexplainhowtheyhaveaffectedhow democraticourpoliticalsystemis.
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2) Describethetypicalparticipantsandtypesofcasesinvolvedinthejudicialsystem.
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3) Overwhatkindsofcasesdofederaldistrictcourtshavejurisdiction?Overwhatkindsofcases dofederaldistrictcourtsnothavejurisdiction?Whoarethemajorplayersinadistrictcourt?
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4) Explaintheorganizationofthefederalcourtsystem.Whattypeofcasesareheardineachof thedifferentcourts?
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5) CompareandcontrasttheSupremeCourtwithlowerfederalcourtsintermsofhowjudgesare chosen,howcasesarechosen,andwhohearscasesbeforethecourt.
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6) Howarenomineestothefederaldistrictcourtsselected?Whohasvetopoweroverthe selections,andwhatisthiscalled?Whochecksthebackgroundofnomineestothesecourts?Is theentireselectionprocesssensible?Explain.


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7) ExplaintherelationshipbetweenthecourtsandCongressandthecourtsandthepresidency. Whatistherelationshipbetweentheseinstitutionsintermsofjudicialselectionand policymaking?


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8) Describehowfederaljudgesandjusticesarechosen.Whatfactorsinfluencetheselection process?WhatarethegeneralcharacteristicsoftheSupremeCourtjusticeschosenbythis process?


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9) WhatdopresidentslookforinselectingaSupremeCourtjustice?Howoftenarethey successfulinappointingjudgeswhoreflecttheirjudicialphilosophy?Provideafewexamples fromthetwentiethcenturyofpresidentssucceedingandfailingtohaveadirectinfluenceon theCourt.


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10) Whatarethetypicalcharacteristicsoftheindividualschosenasjudgesandjustices?
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11) WhatkindsofcasesareacceptedforreviewbytheSupremeCourt,andhowdoestheprocess usuallywork?WhyaretheCourtsrulingssosignificant?Explain.


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12) Describethestrengthsandweaknessesofthejudiciaryasapoliticalinstitution.Whatdothe courtshavethepowertodo?Whatdotheynothavethepowertodo?Howdoesthispower comparetootherpoliticalinstitutions?


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13) WhatroleshouldoriginalintenthaveinhowtheSupremeCourtinterpretstheConstitution andlawsofCongress?Shouldoriginalintentbethemostimportantcriterion,orshouldother aspectsbeofequalorgreaterweight?Explain.


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14) Howarecourtdecisionstranslatedintoactualpolicy?Whatelementsofthepopulationare involvedinjudicialimplementation,andhowmightimplementationbehinderedorhelped? Useexamplestoillustrateyouranswer.


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15) ExplainhowthecourtshaveaffectedthepolicyagendathroughoutAmericanhistory,citing specificcourtdecisionsasexamples.


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16) UsingexamplesfromspecificSupremeCourts,explainhowthecourtshaveaffectedthepolicy agendathroughoutAmericanhistory.


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17) DescribethesignificanceoftheMarburyv.Madison rulingbytheSupremeCourt.Hasthe legacyofthisrulingbeenapositiveornegativeone?Didthedramaticrulinginthiscaseserve toweakenAmericandemocracy?Explain.


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18) DescribePresidentFranklinRooseveltsattempttoaltertheSupremeCourt.Whydid Rooseveltmakethisattempt?Whydiditeventuallybecomeunnecessary?Areyou sympatheticwithRooseveltsactionsornot?Explain.


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19) Inwhatwayshasthejudiciarymadeourpoliticalsystemmoredemocratic?Lessdemocratic?
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20) EvaluatetheAmericancourtsystemfromthepointofviewofdemocratictheory.
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21) Whatarethestrengthsandweaknessesofjudicialrestraintandjudicialactivism?Towhat extentareeachoftheseassociatedwithparticularpoliticalideologies(i.e.,liberalsor conservatives)?


