SYLLABUS FOR THE 2012 BAR EXAMINATIONS

CIVIL LAW

I. Effect and Application of Laws A. When law takes effect (Civil Code, Art. 2) B. Ignorance of the law (Civil Code, Art. 3) C. Retroactivity of laws (Civil Code, Art. 4) D. Mandatory or prohibitory laws (Civil Code, Art. 5) E. Waiver of rights (Civil Code, Art. 6) F. Repeal of laws (Civil Code, Art. 7) G. Judicial decisions (Civil Code, Art. 8) H. Duty to render judgment (Civil Code, Art. 9) I. Presumption and applicability of custom (Civil Code, Arts. 10-12) J. Legal periods (Civil Code, Art. 13, as amended by Book I, Sec. 31 of the Administrative Code of 1987 (EO 292)) K. Applicability of penal laws (Civil Code, Art. 14) L. Conflict of laws (Civil Code, Arts. 15-18) II. Human Relations (Civil Code, Arts. 19-22) Exclude: Independent Civil Actions and prejudicial questions which will be covered by the examinations in Remedial Law PERSONS I. Persons and Personality (Civil Code) A. Capacity to act 1. Civil personality (Art. 37) 2. Restrictions on capacity to act (Arts. 38-39) 3. Birth (Arts. 40-41) 1   

4. Death (Arts. 42-43) a) Compare Art. 43 with Rule 131, Sec. 3 (jj) presumption of survivorship 5. Juridical Persons, Civil Code, Arts. 44-46 B. Domicile and residence (Arts. 50-51) II. Marriage (Family Code) Exclude: Muslim Code (P.D. 1083) A. Nature of marriage B. Requisites 1. Kinds of requisites (Family Code, Arts. 2-3) 3. Effect of absence of requisites (Art. 4) 4. Essential requisites (Art. 5) a) Age b) Consent 5. Formal (Arts. 7, 31, 32) 6. Ceremony (Art. 6) 7. Solemnizing authority (Art. 7-8, 10) a) Exceptions (Art. 35 (2)) 8. License required (Arts. 3 (2), 9, 11, 20, 26) a) Foreign national (Art. 21) b) Exceptions (Arts. 27, 31-32, 34) 9. Marriage certificate (Art. 22) Exclude: Duties of a Civil Registrar under Arts. 12-19, 23-25 B. Effect of marriage celebrated abroad and foreign divorce (Art. 26) C. Void and voidable marriages 1. Void marriages (Arts. 5, 35, 36-38, 52-53) a) Absence of requisites (Art. 35) b) Psychological incapacity (Art. 36) c) Incestuous marriages (Arts. 37-38) 2. Prescription (Art. 39) 3. Subsequent marriage (Arts. 40-44) 4. Annullable marriage (Arts. 14, 45-46) 5. Voidable marriages (Art. 45-47) 6. Presence of prosecutor (Art. 48) 7. Pendency of action (Art. 49) 8. Effects of nullity (Arts. 50-54) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-10-SC, Rule on Declaration of Absolute Nullity of Void Marriages and Annulment of Voidable Marriages; R.A. 6955, entitled “An Act to 2   

Declare Unlawful the Practice of Matching Filipino Women for Marriage to Foreign Nationals on a Mail Order Basis and Other Similar Practices…”; R.A. 9208 or the
Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 III. Legal Separation A. Grounds (Art. 55 and R.A. 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) B. Defenses (Arts. 56-57) C. Cooling-off period (Art. 58) D. Reconciliation efforts (Art. 59) E. Confession of judgment (Art. 60) F. Effects of filing petition (Art. 61) G. Effects of pendency (Art. 62) H. Effects of legal separation (Arts. 63-64) 1. Reconciliation (Arts. 65-67) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-11-SC or the Rule on Legal Separation IV. Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife A. Essential obligations (Art. 68) B. Family domicile (Art. 69) C. Support (Art. 70) D. Management of household (Art. 71) E. Effect of neglect of duty (Art. 72) F. Exercise of profession (Art. 73) Exclude: R.A. 7192 or the Women in Development and Nation Building Act; R.A. 8187, or the Paternity Leave Act of 1996; R.A. 9710 or The Magna Carta of Women. V. Property Relations of the Spouses 3   

Proof of filiation (Arts. 126-128) 7. Conjugal Partnership of Gains 1. General provisions (Arts. 82-83. 152-165) Exclude: Arts. 121123) 5. What constitutes community property (Arts. Liquidation of the conjugal partnership assets and liabilities (Arts. Regime of separation of property (Arts. 163-171) B. Paternity and Filiation A. 50) C. 43(3). 116-120) 4. enjoyment and disposition of the community property (Arts. Ownership. 96-98) 5. 94-95) 4. Dissolution of community regime (Arts. Liquidation of the absolute community assets and liabilities (Arts. Separation of property of the spouses and administration of common property by one spouse during the marriage (Arts. 161 and 162 VII. Charges upon and obligations of the community property (Arts. 124-125) 6. Exclusive property of each spouse (Arts. 129-133) F. administration. Void donations by the spouses (Art. Dissolution of the regime of Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Administration of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts.A. 143-146) H. 172-174) 4    . Donations by reason of marriage (Arts. Charges upon and obligations of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Absolute Community of Property 1. 76-81) B. Conjugal partnership property (Arts. 149-151) B. 88-90) 2. 109-115) 3. General provisions (Arts. Property regime of unions without marriage (Arts. Marriage settlements (Arts. 157. 75-85. 99-101) 6. 102-104) E. 86. The Family A. Legitimate children (Arts. 91-93) 3. 147-148) VI. 134-142) G. 105-108) 2. 87) D. The family as an institution (Arts. The family home (Arts.

