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<div class="outer_page only_ie6_border " id="outer_page_2" style="width: 679p x; height: 879px; "> <div class="newpage" id="page2" style="width: 902px; height: 1167px; -webk it-transform: scale(0.7527716186252772); -webkit-transform-origin-x: 0%; -webkit -transform-origin-y: 0%; display: block; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:81px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">2</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:675px;wo rd-spacing:1px">Asignatura: Sistemas Operativos II</span><span class="a" style=" left:834px;top:852px;word-spacing:1px">Contenido Programtico (PRIMER CORTE)</span ></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1203px">UNIDAD I (Introduccin y Conceptos Bs icos)</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1378px">1.1</span></div> <div class="ff3" style="font-size:89px"> <span class="a" style="left:946px;top:1368px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:1378px">Definicin de Sistema Operativo</spa n></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:900px;top:1553px;word-spacing:2px">Un sistema operat ivo es un software de sistema, es decir, un conjunto de programas</span><span cl ass="a" style="left:834px;top:1655px;word-spacing:35px">de computacin destinados a realizar muchas tareas entre las que destaca la</span><span class="a" style="l

eft:834px;top:1756px;word-spacing:1px">administracin de los dispositivos perifrico s.</span><span class="a" style="left:900px;top:1931px;word-spacing:1px">Cuando s e aplica voltaje al procesador de un dispositivo electrnico, ste ejecuta un</span> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2034px;word-spacing:7px">reducido cdigo en lenguaje ensamblador localizado en una direccin concreta en la</span><span class= "a" style="left:834px;top:2134px">ROM (direccin de reset) y conocido como reset c ode, que a su vez ejecuta una rutina</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top :2237px;word-spacing:12px">con la que se inicializa el hardware que acompaa al pr ocesador. Tambin en esta</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2338px;wordspacing:14px">fase suele inicializarse el controlador de las interrupciones. Fin alizada esta fase se</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2440px;word-spa cing:48px">ejecuta el cdigo de arranque (startup code), tambin cdigo en lenguaje</s pan><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2541px;word-spacing:13px">ensamblador, cuya tarea ms importante es ejecutar el programa principal (main())</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2644px">del software de la aplicacin.</span></div > <div class="ff2" style="font-size:81px"> <span class="a" style="left:900px;top:2835px;word-spacing:40px">Un sistema opera tivo se puede encontrar en la mayora de los aparatos</span><span class="a" style= "left:834px;top:2936px;word-spacing:8px">electrnicos que utilicen microprocesador es para funcionar, ya que gracias a stos</span><span class="a" style="left:812px; top:3039px;word-spacing:27px">&nbsp;podemos entender la mquina y que sta cumpla co n sus funciones (telfonos</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3139px;word -spacing:-1px">mviles, reproductores de DVD, autoradios, computadoras, radios, <s pan class="w6"></span>etc).</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3301px">1.</span></div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:60px"> <span class="a" style="left:901px;top:3320px">2</span></div> <div class="ff3" style="font-size:89px"> <span class="a" style="left:946px;top:3291px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:60px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:3320px">R&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1031px;top:3301px">ecursos administrados por un sist ema operativo:</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:62px"> <span class="a" style="left:900px;top:3523px">T</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:958px;top:3504px;word-spacing:31px">iempo de procesa dor:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1888px;top:3505px;word-spacing:31px">Despus del consu mo de memoria la actividad del</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:3606p x;word-spacing:2px">&nbsp;procesador es el dato ms importante a controlar en nues tro servidor. Para determinar&nbsp;</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top: 3707px;word-spacing:19px">si las tareas del procesador se manejan eficientemente para todo el trabajo en el</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3809px;w ord-spacing:1px">equipo o si est sobrecargado, debemos examinar su uso.</span><sp an class="a" style="left:898px;top:4015px;word-spacing:21px">El uso del procesad or o</span></div> <div class="ff2" style="font-size:81px"> <span class="a" style="left:1855px;top:4031px;word-spacing:19px">uso de CPU&nbsp ;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2362px;top:4015px;word-spacing:20px">es el porcentaj e de tiempo en el que se</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4115px;word -spacing:7px">encuentra ocupado trabajando. Debemos vigilar esta ocupacin para de tectar cuellos</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4218px;word-spacing:1 px">de botella en el procesador.</span><span class="a" style="left:898px;top:442

3px;word-spacing:34px">En Windows Server 2003, podemos utilizar el</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:2787px;top:4422px;word-spacing:34px">Administrador d e tareas</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:3836px;top:4423px">o</span></div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:60px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4542px">R&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:898px;top:4523px">endimiento</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1358px;top:4524px;word-spacing:15px">para controlar el uso y la actividad del procesador. El contador que</span><span class="a" styl e="left:834px;top:4626px;word-spacing:1px">define el uso del procesador en cada una de estas herramientas es:</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4875px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:4833px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4830px">Uso de CPU, en el Administrador d e tareas, y,</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4978px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:4936px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff10" style="font-size:63px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4950px">%</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1197px;top:4932px">Tiempo de proceso en Rendimiento. </span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 3"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 137px; clip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativ os II)_files/2-f43f313251.png"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 164px; top: 52px; width: 630px; height: 137px; clip: rect(99px 176px 136px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operat ivos II)_files/2-f43f313251.png"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 137px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operat ivos II)_files/2-f43f313251.png"> </div> </div> </div>

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<div class="outer_page only_ie6_border " id="outer_page_3" style="width: 679p x; height: 879px; "> <div class="newpage" id="page3" style="width: 902px; height: 1167px; -webk it-transform: scale(0.7527716186252772); -webkit-transform-origin-x: 0%; -webkit -transform-origin-y: 0%; display: block; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:82px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">3</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:898px;top:675px;wo rd-spacing:20px">En el Administrador de tareas el uso de CPU muestra un grfico in dicando el</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:778px;word-spacing:12px"> &nbsp;porcentaje de tiempo que el procesador est trabajando. Este contador es el primer&nbsp;</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:879px;word-spacing:8px" >indicador de la actividad del procesador. Viendo el grfico vemos cuanto tiempo d e</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:981px;word-spacing:14px">&nbsp;pro ceso se est utilizando. Si el equipo parece enlentecerse, el grfico puede estar&nb sp;</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1082px;word-spacing:1px">mostran do un gran porcentaje de uso.</span><span class="a" style="left:898px;top:1287px ;word-spacing:6px">En Rendimiento, el porcentaje de tiempo de procesador es el p orcentaje de tiempo</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1390px;word-spac ing:23px">transcurrido que el procesador ha gastado en ejecutar un hilo que no s

ea el de</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1491px;word-spacing:3px">in activo. Cada procesador tiene un hilo de inactividad que consume ciclos cuando n o</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1593px;word-spacing:5px">hay otros hilos en ejecucin. Este contador es el primer indicador de la actividad del</spa n><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:1694px;word-spacing:16px">&nbsp;procesad or. Muestra el porcentaje medio de tiempo ocupado observado durante el</span><sp an class="a" style="left:834px;top:1797px;word-spacing:23px">intervalo de muestr a. Se calcula el valor mediante el control del tiempo que el</span><span class=" a" style="left:812px;top:1897px">&nbsp;proceso de inactividad est activo y que se le resta al 100</span></div> <div class="ff10" style="font-size:63px"> <span class="a" style="left:2854px;top:1915px">%</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2928px;top:1897px">.</span><span class="a" style="le ft:898px;top:2103px;word-spacing:15px">Es interesante el control de este contado r en sistemas de multiproceso simtrico</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;to p:2203px;word-spacing:2px">(SMP) como a los sistemas de nico procesador. SMP perm ite a cualquier procesador&nbsp;</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:230 6px;word-spacing:51px">del <span class="l" style="margin-left:-52px">sistema <sp an class="w" style="width:13px"></span>ejecutar <span class="w" style="width:14p x"></span>cualquier <span class="w" style="width:15px"></span>hilo <span class=" l" style="margin-left:-52px">del <span class="w12"></span>sistema <span class="w " style="width:14px"></span>operativo <span class="w12"></span>o <span class="w" style="width:14px"></span>de <span class="w12"></span>aplicacin</span></span></s pan><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2407px;word-spacing:2px">simultneamente con otro procesador en el sistema. Observar la pauta en el uso de un</span><spa n class="a" style="left:812px;top:2509px;word-spacing:19px">&nbsp;procesador en procesadores individuales y para todos los procesadores durante el</span><span c lass="a" style="left:812px;top:2610px;word-spacing:1px">&nbsp;periodo establecid o. Tambin, considerar el nmero de hilos en la cola del procesador&nbsp;</span><spa n class="a" style="left:834px;top:2713px;word-spacing:29px">del sistema para det erminar si el uso elevado de procesador est limitando la</span><span class="a" st yle="left:834px;top:2814px">capacidad del sistema para cumplir su trabajo.</span ></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:62px"> <span class="a" style="left:900px;top:3139px">T</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:958px;top:3120px;word-spacing:4px">iempo de Memoria: </span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1735px;top:3121px;word-spacing:4px">En informtica, el hablar de la memoria del computador, no</span><span class="a" style="left:834px ;top:3222px;word-spacing:8px">se refiera a la capacidad del disco duro de ste, si no a la RAM, memoria de acceso</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3325p x">aleatorio o, en ingls, Ramdom Access Memory.</span><span class="a" style="left :923px;top:3528px;word-spacing:24px">La RAM es un medio fsico que almacena tempor almente toda la lgica del</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3629px;word -spacing:21px">computador: el sistema operativo, los programas que estamos ejecu tando y otros</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3732px;word-spacing:1p x">datos para su funcionamiento.</span><span class="a" style="left:923px;top:393 5px;word-spacing:15px">La memoria de un PC actual se encuentra, normalmente, en forma de mdulos</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4036px;word-spacing:3 2px">DIMM (tienen 168 contactos, 5,25 pulgadas de longitud y una de altura. Se</ span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4138px;word-spacing:33px">empezaron a utilizar con la llegada de los Pentium II). Hace unos aos, no</span><span class= "a" style="left:834px;top:4239px;word-spacing:2px">demasiados, se utilizaban los SIMM (los hay de 30 pins, 3,5 pulgadas de longitud por&nbsp;</span><span class= "a" style="left:834px;top:4342px;word-spacing:9px">media de altura y los de 72 c ontactos, 4,25 pulgadas de longitud y una de altura) y</span><span class="a" sty le="left:834px;top:4443px;word-spacing:21px">ahora se est empezando a utilizar lo