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Chapter17 EconomicPolicymaking
Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) Acapitalisteconomicsystemisoneinwhich A) individualsandcorporationsowntheprincipalmeansofproduction,throughwhich theyseektoearnprofits. B) acentralgovernmentdeterminesproductionandpricelevels. C) privateindividualsactaccordingtomarketprinciplesandenhancethegeneralwelfare, withnogovernmentinvolvement. D) individualsandcorporationsshareownershipoftheprincipalmeansofproduction,and profitsaredistributedequally. E) allindividualshaveanequalchanceofowningtheprincipalmeansofproduction,often intheformofstockownership. Answer: A
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2) Amixedpoliticaleconomyisoneinwhich A) bothagriculturalandmanufacturingsectorsareactive. B) thegovernment,whilenotcommandingtheeconomy,isstilldeeplyinvolvedin economicdecisions. C) thegovernmentcontrolssome,butnotall,sectorsoftheeconomy. D) inflationandunemploymentareuncorrelated. E) thegovernmentconsultswithcorporatedirectorsonthenatureandmagnitudeof governmentregulation. Answer: B


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3) Capitalismis A) anadvancedsystemofstockmanagement. B) aneconomicsysteminwhichindividualsandcorporationsowntheprincipalmeansof production. C) aneconomicsysteminwhichpublicagenciesmanagefundamentalaspectsofmonetary policy. D) aneconomicsysteminwhichthegovernmentownsthemeansofproduction. E) aneconomicsystembasedontheFederalReserve. Answer: B


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4) Conservativescomplainabout A) thesizeofthepublicsector. B) excessiveregulationoftheprivatesector. C) theoppressivescopeofgovernment. D) alloftheabove E) newlegislationlimitingcorporatepower. Answer: D


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5) Theconsumerpriceindexmeasures A) thechangewhatvariousincomescanbuy. B) thechangeintheamountoftaxespaidbyindividuals. C) thechangeinthecostofbuyingafixedbasketofgoodandservices. D) thechangeinincome,controllingforperiodsofunemployment. E) thechangeintheprimelendingrate. Answer: C


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6) Hundreds,ifnotthousands,ofstudiesbypoliticalscientistshaveconcludedthatvoters A) ignoretheeconomicconsequencesofgovernmentpolicies. B) voteforcandidateswhopromisethemost. C) votesolelyonthebasisofpartisanshipalone. D) voteforthecandidatewhowillbenefitthevotersfinancialconditionthemost. E) voteagainsttheirpersonalfinancialinterests. Answer: D


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7) WhichofthefollowingstatementsisTRUEaboutAmericaspoliticalpartiesandrelatively highinflation? A) NeithertheDemocratsnortheRepublicansarewillingtoacceptrelativelyhighinflation. B) TheDemocratsaremorewillingtoacceptrelativelyhighinflationthantheRepublicans. C) BoththeDemocratsandtheRepublicansarewillingtoacceptrelativelyhighinflation. D) TheRepublicansaremorewillingtoacceptrelativelyhighinflationthantheDemocrats. E) Studieshavefoundnocorrelationbetweenagivenpoliticalpartyanditsacceptanceof highinflationrates. Answer: B


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8) Unionmembers,minoritygroupmembers,andthepooraremorelikelytovote________than higherincomepeopleare. A) Republican(duetogreaterconcernaboutunemployment) B) Democratic(duetogreaterconcernaboutbothunemploymentandinflation) C) Democratic(duetogreaterconcernaboutunemployment) D) Democratic(duetogreaterconcernaboutinflation) E) Republican(duetogreaterconcernaboutinflation) Answer: C


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9) Businessowners,managers,andprofessionalpeoplearemorelikelytovote________than lowerincomepeopleare. A) Republican(duetogreaterconcernaboutinflation) B) Democratic(duetogreaterconcernaboutunemployment) C) Democratic(duetogreaterconcernaboutinflation) D) Republican(duetogreaterconcernaboutbothinflationandunemployment) E) Republican(duetogreaterconcernaboutunemployment) Answer: A


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10) TheRepublicanpartyismoreconcernedthantheDemocratsabout A) crimeandhealthproblemsthatarelinkedtounemployment. B) highinterestrates. C) inflationthanunemployment. D) stavingoffarecession. E) raisingtheconsumerpriceindex. Answer: C


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11) Thenationsunemploymentrateisdeterminedby A) monthlychangesinincometaxwithholdingsmonitoredbytheInternalRevenueService. B) amonthlyrandomsurveyofthepopulation. C) randomlyselectedpayrollauditsbyFederalReserveBoardanalysts. D) monthlyreportsbytheunemploymentdepartmentofeachstate. E) monthlyreportsfiledbyallemployersregardingthenumberoftheiremployees. Answer: B