When demandable (Art. Rescission of adoption Exclude: 1. What it comprises (Art. 201-202) E. 9255 allowing illegitimate children to use the surname of their father) D. 206-208) C. Legitimated children (Arts. 175 and Art. Rights of an adopted child (include Family Code. 194) B. Attachment (Art. Who can be adopted Exclude: Arts. 199-200. 205) 5    .A. Options (Art. 06-11-5-SC or the Rule on DNA Evidence VIII. Support during marriage litigation (Art. 9523. Rule on Adoption (A. 191-193 of the Family Code IX. 177-182) Exclude: A. Who can adopt 2. 203) F. Who are obliged (Arts. No. Support A. Arts. Who can be adopted 3.C. Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (R.A.A. Who can adopt 2. 198) D. 183-188. Amount (Arts. 204) G. 8043) 1. 8552) 1. 195-197. 02-6-02-SC ) 2. entitled “An Act Requiring Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to Declare a “Child Legally Available for Adoption” as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings…. No. Adoption A. 176 as amended by R.M.M. Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (R. Illegitimate children (Art.A.” B. R. 189 and 190 on successional rights) 4.

Suspension or termination of parental authority (Arts. Funerals (Civil Code. Substitute and special parental authority (Arts. 228-233)   1. No. 6809 which lowered the age of majority) XII. Child Abuse Law (R. 216-219) C. The Early Childhood Care and Development Act (R. 41 Family Code) 6    . No. 8980) D. Retroactivity of the Family Code (Art.X.A. 257 of the Family Code XIV. Art.A. General provisions (Arts. Emancipation (Arts. 8972) 4. 7610)  XI. Rules on Custody of Minors and Writ of Habeas Corpus in Relation to Custody of Minors (A. Use of Surnames Arts. 209-215) B. Civil Code) XV. Effect of parental authority upon the persons of the children (Arts. Absence (Civil Code. 356-363. 364-369. 305-310) Exclude: Care and Education of Children (Arts. 225-227) Exclude: R.A. 369-380 (other articles repealed by Family Code) XVI. 234 and 236.M. Art. entitled “An Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child…” which will be covered under Labor Law E. 03-02-05-SC) 2. 220-224) Exclude: 1. Parental Authority A. Rule on Guardianship of Minors (A. 254-255. Effects of parental authority upon the property of the children (Arts. Solo Parents' Welfare Act of 2000 (R. 03-04-04-SC) 3. as amended by R. 9231.A. 43. Summary Judicial Proceedings in Family Law Cases XIII. Arts.M.A. 256) Exclude: Arts.

planter. 9048 PROPERTY I. 449-450) b) Usufructuary (Art. planter. Correction of Clerical Errors (R. Hidden treasure (Arts. 448-456) (ii) Builder.”) C. 9048. Characteristics II. With respect to immovable property a) Builder. 461-462 and P. 375 and the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R. 438-439) B. sower on land of another in the concept of owner (i) Builder. Rule 108. planter. 415-418) A. 390-392) Exclude: Arts.A. Arts. 457) b) Change of course of river (Arts. Lands adjoining river banks a) Alluvion (Art. 384-386) C. Rules of Court Exclude: Act No.389) D. sower in good faith (Arts. Presumption of death (Arts. entitled “An Act Authorizing the City or Municipal Civil Registrar or the Consul General to Correct a Clerical or Typographical Error in an Entry and/or Change of First Name or Nickname in the Civil Register Without Need of a Judicial Order…. sower in bad faith (Arts. Administration of the property of the absentee (Arts.D. 579) 3.A.A. Civil Registrar A. 1067 or the Water Code) 7    . Classification (Arts. 393-396 on contingent assets XVII. 381-383) B. Declaration of absence (Arts. 441-444) 2. Provisional measures in case of absence (Arts. 387. 407-413 B. Fruits (Arts. 440) 1. Right of accession (Art.

accion publiciana. Fungible/non-fungible III. not weakness of defendant’s claim 2. Distinction between real and personal rights B. Bundle of rights a) Jus utendi. accion interdictal (b) Distinction between forcible entry and unlawful detainer (ii) Actions for recovery of possession of movable property (iii) Requisites for recovery of property (a) Proof of right (b) Identity (c) Reliance on strength of own evidence. Of public dominion 2. Original 2. Of private ownership a) Patrimonial property (i) Distinction between private property of individual persons and of state entities E. nuisance. Limitations 1. easements voluntarily imposed by owner (servitudes. fruendi. By owner 1. Consumable/non-consumable vs. mortgages imposed by contract) 8    . Right in general 1. Modes of acquiring ownership 1. Specific limitations: those imposed by law (sic utere tuo. Real or immovable 2. By object 1. By nature 1. Ownership A. vindicandi. 459-463) 4. General limitations: taxation. abutendi. Derivative C. state of necessity). Islands (Arts. 464-465) C. eminent domain.c) Avulsion (Arts. police power 2. Personal or movable D. disponendi (possidendi) (i) Actions to recover ownership and possession of real property (a) Distinctions between accion reivindicatoria.

