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2012 Civil Law Syllabus

2012 Civil Law Syllabus

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SYLLABUS FOR THE 2012 BAR EXAMINATIONS

CIVIL LAW

I. Effect and Application of Laws A. When law takes effect (Civil Code, Art. 2) B. Ignorance of the law (Civil Code, Art. 3) C. Retroactivity of laws (Civil Code, Art. 4) D. Mandatory or prohibitory laws (Civil Code, Art. 5) E. Waiver of rights (Civil Code, Art. 6) F. Repeal of laws (Civil Code, Art. 7) G. Judicial decisions (Civil Code, Art. 8) H. Duty to render judgment (Civil Code, Art. 9) I. Presumption and applicability of custom (Civil Code, Arts. 10-12) J. Legal periods (Civil Code, Art. 13, as amended by Book I, Sec. 31 of the Administrative Code of 1987 (EO 292)) K. Applicability of penal laws (Civil Code, Art. 14) L. Conflict of laws (Civil Code, Arts. 15-18) II. Human Relations (Civil Code, Arts. 19-22) Exclude: Independent Civil Actions and prejudicial questions which will be covered by the examinations in Remedial Law PERSONS I. Persons and Personality (Civil Code) A. Capacity to act 1. Civil personality (Art. 37) 2. Restrictions on capacity to act (Arts. 38-39) 3. Birth (Arts. 40-41) 1   

4. Death (Arts. 42-43) a) Compare Art. 43 with Rule 131, Sec. 3 (jj) presumption of survivorship 5. Juridical Persons, Civil Code, Arts. 44-46 B. Domicile and residence (Arts. 50-51) II. Marriage (Family Code) Exclude: Muslim Code (P.D. 1083) A. Nature of marriage B. Requisites 1. Kinds of requisites (Family Code, Arts. 2-3) 3. Effect of absence of requisites (Art. 4) 4. Essential requisites (Art. 5) a) Age b) Consent 5. Formal (Arts. 7, 31, 32) 6. Ceremony (Art. 6) 7. Solemnizing authority (Art. 7-8, 10) a) Exceptions (Art. 35 (2)) 8. License required (Arts. 3 (2), 9, 11, 20, 26) a) Foreign national (Art. 21) b) Exceptions (Arts. 27, 31-32, 34) 9. Marriage certificate (Art. 22) Exclude: Duties of a Civil Registrar under Arts. 12-19, 23-25 B. Effect of marriage celebrated abroad and foreign divorce (Art. 26) C. Void and voidable marriages 1. Void marriages (Arts. 5, 35, 36-38, 52-53) a) Absence of requisites (Art. 35) b) Psychological incapacity (Art. 36) c) Incestuous marriages (Arts. 37-38) 2. Prescription (Art. 39) 3. Subsequent marriage (Arts. 40-44) 4. Annullable marriage (Arts. 14, 45-46) 5. Voidable marriages (Art. 45-47) 6. Presence of prosecutor (Art. 48) 7. Pendency of action (Art. 49) 8. Effects of nullity (Arts. 50-54) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-10-SC, Rule on Declaration of Absolute Nullity of Void Marriages and Annulment of Voidable Marriages; R.A. 6955, entitled “An Act to 2   

Declare Unlawful the Practice of Matching Filipino Women for Marriage to Foreign Nationals on a Mail Order Basis and Other Similar Practices…”; R.A. 9208 or the
Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 III. Legal Separation A. Grounds (Art. 55 and R.A. 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) B. Defenses (Arts. 56-57) C. Cooling-off period (Art. 58) D. Reconciliation efforts (Art. 59) E. Confession of judgment (Art. 60) F. Effects of filing petition (Art. 61) G. Effects of pendency (Art. 62) H. Effects of legal separation (Arts. 63-64) 1. Reconciliation (Arts. 65-67) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-11-SC or the Rule on Legal Separation IV. Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife A. Essential obligations (Art. 68) B. Family domicile (Art. 69) C. Support (Art. 70) D. Management of household (Art. 71) E. Effect of neglect of duty (Art. 72) F. Exercise of profession (Art. 73) Exclude: R.A. 7192 or the Women in Development and Nation Building Act; R.A. 8187, or the Paternity Leave Act of 1996; R.A. 9710 or The Magna Carta of Women. V. Property Relations of the Spouses 3   

The family home (Arts. Dissolution of the regime of Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. 86. Proof of filiation (Arts. 147-148) VI. 116-120) 4. 163-171) B. Charges upon and obligations of the community property (Arts. 96-98) 5. Absolute Community of Property 1. The family as an institution (Arts. Marriage settlements (Arts. Property regime of unions without marriage (Arts. 76-81) B. 43(3). 87) D. 129-133) F. Ownership. 109-115) 3. 124-125) 6. What constitutes community property (Arts. 121123) 5. 149-151) B. 172-174) 4    . enjoyment and disposition of the community property (Arts. administration. Paternity and Filiation A. 88-90) 2. 161 and 162 VII. Conjugal Partnership of Gains 1. The Family A. 126-128) 7. 94-95) 4. 82-83. 152-165) Exclude: Arts. General provisions (Arts. Legitimate children (Arts. Separation of property of the spouses and administration of common property by one spouse during the marriage (Arts. 105-108) 2. Exclusive property of each spouse (Arts. Dissolution of community regime (Arts. Administration of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Charges upon and obligations of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. 143-146) H. Liquidation of the conjugal partnership assets and liabilities (Arts. 102-104) E. Void donations by the spouses (Art. General provisions (Arts. 75-85. 50) C. Liquidation of the absolute community assets and liabilities (Arts. 157. 134-142) G.A. Donations by reason of marriage (Arts. 91-93) 3. Conjugal partnership property (Arts. Regime of separation of property (Arts. 99-101) 6.

