SYLLABUS FOR THE 2012 BAR EXAMINATIONS

CIVIL LAW

I. Effect and Application of Laws A. When law takes effect (Civil Code, Art. 2) B. Ignorance of the law (Civil Code, Art. 3) C. Retroactivity of laws (Civil Code, Art. 4) D. Mandatory or prohibitory laws (Civil Code, Art. 5) E. Waiver of rights (Civil Code, Art. 6) F. Repeal of laws (Civil Code, Art. 7) G. Judicial decisions (Civil Code, Art. 8) H. Duty to render judgment (Civil Code, Art. 9) I. Presumption and applicability of custom (Civil Code, Arts. 10-12) J. Legal periods (Civil Code, Art. 13, as amended by Book I, Sec. 31 of the Administrative Code of 1987 (EO 292)) K. Applicability of penal laws (Civil Code, Art. 14) L. Conflict of laws (Civil Code, Arts. 15-18) II. Human Relations (Civil Code, Arts. 19-22) Exclude: Independent Civil Actions and prejudicial questions which will be covered by the examinations in Remedial Law PERSONS I. Persons and Personality (Civil Code) A. Capacity to act 1. Civil personality (Art. 37) 2. Restrictions on capacity to act (Arts. 38-39) 3. Birth (Arts. 40-41) 1   

4. Death (Arts. 42-43) a) Compare Art. 43 with Rule 131, Sec. 3 (jj) presumption of survivorship 5. Juridical Persons, Civil Code, Arts. 44-46 B. Domicile and residence (Arts. 50-51) II. Marriage (Family Code) Exclude: Muslim Code (P.D. 1083) A. Nature of marriage B. Requisites 1. Kinds of requisites (Family Code, Arts. 2-3) 3. Effect of absence of requisites (Art. 4) 4. Essential requisites (Art. 5) a) Age b) Consent 5. Formal (Arts. 7, 31, 32) 6. Ceremony (Art. 6) 7. Solemnizing authority (Art. 7-8, 10) a) Exceptions (Art. 35 (2)) 8. License required (Arts. 3 (2), 9, 11, 20, 26) a) Foreign national (Art. 21) b) Exceptions (Arts. 27, 31-32, 34) 9. Marriage certificate (Art. 22) Exclude: Duties of a Civil Registrar under Arts. 12-19, 23-25 B. Effect of marriage celebrated abroad and foreign divorce (Art. 26) C. Void and voidable marriages 1. Void marriages (Arts. 5, 35, 36-38, 52-53) a) Absence of requisites (Art. 35) b) Psychological incapacity (Art. 36) c) Incestuous marriages (Arts. 37-38) 2. Prescription (Art. 39) 3. Subsequent marriage (Arts. 40-44) 4. Annullable marriage (Arts. 14, 45-46) 5. Voidable marriages (Art. 45-47) 6. Presence of prosecutor (Art. 48) 7. Pendency of action (Art. 49) 8. Effects of nullity (Arts. 50-54) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-10-SC, Rule on Declaration of Absolute Nullity of Void Marriages and Annulment of Voidable Marriages; R.A. 6955, entitled “An Act to 2   

Declare Unlawful the Practice of Matching Filipino Women for Marriage to Foreign Nationals on a Mail Order Basis and Other Similar Practices…”; R.A. 9208 or the
Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 III. Legal Separation A. Grounds (Art. 55 and R.A. 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) B. Defenses (Arts. 56-57) C. Cooling-off period (Art. 58) D. Reconciliation efforts (Art. 59) E. Confession of judgment (Art. 60) F. Effects of filing petition (Art. 61) G. Effects of pendency (Art. 62) H. Effects of legal separation (Arts. 63-64) 1. Reconciliation (Arts. 65-67) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-11-SC or the Rule on Legal Separation IV. Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife A. Essential obligations (Art. 68) B. Family domicile (Art. 69) C. Support (Art. 70) D. Management of household (Art. 71) E. Effect of neglect of duty (Art. 72) F. Exercise of profession (Art. 73) Exclude: R.A. 7192 or the Women in Development and Nation Building Act; R.A. 8187, or the Paternity Leave Act of 1996; R.A. 9710 or The Magna Carta of Women. V. Property Relations of the Spouses 3   

Property regime of unions without marriage (Arts. Marriage settlements (Arts. Dissolution of the regime of Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. 88-90) 2. 102-104) E. 75-85. 163-171) B. Legitimate children (Arts. 43(3). 50) C. enjoyment and disposition of the community property (Arts. 76-81) B. 109-115) 3.A. Donations by reason of marriage (Arts. Conjugal Partnership of Gains 1. Charges upon and obligations of the community property (Arts. 126-128) 7. Dissolution of community regime (Arts. administration. Separation of property of the spouses and administration of common property by one spouse during the marriage (Arts. Exclusive property of each spouse (Arts. Liquidation of the absolute community assets and liabilities (Arts. Paternity and Filiation A. 129-133) F. 87) D. What constitutes community property (Arts. 172-174) 4    . 121123) 5. Liquidation of the conjugal partnership assets and liabilities (Arts. 99-101) 6. The family home (Arts. General provisions (Arts. The family as an institution (Arts. 105-108) 2. 116-120) 4. Regime of separation of property (Arts. Absolute Community of Property 1. 96-98) 5. 161 and 162 VII. The Family A. 143-146) H. Charges upon and obligations of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. 157. 124-125) 6. 134-142) G. Proof of filiation (Arts. Ownership. Void donations by the spouses (Art. 152-165) Exclude: Arts. Administration of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. 94-95) 4. 82-83. 147-148) VI. 91-93) 3. Conjugal partnership property (Arts. 86. General provisions (Arts. 149-151) B.

