SYLLABUS FOR THE 2012 BAR EXAMINATIONS

CIVIL LAW

I. Effect and Application of Laws A. When law takes effect (Civil Code, Art. 2) B. Ignorance of the law (Civil Code, Art. 3) C. Retroactivity of laws (Civil Code, Art. 4) D. Mandatory or prohibitory laws (Civil Code, Art. 5) E. Waiver of rights (Civil Code, Art. 6) F. Repeal of laws (Civil Code, Art. 7) G. Judicial decisions (Civil Code, Art. 8) H. Duty to render judgment (Civil Code, Art. 9) I. Presumption and applicability of custom (Civil Code, Arts. 10-12) J. Legal periods (Civil Code, Art. 13, as amended by Book I, Sec. 31 of the Administrative Code of 1987 (EO 292)) K. Applicability of penal laws (Civil Code, Art. 14) L. Conflict of laws (Civil Code, Arts. 15-18) II. Human Relations (Civil Code, Arts. 19-22) Exclude: Independent Civil Actions and prejudicial questions which will be covered by the examinations in Remedial Law PERSONS I. Persons and Personality (Civil Code) A. Capacity to act 1. Civil personality (Art. 37) 2. Restrictions on capacity to act (Arts. 38-39) 3. Birth (Arts. 40-41) 1   

4. Death (Arts. 42-43) a) Compare Art. 43 with Rule 131, Sec. 3 (jj) presumption of survivorship 5. Juridical Persons, Civil Code, Arts. 44-46 B. Domicile and residence (Arts. 50-51) II. Marriage (Family Code) Exclude: Muslim Code (P.D. 1083) A. Nature of marriage B. Requisites 1. Kinds of requisites (Family Code, Arts. 2-3) 3. Effect of absence of requisites (Art. 4) 4. Essential requisites (Art. 5) a) Age b) Consent 5. Formal (Arts. 7, 31, 32) 6. Ceremony (Art. 6) 7. Solemnizing authority (Art. 7-8, 10) a) Exceptions (Art. 35 (2)) 8. License required (Arts. 3 (2), 9, 11, 20, 26) a) Foreign national (Art. 21) b) Exceptions (Arts. 27, 31-32, 34) 9. Marriage certificate (Art. 22) Exclude: Duties of a Civil Registrar under Arts. 12-19, 23-25 B. Effect of marriage celebrated abroad and foreign divorce (Art. 26) C. Void and voidable marriages 1. Void marriages (Arts. 5, 35, 36-38, 52-53) a) Absence of requisites (Art. 35) b) Psychological incapacity (Art. 36) c) Incestuous marriages (Arts. 37-38) 2. Prescription (Art. 39) 3. Subsequent marriage (Arts. 40-44) 4. Annullable marriage (Arts. 14, 45-46) 5. Voidable marriages (Art. 45-47) 6. Presence of prosecutor (Art. 48) 7. Pendency of action (Art. 49) 8. Effects of nullity (Arts. 50-54) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-10-SC, Rule on Declaration of Absolute Nullity of Void Marriages and Annulment of Voidable Marriages; R.A. 6955, entitled “An Act to 2   

Declare Unlawful the Practice of Matching Filipino Women for Marriage to Foreign Nationals on a Mail Order Basis and Other Similar Practices…”; R.A. 9208 or the
Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 III. Legal Separation A. Grounds (Art. 55 and R.A. 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) B. Defenses (Arts. 56-57) C. Cooling-off period (Art. 58) D. Reconciliation efforts (Art. 59) E. Confession of judgment (Art. 60) F. Effects of filing petition (Art. 61) G. Effects of pendency (Art. 62) H. Effects of legal separation (Arts. 63-64) 1. Reconciliation (Arts. 65-67) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-11-SC or the Rule on Legal Separation IV. Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife A. Essential obligations (Art. 68) B. Family domicile (Art. 69) C. Support (Art. 70) D. Management of household (Art. 71) E. Effect of neglect of duty (Art. 72) F. Exercise of profession (Art. 73) Exclude: R.A. 7192 or the Women in Development and Nation Building Act; R.A. 8187, or the Paternity Leave Act of 1996; R.A. 9710 or The Magna Carta of Women. V. Property Relations of the Spouses 3   

Property regime of unions without marriage (Arts. 99-101) 6. The family home (Arts. Conjugal Partnership of Gains 1. 50) C. 102-104) E. 105-108) 2. 82-83. 147-148) VI. 161 and 162 VII. 91-93) 3. Paternity and Filiation A. 157. administration. 88-90) 2. Liquidation of the absolute community assets and liabilities (Arts. 172-174) 4    . Void donations by the spouses (Art. The Family A. What constitutes community property (Arts. 116-120) 4. 76-81) B. General provisions (Arts. 121123) 5. General provisions (Arts. 143-146) H. Liquidation of the conjugal partnership assets and liabilities (Arts. enjoyment and disposition of the community property (Arts. 129-133) F. 149-151) B. Marriage settlements (Arts. Dissolution of community regime (Arts. 109-115) 3. 96-98) 5. 86. 126-128) 7. 152-165) Exclude: Arts. Exclusive property of each spouse (Arts. 87) D. Ownership. 134-142) G. Dissolution of the regime of Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. 43(3). Separation of property of the spouses and administration of common property by one spouse during the marriage (Arts. Administration of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Regime of separation of property (Arts. 75-85. 163-171) B. Conjugal partnership property (Arts. Absolute Community of Property 1. Charges upon and obligations of the community property (Arts. 94-95) 4. Donations by reason of marriage (Arts.A. Charges upon and obligations of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. The family as an institution (Arts. 124-125) 6. Proof of filiation (Arts. Legitimate children (Arts.

