SYLLABUS FOR THE 2012 BAR EXAMINATIONS

CIVIL LAW

I. Effect and Application of Laws A. When law takes effect (Civil Code, Art. 2) B. Ignorance of the law (Civil Code, Art. 3) C. Retroactivity of laws (Civil Code, Art. 4) D. Mandatory or prohibitory laws (Civil Code, Art. 5) E. Waiver of rights (Civil Code, Art. 6) F. Repeal of laws (Civil Code, Art. 7) G. Judicial decisions (Civil Code, Art. 8) H. Duty to render judgment (Civil Code, Art. 9) I. Presumption and applicability of custom (Civil Code, Arts. 10-12) J. Legal periods (Civil Code, Art. 13, as amended by Book I, Sec. 31 of the Administrative Code of 1987 (EO 292)) K. Applicability of penal laws (Civil Code, Art. 14) L. Conflict of laws (Civil Code, Arts. 15-18) II. Human Relations (Civil Code, Arts. 19-22) Exclude: Independent Civil Actions and prejudicial questions which will be covered by the examinations in Remedial Law PERSONS I. Persons and Personality (Civil Code) A. Capacity to act 1. Civil personality (Art. 37) 2. Restrictions on capacity to act (Arts. 38-39) 3. Birth (Arts. 40-41) 1   

4. Death (Arts. 42-43) a) Compare Art. 43 with Rule 131, Sec. 3 (jj) presumption of survivorship 5. Juridical Persons, Civil Code, Arts. 44-46 B. Domicile and residence (Arts. 50-51) II. Marriage (Family Code) Exclude: Muslim Code (P.D. 1083) A. Nature of marriage B. Requisites 1. Kinds of requisites (Family Code, Arts. 2-3) 3. Effect of absence of requisites (Art. 4) 4. Essential requisites (Art. 5) a) Age b) Consent 5. Formal (Arts. 7, 31, 32) 6. Ceremony (Art. 6) 7. Solemnizing authority (Art. 7-8, 10) a) Exceptions (Art. 35 (2)) 8. License required (Arts. 3 (2), 9, 11, 20, 26) a) Foreign national (Art. 21) b) Exceptions (Arts. 27, 31-32, 34) 9. Marriage certificate (Art. 22) Exclude: Duties of a Civil Registrar under Arts. 12-19, 23-25 B. Effect of marriage celebrated abroad and foreign divorce (Art. 26) C. Void and voidable marriages 1. Void marriages (Arts. 5, 35, 36-38, 52-53) a) Absence of requisites (Art. 35) b) Psychological incapacity (Art. 36) c) Incestuous marriages (Arts. 37-38) 2. Prescription (Art. 39) 3. Subsequent marriage (Arts. 40-44) 4. Annullable marriage (Arts. 14, 45-46) 5. Voidable marriages (Art. 45-47) 6. Presence of prosecutor (Art. 48) 7. Pendency of action (Art. 49) 8. Effects of nullity (Arts. 50-54) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-10-SC, Rule on Declaration of Absolute Nullity of Void Marriages and Annulment of Voidable Marriages; R.A. 6955, entitled “An Act to 2   

Declare Unlawful the Practice of Matching Filipino Women for Marriage to Foreign Nationals on a Mail Order Basis and Other Similar Practices…”; R.A. 9208 or the
Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 III. Legal Separation A. Grounds (Art. 55 and R.A. 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) B. Defenses (Arts. 56-57) C. Cooling-off period (Art. 58) D. Reconciliation efforts (Art. 59) E. Confession of judgment (Art. 60) F. Effects of filing petition (Art. 61) G. Effects of pendency (Art. 62) H. Effects of legal separation (Arts. 63-64) 1. Reconciliation (Arts. 65-67) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-11-SC or the Rule on Legal Separation IV. Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife A. Essential obligations (Art. 68) B. Family domicile (Art. 69) C. Support (Art. 70) D. Management of household (Art. 71) E. Effect of neglect of duty (Art. 72) F. Exercise of profession (Art. 73) Exclude: R.A. 7192 or the Women in Development and Nation Building Act; R.A. 8187, or the Paternity Leave Act of 1996; R.A. 9710 or The Magna Carta of Women. V. Property Relations of the Spouses 3   

50) C. The Family A. 147-148) VI. 94-95) 4. 105-108) 2. 43(3). The family home (Arts. 87) D. Charges upon and obligations of the community property (Arts. 76-81) B. Liquidation of the conjugal partnership assets and liabilities (Arts. 161 and 162 VII. Property regime of unions without marriage (Arts. 126-128) 7. Administration of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. 149-151) B. 88-90) 2. Liquidation of the absolute community assets and liabilities (Arts. General provisions (Arts. enjoyment and disposition of the community property (Arts. Conjugal Partnership of Gains 1. The family as an institution (Arts. Absolute Community of Property 1. 134-142) G. 129-133) F. 86. 143-146) H. Exclusive property of each spouse (Arts. Separation of property of the spouses and administration of common property by one spouse during the marriage (Arts. 172-174) 4    . Marriage settlements (Arts. Void donations by the spouses (Art. Charges upon and obligations of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Dissolution of the regime of Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Ownership. Donations by reason of marriage (Arts. 96-98) 5. 99-101) 6. General provisions (Arts. Conjugal partnership property (Arts. 75-85. 109-115) 3. 121123) 5. 102-104) E. 82-83. What constitutes community property (Arts. Paternity and Filiation A. Dissolution of community regime (Arts. 124-125) 6. 116-120) 4. 157. 163-171) B. Regime of separation of property (Arts. 91-93) 3. 152-165) Exclude: Arts. Proof of filiation (Arts. administration. Legitimate children (Arts.A.