A.A. Rescission of adoption Exclude: 1. Options (Art. Illegitimate children (Art. No. Who can adopt 2. Who can be adopted Exclude: Arts. 195-197.C. Rights of an adopted child (include Family Code. 177-182) Exclude: A. 176 as amended by R. Support during marriage litigation (Art. entitled “An Act Requiring Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to Declare a “Child Legally Available for Adoption” as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings…. Legitimated children (Arts. 201-202) E. Who are obliged (Arts. Arts.M. 9523. Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (R. 204) G. R. 199-200. Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (R.M. Support A. What it comprises (Art. 205) 5    . 198) D. Adoption A. Amount (Arts.A.A. 191-193 of the Family Code IX. Who can adopt 2. 194) B. 183-188. No. 06-11-5-SC or the Rule on DNA Evidence VIII. 02-6-02-SC ) 2. Attachment (Art. 175 and Art. When demandable (Art. Rule on Adoption (A. 189 and 190 on successional rights) 4. Who can be adopted 3. 206-208) C. 8043) 1.” B. 8552) 1. 9255 allowing illegitimate children to use the surname of their father) D. 203) F.

6809 which lowered the age of majority) XII. Art. 369-380 (other articles repealed by Family Code) XVI. No. 41 Family Code) 6    . Arts. 216-219) C. The Early Childhood Care and Development Act (R. Suspension or termination of parental authority (Arts.A. 8972) 4. 8980) D. Solo Parents' Welfare Act of 2000 (R. 43.A. Civil Code) XV. 7610)  XI. Retroactivity of the Family Code (Art. General provisions (Arts. 254-255. Funerals (Civil Code. Substitute and special parental authority (Arts. entitled “An Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child…” which will be covered under Labor Law E. Effects of parental authority upon the property of the children (Arts. 9231. 03-02-05-SC) 2. 305-310) Exclude: Care and Education of Children (Arts. Emancipation (Arts. Child Abuse Law (R.A. Parental Authority A. 364-369.A. Effect of parental authority upon the persons of the children (Arts. 257 of the Family Code XIV. Use of Surnames Arts. as amended by R. 225-227) Exclude: R. 256) Exclude: Arts.A.M. Art. Absence (Civil Code.X. 234 and 236. 03-04-04-SC) 3. Summary Judicial Proceedings in Family Law Cases XIII. 220-224) Exclude: 1. No. 356-363. 209-215) B. 228-233)   1. Rules on Custody of Minors and Writ of Habeas Corpus in Relation to Custody of Minors (A. Rule on Guardianship of Minors (A.M.

Correction of Clerical Errors (R. 449-450) b) Usufructuary (Art.A.389) D. Arts. sower on land of another in the concept of owner (i) Builder. Rules of Court Exclude: Act No. 440) 1. Hidden treasure (Arts. Fruits (Arts. 438-439) B. Civil Registrar A. 381-383) B.A. 375 and the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R. Rule 108. 441-444) 2. 384-386) C. entitled “An Act Authorizing the City or Municipal Civil Registrar or the Consul General to Correct a Clerical or Typographical Error in an Entry and/or Change of First Name or Nickname in the Civil Register Without Need of a Judicial Order…. 387. 461-462 and P. planter. Right of accession (Art. Administration of the property of the absentee (Arts. 393-396 on contingent assets XVII.A. 407-413 B. Presumption of death (Arts. sower in good faith (Arts. 1067 or the Water Code) 7    . sower in bad faith (Arts.D. 448-456) (ii) Builder. Lands adjoining river banks a) Alluvion (Art. 415-418) A. Characteristics II. With respect to immovable property a) Builder. 457) b) Change of course of river (Arts. planter. planter. Provisional measures in case of absence (Arts. 9048 PROPERTY I.”) C. Declaration of absence (Arts. 579) 3. Classification (Arts. 9048. 390-392) Exclude: Arts.

Personal or movable D. Distinction between real and personal rights B. Limitations 1. police power 2. Of private ownership a) Patrimonial property (i) Distinction between private property of individual persons and of state entities E. Modes of acquiring ownership 1. General limitations: taxation. state of necessity). fruendi. mortgages imposed by contract) 8    . Original 2. accion publiciana. By nature 1. Of public dominion 2. Islands (Arts. nuisance. 459-463) 4. eminent domain. Bundle of rights a) Jus utendi. abutendi. Right in general 1. accion interdictal (b) Distinction between forcible entry and unlawful detainer (ii) Actions for recovery of possession of movable property (iii) Requisites for recovery of property (a) Proof of right (b) Identity (c) Reliance on strength of own evidence. easements voluntarily imposed by owner (servitudes. Consumable/non-consumable vs. Fungible/non-fungible III. vindicandi. 464-465) C. Specific limitations: those imposed by law (sic utere tuo.c) Avulsion (Arts. Real or immovable 2. Ownership A. disponendi (possidendi) (i) Actions to recover ownership and possession of real property (a) Distinctions between accion reivindicatoria. Derivative C. By owner 1. By object 1. not weakness of defendant’s claim 2.