175 and Art. Support A. Amount (Arts. 206-208) C. Rule on Adoption (A. 189 and 190 on successional rights) 4. Attachment (Art. 194) B. Support during marriage litigation (Art.A. Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (R. 02-6-02-SC ) 2. 205) 5    .M. R. 8043) 1. 199-200. Rights of an adopted child (include Family Code. What it comprises (Art. Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (R. 176 as amended by R. Who can be adopted Exclude: Arts. 9255 allowing illegitimate children to use the surname of their father) D.” B.A. 191-193 of the Family Code IX.C. Arts. No. Legitimated children (Arts. Who are obliged (Arts. 195-197. 9523. 204) G. Who can adopt 2. 201-202) E. No. 06-11-5-SC or the Rule on DNA Evidence VIII. 198) D. 183-188. Rescission of adoption Exclude: 1. 8552) 1.A. 177-182) Exclude: A. When demandable (Art. Who can adopt 2. Options (Art. 203) F. Who can be adopted 3.M. Illegitimate children (Art.A. Adoption A. entitled “An Act Requiring Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to Declare a “Child Legally Available for Adoption” as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings….

X.M. 216-219) C.A. Parental Authority A. No. Art. 03-04-04-SC) 3. Effects of parental authority upon the property of the children (Arts. Funerals (Civil Code. as amended by R. 305-310) Exclude: Care and Education of Children (Arts. 9231. 43. Civil Code) XV. 228-233)   1.A. Summary Judicial Proceedings in Family Law Cases XIII. 369-380 (other articles repealed by Family Code) XVI. 6809 which lowered the age of majority) XII. 220-224) Exclude: 1. Suspension or termination of parental authority (Arts. 8972) 4. 254-255. 03-02-05-SC) 2. The Early Childhood Care and Development Act (R. Child Abuse Law (R. 364-369. entitled “An Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child…” which will be covered under Labor Law E. 41 Family Code) 6    .A. 225-227) Exclude: R. 8980) D. 234 and 236. Emancipation (Arts. Use of Surnames Arts. General provisions (Arts. Retroactivity of the Family Code (Art. Absence (Civil Code. 7610)  XI. Rule on Guardianship of Minors (A. 256) Exclude: Arts. 209-215) B. 257 of the Family Code XIV. 356-363. Rules on Custody of Minors and Writ of Habeas Corpus in Relation to Custody of Minors (A. Effect of parental authority upon the persons of the children (Arts.A. Arts. Substitute and special parental authority (Arts.M. No.A. Solo Parents' Welfare Act of 2000 (R. Art.

461-462 and P. Presumption of death (Arts. 415-418) A. 407-413 B. 390-392) Exclude: Arts. 440) 1. Administration of the property of the absentee (Arts. With respect to immovable property a) Builder. 381-383) B. Right of accession (Art. 438-439) B. 449-450) b) Usufructuary (Art. 393-396 on contingent assets XVII. sower in good faith (Arts. 441-444) 2. sower in bad faith (Arts. Characteristics II. planter.389) D. Rules of Court Exclude: Act No.”) C. 579) 3. Declaration of absence (Arts. 448-456) (ii) Builder. sower on land of another in the concept of owner (i) Builder. 1067 or the Water Code) 7    .D. entitled “An Act Authorizing the City or Municipal Civil Registrar or the Consul General to Correct a Clerical or Typographical Error in an Entry and/or Change of First Name or Nickname in the Civil Register Without Need of a Judicial Order…. Civil Registrar A. planter. Arts. Correction of Clerical Errors (R. 375 and the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R. Hidden treasure (Arts. 457) b) Change of course of river (Arts.A. 384-386) C. 387. Classification (Arts. Provisional measures in case of absence (Arts. Lands adjoining river banks a) Alluvion (Art. Rule 108. 9048 PROPERTY I.A. planter. 9048. Fruits (Arts.A.

