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ZTE IP RAN Introduction

Name: E-mail: UMTS Product Planning & System Dept. ZTE Product R&D System

Requirement Analysis ZTE IP RAN Solution Case Study

Service and Technology Trends


ARPU trend of European operators

Non-voice service explosion

Radio technology acceleration


LTE LTE R8/R9 R8/R9 3.9G 3.9G 3.75G 3.75G 3.5G 3.5G 3G 3G 2G 2G
Year 2001-2 2003-5 384kbps 2006-8 14Mbps 2009-10 40Mbps After 2010 100Mbps & higher 64-144kbps DL throughput

GSM GSM

UMTS UMTS R99/R4 R99/R4

HSPA HSPA R5/R6 R5/R6

HSPA+ HSPA+ R7/R8 R7/R8

Development of Bearing Network


Performance
Bandwidth Data ability Transmission efficiency Broader Stronger Higher More flexible Lower Faster Easier Smoother

TCO
Networking Investment Deployment

Evolution
Expansion & relocation Up to date technology

Convenience
Operation and maintenance Customized service Simpler Richer

TDM ATM
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IP

All-IP Era is coming

HSS GGSN MGCF All IP is striding into RAN from CN

IP Core
MSCS MGW SGSN

IMS IMS
CSCF

MRF

IP UTRAN
IP Iub interface IP Iu interface IP Iur interface

IP GERAN
IP A interface IP Gb interface IP Abis interface

3GPP Iub Specification


Radio Network Control Plane Transport Network Control Plane User Plane

TDD DSCH FP

HS-DSCH FP

E-DCH FP

RACH FP

FACH FP

USCH FP

TFCI2 FP

DCH FP

PCH FP

Radio Network Layer

Node B Application Part (NBAP)

ALCAP Q.2630.2

Q.2150.2

Transport Layer

SSCF-UNI SSCOP AAL5 ATM SCTP IP


Data Link Layer

SSCF-UNI SSCOP AAL 5 ATM AAL2 ATM UDP IP


Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

For ATM
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For IP

3GPP IuCS Specification


R a d io N e tw o rk L ayer C o n tro l P la n e RAN AP U s e r P la n e Iu U P P ro to c o l Layer

T ran sp o rt N e tw o r k L ayer

T ran sp o rt U ser

N e tw o rk P la n e

T ra n s p o rt N e tw o rk C o n tro l P la n e
Q .2 6 3 0 .2

T ra n sp o rt U ser

N e tw o rk P la n e

SCCP M 3U A M TP3b SSC FNN I SCTP IP SSCO P A AL5

Q .2 1 5 0 .1 M TP3b SSC FNN I SSCOP A AL5 A A L2

RTP/ R TC P*) U D P / IP

D a ta L in k

ATM

ATM
P h y s ic a l L a y e r

ATM

D a ta L in k

* ) R T C P is o p tio n a l.

For IP
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3GPP IuPS Specification


Radio Network C o n tr o l P l a n e Layer R AN AP U s er P l an e Iu U P P r o t o c o l L a y e r

Transport Network Layer

T ra n s p o rt U ser

N e tw or k P la n e

T ra n s p o r t N e tw o rk C o n t ro l P la n e

T r a n s p o rt N et w o rk U s e r P l an e

SC C P M T P 3 -B M3 UA SC T P SS C F-N N I SS C O P AA L5 IP IP M 3 UA SCTP G T P-U UD P IP A A L5 IP G T P-U UD P

A TM

D a ta Li nk

A TM

D a t a L in k

P h y s ic a l L a y e r

P h y s ic a l L ay e r

For IP
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Requirement Analysis ZTE IP RAN Solution Case Study

ZTE IP RAN Solution


RAN Product Networking Synchronization QoS Reliability Security OAM


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ZTE Unified All-IP Hardware Platform


Since 2004
GSM UMTS CDMA WiMAX TD-SCDMA SAE

One Switching Platform

GSM UMTS TD-SCDMA CDMA

All-IP Platform
Since 2007 One Radio Platform
WiMAX LTE

Switching platform: MSCS/MGW/SGSN/GGSN/HLR/BSC/RNC Radio platform: GSM/UMTS/G+U/G+U+L

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RNC Physical Interface for IP Support

FE/GE STM-1/STM-4 E1/T1/CSTM-1

IP over E1/T1 IP over Fractional E1/T1 IP over CSTM-1

IP over STM-1/ STM-4

IPv6 Support 10GE port

High capacity

High throughput

High integration

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Node B Physical Interface for IP Support