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12) The________conductsahugestatisticalsurveyofthepopulationmonthlytomeasurethe nationsunemploymentrate. A) FederalReserveBoard B) CouncilofEconomicAdvisors C) BureauofLaborStatistics D) CensusBureau E) OfficeofManagementandtheBudget Answer: C


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13) Theofficialunemploymentrateunderestimatesunemploymentbecauseitleavesout A) discouragedworkers. B) students. C) housewives. D) thehigh-techsector. E) thehomeless. Answer: A


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14) Inthe2004presidentialelection,peoplewhothoughttheirfamiliesweredoingbetteroffvoted A) 2to1forGeorgeW.Bush. B) 4to1forGeorgeW.Bush. C) 10to1forGeorgeW.Bush. D) 4to1forJohnKerry. E) 2to1forJohnKerry. Answer: B


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15) Inflationwasgenerallyhighestduringthe A) 1930s. B) 1970s. C) 1960s. D) 1980s. E) 1990s. Answer: B


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16) Theprinciplethatthegovernmentshouldnotmeddlewiththeeconomyisknownas A) Keynesianeconomictheory. B) caveatemptor. C) monetarism. D) laissezfaire. E) conservatism. Answer: D


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17) Whenthestockmarketcrashof1929sentunemploymentsoaring,PresidentHerbertHoover A) embracedKeynesianeconomictheory. B) experimentedwithdozensofnewfederalpoliciesandworkprojectstoputtheeconomy backontrack. C) pushedamassivetaxcutthroughCongresstostimulatetheeconomy. D) clungtothelaissez-faireeconomictheory. E) putstrictwage,price,andproductioncontrolsintoeffectnationwide. Answer: D


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18) Laissezfaireisthe A) principlethatgovernmentshouldnotmeddlewiththeeconomy. B) termforanegativebalanceoftrade,meaningimportsexceedexports. C) beliefthatgovernment,andparticularlypresidents,havevirtuallynoinfluenceoverthe economybecausewhatevermechanismsthegovernmentmightusetoaffecteconomic growtharefartooweaktochangetheindividual,dailymarketdecisionsof260million Americans. D) theorythatgovernmentspendingcanhelptheeconomyweatheritsnormalupsand downs,evenifitmeansgoingintodebt. E) differencebetweenthenationsunemploymentrateandinflationrate. Answer: A
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19) WhoisthecurrentchairoftheFederalReserveBoard? A) AlanGreenspan B) BenBernanke C) MikeEmmons D) RalphNader E) RobertWagner Answer: B


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20) ________isthemanipulationofthesupplyofmoneyandcreditinprivatehandstopromote thenationseconomichealth. A) Keynesianism B) Laissezfaire C) Fiscalpolicy D) Monetarypolicy E) Supply-sidepolicy Answer: D


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21) Aneconomictheorycalledmonetarismholdsthat A) governmentshouldstimulateeconomicgrowthbyinjectinglargeamountsofmoneyinto theeconomybykeepinginterestrateslow. B) stimulatingsupplythroughlowertaxesisthekeytoeconomichealth. C) thesupplyofmoneyisthekeytothenationshealth,andhavingtoomuchcashand creditincirculationstimulatesinflation. D) governmentshouldnotmeddlewiththeeconomy. E) governmentspendingcanhelptheeconomyweatheritsnormalupsanddowns,evenif itmeansrunningupadebt. Answer: C
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22) Monetaristswantto A) usegovernmentspendingandjobprogramsduringeconomicdownturnstoinject moneyintotheeconomy. B) reducetaxesinordertostimulatethegrowthofthemoneysupply. C) holdthegrowthinmoneysupplytoequaltheriseinthegrossnationalproductafter inflation. D) tiethevalueofthedollartothevalueofgold,thusincreasingandstabilizingthemoney supply. E) keepthegovernmentshandsofftheeconomy. Answer: C
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23) Monetarypolicyisdirectlyregulatedby A) theUnitedStatesMint. B) theFederalReserveSystem. C) CongressandthePresident. D) theDepartmentofCommerce. E) theTreasuryDepartment. Answer: B


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24) TheFederalReserveSystemisgovernedby A) aseven-memberBoardofGovernorsappointedbythePresidentandconfirmedbythe Senate. B) thedirectoroftheInternalRevenueService. C) atwelve-memberBoardofGovernorschosenbylocalbankersineachofthetwelve FederalReservedistricts. D) thePresidentsCouncilofEconomicAdvisors. E) theSecretaryoftheTreasury,whosenameappearsonallcurrency. Answer: A
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25) Asupporteroflaissez-fairepolicywouldoppose A) supply-sideeconomics. B) astrictseparationbetweengovernmentandbusiness. C) governmentalinterventionintheeconomy. D) reducinggovernmentaleconomicregulation. E) reducinggovernmentsubsidiesoffailingbusinesses. Answer: C