s RIMM, muchos ms caros. Los mdulos</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:45 45px">DIMM suelen funcionar a 66, 100, 120 o 133 Mhz mientras que los RIMM lo ha cen a</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4646px">600, 700 u 800 Mhz.</s pan><span class="a" style="left:923px;top:4849px;word-spacing:31px">Las siglas E CC significan Error Correction Code (Cdigo de correccin de</span><span class="a" s tyle="left:834px;top:4952px;word-spacing:16px">errores). Es un sistema que chequ ea la integridad de los datos almacenados en la</span><span class="a" style="lef t:834px;top:5053px;word-spacing:32px">memoria RAM. El sistema utiliza tres bits adicionales a cada byte de datos.</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 98px; c lip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativo s II)_files/3-cb49e361f5.jpg"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 98px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operati vos II)_files/3-cb49e361f5.jpg"> </div> </div> </div>

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<div class="outer_page only_ie6_border " id="outer_page_4" style="width: 6 79px; height: 879px; "><div class="newpage" id="page4" style="width: 902px; heig ht: 1167px; -webkit-transform: scale(0.7527716186252772); -webkit-transform-orig in-x: 0%; -webkit-transform-origin-y: 0%; display: block; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:82px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">4</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:675px">D ependiendo del controlador de memoria del computador, el sistema ECC, ser capaz</ span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:778px;word-spacing:2px">de encontrar entre dos y cuatro bits errneos por cada byte. El funcionamiento de este</span><s pan class="a" style="left:834px;top:879px;word-spacing:1px">sistema est basado en un algoritmo matemtico, que codifica la informacin del byte</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:981px;word-spacing:3px">en tres bits. Cuando los datos ll egan a la memoria se comparan el byte y los tres bits,</span><span class="a" sty le="left:834px;top:1082px">determinando si ha habido una corrupcin en la informac in transmitida.</span><span class="a" style="left:921px;top:1286px;word-spacing:4 px">Otro factor a tener en cuenta es el tiempo de acceso a la RAM. Para ello se utiliza</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1388px;word-spacing:8px">el trmino nanosegundo, una mil millonsima de segundo, y realmente es el tiempo</span> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1489px;word-spacing:27px">que se tarda en acceder a los datos almacenados. En los antiguos SIMM esta</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1591px;word-spacing:19px">velocidad estaba entre los 80 y 60 nanosegundos, pero no es el nico factor del</span><span class="a" style="left :834px;top:1692px;word-spacing:6px">tiempo que tarde el computador en acceder, u n SIMM EDO es mejor que uno FPM,</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:179 5px;word-spacing:1px">&nbsp;por la forma en que los datos son tratados. En un mdu lo de SDRAM el tiempo podr</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:1896px">&n bsp;bajar a 12, 10 e incluso 8 nanosegundos.</span><span class="a" style="left:9 21px;top:2099px;word-spacing:4px">Un concepto importante es el refresco. Para em pezar hay que saber que un chip de</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2 202px;word-spacing:6px">memoria RAM est formado por una especie de clulas elctricas que se ordenan en</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2302px;word-spaci ng:24px">"columnas" con la necesidad de ser recargadas de manera continua. La ta sa de</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2405px;word-spacing:17px">refr esco es al nmero de columnas que deben ser recargadas. Las ms frecuentes</span><sp an class="a" style="left:834px;top:2506px;word-spacing:1px">suelen ser de 2Kbyte s y 4kbytes. La primera es capaz de recargar ms clulas a la vez</span><span class= "a" style="left:834px;top:2608px">y por lo tanto es ms rpida.</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:901px;top:2885px;word-spacing:-3px">Dispositivos Per ifricos:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1811px;top:2886px">&nbsp;</span><span class="a" styl e="left:834px;top:4066px;word-spacing:66px">Los dispositivos de E/S se pueden cl asificar de la siguiente manera:</span></div>

<div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4167px">1. Segn su utilidad:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1605px;top:4168px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4417px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:4375px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4371px;word-spacing:18px">Dispositivos de Interfaz de Usuario</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2493px;top:4372px;word-spacing:19px">: Permiten la c omunicacin entre los</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4473px;word-spa cing:28px">usuarios y la computadora. Dentro de este grupo se incluyen todos los </span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4575px;word-spacing:5px">dispositi vos que sirven de interfaz para el usuario, tanto de Entrada (Teclado,</span><sp an class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4676px;word-spacing:1px">Mouse...) como de S alida (Impresora, Pantalla...).</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4824px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:4782px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4778px;word-spacing:11px">Dispositivos de Almacenamiento</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2346px;top:4779px;word-spacing:13px">: Proporcionan almacenamiento no voltil</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4879px;word -spacing:40px">de datos y memoria. Su funcin primordial es abastecer de datos y</ span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4982px;word-spacing:28px">almacenami ento a los programas que se ejecutan en la CPU. Segn su</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 282px; clip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativ os II)_files/4-a8f412a276.jpg"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 167px; top: 511px; width: 630px; height: 282px; clip: rect(99px 611px 281px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Opera tivos II)_files/4-a8f412a276.jpg"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 282px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operat ivos II)_files/4-a8f412a276.jpg"> </div> </div> </div>

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<div class="outer_page only_ie6_border " id="outer_page_5" style="width: 6 79px; height: 879px; "><div class="newpage" id="page5" style="width: 902px; heig ht: 1167px; -webkit-transform: scale(0.7527716186252772); -webkit-transform-orig in-x: 0%; -webkit-transform-origin-y: 0%; display: block; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:82px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">5</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:675px;w ord-spacing:19px">capacidad y la inmediatez con que pueden acceder a los datos s e pueden</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:778px;word-spacing:1px">di vidir en almacenamiento secundario (discos y disquetes) y terciario (cintas).</s pan></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:924px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:882px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:878px;word-spacing:12px">Dispositivos de Comunicaciones</span></div>

<div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2329px;top:879px;word-spacing:15px">: Permiten conec tar a la computadora con</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:981px;word -spacing:16px">otras a travs de una interfaz de red. Entre ellos se pueden mencio nar los</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:1082px;word-spacing:1px">Mo dem, Tarjetas de Interfaz de Red, entre otros.</span></div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:60px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1307px">2</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:879px;top:1288px">. Segn su administracin:</span></div > <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:1538px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:1496px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:1491px;word-spacing:7px">Dispositivos Ded icados</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1970px;top:1492px;word-spacing:10px">: Su caractersti ca principal es la que se asigna a un</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;t op:1593px;word-spacing:6px">solo proceso, el cual los utiliza en forma exclusiva . Entre estos perifricos se</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:1696px;w ord-spacing:43px">encuentran las cintas magnticas y la mayora de los perifricos de< /span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:1797px">comunicacin.</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:1944px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:1903px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:1898px;word-spacing:9px">Dispositivos Com partidos</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2079px;top:1899px;word-spacing:11px">: Estos disposi tivos tienen la caracterstica de ser&nbsp;</span><span class="a" style="left:1100 px;top:2000px;word-spacing:9px">asignados a varios procesos al mismo tiempo. La complejidad de su manejo</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:2103px;wor d-spacing:19px">reside en la necesidad de mantener la informacin sobre los archiv os que</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:2203px;word-spacing:19px">co ntienen y sobre el espacio disponible y servir simultneamente a varios</span><spa n class="a" style="left:1078px;top:2306px;word-spacing:1px">&nbsp;procesos (simu ltaneidad lgica). Los dispositivos ms importantes de este tipo</span><span class=" a" style="left:1100px;top:2407px">son los discos.</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:2555px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:2513px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:2508px;word-spacing:28px">Dispositivos Vi rtuales</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1952px;top:2509px;word-spacing:33px">: Se usan princ ipalmente para simular perifricos</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:26 10px;word-spacing:12px">inexistentes, o para poder asignar a varios programas, e n forma simultnea,</span><span class="a" style="left:1078px;top:2713px;word-spaci ng:15px">&nbsp;perifricos que por su naturaleza son dedicados (ejemplo la impreso ra). En</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:2814px;word-spacing:54px">e ste caso la labor del Sistema Operativo consiste en simular los</span><span clas s="a" style="left:1100px;top:2916px;word-spacing:8px">correspondientes perifricos , y en hacer el encadenamiento adecuado con las</span><span class="a" style="lef