ZTE SDR Series, All-IP Supported ZTE SDR Series, AllAll-IP Supported
BS8900 BS8800 BS8906 B8200

STM-1

FE

GE

E1/T1
G900/U900 UMTS2100

Native IP IPoE1 2G/3G co-transmission

1*FE/GE

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ZTE GSM/UMTS IP RAN Feature Development


Enhanced IP Abis Flex A Flex Gb ML-PPP MC-PPP Diffserv IP Abis via Satellite IEEE1588v2 (Frequency) VLAN BFD CAC based on transmission (Abis) IP SLA IP Shaping ARP checking L2 dual homing L3 dual homing IEEE 802.3ad RTP Mux on AoIP A over IP BSS Local Switch DHCP PPP authentication MPLS E-LMI (BTS) Flex Abis E-LMI (BSC)

GSM UMTS
IP Header Compression DiffServ VLAN QoS based Route IEEE 1588v2 (Frequency)

09Q1
DHCP (Node B) SLA Monitor BFD

09Q4
DHCP (RNC) IEEE 802.3ah SLA-PM based CAC LACP (RNC) Path Protection P1 Dual Path ACL Sync. Ethernet (Node B)

10Q2
UDP-MUX on Iub RTP-MUX on IuCS Path Protection P2 Multi Path Sync. Ethernet (RNC) IEEE 1588v2 (Time)

10Q4
IEEE 802.1ag CAC on IuPS Dynamic IP Route

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MPLS IPv6 Support E-LMI IP Security

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ZTE IP RAN Solution


RAN Product Networking Synchronization QoS Reliability Security OAM


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General IP RAN Topology


All IP FE/GE FE Hybrid FE E1/T1/STM-1 E1/T1/STM-1 RNC/BSC E1/T1/STM-1 PDH/SDH Backbone SGSN/GGSN IP/MSTP Transmission FE/GE FE/GE IP/MSTP Backbone FE/GE

RNC/BSC FE/GE

MSCS/MGW FE/GE

All IP & hybrid available for all interfaces 2G/3G transmission sharing & differentiation CS/PS differentiation
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L3 Switch/Router for BSC/RNC


Broadcast separation of the BSC/RNC from the transmission network Independent port number of the transmission network and the BSC/RNC enabling independent capacity expansion Reuse of existing GE link between the switch and the transmission network in case of IP Abis after IP Iub Easy re-parenting of the BTS/Node B from one BSC/RNC to another Adaptable for flat architecture
L2 switch GE GE BSC GE

IP Transmission
L2 switch BTS/Node B

L3 switch

RNC

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Flex A/Gb/Iu with IP Transmission

TDM
CN

More transmission required High implementation cost Complex networking

IP
CN CN

Less transmission required Low implementation cost Simple networking

CN

CN

CN

BSC/RNC

BSC/RNC

BSC/RNC

BSC/RNC

BSC/RNC

BSC/RNC

IP makes it more feasible.

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IP over E1 Efficiency at Iub


Traffic type Payload RLC/MAC/FP overhead Transport layer overhead AAL2 cUDP UDP/IP CS 12.2k 32 7 UDP/IP AAL2 cUDP UDP/IP CS 64k 160 5 UDP/IP AAL2 cUDP UDP/IP PS 64k 160 14 UDP/IP AAL2 cUDP UDP/IP HSDPA 1280 58 UDP/IP AAL2 cUDP UDP/IP HSUPA 1280 74 UDP/IP 4 5 28 28 16 5 28 28 16 5 28 28 120 5 28 28 124 5 28 28 ATM MLPPP MLPPP Ethernet ATM MLPPP MLPPP Ethernet ATM MLPPP MLPPP Ethernet ATM MLPPP MLPPP Ethernet ATM MLPPP MLPPP Ethernet 5 8 8 38 20 8 8 38 20 8 8 38 155 8 8 38 155 8 8 38 Overall overhead 16 20 43 73 41 18 41 71 50 27 50 80 333 71 94 124 353 87 110 140 Overhead ratio 33.3% 38.5% 57.3% 69.5% 20.4% 10.1% 20.4% 30.7% 23.8% 14.4% 23.8% 33.3% 20.6% 5.3% 6.8% 8.8% 21.6% 6.4% 7.9% 9.9% Transmission efficiency 66.7% 61.5% 42.7% 30.5% 79.6% 89.9% 79.6% 69.3% 76.2% 85.6% 76.2% 66.7% 79.4% 94.7% 93.2% 91.2% 78.4% 93.6% 92.1% 90.1%