M. 183-188. Who can adopt 2. 199-200. 203) F. Illegitimate children (Art.A. 198) D. entitled “An Act Requiring Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to Declare a “Child Legally Available for Adoption” as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings….C. 191-193 of the Family Code IX. Adoption A. Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (R. Attachment (Art. 204) G. 194) B. 176 as amended by R. Amount (Arts.A. Options (Art. No. 201-202) E. 195-197. Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (R. When demandable (Art. Who are obliged (Arts. 177-182) Exclude: A. 205) 5    . 8552) 1.M. What it comprises (Art. Legitimated children (Arts.A. 175 and Art. Who can adopt 2. R. No. 06-11-5-SC or the Rule on DNA Evidence VIII. 206-208) C.A.” B. 9523. Support during marriage litigation (Art. 02-6-02-SC ) 2. Support A. Arts. Who can be adopted 3. 8043) 1. Rescission of adoption Exclude: 1. Rule on Adoption (A. 9255 allowing illegitimate children to use the surname of their father) D. Who can be adopted Exclude: Arts. 189 and 190 on successional rights) 4. Rights of an adopted child (include Family Code.

369-380 (other articles repealed by Family Code) XVI. Retroactivity of the Family Code (Art.A. Absence (Civil Code.M. Emancipation (Arts. Rules on Custody of Minors and Writ of Habeas Corpus in Relation to Custody of Minors (A. 356-363.A. 305-310) Exclude: Care and Education of Children (Arts. Art. 254-255.A. Parental Authority A. General provisions (Arts.X. 41 Family Code) 6    . Use of Surnames Arts. Arts. Rule on Guardianship of Minors (A. 209-215) B. 225-227) Exclude: R. No.A. as amended by R. 6809 which lowered the age of majority) XII. 257 of the Family Code XIV. Suspension or termination of parental authority (Arts. 43. 9231. 8980) D. 234 and 236. Solo Parents' Welfare Act of 2000 (R. Substitute and special parental authority (Arts. The Early Childhood Care and Development Act (R. 03-04-04-SC) 3.M.A. Art. 216-219) C. Effects of parental authority upon the property of the children (Arts. 7610)  XI. Funerals (Civil Code. 256) Exclude: Arts. 228-233)   1. Child Abuse Law (R. Civil Code) XV. No. Effect of parental authority upon the persons of the children (Arts. 8972) 4. entitled “An Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child…” which will be covered under Labor Law E. 220-224) Exclude: 1. Summary Judicial Proceedings in Family Law Cases XIII. 03-02-05-SC) 2. 364-369.

1067 or the Water Code) 7    . sower on land of another in the concept of owner (i) Builder. 579) 3. 441-444) 2. 387. 381-383) B. Rule 108. planter.389) D. 9048. 390-392) Exclude: Arts. With respect to immovable property a) Builder. Classification (Arts. Right of accession (Art. Declaration of absence (Arts. Lands adjoining river banks a) Alluvion (Art. 440) 1. sower in bad faith (Arts. Rules of Court Exclude: Act No. Characteristics II. 448-456) (ii) Builder. planter. Arts. Hidden treasure (Arts. 375 and the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R. 449-450) b) Usufructuary (Art. planter. Administration of the property of the absentee (Arts. entitled “An Act Authorizing the City or Municipal Civil Registrar or the Consul General to Correct a Clerical or Typographical Error in an Entry and/or Change of First Name or Nickname in the Civil Register Without Need of a Judicial Order….A.A. Presumption of death (Arts.A. 457) b) Change of course of river (Arts. 393-396 on contingent assets XVII. 407-413 B. 415-418) A. Correction of Clerical Errors (R. 438-439) B. Provisional measures in case of absence (Arts. 461-462 and P. Fruits (Arts. 9048 PROPERTY I. 384-386) C. sower in good faith (Arts.”) C.D. Civil Registrar A.

Consumable/non-consumable vs. accion publiciana. not weakness of defendant’s claim 2. abutendi. disponendi (possidendi) (i) Actions to recover ownership and possession of real property (a) Distinctions between accion reivindicatoria. Of private ownership a) Patrimonial property (i) Distinction between private property of individual persons and of state entities E. accion interdictal (b) Distinction between forcible entry and unlawful detainer (ii) Actions for recovery of possession of movable property (iii) Requisites for recovery of property (a) Proof of right (b) Identity (c) Reliance on strength of own evidence. mortgages imposed by contract) 8    . Real or immovable 2. fruendi. Specific limitations: those imposed by law (sic utere tuo. General limitations: taxation. state of necessity). Modes of acquiring ownership 1. Ownership A. Of public dominion 2. By owner 1. By nature 1. police power 2. Distinction between real and personal rights B. 464-465) C. nuisance. Personal or movable D. Derivative C. Right in general 1. By object 1. Original 2. Fungible/non-fungible III. Islands (Arts.c) Avulsion (Arts. eminent domain. easements voluntarily imposed by owner (servitudes. vindicandi. Bundle of rights a) Jus utendi. Limitations 1. 459-463) 4.