Of public dominion 2.c) Avulsion (Arts. eminent domain. Distinction between real and personal rights B. state of necessity). Fungible/non-fungible III. Real or immovable 2. mortgages imposed by contract) 8    . nuisance. easements voluntarily imposed by owner (servitudes. 464-465) C. Modes of acquiring ownership 1. Ownership A. disponendi (possidendi) (i) Actions to recover ownership and possession of real property (a) Distinctions between accion reivindicatoria. police power 2. Islands (Arts. fruendi. By nature 1. Consumable/non-consumable vs. 459-463) 4. By object 1. not weakness of defendant’s claim 2. Original 2. By owner 1. accion interdictal (b) Distinction between forcible entry and unlawful detainer (ii) Actions for recovery of possession of movable property (iii) Requisites for recovery of property (a) Proof of right (b) Identity (c) Reliance on strength of own evidence. Derivative C. vindicandi. Bundle of rights a) Jus utendi. abutendi. accion publiciana. Personal or movable D. Of private ownership a) Patrimonial property (i) Distinction between private property of individual persons and of state entities E. Specific limitations: those imposed by law (sic utere tuo. Limitations 1. General limitations: taxation. Right in general 1.

articles and by-laws of the condominium corporation or the association.A. Accession A. 957. Realty Installment Buyer Act c) Grounds for partition of common areas. planting. Co-ownership A. specification) b) Rules for determining the principal and accessory V. adjunction. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree and R. commixtion/ confusion. declaration of restrictions. 6552. For immovables: a) Accession discreta (natural. sowing in good faith or bad faith) c) Accession natural (accretion. In general 2. Right to hidden treasure B. 476-481) A. industrial. islands) 2. For movables: a) Accession continua (conjunction. avulsion. Quieting of Title to or Interest in and Removal or Prevention of Cloud over Title to or Interest in Real Property (Arts. Special rules a) Concept of condominium (i) Condominium corporation (ii) Interest in real property (iii) Concept of common areas. amendment (iv) Documents to consider (master deed.IV. Characteristics of co-ownership 1. or dissolution of the condominium B. where applicable) b) Rights and obligations of condominium owners (i) Contributions/dues (ii) P. General rules 1. civil fruits) and continua (over immovables: artificial/industrial and natural) b) Accession industrial (building. Requirement B. Source of co-ownership 9    .D. Distinction between quieting of title and removing/preventing a cloud C. Prescription/non-prescription of action VI. rivers.

Possession A. 548) 2. 1134. 545) b) Right to be reimbursed (i) Necessary and useful expenses (Arts. 559. Classification 10    . 719-720) 3. How acquired (Art. Right to oppose acts of alteration 3. Loss or unlawful deprivation of a movable (Arts. 544. 1132. 546-547) (ii) Expenses for pure luxury (Art. Usufruct A. Effects of possession 1. Loss/termination VIII. Characteristics B. 552) D. Distinction between right to property owned in common and full ownership over his/her ideal share 2. Effect of partition 2. 549. Finder of lost movable (Arts. Rights of the possessor G. Distinguished from voidable title (Art. 1505(3)) 1. 1140. Right to redemption of co-owners share D. Period to recover (Arts. Waiver 6. In concept of owner. 449. Possessor in good faith (Arts. in name of another F. Rights against individual co-owners in case of partition 3. 1506) E. Possessor in bad faith (Arts. Characteristics B. taxes) 5. holder. in one’s own name. 531) C. Termination/extinguishment 1. Right to partition 4. Right to contributions for expenses (necessary expenses. 1133) 2. Rights of co-owners 1.C. Partition in case co-owners cannot agree VII. 526-527) a) Right to pending fruits (Art.

Nuisance (Arts. 688) a) Effect of zoning ordinance C. Definition B. How terminated X. Rights and obligations of dominant and subservient estate E. Characteristics a) Extent to which donor may donate property b) Reservations and reversions 11    . 669-673) D. Rights and obligations of usufructuary D. Classification 1. 620-624) 2. Characteristics B. Occupation (Art. Donation 1. Compulsory easements (Arts. Modes of Acquiring Ownership (Art. Legal easements a) Right of way 2. 712) A. Easements (Arts. Rights of the owner E. 613. 713) B.C. Classification C. Modes of acquiring easements 1. Voluntary easements (Art. Extinction/termination IX. 725-726. 615-616) A. Remedies XI. 746) 2. Easement of light and view (Arts. Definition (Arts. 694-707) A.

conditional 4. 760-761. 1027) 8. 1129-1130) 12    . 728) Onerous donation (Art. modal. 1117) 1. Acquisitive (Art. 750-752) In fraud of creditors (Art. 733) Simple. Kinds a) b) c) d) e) Donation inter vivos (Art. 759) 7. 82-83. Arts. 765. personal properties (i) Movables (Art. 86) Donation mortis causa (Art. 749) 5. Definition (Art. 748) (ii) Immovables (Art.3. Formalities required a) How made and accepted b) Perfection c) Differences between formalities for donation of real. Revocation or reduction a) Grounds for revocation. 729) Donation by reason of marriage (Family Code. 1127) b) Just title (Arts. Ordinary a) Good faith (Art. Qualifications of donor. 769) Exclude: Intellectual creations PRESCRIPTION I. Effects a) b) c) d) e) of donation/limitations In general Double donations Excessive/inofficious Scope of amount (Arts. Characteristics 2. 739-740. donee 6. Void donations (Arts. 771-773) f) Ingratitude (Arts. 1106) A. grounds for reduction b) How done c) Effects c) Prescription e) Inofficious donations (Arts.