amendment (iv) Documents to consider (master deed. Requirement B. rivers. 957. General rules 1. Right to hidden treasure B. 476-481) A. For immovables: a) Accession discreta (natural. where applicable) b) Rights and obligations of condominium owners (i) Contributions/dues (ii) P. declaration of restrictions. Distinction between quieting of title and removing/preventing a cloud C. For movables: a) Accession continua (conjunction. 6552. adjunction. islands) 2. Source of co-ownership 9    . articles and by-laws of the condominium corporation or the association. or dissolution of the condominium B. Special rules a) Concept of condominium (i) Condominium corporation (ii) Interest in real property (iii) Concept of common areas.A. Co-ownership A. Accession A. civil fruits) and continua (over immovables: artificial/industrial and natural) b) Accession industrial (building. industrial. Characteristics of co-ownership 1. specification) b) Rules for determining the principal and accessory V. planting. Realty Installment Buyer Act c) Grounds for partition of common areas. sowing in good faith or bad faith) c) Accession natural (accretion. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree and R. Quieting of Title to or Interest in and Removal or Prevention of Cloud over Title to or Interest in Real Property (Arts.D. commixtion/ confusion. Prescription/non-prescription of action VI. In general 2.IV. avulsion.

Loss or unlawful deprivation of a movable (Arts. 1132. 549. 544. Possessor in good faith (Arts. 548) 2. 526-527) a) Right to pending fruits (Art. Right to contributions for expenses (necessary expenses. Loss/termination VIII. Rights of the possessor G. Distinguished from voidable title (Art.C. Effects of possession 1. Possessor in bad faith (Arts. in one’s own name. 559. Right to oppose acts of alteration 3. 1133) 2. 546-547) (ii) Expenses for pure luxury (Art. 552) D. Characteristics B. Finder of lost movable (Arts. Usufruct A. 545) b) Right to be reimbursed (i) Necessary and useful expenses (Arts. 1140. 1505(3)) 1. Right to partition 4. In concept of owner. Rights of co-owners 1. holder. Rights against individual co-owners in case of partition 3. Characteristics B. Termination/extinguishment 1. Waiver 6. 1134. 719-720) 3. Distinction between right to property owned in common and full ownership over his/her ideal share 2. 531) C. Period to recover (Arts. Possession A. Partition in case co-owners cannot agree VII. taxes) 5. Classification 10    . 449. 1506) E. How acquired (Art. in name of another F. Right to redemption of co-owners share D. Effect of partition 2.

Definition (Arts. Extinction/termination IX. Rights of the owner E. Easement of light and view (Arts. Characteristics a) Extent to which donor may donate property b) Reservations and reversions 11    . Nuisance (Arts. How terminated X. Rights and obligations of dominant and subservient estate E. 713) B. Modes of acquiring easements 1. Occupation (Art. 688) a) Effect of zoning ordinance C. Classification C. Voluntary easements (Art. 669-673) D. 725-726.C. 694-707) A. Remedies XI. 746) 2. Characteristics B. Donation 1. Compulsory easements (Arts. Modes of Acquiring Ownership (Art. Legal easements a) Right of way 2. Classification 1. 620-624) 2. 615-616) A. Easements (Arts. 613. 712) A. Rights and obligations of usufructuary D. Definition B.

748) (ii) Immovables (Art. 1129-1130) 12    . 769) Exclude: Intellectual creations PRESCRIPTION I. 765. Formalities required a) How made and accepted b) Perfection c) Differences between formalities for donation of real. 728) Onerous donation (Art. 759) 7. personal properties (i) Movables (Art. Qualifications of donor. 1117) 1. Definition (Art. 86) Donation mortis causa (Art. 1106) A. 82-83. 729) Donation by reason of marriage (Family Code. conditional 4. grounds for reduction b) How done c) Effects c) Prescription e) Inofficious donations (Arts. Kinds a) b) c) d) e) Donation inter vivos (Art. Arts. 760-761. 749) 5. Characteristics 2. 1127) b) Just title (Arts. 733) Simple. 1027) 8. 771-773) f) Ingratitude (Arts. 750-752) In fraud of creditors (Art. Effects a) b) c) d) e) of donation/limitations In general Double donations Excessive/inofficious Scope of amount (Arts. modal. Acquisitive (Art. Ordinary a) Good faith (Art. donee 6. Revocation or reduction a) Grounds for revocation.3. Void donations (Arts. 739-740.

5. 1141) C. 1142-1149) IV. 1132. To recover immovables (Art. 1137 and 1132. 6. Civil Code 1. Action to demand partition (Art. 1143. Characteristics 2. Periods II.) Requisites (Arts. 1529) C. No Prescription Applicable A. 1138) What cannot be required by acquisitive prescription B. Prescription or limitation of actions A. Action to quiet title if plaintiff is in possession E. 1118-1125) Period (Arts. To abate a nuisance D.D. second par. 1155) OBLIGATIONS I. 4. Void contracts (Art. Extraordinary (Arts. Extinctive 1. By offender (Art. 494) 1.3. 1140) B. Distinguished from laches G. Action legal to demand a right of way (Art. To recover movables (Art. Art. Property of public dominion III. Definition 13    . 1133) B. 649) 2. Other actions (Arts. Requisites 3. Interruption (Art. 1134. 1410) F. Registered lands (P.