206-208) C. 9523. entitled “An Act Requiring Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to Declare a “Child Legally Available for Adoption” as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings…. Rescission of adoption Exclude: 1. Rule on Adoption (A. 204) G. 183-188.M. 175 and Art. Who can be adopted 3. No.M.A. 198) D.A. When demandable (Art.C. 199-200. Legitimated children (Arts. Who can adopt 2. Adoption A.” B. Who can be adopted Exclude: Arts.A. 195-197. 203) F. 177-182) Exclude: A. 02-6-02-SC ) 2. R. 194) B. 8043) 1. 176 as amended by R. Rights of an adopted child (include Family Code. Arts.A. What it comprises (Art. Attachment (Art. Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (R. 205) 5    . No. 9255 allowing illegitimate children to use the surname of their father) D. 8552) 1. Who can adopt 2. 191-193 of the Family Code IX. Amount (Arts. Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (R. Who are obliged (Arts. 201-202) E. Support A. Support during marriage litigation (Art. Illegitimate children (Art. Options (Art. 06-11-5-SC or the Rule on DNA Evidence VIII. 189 and 190 on successional rights) 4.

A.M.A. Child Abuse Law (R. 256) Exclude: Arts. 6809 which lowered the age of majority) XII. 9231. Suspension or termination of parental authority (Arts. Rule on Guardianship of Minors (A. 7610)  XI. 305-310) Exclude: Care and Education of Children (Arts. Effect of parental authority upon the persons of the children (Arts. Art. 216-219) C. 228-233)   1. 257 of the Family Code XIV. Funerals (Civil Code. The Early Childhood Care and Development Act (R. Absence (Civil Code. Summary Judicial Proceedings in Family Law Cases XIII. No. 225-227) Exclude: R. 356-363. Emancipation (Arts. Retroactivity of the Family Code (Art. 369-380 (other articles repealed by Family Code) XVI.M. 220-224) Exclude: 1. 41 Family Code) 6    . 03-04-04-SC) 3. Solo Parents' Welfare Act of 2000 (R.A. 209-215) B. Use of Surnames Arts. 234 and 236. Substitute and special parental authority (Arts.A. No. 364-369. 43. Arts. Art. 254-255. Civil Code) XV.X. 8980) D. 8972) 4. Effects of parental authority upon the property of the children (Arts. as amended by R. General provisions (Arts. 03-02-05-SC) 2.A. entitled “An Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child…” which will be covered under Labor Law E. Parental Authority A. Rules on Custody of Minors and Writ of Habeas Corpus in Relation to Custody of Minors (A.

planter. 457) b) Change of course of river (Arts.A. Rules of Court Exclude: Act No. 1067 or the Water Code) 7    . 390-392) Exclude: Arts. 461-462 and P. 579) 3. sower on land of another in the concept of owner (i) Builder. Right of accession (Art.”) C. 441-444) 2. 438-439) B. 448-456) (ii) Builder. 387. 393-396 on contingent assets XVII. Lands adjoining river banks a) Alluvion (Art. Arts. With respect to immovable property a) Builder. Declaration of absence (Arts.389) D.A.A. entitled “An Act Authorizing the City or Municipal Civil Registrar or the Consul General to Correct a Clerical or Typographical Error in an Entry and/or Change of First Name or Nickname in the Civil Register Without Need of a Judicial Order…. planter. 415-418) A. Hidden treasure (Arts. 449-450) b) Usufructuary (Art. 9048. 381-383) B. sower in good faith (Arts. sower in bad faith (Arts. Correction of Clerical Errors (R. Fruits (Arts. Presumption of death (Arts. 384-386) C.D. 407-413 B. Classification (Arts. 9048 PROPERTY I. Administration of the property of the absentee (Arts. planter. Civil Registrar A. 375 and the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R. Provisional measures in case of absence (Arts. Characteristics II. Rule 108. 440) 1.

Real or immovable 2. General limitations: taxation.c) Avulsion (Arts. Right in general 1. Consumable/non-consumable vs. Islands (Arts. 459-463) 4. Specific limitations: those imposed by law (sic utere tuo. not weakness of defendant’s claim 2. Of private ownership a) Patrimonial property (i) Distinction between private property of individual persons and of state entities E. Personal or movable D. abutendi. accion publiciana. vindicandi. Ownership A. disponendi (possidendi) (i) Actions to recover ownership and possession of real property (a) Distinctions between accion reivindicatoria. state of necessity). Fungible/non-fungible III. Modes of acquiring ownership 1. Bundle of rights a) Jus utendi. easements voluntarily imposed by owner (servitudes. Derivative C. police power 2. By owner 1. Distinction between real and personal rights B. Of public dominion 2. Original 2. 464-465) C. eminent domain. mortgages imposed by contract) 8    . Limitations 1. accion interdictal (b) Distinction between forcible entry and unlawful detainer (ii) Actions for recovery of possession of movable property (iii) Requisites for recovery of property (a) Proof of right (b) Identity (c) Reliance on strength of own evidence. fruendi. By object 1. By nature 1. nuisance.