t:1100px;top:3017px;word-spacing:2px">unidades fsicas correspondiente.</span><spa n class="a" style="left:834px;top:3222px;word-spacing:13px">Cada clase de dispos itivo de E/S posee caractersticas que la hacen diferente a las</span><span class= "a" style="left:834px;top:3325px;word-spacing:31px">dems, incluso cada dispositiv o que hace parte de la clase posee sus propias</span><span class="a" style="left :834px;top:3426px">caractersticas. A continuacin se hace mencin de algunas de ellas :</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:3676px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:3634px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:3630px;word-spacing:17px">Velocidad de Da tos</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1860px;top:3631px;word-spacing:18px">: Es la velocid ad con que el dispositivo transfiere los</span><span class="a" style="left:1100p x;top:3733px;word-spacing:24px">datos. Puede haber una diferencia de varios rdene s de magnitud en las</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:3834px">veloci dades de transmisin de un dispositivo a otro.</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:3982px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:3940px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:3936px">Aplicaciones</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1574px;top:3937px;word-spacing:12px">: Hace referenc ia a la utilidad que se le da al dispositivo, esta</span><span class="a" style=" left:1100px;top:4038px;word-spacing:16px">caracterstica tiene una gran influencia en su Software, en las polticas del</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top :4140px">Sistema Operativo y de las utilidades de apoyo.</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4286px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:4244px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4240px;word-spacing:3px">Complejidad de C ontrol</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2021px;top:4241px;word-spacing:3px">: Es la manera c omo el dispositivo realiza el control</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;t op:4343px;word-spacing:24px">de las operaciones de E/S. La complejidad del contr ol es filtrada por el</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4444px">mdulo de E/S que controla al dispositivo.</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4592px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:4550px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4546px;word-spacing:8px">Unidad de</span> </div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:62px"> <span class="a" style="left:1526px;top:4565px">T</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1584px;top:4546px">ransferencia</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2053px;top:4547px;word-spacing:5px">: Es la mnima uni dad que utilizan los dispositivos</span><span class="a" style="left:1078px;top:4 648px;word-spacing:2px">&nbsp;para transferir los datos, los cuales pueden trans

mitirse como flujos de bytes o</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4750 px;word-spacing:1px">de caracteres (un terminal) o en bloque mayores (un disco). </span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4896px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:4854px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:60px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4869px">R&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1163px;top:4850px;word-spacing:3px">epresentacin de l os Datos</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2164px;top:4851px;word-spacing:3px">: Es la forma co mo el dispositivo esquematiza y</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:495 4px;word-spacing:9px">codifica los datos. Cada dispositivo emplean un esquema de codificacin de</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 98px; c lip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativo s II)_files/5-2a78532c61.jpg"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 98px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operati vos II)_files/5-2a78532c61.jpg"> </div> </div> </div>

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<div class="outer_page only_ie6_border not_visible" id="outer_page_6" style ="width: 679px; height: 879px; "><div class="newpage" id="page6" style="width: 9 02px; height: 1167px; -webkit-transform: scale(0.7527716186252772); -webkit-tran sform-origin-x: 0%; -webkit-transform-origin-y: 0%; display: none; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:82px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">6</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:675px;w ord-spacing:15px">datos diferente, incluidas las diferencias en los cdigos de car acteres y los</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:778px;word-spacing:1p x">convenios de paridad.</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:924px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:882px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:878px;word-spacing:22px">Condiciones de E rror</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1957px;top:879px;word-spacing:22px">: Hace referenci a a la manera como el dispositivo</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:9 81px;word-spacing:1px">detecta los errores, la manera en que se informa sobre el los, sus consecuencias</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:1082px;wordspacing:2px">y el rango disponible de repuestas que se tiene frente a cada dispo sitivo. Estas</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:1185px">condiciones d ifieren ampliamente de un dispositivo a otro.</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:898px;top:1389px">Software:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1292px;top:1390px;word-spacing:2px">Los recursos de software de un sistema de computacin, consisten en las</span><span class="a" styl e="left:834px;top:1491px;word-spacing:17px">funciones disponibles al usuario con el objeto de administrar datos y controlar la</span><span class="a" style="left :834px;top:1593px;word-spacing:39px">ejecucin de programas. Entre estos recursos se encuentran los servicios de</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1694p x;word-spacing:23px">administracin de archivos, los despachadores, libreras del si stema y rutinas de</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1797px">utilidad.

</span><span class="a" style="left:898px;top:2000px;word-spacing:14px">El mtodo ms utilizado para permitir a varios usuarios compartir un recurso de</span><span c lass="a" style="left:834px;top:2103px;word-spacing:5px">software, es haciendo es te recurso de software</span></div> <div class="ff4" style="font-size:52px"> <span class="a" style="left:2523px;top:2130px">reentrante</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2900px;top:2103px;word-spacing:4px">. La utilizacin d e software</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2203px">reentrante, evita tener en la memoria varias copias de ese software, situacin que sera</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2306px;word-spacing:8px">muy ineficiente. En com putadores pequeos puede ser imposible la implementacin</span><span class="a" style ="left:834px;top:2407px;word-spacing:2px">de programas reentrantes.</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2788px">1.</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:62px"> <span class="a" style="left:901px;top:2807px">3</span></div> <div class="ff3" style="font-size:89px"> <span class="a" style="left:946px;top:2778px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:62px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:2807px">T</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1025px;top:2788px">ipos de Sistemas operativos</span ></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:2964px">a.-</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1096px;top:2963px;word-spacing:13px">Sistemas de</sp an></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:62px"> <span class="a" style="left:1586px;top:2982px">T</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1644px;top:2963px">iempo</span></div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:60px"> <span class="a" style="left:1911px;top:2982px">R&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1975px;top:2963px">eal</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2081px;top:2964px;word-spacing:14px">: Los Sistemas Operativos de tiempo real son la</span><span class="a" style="left:945px;top:306 5px;word-spacing:1px">&nbsp;plataforma para establecer un sistema de tiempo real ya que en los SOTR no tiene</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:3167px; word-spacing:1px">importancia el usuario, sino los procesos.</span><span class=" a" style="left:967px;top:3518px">Algunos ejemplos de Sistemas Operativos de tiem po real son:</span><span class="a" style="left:1034px;top:3693px;word-spacing:1p x">1. VxWorks,</span><span class="a" style="left:1034px;top:3868px">2. Solaris, Lyns OS</span><span class="a" style="left:1034px;top:4043px;word-spacing:2px">3. Spectra</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4220px;word-spacing:3px">Po r lo regular Sistema Operativo de tiempo real suele tener la misma arquitectura< /span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4320px;word-spacing:34px">que un Sis tema Operativo convencional, pero su diferencia radica en que</span><span class= "a" style="left:945px;top:4423px;word-spacing:5px">&nbsp;proporciona mayor prior idad a los elementos de control y procesamiento que son</span><span class="a" st yle="left:967px;top:4524px;word-spacing:1px">utilizados para ejecutar los proces os o tareas.</span><span class="a" style="left:1034px;top:4874px">1. El SOTR deb e ser multitarea y permisible</span><span class="a" style="left:1034px;top:5051p x">2. Un SOTR debe poder asignar prioridades a las tareas</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1">

