SYLLABUS FOR THE 2012 BAR EXAMINATIONS
I. Effect and Application of Laws A. When law takes effect (Civil Code, Art. 2) B. Ignorance of the law (Civil Code, Art. 3) C. Retroactivity of laws (Civil Code, Art. 4) D. Mandatory or prohibitory laws (Civil Code, Art. 5) E. Waiver of rights (Civil Code, Art. 6) F. Repeal of laws (Civil Code, Art. 7) G. Judicial decisions (Civil Code, Art. 8) H. Duty to render judgment (Civil Code, Art. 9) I. Presumption and applicability of custom (Civil Code, Arts. 10-12) J. Legal periods (Civil Code, Art. 13, as amended by Book I, Sec. 31 of the Administrative Code of 1987 (EO 292)) K. Applicability of penal laws (Civil Code, Art. 14) L. Conflict of laws (Civil Code, Arts. 15-18) II. Human Relations (Civil Code, Arts. 19-22) Exclude: Independent Civil Actions and prejudicial questions which will be covered by the examinations in Remedial Law PERSONS I. Persons and Personality (Civil Code) A. Capacity to act 1. Civil personality (Art. 37) 2. Restrictions on capacity to act (Arts. 38-39) 3. Birth (Arts. 40-41) 1
4. Death (Arts. 42-43) a) Compare Art. 43 with Rule 131, Sec. 3 (jj) presumption of survivorship 5. Juridical Persons, Civil Code, Arts. 44-46 B. Domicile and residence (Arts. 50-51) II. Marriage (Family Code) Exclude: Muslim Code (P.D. 1083) A. Nature of marriage B. Requisites 1. Kinds of requisites (Family Code, Arts. 2-3) 3. Effect of absence of requisites (Art. 4) 4. Essential requisites (Art. 5) a) Age b) Consent 5. Formal (Arts. 7, 31, 32) 6. Ceremony (Art. 6) 7. Solemnizing authority (Art. 7-8, 10) a) Exceptions (Art. 35 (2)) 8. License required (Arts. 3 (2), 9, 11, 20, 26) a) Foreign national (Art. 21) b) Exceptions (Arts. 27, 31-32, 34) 9. Marriage certificate (Art. 22) Exclude: Duties of a Civil Registrar under Arts. 12-19, 23-25 B. Effect of marriage celebrated abroad and foreign divorce (Art. 26) C. Void and voidable marriages 1. Void marriages (Arts. 5, 35, 36-38, 52-53) a) Absence of requisites (Art. 35) b) Psychological incapacity (Art. 36) c) Incestuous marriages (Arts. 37-38) 2. Prescription (Art. 39) 3. Subsequent marriage (Arts. 40-44) 4. Annullable marriage (Arts. 14, 45-46) 5. Voidable marriages (Art. 45-47) 6. Presence of prosecutor (Art. 48) 7. Pendency of action (Art. 49) 8. Effects of nullity (Arts. 50-54) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-10-SC, Rule on Declaration of Absolute Nullity of Void Marriages and Annulment of Voidable Marriages; R.A. 6955, entitled “An Act to 2
Declare Unlawful the Practice of Matching Filipino Women for Marriage to Foreign Nationals on a Mail Order Basis and Other Similar Practices…”; R.A. 9208 or the
Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 III. Legal Separation A. Grounds (Art. 55 and R.A. 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) B. Defenses (Arts. 56-57) C. Cooling-off period (Art. 58) D. Reconciliation efforts (Art. 59) E. Confession of judgment (Art. 60) F. Effects of filing petition (Art. 61) G. Effects of pendency (Art. 62) H. Effects of legal separation (Arts. 63-64) 1. Reconciliation (Arts. 65-67) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-11-SC or the Rule on Legal Separation IV. Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife A. Essential obligations (Art. 68) B. Family domicile (Art. 69) C. Support (Art. 70) D. Management of household (Art. 71) E. Effect of neglect of duty (Art. 72) F. Exercise of profession (Art. 73) Exclude: R.A. 7192 or the Women in Development and Nation Building Act; R.A. 8187, or the Paternity Leave Act of 1996; R.A. 9710 or The Magna Carta of Women. V. Property Relations of the Spouses 3
82-83.A. Void donations by the spouses (Art. Separation of property of the spouses and administration of common property by one spouse during the marriage (Arts. The Family A. Marriage settlements (Arts. Charges upon and obligations of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Absolute Community of Property 1. 105-108) 2. Property regime of unions without marriage (Arts. enjoyment and disposition of the community property (Arts. Administration of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. 143-146) H. 99-101) 6. 126-128) 7. 161 and 162 VII. Liquidation of the conjugal partnership assets and liabilities (Arts. 129-133) F. Conjugal partnership property (Arts. 109-115) 3. 172-174) 4
. 134-142) G. Paternity and Filiation A. 91-93) 3. Exclusive property of each spouse (Arts. General provisions (Arts. Proof of filiation (Arts. Dissolution of community regime (Arts. 87) D. 163-171) B. 147-148) VI. 50) C. The family as an institution (Arts. 43(3). 76-81) B. Legitimate children (Arts. 116-120) 4. Liquidation of the absolute community assets and liabilities (Arts. Donations by reason of marriage (Arts. Regime of separation of property (Arts. 86. Charges upon and obligations of the community property (Arts. 75-85. General provisions (Arts. What constitutes community property (Arts. The family home (Arts. 88-90) 2. Conjugal Partnership of Gains 1. administration. 149-151) B. 121123) 5. 94-95) 4. Ownership. 152-165) Exclude: Arts. 102-104) E. Dissolution of the regime of Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. 157. 124-125) 6. 96-98) 5.