6552. planting. Co-ownership A. Prescription/non-prescription of action VI. amendment (iv) Documents to consider (master deed. Source of co-ownership 9    . Realty Installment Buyer Act c) Grounds for partition of common areas. commixtion/ confusion. avulsion. Quieting of Title to or Interest in and Removal or Prevention of Cloud over Title to or Interest in Real Property (Arts. declaration of restrictions. 957.A. islands) 2. Accession A. In general 2. General rules 1. civil fruits) and continua (over immovables: artificial/industrial and natural) b) Accession industrial (building. Right to hidden treasure B. Requirement B. where applicable) b) Rights and obligations of condominium owners (i) Contributions/dues (ii) P. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree and R. industrial. or dissolution of the condominium B. Special rules a) Concept of condominium (i) Condominium corporation (ii) Interest in real property (iii) Concept of common areas. Characteristics of co-ownership 1. adjunction. rivers.IV. sowing in good faith or bad faith) c) Accession natural (accretion. Distinction between quieting of title and removing/preventing a cloud C. For movables: a) Accession continua (conjunction. 476-481) A. specification) b) Rules for determining the principal and accessory V. articles and by-laws of the condominium corporation or the association.D. For immovables: a) Accession discreta (natural.

Right to partition 4. 544. Partition in case co-owners cannot agree VII. In concept of owner. in one’s own name. 549. Rights of co-owners 1. Effect of partition 2. Right to oppose acts of alteration 3. Period to recover (Arts. 545) b) Right to be reimbursed (i) Necessary and useful expenses (Arts. Distinction between right to property owned in common and full ownership over his/her ideal share 2. 1505(3)) 1. Effects of possession 1. Termination/extinguishment 1. 1133) 2. Waiver 6. 546-547) (ii) Expenses for pure luxury (Art. Classification 10    . Loss/termination VIII. 559. 449. Loss or unlawful deprivation of a movable (Arts. 1506) E. holder. 1132. taxes) 5. 1134.C. Right to redemption of co-owners share D. How acquired (Art. 548) 2. 531) C. Characteristics B. 526-527) a) Right to pending fruits (Art. Right to contributions for expenses (necessary expenses. 719-720) 3. Possessor in good faith (Arts. 1140. 552) D. Possessor in bad faith (Arts. Distinguished from voidable title (Art. Possession A. in name of another F. Characteristics B. Rights against individual co-owners in case of partition 3. Rights of the possessor G. Usufruct A. Finder of lost movable (Arts.

Rights and obligations of usufructuary D. Legal easements a) Right of way 2. Compulsory easements (Arts. 613. Characteristics B. Extinction/termination IX. Easements (Arts. Definition B. 620-624) 2. Voluntary easements (Art. 669-673) D. 694-707) A. Classification C. 713) B.C. 746) 2. 688) a) Effect of zoning ordinance C. Occupation (Art. Remedies XI. 615-616) A. 712) A. Modes of acquiring easements 1. Donation 1. Modes of Acquiring Ownership (Art. Easement of light and view (Arts. Rights of the owner E. 725-726. Definition (Arts. Nuisance (Arts. Characteristics a) Extent to which donor may donate property b) Reservations and reversions 11    . Rights and obligations of dominant and subservient estate E. Classification 1. How terminated X.

1127) b) Just title (Arts. Effects a) b) c) d) e) of donation/limitations In general Double donations Excessive/inofficious Scope of amount (Arts. 739-740. Characteristics 2. 748) (ii) Immovables (Art. 760-761. 729) Donation by reason of marriage (Family Code. 750-752) In fraud of creditors (Art. modal. Qualifications of donor. 769) Exclude: Intellectual creations PRESCRIPTION I. Definition (Art. conditional 4. 1129-1130) 12    . Ordinary a) Good faith (Art. Revocation or reduction a) Grounds for revocation. 86) Donation mortis causa (Art. 82-83.3. 728) Onerous donation (Art. 771-773) f) Ingratitude (Arts. Void donations (Arts. Kinds a) b) c) d) e) Donation inter vivos (Art. donee 6. grounds for reduction b) How done c) Effects c) Prescription e) Inofficious donations (Arts. Formalities required a) How made and accepted b) Perfection c) Differences between formalities for donation of real. 733) Simple. personal properties (i) Movables (Art. 759) 7. 1106) A. 1027) 8. Acquisitive (Art. 765. Arts. 1117) 1. 749) 5.

3. Prescription or limitation of actions A. 6. By offender (Art. Distinguished from laches G. 1134. 1155) OBLIGATIONS I. 1118-1125) Period (Arts. 1140) B. Definition 13    . To recover immovables (Art. 1410) F. 4. 1132. 5. No Prescription Applicable A. second par. Extinctive 1. Interruption (Art.D.) Requisites (Arts. Extraordinary (Arts. Action to quiet title if plaintiff is in possession E. 1133) B. Action legal to demand a right of way (Art. Characteristics 2. Art. 1142-1149) IV. 1138) What cannot be required by acquisitive prescription B. 649) 2. 1143. Periods II. Civil Code 1. Requisites 3. 494) 1. Property of public dominion III. 1141) C. To abate a nuisance D. 1529) C. Void contracts (Art. 1137 and 1132. Registered lands (P. Other actions (Arts. To recover movables (Art. Action to demand partition (Art.