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<div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:82px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">7</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:1031px;top:675px;w ord-spacing:7px">3. El SOTR debe proporcionar medios de comunicacin y sincronizac in entre</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:778px">tareas</span><span cl ass="a" style="left:1034px;top:953px">4. Un SOTR debe poder evitar el problema d e inversin de prioridades</span><span class="a" style="left:1034px;top:1128px">5. El comportamiento temporal del SOTR debe ser conocido</span><span class="a" sty le="left:945px;top:1303px">&nbsp;b.-</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1108px;top:1302px;word-spacing:25px">Sistema de Mult iprogramacin:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2407px;top:1303px;word-spacing:25px">Se distinguen p or sus habilidades para</span><span class="a" style="left:945px;top:1406px;wordspacing:35px">&nbsp;poder soportar la ejecucin de dos o ms trabajos activos (que s e estn</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:1507px;word-spacing:5px">ejecu tando) al mismo tiempo. Esto trae como resultado que la Unidad Central de</span> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:1609px;word-spacing:12px">Procesamiento (U CP) siempre tenga alguna tarea que ejecutar, aprovechando al</span><span class=" a" style="left:967px;top:1710px;word-spacing:-1px">mximo su utilizacin.</span><spa n class="a" style="left:967px;top:2062px;word-spacing:6px">Su objetivo es tener a varias tareas en la memoria principal, de manera que cada</span><span class="a " style="left:967px;top:2163px;word-spacing:24px">uno est usando el procesador, o un procesador distinto, es decir, involucra</span><span class="a" style="left:9 67px;top:2265px">mquinas con ms de una UCP.</span><span class="a" style="left:967p x;top:2616px;word-spacing:22px">Sistemas Operativos como UNIX, Windows 95, Windo ws 98, Windows NT,</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:2716px;word-spaci ng:-1px">MAC-OS, OS/2, soportan <span class="w7"></span>la mul<span class="l6">t itarea.</span></span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:2893px;word-spacing:1 3px">Las caractersticas de un Sistema Operativo de multiprogramacin o multitarea</ span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:2994px">son las siguientes:</span><sp an class="a" style="left:1057px;top:3169px">* Mejora productividad del sistema y utilizacin de recursos.</span><span class="a" style="left:1057px;top:3344px">* M ultiplexa recursos entre varios programas.</span><span class="a" style="left:105 7px;top:3521px">* Generalmente soportan mltiples usuarios (multiusuarios).</span> <span class="a" style="left:1057px;top:3696px">* Proporcionan facilidades para m antener el entorno de usuarios individuales.</span><span class="a" style="left:1 057px;top:3871px">* Requieren validacin de usuario para seguridad y proteccin.</sp an><span class="a" style="left:1057px;top:4046px">* Proporcionan contabilidad de l uso de los recursos por parte de los usuarios.</span><span class="a" style="le ft:1054px;top:4221px;word-spacing:15px">* Multitarea sin soporte multiusuario se encuentra en algunos computadores</span><span class="a" style="left:945px;top:4 324px">&nbsp;personales o en sistemas de tiempo real.</span><span class="a" styl e="left:1054px;top:4499px;word-spacing:13px">* Sistemas m<span class="l7">ultipr ocesadores son sistemas m<span class="l7">ultitareas por defi<span class="l6">ni cin <span class="w" style="width:31px"></span>ya que</span></span></span></span>< span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4600px;word-spacing:61px">soportan la ejecu cin simultnea de mltiples tareas sobre diferentes</span><span class="a" style="left :945px;top:4703px">&nbsp;procesadores.</span><span class="a" style="left:1054px; top:4878px;word-spacing:23px">* En general, los sistemas de multiprogramacin se c aracterizan por tener&nbsp;</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4980px;w

ord-spacing:54px">mltiples programas activos compitiendo por los recursos del sis tema:</span><span class="a" style="left:945px;top:5081px;word-spacing:2px">&nbsp ;procesador, memoria, dispositivos perifricos.</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 98px; c lip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativo s II)_files/7-0660929a8f.jpg"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 98px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operati vos II)_files/7-0660929a8f.jpg"> </div> </div> </div>

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form-origin-x: 0%; -webkit-transform-origin-y: 0%; display: none; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:82px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">8</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:675px">c .-</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:62px"> <span class="a" style="left:1082px;top:693px">T</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1140px;top:674px;word-spacing:2px">iempo Compartido< /span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1857px;top:675px;word-spacing:2px">: Permiten la sim ulacin de que el sistema y sus recursos</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;t op:778px;word-spacing:7px">son todos para cada usuario. El usuario hace una peti cin a la computadora, esta</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:879px;word -spacing:8px">la procesa tan pronto como le es posible, y la respuesta aparecer e n la terminal</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:981px">del usuario.</s pan><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:1156px;word-spacing:11px">Los principa les recursos del sistema, el procesador, la memoria, dispositivos de</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:1257px;word-spacing:25px">E/S, son continuament e utilizados entre los diversos usuarios, dando a cada</span><span class="a" sty le="left:967px;top:1360px;word-spacing:3px">usuario la ilusin de que tiene el sis tema dedicado para s mismo. Esto trae como</span><span class="a" style="left:967p x;top:1461px;word-spacing:9px">consecuencia una gran carga de trabajo al Sistema Operativo, principalmente en</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:1563px ">la administracin de memoria principal y secundaria.</span><span class="a" style ="left:967px;top:1738px;word-spacing:11px">Ejemplos de Sistemas Operativos de ti empo compartido son Multics, OS/360 y</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;to p:1841px">DEC-10.</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:2017px">Caractersticas de los Sistemas Oper ativos de tiempo compartido:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1054px;top:2191px;word-spacing:27px">* Populares rep resentantes de sistemas multiprogramados multiusuario, ej:</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:2292px">sistemas de diseo asistido por computador, procesa miento de texto, etc.</span><span class="a" style="left:1057px;top:2469px;word-s pacing:2px">* Dan l<span class="l7">a ilusin de que cada us<span class="l6">uario tiene una mquina <span class="l6">para <span class="w" style="width:23px"></span >s.</span></span></span></span><span class="a" style="left:1057px;top:2644px">* M ayora utilizan algoritmo de reparto circular.</span><span class="a" style="left:1 054px;top:2819px;word-spacing:5px">* Programas se ejcutan con prioridad rotatori a que se incrementa con la espera</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:29 20px">y disminuye despus de concedido el servicio.</span><span class="a" style="l eft:1054px;top:3097px;word-spacing:13px">* Evitan monopolizacin del sistema asign ando tiempos de procesador (time</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:319 7px">slot).</span><span class="a" style="left:1057px;top:3372px;word-spacing:1px

">* Gestin de memoria proporciona proteccin a programas residentes.</span><span cl ass="a" style="left:1054px;top:3548px;word-spacing:6px">* Gestin <span class="l6" >de archivo <span class="w" style="width:24px"></span>debe proporcionar proteccin y <span class="l6">control de acceso debido</span></span></span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:3650px;word-spacing:3px">a que <span class="w" style="wid th:19px"></span>pueden existi<span class="l6">r mltiples usuari<span class="l6">o s accesando un mismo archi<span class="l6">vo.</span></span></span></span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:3825px">d.-</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1087px;top:3824px;word-spacing:1px">S.O. para</span> </div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:60px"> <span class="a" style="left:1471px;top:3843px">R&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1535px;top:3824px;word-spacing:-2px">edes Distribuid as:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2239px;top:3825px;word-spacing:2px">Permiten distrib uir trabajos, tareas o procesos,</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:392 8px;word-spacing:9px">entre un conjunto de procesadores. Puede ser que este conj unto de procesadores</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4029px;word-spa cing:16px">est en un equipo o en diferentes, en este caso es trasparente para el usuario.</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4131px;word-spacing:6px">Ex isten dos esquemas bsicos de stos. Un sistema fuertemente acoplado es a es</span>< span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4232px;word-spacing:11px">aquel que compart e la memoria y un reloj global, cuyos tiempos de acceso son</span><span class="a " style="left:967px;top:4335px;word-spacing:18px">similares para todos los proce sadores. En un sistema dbilmente acoplado los</span><span class="a" style="left:9 45px;top:4435px;word-spacing:10px">&nbsp;procesadores no comparten ni memoria ni reloj, ya que cada uno cuenta con su</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;to p:4538px;word-spacing:-2px">memoria local.</span><span class="a" style="left:967 px;top:4888px;word-spacing:6px">Los sistemas distribuidos deben de ser muy confi ables, ya que si un componente</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4989p x">del sistema se compone otro componente debe de ser capaz de reemplazarlo.</sp an></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 98px; c lip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativo s II)_files/8-f04d9070ad.jpg"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 98px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operati vos II)_files/8-f04d9070ad.jpg"> </div> </div> </div>