649) 2. 6. 1137 and 1132. 1141) C. Art. Registered lands (P. Action legal to demand a right of way (Art. Characteristics 2. 1132.) Requisites (Arts. Periods II. 494) 1. Definition 13    . By offender (Art. 1410) F. 1140) B. 1142-1149) IV. 1155) OBLIGATIONS I. 1118-1125) Period (Arts.D. Interruption (Art. Property of public dominion III. Extraordinary (Arts. To abate a nuisance D. Civil Code 1. 1134. 1143. Extinctive 1. Requisites 3. 1529) C. Other actions (Arts. Distinguished from laches G. 1133) B. 4. Prescription or limitation of actions A. No Prescription Applicable A. second par.3. Void contracts (Art. To recover movables (Art. To recover immovables (Art. 5. 1138) What cannot be required by acquisitive prescription B. Action to demand partition (Art. Action to quiet title if plaintiff is in possession E.

requisites D. exceptions (Art. Complete failure to perform 2. Classification of Obligations V. Natural obligations C. An indeterminate or generic thing B. Remedies available to creditor in cases of breach 1. delay or mora – no default unless creditors makes a demand. Specific performance 14    . Extra-contractual obligations VI. 1169) a) Mora solvendi b) Mora accipiendi c) Compesatio morae 3. Nature and Effect of Obligations A.II. Elements of an Obligation III. A single act or omission can give rise to different causes of action B. Fraud in the performance of obligation a) Waiver of future fraud is void (Art. 1156-1157) A. A determinate or specific thing 2. 1171) 4. Obligation to give 1. Legal excuse for breach of obligation: fortuitous event. Contravention of the tenor of obligation 6. Negligence (culpa) in the performance of obligation a) Diligence normally required is ordinary diligence or diligence of a good father of a family b) Exception: common carriers which are required to exercise extraordinary diligence 5. Different Kinds of Prestations IV. Sources of obligations (Arts. Breaches of obligations 1. Default. Obligation to do or not to do C.

1199) 1. Alternative or facultative (Art. Effect when a resolutory condition in obligation to do or not to do happens and there is improvement. 1729. Definite or indefinite period a) Instances when courts may fix the period (Art. 1608. 1177) a) Accion subrogatoria a) Accion pauliana c) Accion directa (Arts. loss or deterioration of the specific thing (Art. 1189) 6. Presumption that period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor (Art. Suspensive condition 2. 1190. Damages. Obligation with a period or a term (Art. Effect if given to debtor alone a) Instances when debtor losses benefit of period (Art. 1893) VII. Subsidiary remedies of creditors (Art. 1182) 4. 1193) 1.a) Substituted performance by a third person on obligation to deliver generic thing and in obligation to do. Effect of the happening of suspensive condition or resolutory condition (Art. Effect of loss of specific things or impossibility of performance of alternative. Difference between alternative and facultative obligations 2. Resolutory condition 3. 1196) 2. Pure (Arts. through fault of debtor/creditor or through fortuitous events 15    . 3) C. Potestative: casual or mixed a) Obligations subject to potestative suspensive conditions are void (Art. 1197) b) Creditor must ask court to set the period before he can demand payment D. unless a purely personal act 2. 1181) 1. Rescission (resolution in reciprocal obligations) 3. 1179-1180) B. 1187) a) Extent of retroactivity 5. loss or deterioration of specific thing before the happening of a suspensive condition in obligation to do or not to do (Art. Kinds of Civil Obligations A. Conditional (Art. in any event 4. par. 1652. Effect if suspensive period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor 3. Resolutory period 3. Effect of improvement. 1198) 2.

Each one of solidary creditors may do whatever may be useful to the others. 1271.VIII. 1236-1238) 1. 1252-1254) 5. 1272. Application of payment (Art. Concurrence of two or more creditors and or two or more debtors a) Joint obligation is presumed. confusion or remission of debt executed by a solidary creditor D. Divisible and indivisible (Art. Obligation cannot be performed in parts but debtors are bound jointly 2. 1214. 1228-1230) IX. Dation in payment (Art. therefore a joint debtor cannot be required to pay for the share of another with debtor. but not anything prejudicial to them (Art. a) Effect of any novation. there is default but only the guilty debtor shall be liable for damages C. 1249) 3. unless otherwise indicated by the law or nature of obligation (Art. although he may pay if he wants to (Art. In case of failure of one joint debtor to perform his part (share). others not liable for his share (Art. 1207) b) Obligation presumed to be divided into as many equal shares as there are creditors or debtors c) Each credit is distinct from one another. Obligations with a penal clause (Arts. compensation. 1266-1267) C. 1222) 3. Joint indivisible obligation 1. Condonation or remission of debt (Art. Mutual guaranty among solidary debtors (Arts. 1250) 4. 1209) B. Payment (Arts. Joint and Solidary Obligation A. Implied (Arts. 1225) E. 1270) 1. 1215) 2. Solidary obligation 1. 1256-1261) B. Loss of determinate thing due or impossibility or difficulty of performance (Arts. 1274) 16    . Express condonations and required formality thereof (Art. 1270) 2. Mutual agency among solidary debtors (Arts. Extinguishment of Obligations A. 1212). 1226. 1216. 1245) 2. Tender of payment and consignation (Arts. 1262. Extraordinary inflation or deflation (Art. 1217. Form of payment (Art. Joint (divisible) obligation 1. 1209) d) Insolvency of a joint debtor.