Sources of obligations (Arts. Obligation to do or not to do C. Classification of Obligations V. Extra-contractual obligations VI. A single act or omission can give rise to different causes of action B. Obligation to give 1. 1169) a) Mora solvendi b) Mora accipiendi c) Compesatio morae 3. Specific performance 14    . Remedies available to creditor in cases of breach 1.II. Contravention of the tenor of obligation 6. Fraud in the performance of obligation a) Waiver of future fraud is void (Art. delay or mora – no default unless creditors makes a demand. Elements of an Obligation III. Different Kinds of Prestations IV. Default. Breaches of obligations 1. An indeterminate or generic thing B. requisites D. Negligence (culpa) in the performance of obligation a) Diligence normally required is ordinary diligence or diligence of a good father of a family b) Exception: common carriers which are required to exercise extraordinary diligence 5. Nature and Effect of Obligations A. Natural obligations C. 1171) 4. Complete failure to perform 2. A determinate or specific thing 2. exceptions (Art. 1156-1157) A. Legal excuse for breach of obligation: fortuitous event.

Resolutory period 3. 1177) a) Accion subrogatoria a) Accion pauliana c) Accion directa (Arts. 1181) 1. Pure (Arts. 1198) 2. loss or deterioration of specific thing before the happening of a suspensive condition in obligation to do or not to do (Art. Effect of improvement. 1608. Effect of loss of specific things or impossibility of performance of alternative. 1729. 1196) 2. 1193) 1. 1187) a) Extent of retroactivity 5. Effect when a resolutory condition in obligation to do or not to do happens and there is improvement. Difference between alternative and facultative obligations 2. in any event 4.a) Substituted performance by a third person on obligation to deliver generic thing and in obligation to do. Presumption that period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor (Art. Damages. 1179-1180) B. Suspensive condition 2. Resolutory condition 3. Obligation with a period or a term (Art. Rescission (resolution in reciprocal obligations) 3. par. Subsidiary remedies of creditors (Art. Potestative: casual or mixed a) Obligations subject to potestative suspensive conditions are void (Art. 1652. 1197) b) Creditor must ask court to set the period before he can demand payment D. 3) C. Conditional (Art. Alternative or facultative (Art. loss or deterioration of the specific thing (Art. Definite or indefinite period a) Instances when courts may fix the period (Art. Kinds of Civil Obligations A. through fault of debtor/creditor or through fortuitous events 15    . 1199) 1. Effect if given to debtor alone a) Instances when debtor losses benefit of period (Art. 1189) 6. Effect if suspensive period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor 3. unless a purely personal act 2. 1893) VII. Effect of the happening of suspensive condition or resolutory condition (Art. 1182) 4. 1190.

there is default but only the guilty debtor shall be liable for damages C. 1270) 1. but not anything prejudicial to them (Art. Joint indivisible obligation 1. 1270) 2. Dation in payment (Art. Obligations with a penal clause (Arts. although he may pay if he wants to (Art. 1236-1238) 1. Express condonations and required formality thereof (Art. 1209) d) Insolvency of a joint debtor. Form of payment (Art. 1256-1261) B. 1271. confusion or remission of debt executed by a solidary creditor D. 1225) E. In case of failure of one joint debtor to perform his part (share). Tender of payment and consignation (Arts. compensation. 1228-1230) IX. Application of payment (Art. 1226. 1207) b) Obligation presumed to be divided into as many equal shares as there are creditors or debtors c) Each credit is distinct from one another. 1215) 2. 1272. Concurrence of two or more creditors and or two or more debtors a) Joint obligation is presumed. 1214. therefore a joint debtor cannot be required to pay for the share of another with debtor. Joint and Solidary Obligation A. 1245) 2. 1222) 3. 1252-1254) 5. 1249) 3. Extinguishment of Obligations A.VIII. 1274) 16    . Obligation cannot be performed in parts but debtors are bound jointly 2. Each one of solidary creditors may do whatever may be useful to the others. unless otherwise indicated by the law or nature of obligation (Art. 1262. Joint (divisible) obligation 1. Loss of determinate thing due or impossibility or difficulty of performance (Arts. a) Effect of any novation. Implied (Arts. 1212). Solidary obligation 1. 1250) 4. 1216. 1209) B. Divisible and indivisible (Art. 1217. Mutual guaranty among solidary debtors (Arts. Mutual agency among solidary debtors (Arts. Payment (Arts. Extraordinary inflation or deflation (Art. others not liable for his share (Art. Condonation or remission of debt (Art. 1266-1267) C.