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<div class="outer_page only_ie6_border not_visible" id="outer_page_9" style= "width: 679px; height: 879px; "><div class="newpage" id="page9" style="width: 90 2px; height: 1167px; -webkit-transform: scale(0.7527716186252772); -webkit-trans form-origin-x: 0%; -webkit-transform-origin-y: 0%; display: none; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:82px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">9</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:852px;wo rd-spacing:20px">Entre los diferentes Sistemas Operativos distribuidos que exist en tenemos los</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:953px;word-spacing:1p x">siguientes: Sprite, Solaris-MC, Mach, Chorus, Spring, Amoeba, Taos, etc.</spa n><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:1303px">Caractersticas de los Sistemas Op erativos distribuidos:</span><span class="a" style="left:1054px;top:1655px;wordspacing:14px">* Coleccin de sistemas autnomos capaces de comunicacin y cooperacin</s pan><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:1756px;word-spacing:1px">mediante inte rconexiones hardware y software .</span><span class="a" style="left:1054px;top:1 931px;word-spacing:5px">* Gobierna operacin de un S.C. y proporciona abstraccin de mquina virtual</span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:2034px;word-spacing:1 px">a los usuarios.</span><span class="a" style="left:1057px;top:2209px">* Objet

ivo clave es la transparencia.</span><span class="a" style="left:1057px;top:2384 px;word-spacing:1px">* Generalmente proporcionan medios para la comparticin globa l de recursos.</span><span class="a" style="left:1054px;top:2559px;word-spacing: 9px">* Servicios aadidos: denominacin global, sistemas de archivos distribuidos,</ span><span class="a" style="left:967px;top:2662px;word-spacing:12px">facilidades para distribucin de clculos (a travs de comunicacin de procesos</span><span class=" a" style="left:967px;top:2762px;word-spacing:1px">internados, llamadas a procedi mientos remotos, etc.).</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3114px">1.4 Conceptos claves que afectan el diseo de un sistema operativo</span><span class=" a" style="left:1094px;top:3289px">-</span></div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:60px"> <span class="a" style="left:1124px;top:3307px">R&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1188px;top:3288px">elocalizacin:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1731px;top:3289px;word-spacing:11px">Consiste en aju star las direcciones de un programa al sitio</span><span class="a" style="left:8 34px;top:3390px;word-spacing:144px">donde fue cargado, para que este pueda ser e jecutado.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3493px;word-spacing:20px"> Este proceso es indispensable para poder tener multiprogramacin, puesto que el</s pan><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:3594px">&nbsp;programa no va a ocupar las mismas posiciones de memoria.</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:900px;top:3768px">NO</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:62px"> <span class="a" style="left:1032px;top:3786px">T</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1091px;top:3768px">A:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1184px;top:3769px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff14" style="font-size:59px"> <span class="a" style="left:1296px;top:3788px">&nbsp;R</span></div> <div class="ff2" style="font-size:81px"> <span class="a" style="left:1363px;top:3785px;word-spacing:102px">elocalizar es indispensable para que haya multitarea.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px; top:3887px;word-spacing:11px">Un proceso de usuario puede residir en cualquier p arte de la memoria fsica. Por&nbsp;</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3 988px;word-spacing:15px">esto, aunque el espacio de direcciones del computador c omience en 00000, no es</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4091px">nece sario que la primera direccin del proceso de usuario sea 00000.</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:3317px;top:4075px">&nbsp;</span><span class="a" styl e="left:1094px;top:4250px;word-spacing:2px">-Reentrancia: (investigar)</span><sp an class="a" style="left:1094px;top:4455px">-</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1124px;top:4454px">Interrupciones:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1786px;top:4455px;word-spacing:54px">(tambin conocida como</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:2842px;top:4454px;word-spacing:54px">interrupcin hard ware</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:3834px;top:4455px">o</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4555px;word-spacing:43px">peticin de interr upcin</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1826px;top:4556px;word-spacing:42px">) es una seal re cibida por el procesador de una</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4658

px;word-spacing:2px">computadora, indicando que debe "interrumpir" el curso de e jecucin actual y pasar a</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4759px;wordspacing:1px">ejecutar cdigo especfico para tratar esta situacin.</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 98px; c lip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativo s II)_files/9-7ed1ab9e7e.jpg"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 98px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operati vos II)_files/9-7ed1ab9e7e.jpg"> </div> </div> </div>

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nsform-origin-x: 0%; -webkit-transform-origin-y: 0%; display: none; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:962px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">10</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:675px;wo rd-spacing:26px">Una interrupcin supone la ejecucin temporaria de un programa, par a pasar a</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:778px;word-spacing:13px">e jecutar una "subrutina de servicio de interrupcin", que pertenece al BIOS (Basic< /span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:879px">Input Output System).</span>< span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1084px;word-spacing:7px">Las interrupciones surgen de las necesidades que tienen los</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:3011px;top:1083px;word-spacing:7px">dispositivos per ifricos</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:3882px;top:1084px">&nbsp;</span><span class="a" styl e="left:834px;top:1186px;word-spacing:19px">de enviar informacin al procesador pr incipal de un sistema de computacin. La</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;t op:1287px;word-spacing:6px">&nbsp;primera tcnica que se emple fue que el propio pr ocesador se encargara de sondear&nbsp;</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;t op:1390px">(</span></div> <div class="ff2" style="font-size:81px"> <span class="a" style="left:842px;top:1406px">&nbsp;polling&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1116px;top:1390px;word-spacing:12px">) el dispositiv o cada cierto tiempo para averiguar si tena pendiente alguna</span><span class="a " style="left:834px;top:1491px;word-spacing:40px">comunicacin para l. Este mtodo pr esentaba el inconveniente de ser muy</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top :1593px;word-spacing:11px">ineficiente, ya que el procesador constantemente cons uma tiempo en realizar todas</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1694px;w ord-spacing:1px">las instrucciones de sondeo.</span><span class="a" style="left: 834px;top:1899px;word-spacing:40px">El mecanismo de interrupciones fue la solucin que permiti al procesador&nbsp;</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2000 px;word-spacing:6px">desentenderse de esta problemtica, y delegar en el dispositi vo la responsabilidad de</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2103px;word -spacing:6px">comunicarse con el procesador cuando lo necesitaba. El procesador, en este caso, no</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2203px;word-spacin g:13px">sondea a ningn dispositivo, sino que queda a la espera de que estos le av isen (le</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2306px;word-spacing:39px">" interrumpan") cuando tengan algo que comunicarle (ya sea un evento, una</span><s pan class="a" style="left:834px;top:2407px;word-spacing:1px">transferencia de in formacin, una condicin de error, etc.).</span><span class="a" style="left:1094px;t op:2612px;word-spacing:1px">- Canales: (investigar)</span><span class="a" style= "left:1094px;top:2787px;word-spacing:6px">- Procesamiento <span class="l8">de <s pan class="l6">I/O: <span class="w" style="width:16px"></span>(investigar)</span ></span></span><span class="a" style="left:1094px;top:2994px">-</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1147px;top:2993px">Buffering:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1561px;top:2994px">Un</span></div>

<div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1690px;top:2993px;letter-spacing:1px">buffer</span>< /div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1949px;top:2994px">(o</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:2048px;top:2993px">bfer</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2249px;top:2994px;word-spacing:1px">) en informtica e s un espacio de memoria, en</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3095px;w ord-spacing:5px">el que se almacenan datos para evitar que el programa o recurso que los requiere, ya</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3196px;word-sp acing:1px">sea hardware o software, se quede en algn momento sin datos.</span><sp an class="a" style="left:834px;top:3401px">Algunos ejemplos de aplicaciones de b uffers son:</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:3651px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:3609px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:3606px;word-spacing:2px">El buffer de tec lado es una memoria intermedia en la que se van almacenando</span><span class="a " style="left:1100px;top:3707px;word-spacing:14px">los caracteres que un usuario teclea, generalmente, hasta que pulsa la tecla</span><span class="a" style="lef t:1100px;top:3809px;word-spacing:23px">[INTRO], momento en el cual el programa c aptura todos o parte de los</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:3910px; word-spacing:1px">caracteres tecleados contenidos en dicho buffer.</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4058px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:4016px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4013px;word-spacing:4px">En Audio o video en streaming por Internet. Se tiene un buffer para que haya</span><span class=" a" style="left:1100px;top:4114px;word-spacing:1px">menos posibilidades de que se corte la reproduccin cuando se reduzca o corte</span><span class="a" style="left :1100px;top:4216px">el ancho de banda.</span></div> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4362px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:4320px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4317px;word-spacing:7px">Un buffer adecua do permite que en el salto entre dos canciones no haya una</span><span class="a" style="left:1078px;top:4420px;word-spacing:1px">&nbsp;pausa molesta.</span></di v> <div class="ff1" style="font-size:27px"> <span class="a" style="left:967px;top:4566px">y</span></div> <div class="ff5" style="font-size:75px"> <span class="a" style="left:1001px;top:4524px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4520px;word-spacing:23px">Las grabadoras de CD o DVD, tienen un buffer para que no se pare la</span><span class="a" style ="left:1100px;top:4623px;word-spacing:20px">grabacin. Hoy en da hay sistemas para retomar la grabacin pero antes</span><span class="a" style="left:1100px;top:4724p x">supona que el CD no quedaba bien grabado y muchas veces era inservible.</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1">

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<div class="outer_page only_ie6_border not_visible" id="outer_page_11" style= "width: 679px; height: 879px; "><div class="newpage" id="page11" style="width: 9 02px; height: 1167px; -webkit-transform: scale(0.7527716186252772); -webkit-tran sform-origin-x: 0%; -webkit-transform-origin-y: 0%; display: none; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div>