A determinate or specific thing 2. 1169) a) Mora solvendi b) Mora accipiendi c) Compesatio morae 3. Breaches of obligations 1. Extra-contractual obligations VI. A single act or omission can give rise to different causes of action B. Elements of an Obligation III. 1156-1157) A. requisites D. Negligence (culpa) in the performance of obligation a) Diligence normally required is ordinary diligence or diligence of a good father of a family b) Exception: common carriers which are required to exercise extraordinary diligence 5. exceptions (Art. Legal excuse for breach of obligation: fortuitous event. delay or mora – no default unless creditors makes a demand. Complete failure to perform 2. Contravention of the tenor of obligation 6. Specific performance 14    . An indeterminate or generic thing B. Remedies available to creditor in cases of breach 1. Obligation to do or not to do C.II. Obligation to give 1. Default. Classification of Obligations V. Different Kinds of Prestations IV. Fraud in the performance of obligation a) Waiver of future fraud is void (Art. Natural obligations C. 1171) 4. Nature and Effect of Obligations A. Sources of obligations (Arts.

Difference between alternative and facultative obligations 2. through fault of debtor/creditor or through fortuitous events 15    . 1893) VII. Kinds of Civil Obligations A. 1198) 2. Definite or indefinite period a) Instances when courts may fix the period (Art. Damages. Effect if suspensive period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor 3. Effect if given to debtor alone a) Instances when debtor losses benefit of period (Art. Effect when a resolutory condition in obligation to do or not to do happens and there is improvement. Resolutory condition 3. Rescission (resolution in reciprocal obligations) 3. Potestative: casual or mixed a) Obligations subject to potestative suspensive conditions are void (Art. 1189) 6. Pure (Arts. 1652. loss or deterioration of the specific thing (Art. in any event 4. 1199) 1. 1181) 1. 1193) 1. unless a purely personal act 2. Effect of improvement. Alternative or facultative (Art. 1182) 4. Effect of the happening of suspensive condition or resolutory condition (Art. 1190. Suspensive condition 2. Resolutory period 3. 1608. par. 1179-1180) B. 1187) a) Extent of retroactivity 5. Presumption that period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor (Art. Conditional (Art. loss or deterioration of specific thing before the happening of a suspensive condition in obligation to do or not to do (Art. 1177) a) Accion subrogatoria a) Accion pauliana c) Accion directa (Arts. 1196) 2.a) Substituted performance by a third person on obligation to deliver generic thing and in obligation to do. 1729. Obligation with a period or a term (Art. Effect of loss of specific things or impossibility of performance of alternative. 1197) b) Creditor must ask court to set the period before he can demand payment D. Subsidiary remedies of creditors (Art. 3) C.

Extraordinary inflation or deflation (Art. 1217. 1256-1261) B. others not liable for his share (Art. 1271. 1270) 1. Joint indivisible obligation 1. Form of payment (Art. 1249) 3. unless otherwise indicated by the law or nature of obligation (Art. Payment (Arts. a) Effect of any novation. Each one of solidary creditors may do whatever may be useful to the others. Extinguishment of Obligations A. there is default but only the guilty debtor shall be liable for damages C. 1209) d) Insolvency of a joint debtor. Express condonations and required formality thereof (Art. confusion or remission of debt executed by a solidary creditor D. Joint and Solidary Obligation A. Condonation or remission of debt (Art. Implied (Arts. Concurrence of two or more creditors and or two or more debtors a) Joint obligation is presumed. compensation.VIII. Obligation cannot be performed in parts but debtors are bound jointly 2. Loss of determinate thing due or impossibility or difficulty of performance (Arts. Application of payment (Art. 1250) 4. 1215) 2. 1214. 1252-1254) 5. 1266-1267) C. 1270) 2. 1222) 3. Joint (divisible) obligation 1. 1209) B. Solidary obligation 1. although he may pay if he wants to (Art. 1225) E. Mutual guaranty among solidary debtors (Arts. 1245) 2. Dation in payment (Art. Divisible and indivisible (Art. Tender of payment and consignation (Arts. 1228-1230) IX. Mutual agency among solidary debtors (Arts. 1262. 1212). but not anything prejudicial to them (Art. therefore a joint debtor cannot be required to pay for the share of another with debtor. 1236-1238) 1. In case of failure of one joint debtor to perform his part (share). 1274) 16    . 1207) b) Obligation presumed to be divided into as many equal shares as there are creditors or debtors c) Each credit is distinct from one another. 1226. 1272. Obligations with a penal clause (Arts. 1216.