1744) 7. 1956) 6. 1272) E. Stipulation limiting common carrier’s duty of extraordinary diligence to ordinary diligence (Art. 1275. 1279) a) Legal compensation (Arts. Voidable contracts (Arts. Sale of large cattle III. 1282) c) Voluntary (Art. Stipulation to charge interest (Art. Donations (Arts. Confusion or Merger of Rights (Arts.D. Obligations not compensable (Art. 1328-1344. 1390-1402) 17    . 1773) 3. Kinds of Contracts A. Real C. Novation (Arts. 1358) IV. Agency to sell real property or an interest therein (Art. 1287-1288) F. 1191 B. Essential Requisites (Art. Consensual B. 1261) II. 1282) d) Judicial (Art. Partnership where real property contributed (Arts. 1357. Difference with rescission (resolution) under Art. Antichresis (Art. 1874) 5. Rescissible contracts (Art. 1278. Chattel mortgage 8. 1771. Formality (Arts. 1381) 1. Compensation 1. 2134) 4. Formal or solemn 1. Defective Contracts A. 1286-1290) b) Agreement (Art. 748-749) 2. 1291-1304) CONTRACTS I. 1356. 1283) e) Facultative 2. Kinds (Arts.

Definition of sales (Arts. Special disqualifications (Arts. 1397. Subject Matter A. Obligations created (Art. 1317) D. 1390) 2. Void contracts (Arts. Characteristics of a contract of sale F. 1491-1492) III. 1799) V. Capacity of parties (Arts. 1403-1408. 1165) E. Parties to a Contract of Sale A. 1327. Sale is title and not mode G. 1458. Pactum commissorium (Arts. 1489-1492) B. 1409. 2130. 1470) B.C. 1505) C. 1311) SALES I. 1459-1465) 18    . 2130) 3. Unenforceable contracts (Arts. Contract of sale/contract to sell II. Effect of contracts (Art. Absolute incapacity (Arts. Requisites of a valid subject matter (Arts. 2088. Introduction A. 1399) C. Essential requisites of a contract of sale (Art. Pactum de non alienando (Art. Sale distinguished from other contracts H. Stages of contract of sale D. Relative incapacity: married persons D. 1346) 1. Pactum leonina (Art.

1355. 1479. Earnest money vs. 1477. 1469-1474) B. 1505. 1319. Art. Meaning of price (Arts. When delivery does not transfer title 19    . How price is determined D. 1475) 2. Offer (Art. 1496-1501) B. 1324) 3. 1479) 1. Manner of payment must be agreed upon G. 1462. Sale by a person having a voidable title (Arts. Option money (Art. 1325. Inadequacy of price (Arts. 1403 (d) (e) VII. 1479) B. Option contract (Arts.1482) VI. When no price agreed (Art. 1326) C. Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership A. 1470) E. Price A. Exceptions B. Preparatory (Art. 1506. Perfection (Arts. 1459) 1. 1475. Right of first refusal 4. Sale by a person not the owner at time of delivery (Arts.B. 1474) F. Particular kinds IV. Manner of transfer (Arts. Transfer of Ownership A. Formalities of the contract. Mutual promise to buy and sell (Art. Requisites for a valid price C. 559) V. Formation of Contract of Sale A.

1516) F. Negotiable documents of title D. 1189) B. General rule (Arts. Definition of unpaid seller (Art. Documents of Title A. Requisites for registration of deed of sale in good faith 2. When ownership is transferred (Art. 1504) IX. Definition (Art. Warranties of seller of documents of title (Art. Non-negotiable documents of title E. 1525) B. When loss occurred at time of perfection (Arts. Rules on levy/garnishment of goods (Arts. 1520) X. Remedies of an Unpaid Seller A. 1493 and 1494) D. 1544) E. When loss occurred after perfection but before delivery E. Remedies of unpaid seller XI. Purpose of documents of title C. When loss occurred before perfection C. 1519. 1636) B. Kinds of delivery D. Property Registration Decree 1. Performance of Contract 20    . payment of capital gains tax. Risk of Loss A. 1263. 1514. and documentary tax registration fees VIII.C. Accompanied by vendor’s duplicate certificate of title. Double sales (Art.

Sale of movables (Arts. Sale of immovables 1. Remedies of the buyer 1. Warranties A. 1543) 3. Secs. Sale of movables B. Extinguishment of the Sale A. Recto Law: sale of movables on installment (Arts. 1231) B. Delivery of thing sold 1. 1606) 21    . 1484-1486) C.A. Effects of warranties D.D. 1547) C. Equitable mortgage (Arts. 1522. P. 1600. 1599) XIII. 1537. Sale of immovables (Arts. Sale of movable 2. Sale of immovables on installment (Maceda Law) D. 24 2. 957. 1480) 2. Sale of immovables XIV. Breach of Contract A. 1636. Period of redemption (Art. Inspections and acceptance B. Remedies of the seller (Arts. 1602-1604) D. 1601) C. Conventional redemption (Art. 1539. Express warranties B. Causes (Arts. Effects of waivers E. Payment of price XII. Implied warranties (Art. Buyer’s options in case of breach of warranty (Art. 23. Distinguished from option to buy (Art. 1602) E. 1594) 1.