Requirement B. Quieting of Title to or Interest in and Removal or Prevention of Cloud over Title to or Interest in Real Property (Arts. Accession A.IV. Prescription/non-prescription of action VI. amendment (iv) Documents to consider (master deed. Source of co-ownership 9    . 957. specification) b) Rules for determining the principal and accessory V. Right to hidden treasure B. industrial. avulsion. commixtion/ confusion. For immovables: a) Accession discreta (natural. Distinction between quieting of title and removing/preventing a cloud C. declaration of restrictions. sowing in good faith or bad faith) c) Accession natural (accretion. articles and by-laws of the condominium corporation or the association. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree and R.A. Realty Installment Buyer Act c) Grounds for partition of common areas.D. 6552. Co-ownership A. 476-481) A. where applicable) b) Rights and obligations of condominium owners (i) Contributions/dues (ii) P. Special rules a) Concept of condominium (i) Condominium corporation (ii) Interest in real property (iii) Concept of common areas. civil fruits) and continua (over immovables: artificial/industrial and natural) b) Accession industrial (building. Characteristics of co-ownership 1. General rules 1. or dissolution of the condominium B. In general 2. adjunction. planting. islands) 2. For movables: a) Accession continua (conjunction. rivers.

taxes) 5. 1133) 2. 719-720) 3. Rights of the possessor G. 552) D. in name of another F. 559. Classification 10    . 546-547) (ii) Expenses for pure luxury (Art. Characteristics B. Distinguished from voidable title (Art. Right to redemption of co-owners share D. 449. Rights against individual co-owners in case of partition 3. Right to contributions for expenses (necessary expenses. Termination/extinguishment 1. Partition in case co-owners cannot agree VII. 1132. Possessor in good faith (Arts. Effects of possession 1. Characteristics B. 1134. 544. holder. 545) b) Right to be reimbursed (i) Necessary and useful expenses (Arts. 548) 2. 1140. Possessor in bad faith (Arts. Finder of lost movable (Arts. Effect of partition 2. Right to oppose acts of alteration 3. 526-527) a) Right to pending fruits (Art. 1506) E. Right to partition 4. How acquired (Art. Possession A. Waiver 6. in one’s own name. Loss or unlawful deprivation of a movable (Arts. Distinction between right to property owned in common and full ownership over his/her ideal share 2.C. Period to recover (Arts. Usufruct A. 531) C. In concept of owner. 549. 1505(3)) 1. Rights of co-owners 1. Loss/termination VIII.

Classification 1. Legal easements a) Right of way 2. Easements (Arts. 615-616) A. 613. Rights and obligations of usufructuary D. Donation 1. 712) A.C. Compulsory easements (Arts. Rights of the owner E. Easement of light and view (Arts. Definition (Arts. How terminated X. Nuisance (Arts. Remedies XI. 694-707) A. Voluntary easements (Art. Definition B. Characteristics B. Modes of acquiring easements 1. 725-726. 620-624) 2. Rights and obligations of dominant and subservient estate E. 688) a) Effect of zoning ordinance C. Classification C. 713) B. Extinction/termination IX. 746) 2. Occupation (Art. Characteristics a) Extent to which donor may donate property b) Reservations and reversions 11    . Modes of Acquiring Ownership (Art. 669-673) D.

Formalities required a) How made and accepted b) Perfection c) Differences between formalities for donation of real. Characteristics 2. 82-83. 749) 5. conditional 4. 733) Simple. 1117) 1. 86) Donation mortis causa (Art. Ordinary a) Good faith (Art. 750-752) In fraud of creditors (Art. 759) 7. 760-761. 728) Onerous donation (Art. 1106) A. Acquisitive (Art. Kinds a) b) c) d) e) Donation inter vivos (Art. 769) Exclude: Intellectual creations PRESCRIPTION I. 765. grounds for reduction b) How done c) Effects c) Prescription e) Inofficious donations (Arts. 1027) 8. Void donations (Arts. Effects a) b) c) d) e) of donation/limitations In general Double donations Excessive/inofficious Scope of amount (Arts. Definition (Art.3. 1129-1130) 12    . Arts. 729) Donation by reason of marriage (Family Code. modal. 1127) b) Just title (Arts. Revocation or reduction a) Grounds for revocation. Qualifications of donor. 771-773) f) Ingratitude (Arts. 739-740. donee 6. 748) (ii) Immovables (Art. personal properties (i) Movables (Art.

1529) C. Characteristics 2. Definition 13    . 6. Action to demand partition (Art. 1140) B. 1138) What cannot be required by acquisitive prescription B. Void contracts (Art. Extinctive 1. Civil Code 1. Distinguished from laches G. 1134. 1410) F. 649) 2. 1118-1125) Period (Arts. 1133) B. Other actions (Arts. Requisites 3. To recover movables (Art. To recover immovables (Art.D. Extraordinary (Arts. Action legal to demand a right of way (Art. 4. 1141) C. Interruption (Art. To abate a nuisance D. Prescription or limitation of actions A. Periods II. 494) 1. 1142-1149) IV.3. No Prescription Applicable A. By offender (Art. second par. 1137 and 1132. 1143. 1155) OBLIGATIONS I. 5. Action to quiet title if plaintiff is in possession E. Registered lands (P.) Requisites (Arts. 1132. Property of public dominion III. Art.