<div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:962px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">11</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:675px;wo rd-spacing:1px">El concepto del Buffer es similar al de cache. Pero en el caso d el buffer, los datos que</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:778px;wordspacing:30px">se introducen siempre van a ser utilizados. En la cach sin embargo, no hay</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:879px">seguridad, sino una m ayor probabilidad de utilizacin.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1084 px;word-spacing:3px">Para explicar la acepcin informtica a gente no tcnica, se pued e usar esta metfora:</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1186px;word-spac ing:16px">Un buffer es como tener dinero en el banco (buffer), un trabajo (entra da) y unos</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1287px;word-spacing:13px" >gastos fijos (salida). Si tienes un trabajo inestable, mientras tengas ciertos ahorros,</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:1390px;word-spacing:3px">&n bsp;puedes mantener tus gastos fijos sin problemas, e ir ingresando dinero cuand o puedas</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1491px;word-spacing:5px">se gn vas trabajando. Si los ahorros son pequeos, en seguida que no tengas trabajo,</ span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1593px;word-spacing:8px">no vas a pod er acometer los gastos fijos. De la misma forma si escuchas msica en</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1694px;word-spacing:10px">Internet y tu programa de audio usa un buffer pequeo, en cuanto que haya alguna</span><span class="a" s tyle="left:834px;top:1797px;word-spacing:33px">interrupcin en la descarga (porque las descargas nunca tienen una velocidad</span><span class="a" style="left:834p x;top:1897px;word-spacing:1px">constante), notars cortes de sonido, ya que faltar informacin.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2103px;word-spacing:7px"> Los buffers se pueden usar en cualquier sistema digital, no solo en los informtic os,</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:2203px">&nbsp;por ejemplo se uti lizan en reproductores de msica y vdeo.</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1094px;top:2583px;word-spacing:2px">- Proteccin de Me moria:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2090px;top:2584px;word-spacing:3px">(Memory Protecti on). Tcnica que prohbe que un</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:2686px;w ord-spacing:21px">&nbsp;programa afecte accidentalmente a otro programa activo. A travs de diversas y</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2787px;word-spa cing:20px">diferentes tcnicas, se crea una frontera protectora alrededor del prog rama, y las</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2890px;word-spacing:3px" >instrucciones dentro del mismo tienen prohibido hacer referencia a datos fuera de esa</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2990px">fronter.</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3343px">Unidad II (Cargadores y Enlazadore s)</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1094px;top:3548px;letter-spacing:1px">2.1-</span></d iv> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1273px;top:3547px;word-spacing:12px">Cargadores y En lazadores:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2361px;top:3548px;word-spacing:15px">Un enlazador es un programa de sistema</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3648px;wordspacing:31px">que combina dos o ms programas objeto separados y permite que se ha gan</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3751px;word-spacing:23px">refere

ncias unos a otros, o sea, que cada uno de estos programas pueden hacer&nbsp;</s pan><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3852px">referencia a cdigo variables de los otros programas con los que est enlazado.</span><span class="a" style="left: 898px;top:4057px;word-spacing:15px">En muchos programas el cargador hace la labo r del programa de enlace, porque</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:415 8px;word-spacing:17px">existe solo un "linking loader" y no existe programa de e nlace independiente. Es</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4260px;wordspacing:3px">importante sealar que no se necesita un programa de enlace ni un car gador separado</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:4361px;word-spacing:9 px">&nbsp;para cada traductor en el sistema, ya que estos programas trabajan con el programa</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4464px;word-spacing:30p x">objeto, sin importar el lenguaje fuente. Por otro lado es importante que cada </span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4565px;word-spacing:13px">compilado r o ensamblador produzca el programa objeto usando el mismo formato.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4667px;word-spacing:1px">Cada programa objeto e s un archivo de rcord.</span><span class="a" style="left:900px;top:4872px;word-sp acing:24px">Un cargador es un programa que coloca en la memoria para su ejecucin, el</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:4973px;word-spacing:1px">&nbsp;p rograma guardado en algn dispositivo de almacenamiento secundario.</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 98px; c lip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativo s II)_files/11-148c43188a.jpg"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 98px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operati vos II)_files/11-148c43188a.jpg"> </div> </div> </div>

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<div class="outer_page only_ie6_border not_visible" id="outer_page_12" style=" width: 679px; height: 879px; "><div class="newpage" id="page12" style="width: 90 2px; height: 1167px; -webkit-transform: scale(0.7527716186252772); -webkit-trans form-origin-x: 0%; -webkit-transform-origin-y: 0%; display: none; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:962px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">1</span></div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:81px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">2</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:900px;top:675px;wo rd-spacing:20px">Un cargador es un programa del sistema que realiza la funcin de carga, pero</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:778px;word-spacing:1px"> muchos cargadores tambin incluyen relocalizacin y ligado.</span><span class="a" st yle="left:900px;top:983px;word-spacing:5px">Algunos sistemas tienen un enlazador para realizar las operaciones de enlaces y un</span><span class="a" style="left :834px;top:1084px;word-spacing:1px">cargador separado para manejar la relocaliza cin y la carga.</span><span class="a" style="left:901px;top:1289px">Los procesos de ensamblado y carga estn ntimamente relacionados.</span><span class="a" style="l eft:898px;top:1494px;word-spacing:13px">El cargador consiste en un juego de inst rucciones que permiten al dispositivo de</span><span class="a" style="left:834px ;top:1595px;word-spacing:13px">entrada (teclado unidad de cinta) asignar la dire ccin de inicio de la memoria y</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1698px ">asegurar que el computador leer el programa y lo cargara byte a byte.</span><sp an class="a" style="left:1094px;top:2078px;letter-spacing:1px">2.2-</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1264px;top:2077px;word-spacing:5px">Cargadores Compi le &amp; Go:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2352px;top:2078px;word-spacing:6px">(compile y ejecu te). Son los utilizados por&nbsp;</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:21 79px;word-spacing:14px">los compiladores tipo Turbo (Pascal, C, Prolog, etc), qu e realizan todas las etapas</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2281px;w ord-spacing:38px">enumeradas previamente, cuando la compilacin se realiza directa mente a la</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2382px;word-spacing:19px" >memoria. La idea central consiste en que a medida que se va compilando se va</s

pan><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2485px;word-spacing:4px">escribiendo d irectamente sobre la memoria el cdigo ejecutable y una vez se termine</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2585px">el proceso, se le da el control al prog rama compilado para su ejecucin.</span><span class="a" style="left:1094px;top:276 1px;word-spacing:2px">2.3- Esquemas Generales de Cargadores. (Investigar)</span> <span class="a" style="left:1094px;top:2937px;letter-spacing:1px">2.4-</span></d iv> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1262px;top:2936px;word-spacing:2px">Cargadores Absol utos:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2157px;top:2937px;word-spacing:4px">Existen en siste mas en los que los compiladores</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3038 px;word-spacing:1px">generan cdigo absoluto (no relocalizable). De esta forma se obliga a que el programa</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3141px;word -spacing:21px">siempre se deba carga en las mismas posiciones de memoria. Son re lativamente</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3242px;word-spacing:27px ">simples pero no permiten tener multiprogramacin. La principal ventaja de los</s pan><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3344px;word-spacing:8px">cargadores ab solutos es su simplicidad, pues la carga se reduce prcticamente a una</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3445px;word-spacing:1px">operacin entrada/salida .</span><span class="a" style="left:1094px;top:3620px;word-spacing:1px">2.5- Lla madas, Subrutinas:</span><span class="a" style="left:1094px;top:3795px;word-spac ing:2px">2.6- Cargadores/Enlazadores (definido anteriormente)</span><span class= "a" style="left:1094px;top:3972px;word-spacing:1px">2.7- Relocalizacin (definido anteriormente)</span><span class="a" style="left:1094px;top:4147px;word-spacing: 6px">2.8- <span class="w" style="width:19px"></span>El <span class="l8">Problema de <span class="l10">Enlace</span></span></span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4498px">Unidad III (P</span></div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:60px"> <span class="a" style="left:1345px;top:4517px">R&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1409px;top:4498px">OG</span></div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:60px"> <span class="a" style="left:1547px;top:4517px">R&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1611px;top:4498px;word-spacing:-1px">AMACIN DE EN</sp an></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:62px"> <span class="a" style="left:2343px;top:4517px">T</span></div> <div class="ff12" style="font-size:60px"> <span class="a" style="left:2401px;top:4517px">R&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:2465px;top:4498px;word-spacing:-1px">ADA / SALIDA)</ span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1094px;top:4672px;letter-spacing:1px">3.1.-</span></ div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1303px;top:4671px;word-spacing:21px">Operaciones E/S :</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2026px;top:4672px;word-spacing:24px">Tanto en la E/S programada como la basada en</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4825px ;word-spacing:4px">interrupciones, la UCP debe encargarse de la transferencia de datos una vez que sabe</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4978px;wordspacing:3px">que hay datos disponibles en el controlador. Una mejora importante para incrementar&nbsp;</span></div> </div>