When succession occurs (Art. Exercise of the right to redeem (Art. 784-785. legatees (Art.A. Legal redemption (Art. 788-794) (iii) Law governing formal validity (Art. 8792). Testamentary Succession A. 797) b) Soundness of mind (Arts. 957) XVI. 1619) H. 1619) XV. 774-780) A. 796-803) a) Age requirement (Art. Definition/what is transmitted (Arts. 3952) and SUCCESSION I. devisees. In general a) Definition and characteristics (Arts. 787) (a) Exception (Art. General Provisions (Arts. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree (P. 783-787) (i) Act of making a will a strictly personal act (Arts. Age redemption (Art. Kinds of successors: heirs. 776. 798-801) (i) When testator is deemed to be of sound mind (ii) Presumptions (iii) Supervening incapacity 22    . 774. 777) C. Public Land Law. 781) B. 1616) G. 4726) Exclude: Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (R. Retail Trade Liberalization Act. 786) (ii) Rules of construction and interpretation (Arts. Wills 1. 795) 2.A. Testamentary capacity and intent (Arts. 782) II. The Condominium Act (R.F.D. Bulk Sales Law (Act No.

17. 809) (iv) Witnesses to wills(Arts. Allowance and disallowance of wills (Arts. Preterition (Art. Codicils (Arts. 16. Revocation (Arts. 830) 7. Preterition vs. 854) a) Definition b) Requisites c) Effects (i) Effects of preterition. 819) (i) See law governing substantive validity (Arts. 807-808) (iii) Substantial compliance (Art. 828-834) a) Kinds (Art. 818-819) 4. 906-918 23    . Institution of heirs (Arts. res judicata on formal validity b) Grounds for denying probate (Art. 820-824) d) Holographic wills (i) Requirements (Arts. 815-817. 814) (ii) Witnesses required for probate (Art. 839) (a) Exceptions: when practical considerations demand the intrinsic validity of the will be resolved (ii) Effect of final decree of probate. devisees only entitled to completion of legitime 2. 838-839) a) Probate requirement (Art. 825-826) a) Definition and formal requirements 5. 805-806 (ii) Special rules for handicapped testators (Arts. 811) e) Joint wills (Arts. 840-856) 1. Disposition less than legitime/donation inter vivos – Arts. Compulsory heirs in the direct line 4. 810-814) (a) Requirements in case of alterations (Art. 839) B. 827) 6. Concept – Art. Incorporate by reference (Art. Form a) Rules governing the formal validity of wills (Arts. 855. 804) (i) In writing (ii) Language/dialect requirement c) Notarial wills (i) Arts.3. 838) (i) Issues to be resolved in probate proceedings (Art. 854 3.15. 1039) b) Common requirements (Art.

Legal or Intestate Succession (Arts. Conditional testamentary dispositions and testamentary dispositions with a term (Arts. Partition (Arts. 1078-1105) 1. Definition (Art. Definition (Art. 1015-1105) A. 1100. 1079. Reserva troncal (Art. 960-1014) A. 970-977) B. Kinds (Arts. 924-959) III. 887-903) 3. 739. 871-885) E. 869) D. Disinheritance a) Disinheritance for cause (Art. General provisions (Arts. 858-860) 3. Relationship (Arts. Collation (Arts. Partition and distribution of estate (Arts. 1024-1040) 1. 859) 4. 857-870) 1. 919) (i) Reconciliation (Art. Simple substitution (Art.C. Order of intestate succession (Arts. 922) (ii) Rights of descendants of person disinherited (Art. 1027. Effects of partition (Arts. Unworthiness vs. Persons incapable of succeeding (Arts. 960-969) 1. Legitime (Arts. 1061-1062) E. 1091. Acceptance and repudiation of the inheritance (Arts. 863-866. Substitution of heirs (Arts. 1032) 2. 1015-1023) 1. 1097. Disinheritance C. Capacity to succeed by will or intestacy (Arts. 1015-1016) B. Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession (Arts. Right of representation (Arts. 886) 2. Right of accretion (Arts. Partition inter vivos 3. 857) 2. Definition and requisites (Arts. 891) 4. Compulsory heirs and various combinations (Arts.1041-1057) D. Fideicommissary substitution (Arts. 992) IV. 1080) 2. Legacies and devisees (Arts. 918) 5. 908-910. 963-969) 2. 886-914) 1. 923) b) Disinheritance without cause (Art. 1104-1105) 24    . 978-1014.

Partnership v. 1830) VI. 1058-1060). Partnership by estoppel H. Limited G. Dissolution (Art.Exclude: Executors and administrators (Arts. Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves IV. Limited Partnership A. Particular. Rights and Obligations of Partnership III. Contract of Partnership A. which will be covered under Remedial Law PARTNERSHIP I. Elements C. Definition B. Management (Arts. 1800-1803) II. Joint venture I. How partnership is formed E. Universal vs. Partnership term F. General vs. Professional partnership J. Rules to determine existence D. Definition 25    . Obligations of Partnership/Partners to Third Persons V.

Agency Couched in General Terms VII. Agency Requiring Special Power of Attorney VIII. Agency by Operation of Law IX. Agency by Estoppel V. How limited partnership is formed/amended C. Special Agency VI. 1897-1902) B. General vs. Powers (Arts. Express vs. Definition of Agency II.B. Rights and Obligations of Principal X. 1927-1930) XI. Irrevocable Agency (Arts. Exception (Art. To bind principal (Arts. Implied Agency IV. 1877-1878) A. 1883) III. Modes of Extinguishment 26    . Rights and obligations of a limited partner Exclude: Questions requiring application of SEC opinions or regulations AGENCY I.