Rescission of adoption Exclude: 1. 195-197. Amount (Arts. Who can be adopted 3. Rule on Adoption (A.” B. No. Who can adopt 2. 8043) 1. 177-182) Exclude: A. 189 and 190 on successional rights) 4. Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (R.M. 06-11-5-SC or the Rule on DNA Evidence VIII. Who can be adopted Exclude: Arts. 183-188.A. R. Adoption A.C. No. 8552) 1. Who are obliged (Arts. Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (R. 02-6-02-SC ) 2.A.M. Who can adopt 2. 191-193 of the Family Code IX. Attachment (Art. Arts. Support A. Rights of an adopted child (include Family Code. 206-208) C. 176 as amended by R. 204) G. When demandable (Art. Illegitimate children (Art. 199-200. 9523. 203) F. 9255 allowing illegitimate children to use the surname of their father) D. 205) 5
. 175 and Art. 194) B.A. Legitimated children (Arts. Support during marriage litigation (Art. 198) D.A. What it comprises (Art. Options (Art. 201-202) E. entitled “An Act Requiring Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to Declare a “Child Legally Available for Adoption” as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings….
Rules on Custody of Minors and Writ of Habeas Corpus in Relation to Custody of Minors (A. 369-380 (other articles repealed by Family Code) XVI. 305-310) Exclude: Care and Education of Children (Arts. 364-369. Parental Authority A. 41 Family Code) 6
. Absence (Civil Code. 220-224) Exclude: 1. 8980) D. 7610)
XI.A. 03-04-04-SC) 3. 356-363. 234 and 236. 03-02-05-SC) 2.A.M. Effects of parental authority upon the property of the children (Arts. Retroactivity of the Family Code (Art. 225-227) Exclude: R.A. Arts. General provisions (Arts. 228-233)
1. 209-215) B. Substitute and special parental authority (Arts. Solo Parents' Welfare Act of 2000 (R. No. Emancipation (Arts.A. 43. 8972) 4. Rule on Guardianship of Minors (A. Suspension or termination of parental authority (Arts. Summary Judicial Proceedings in Family Law Cases XIII. Art. 9231. No. as amended by R. Effect of parental authority upon the persons of the children (Arts. 256) Exclude: Arts.M.A. Civil Code) XV. 216-219) C. 254-255. 6809 which lowered the age of majority) XII. The Early Childhood Care and Development Act (R.X. Child Abuse Law (R. Use of Surnames Arts. 257 of the Family Code XIV. Art. Funerals (Civil Code. entitled “An Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child…” which will be covered under Labor Law E.
A. Rules of Court Exclude: Act No. planter.”) C. Right of accession (Art.A. 441-444) 2. Characteristics II. entitled “An Act Authorizing the City or Municipal Civil Registrar or the Consul General to Correct a Clerical or Typographical Error in an Entry and/or Change of First Name or Nickname in the Civil Register Without Need of a Judicial Order…. With respect to immovable property a) Builder. Declaration of absence (Arts. 1067 or the Water Code) 7
. 393-396 on contingent assets XVII. 387. Fruits (Arts. 440) 1. Provisional measures in case of absence (Arts. 384-386) C.A. 9048
PROPERTY I. 375 and the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R. planter. sower on land of another in the concept of owner (i) Builder. Presumption of death (Arts. 381-383) B. 461-462 and P.389) D. 9048. 448-456) (ii) Builder. 579) 3. Civil Registrar A. Arts. 415-418) A. planter. 449-450) b) Usufructuary (Art. Lands adjoining river banks a) Alluvion (Art. 438-439) B. Classification (Arts. sower in good faith (Arts. 457) b) Change of course of river (Arts. Correction of Clerical Errors (R. 407-413 B. Hidden treasure (Arts. sower in bad faith (Arts.D. 390-392) Exclude: Arts. Administration of the property of the absentee (Arts. Rule 108.
By nature 1. Personal or movable D. General limitations: taxation. eminent domain. By owner 1. Ownership A. Right in general 1. Of public dominion 2. Modes of acquiring ownership 1. Real or immovable 2. fruendi. Original 2. Bundle of rights a) Jus utendi. vindicandi. Specific limitations: those imposed by law (sic utere tuo. not weakness of defendant’s claim 2. abutendi. disponendi (possidendi) (i) Actions to recover ownership and possession of real property (a) Distinctions between accion reivindicatoria. Fungible/non-fungible III. 464-465) C. police power 2. Limitations 1. 459-463) 4. nuisance. Of private ownership a) Patrimonial property (i) Distinction between private property of individual persons and of state entities E. Derivative C. easements voluntarily imposed by owner (servitudes.c) Avulsion (Arts. accion publiciana. mortgages imposed by contract)
. state of necessity). Consumable/non-consumable vs. By object 1. Distinction between real and personal rights B. accion interdictal (b) Distinction between forcible entry and unlawful detainer (ii) Actions for recovery of possession of movable property (iii) Requisites for recovery of property (a) Proof of right (b) Identity (c) Reliance on strength of own evidence. Islands (Arts.