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<span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:962px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">1</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:82px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">3</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:675px;wo rd-spacing:1px">la concurrencia entre la UCP y la E/S consiste en que el control ador del dispositivo se</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:829px;word-s pacing:13px">&nbsp;pueda encargar de efectuar la transferencia de datos, liberan do de este trabajo a la</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:981px;word-s pacing:8px">UCP, e interrumpir a la UCP slo cuando haya terminado la operacin comp leta de</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1133px;word-spacing:19px">EI S. Esta tcnica se denomina acceso directo a memoria (DMA, Direct Memory</span><sp an class="a" style="left:834px;top:1284px">Access).</span><span class="a" style= "left:834px;top:1738px;word-spacing:19px">Cuando se utiliza acceso directo a mem oria, es el controlador el que se encarga</span><span class="a" style="left:834p x;top:1890px;word-spacing:15px">directamente de transferir los datos entre el pe rifrico y la memoria principal, sin</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2 044px;word-spacing:16px">requerir intervencin alguna por parte del procesador. Es ta tcnica funciona de la</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2196px;wordspacing:13px">siguiente manera: cuando el procesador desea que se imprima un blo que de datos,</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2347px">enva una orden al controlador indicndole la siguiente informacin:</span><span class="a" style="le ft:924px;top:2573px">* Tipo de operacin: lectura o escritura.</span><span class=" a" style="left:924px;top:2799px">* Perifrico involucrado en la operacin.</span><sp an class="a" style="left:921px;top:3028px;word-spacing:17px">* La direccin de mem oria desde la que se va a leer o a la que va a escribir&nbsp;</span><span class= "a" style="left:834px;top:3178px">directamente con el controlador de dispositivo (direccin).</span><span class="a" style="left:924px;top:3404px">* El nmero de byt es a transferir (contador).</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3632px;w ord-spacing:8px">Donde el campo Operacin corresponde al cdigo de operacin de las in strucciones</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3785px;word-spacing:5px" >mquinas normales. Especifica la operacin que debe realizar la CCW. La unidad de</ span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3937px;word-spacing:3px">control deco difica este campo y enva las seales adecuadas de control al dispositivo.</span><sp an class="a" style="left:834px;top:4089px">Existen varias operaciones, las ms imp ortantes son las siguientes:</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4316px">Lectura:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1197px;top:4317px;word-spacing:13px">el canal transf iere a memoria principal un bloque de palabras de tamao</span><span class="a" sty le="left:834px;top:4469px;word-spacing:30px">especificado en el campo n de palabr as, en orden ascendente de direcciones,</span><span class="a" style="left:834px; top:4619px">empezando en la direccin especificada en el campo direccin del dato.</ span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 98px; c

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<div class="outer_page only_ie6_border not_visible" id="outer_page_14" style ="width: 679px; height: 879px; "><div class="newpage" id="page14" style="width: 902px; height: 1167px; -webkit-transform: scale(0.7527716186252772); -webkit-tra nsform-origin-x: 0%; -webkit-transform-origin-y: 0%; display: none; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa

n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:962px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">1</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:82px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">4</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:674px">Escritura:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1246px;top:675px;word-spacing:4px">el canal transfie re datos de memoria principal al dispositivo. Las palabras</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:827px">se transfieren en el mismo orden que en la operacin de lectura.</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1279px">Control:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1188px;top:1280px;word-spacing:8px">se utiliza esta orden para enviar instrucciones especficas al dispositivo de</span><span class="a " style="left:834px;top:1432px">E/S, como rebobinar una cinta magntica, etc.</spa n></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1884px">Bifurcacin:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1333px;top:1885px;word-spacing:7px">cumple en el pro grama de canal la misma funcin que una instruccin</span><span class="a" style="lef t:834px;top:2039px;word-spacing:21px">de salto en un programa normal. El canal e jecuta las CCW en secuencia, salvo</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2 191px;word-spacing:5px">cuando aparece una CCW de este tipo, que utiliza el camp o direccin del dato como</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2341px">la d ireccin de la siguiente CCW a ejecutar.</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2567px">Flags:</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1087px;top:2568px">Los bits de este campo indican lo siguiente:</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2796px;word-spacing:11px ">CC (Encadenamiento de comando): cuando este bit est a 1, indica al canal que la </span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2948px;word-spacing:16px">siguiente CCW especifica una nueva operacin de E/S que debe realizarse con el</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3102px;word-spacing:11px">mismo dispositivo. El canal ejecuta primero la operacin de E/S especificada en la</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3254px;word-spacing:27px">CCW que tiene a 1 el flag CC. D espus ejecuta la siguiente sobre el mismo</span><span class="a" style="left:834px ;top:3406px;word-spacing:1px">dispositivo. Desde el punto de vista del dispositi vo, las dos operaciones resultantes de</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;t op:3556px;word-spacing:1px">la primera y segunda CCW aparecen como dos comandos de E/S separados.</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3784px;word-spacing:4px">CD (Encadenamient o de datos):</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2074px;top:3785px;word-spacing:3px">una CCW con el b it CD a 1, indica al canal que la</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:39 37px;word-spacing:15px">siguiente CCW contiene una nueva direccin del dato y un n uevo n de palabras.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4091px;word-spaci ng:14px">stos deben utilizarse para transferir un segundo bloque de datos hacia o

desde el</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4243px;word-spacing:15px"> dispositivo de E/S, mediante la orden especificada por la CCW actual. Cuando el< /span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4395px;word-spacing:4px">canal termi na la transferencia de datos especificada en la CCW con el bit CD a 1, no</span> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4547px;word-spacing:13px">corta la conexin con el dispositivo de E/S, contina la transferencia utilizando la</span><span cla ss="a" style="left:834px;top:4699px">direccin y el n de palabras de la siguiente C CW.</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4926px;word-spacing:19px">SKIP (Salto):</s pan></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1402px;top:4927px;word-spacing:18px">este bit, cuand o est a 1, hace que el programa de canal salte un</span><span class="a" style="le ft:834px;top:5079px;word-spacing:18px">nmero de palabras igual al especificado en el campo n de palabras. Cuando se</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 98px; c lip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativo s II)_files/14-e6c5581db2.jpg"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 98px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operati vos II)_files/14-e6c5581db2.jpg"> </div> </div> </div>

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<div class="outer_page only_ie6_border not_visible" id="outer_page_15" style ="width: 679px; height: 879px; "><div class="newpage" id="page15" style="width: 902px; height: 1167px; -webkit-transform: scale(0.7527716186252772); -webkit-tra nsform-origin-x: 0%; -webkit-transform-origin-y: 0%; display: none; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:962px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">1</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:82px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">5</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:675px;wo rd-spacing:4px">utiliza con la orden de lectura, este flag hace que los datos se lean del dispositivo sin</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:827px">que se transfieran a la memoria principal.</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1055px;word-spacing:13px">PCI (Interrupcin controlada por programa):</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:2649px;top:1056px;word-spacing:13px">el canal produc e una interrupcin</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1208px;word-spacing :12px">cuando ejecuta una CCW con el flag PCI a 1. Si esta CCW va precedida por otra</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1360px;word-spacing:13px">CCW c on encadenamiento de comandos, la interrupcin se genera despus de que</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1510px;word-spacing:1px">hayan concluido todas l as transferencias de datos.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1738px;w ord-spacing:33px">Una vez emitida la orden, el procesador contina realizando otro trabajo sin</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1890px;word-spacing:4px ">necesidad de transferir el bloque de datos. Es el propio controlador el que se encarga</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2044px;word-spacing:7px">de transferir el bloque de datos del perifrico a memoria. La transferencia se reali za</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:2196px;word-spacing:7px">&nbsp;pa labra a palabra. Cuando el controlador ha completado la transferencia, genera un a</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2348px;word-spacing:3px">interrupc in que activa la rutina de tratamiento correspondiente, de tal manera que se</spa n><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2499px;word-spacing:1px">sepa que la ope racin ha concluido.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2727px;word-spaci ng:9px">Utilizando acceso directo a memoria el procesador nicamente se ve involuc rado al</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2881px;word-spacing:2px">ini cio y al final de la transferencia. Por tanto, cuando el sistema operativo despi

erta al</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:3033px;word-spacing:2px">&nb sp;proceso que pidi la E/S, no tiene que copiar el bloque a memoria porque ya est all.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3185px;word-spacing:19px">El DMA requiere una etapa de almacenamiento intermedio en el controlador del</span><sp an class="a" style="left:834px;top:3337px;word-spacing:13px">dispositivo para ar monizar la velocidad del dispositivo de EIS con la copia de los</span><span clas s="a" style="left:834px;top:3489px;word-spacing:5px">datos en memoria principal. La razn para este almacenamiento intermedio reside en</span><span class="a" styl e="left:834px;top:3643px;word-spacing:5px">que una vez que el dispositivo empiez a la transferencia de datos, sta debe hacerse a</span><span class="a" style="left :834px;top:3795px;word-spacing:43px">velocidad constante para evitar transferenc ias parciales y nuevas esperas de</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top:39 47px;word-spacing:12px">&nbsp;posicionamiento del dispositivo sobre los datos (l atencia). Una vez transferidos los</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4 099px">datos a la memoria del controlador, ste los copia en memoria principal apr ovechando</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4251px">el ancho de banda libre del bus.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4478px">Los pasos a s eguir en una operacin de E/S con DMA son los siguientes:</span><span class="a" st yle="left:834px;top:4706px;word-spacing:12px">1. Programacin de la operacin de E/S . Se indica al controlador la operacin, los</span><span class="a" style="left:834 px;top:4856px">datos a transferir y la direccin de memoria sobre la que se efectu ar la operacin.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:5083px">2. El controla dor contesta aceptando la peticin de E/S.</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 98px; c lip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativo s II)_files/15-6b7f7ed648.jpg"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 98px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operati vos II)_files/15-6b7f7ed648.jpg"> </div> </div> </div>