1291-1304) CONTRACTS I. 1328-1344. Obligations not compensable (Art. Voidable contracts (Arts. Kinds of Contracts A. 1275. Consensual B. Novation (Arts. 1773) 3. Essential Requisites (Art. Partnership where real property contributed (Arts. 1956) 6. 1356. 1771. 1286-1290) b) Agreement (Art. 1287-1288) F. Chattel mortgage 8. Formal or solemn 1. 1278. Rescissible contracts (Art. 1282) c) Voluntary (Art. 1279) a) Legal compensation (Arts. Defective Contracts A. 1874) 5. Antichresis (Art. 1381) 1. Confusion or Merger of Rights (Arts.D. 1390-1402) 17    . Donations (Arts. Sale of large cattle III. Agency to sell real property or an interest therein (Art. 1358) IV. Kinds (Arts. 2134) 4. Compensation 1. Difference with rescission (resolution) under Art. 1283) e) Facultative 2. 1744) 7. Stipulation limiting common carrier’s duty of extraordinary diligence to ordinary diligence (Art. 1261) II. 1282) d) Judicial (Art. Real C. 1272) E. Stipulation to charge interest (Art. 748-749) 2. 1191 B. Formality (Arts. 1357.

Characteristics of a contract of sale F. Requisites of a valid subject matter (Arts. 1346) 1. 1397. 1505) C. Essential requisites of a contract of sale (Art. 1491-1492) III. Sale is title and not mode G. Special disqualifications (Arts. 1390) 2. 1409. Obligations created (Art. Absolute incapacity (Arts. 1165) E. 2130. Subject Matter A. Contract of sale/contract to sell II. Definition of sales (Arts. 1317) D. Capacity of parties (Arts. Effect of contracts (Art. Unenforceable contracts (Arts. Sale distinguished from other contracts H. 1489-1492) B. Introduction A. 1399) C. 1470) B. 1327.C. 2088. Relative incapacity: married persons D. 1403-1408. 1799) V. 2130) 3. Stages of contract of sale D. Pactum commissorium (Arts. 1311) SALES I. Pactum leonina (Art. Parties to a Contract of Sale A. 1459-1465) 18    . 1458. Void contracts (Arts. Pactum de non alienando (Art.

Formation of Contract of Sale A. Earnest money vs. Manner of payment must be agreed upon G. 1479) B. Perfection (Arts. 1470) E. Mutual promise to buy and sell (Art. 1479. Sale by a person having a voidable title (Arts. Art. How price is determined D. When no price agreed (Art. 1474) F. Price A. Right of first refusal 4. Requisites for a valid price C. 1496-1501) B. 1462. Manner of transfer (Arts. Offer (Art. 1475.B. 1505. 1469-1474) B. 1325. Transfer of Ownership A. 559) V. 1479) 1. 1355. Option contract (Arts. 1403 (d) (e) VII. Exceptions B. Sale by a person not the owner at time of delivery (Arts. When delivery does not transfer title 19    . Preparatory (Art. 1326) C. Inadequacy of price (Arts. 1506.1482) VI. Formalities of the contract. 1475) 2. 1459) 1. Meaning of price (Arts. Option money (Art. 1319. 1477. Particular kinds IV. Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership A. 1324) 3.

1544) E. 1516) F. 1504) IX. Requisites for registration of deed of sale in good faith 2. Remedies of unpaid seller XI. General rule (Arts. Double sales (Art. Performance of Contract 20    . Kinds of delivery D. Documents of Title A. When loss occurred at time of perfection (Arts. Definition of unpaid seller (Art. Negotiable documents of title D. Property Registration Decree 1. Accompanied by vendor’s duplicate certificate of title. 1519. When ownership is transferred (Art.C. When loss occurred after perfection but before delivery E. Rules on levy/garnishment of goods (Arts. payment of capital gains tax. 1525) B. When loss occurred before perfection C. Definition (Art. Non-negotiable documents of title E. 1189) B. and documentary tax registration fees VIII. 1263. 1493 and 1494) D. 1520) X. 1636) B. Purpose of documents of title C. Remedies of an Unpaid Seller A. 1514. Risk of Loss A. Warranties of seller of documents of title (Art.

Warranties A. 1231) B. Effects of waivers E. Sale of immovables (Arts. Buyer’s options in case of breach of warranty (Art. 1636. 1539. 957. Breach of Contract A. 1601) C. Sale of immovables 1. 1599) XIII. Sale of movables (Arts. 1522. Distinguished from option to buy (Art. Sale of movable 2. 1543) 3.D. 1594) 1. 1484-1486) C. Causes (Arts. Express warranties B. Remedies of the buyer 1. 1537. Extinguishment of the Sale A. Inspections and acceptance B. 1600. Payment of price XII. Implied warranties (Art. P. 1480) 2. Secs. Period of redemption (Art. Effects of warranties D. 1602-1604) D. Remedies of the seller (Arts. Sale of immovables XIV. 1547) C.A. Conventional redemption (Art. Sale of immovables on installment (Maceda Law) D. Equitable mortgage (Arts. Sale of movables B. Delivery of thing sold 1. 1602) E. 1606) 21    . 23. 24 2. Recto Law: sale of movables on installment (Arts.