Source of co-ownership 9
. declaration of restrictions. rivers. Characteristics of co-ownership 1. avulsion. articles and by-laws of the condominium corporation or the association. specification) b) Rules for determining the principal and accessory V. industrial. General rules 1.IV. Accession A. Co-ownership A. 476-481) A. or dissolution of the condominium B. In general 2. amendment (iv) Documents to consider (master deed. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree and R. Realty Installment Buyer Act c) Grounds for partition of common areas. Prescription/non-prescription of action VI. For movables: a) Accession continua (conjunction. For immovables: a) Accession discreta (natural. where applicable) b) Rights and obligations of condominium owners (i) Contributions/dues (ii) P. Quieting of Title to or Interest in and Removal or Prevention of Cloud over Title to or Interest in Real Property (Arts. commixtion/ confusion. Right to hidden treasure B. Special rules a) Concept of condominium (i) Condominium corporation (ii) Interest in real property (iii) Concept of common areas. sowing in good faith or bad faith) c) Accession natural (accretion.D.A. islands) 2. Requirement B. planting. civil fruits) and continua (over immovables: artificial/industrial and natural) b) Accession industrial (building. Distinction between quieting of title and removing/preventing a cloud C. 6552. 957. adjunction.
Right to redemption of co-owners share D. Finder of lost movable (Arts. 1506) E. 552) D. Partition in case co-owners cannot agree VII. Possessor in good faith (Arts. 1134. Characteristics B. Termination/extinguishment 1. 1132. Rights of co-owners 1. Right to contributions for expenses (necessary expenses. 449. 559. 544.C. Waiver 6. Usufruct A. 531) C. Loss/termination VIII. Period to recover (Arts. Rights against individual co-owners in case of partition 3. Possessor in bad faith (Arts. 546-547) (ii) Expenses for pure luxury (Art. Effects of possession 1. 1133) 2. 1505(3)) 1. Right to oppose acts of alteration 3. Possession A. Effect of partition 2. Distinction between right to property owned in common and full ownership over his/her ideal share 2. 719-720) 3. 548) 2. Rights of the possessor G. Classification 10
. In concept of owner. 549. 545) b) Right to be reimbursed (i) Necessary and useful expenses (Arts. Right to partition 4. Loss or unlawful deprivation of a movable (Arts. holder. taxes) 5. Characteristics B. How acquired (Art. 526-527) a) Right to pending fruits (Art. Distinguished from voidable title (Art. in name of another F. 1140. in one’s own name.
Characteristics a) Extent to which donor may donate property b) Reservations and reversions 11
. Characteristics B. 613. Classification 1. 615-616) A. Easements (Arts. Nuisance (Arts. 688) a) Effect of zoning ordinance C. Definition B. Definition (Arts. How terminated
X. 620-624) 2. Rights and obligations of dominant and subservient estate E. 694-707) A. Modes of acquiring easements 1. Legal easements a) Right of way 2. Easement of light and view (Arts. Occupation (Art. Voluntary easements (Art. Donation 1. 713) B. 669-673) D. Classification C.C. 712) A. Compulsory easements (Arts. Rights and obligations of usufructuary D. Extinction/termination IX. 725-726. Rights of the owner E. 746) 2. Modes of Acquiring Ownership (Art. Remedies
Effects a) b) c) d) e) of donation/limitations In general Double donations Excessive/inofficious Scope of amount (Arts. donee 6. 1129-1130) 12
. modal. Arts. 733) Simple. grounds for reduction b) How done c) Effects c) Prescription e) Inofficious donations (Arts. 1106) A. 1027) 8. 760-761. 728) Onerous donation (Art. 749) 5. Revocation or reduction a) Grounds for revocation. Characteristics 2. Ordinary a) Good faith (Art. 739-740. 769) Exclude: Intellectual creations PRESCRIPTION I. 1117) 1. 771-773) f) Ingratitude (Arts. personal properties (i) Movables (Art. 765. 82-83. Kinds a) b) c) d) e)
Donation inter vivos (Art. Void donations (Arts. Qualifications of donor.3. 748) (ii) Immovables (Art. 729) Donation by reason of marriage (Family Code. Acquisitive (Art. 86) Donation mortis causa (Art. 750-752) In fraud of creditors (Art. Formalities required a) How made and accepted b) Perfection c) Differences between formalities for donation of real. 759)
7. 1127) b) Just title (Arts. conditional
4. Definition (Art.
4. 1529) C. Prescription or limitation of actions A. 1118-1125) Period (Arts. Action to quiet title if plaintiff is in possession E. second par. Registered lands (P. 1140) B. 1132. Other actions (Arts. To recover movables (Art. Action to demand partition (Art. No Prescription Applicable A. Interruption (Art. 1134. Distinguished from laches G. 1137 and 1132. To abate a nuisance D. 1133) B. Art. Property of public dominion III. Action legal to demand a right of way (Art. 649) 2.