Obligations not compensable (Art. Defective Contracts A. 1287-1288) F. 1390-1402) 17    . 1283) e) Facultative 2. 1272) E. 1771. Partnership where real property contributed (Arts. 1275. Chattel mortgage 8. 1328-1344. 1291-1304) CONTRACTS I. Kinds (Arts. 1191 B. Formal or solemn 1. Rescissible contracts (Art. 1278. 1744) 7. 1357. Stipulation to charge interest (Art. Agency to sell real property or an interest therein (Art. 2134) 4. 1358) IV. Donations (Arts. 1279) a) Legal compensation (Arts. Consensual B. Compensation 1. Sale of large cattle III. 1286-1290) b) Agreement (Art. Stipulation limiting common carrier’s duty of extraordinary diligence to ordinary diligence (Art. 1282) d) Judicial (Art. 1956) 6. 1282) c) Voluntary (Art. 1261) II. Kinds of Contracts A. Antichresis (Art. 1356. Confusion or Merger of Rights (Arts. Formality (Arts. Real C. 748-749) 2. Difference with rescission (resolution) under Art. Essential Requisites (Art.D. 1773) 3. 1874) 5. Voidable contracts (Arts. Novation (Arts. 1381) 1.

Pactum leonina (Art. 1311) SALES I. 1165) E. 1327. Contract of sale/contract to sell II.C. 1409. Pactum de non alienando (Art. 1799) V. Stages of contract of sale D. 1317) D. 2130. Characteristics of a contract of sale F. Sale is title and not mode G. 1505) C. Sale distinguished from other contracts H. 1489-1492) B. 1491-1492) III. Pactum commissorium (Arts. Obligations created (Art. 1399) C. 2130) 3. Unenforceable contracts (Arts. Void contracts (Arts. Introduction A. Capacity of parties (Arts. 1458. Relative incapacity: married persons D. 1397. 1346) 1. Definition of sales (Arts. Special disqualifications (Arts. 2088. Essential requisites of a contract of sale (Art. Parties to a Contract of Sale A. 1390) 2. Absolute incapacity (Arts. 1470) B. 1403-1408. 1459-1465) 18    . Subject Matter A. Effect of contracts (Art. Requisites of a valid subject matter (Arts.

1470) E. 1475) 2. 1496-1501) B. 1474) F. Option money (Art. 1319. 1355. 1325. Manner of payment must be agreed upon G. How price is determined D. Exceptions B. Mutual promise to buy and sell (Art. Sale by a person having a voidable title (Arts. Manner of transfer (Arts. 1403 (d) (e) VII. 1479) B. Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership A. 1469-1474) B. Perfection (Arts. Meaning of price (Arts. Formation of Contract of Sale A. Preparatory (Art. 559) V. Transfer of Ownership A. Price A. 1324) 3. 1477. Formalities of the contract. When delivery does not transfer title 19    .B. Earnest money vs. Art. Inadequacy of price (Arts. Option contract (Arts. 1459) 1. Requisites for a valid price C. Right of first refusal 4. When no price agreed (Art. 1475.1482) VI. Offer (Art. 1506. Sale by a person not the owner at time of delivery (Arts. Particular kinds IV. 1479. 1462. 1479) 1. 1326) C. 1505.

1516) F. When loss occurred before perfection C. Rules on levy/garnishment of goods (Arts. Definition of unpaid seller (Art. Kinds of delivery D. Performance of Contract 20    . Property Registration Decree 1. Double sales (Art. payment of capital gains tax. When loss occurred at time of perfection (Arts. When ownership is transferred (Art. Definition (Art. 1189) B. Purpose of documents of title C. 1493 and 1494) D. Negotiable documents of title D. and documentary tax registration fees VIII. 1514. Remedies of unpaid seller XI.C. 1504) IX. Remedies of an Unpaid Seller A. 1519. Documents of Title A. Non-negotiable documents of title E. 1525) B. 1544) E. Requisites for registration of deed of sale in good faith 2. 1263. When loss occurred after perfection but before delivery E. General rule (Arts. 1520) X. 1636) B. Warranties of seller of documents of title (Art. Risk of Loss A. Accompanied by vendor’s duplicate certificate of title.

Remedies of the buyer 1. 1594) 1. 1543) 3. Secs. Effects of waivers E.D. Recto Law: sale of movables on installment (Arts. 957. Causes (Arts. Sale of immovables 1. 1602) E. 1231) B. Conventional redemption (Art.A. 1602-1604) D. Implied warranties (Art. 1537. Sale of immovables (Arts. Sale of movable 2. Delivery of thing sold 1. Inspections and acceptance B. 1599) XIII. Remedies of the seller (Arts. 1522. 23. Breach of Contract A. 1601) C. 1606) 21    . 1636. Sale of immovables XIV. Sale of movables (Arts. 1600. Sale of immovables on installment (Maceda Law) D. 1484-1486) C. 24 2. Effects of warranties D. P. Period of redemption (Art. 1547) C. Distinguished from option to buy (Art. Extinguishment of the Sale A. Warranties A. Payment of price XII. 1539. Sale of movables B. 1480) 2. Express warranties B. Buyer’s options in case of breach of warranty (Art. Equitable mortgage (Arts.