Contravention of the tenor of obligation 6. exceptions (Art. Obligation to give 1. Classification of Obligations V. Breaches of obligations 1.II. Specific performance 14    . Extra-contractual obligations VI. A single act or omission can give rise to different causes of action B. Remedies available to creditor in cases of breach 1. Fraud in the performance of obligation a) Waiver of future fraud is void (Art. 1156-1157) A. Negligence (culpa) in the performance of obligation a) Diligence normally required is ordinary diligence or diligence of a good father of a family b) Exception: common carriers which are required to exercise extraordinary diligence 5. Default. Natural obligations C. Sources of obligations (Arts. Complete failure to perform 2. Nature and Effect of Obligations A. 1171) 4. Obligation to do or not to do C. A determinate or specific thing 2. An indeterminate or generic thing B. requisites D. 1169) a) Mora solvendi b) Mora accipiendi c) Compesatio morae 3. Different Kinds of Prestations IV. Legal excuse for breach of obligation: fortuitous event. Elements of an Obligation III. delay or mora – no default unless creditors makes a demand.

1190. loss or deterioration of the specific thing (Art. 1729. Subsidiary remedies of creditors (Art. 1198) 2. Potestative: casual or mixed a) Obligations subject to potestative suspensive conditions are void (Art. Obligation with a period or a term (Art. 1193) 1. Effect if given to debtor alone a) Instances when debtor losses benefit of period (Art. par. 1652. Rescission (resolution in reciprocal obligations) 3. Effect of improvement. Pure (Arts. 1179-1180) B. Resolutory condition 3. Kinds of Civil Obligations A. in any event 4.a) Substituted performance by a third person on obligation to deliver generic thing and in obligation to do. 1893) VII. Effect if suspensive period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor 3. Effect when a resolutory condition in obligation to do or not to do happens and there is improvement. Resolutory period 3. 1197) b) Creditor must ask court to set the period before he can demand payment D. Alternative or facultative (Art. Effect of loss of specific things or impossibility of performance of alternative. 1199) 1. Effect of the happening of suspensive condition or resolutory condition (Art. Presumption that period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor (Art. Conditional (Art. 1177) a) Accion subrogatoria a) Accion pauliana c) Accion directa (Arts. 3) C. 1608. Damages. Definite or indefinite period a) Instances when courts may fix the period (Art. Suspensive condition 2. 1182) 4. Difference between alternative and facultative obligations 2. 1189) 6. 1187) a) Extent of retroactivity 5. 1196) 2. unless a purely personal act 2. loss or deterioration of specific thing before the happening of a suspensive condition in obligation to do or not to do (Art. 1181) 1. through fault of debtor/creditor or through fortuitous events 15    .

Loss of determinate thing due or impossibility or difficulty of performance (Arts. Each one of solidary creditors may do whatever may be useful to the others. 1249) 3. 1225) E. 1222) 3. 1256-1261) B. although he may pay if he wants to (Art. 1245) 2. compensation. 1270) 1. 1270) 2. Express condonations and required formality thereof (Art. 1252-1254) 5. Solidary obligation 1. a) Effect of any novation. 1226. Dation in payment (Art. Extraordinary inflation or deflation (Art. Concurrence of two or more creditors and or two or more debtors a) Joint obligation is presumed. 1236-1238) 1. 1271. Payment (Arts. Joint and Solidary Obligation A. but not anything prejudicial to them (Art. Condonation or remission of debt (Art. 1250) 4. Joint (divisible) obligation 1. Form of payment (Art. Application of payment (Art. 1212). Obligation cannot be performed in parts but debtors are bound jointly 2. unless otherwise indicated by the law or nature of obligation (Art. Extinguishment of Obligations A. 1209) B. 1216.VIII. Implied (Arts. Tender of payment and consignation (Arts. Obligations with a penal clause (Arts. 1266-1267) C. 1262. others not liable for his share (Art. In case of failure of one joint debtor to perform his part (share). 1272. 1207) b) Obligation presumed to be divided into as many equal shares as there are creditors or debtors c) Each credit is distinct from one another. therefore a joint debtor cannot be required to pay for the share of another with debtor. Mutual agency among solidary debtors (Arts. Mutual guaranty among solidary debtors (Arts. 1274) 16    . 1214. Joint indivisible obligation 1. 1228-1230) IX. 1209) d) Insolvency of a joint debtor. 1217. Divisible and indivisible (Art. 1215) 2. there is default but only the guilty debtor shall be liable for damages C. confusion or remission of debt executed by a solidary creditor D.