COMPROMISE I. Effect (Arts. Extinguishment of guaranty D. Definition (Art. Deposit A. Guaranty and Suretyship A. Void Compromise (Art. Legal and judicial bonds IV. Judicial deposit III. Mutuum B. Commodatum vs. Nature and extent of guaranty B. Effects of guaranty C. Pledge 27    . Necessary deposit C. Obligations of bailor and bailee C. Interest and the suspension of usury law II. 2041) CREDIT TRANSACTIONS I. 2037. 2028) II. Loan A. Voluntary deposit B. 2035) III.

Quasi-contracts A. 2096) G. 2115) H. Pledge by operation of law (Art. Foreclosure (Arts. Real Mortgage A. Definition and characteristics B. Obligations of antichretic creditor VII. Registration VIII. Essential requirements D. Essential requisites C. 2093. Kinds C. Negotiorum gestio B. Chattel Mortgage A.A. 2112. Definition and characteristics B. Rights of pledgor F. Definition and characteristics B. Distinguished from chattel mortgage (Arts. Perfection (Arts. 2140. Definition B. Solutio indebiti 28    . Antichresis A. Foreclosure VI. Obligation of pledge E. 2121-2122) I. 1484) V.

Concurrence and Preference of Credits A.IX. Usury Law LEASE I. Prohibitions 29    . Qualified persons B. Suspension of payments C. Meaning of concurrence and preference B. Classification of credits E. Lease of Rural and Urban Lands A. Insolvency Law A. Preferred credits on specific movables C. Exempt property D. Registration C. Order of preference of credits X. Involuntary insolvency Exclude: Warehouse Receipts Law. Voluntary insolvency D. Lease of Things II. Definition of insolvency B. Lease of Work or Services III.

Special Rules for Lease of Rural/Urban Lands VI. time immemorial possession III. Household Service VII. Torrens System A. Concept of native title. Contract of Labor A. Certificate of title II. Contract for Piece of Work LAND TITLES AND DEEDS I.D. Who may apply 1. Individuals and corporations IV. Concept and background B. Effects C. Citizenship Requirement A.IV. Original Registration A. Under P. Obligation in case of death/injury of laborers VIII. 1529 30    . Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee V. Regalian Doctrine A. Concept B.

A. Under R. Registration process and requirements C. Consultas. 141 3. History of land laws 2. Abuse of right. Under C. Involuntary dealings VI. Cadastral registration V. Assurance fund 5. Registration of patents 6. Dealings with Unregistered Lands Exclude: 1. elements B. Remedies sufficiently covered under Remedial Law 3. Registration of judgments. 8371 B. Remedies D.A.2. Principles A. Voluntary dealings B. orders and partitions 4. Unjust enrichment C. TORTS AND DAMAGES Book I--Torts I. Liability without fault D. Subsequent Registration A. Non-registrable Properties VII. Acts contrary to law 31    . Administrative structure of the Register of Deeds 7.

E. Civil Code) 32    . 2180. Persons made responsible for others 1. and the Family Code. Natural persons 2. Juridical persons B. joint or solidary? 2. 218-219. negligent and strict liability B. 2194. Classification of Torts A. Acts contrary to morals II. 221 (i) Elements. Joint tortfeasors (Art. According to scope: general or specific III. Arts. The direct tortfeasor 1. definition (ii) Distinguished from culpa contractual and culpa criminal b) Indirect liability for intentional acts c) Presumption of negligence on persons indirectly responsible d) Nature of liability. According to manner of commission: intentional. The Tortfeasor A. In particular a) Parents b) Guardians c) Owners and managers of establishments and enterprises d) Employers (i) Meaning of employers (ii) Requisites (a) Employee chosen by employer or through another (b) Services rendered in accordance with orders which employer has authority to give (c) Illicit act of employee was on the occasion or by reason of the functions entrusted to him (d) Presumption of negligence (iii) Employer need not be engaged in business or industry (iv) Defense of diligence in selection and supervision (v) Nature of employer’s liability e) State f) Teachers and heads of establishments of arts and trades C. In general a) Quasi-delicts under Art.

Distinguished from intervening cause 5. Concept B. Distinguished from immediate cause 4. Last clear chance VI. Injury to property 3. Distinguished from remote and concurrent B. Injury to relations VII. Definition 2. Concept of act V. Injury to persons 2. Substantial factor test 2. Condition F. Cause vs. Elements of right C. Proximate Cause A. Concept 1. Concurrent causes C. Efficient intervening cause E. Violation of right or legal injury D. Cause in fact 1. Natural and probable consequences 2. Test 3. Act of Omission and Its Modalities A. Classes of injury 1.IV. Legal cause 1. Legal Injury A. Foreseeability D. Intentional Torts 33    .

General 1. Intentional non-physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of personal dignity c) Infliction of emotional distress d) Violation of privacy (i) Appropriation (ii) Intrusion (iii) Public disclosure of private facts (iv) False light in the public eye e) Disturbance of peace of mind f) Malicious prosecution g) Defamation (i) Defenses (a) Absence of elements (b) Privilege h) Fraud or misrepresentation (formerly deceit) i) Seduction j) Unjust dismissal C. Civil Code) (i) Battery (physical injury) (ii) Assault (grave threat) c) False imprisonment (illegal detention) d) Trespass to land (i) Concept (ii) Elements e) Interference with personal property (i) Trespass to chattels (ii) Conversion 2. Interference with relations 1. General 34    . Interference with rights to persons and property 1.A. Intentional physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of persons security. physical injuries (Art. Classes a) Interference with persons and property (i) Physical harms (ii) Non-physical harms b) Interference with relations B. Concept 2. 33.