Extraordinary (Arts. 494) 1.D. Void contracts (Art. Characteristics 2. By offender (Art. 6. Definition 13
.3. Periods II. 1138) What cannot be required by acquisitive prescription
B. 1142-1149) IV. Requisites 3. Extinctive 1. To recover immovables (Art. 1155)
OBLIGATIONS I. 5. 1141) C.) Requisites (Arts. 1410) F. 1143. Civil Code 1.
1171) 4. A determinate or specific thing 2. 1169) a) Mora solvendi b) Mora accipiendi c) Compesatio morae 3. Nature and Effect of Obligations A. Classification of Obligations V. Extra-contractual obligations VI. Fraud in the performance of obligation a) Waiver of future fraud is void (Art.II. Different Kinds of Prestations IV. delay or mora – no default unless creditors makes a demand. Breaches of obligations 1. Default. Remedies available to creditor in cases of breach 1. Negligence (culpa) in the performance of obligation a) Diligence normally required is ordinary diligence or diligence of a good father of a family b) Exception: common carriers which are required to exercise extraordinary diligence 5. Sources of obligations (Arts. requisites D. Legal excuse for breach of obligation: fortuitous event. Complete failure to perform 2. Specific performance 14
. Obligation to give 1. A single act or omission can give rise to different causes of action B. Elements of an Obligation III. Obligation to do or not to do C. An indeterminate or generic thing B. Contravention of the tenor of obligation 6. 1156-1157) A. Natural obligations C. exceptions (Art.
loss or deterioration of the specific thing (Art. Rescission (resolution in reciprocal obligations) 3. 1893) VII. Effect of loss of specific things or impossibility of performance of alternative. 1729. Kinds of Civil Obligations A. Effect of the happening of suspensive condition or resolutory condition (Art. 1189) 6. Obligation with a period or a term (Art. Effect if suspensive period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor 3. 1199) 1. Alternative or facultative (Art. Presumption that period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor (Art. Definite or indefinite period a) Instances when courts may fix the period (Art. Effect when a resolutory condition in obligation to do or not to do happens and there is improvement. 3) C. 1193) 1. Difference between alternative and facultative obligations 2. 1181) 1. 1187) a) Extent of retroactivity 5. 1197) b) Creditor must ask court to set the period before he can demand payment D. 1198) 2. Suspensive condition 2. 1190. Effect if given to debtor alone a) Instances when debtor losses benefit of period (Art. Potestative: casual or mixed a) Obligations subject to potestative suspensive conditions are void (Art. Resolutory condition 3. loss or deterioration of specific thing before the happening of a suspensive condition in obligation to do or not to do (Art. Damages. Subsidiary remedies of creditors (Art. par. unless a purely personal act 2.a) Substituted performance by a third person on obligation to deliver generic thing and in obligation to do. through fault of debtor/creditor or through fortuitous events
. 1196) 2. 1652. Effect of improvement. 1179-1180) B. Conditional (Art. Resolutory period 3. 1177) a) Accion subrogatoria a) Accion pauliana c) Accion directa (Arts. 1182) 4. in any event 4. 1608. Pure (Arts.
although he may pay if he wants to (Art. Each one of solidary creditors may do whatever may be useful to the others. 1252-1254) 5. therefore a joint debtor cannot be required to pay for the share of another with debtor. 1272. 1214. 1215) 2. unless otherwise indicated by the law or nature of obligation (Art. 1222) 3.VIII. Tender of payment and consignation (Arts. Payment (Arts. Loss of determinate thing due or impossibility or difficulty of performance (Arts. Divisible and indivisible (Art. Joint (divisible) obligation 1. 1226. Obligation cannot be performed in parts but debtors are bound jointly 2. Implied (Arts. others not liable for his share (Art. In case of failure of one joint debtor to perform his part (share). 1236-1238) 1. 1271. Express condonations and required formality thereof (Art. 1270) 2. 1212). Condonation or remission of debt (Art. 1256-1261) B. Solidary obligation 1. 1274) 16
. 1250) 4. 1245) 2. 1266-1267) C. Obligations with a penal clause (Arts. Application of payment (Art. 1217. 1207) b) Obligation presumed to be divided into as many equal shares as there are creditors or debtors c) Each credit is distinct from one another. Extinguishment of Obligations A. Extraordinary inflation or deflation (Art. 1228-1230) IX. Mutual agency among solidary debtors (Arts. 1209) d) Insolvency of a joint debtor. 1270) 1. 1262. Mutual guaranty among solidary debtors (Arts. there is default but only the guilty debtor shall be liable for damages C. confusion or remission of debt executed by a solidary creditor D. a) Effect of any novation. but not anything prejudicial to them (Art. 1209) B. Concurrence of two or more creditors and or two or more debtors a) Joint obligation is presumed. 1216. 1249) 3. compensation. 1225) E. Form of payment (Art. Dation in payment (Art. Joint and Solidary Obligation A. Joint indivisible obligation 1.