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<div class="outer_page only_ie6_border not_visible" id="outer_page_16" style= "width: 679px; height: 879px; "><div class="newpage" id="page16" style="width: 9 02px; height: 1167px; -webkit-transform: scale(0.7527716186252772); -webkit-tran sform-origin-x: 0%; -webkit-transform-origin-y: 0%; display: none; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:962px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">1</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:82px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">6</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:675px;wo rd-spacing:16px">3. El controlador le ordena al dispositivo que lea (para operac in de lectura) una</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:829px;word-spacing :2px">cierta cantidad de datos desde una posicin determinada del dispositivo a su memoria</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:980px;word-spacing:3px">int erna. 7.3.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1208px;word-spacing:11px" >4. Cuando los datos estn listos, el controlador los copia a la posicin de memoria </span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1360px;word-spacing:14px">que tiene en sus registros, incrementa dicha posicin de memoria y decrementa el</span><spa n class="a" style="left:834px;top:1510px;word-spacing:1px">contador de datos pen dientes de transferir.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:1737px">5. Lo s pasos 3 y 4 se repiten hasta que no quedan ms datos por leer.</span><span class ="a" style="left:834px;top:1965px;word-spacing:1px">6. Cuando el registro de con tador est a cero, el controlador interrumpe a la UCP para</span><span class="a" s tyle="left:834px;top:2115px">in dicar que la operacin de DMA ha terminado.</span> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2341px">Inicio y control de los programas de canal</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2570px;word-spacing:13px">H emos visto como se utilizan los programas de canal para realizar operaciones de< /span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:2722px;word-spacing:8px">E/S. Estos programas residen en la memoria principal del computador y se ejecutan</span><sp an class="a" style="left:834px;top:2876px;word-spacing:8px">en el canal. Vamos a examinar ahora la forma en que la CPU inicia y supervisa las</span><span class=

"a" style="left:834px;top:3028px;word-spacing:8px">operaciones de E/S, es decir, el programa de canal. En el IBM S/370 existen cuatro</span><span class="a" styl e="left:834px;top:3178px">instrucciones mquina que la CPU puede utilizar para est os fines. Son las siguientes:</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3406px ;word-spacing:14px">START I/O Inicia una operacin de E/S. El campo de direccin de la instruccin</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3558px;word-spacing:27p x">seemplea para especificar el canal y el dispositivo de E/S que participa en l a</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3709px">operacin.</span><span class ="a" style="left:834px;top:3935px">HALT I/O Finaliza la operacin del canal.</span ><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4161px">TEST CHANNEL Prueba el estado del canal.</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:4388px">TEST I/O Prueba el e stado del canal, el subcanal y el dispositivo de E/S.</span><span class="a" styl e="left:834px;top:4616px;word-spacing:18px">Una operacin de E/S se inicia con la instruccin START I/O. La ubicacin del</span><span class="a" style="left:812px;top: 4768px;word-spacing:6px">&nbsp;programa de canal en la memoria principal viene d efinida en la palabra de direccin</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:492 2px;word-spacing:1px">de canal (CAW: Channel A ddress word), que siempre est alma cenada en la posicin</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:5072px;word-spac ing:-1px">72 de la memor<span class="w6"></span>ia principal.</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 98px; c lip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativo s II)_files/16-7f8d81fe4e.jpg"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 98px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operati vos II)_files/16-7f8d81fe4e.jpg"> </div> </div> </div>

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<div class="outer_page only_ie6_border not_visible" id="outer_page_17" style= "width: 679px; height: 879px; "><div class="newpage" id="page17" style="width: 9 02px; height: 1167px; -webkit-transform: scale(0.7527716186252772); -webkit-tran sform-origin-x: 0%; -webkit-transform-origin-y: 0%; display: none; "> <div class="text_layer" style="z-index:2"><div class="ie_fix"> &nbsp; <div class="ff13" style="font-size:94px"> <span class="a" style="left:1360px;top:313px">Gua Instruccional de Sistemas Opera tivos II</span></div> <div class="ff8" style="font-size:71px"> <span class="a" style="left:3385px;top:316px;color:#4f80bd">Semestre:</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3385px;top:436px;letter-spacing:-1px;color:#4f80bd">2.01 0-I</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:962px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">1</span></div> <div class="ff7" style="font-size:82px"> <span class="a" style="left:1022px;top:5365px;color:#4f80bd">7</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:131px"> <span class="a" style="left:1080px;top:5340px;color:#4f80bd">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1160px;top:5339px">Diseada por: Prof. Martn E. Duerto S. - martinduerto@gmail.com</span><span class="a" style="left:1094px;top:900px;l etter-spacing:1px">3.2.-</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1280px;top:899px;word-spacing:-1px">E/S Directa:</sp an></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1766px;top:900px">(Investigar)</span><span class="a" style="left:1094px;top:1126px;letter-spacing:1px">3.3.-</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:1280px;top:1125px;word-spacing:-1px">E/S Indirecta:< /span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:1835px;top:1126px">(Investigar)</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 1"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 98px; c lip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativo s II)_files/17-ac55de2ff1.jpg"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 98px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operati vos II)_files/17-ac55de2ff1.jpg"> </div> </div> </div>

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34px;top:2485px;color:#0000ff">http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffer_de_datos</spa n><span class="a" style="left:2426px;top:2485px">&nbsp;</span><span class="a" st yle="left:834px;top:2713px;color:#0000ff">http://www.monografias.com/trabajos37/ sistemas-tiempo-real/sistemas-tiempo-</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;to p:2863px;color:#0000ff">real2.shtml#sistem</span><span class="a" style="left:149 9px;top:2863px">&nbsp;</span><span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3090px;color: #0000ff">http://www.mitecnologico.com/Main/OperacionesDeEntradaSalida</span><spa n class="a" style="left:3217px;top:3090px">&nbsp;</span></div> <div class="ff9" style="font-size:98px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3543px;word-spacing:1px">Autoaprendizaje d e Sistemas Operativos</span></div> <div class="ff11" style="font-size:97px"> <span class="a" style="left:834px;top:3767px;color:#0000ff">http://bari.ufps.edu .co/materias/proyso/index.php</span><span class="a" style="left:2578px;top:3767p x">&nbsp;</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="image_layer" style="z-index: 3"> <div class="ie_fix"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 155px; top: 50px; width: 630px; height: 377px; clip: rect(1px 629px 64px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operativ os II)_files/19-a15e91ef90.png"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 164px; top: -31px; width: 630px; height: 377px; clip: rect(227px 512px 274px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Oper ativos II)_files/19-a15e91ef90.png"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 164px; top: 10px; width: 630px; height: 377px; clip: rect(276px 448px 323px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Opera tivos II)_files/19-a15e91ef90.png"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 164px; top: 278px; width: 630px; height: 377px; clip: rect(99px 571px 146px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Opera tivos II)_files/19-a15e91ef90.png"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 164px; top: 143px; width: 630px; height: 377px; clip: rect(325px 352px 372px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Oper ativos II)_files/19-a15e91ef90.png"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 164px; top: 410px; width: 630px; height: 377px; clip: rect(148px 567px 225px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Oper ativos II)_files/19-a15e91ef90.png"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 164px; top: 395px; width: 630px; height: 377px; clip: rect(374px 351px 376px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Oper ativos II)_files/19-a15e91ef90.png"> <img class="absimg" style="left: 156px; top: 997px; width: 630px; height: 377px; clip: rect(66px 628px 97px 1px); display: block; " src="./Guia (Sistemas Operat ivos II)_files/19-a15e91ef90.png"> </div> </div> </div>

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