781) B. In general a) Definition and characteristics (Arts. devisees. 774-780) A. Public Land Law.A. 798-801) (i) When testator is deemed to be of sound mind (ii) Presumptions (iii) Supervening incapacity 22    . Legal redemption (Art. 784-785.A. 3952) and SUCCESSION I. 4726) Exclude: Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (R. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree (P. General Provisions (Arts. 787) (a) Exception (Art. 1619) H. 796-803) a) Age requirement (Art. Bulk Sales Law (Act No. 777) C. 797) b) Soundness of mind (Arts. 782) II. When succession occurs (Art. 8792). Retail Trade Liberalization Act. 1619) XV. Age redemption (Art. 786) (ii) Rules of construction and interpretation (Arts. 783-787) (i) Act of making a will a strictly personal act (Arts. 795) 2. 1616) G. Definition/what is transmitted (Arts. 776. The Condominium Act (R.F. Testamentary Succession A. legatees (Art.D. 957) XVI. Testamentary capacity and intent (Arts. Exercise of the right to redeem (Art. 788-794) (iii) Law governing formal validity (Art. Kinds of successors: heirs. 774. Wills 1.

811) e) Joint wills (Arts. 820-824) d) Holographic wills (i) Requirements (Arts. 840-856) 1. 17. 815-817. 906-918 23    . Disposition less than legitime/donation inter vivos – Arts. 838-839) a) Probate requirement (Art. 818-819) 4. Institution of heirs (Arts. Preterition vs. Incorporate by reference (Art. 807-808) (iii) Substantial compliance (Art. 854) a) Definition b) Requisites c) Effects (i) Effects of preterition. 804) (i) In writing (ii) Language/dialect requirement c) Notarial wills (i) Arts. Codicils (Arts. Form a) Rules governing the formal validity of wills (Arts.3. res judicata on formal validity b) Grounds for denying probate (Art. 809) (iv) Witnesses to wills(Arts. 827) 6. Revocation (Arts. 810-814) (a) Requirements in case of alterations (Art. 855. devisees only entitled to completion of legitime 2. 830) 7. 16. 805-806 (ii) Special rules for handicapped testators (Arts. Preterition (Art. 814) (ii) Witnesses required for probate (Art. 839) (a) Exceptions: when practical considerations demand the intrinsic validity of the will be resolved (ii) Effect of final decree of probate. Allowance and disallowance of wills (Arts. Compulsory heirs in the direct line 4. 828-834) a) Kinds (Art. 839) B.15. 854 3. 819) (i) See law governing substantive validity (Arts. Concept – Art. 825-826) a) Definition and formal requirements 5. 1039) b) Common requirements (Art. 838) (i) Issues to be resolved in probate proceedings (Art.

1061-1062) E. 1024-1040) 1.C. Substitution of heirs (Arts. 970-977) B. 923) b) Disinheritance without cause (Art. Fideicommissary substitution (Arts. Simple substitution (Art. 1100. Legitime (Arts. 908-910. 1104-1105) 24    . Partition (Arts. 1015-1023) 1. 960-969) 1. 857) 2. 1097. 1015-1105) A. 1027. Kinds (Arts. Partition and distribution of estate (Arts. 857-870) 1. 858-860) 3. 922) (ii) Rights of descendants of person disinherited (Art. 887-903) 3. Reserva troncal (Art. 871-885) E. Right of accretion (Arts. 891) 4. 992) IV. Compulsory heirs and various combinations (Arts. 859) 4. Acceptance and repudiation of the inheritance (Arts. Disinheritance C. 1015-1016) B. 1078-1105) 1. Legacies and devisees (Arts. 960-1014) A. Partition inter vivos 3. Collation (Arts. 963-969) 2. Definition (Art. Definition (Art. Definition and requisites (Arts. Capacity to succeed by will or intestacy (Arts. Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession (Arts. Right of representation (Arts. 924-959) III. 1079. Unworthiness vs. 886) 2. 918) 5. 978-1014. 739. 1080) 2. Legal or Intestate Succession (Arts. 1091. 886-914) 1. Conditional testamentary dispositions and testamentary dispositions with a term (Arts. Order of intestate succession (Arts. Effects of partition (Arts. 1032) 2. 869) D. General provisions (Arts. Disinheritance a) Disinheritance for cause (Art. Relationship (Arts. Persons incapable of succeeding (Arts. 919) (i) Reconciliation (Art.1041-1057) D. 863-866.

General vs. Professional partnership J. Obligations of Partnership/Partners to Third Persons V. Dissolution (Art. Rules to determine existence D. Joint venture I. Contract of Partnership A. Limited G. Particular. 1830) VI. Definition 25    . Partnership v. which will be covered under Remedial Law PARTNERSHIP I.Exclude: Executors and administrators (Arts. Rights and Obligations of Partnership III. Elements C. Partnership by estoppel H. Management (Arts. Definition B. Universal vs. How partnership is formed E. Partnership term F. Limited Partnership A. Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves IV. 1058-1060). 1800-1803) II.

1877-1878) A. 1883) III. 1897-1902) B. Agency by Estoppel V. Powers (Arts. Definition of Agency II. Agency Couched in General Terms VII. Implied Agency IV. Agency by Operation of Law IX. Rights and obligations of a limited partner Exclude: Questions requiring application of SEC opinions or regulations AGENCY I. Express vs. How limited partnership is formed/amended C. Exception (Art. 1927-1930) XI. Special Agency VI. Rights and Obligations of Principal X. Modes of Extinguishment 26    . Agency Requiring Special Power of Attorney VIII.B. General vs. To bind principal (Arts. Irrevocable Agency (Arts.