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26) SincetheNewDeal, A) policymakershavemadeitpartoftheirregularbusinesstoseektocontroltheeconomy. B) thefederalgovernmenthasbecomelessinvolvedineconomicpolicy. C) theprincipleoflaissezfaire hasdominatedeconomicpolicy. D) economicissueshavebecomelesspoliticized. E) Keynesianeconomicshasreplacedsupply-sidetheoryinAmericanfiscalpolicy. Answer: A


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27) Theeconomictheorythatconsidersthesupplyofmoneyasthekeytothenationseconomic healthis A) supply-sideeconomics. B) currency-reservetheory. C) monetarism. D) Keynesianeconomictheory. E) laissez-fairecapitalism. Answer: C


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28) Monetaristsemphasizethateconomicconditionsarerelatedto A) thelevelofgovernmentdeficitspending. B) thevalueofthedollaringlobalcurrencymarkets. C) decliningproductivity. D) howmuchmoneygovernmentspends. E) thesupplyofmoney. Answer: E


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29) Themainagencyformakingmonetarypolicyisthe A) OfficeofManagementandBudget. B) UnitedStatesTreasury. C) FederalReserveBoard. D) CongressionalBudgetOffice. E) CouncilofEconomicAdvisors. Answer: C


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30) TheFederalReserveBoardisintendedtobe A) formallyunderthecontrolofCongress. B) halfDemocratandhalfRepublican. C) replacedbyeachnewpresident. D) formallyunderthecontrolofthepresident. E) independentofpartisanpolitics. Answer: E


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31) TheFederalReserveBoardregulates A) antitrustpolicy. B) taxandspendingpolicies. C) thenationsgoldreservesandtheUnitedStatesMint. D) allUnitedStatesgovernmentbankaccountsandinvestments. E) thesupplyofmoneyandcreditintheeconomy. Answer: E


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32) Anexampleoftheuseofmonetarypolicyis A) institutingafreezeonprices. B) requiringbankstokeepmoremoneyonreserve. C) subsidizingfarmers. D) makinglow-interest,long-termloanstocollegestudents. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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33) Accordingtomonetarists,makingtoomuchmoneyavailabletoborrowmayleadto A) widespreadbankruptcies. B) economicbelt-tightening. C) inflation. D) recession. E) toolittlecredit. Answer: C


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34) MembersoftheFederalReserveSystemsBoardofGovernors A) aresubjecttoreplacementbyeachnewpresident. B) aregiven14-yeartermsdesignedtoinsulatethemfrompoliticalpressures. C) canbefiredbythepresidentatanytime. D) arecareercivil-servants,neitherappointednorfiredbypresidents. E) merelycarryoutpolicydecidedbytheTreasuryDepartment. Answer: B


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35) TheFederalReserveSystemsBoardofGovernorssetsdiscountratesatahigherlevel A) toassistincumbentpresidentsnearelectiontime. B) thusloweringthecostofmoneyandstimulatingborrowing. C) tocombathighunemployment. D) toincreasetheamountofmoneyincirculation. E) todecreasetheamountofmoneyincirculation. Answer: E


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36) WhichofthefollowingisNOToneofthemeasuresusedbytheFedtocontrolthemoney supply? A) ItsetsdiscountratesforthemoneythatbankscanborrowfromtheFederalReserve. B) Itcanbuyandsellgovernmentsecuritiesinthemarket,therebyeitherexpandingor contractingthemoneysupply. C) Itsetsreserverequirementsthatdeterminetheamountofmoneythatbanksmustkeepin reserveatalltimes. D) Itdictatestheminimumprimelendingratebycommercialbanks. E) noneoftheabove Answer: D
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37) WhichofthefollowingisNOTinfluencedinamajorwaybytheactionsoftheFed? A) moneysupply B) inflation C) commercialinterestrates D) theminimumwage E) theunemploymentrate Answer: D