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IP over E1 vs. ATM over E1

IP over E1 QoS guarantee Reliability O&M Clock Investment protection MC-PPP ML-PPP Simple PPP configuration

ATM over E1 ATM QoS mechanism IMA Complex ATM configuration

Link clock available Yes

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ZTE IP RAN Solution


RAN Product Networking Synchronization QoS Reliability Security OAM


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Clock Accuracy

Accuracy requirement
Mode Frequency Accuracy Requirement GSM WCDMA +/-0.05ppm +/-0.05ppm Time Synchronization Requirement N/A N/A

Source: 3GPP TS 25.104, 25.402, GSM 05.02

Self-oscillation accuracy of ZTE RAN equipment


Period First 24 hours First 7 days First 1 month Frequency Accuracy +/-0.01ppm +/-0.015ppm +/-0.02ppm

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ZTE Synchronization Implementation


Access Aggregation

BITS

External Clock: 2M bits & 2M Hz


Receiver

GPS Receiver

PSN

PSN
RNC

Deliver frequency and time Not always viable and not secure Expensive oscillator required

NodeB

Time tree

PSN

IEEE 1588V2 Sync Ethernet Excellent SDH/PDH replacement solution Independent from network load Only deliver frequency but not phase Use PHY clock from bit stream (similar to SDH/PDH) Clock is transmitted via dedicated timing packets Can deliver frequency and phase (FDD/TDD) Works over any transport technology Expensive oscillator required

2323

Master Clock Selection

OMC configurable Manual switch of master clock Automatic switch of master clock Manual reset of master clock Automatic reset of master clock

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ZTE IP RAN Solution


RAN Product Networking Synchronization QoS Reliability Security OAM


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QoS Management in IP RAN


QoS parameters from CN Traffic data from/to CN QoS configuration at OMC

RNL

QoS Differentiation

DiffServ IP 802.1Q/P TNL BSS/RNS


Traffic data from/to MS
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MLPPP/MCPPP E1

FE/GE

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Flow Classification & Mapping to TNL


Traffic class

User Plane

Traffic priority (THP) User priority (ARP)

From CN

Basic priority (1~15)

Bearer Type (R99/HSPA/MBMS)

Configurable at OMC

C C C
DSCP (COS)

Control Plane Management Plane

Configurable mapping according to respective parameters for 2G and 3G


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DSCP & COS Application


Traffic Type Iub NBAP Signaling Iub Common Transport Channel RRC Connection R99 Conversational R99 Streaming R99 Interactive R99 Background HSPA Conversational HSPA Streaming HSPA Interactive HSPA Background 2G Signaling 2G CS 2G PS O&M Clock over IP (PTP) DSCP 101110 101110 100100 100100 100100 010100 000000 100110 100110 010110 000000 101110 100100 010100 000000 101110 COS 5 5 4 4 4 2 0 4 4 2 0 5 4 2 0 5 PHB EF (Expedited Forwarding) EF (Expedited Forwarding) AF42(Class4, Med Drop) AF42(Class4, Med Drop) AF42(Class4, Med Drop) AF22(Class2, Med Drop) Best effort AF43(Class4, High Drop) AF43(Class4, High Drop) AF23(Class2, High Drop) Best effort EF (Expedited Forwarding) AF42(Class4, Med Drop) AF22(Class2, Med Drop) Best effort EF (Expedited Forwarding)

Configurable mapping between DSCP and COS


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QoS Requirement to IP Bearer Network (SLA)


Interface IP Abis IP A IP Gb Packet Delay (One-way) <20 ms <10 ms <10 ms Packet Delay Jitter <10ms <6 ms <6 ms Packet Loss Rate <1% <0.05 % <0.05 %

IP Iub/Iur IP Iu-CS IP Iu-PS

<20 ms <10 ms <10 ms

<7 ms <6 ms <6 ms

<0.05 % <0.05 % <0.05 %

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CAC Rule
Traffic Reserved Bandwidth Fixed/ Adjustable
Common channel Signaling radio bearer Conversational Calculated bandwidth according to number of PCH and FACH Bit rate of SRB + transport layer overhead [Maximum bit rate] of RAB + transport layer overhead [Guaranteed bit rate] of RAB + transport layer overhead Pseudo-GBR (configurable) + transport layer overhead Fixed Fixed Adjustable (activity factor ) Fixed Adjustable (priority based)

Streaming Interactive/ background

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QoS Based Routing

Mixed IPoE1 & Ethernet Without VPN All Ethernet With VPN

Real time service over E1 (IPoE1) Non real time service over Ethernet Routing based on DSCP Call balancing between routes