Obligations not compensable (Art. Stipulation to charge interest (Art. 1191 B. 1282) c) Voluntary (Art. Formal or solemn 1. 1328-1344. 1358) IV. 1381) 1. 1744) 7. Chattel mortgage 8. 1286-1290) b) Agreement (Art. 748-749) 2. Sale of large cattle III. Antichresis (Art. Stipulation limiting common carrier’s duty of extraordinary diligence to ordinary diligence (Art. 1282) d) Judicial (Art. Partnership where real property contributed (Arts. 1272) E. 1390-1402) 17
. 1279) a) Legal compensation (Arts. 1956) 6. 1357. Kinds (Arts. 1261) II. 1771. Agency to sell real property or an interest therein (Art. Compensation 1. 1275. 1283) e) Facultative 2. Confusion or Merger of Rights (Arts. Essential Requisites (Art. Formality (Arts. Defective Contracts A.D. 1356. 1287-1288) F. Kinds of Contracts A. 1291-1304)
CONTRACTS I. Novation (Arts. Rescissible contracts (Art. 1773) 3. 1874) 5. Difference with rescission (resolution) under Art. Donations (Arts. 2134) 4. Voidable contracts (Arts. Real C. Consensual B. 1278.
2130) 3. Definition of sales (Arts.C. Stages of contract of sale D. 1409. Characteristics of a contract of sale F. 1470) B. Pactum commissorium (Arts. Special disqualifications (Arts. 1165) E. 1403-1408. 1799) V. 1505) C. Absolute incapacity (Arts. 1459-1465) 18
. Pactum de non alienando (Art. Void contracts (Arts. 1489-1492) B. Introduction A. Essential requisites of a contract of sale (Art. Capacity of parties (Arts. 2088. Effect of contracts (Art. 2130. 1458. 1327. 1311) SALES I. 1491-1492) III. Pactum leonina (Art. Relative incapacity: married persons D. Subject Matter A. Sale distinguished from other contracts H. 1346) 1. 1399) C. 1390) 2. Unenforceable contracts (Arts. Parties to a Contract of Sale A. Contract of sale/contract to sell II. 1317) D. Requisites of a valid subject matter (Arts. Sale is title and not mode G. Obligations created (Art. 1397.
1506. 1403 (d) (e) VII. Sale by a person not the owner at time of delivery (Arts.B. 1319. Mutual promise to buy and sell (Art. Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership A. 1462. Transfer of Ownership A. 1470) E. Art. 1496-1501) B. 1324) 3. Manner of payment must be agreed upon G. 1477. Inadequacy of price (Arts. 1475.1482) VI. Formalities of the contract. Price A. Earnest money vs. 1479) 1. 1475) 2. 1479) B. Manner of transfer (Arts. Option contract (Arts. 1505. Exceptions B. 1355. How price is determined D. Perfection (Arts. 1469-1474) B. 1326) C. Right of first refusal 4. 1325. Option money (Art. 1479. Offer (Art. Requisites for a valid price C. Formation of Contract of Sale A. Particular kinds IV. Sale by a person having a voidable title (Arts. Meaning of price (Arts. When delivery does not transfer title 19
. Preparatory (Art. 1474) F. When no price agreed (Art. 559) V. 1459) 1.
Requisites for registration of deed of sale in good faith 2. and documentary tax registration fees VIII. Negotiable documents of title D. When loss occurred after perfection but before delivery E. Risk of Loss A. Accompanied by vendor’s duplicate certificate of title. Purpose of documents of title C. 1493 and 1494) D. Warranties of seller of documents of title (Art. Kinds of delivery D. payment of capital gains tax. When loss occurred before perfection C.C. Documents of Title A. 1519. Remedies of unpaid seller XI. 1516) F. Performance of Contract 20
. Property Registration Decree 1. 1504) IX. When loss occurred at time of perfection (Arts. 1525) B. Double sales (Art. 1263. When ownership is transferred (Art. Definition (Art. 1189) B. 1544) E. Rules on levy/garnishment of goods (Arts. Remedies of an Unpaid Seller A. 1520) X. 1514. 1636) B. Definition of unpaid seller (Art. Non-negotiable documents of title E. General rule (Arts.
1636. Distinguished from option to buy (Art. Sale of movables B. 1599) XIII. 1600. 1231) B. Warranties A. 957. 1480) 2. Delivery of thing sold 1. Breach of Contract A. P. Causes (Arts. 1602) E. Implied warranties (Art. Sale of immovables 1. 1522. 1547) C. Remedies of the buyer 1. 1594) 1. Sale of movables (Arts. Buyer’s options in case of breach of warranty (Art. Sale of immovables XIV.A. Express warranties B. Sale of movable 2. 24 2. Effects of waivers E. Effects of warranties D. Extinguishment of the Sale A.D. Payment of price XII. Sale of immovables on installment (Maceda Law) D. Recto Law: sale of movables on installment (Arts. Conventional redemption (Art. 1602-1604) D. 1484-1486) C. Secs. Inspections and acceptance B. Equitable mortgage (Arts. 1606) 21
. 1543) 3. Sale of immovables (Arts. 1601) C. 1537. Remedies of the seller (Arts. 1539. Period of redemption (Art. 23.