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38) Fiscalpolicyis A) taxing,spending,andborrowingdecisionsshapedmostlybyCongressandthe president. B) themanipulationofinterestratesbythegovernmenttoaffecteconomicgrowthrates. C) basedontheprinciplethatgovernmentshouldnotmeddlewiththeeconomy. D) themanipulationofthesupplyofmoneyandcreditinprivatehands. E) thereductionoftaxesinordertostimulatetheeconomy. Answer: A


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39) Taxing,spending,andborrowingdecisionsbyCongressandthepresidentareknown collectivelyas A) fiscalpolicy. B) econometrics. C) supply-sideeconomics. D) monetarypolicy. E) laissezfaire. Answer: A


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40) Themostimportantpoliticalactioninsettingmonetarypolicyis A) Congress. B) secretaryofthetreasury. C) thepresident. D) theFederalReserve. E) InternationalMonetaryFund. Answer: D


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41) Animportanttoolinfiscalpolicyisthe A) controlofinterestrates. B) levelofgovernmentspendingasindicatedinthebudget. C) useofpricesupports. D) amountofmoneybanksmustkeepondeposit. E) alloftheabove Answer: B


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42) Taxing,spending,andborrowingpoliciesofthefederalgovernmentarecalled A) fiscalpolicy. B) taxexpenditurepolicy. C) apportionmentpolicy. D) supply-sideeconomics. E) monetarism. Answer: A


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43) Keynesianeconomictheoryarguesfor A) thegovernmentkeepingitshandsofftheeconomy. B) stimulatingtheeconomythroughmanipulatingthenationsmoneysupply. C) stimulatingtheeconomythroughmassivetaxcutsandreducingthesizeofthenational government. D) stimulatingtheeconomythroughgovernmentspendingprograms. E) governmentwageandpricecontrolstocontrolinflation. Answer: D


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44) ________encouragesgovernmenttocreatejobsforpeopleduringtimesofsevere unemploymentinordertogetmoneyintothehandsofconsumersandstimulatetheentire economy. A) Supply-sideeconomics B) Industrialpolicy C) Laissezfaire D) Monetarypolicytheory E) Keynesianeconomictheory Answer: E
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45) TheKeynesianeconomictheoryarguesthatgovernmentsroleinaneconomicdepression shouldbeto A) reducedemand. B) lowertaxes. C) increasedemand. D) increasesupply. E) increasethetotalmoneysupplywithlowerinterestrates. Answer: C


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46) AbelieverinKeynesianeconomictheorywouldstressthat A) governmentshouldavoidinvolvementintheeconomy. B) theFederalReserveBoardshouldbeabolished. C) governmentshouldstabilizetheeconomythroughitsspendingpolicies. D) governmentspendingshouldbereducedwhenunemploymentrises. E) thedollarshouldbeconvertibletogoldondemand,thustyingitsvaluetogoldand stabilizingitsvalue. Answer: C


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47) Theeconomictheorythatwouldarguethatgovernmentcanspenditswayoutofadepression bystimulatingtheeconomythroughspendingis A) Keynesianism. B) Marxism. C) Reaganomics. D) monetarism. E) redinkeconomics. Answer: A


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48) Jumpingintothebusinessofconsumerprotectioninthe1960sand1970s,the________made newrulesaboutproductlabeling,exaggeratedproductclaims,andtheuseofcelebritiesin advertising. A) FederalTradeCommission B) ConsumerProductsSafetyCommission C) FoodandDrugAdministration D) ClaytonAntitrustAct E) ConsumerProtectionAgency Answer: A
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49) ________,supportedbyPresidentReagan,wasencouragedbytheeconomistArthurLaffer. A) Deficitspending B) Supply-sideeconomics C) Keynesianeconomictheory D) Astrictlaissez-fairesystem E) Monetarism Answer: B


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50) Accordingtoproponentsofsupply-sideeconomics, A) increasinggovernmentspendingprovidesanincentivetoinvestinbusinessexpansion. B) decreasingthesupplyofmoneyreducesthefederaldeficit. C) borrowingmoneydecreasestheriskofunemploymentandrecession. D) cuttingtaxesleadstomoreincentivetosave,workharder,andcreatemorejobs. E) increasingthesupplyofgoodsavailableforconsumptionlowerspricesandreducesthe inflationrate. Answer: D


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51) PresidentReaganseconomicpoliciesemphasized A) balancedbudgetingthroughacross-the-boardcutsinallcategoriesofgovernment spending. B) theapplicationofKeynesianeconomictheor