IP RAN

E1 Ethernet
Node B/BTS RNC/BSC

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Overbooking

PS PS

Overbooking

PS PS

Allowable allocation

Total bandwidth

CS CS

Higher traffic capacity, higher bandwidth efficiency

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Dynamic Bandwidth Adjustment

Link broken
PS PS CS CS

Dynamic adjustment
PS

Poor performance

PS CS CS

Real time monitoring, real time adaptation

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ZTE IP RAN Solution


RAN Product Networking Synchronization QoS Reliability Security OAM


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Reliability of IP RAN

Networking redundancy

Board redundancy

2G/3G backup Iu/A/Gb flex

Processing board redundancy Interface board redundancy

Path protection

L2 dual homing L3 dual homing Link aggregation (IEEE 802.3ad)

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L2 Dual Homing

IP: 10.1.1.1/24 MAC: 00:15:EB:A1:66:0A

IP: 10.1.1.254/24 MAC: 00:15:EB:00:95:DD

GIPI(M) L2 switch BTS/Node B GIPI(S) L2 switch BSC/RNC

Master-standby: Two FE/GE ports, one IP/MAC address

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L3 Dual Homing
IP: 10.1.2.1/30 MAC: 00:15:EB:00:95:DD

IP: 10.1.1.1/24 MAC: 00:15:EB:A1:66:0A

GIPI L3 switch BTS/Node B IP: 10.1.1.2/24 MAC: 00:15:EB:A1:66:1A L3 switch GIPI BSC/RNC

IP: 10.1.2.5/30 MAC: 00:15:EB:00:95:D0

Load sharing: Two FE/GE ports, two IP addresses

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ZTE IP RAN Solution


RAN Product Networking Synchronization QoS Reliability Security OAM


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Security for IP RAN

Security threat

Unauthorized access Loss or corruption of information Broadcast storm Access control list (ACL) for protection of network elements IPSec in case public transmission network is used for Iub/Abis VLAN tagging for network separation and broadcast suppression

Security operation

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VLAN Configuration Recommendation

BTS/Node B side: Lower number of BS sites in one VLAN means higher security.

BSC/RNC side: L3 switch, instead of BSC/RNC, used for VLAN tagging Redundancy: Multiple VLAN with different routes

RNC

VLAN
Node B

RNC

VLAN1

VLANn

Node B

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ZTE IP RAN Solution


RAN Product Networking Synchronization QoS Reliability Security OAM


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OAM for IP RAN

Link monitoring

IEEE 802.3ah: Ethernet link check (P2P) IEEE 802.1ag: Ethernet link check (E2E) BFD: IP connectivity check

SLA monitoring Performance management


Ethernet performance management IP performance management

BSC

IP Transmission
CN

BTS/Node B

RNC

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Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

Explicit BFD

BTS/Node B Static route based BFD

BSC/RNC

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SLA Monitoring

IP SLA monitoring functionality


Network availability monitoring IP SLA based CAC Troubleshooting Continuous UDP echo Continuous ICMP echo Instant test Performance test
Test Procedure BTS/Node B

CN

IP SLA monitoring method



RNC

IP SLA monitoring initiation



BSC

UDP echo ICMP echo


Expected result Less than 20ms

Test Item Delay

1.RNC sends UDP packets with sequence number and timestamp to Node B. 2.Node B loops back the UDP packets. 3.RNC receives the looped UDP packets and calculates the round trip delay. Repeat the above procedure periodically, and then get the delay jitter. Repeat the above procedure periodically, count the number of sent packets and received packets, then get the packet loss ratio. Execute the above procedure with configured frequency and packet size, calculate the data rate of received packets. Then change the frequency and packet size to get the maximum bandwidth.

Delay jitter Packet loss ratio Available bandwidth

Less than 7ms Less than 0.05% Depends on the subscribed bandwidth e.g. 100Mbps

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Requirement Analysis ZTE IP RAN Solution Case Study

Revolution of CSL Mobile Network


2G OSS Existing VAS Platform 3G OSS
TDM Network SGSN

CSL Network CSL New Network

HLR

UMTS UMTS 2.1G 2.1G/900M

CN
MSCS HLR

VAS Core Network


ZTE

2G OSS
MSCS/ MGW

BSC/ RNC

Iub
IP Network

GSM 900/1800M

Abis GSM GSM 1800M 900/1800M

2G/3G OSS

NWM Network

CN

HLR SGSN ZTE VAS Platform TDM Network MSCS

Difficult Evolution

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Expensive Transmission

High Power Consumption

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RAN Synchronization Solution


Primary clock reference: GPS Secondary clock reference for RNC: via fiber from MGW Secondary clock reference for iBSC: via E1 from MSCs iBSC/RNC

FE Indoor E1/T1

Primary clock reference: IP Clock Primary clock reference: E1 / T1 Primary clock reference: GPS

Outdoor BTS/Node B Secondary clock reference: IP Clock

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Primary Clock Reference for RNC/iBSC

GPS Antenna On rooftop GPS Controller GPS Controller GPS transmit Antenna

Power Input

GPS is set as the primary clock resource for RNC/iBSC in CSL Network.