Kinds of Contracts A. 1261) II. 1275. 1771. 1191 B. Compensation 1. Kinds (Arts. 1286-1290) b) Agreement (Art. Voidable contracts (Arts. 1357. 1287-1288) F. 1773) 3. Defective Contracts A. 1282) c) Voluntary (Art. Difference with rescission (resolution) under Art. 1381) 1. Stipulation to charge interest (Art. Consensual B. 1356. 1278. Novation (Arts.D. Real C. Donations (Arts. 1283) e) Facultative 2. Formal or solemn 1. Sale of large cattle III. Rescissible contracts (Art. 1744) 7. Formality (Arts. Partnership where real property contributed (Arts. Chattel mortgage 8. 1358) IV. 2134) 4. 1279) a) Legal compensation (Arts. 1282) d) Judicial (Art. Antichresis (Art. Stipulation limiting common carrier’s duty of extraordinary diligence to ordinary diligence (Art. 1956) 6. 1291-1304) CONTRACTS I. Essential Requisites (Art. 1390-1402) 17    . 1328-1344. Confusion or Merger of Rights (Arts. Agency to sell real property or an interest therein (Art. 1272) E. Obligations not compensable (Art. 1874) 5. 748-749) 2.

Pactum de non alienando (Art. Capacity of parties (Arts. Stages of contract of sale D. Special disqualifications (Arts. Void contracts (Arts. 2088. 1346) 1. 1317) D. Requisites of a valid subject matter (Arts. Pactum commissorium (Arts. Subject Matter A. Effect of contracts (Art. 1459-1465) 18    . Parties to a Contract of Sale A. Absolute incapacity (Arts. Definition of sales (Arts. Essential requisites of a contract of sale (Art. Unenforceable contracts (Arts. Sale is title and not mode G. 1327. 1489-1492) B. Relative incapacity: married persons D. 1799) V. 1409. 1491-1492) III. Characteristics of a contract of sale F. 2130) 3. 1399) C. Pactum leonina (Art. Obligations created (Art. 1397. 1458. 1311) SALES I. 1390) 2. 1403-1408. Introduction A. 1470) B. 1505) C.C. 2130. Sale distinguished from other contracts H. 1165) E. Contract of sale/contract to sell II.

Option money (Art.1482) VI. Inadequacy of price (Arts. 1325. Art. 1479. 1462. Manner of payment must be agreed upon G. Formation of Contract of Sale A. 1477. 1324) 3. When delivery does not transfer title 19    . Preparatory (Art. Transfer of Ownership A. 1355. 1475. How price is determined D. Right of first refusal 4. Earnest money vs. 1505. 1479) 1. 1475) 2. 1496-1501) B. Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership A. 559) V. 1470) E. Option contract (Arts. Particular kinds IV. Formalities of the contract.B. 1479) B. 1459) 1. 1319. Meaning of price (Arts. Manner of transfer (Arts. Requisites for a valid price C. 1326) C. 1469-1474) B. Exceptions B. Sale by a person having a voidable title (Arts. Mutual promise to buy and sell (Art. Sale by a person not the owner at time of delivery (Arts. 1474) F. When no price agreed (Art. 1403 (d) (e) VII. Perfection (Arts. Price A. 1506. Offer (Art.

Requisites for registration of deed of sale in good faith 2. 1519. General rule (Arts. When loss occurred before perfection C. 1504) IX. 1544) E. Documents of Title A. 1525) B. 1520) X. Definition of unpaid seller (Art.C. When ownership is transferred (Art. Accompanied by vendor’s duplicate certificate of title. 1189) B. Kinds of delivery D. payment of capital gains tax. 1263. When loss occurred at time of perfection (Arts. 1636) B. Risk of Loss A. and documentary tax registration fees VIII. Purpose of documents of title C. When loss occurred after perfection but before delivery E. Remedies of unpaid seller XI. Definition (Art. 1493 and 1494) D. 1516) F. 1514. Non-negotiable documents of title E. Rules on levy/garnishment of goods (Arts. Double sales (Art. Performance of Contract 20    . Warranties of seller of documents of title (Art. Property Registration Decree 1. Negotiable documents of title D. Remedies of an Unpaid Seller A.

Extinguishment of the Sale A. 1543) 3. Secs.D. Sale of immovables XIV. Delivery of thing sold 1. 1537. Buyer’s options in case of breach of warranty (Art. Breach of Contract A. 1602-1604) D. Recto Law: sale of movables on installment (Arts. 1636. Payment of price XII. 1606) 21    . P. Effects of warranties D. 1599) XIII. 1231) B. Express warranties B. Implied warranties (Art. 1539. Effects of waivers E. Causes (Arts. Sale of movable 2. 957. 23. Warranties A.A. 1522. 24 2. Conventional redemption (Art. Remedies of the buyer 1. Inspections and acceptance B. 1480) 2. Equitable mortgage (Arts. Period of redemption (Art. 1594) 1. Sale of movables B. Sale of movables (Arts. 1600. Sale of immovables (Arts. 1601) C. 1547) C. 1484-1486) C. Sale of immovables 1. Remedies of the seller (Arts. Sale of immovables on installment (Maceda Law) D. 1602) E. Distinguished from option to buy (Art.

