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Lecture 2
Chirag p patel U v patel college of engineering

Introduction to NC machine

EIA(Electronic Industries Association) A system in which actions are controlled by direct insertion of Numerical Data at some point. The system must automatically interpret latest some portion of this data

The control of a machine tool by means of recorded information on punched tape or card is known as Numerical Control Numerical control is defined as a form of software controlled automation, in which the process is controlled by alphanumeric characters or symbols.

Introduction to DNC machine


Direct numerical control can be defined as a manufacturing system in which a number of machine are controlled by a computer through direct connection in real time

The tape reader is omitted in DNC, thus relieving the

system as its latest reliable component Instead of using tape reader, the part programming is transmitted to the machine tool directly from the computer memory. In principle one large computer can be used to control more then 100 separate machine. The DNC computer is designed to provide instruction to each machine tool on demand. When machine tool need control commands, they are communicated to it immediately. DNC also involves data collection and processing from the machine tool back to the computer.

Components of DNC System

Central Bulk memory computer

Central Computer Bulk memory Telecommunication

Machine Tools

Types of DNC machine

There are two types of DNC machines

1. Behind the tape reader (BTR) system 2. Special Machine control unit

Types of DNC machine

Behind the tape reader system

In this arrangement computer is linked directly to the regular NC controller unit.

DNC Computer Bulk memory NC programs
Tape reader replaced by Telecommunication lines

Two Storage Buffers

NC Controller

The replacement of the tape reader by telecommunication lines to the DNC computer is what gives the BTR configuration its name. The connection with the computer is made between the tape reader and the controller unit behind the tape reader. Except for the source of the command instructions, the operation of the system is very similar to conventional NC. The controller unit use to temporary storage buffer to receive block of instructions from the DNC computer and convert them in to machine actions. While one buffer is receiving a block of data, the other is providing control instructions to the machine tool.

Special Machine Control Unit

The other strategy in DNC is to eliminate the regular NC controller all together and replace it with special machine control unit.
DNC Computer Bulk memory NC programs

Conventional NC controller Replaced by special MCU

Special MCU

The special MCU is device that is specifically designed to facilitates communication between the machine tool and the computer. The special MCU configuration achieve a superior balance between accuracy of the interpolation and fast metal removal rates then is generally possible with BTR system. The special MCU is soft wired, while the conventional NC controller is hard wired. The advantage of soft wired is its flexibility Its control function can be altered with relative ease to make improvements.

Function of DNC


with out punched tape NC part program storage Data collection, processing and reporting Communications

Advantages of DNC

of punched tapes and tape

readers. Grater computational capability and flexibility. Convenient storage of NC part program in computer files. Program stored as CLFILE. Reporting of shop performance. Establishes the framework for the evolution of the future computer automated factory.

Introduction to CNC machine


CNC is a self-contained NC system for a single machine tool which uses a dedicated mini computer, controlled by the instruction stored in its memory, to perform all the basic numerical control functions. As per EIA The numerical control system where a dedicated stored program computer is used to perform some or all basic functions in accordance with control programs stored in Random Access Memory of the computer

The control unit and panel is somewhat similar to

NC controls. Only difference being that is works in on-line mode and NC in batch processing mode. It can be mounted or stand alone type as in NCs. A typical CNC may need only the drawing specifications of a part to be manufactured and the computer automatically generates part program for loaded parts. CNC offers flexibility and computational capacity along with option.

Computerized Numerical Control

Tape Reader for Initial Program Entry

Minicomputer or Microcomputer For Software Functions Part program Storage

Computer Hardware Interface And Servo System

Functions of CNC

The Principle Functions of CNC are:


Tool Control In-process Compensation Improved programming and Operating feature. Diagnostics

Advantages of CNC
The advantages of CNC over NC machines are:

More flexibility Reduce data reading error Online editing of program Diagnostic Conversion of units Integration with DNC systems

Disadvantages of CNC
The disadvantages of CNC over NC machines are: High initial cost Higher maintenance cost Skilled CNC personal Not suitable for long run applications Machine have to be installed in airconditioned places