Age redemption (Art. When succession occurs (Art. 4726) Exclude: Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (R. 776. The Condominium Act (R. devisees. General Provisions (Arts. Legal redemption (Art. 8792). 796-803) a) Age requirement (Art.A. Retail Trade Liberalization Act. Wills 1. Testamentary capacity and intent (Arts. Exercise of the right to redeem (Art. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree (P. Testamentary Succession A. 797) b) Soundness of mind (Arts. 957) XVI. 3952) and
SUCCESSION I. 795) 2. 784-785. 788-794) (iii) Law governing formal validity (Art. 1616) G. 1619) XV. Kinds of successors: heirs. Public Land Law. 777) C. 1619) H. Bulk Sales Law (Act No. In general a) Definition and characteristics (Arts. 774-780) A. legatees (Art. 787) (a) Exception (Art. 786) (ii) Rules of construction and interpretation (Arts. Definition/what is transmitted (Arts. 781) B.A. 783-787) (i) Act of making a will a strictly personal act (Arts. 774. 782) II. 798-801) (i) When testator is deemed to be of sound mind (ii) Presumptions (iii) Supervening incapacity 22
804) (i) In writing (ii) Language/dialect requirement c) Notarial wills (i) Arts. 830) 7. Compulsory heirs in the direct line 4. Preterition vs. Form a) Rules governing the formal validity of wills (Arts. 838) (i) Issues to be resolved in probate proceedings (Art. res judicata on formal validity b) Grounds for denying probate (Art. 828-834) a) Kinds (Art. 827) 6. 811) e) Joint wills (Arts. 818-819) 4. 1039) b) Common requirements (Art. 854 3. 838-839) a) Probate requirement (Art. 820-824) d) Holographic wills (i) Requirements (Arts.3. devisees only entitled to completion of legitime 2. Incorporate by reference (Art. Concept – Art. Institution of heirs (Arts. 815-817. Disposition less than legitime/donation inter vivos – Arts. 839) (a) Exceptions: when practical considerations demand the intrinsic validity of the will be resolved (ii) Effect of final decree of probate. 854) a) Definition b) Requisites c) Effects (i) Effects of preterition. 906-918
. 825-826) a) Definition and formal requirements 5. 807-808) (iii) Substantial compliance (Art. 840-856) 1. 17. 810-814) (a) Requirements in case of alterations (Art. 814) (ii) Witnesses required for probate (Art. Codicils (Arts. 855.15. 16. 805-806 (ii) Special rules for handicapped testators (Arts. Allowance and disallowance of wills (Arts. Preterition (Art. Revocation (Arts. 809) (iv) Witnesses to wills(Arts. 819) (i) See law governing substantive validity (Arts. 839) B.
919) (i) Reconciliation (Art.C. 1015-1105) A. Legal or Intestate Succession (Arts. 857-870) 1. Fideicommissary substitution (Arts. 1104-1105) 24
. 739. Reserva troncal (Art. 863-866. 1078-1105) 1. 1015-1016) B. Persons incapable of succeeding (Arts. 1032) 2. Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession (Arts. 1024-1040) 1. Kinds (Arts. Definition (Art. 887-903) 3. Definition and requisites (Arts. Right of accretion (Arts. Relationship (Arts. Unworthiness vs. 859) 4.1041-1057) D. 960-1014) A. 963-969) 2. 1100. Legitime (Arts. 960-969) 1. 869) D. 978-1014. Definition (Art. Compulsory heirs and various combinations (Arts. 908-910. 891) 4. 1091. Partition (Arts. 918) 5. 1015-1023) 1. Substitution of heirs (Arts. 886) 2. Partition inter vivos 3. 970-977) B. Acceptance and repudiation of the inheritance (Arts. 858-860) 3. Partition and distribution of estate (Arts. 1080) 2. Simple substitution (Art. Disinheritance a) Disinheritance for cause (Art. 1079. 857) 2. Effects of partition (Arts. 923) b) Disinheritance without cause (Art. Right of representation (Arts. Disinheritance C. Legacies and devisees (Arts. 924-959) III. Capacity to succeed by will or intestacy (Arts. 1027. 922) (ii) Rights of descendants of person disinherited (Art. 1061-1062) E. Collation (Arts. Order of intestate succession (Arts. 1097. 871-885) E. 992) IV. 886-914) 1. General provisions (Arts. Conditional testamentary dispositions and testamentary dispositions with a term (Arts.
Professional partnership J. 1830) VI. Rights and Obligations of Partnership III. Definition 25
. General vs. Dissolution (Art. Contract of Partnership A. Partnership by estoppel H. Partnership v. Universal vs. Partnership term F. Particular. 1058-1060). Limited G. Joint venture I.Exclude: Executors and administrators (Arts. Management (Arts. Limited Partnership A. 1800-1803) II. How partnership is formed E. Rules to determine existence D. which will be covered under Remedial Law
PARTNERSHIP I. Definition B. Elements C. Obligations of Partnership/Partners to Third Persons V. Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves IV.
Agency Couched in General Terms VII.B. Powers (Arts. Special Agency VI. Exception (Art. 1897-1902) B. Irrevocable Agency (Arts. To bind principal (Arts. Rights and Obligations of Principal X. Definition of Agency II. General vs. How limited partnership is formed/amended C. Implied Agency IV. Agency by Estoppel V. Rights and obligations of a limited partner Exclude: Questions requiring application of SEC opinions or regulations
AGENCY I. 1927-1930) XI. Express vs. 1883) III. 1877-1878) A. Modes of Extinguishment 26
. Agency by Operation of Law IX. Agency Requiring Special Power of Attorney VIII.