782) II. Wills 1. Retail Trade Liberalization Act. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree (P. Testamentary capacity and intent (Arts. General Provisions (Arts. In general a) Definition and characteristics (Arts. When succession occurs (Art. 797) b) Soundness of mind (Arts. Legal redemption (Art. 781) B. 777) C.A. Age redemption (Art. 1619) H.F.D. Exercise of the right to redeem (Art.A. 4726) Exclude: Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (R. devisees. Kinds of successors: heirs. 1616) G. 3952) and SUCCESSION I. 776. 784-785. The Condominium Act (R. Testamentary Succession A. 796-803) a) Age requirement (Art. 774-780) A. 786) (ii) Rules of construction and interpretation (Arts. 1619) XV. legatees (Art. 788-794) (iii) Law governing formal validity (Art. 957) XVI. 787) (a) Exception (Art. 8792). Public Land Law. Bulk Sales Law (Act No. Definition/what is transmitted (Arts. 783-787) (i) Act of making a will a strictly personal act (Arts. 798-801) (i) When testator is deemed to be of sound mind (ii) Presumptions (iii) Supervening incapacity 22    . 774. 795) 2.

Preterition (Art.15. 807-808) (iii) Substantial compliance (Art. 819) (i) See law governing substantive validity (Arts. Revocation (Arts. 840-856) 1. 830) 7. 855. 820-824) d) Holographic wills (i) Requirements (Arts. devisees only entitled to completion of legitime 2. Incorporate by reference (Art.3. 839) B. 854 3. 838) (i) Issues to be resolved in probate proceedings (Art. 854) a) Definition b) Requisites c) Effects (i) Effects of preterition. 838-839) a) Probate requirement (Art. 805-806 (ii) Special rules for handicapped testators (Arts. 804) (i) In writing (ii) Language/dialect requirement c) Notarial wills (i) Arts. 906-918 23    . 818-819) 4. Institution of heirs (Arts. 814) (ii) Witnesses required for probate (Art. Allowance and disallowance of wills (Arts. 16. 1039) b) Common requirements (Art. 17. res judicata on formal validity b) Grounds for denying probate (Art. 815-817. 825-826) a) Definition and formal requirements 5. Form a) Rules governing the formal validity of wills (Arts. Concept – Art. Compulsory heirs in the direct line 4. 828-834) a) Kinds (Art. 811) e) Joint wills (Arts. Preterition vs. 809) (iv) Witnesses to wills(Arts. 827) 6. 839) (a) Exceptions: when practical considerations demand the intrinsic validity of the will be resolved (ii) Effect of final decree of probate. Disposition less than legitime/donation inter vivos – Arts. 810-814) (a) Requirements in case of alterations (Art. Codicils (Arts.

886) 2. Acceptance and repudiation of the inheritance (Arts. Relationship (Arts. 1061-1062) E. 1027. 857) 2. 923) b) Disinheritance without cause (Art. 1032) 2. Reserva troncal (Art.C. Capacity to succeed by will or intestacy (Arts. Collation (Arts. 739. 1104-1105) 24    . 908-910. 1080) 2. 1015-1105) A. Partition (Arts. 1100. Persons incapable of succeeding (Arts. 863-866. 1015-1023) 1. 960-969) 1. Partition inter vivos 3. 869) D. Definition (Art. 1015-1016) B. Right of representation (Arts. Fideicommissary substitution (Arts. 924-959) III. 918) 5. 858-860) 3. Conditional testamentary dispositions and testamentary dispositions with a term (Arts. 1079. Definition and requisites (Arts. 970-977) B. Order of intestate succession (Arts. Legal or Intestate Succession (Arts. Legitime (Arts. Kinds (Arts. 978-1014. 891) 4. 859) 4. Compulsory heirs and various combinations (Arts. Right of accretion (Arts. Legacies and devisees (Arts. 1024-1040) 1. 960-1014) A. 1091. 1097. Effects of partition (Arts. 887-903) 3. Definition (Art. 992) IV. 857-870) 1. Disinheritance a) Disinheritance for cause (Art. Substitution of heirs (Arts. Simple substitution (Art. Disinheritance C. 1078-1105) 1.1041-1057) D. 922) (ii) Rights of descendants of person disinherited (Art. Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession (Arts. 963-969) 2. Unworthiness vs. 871-885) E. Partition and distribution of estate (Arts. General provisions (Arts. 886-914) 1. 919) (i) Reconciliation (Art.

1800-1803) II. Partnership v. which will be covered under Remedial Law PARTNERSHIP I. Elements C. Limited G. Limited Partnership A. Dissolution (Art. 1830) VI. Particular. 1058-1060). Joint venture I. Partnership term F. How partnership is formed E. Definition B. Rules to determine existence D. Partnership by estoppel H. Management (Arts. Professional partnership J. Definition 25    . Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves IV. General vs.Exclude: Executors and administrators (Arts. Universal vs. Obligations of Partnership/Partners to Third Persons V. Contract of Partnership A. Rights and Obligations of Partnership III.

To bind principal (Arts. Rights and obligations of a limited partner Exclude: Questions requiring application of SEC opinions or regulations AGENCY I. How limited partnership is formed/amended C. Exception (Art. Powers (Arts. 1883) III. General vs. Agency by Operation of Law IX. Implied Agency IV. Agency by Estoppel V. Irrevocable Agency (Arts. 1927-1930) XI. Definition of Agency II. Modes of Extinguishment 26    . Agency Couched in General Terms VII. 1877-1878) A. Rights and Obligations of Principal X.B. Special Agency VI. 1897-1902) B. Express vs. Agency Requiring Special Power of Attorney VIII.