Nature and extent of guaranty B. Judicial deposit III. Commodatum vs. 2037. Deposit A. 2035) III. Definition (Art. Pledge 27    . Loan A. Legal and judicial bonds IV. Effects of guaranty C. 2041) CREDIT TRANSACTIONS I.COMPROMISE I. Guaranty and Suretyship A. Void Compromise (Art. Obligations of bailor and bailee C. Extinguishment of guaranty D. Mutuum B. 2028) II. Voluntary deposit B. Interest and the suspension of usury law II. Necessary deposit C. Effect (Arts.

Negotiorum gestio B. Distinguished from chattel mortgage (Arts. 1484) V. Obligations of antichretic creditor VII. Essential requisites C. Real Mortgage A. 2112. Foreclosure VI. Rights of pledgor F. Pledge by operation of law (Art. 2096) G. Quasi-contracts A. Obligation of pledge E. 2115) H. 2140. Perfection (Arts. 2121-2122) I. Kinds C. Registration VIII. Definition and characteristics B. Essential requirements D. Antichresis A. Chattel Mortgage A. Definition and characteristics B. Foreclosure (Arts. Solutio indebiti 28    . 2093. Definition and characteristics B.A. Definition B.

Lease of Things II. Classification of credits E. Voluntary insolvency D. Registration C.IX. Order of preference of credits X. Lease of Rural and Urban Lands A. Qualified persons B. Definition of insolvency B. Involuntary insolvency Exclude: Warehouse Receipts Law. Concurrence and Preference of Credits A. Insolvency Law A. Suspension of payments C. Meaning of concurrence and preference B. Usury Law LEASE I. Prohibitions 29    . Exempt property D. Preferred credits on specific movables C. Lease of Work or Services III.

IV. Effects C. Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee V. Concept of native title. time immemorial possession III. Obligation in case of death/injury of laborers VIII. Original Registration A. Concept B. Contract for Piece of Work LAND TITLES AND DEEDS I.D. 1529 30    . Household Service VII. Under P. Concept and background B. Contract of Labor A. Who may apply 1. Torrens System A. Special Rules for Lease of Rural/Urban Lands VI. Citizenship Requirement A. Certificate of title II. Regalian Doctrine A. Individuals and corporations IV.

141 3. Registration process and requirements C. Abuse of right. Consultas. orders and partitions 4.A. Voluntary dealings B.A. TORTS AND DAMAGES Book I--Torts I. Under R. elements B. Involuntary dealings VI. Administrative structure of the Register of Deeds 7. Liability without fault D. Registration of judgments. Under C. Assurance fund 5. Unjust enrichment C. 8371 B. Subsequent Registration A. Dealings with Unregistered Lands Exclude: 1. History of land laws 2. Principles A. Registration of patents 6. Remedies D. Non-registrable Properties VII.2. Cadastral registration V. Acts contrary to law 31    . Remedies sufficiently covered under Remedial Law 3.

2194. Civil Code) 32    . Persons made responsible for others 1. negligent and strict liability B. 218-219. Arts. and the Family Code. 2180. In general a) Quasi-delicts under Art.E. joint or solidary? 2. According to scope: general or specific III. Acts contrary to morals II. 221 (i) Elements. According to manner of commission: intentional. Juridical persons B. In particular a) Parents b) Guardians c) Owners and managers of establishments and enterprises d) Employers (i) Meaning of employers (ii) Requisites (a) Employee chosen by employer or through another (b) Services rendered in accordance with orders which employer has authority to give (c) Illicit act of employee was on the occasion or by reason of the functions entrusted to him (d) Presumption of negligence (iii) Employer need not be engaged in business or industry (iv) Defense of diligence in selection and supervision (v) Nature of employer’s liability e) State f) Teachers and heads of establishments of arts and trades C. definition (ii) Distinguished from culpa contractual and culpa criminal b) Indirect liability for intentional acts c) Presumption of negligence on persons indirectly responsible d) Nature of liability. Natural persons 2. The Tortfeasor A. Joint tortfeasors (Art. Classification of Torts A. The direct tortfeasor 1.

Distinguished from remote and concurrent B. Condition F. Definition 2. Intentional Torts 33    . Proximate Cause A. Cause vs. Cause in fact 1. Injury to relations VII. Concept of act V. Substantial factor test 2. Elements of right C. Classes of injury 1. Act of Omission and Its Modalities A. Concept 1. Violation of right or legal injury D. Test 3. Efficient intervening cause E. Last clear chance VI. Natural and probable consequences 2. Foreseeability D. Concurrent causes C. Distinguished from immediate cause 4. Injury to persons 2. Legal Injury A. Injury to property 3. Concept B. Distinguished from intervening cause 5.IV. Legal cause 1.

General 34    .A. Interference with relations 1. Intentional non-physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of personal dignity c) Infliction of emotional distress d) Violation of privacy (i) Appropriation (ii) Intrusion (iii) Public disclosure of private facts (iv) False light in the public eye e) Disturbance of peace of mind f) Malicious prosecution g) Defamation (i) Defenses (a) Absence of elements (b) Privilege h) Fraud or misrepresentation (formerly deceit) i) Seduction j) Unjust dismissal C. Classes a) Interference with persons and property (i) Physical harms (ii) Non-physical harms b) Interference with relations B. Interference with rights to persons and property 1. physical injuries (Art. Concept 2. Civil Code) (i) Battery (physical injury) (ii) Assault (grave threat) c) False imprisonment (illegal detention) d) Trespass to land (i) Concept (ii) Elements e) Interference with personal property (i) Trespass to chattels (ii) Conversion 2. 33. General 1. Intentional physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of persons security.