articles and by-laws of the condominium corporation or the association. In general 2. avulsion. sowing in good faith or bad faith) c) Accession natural (accretion. 6552. General rules 1. rivers. 476-481) A. For movables: a) Accession continua (conjunction. Characteristics of co-ownership 1. For immovables: a) Accession discreta (natural. islands) 2. Right to hidden treasure B.IV. amendment (iv) Documents to consider (master deed. Requirement B. where applicable) b) Rights and obligations of condominium owners (i) Contributions/dues (ii) P. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree and R. Special rules a) Concept of condominium (i) Condominium corporation (ii) Interest in real property (iii) Concept of common areas. Quieting of Title to or Interest in and Removal or Prevention of Cloud over Title to or Interest in Real Property (Arts. declaration of restrictions. Source of co-ownership 9    .D. specification) b) Rules for determining the principal and accessory V. Accession A. civil fruits) and continua (over immovables: artificial/industrial and natural) b) Accession industrial (building. adjunction. or dissolution of the condominium B. planting. industrial. Prescription/non-prescription of action VI. Distinction between quieting of title and removing/preventing a cloud C. 957. commixtion/ confusion. Realty Installment Buyer Act c) Grounds for partition of common areas.A. Co-ownership A.

Effects of possession 1. Finder of lost movable (Arts. 549. Rights of the possessor G. 559. Distinguished from voidable title (Art. 526-527) a) Right to pending fruits (Art. 449. 1506) E. 1132. Rights against individual co-owners in case of partition 3. in one’s own name.C. 546-547) (ii) Expenses for pure luxury (Art. Effect of partition 2. 545) b) Right to be reimbursed (i) Necessary and useful expenses (Arts. 548) 2. Characteristics B. 1134. Rights of co-owners 1. Period to recover (Arts. How acquired (Art. 1140. Loss/termination VIII. Loss or unlawful deprivation of a movable (Arts. Waiver 6. Possessor in bad faith (Arts. 531) C. Right to redemption of co-owners share D. holder. Distinction between right to property owned in common and full ownership over his/her ideal share 2. 719-720) 3. 1505(3)) 1. Characteristics B. taxes) 5. Right to contributions for expenses (necessary expenses. Possession A. In concept of owner. Partition in case co-owners cannot agree VII. Classification 10    . 544. Usufruct A. 552) D. Right to oppose acts of alteration 3. in name of another F. Termination/extinguishment 1. 1133) 2. Possessor in good faith (Arts. Right to partition 4.

Donation 1. Easement of light and view (Arts. Voluntary easements (Art. 669-673) D. Remedies XI. 613. Classification 1. Definition (Arts. Extinction/termination IX. Legal easements a) Right of way 2. How terminated X. 620-624) 2. Rights and obligations of dominant and subservient estate E. 725-726. Occupation (Art.C. 746) 2. 712) A. Rights of the owner E. Nuisance (Arts. 688) a) Effect of zoning ordinance C. 615-616) A. Rights and obligations of usufructuary D. 713) B. Modes of acquiring easements 1. 694-707) A. Easements (Arts. Compulsory easements (Arts. Classification C. Characteristics a) Extent to which donor may donate property b) Reservations and reversions 11    . Characteristics B. Modes of Acquiring Ownership (Art. Definition B.

739-740. grounds for reduction b) How done c) Effects c) Prescription e) Inofficious donations (Arts. 729) Donation by reason of marriage (Family Code.3. 82-83. 771-773) f) Ingratitude (Arts. 748) (ii) Immovables (Art. 1117) 1. Ordinary a) Good faith (Art. 749) 5. 1027) 8. 86) Donation mortis causa (Art. 750-752) In fraud of creditors (Art. 1106) A. Characteristics 2. Effects a) b) c) d) e) of donation/limitations In general Double donations Excessive/inofficious Scope of amount (Arts. 728) Onerous donation (Art. conditional 4. 765. 733) Simple. 760-761. Revocation or reduction a) Grounds for revocation. donee 6. Arts. Acquisitive (Art. modal. 759) 7. Qualifications of donor. Definition (Art. 1127) b) Just title (Arts. 1129-1130) 12    . 769) Exclude: Intellectual creations PRESCRIPTION I. personal properties (i) Movables (Art. Void donations (Arts. Kinds a) b) c) d) e) Donation inter vivos (Art. Formalities required a) How made and accepted b) Perfection c) Differences between formalities for donation of real.

Void contracts (Art. Action to quiet title if plaintiff is in possession E. 1143. 6. To recover movables (Art. Art. Property of public dominion III. Action legal to demand a right of way (Art. 1155) OBLIGATIONS I. 1410) F. 1137 and 1132. 494) 1. 1132. No Prescription Applicable A. 649) 2. 5. By offender (Art. 1133) B. Prescription or limitation of actions A. Registered lands (P. Extraordinary (Arts. 1140) B. 4. 1141) C. Definition 13    . second par.3. 1118-1125) Period (Arts. To recover immovables (Art. 1138) What cannot be required by acquisitive prescription B. Action to demand partition (Art. Distinguished from laches G. Other actions (Arts.D. Characteristics 2. Interruption (Art. To abate a nuisance D. Extinctive 1. Civil Code 1.) Requisites (Arts. 1529) C. Requisites 3. Periods II. 1134. 1142-1149) IV.