Effect (Arts. Extinguishment of guaranty D.COMPROMISE I. Pledge 27    . Necessary deposit C. Definition (Art. Voluntary deposit B. 2041) CREDIT TRANSACTIONS I. Guaranty and Suretyship A. 2037. Obligations of bailor and bailee C. 2028) II. Judicial deposit III. Interest and the suspension of usury law II. Loan A. Legal and judicial bonds IV. Deposit A. 2035) III. Effects of guaranty C. Mutuum B. Void Compromise (Art. Nature and extent of guaranty B. Commodatum vs.

Obligation of pledge E. Kinds C. 2093. Foreclosure (Arts. Definition B. 1484) V. 2115) H. Negotiorum gestio B. Essential requisites C. Distinguished from chattel mortgage (Arts. Essential requirements D. Definition and characteristics B. Antichresis A.A. Definition and characteristics B. Definition and characteristics B. 2096) G. Perfection (Arts. Real Mortgage A. 2140. Obligations of antichretic creditor VII. 2112. Solutio indebiti 28    . Quasi-contracts A. 2121-2122) I. Chattel Mortgage A. Pledge by operation of law (Art. Registration VIII. Rights of pledgor F. Foreclosure VI.

Insolvency Law A. Lease of Rural and Urban Lands A. Definition of insolvency B. Lease of Work or Services III. Suspension of payments C. Order of preference of credits X. Exempt property D. Usury Law LEASE I. Lease of Things II. Preferred credits on specific movables C.IX. Prohibitions 29    . Meaning of concurrence and preference B. Concurrence and Preference of Credits A. Registration C. Involuntary insolvency Exclude: Warehouse Receipts Law. Classification of credits E. Qualified persons B. Voluntary insolvency D.

Regalian Doctrine A. time immemorial possession III. Household Service VII. Obligation in case of death/injury of laborers VIII. Certificate of title II. Torrens System A. Contract for Piece of Work LAND TITLES AND DEEDS I. Concept B. 1529 30    . Concept and background B. Effects C. Original Registration A. Citizenship Requirement A. Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee V.D. Concept of native title. Who may apply 1. Special Rules for Lease of Rural/Urban Lands VI. Under P.IV. Contract of Labor A. Individuals and corporations IV.

A. Registration of judgments. Under C. Administrative structure of the Register of Deeds 7. Under R. Voluntary dealings B. elements B.2. Registration process and requirements C. Assurance fund 5.A. Dealings with Unregistered Lands Exclude: 1. Abuse of right. TORTS AND DAMAGES Book I--Torts I. Principles A. orders and partitions 4. Cadastral registration V. Liability without fault D. Remedies D. 8371 B. Subsequent Registration A. 141 3. History of land laws 2. Acts contrary to law 31    . Registration of patents 6. Remedies sufficiently covered under Remedial Law 3. Consultas. Unjust enrichment C. Non-registrable Properties VII. Involuntary dealings VI.

221 (i) Elements. The Tortfeasor A. 2180. Arts. In general a) Quasi-delicts under Art. 2194. The direct tortfeasor 1. According to manner of commission: intentional. 218-219. Joint tortfeasors (Art. Natural persons 2. Persons made responsible for others 1. joint or solidary? 2. and the Family Code. Juridical persons B. Acts contrary to morals II.E. Civil Code) 32    . Classification of Torts A. definition (ii) Distinguished from culpa contractual and culpa criminal b) Indirect liability for intentional acts c) Presumption of negligence on persons indirectly responsible d) Nature of liability. In particular a) Parents b) Guardians c) Owners and managers of establishments and enterprises d) Employers (i) Meaning of employers (ii) Requisites (a) Employee chosen by employer or through another (b) Services rendered in accordance with orders which employer has authority to give (c) Illicit act of employee was on the occasion or by reason of the functions entrusted to him (d) Presumption of negligence (iii) Employer need not be engaged in business or industry (iv) Defense of diligence in selection and supervision (v) Nature of employer’s liability e) State f) Teachers and heads of establishments of arts and trades C. According to scope: general or specific III. negligent and strict liability B.

Elements of right C. Concept of act V. Cause in fact 1. Cause vs. Definition 2. Classes of injury 1. Distinguished from intervening cause 5. Concurrent causes C. Distinguished from immediate cause 4. Test 3.IV. Foreseeability D. Proximate Cause A. Concept B. Substantial factor test 2. Last clear chance VI. Injury to persons 2. Violation of right or legal injury D. Injury to property 3. Concept 1. Condition F. Act of Omission and Its Modalities A. Legal Injury A. Distinguished from remote and concurrent B. Natural and probable consequences 2. Intentional Torts 33    . Legal cause 1. Efficient intervening cause E. Injury to relations VII.

physical injuries (Art. Interference with relations 1.A. Classes a) Interference with persons and property (i) Physical harms (ii) Non-physical harms b) Interference with relations B. General 34    . Civil Code) (i) Battery (physical injury) (ii) Assault (grave threat) c) False imprisonment (illegal detention) d) Trespass to land (i) Concept (ii) Elements e) Interference with personal property (i) Trespass to chattels (ii) Conversion 2. Interference with rights to persons and property 1. Intentional non-physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of personal dignity c) Infliction of emotional distress d) Violation of privacy (i) Appropriation (ii) Intrusion (iii) Public disclosure of private facts (iv) False light in the public eye e) Disturbance of peace of mind f) Malicious prosecution g) Defamation (i) Defenses (a) Absence of elements (b) Privilege h) Fraud or misrepresentation (formerly deceit) i) Seduction j) Unjust dismissal C. 33. Intentional physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of persons security. General 1. Concept 2.