3952) and SUCCESSION I. Retail Trade Liberalization Act.F. 8792). Legal redemption (Art. 788-794) (iii) Law governing formal validity (Art. 796-803) a) Age requirement (Art. 786) (ii) Rules of construction and interpretation (Arts.D. Testamentary capacity and intent (Arts. devisees. 1616) G. Testamentary Succession A. 784-785. Age redemption (Art. 783-787) (i) Act of making a will a strictly personal act (Arts. General Provisions (Arts. 787) (a) Exception (Art. 774-780) A.A. Exercise of the right to redeem (Art. Definition/what is transmitted (Arts.A. Wills 1. 777) C. Bulk Sales Law (Act No. 797) b) Soundness of mind (Arts. 795) 2. 957) XVI. 782) II. 781) B. 1619) H. 774. In general a) Definition and characteristics (Arts. 776. Kinds of successors: heirs. legatees (Art. 1619) XV. Public Land Law. 798-801) (i) When testator is deemed to be of sound mind (ii) Presumptions (iii) Supervening incapacity 22    . The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree (P. When succession occurs (Art. 4726) Exclude: Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (R. The Condominium Act (R.

devisees only entitled to completion of legitime 2. 804) (i) In writing (ii) Language/dialect requirement c) Notarial wills (i) Arts. 839) B.15. 1039) b) Common requirements (Art. 839) (a) Exceptions: when practical considerations demand the intrinsic validity of the will be resolved (ii) Effect of final decree of probate. Institution of heirs (Arts. 807-808) (iii) Substantial compliance (Art. 827) 6. 811) e) Joint wills (Arts. 838) (i) Issues to be resolved in probate proceedings (Art. 818-819) 4. 16. 840-856) 1. 820-824) d) Holographic wills (i) Requirements (Arts. Preterition vs. 854 3. 825-826) a) Definition and formal requirements 5. Codicils (Arts. 906-918 23    . 815-817. Disposition less than legitime/donation inter vivos – Arts.3. 855. 828-834) a) Kinds (Art. 805-806 (ii) Special rules for handicapped testators (Arts. 838-839) a) Probate requirement (Art. 819) (i) See law governing substantive validity (Arts. Compulsory heirs in the direct line 4. 809) (iv) Witnesses to wills(Arts. Incorporate by reference (Art. Preterition (Art. 854) a) Definition b) Requisites c) Effects (i) Effects of preterition. Form a) Rules governing the formal validity of wills (Arts. Allowance and disallowance of wills (Arts. 17. Revocation (Arts. res judicata on formal validity b) Grounds for denying probate (Art. 810-814) (a) Requirements in case of alterations (Art. 830) 7. Concept – Art. 814) (ii) Witnesses required for probate (Art.

Acceptance and repudiation of the inheritance (Arts. Disinheritance C. 918) 5. Definition (Art. 857) 2. Fideicommissary substitution (Arts. 857-870) 1. Reserva troncal (Art. Legacies and devisees (Arts. 886) 2. 970-977) B. Right of accretion (Arts.1041-1057) D. Compulsory heirs and various combinations (Arts. 922) (ii) Rights of descendants of person disinherited (Art.C. Kinds (Arts. Legitime (Arts. 1061-1062) E. 919) (i) Reconciliation (Art. 887-903) 3. 1015-1016) B. 1104-1105) 24    . Partition inter vivos 3. Legal or Intestate Succession (Arts. Order of intestate succession (Arts. Relationship (Arts. Definition and requisites (Arts. 1079. 871-885) E. 886-914) 1. 891) 4. 1100. 863-866. 963-969) 2. 978-1014. Effects of partition (Arts. 1027. Partition and distribution of estate (Arts. Conditional testamentary dispositions and testamentary dispositions with a term (Arts. Disinheritance a) Disinheritance for cause (Art. Simple substitution (Art. Collation (Arts. Unworthiness vs. Partition (Arts. Definition (Art. 924-959) III. 992) IV. 923) b) Disinheritance without cause (Art. 859) 4. 1080) 2. Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession (Arts. 1097. Right of representation (Arts. Capacity to succeed by will or intestacy (Arts. 1015-1105) A. Persons incapable of succeeding (Arts. 960-969) 1. 1015-1023) 1. 960-1014) A. 869) D. 1032) 2. 1024-1040) 1. 908-910. 739. Substitution of heirs (Arts. 858-860) 3. General provisions (Arts. 1078-1105) 1. 1091.

which will be covered under Remedial Law PARTNERSHIP I. How partnership is formed E. Definition B. Elements C. Limited Partnership A. Partnership by estoppel H. Rules to determine existence D. Partnership term F. Dissolution (Art. Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves IV. Particular. Management (Arts. General vs. Universal vs. Definition 25    . 1800-1803) II. Limited G. Joint venture I. Rights and Obligations of Partnership III. Partnership v. Obligations of Partnership/Partners to Third Persons V. Contract of Partnership A. 1058-1060). 1830) VI.Exclude: Executors and administrators (Arts. Professional partnership J.