Remedies available to creditor in cases of breach 1. Classification of Obligations V. 1171) 4. Complete failure to perform 2. Obligation to do or not to do C. Fraud in the performance of obligation a) Waiver of future fraud is void (Art. A determinate or specific thing 2. Contravention of the tenor of obligation 6. Different Kinds of Prestations IV. Legal excuse for breach of obligation: fortuitous event. Nature and Effect of Obligations A. Sources of obligations (Arts. 1156-1157) A. Specific performance 14    . Default. Breaches of obligations 1. Negligence (culpa) in the performance of obligation a) Diligence normally required is ordinary diligence or diligence of a good father of a family b) Exception: common carriers which are required to exercise extraordinary diligence 5.II. delay or mora – no default unless creditors makes a demand. Elements of an Obligation III. Natural obligations C. Extra-contractual obligations VI. 1169) a) Mora solvendi b) Mora accipiendi c) Compesatio morae 3. A single act or omission can give rise to different causes of action B. exceptions (Art. Obligation to give 1. requisites D. An indeterminate or generic thing B.

Effect if suspensive period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor 3. Effect when a resolutory condition in obligation to do or not to do happens and there is improvement. Effect of improvement.a) Substituted performance by a third person on obligation to deliver generic thing and in obligation to do. 1190. Presumption that period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor (Art. Rescission (resolution in reciprocal obligations) 3. 1199) 1. 1189) 6. 1196) 2. through fault of debtor/creditor or through fortuitous events 15    . Definite or indefinite period a) Instances when courts may fix the period (Art. Effect if given to debtor alone a) Instances when debtor losses benefit of period (Art. 1893) VII. Subsidiary remedies of creditors (Art. Difference between alternative and facultative obligations 2. Resolutory period 3. 1608. Damages. Kinds of Civil Obligations A. 1197) b) Creditor must ask court to set the period before he can demand payment D. 1198) 2. loss or deterioration of the specific thing (Art. 3) C. 1182) 4. 1187) a) Extent of retroactivity 5. Pure (Arts. Potestative: casual or mixed a) Obligations subject to potestative suspensive conditions are void (Art. Conditional (Art. loss or deterioration of specific thing before the happening of a suspensive condition in obligation to do or not to do (Art. Resolutory condition 3. 1179-1180) B. Effect of loss of specific things or impossibility of performance of alternative. 1193) 1. 1652. par. Obligation with a period or a term (Art. 1181) 1. 1177) a) Accion subrogatoria a) Accion pauliana c) Accion directa (Arts. Alternative or facultative (Art. Effect of the happening of suspensive condition or resolutory condition (Art. in any event 4. 1729. Suspensive condition 2. unless a purely personal act 2.

1270) 2. 1250) 4. 1222) 3. 1272. therefore a joint debtor cannot be required to pay for the share of another with debtor. 1217. Joint (divisible) obligation 1. 1225) E. but not anything prejudicial to them (Art. Condonation or remission of debt (Art.VIII. Form of payment (Art. Extraordinary inflation or deflation (Art. Obligations with a penal clause (Arts. Application of payment (Art. Joint indivisible obligation 1. Tender of payment and consignation (Arts. confusion or remission of debt executed by a solidary creditor D. 1274) 16    . Solidary obligation 1. 1256-1261) B. although he may pay if he wants to (Art. Payment (Arts. Divisible and indivisible (Art. 1245) 2. In case of failure of one joint debtor to perform his part (share). 1212). a) Effect of any novation. Loss of determinate thing due or impossibility or difficulty of performance (Arts. 1252-1254) 5. Obligation cannot be performed in parts but debtors are bound jointly 2. 1271. Implied (Arts. 1216. Extinguishment of Obligations A. compensation. 1228-1230) IX. 1226. 1266-1267) C. 1209) d) Insolvency of a joint debtor. 1215) 2. 1209) B. Mutual agency among solidary debtors (Arts. Joint and Solidary Obligation A. 1249) 3. 1262. others not liable for his share (Art. 1236-1238) 1. Each one of solidary creditors may do whatever may be useful to the others. Concurrence of two or more creditors and or two or more debtors a) Joint obligation is presumed. Express condonations and required formality thereof (Art. Mutual guaranty among solidary debtors (Arts. unless otherwise indicated by the law or nature of obligation (Art. 1207) b) Obligation presumed to be divided into as many equal shares as there are creditors or debtors c) Each credit is distinct from one another. 1214. there is default but only the guilty debtor shall be liable for damages C. Dation in payment (Art. 1270) 1.