CREDIT TRANSACTIONS I. Void Compromise (Art. Guaranty and Suretyship A. Nature and extent of guaranty B.COMPROMISE I. Necessary deposit C. Legal and judicial bonds IV. Deposit A. Commodatum vs. Judicial deposit III. 2028) II. Effects of guaranty C. 2037. 2035) III. Effect (Arts. Definition (Art. Obligations of bailor and bailee C. Extinguishment of guaranty D. Pledge 27
. Voluntary deposit B. Loan A. Mutuum B. Interest and the suspension of usury law II.
2093. Real Mortgage A. Definition B. Registration VIII. Definition and characteristics B. 2121-2122) I. Negotiorum gestio B. Obligations of antichretic creditor VII. Definition and characteristics B. Foreclosure VI. 1484) V. Obligation of pledge E. Kinds C. Rights of pledgor F. Distinguished from chattel mortgage (Arts. 2115) H. 2140. Definition and characteristics B.A. Essential requirements D. Pledge by operation of law (Art. Perfection (Arts. Solutio indebiti 28
. Chattel Mortgage A. Antichresis A. Essential requisites C. 2112. Foreclosure (Arts. 2096) G. Quasi-contracts A.
. Order of preference of credits X. Exempt property D. Lease of Work or Services III. Preferred credits on specific movables C. Qualified persons B. Lease of Rural and Urban Lands A. Definition of insolvency B. Insolvency Law A. Lease of Things II. Classification of credits E. Involuntary insolvency Exclude: Warehouse Receipts Law. Meaning of concurrence and preference B.IX. Usury Law
LEASE I. Concurrence and Preference of Credits A. Registration C. Voluntary insolvency D. Suspension of payments C.
Contract of Labor A. Citizenship Requirement A.D. Under P. time immemorial possession III. Original Registration A. Individuals and corporations IV. Torrens System A. Who may apply 1. Certificate of title II. Obligation in case of death/injury of laborers VIII. Regalian Doctrine A. Concept of native title.IV. Concept and background B. Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee V. Concept B. 1529 30
. Special Rules for Lease of Rural/Urban Lands VI. Household Service VII. Effects C. Contract for Piece of Work
LAND TITLES AND DEEDS I.
Dealings with Unregistered Lands Exclude: 1. Assurance fund 5. Voluntary dealings B. Administrative structure of the Register of Deeds 7. Subsequent Registration A. elements B. 8371 B. Remedies D. Under C. Liability without fault D. orders and partitions 4. Acts contrary to law 31
. Remedies sufficiently covered under Remedial Law 3. Under R.A. Registration process and requirements C. Non-registrable Properties VII.
TORTS AND DAMAGES Book I--Torts I. Unjust enrichment C. Cadastral registration V. Principles A. History of land laws 2. Involuntary dealings VI.A. Consultas. 141 3. Registration of patents 6.2. Abuse of right. Registration of judgments.
Persons made responsible for others 1. Natural persons 2. 2194. and the Family Code. In general a) Quasi-delicts under Art. Civil Code) 32
. Arts.E. joint or solidary? 2. Juridical persons B. definition (ii) Distinguished from culpa contractual and culpa criminal b) Indirect liability for intentional acts c) Presumption of negligence on persons indirectly responsible d) Nature of liability. According to scope: general or specific III. 2180. negligent and strict liability B. Acts contrary to morals II. 221 (i) Elements. In particular a) Parents b) Guardians c) Owners and managers of establishments and enterprises d) Employers (i) Meaning of employers (ii) Requisites (a) Employee chosen by employer or through another (b) Services rendered in accordance with orders which employer has authority to give (c) Illicit act of employee was on the occasion or by reason of the functions entrusted to him (d) Presumption of negligence (iii) Employer need not be engaged in business or industry (iv) Defense of diligence in selection and supervision (v) Nature of employer’s liability e) State f) Teachers and heads of establishments of arts and trades C. According to manner of commission: intentional. Joint tortfeasors (Art. The Tortfeasor A. Classification of Torts A. 218-219. The direct tortfeasor 1.
Concurrent causes C. Distinguished from immediate cause 4. Concept B. Violation of right or legal injury D. Intentional Torts 33
. Proximate Cause A. Substantial factor test 2. Legal cause 1. Injury to persons 2. Classes of injury 1. Last clear chance VI. Concept 1. Natural and probable consequences 2. Cause in fact 1. Cause vs. Distinguished from remote and concurrent B. Injury to property 3. Elements of right C. Concept of act V. Act of Omission and Its Modalities A. Efficient intervening cause E. Distinguished from intervening cause 5. Legal Injury A.IV. Condition F. Injury to relations VII. Definition 2. Foreseeability D. Test 3.
Concept 2. 33. Classes a) Interference with persons and property (i) Physical harms (ii) Non-physical harms b) Interference with relations B. Interference with rights to persons and property 1. Civil Code) (i) Battery (physical injury) (ii) Assault (grave threat) c) False imprisonment (illegal detention) d) Trespass to land (i) Concept (ii) Elements e) Interference with personal property (i) Trespass to chattels (ii) Conversion 2. Intentional non-physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of personal dignity c) Infliction of emotional distress d) Violation of privacy (i) Appropriation (ii) Intrusion (iii) Public disclosure of private facts (iv) False light in the public eye e) Disturbance of peace of mind f) Malicious prosecution g) Defamation (i) Defenses (a) Absence of elements (b) Privilege h) Fraud or misrepresentation (formerly deceit) i) Seduction j) Unjust dismissal C. Interference with relations 1.A. physical injuries (Art. General 34
. Intentional physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of persons security. General 1.