Political relations a) Violation of right to suffrage (Civil Code. 429) (iv) Defense of property (v) Authority of law c) Prescription d) Waiver e) Force majeure VIII. Art.) 6. Art. Unreasonable risk of harm E. Social relations a) Meddling with or disturbing family relations b) Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from his friends 4. Concept B. Evidence 35    . Defenses a) Absence of element b) Privilege (i) Consent (ii) Self-defense and defense of others (iii) Necessity (Civil Code. assembly and petition. Emergency rule D. 32) b) Violation of other political rights (freedom of speech. Negligence A.a) Concept b) Kinds 2. Art. Good father of a family or reasonably prudent man C. Standard of care 1. press. Economic relations a) Interference with contractual relations b) Unfair competition 5. etc. 1173 2. Civil Code. Family a) b) c) relations Alienation of affection Loss of consortium Criminal conversation (adultery) 3.

Secs. Presumption of negligence 1. Public nuisance and private nuisance 3. Manufacturers or processors a) Elements b) Consumer Act [R. Violation of rights committed by public officers F.A. and 1150) h) Waiver i) Double recovery (Civil Code. Violation of constitutional rights 1. Art. 1)] C. Violation of civil liberties E. General 1. 1146. Head of family 36    . 92-107. Defenses 1. cities and municipalities G.F. Products liability 1. Arts. Owner of motor vehicle H. Res ipsa loquitur G. Complete a) Absence of element (i) Due diligence (ii) Acts of public officers b) Accident or fortuitous event c) Damnum absque injuria d) Authority of law e) Assumption of risk f) Last clear chance g) Prescription (Civil Code. Special Liability in Particular Activities A. 7394. (Ch. Attractive nuisance D. 1144. Concept B. Legal provisions 2. Proprietor of building or structure or thing I. 2177) IX. Arts. Nuisance (Civil Code. Provinces. 694-707) 1. Nuisance per se and nuisance per accidence 2.

Products liability (supra) 1. Strict Liability A. Animals 1. Easement against nuisance C. Classification 1. Concept B. Value of loss. In crimes and quasi-delicts III. According to manner of determination 4. In contracts and quasi-contracts 2. General Considerations A. Attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation 3. Under Art. Actual and Compensatory Damages A. Requisites 1. Nuisance (supra) 1. Component elements 1.X. 2197 of the Civil Code 2. Classes a) Per se or per accidents b) Public or private 2. Interest D. Moral Damages 37    . Extent or scope of actual damages 1. According to purpose 3. Special and ordinary II. unrealized profit 2. Consumer act Book II--Damages I. Alleged and proved with certainty 2. Possessor and user of an animal B. Not speculative C.

When awarded VI. Concept B. In acts referred to in Arts. 2217-2218) B. Arts. 2232) C. In quasi-delicts (Civil Code. 28. 26. Concept (Arts. Exemplary or Corrective Damages A. Damages in Case of Death A. 2231) 3. Temperate or Moderate Damages A. In seduction. 21. 2234 VIII. Art. 32. 2219-2220) 1. Requisites 1. In cases of malicious prosecution IV. abduction. rape and other lascivious acts 2.A. Graduation of Damages 38    . In contracts and quasi-contracts (Civil Code. Rules governing in case of breach of contract VII. 34 & 35. Liquidated Damages A. In crimes and quasi-delicts causing death 1. Art. 2229) B. 2233. 29. Concept (Civil Code. In death caused by breach of conduct by a common crime IX. 3. Nominal Damages A. In criminal offenses (Civil Code. Concept B. Art. 2226) B. When recovered 1. When recoverable (Arts. 2230) 2. Concept (Civil Code. Civil Code. Art. 27. When awarded V. Art.

Damages that must co-exist 1. 2012. More is required for excellent and distinguished work as members of the Bar. 4. and principles they need to know and be able to use correctly before they can be licensed to practice law. 5. 2223) 2. 39    . In crimes In quasi-delict (Civil Code. 2227) Compromise X. temperate. Exemplary with moral. quasi-contracts and quasi-delicts (Civil Code. Miscellaneous Rules A. 2223) Exclude: Distinction between tort and quasi-delict Include: Pertinent Supreme Court decisions promulgated up to January 31. 2214) In contracts. Duty of injured party 1. Art. Nominal with other damages (Art. liquidated or compensatory C. Rules 1. Damages that cannot co-exist 1. 2226) B. Nominal damages (Art.A. Art. 2203 B. Actual and liquidated (Art. 2. Art. doctrines. Important note: This bar coverage description is not intended and should not be used by law schools as a syllabus or course outline in the covered subjects. Art. It has been drawn up for the limited purpose of ensuring that candidates reviewing for the bar examinations are guided on what basic and minimum amounts of laws. Damages that must stand alone 1. 3. 2215) Liquidated damages (Civil Code.

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