1744) 7. 1275. Kinds of Contracts A. 1191 B. 748-749) 2. 1390-1402) 17    . Kinds (Arts. 1357. Consensual B. Difference with rescission (resolution) under Art. Sale of large cattle III. 1278. Real C. Antichresis (Art. 1279) a) Legal compensation (Arts. Novation (Arts. 1282) c) Voluntary (Art. 1291-1304) CONTRACTS I. 1328-1344. Rescissible contracts (Art. Formality (Arts. 1356. 1874) 5. 1283) e) Facultative 2. Agency to sell real property or an interest therein (Art. 1956) 6. Defective Contracts A. Confusion or Merger of Rights (Arts. 1771. Essential Requisites (Art. Formal or solemn 1. 1773) 3. 2134) 4. Chattel mortgage 8. Voidable contracts (Arts. Obligations not compensable (Art. 1358) IV. 1381) 1. 1287-1288) F. 1272) E.D. 1282) d) Judicial (Art. Donations (Arts. Compensation 1. Partnership where real property contributed (Arts. Stipulation limiting common carrier’s duty of extraordinary diligence to ordinary diligence (Art. 1286-1290) b) Agreement (Art. Stipulation to charge interest (Art. 1261) II.

Void contracts (Arts. 1409. Stages of contract of sale D. Essential requisites of a contract of sale (Art. 2130) 3. 1458. Capacity of parties (Arts. 2088. Contract of sale/contract to sell II. 1505) C. Sale distinguished from other contracts H. Pactum de non alienando (Art. Sale is title and not mode G. Special disqualifications (Arts. 1390) 2. 1403-1408. 1489-1492) B. Absolute incapacity (Arts. 1399) C. 1317) D. Parties to a Contract of Sale A. 1397. Relative incapacity: married persons D. 1165) E. Unenforceable contracts (Arts. 1346) 1. Definition of sales (Arts. Characteristics of a contract of sale F. 1799) V. Subject Matter A. 2130. 1311) SALES I.C. 1459-1465) 18    . Pactum commissorium (Arts. Introduction A. Pactum leonina (Art. 1327. Obligations created (Art. 1470) B. Requisites of a valid subject matter (Arts. 1491-1492) III. Effect of contracts (Art.

1462. 1319. When no price agreed (Art. 1479) 1. 1475) 2. Offer (Art. 1474) F. 1325. 1326) C. Option contract (Arts. Formalities of the contract. Formation of Contract of Sale A. Perfection (Arts. 1403 (d) (e) VII. Right of first refusal 4. Sale by a person having a voidable title (Arts. When delivery does not transfer title 19    . Earnest money vs. 1479) B. 559) V. Sale by a person not the owner at time of delivery (Arts.1482) VI. 1324) 3. 1475. Manner of transfer (Arts. 1505. Art. Requisites for a valid price C. Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership A. 1477. 1496-1501) B. 1355. Option money (Art. 1469-1474) B. Transfer of Ownership A. 1459) 1. 1470) E. 1479. Price A. How price is determined D. Inadequacy of price (Arts. Meaning of price (Arts. 1506. Exceptions B. Mutual promise to buy and sell (Art. Particular kinds IV. Preparatory (Art. Manner of payment must be agreed upon G.B.

1189) B. Requisites for registration of deed of sale in good faith 2. Documents of Title A. 1636) B. Kinds of delivery D. Non-negotiable documents of title E. When loss occurred before perfection C. and documentary tax registration fees VIII.C. Warranties of seller of documents of title (Art. Performance of Contract 20    . Definition of unpaid seller (Art. Accompanied by vendor’s duplicate certificate of title. 1514. Remedies of an Unpaid Seller A. When loss occurred after perfection but before delivery E. Remedies of unpaid seller XI. 1493 and 1494) D. Rules on levy/garnishment of goods (Arts. Property Registration Decree 1. Purpose of documents of title C. Double sales (Art. When ownership is transferred (Art. 1544) E. 1519. 1263. General rule (Arts. 1504) IX. When loss occurred at time of perfection (Arts. payment of capital gains tax. Risk of Loss A. 1520) X. 1525) B. Negotiable documents of title D. 1516) F. Definition (Art.

1606) 21    . Sale of movables (Arts. Buyer’s options in case of breach of warranty (Art. Warranties A. Sale of immovables on installment (Maceda Law) D. Effects of warranties D. Express warranties B. Effects of waivers E. Sale of immovables (Arts. 1484-1486) C. Secs. 24 2. Extinguishment of the Sale A. Breach of Contract A. 1601) C. Sale of immovables XIV. 1539. 1602) E. 1547) C. 1231) B. 1602-1604) D.D. 1594) 1. 957. Implied warranties (Art. 1636. Period of redemption (Art. Sale of movables B. Remedies of the seller (Arts. Delivery of thing sold 1. Sale of movable 2. 1522. Remedies of the buyer 1.A. 1599) XIII. Sale of immovables 1. Causes (Arts. Distinguished from option to buy (Art. 1543) 3. 1537. 1480) 2. Conventional redemption (Art. Inspections and acceptance B. Equitable mortgage (Arts. P. 23. Recto Law: sale of movables on installment (Arts. 1600. Payment of price XII.