Art. Negligence A. Standard of care 1. Political relations a) Violation of right to suffrage (Civil Code. Emergency rule D. Family a) b) c) relations Alienation of affection Loss of consortium Criminal conversation (adultery)
3. Unreasonable risk of harm E. Concept B. Defenses a) Absence of element b) Privilege (i) Consent (ii) Self-defense and defense of others (iii) Necessity (Civil Code. Art. press. 32) b) Violation of other political rights (freedom of speech. Evidence 35
. Social relations a) Meddling with or disturbing family relations b) Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from his friends 4. 429) (iv) Defense of property (v) Authority of law c) Prescription d) Waiver e) Force majeure VIII. etc. Good father of a family or reasonably prudent man C. Economic relations a) Interference with contractual relations b) Unfair competition 5.a) Concept b) Kinds 2. 1173 2. Art. Civil Code.) 6. assembly and petition.
Products liability 1.F. Secs. Nuisance (Civil Code. Nuisance per se and nuisance per accidence 2.A. Public nuisance and private nuisance 3. Arts. Arts. Special Liability in Particular Activities A. Concept B. 2177) IX. Legal provisions 2. 7394. General 1. Complete a) Absence of element (i) Due diligence (ii) Acts of public officers b) Accident or fortuitous event c) Damnum absque injuria d) Authority of law e) Assumption of risk f) Last clear chance g) Prescription (Civil Code. Proprietor of building or structure or thing I. Owner of motor vehicle H. Violation of constitutional rights 1. cities and municipalities G. 694-707) 1. 92-107. and 1150) h) Waiver i) Double recovery (Civil Code. Res ipsa loquitur G. Violation of rights committed by public officers F. Art. 1146. Violation of civil liberties E. Provinces. Defenses 1. Manufacturers or processors a) Elements b) Consumer Act [R. Attractive nuisance D. Head of family 36
. 1)] C. Presumption of negligence 1. (Ch. 1144.
Classification 1. 2197 of the Civil Code 2. Concept B. Nuisance (supra) 1. Interest D. Requisites 1. Component elements 1. Under Art. Not speculative C. Classes a) Per se or per accidents b) Public or private 2. Extent or scope of actual damages 1. According to purpose 3. Strict Liability A. General Considerations A. Consumer act Book II--Damages I. Actual and Compensatory Damages A. Moral Damages 37
. Value of loss. According to manner of determination 4. unrealized profit 2. Easement against nuisance C. Products liability (supra) 1.X. Possessor and user of an animal B. Attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation 3. In contracts and quasi-contracts 2. Alleged and proved with certainty 2. Special and ordinary II. Animals 1. In crimes and quasi-delicts III.
Liquidated Damages A. In quasi-delicts (Civil Code. In seduction. When recovered 1. Art. 2230) 2. 27. Concept B. When awarded V. Requisites 1. Art. When awarded VI. In criminal offenses (Civil Code. Arts. 2219-2220) 1.A. 29. Civil Code. Damages in Case of Death A. In acts referred to in Arts. When recoverable (Arts. Art. 3. Concept (Civil Code. In contracts and quasi-contracts (Civil Code. Temperate or Moderate Damages A. Rules governing in case of breach of contract VII. 2234 VIII. Art. Exemplary or Corrective Damages A. 34 & 35. Concept (Arts. Concept (Civil Code. 2217-2218) B. In cases of malicious prosecution IV. 32. 26. 28. 2233. In death caused by breach of conduct by a common crime IX. In crimes and quasi-delicts causing death 1. 2232) C. 2226) B. 2231) 3. 21. Graduation of Damages 38
. Nominal Damages A. Art. rape and other lascivious acts 2. 2229) B. Concept B. abduction.
Duty of injured party 1. Art. Actual and liquidated (Art. 2223) Exclude: Distinction between tort and quasi-delict Include: Pertinent Supreme Court decisions promulgated up to January 31. doctrines. 3. 2012. Nominal damages (Art. 2226) B. More is required for excellent and distinguished work as members of the Bar. In crimes In quasi-delict (Civil Code. Damages that must co-exist 1. 2203 B. 2215) Liquidated damages (Civil Code.
. Nominal with other damages (Art. 2214) In contracts.A. 4. Exemplary with moral. Art. 2223) 2. quasi-contracts and quasi-delicts (Civil Code. Miscellaneous Rules A. temperate. 2227) Compromise
X. 5. Important note: This bar coverage description is not intended and should not be used by law schools as a syllabus or course outline in the covered subjects. 2. liquidated or compensatory C. It has been drawn up for the limited purpose of ensuring that candidates reviewing for the bar examinations are guided on what basic and minimum amounts of laws. Damages that cannot co-exist 1. Damages that must stand alone 1. Rules 1. Art. Art. and principles they need to know and be able to use correctly before they can be licensed to practice law.