Definition of Agency II. Agency Couched in General Terms VII. 1897-1902) B. Express vs. General vs. Exception (Art. Agency Requiring Special Power of Attorney VIII. Agency by Estoppel V. Implied Agency IV. Modes of Extinguishment 26    . 1883) III. 1927-1930) XI. Agency by Operation of Law IX. Rights and Obligations of Principal X. 1877-1878) A. Irrevocable Agency (Arts.B. Rights and obligations of a limited partner Exclude: Questions requiring application of SEC opinions or regulations AGENCY I. Special Agency VI. To bind principal (Arts. Powers (Arts. How limited partnership is formed/amended C.

COMPROMISE I. 2041) CREDIT TRANSACTIONS I. 2035) III. Void Compromise (Art. Commodatum vs. Effects of guaranty C. Deposit A. Necessary deposit C. Judicial deposit III. Loan A. Pledge 27    . 2028) II. Guaranty and Suretyship A. Interest and the suspension of usury law II. Extinguishment of guaranty D. Nature and extent of guaranty B. Obligations of bailor and bailee C. Effect (Arts. Definition (Art. Legal and judicial bonds IV. 2037. Mutuum B. Voluntary deposit B.

2115) H. Negotiorum gestio B. Solutio indebiti 28    . Foreclosure VI. 2093. Antichresis A. 2096) G. Real Mortgage A. 1484) V. Essential requisites C. 2140. 2112. Registration VIII. Obligation of pledge E.A. Obligations of antichretic creditor VII. Foreclosure (Arts. Perfection (Arts. Essential requirements D. Rights of pledgor F. Quasi-contracts A. Kinds C. Chattel Mortgage A. Definition and characteristics B. 2121-2122) I. Pledge by operation of law (Art. Definition B. Definition and characteristics B. Distinguished from chattel mortgage (Arts. Definition and characteristics B.

Definition of insolvency B. Registration C. Lease of Things II. Insolvency Law A. Classification of credits E. Voluntary insolvency D. Suspension of payments C. Prohibitions 29    . Exempt property D. Involuntary insolvency Exclude: Warehouse Receipts Law. Qualified persons B. Usury Law LEASE I. Concurrence and Preference of Credits A. Preferred credits on specific movables C. Meaning of concurrence and preference B. Order of preference of credits X.IX. Lease of Rural and Urban Lands A. Lease of Work or Services III.

Regalian Doctrine A. Original Registration A. Citizenship Requirement A. Concept of native title. Special Rules for Lease of Rural/Urban Lands VI. time immemorial possession III.IV. Torrens System A. 1529 30    . Contract of Labor A. Under P. Concept and background B.D. Contract for Piece of Work LAND TITLES AND DEEDS I. Household Service VII. Obligation in case of death/injury of laborers VIII. Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee V. Concept B. Who may apply 1. Certificate of title II. Effects C. Individuals and corporations IV.

History of land laws 2. Under R. Acts contrary to law 31    . Registration of judgments. Non-registrable Properties VII. Involuntary dealings VI. Registration process and requirements C.A. Remedies sufficiently covered under Remedial Law 3. orders and partitions 4. Dealings with Unregistered Lands Exclude: 1. Cadastral registration V. Assurance fund 5. Registration of patents 6. Consultas. Under C. Principles A. Abuse of right. Voluntary dealings B. Remedies D. 141 3.2. Administrative structure of the Register of Deeds 7. Subsequent Registration A. elements B.A. 8371 B. TORTS AND DAMAGES Book I--Torts I. Unjust enrichment C. Liability without fault D.

The Tortfeasor A. Joint tortfeasors (Art. 221 (i) Elements. Natural persons 2. 2194. 218-219. Persons made responsible for others 1. definition (ii) Distinguished from culpa contractual and culpa criminal b) Indirect liability for intentional acts c) Presumption of negligence on persons indirectly responsible d) Nature of liability. According to manner of commission: intentional. and the Family Code. Acts contrary to morals II. 2180. Juridical persons B.E. In general a) Quasi-delicts under Art. Classification of Torts A. Arts. Civil Code) 32    . In particular a) Parents b) Guardians c) Owners and managers of establishments and enterprises d) Employers (i) Meaning of employers (ii) Requisites (a) Employee chosen by employer or through another (b) Services rendered in accordance with orders which employer has authority to give (c) Illicit act of employee was on the occasion or by reason of the functions entrusted to him (d) Presumption of negligence (iii) Employer need not be engaged in business or industry (iv) Defense of diligence in selection and supervision (v) Nature of employer’s liability e) State f) Teachers and heads of establishments of arts and trades C. According to scope: general or specific III. joint or solidary? 2. The direct tortfeasor 1. negligent and strict liability B.

Natural and probable consequences 2. Efficient intervening cause E. Classes of injury 1. Elements of right C. Concept of act V. Cause in fact 1. Injury to relations VII. Condition F. Test 3. Intentional Torts 33    . Violation of right or legal injury D. Distinguished from intervening cause 5. Cause vs. Distinguished from immediate cause 4. Last clear chance VI. Proximate Cause A. Substantial factor test 2. Injury to persons 2. Distinguished from remote and concurrent B. Definition 2. Foreseeability D.IV. Injury to property 3. Act of Omission and Its Modalities A. Legal cause 1. Concept B. Concept 1. Concurrent causes C. Legal Injury A.