781) B. Definition/what is transmitted (Arts.A. 795) 2. When succession occurs (Art. Testamentary capacity and intent (Arts. 1619) XV. Bulk Sales Law (Act No. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree (P. 782) II. 4726) Exclude: Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (R. Wills 1. Legal redemption (Art. In general a) Definition and characteristics (Arts. 776. legatees (Art. 783-787) (i) Act of making a will a strictly personal act (Arts.D. 784-785. 798-801) (i) When testator is deemed to be of sound mind (ii) Presumptions (iii) Supervening incapacity 22    . Retail Trade Liberalization Act. 797) b) Soundness of mind (Arts. Public Land Law. 786) (ii) Rules of construction and interpretation (Arts. 787) (a) Exception (Art.A. 788-794) (iii) Law governing formal validity (Art. Age redemption (Art. 1616) G.F. Exercise of the right to redeem (Art. The Condominium Act (R. 1619) H. 774. Kinds of successors: heirs. 957) XVI. 774-780) A. devisees. General Provisions (Arts. 777) C. Testamentary Succession A. 3952) and SUCCESSION I. 8792). 796-803) a) Age requirement (Art.

819) (i) See law governing substantive validity (Arts. res judicata on formal validity b) Grounds for denying probate (Art. 814) (ii) Witnesses required for probate (Art. 17. devisees only entitled to completion of legitime 2. 804) (i) In writing (ii) Language/dialect requirement c) Notarial wills (i) Arts. 839) (a) Exceptions: when practical considerations demand the intrinsic validity of the will be resolved (ii) Effect of final decree of probate. 810-814) (a) Requirements in case of alterations (Art. Preterition vs. 854) a) Definition b) Requisites c) Effects (i) Effects of preterition. Revocation (Arts. 838-839) a) Probate requirement (Art. Concept – Art. Codicils (Arts. 820-824) d) Holographic wills (i) Requirements (Arts. 825-826) a) Definition and formal requirements 5. Compulsory heirs in the direct line 4. 807-808) (iii) Substantial compliance (Art. 1039) b) Common requirements (Art. 809) (iv) Witnesses to wills(Arts. 906-918 23    . 818-819) 4. Preterition (Art. 805-806 (ii) Special rules for handicapped testators (Arts.3. 855. 838) (i) Issues to be resolved in probate proceedings (Art. Disposition less than legitime/donation inter vivos – Arts. 840-856) 1. 854 3.15. Form a) Rules governing the formal validity of wills (Arts. 839) B. 811) e) Joint wills (Arts. 827) 6. 815-817. 830) 7. Incorporate by reference (Art. Allowance and disallowance of wills (Arts. 16. 828-834) a) Kinds (Art. Institution of heirs (Arts.

739. Reserva troncal (Art. 960-969) 1. Right of accretion (Arts. Right of representation (Arts. 1027. Legal or Intestate Succession (Arts. 1015-1016) B. 1015-1105) A. Substitution of heirs (Arts. Collation (Arts. Legacies and devisees (Arts. 919) (i) Reconciliation (Art. 886-914) 1. 1097. Order of intestate succession (Arts. 891) 4. Definition and requisites (Arts. Kinds (Arts. 978-1014. Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession (Arts. 869) D. 887-903) 3. Fideicommissary substitution (Arts. Unworthiness vs. Effects of partition (Arts. 1091. Partition and distribution of estate (Arts. 922) (ii) Rights of descendants of person disinherited (Art. 923) b) Disinheritance without cause (Art. Acceptance and repudiation of the inheritance (Arts. 970-977) B. 1104-1105) 24    . 960-1014) A. Legitime (Arts. 1024-1040) 1. 1061-1062) E. 1032) 2. 886) 2. 918) 5. 908-910. Simple substitution (Art. 1100.1041-1057) D. Conditional testamentary dispositions and testamentary dispositions with a term (Arts. 858-860) 3. 1078-1105) 1. Partition (Arts. Capacity to succeed by will or intestacy (Arts. Disinheritance a) Disinheritance for cause (Art. 859) 4. Persons incapable of succeeding (Arts. 1079. 871-885) E. Definition (Art. 857-870) 1. 857) 2. Definition (Art. 863-866. Disinheritance C. Partition inter vivos 3. 924-959) III. 1015-1023) 1.C. Relationship (Arts. General provisions (Arts. 992) IV. 1080) 2. 963-969) 2. Compulsory heirs and various combinations (Arts.

Dissolution (Art. which will be covered under Remedial Law PARTNERSHIP I. General vs. Rights and Obligations of Partnership III. Definition B. Professional partnership J. Universal vs. Obligations of Partnership/Partners to Third Persons V. Partnership term F. Limited G. Rules to determine existence D. Definition 25    . How partnership is formed E. Management (Arts. Limited Partnership A. Joint venture I.Exclude: Executors and administrators (Arts. Partnership v. 1830) VI. Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves IV. Partnership by estoppel H. 1800-1803) II. 1058-1060). Elements C. Particular. Contract of Partnership A.

Implied Agency IV. 1897-1902) B. Agency by Estoppel V.B. Agency Requiring Special Power of Attorney VIII. 1927-1930) XI. 1883) III. To bind principal (Arts. Express vs. Agency Couched in General Terms VII. Rights and Obligations of Principal X. Modes of Extinguishment 26    . General vs. Agency by Operation of Law IX. 1877-1878) A. Rights and obligations of a limited partner Exclude: Questions requiring application of SEC opinions or regulations AGENCY I. Definition of Agency II. Special Agency VI. Exception (Art. How limited partnership is formed/amended C. Powers (Arts. Irrevocable Agency (Arts.