Social relations a) Meddling with or disturbing family relations b) Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from his friends 4.) 6. Negligence A. Standard of care 1. Art. 32) b) Violation of other political rights (freedom of speech. press. Evidence 35    . assembly and petition. Political relations a) Violation of right to suffrage (Civil Code. Good father of a family or reasonably prudent man C. Concept B. Art. 429) (iv) Defense of property (v) Authority of law c) Prescription d) Waiver e) Force majeure VIII. Unreasonable risk of harm E. Family a) b) c) relations Alienation of affection Loss of consortium Criminal conversation (adultery) 3. 1173 2. Economic relations a) Interference with contractual relations b) Unfair competition 5. Civil Code. Art.a) Concept b) Kinds 2. Defenses a) Absence of element b) Privilege (i) Consent (ii) Self-defense and defense of others (iii) Necessity (Civil Code. Emergency rule D. etc.

Legal provisions 2. General 1. Manufacturers or processors a) Elements b) Consumer Act [R. Proprietor of building or structure or thing I. 1144. Violation of constitutional rights 1. Head of family 36    . 7394. and 1150) h) Waiver i) Double recovery (Civil Code. Concept B. (Ch. Arts. Presumption of negligence 1. Public nuisance and private nuisance 3. 1)] C. Defenses 1. Attractive nuisance D. Arts. Nuisance (Civil Code. Art. 694-707) 1. 1146. Complete a) Absence of element (i) Due diligence (ii) Acts of public officers b) Accident or fortuitous event c) Damnum absque injuria d) Authority of law e) Assumption of risk f) Last clear chance g) Prescription (Civil Code. Products liability 1. cities and municipalities G. Secs. Special Liability in Particular Activities A.A. Provinces. Res ipsa loquitur G. Violation of civil liberties E. Owner of motor vehicle H. Nuisance per se and nuisance per accidence 2. 92-107.F. 2177) IX. Violation of rights committed by public officers F.

Nuisance (supra) 1. In crimes and quasi-delicts III. Strict Liability A. In contracts and quasi-contracts 2. Alleged and proved with certainty 2. Under Art. unrealized profit 2. Possessor and user of an animal B. Animals 1. According to purpose 3. Value of loss. Products liability (supra) 1. Consumer act Book II--Damages I. Classification 1. Special and ordinary II. Attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation 3. 2197 of the Civil Code 2. Easement against nuisance C. Interest D. According to manner of determination 4. Requisites 1. Concept B. Component elements 1. Moral Damages 37    . Classes a) Per se or per accidents b) Public or private 2. Not speculative C. Actual and Compensatory Damages A. Extent or scope of actual damages 1. General Considerations A.X.

Art. 3. 2233. Civil Code. Art. 2219-2220) 1. In crimes and quasi-delicts causing death 1. Nominal Damages A. 2217-2218) B. 21. Concept (Civil Code. rape and other lascivious acts 2. Requisites 1. In acts referred to in Arts. 2226) B. Art. Arts. Damages in Case of Death A. 32. 27. In seduction. Graduation of Damages 38    . 29. Liquidated Damages A. 2232) C. Art. 2230) 2. In contracts and quasi-contracts (Civil Code. 2229) B. When awarded V. When awarded VI. Concept (Civil Code. 26. Art. In quasi-delicts (Civil Code. Rules governing in case of breach of contract VII. In cases of malicious prosecution IV. Exemplary or Corrective Damages A. When recovered 1. Concept (Arts. 2231) 3. Temperate or Moderate Damages A. In criminal offenses (Civil Code. 2234 VIII. 34 & 35. 28.A. When recoverable (Arts. Concept B. In death caused by breach of conduct by a common crime IX. Concept B. abduction.

2223) 2. 2223) Exclude: Distinction between tort and quasi-delict Include: Pertinent Supreme Court decisions promulgated up to January 31. 4. 2. 2214) In contracts. Nominal damages (Art. Damages that must co-exist 1. liquidated or compensatory C.A. Art. Art. More is required for excellent and distinguished work as members of the Bar. 3. 2226) B. Important note: This bar coverage description is not intended and should not be used by law schools as a syllabus or course outline in the covered subjects. temperate. Miscellaneous Rules A. 39    . Actual and liquidated (Art. 2012. Rules 1. 2227) Compromise X. Duty of injured party 1. It has been drawn up for the limited purpose of ensuring that candidates reviewing for the bar examinations are guided on what basic and minimum amounts of laws. and principles they need to know and be able to use correctly before they can be licensed to practice law. In crimes In quasi-delict (Civil Code. Exemplary with moral. doctrines. 2215) Liquidated damages (Civil Code. Art. Art. Nominal with other damages (Art. 5. Damages that cannot co-exist 1. 2203 B. quasi-contracts and quasi-delicts (Civil Code. Damages that must stand alone 1.

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