Family a) b) c) relations Alienation of affection Loss of consortium Criminal conversation (adultery) 3. Evidence 35    . Defenses a) Absence of element b) Privilege (i) Consent (ii) Self-defense and defense of others (iii) Necessity (Civil Code. Art. Social relations a) Meddling with or disturbing family relations b) Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from his friends 4. assembly and petition. Negligence A. Civil Code. press. Art. Political relations a) Violation of right to suffrage (Civil Code. Emergency rule D.) 6. Standard of care 1. Good father of a family or reasonably prudent man C. 32) b) Violation of other political rights (freedom of speech. Unreasonable risk of harm E. Art. Concept B.a) Concept b) Kinds 2. etc. 1173 2. Economic relations a) Interference with contractual relations b) Unfair competition 5. 429) (iv) Defense of property (v) Authority of law c) Prescription d) Waiver e) Force majeure VIII.

Complete a) Absence of element (i) Due diligence (ii) Acts of public officers b) Accident or fortuitous event c) Damnum absque injuria d) Authority of law e) Assumption of risk f) Last clear chance g) Prescription (Civil Code. Legal provisions 2. Violation of civil liberties E. Presumption of negligence 1. 7394.F. Attractive nuisance D. and 1150) h) Waiver i) Double recovery (Civil Code. 2177) IX. Special Liability in Particular Activities A. 1)] C. 694-707) 1. Arts. Owner of motor vehicle H. General 1. (Ch. Secs. Res ipsa loquitur G. Head of family 36    . 92-107. cities and municipalities G. Defenses 1. Nuisance per se and nuisance per accidence 2. Manufacturers or processors a) Elements b) Consumer Act [R. 1144. Violation of constitutional rights 1. Arts. Concept B. Public nuisance and private nuisance 3. Proprietor of building or structure or thing I. Art. 1146. Nuisance (Civil Code. Products liability 1. Provinces. Violation of rights committed by public officers F.A.

Moral Damages 37    . In contracts and quasi-contracts 2. Products liability (supra) 1. Requisites 1. Alleged and proved with certainty 2. Animals 1. Extent or scope of actual damages 1. According to manner of determination 4. Concept B. Component elements 1.X. Possessor and user of an animal B. Strict Liability A. Interest D. Actual and Compensatory Damages A. unrealized profit 2. General Considerations A. Value of loss. Classification 1. Consumer act Book II--Damages I. Classes a) Per se or per accidents b) Public or private 2. Easement against nuisance C. Special and ordinary II. 2197 of the Civil Code 2. According to purpose 3. Under Art. In crimes and quasi-delicts III. Nuisance (supra) 1. Attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation 3. Not speculative C.

Liquidated Damages A. Art. 27. 2226) B. In quasi-delicts (Civil Code. In cases of malicious prosecution IV. When awarded VI. Concept (Arts. Art. In crimes and quasi-delicts causing death 1. Concept (Civil Code. 3. 2219-2220) 1. Art. When recovered 1. 29. In seduction.A. Concept B. 2229) B. Arts. 28. 34 & 35. In criminal offenses (Civil Code. When recoverable (Arts. When awarded V. In acts referred to in Arts. Concept (Civil Code. In death caused by breach of conduct by a common crime IX. 2217-2218) B. Requisites 1. Exemplary or Corrective Damages A. 2230) 2. rape and other lascivious acts 2. Art. In contracts and quasi-contracts (Civil Code. Temperate or Moderate Damages A. Concept B. 26. Nominal Damages A. Damages in Case of Death A. 21. Civil Code. 2231) 3. Graduation of Damages 38    . 2234 VIII. 2233. Art. Rules governing in case of breach of contract VII. 2232) C. abduction. 32.

4. Nominal with other damages (Art. Damages that must stand alone 1. More is required for excellent and distinguished work as members of the Bar. 2012. 2227) Compromise X. and principles they need to know and be able to use correctly before they can be licensed to practice law. 2223) Exclude: Distinction between tort and quasi-delict Include: Pertinent Supreme Court decisions promulgated up to January 31. Rules 1. 5. 2226) B. 2214) In contracts. In crimes In quasi-delict (Civil Code. liquidated or compensatory C. Nominal damages (Art. Miscellaneous Rules A. Important note: This bar coverage description is not intended and should not be used by law schools as a syllabus or course outline in the covered subjects. 3. 2. doctrines. Duty of injured party 1. It has been drawn up for the limited purpose of ensuring that candidates reviewing for the bar examinations are guided on what basic and minimum amounts of laws. 2203 B. Exemplary with moral. Damages that cannot co-exist 1. temperate.A. Art. Actual and liquidated (Art. 2215) Liquidated damages (Civil Code. 2223) 2. 39    . Art. Art. quasi-contracts and quasi-delicts (Civil Code. Damages that must co-exist 1. Art.

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