Effects of guaranty C. Guaranty and Suretyship A. Obligations of bailor and bailee C. Interest and the suspension of usury law II. Effect (Arts. 2041) CREDIT TRANSACTIONS I. Legal and judicial bonds IV. Pledge 27    . Nature and extent of guaranty B. Mutuum B. Extinguishment of guaranty D. 2035) III. Loan A. Deposit A. Judicial deposit III. Necessary deposit C. Void Compromise (Art. Definition (Art. Commodatum vs. Voluntary deposit B. 2028) II. 2037.COMPROMISE I.

Real Mortgage A. Obligations of antichretic creditor VII. Foreclosure (Arts. Chattel Mortgage A. Quasi-contracts A. Definition and characteristics B. Foreclosure VI.A. Definition B. Pledge by operation of law (Art. 2112. Distinguished from chattel mortgage (Arts. Essential requirements D. Antichresis A. 2096) G. Definition and characteristics B. Perfection (Arts. 1484) V. Negotiorum gestio B. 2140. Rights of pledgor F. Registration VIII. 2093. Kinds C. Solutio indebiti 28    . Definition and characteristics B. Obligation of pledge E. Essential requisites C. 2115) H. 2121-2122) I.

Prohibitions 29    . Suspension of payments C. Insolvency Law A. Classification of credits E. Lease of Things II. Registration C. Qualified persons B.IX. Meaning of concurrence and preference B. Exempt property D. Lease of Rural and Urban Lands A. Involuntary insolvency Exclude: Warehouse Receipts Law. Lease of Work or Services III. Order of preference of credits X. Usury Law LEASE I. Concurrence and Preference of Credits A. Voluntary insolvency D. Definition of insolvency B. Preferred credits on specific movables C.

Certificate of title II. Individuals and corporations IV. Household Service VII. Concept and background B. Concept B. Effects C.D. Original Registration A. Citizenship Requirement A. Concept of native title. Contract of Labor A. Obligation in case of death/injury of laborers VIII.IV. Who may apply 1. Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee V. Under P. Regalian Doctrine A. time immemorial possession III. Contract for Piece of Work LAND TITLES AND DEEDS I. Torrens System A. Special Rules for Lease of Rural/Urban Lands VI. 1529 30    .

Liability without fault D. Remedies sufficiently covered under Remedial Law 3. 8371 B. Unjust enrichment C. History of land laws 2. Registration of judgments. Registration process and requirements C. Cadastral registration V. Non-registrable Properties VII. Abuse of right. Under R. Remedies D. Principles A. 141 3. Acts contrary to law 31    . TORTS AND DAMAGES Book I--Torts I.A. Involuntary dealings VI.A. Under C. Voluntary dealings B. Assurance fund 5. elements B. Administrative structure of the Register of Deeds 7.2. Registration of patents 6. Subsequent Registration A. Dealings with Unregistered Lands Exclude: 1. orders and partitions 4. Consultas.

According to manner of commission: intentional. Civil Code) 32    . Arts. The direct tortfeasor 1. In general a) Quasi-delicts under Art. Acts contrary to morals II. 2194. The Tortfeasor A.E. Juridical persons B. 2180. Joint tortfeasors (Art. According to scope: general or specific III. 218-219. negligent and strict liability B. Natural persons 2. Classification of Torts A. Persons made responsible for others 1. joint or solidary? 2. and the Family Code. definition (ii) Distinguished from culpa contractual and culpa criminal b) Indirect liability for intentional acts c) Presumption of negligence on persons indirectly responsible d) Nature of liability. In particular a) Parents b) Guardians c) Owners and managers of establishments and enterprises d) Employers (i) Meaning of employers (ii) Requisites (a) Employee chosen by employer or through another (b) Services rendered in accordance with orders which employer has authority to give (c) Illicit act of employee was on the occasion or by reason of the functions entrusted to him (d) Presumption of negligence (iii) Employer need not be engaged in business or industry (iv) Defense of diligence in selection and supervision (v) Nature of employer’s liability e) State f) Teachers and heads of establishments of arts and trades C. 221 (i) Elements.

Injury to property 3. Distinguished from immediate cause 4. Test 3. Intentional Torts 33    . Concept of act V. Condition F. Act of Omission and Its Modalities A. Legal Injury A. Last clear chance VI. Cause in fact 1. Concept B. Concept 1. Substantial factor test 2. Distinguished from remote and concurrent B. Injury to persons 2. Definition 2. Violation of right or legal injury D. Cause vs. Distinguished from intervening cause 5. Efficient intervening cause E. Foreseeability D. Natural and probable consequences 2. Classes of injury 1. Concurrent causes C.IV. Proximate Cause A. Elements of right C. Legal cause 1. Injury to relations VII.

A. Intentional physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of persons security. Interference with relations 1. Classes a) Interference with persons and property (i) Physical harms (ii) Non-physical harms b) Interference with relations B. Intentional non-physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of personal dignity c) Infliction of emotional distress d) Violation of privacy (i) Appropriation (ii) Intrusion (iii) Public disclosure of private facts (iv) False light in the public eye e) Disturbance of peace of mind f) Malicious prosecution g) Defamation (i) Defenses (a) Absence of elements (b) Privilege h) Fraud or misrepresentation (formerly deceit) i) Seduction j) Unjust dismissal C. 33. Civil Code) (i) Battery (physical injury) (ii) Assault (grave threat) c) False imprisonment (illegal detention) d) Trespass to land (i) Concept (ii) Elements e) Interference with personal property (i) Trespass to chattels (ii) Conversion 2. physical injuries (Art. General 1. Concept 2. Interference with rights to persons and property 1. General 34    .