RNC #1

RNC #2

BSC #1

BSC #2

GPS receiver sub card is integrated into clock sync board: ICM.

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Network Architecture

IP network architecture with L2 service providers of CSL L3 switch (CISCO 6513) is provided to aggregation and route. Every road leads to Rome: reliable transmission mechanism
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Iub/Abis Link Redundancy


iBSC/RNC Redundancy Scheme

L3 Dual-homing
6513 6513

Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) Automatic Automatic re-routing re-routing

Downlink BTS/Node B uplink

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Iub/Abis L2 Network Security


Node B/BTS site 40~60 sites Node B/BTS site FE RAN 6513

FE

L2 Domain

GE

Core room BMI


GE GE RAN 6513

Node B/BTS site 40~60 sites Node B/BTS site

FE

GE

GE RAN 6513

L2 Domain
FE

GE RAN 6513

Core room BPO

GE

L2 Domain completely isolated from each other Each site connects one L2 Domain Each L2 domain connects all 4 aggregation switches
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VLAN Tagging Ensuring Network Security


RAN 6513

VLAN ID: 11 + 111

VLAN ID: 12 + 112

Core room BMI

Node B/BTS site

VLAN ID: 11 + 111

VLAN ID: 11 + 111

RAN 6513

L2 Domain
Node B/BTS site
VLAN ID: 12 + 112

VLAN ID: 12 + 112

VLAN ID: 11 + 111 +12+112

RAN 6513

VLAN ID: 11 + 111 +12+112

Core room BPO


RAN 6513

VLAN

tagging is applied in Iub Ethernet transport; all Iub packets contain VLAN tagging. to VLAN applied, not only L2 loop is avoided, but also traffic can be distributed to multiple GE links to achieve load balancing.
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Due

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IP QoS Implementation
DSCP
RNC
GE

BSC
GE

DSCP -> COS

RAN 6513
GE Ethernet SP

COS

FE

COS

ZTE 2818S
FE FE

COS

SDR 1

SDR 2

DSCP & COS

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Site Networking
Site A Site B
Traffic: 10.9.11.2/24 SDR O&M: 10.9.111.42/24 (3G 2100M)

Traffic: 10.9.11.1/24 O&M: 10.9.111.41/24 SDR (3G 2100M)

O&M 1: 10.9.11.201/24 O&M 2: 10.9.11.202/24 ZXMW IDU ZXMW IDU

ZXR10 2818S O&M: 10.9.111.82/24 SDR (2G 900M/1800M, 3G 900M) 3G Traffic: 10.9.11.102/24 2G Traffic: 10.10.111.22/24 O&M: 10.9.111.142/24

Service Provider Network

ZXR10 2818S O&M: 10.9.111.81/24 SDR (2G 900M/1800M, 3G 900M) 3G Traffic: 10.9.11.101/24 2G Traffic: 10.10.111.21/24 O&M: 10.9.111.141/24 O&M 1: 10.9.11.203/24 O&M 2: 10.9.11.204/24 ZXMW IDU

O&M 1: 10.9.210.1/29 O&M 2: 10.9.210.2/29

Site C
Traffic: 10.9.11.3/24 SDR O&M: 10.9.111.43/24 (3G 2100M) ZXMW IDU O&M 1: 10.9.210.9/29 O&M 2: 10.9.210.10/29

Site D

ZXR10 2818SO&M: 10.9.111.83/24

SDR (3G 2100M/900M) Traffic: 10.9.11.4/24 O&M: 10.9.111.44/24

ZXMW IDU ZXMW IDU O&M 1: 10.9.210.17/29 O&M 2: 10.9.210.18/29 O&M 1: 10.9.210.11/29 O&M 2: 10.9.210.12/29

SDR (2G 900M/1800M, 3G 900M) 3G Traffic: 10.9.11.103/24 2G Traffic: 10.10.111.23/24 O&M: 10.9.111.143/24

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Summary
Universal platform Rich interface Flexible networking High performance

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