Family a) b) c) relations Alienation of affection Loss of consortium Criminal conversation (adultery) 3. Concept B. assembly and petition. Emergency rule D. Art.a) Concept b) Kinds 2.) 6. Social relations a) Meddling with or disturbing family relations b) Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from his friends 4. 429) (iv) Defense of property (v) Authority of law c) Prescription d) Waiver e) Force majeure VIII. Unreasonable risk of harm E. Good father of a family or reasonably prudent man C. Art. Economic relations a) Interference with contractual relations b) Unfair competition 5. Art. Political relations a) Violation of right to suffrage (Civil Code. Standard of care 1. etc. 1173 2. Civil Code. Evidence 35    . Negligence A. Defenses a) Absence of element b) Privilege (i) Consent (ii) Self-defense and defense of others (iii) Necessity (Civil Code. 32) b) Violation of other political rights (freedom of speech. press.

1144. Public nuisance and private nuisance 3. Special Liability in Particular Activities A. and 1150) h) Waiver i) Double recovery (Civil Code. 92-107. Arts. Owner of motor vehicle H. Secs. Concept B. 2177) IX. (Ch. 1146. Proprietor of building or structure or thing I. Legal provisions 2. Attractive nuisance D. Complete a) Absence of element (i) Due diligence (ii) Acts of public officers b) Accident or fortuitous event c) Damnum absque injuria d) Authority of law e) Assumption of risk f) Last clear chance g) Prescription (Civil Code. Violation of constitutional rights 1. Violation of civil liberties E. Presumption of negligence 1. Head of family 36    . Art. 7394. Nuisance (Civil Code. 694-707) 1. Violation of rights committed by public officers F. Defenses 1. Arts. Nuisance per se and nuisance per accidence 2. Res ipsa loquitur G.F. Provinces. Manufacturers or processors a) Elements b) Consumer Act [R. General 1. 1)] C. cities and municipalities G.A. Products liability 1.

Alleged and proved with certainty 2. According to purpose 3. In crimes and quasi-delicts III. Concept B.X. According to manner of determination 4. Attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation 3. In contracts and quasi-contracts 2. Nuisance (supra) 1. Classification 1. Actual and Compensatory Damages A. 2197 of the Civil Code 2. Classes a) Per se or per accidents b) Public or private 2. unrealized profit 2. Easement against nuisance C. Component elements 1. Value of loss. Under Art. Not speculative C. General Considerations A. Interest D. Strict Liability A. Special and ordinary II. Possessor and user of an animal B. Extent or scope of actual damages 1. Moral Damages 37    . Consumer act Book II--Damages I. Animals 1. Requisites 1. Products liability (supra) 1.

Temperate or Moderate Damages A. 2229) B. Art. abduction. 29. 34 & 35. 2233. 28. Concept (Arts. When awarded V. Damages in Case of Death A. In quasi-delicts (Civil Code. When recovered 1. Art. In contracts and quasi-contracts (Civil Code. 26. When awarded VI. Liquidated Damages A. Graduation of Damages 38    . Arts. In seduction. In crimes and quasi-delicts causing death 1. Art. 2219-2220) 1. Art.A. Nominal Damages A. Exemplary or Corrective Damages A. In cases of malicious prosecution IV. Rules governing in case of breach of contract VII. Concept B. Concept (Civil Code. In acts referred to in Arts. 3. 21. In criminal offenses (Civil Code. 2217-2218) B. 2230) 2. Concept (Civil Code. Requisites 1. Concept B. 2232) C. When recoverable (Arts. In death caused by breach of conduct by a common crime IX. Art. Civil Code. 2231) 3. 27. rape and other lascivious acts 2. 32. 2234 VIII. 2226) B.

quasi-contracts and quasi-delicts (Civil Code. 5. 39    . Damages that cannot co-exist 1. 2203 B. In crimes In quasi-delict (Civil Code. Art. It has been drawn up for the limited purpose of ensuring that candidates reviewing for the bar examinations are guided on what basic and minimum amounts of laws. 2223) Exclude: Distinction between tort and quasi-delict Include: Pertinent Supreme Court decisions promulgated up to January 31. temperate. Duty of injured party 1. 2215) Liquidated damages (Civil Code. Nominal damages (Art. Exemplary with moral. Actual and liquidated (Art. 2226) B. Nominal with other damages (Art. 4. Damages that must co-exist 1. Important note: This bar coverage description is not intended and should not be used by law schools as a syllabus or course outline in the covered subjects. Art. Miscellaneous Rules A. 2. 2214) In contracts. Damages that must stand alone 1. liquidated or compensatory C.A. 2223) 2. 2012. doctrines. and principles they need to know and be able to use correctly before they can be licensed to practice law. 2227) Compromise X. Art. More is required for excellent and distinguished work as members of the Bar. Rules 1. Art. 3.

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