Interference with relations 1. Concept 2. Intentional non-physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of personal dignity c) Infliction of emotional distress d) Violation of privacy (i) Appropriation (ii) Intrusion (iii) Public disclosure of private facts (iv) False light in the public eye e) Disturbance of peace of mind f) Malicious prosecution g) Defamation (i) Defenses (a) Absence of elements (b) Privilege h) Fraud or misrepresentation (formerly deceit) i) Seduction j) Unjust dismissal C. Interference with rights to persons and property 1. Civil Code) (i) Battery (physical injury) (ii) Assault (grave threat) c) False imprisonment (illegal detention) d) Trespass to land (i) Concept (ii) Elements e) Interference with personal property (i) Trespass to chattels (ii) Conversion 2. General 34    . Classes a) Interference with persons and property (i) Physical harms (ii) Non-physical harms b) Interference with relations B. physical injuries (Art. 33. General 1.A. Intentional physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of persons security.

429) (iv) Defense of property (v) Authority of law c) Prescription d) Waiver e) Force majeure VIII. Social relations a) Meddling with or disturbing family relations b) Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from his friends 4. Negligence A. Economic relations a) Interference with contractual relations b) Unfair competition 5. press. Evidence 35    . Art. Concept B.a) Concept b) Kinds 2. Unreasonable risk of harm E. Art. Civil Code. Art. Good father of a family or reasonably prudent man C. etc. 1173 2. Defenses a) Absence of element b) Privilege (i) Consent (ii) Self-defense and defense of others (iii) Necessity (Civil Code. Standard of care 1. Political relations a) Violation of right to suffrage (Civil Code. assembly and petition. 32) b) Violation of other political rights (freedom of speech. Family a) b) c) relations Alienation of affection Loss of consortium Criminal conversation (adultery) 3. Emergency rule D.) 6.

Owner of motor vehicle H. Res ipsa loquitur G. Legal provisions 2. Manufacturers or processors a) Elements b) Consumer Act [R. 694-707) 1. Complete a) Absence of element (i) Due diligence (ii) Acts of public officers b) Accident or fortuitous event c) Damnum absque injuria d) Authority of law e) Assumption of risk f) Last clear chance g) Prescription (Civil Code. 1)] C. Provinces. 7394. 92-107. Concept B. Violation of civil liberties E. Proprietor of building or structure or thing I. Secs. Products liability 1. Public nuisance and private nuisance 3. 1144. Special Liability in Particular Activities A. Nuisance per se and nuisance per accidence 2. Arts. Presumption of negligence 1. Nuisance (Civil Code.A. 1146.F. 2177) IX. cities and municipalities G. (Ch. Art. Violation of rights committed by public officers F. Arts. General 1. Defenses 1. and 1150) h) Waiver i) Double recovery (Civil Code. Head of family 36    . Violation of constitutional rights 1. Attractive nuisance D.

Interest D. Concept B. Strict Liability A. Actual and Compensatory Damages A. Special and ordinary II. Classification 1. According to manner of determination 4. According to purpose 3.X. Requisites 1. 2197 of the Civil Code 2. Consumer act Book II--Damages I. Component elements 1. Easement against nuisance C. Attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation 3. General Considerations A. unrealized profit 2. Extent or scope of actual damages 1. Products liability (supra) 1. Moral Damages 37    . Under Art. Not speculative C. In crimes and quasi-delicts III. Possessor and user of an animal B. Classes a) Per se or per accidents b) Public or private 2. Nuisance (supra) 1. In contracts and quasi-contracts 2. Value of loss. Alleged and proved with certainty 2. Animals 1.

2230) 2. In acts referred to in Arts. Art. When awarded V. Graduation of Damages 38    . Concept (Arts. 2217-2218) B. Liquidated Damages A. In contracts and quasi-contracts (Civil Code. In criminal offenses (Civil Code. When awarded VI. 2219-2220) 1. Damages in Case of Death A. Nominal Damages A. 2229) B. 2234 VIII. 34 & 35. 26. Temperate or Moderate Damages A. Art. When recovered 1. 2226) B. In cases of malicious prosecution IV. 27. 28. Concept (Civil Code. In death caused by breach of conduct by a common crime IX. 2232) C. Art. When recoverable (Arts. In crimes and quasi-delicts causing death 1. 32. 21. In quasi-delicts (Civil Code. Arts. Concept B.A. Art. rape and other lascivious acts 2. In seduction. Art. 2231) 3. Concept B. Civil Code. 3. Requisites 1. Rules governing in case of breach of contract VII. Concept (Civil Code. 29. Exemplary or Corrective Damages A. 2233. abduction.

More is required for excellent and distinguished work as members of the Bar. Rules 1. Art. Exemplary with moral. 2223) Exclude: Distinction between tort and quasi-delict Include: Pertinent Supreme Court decisions promulgated up to January 31. Miscellaneous Rules A. 2226) B. Damages that must co-exist 1. doctrines. It has been drawn up for the limited purpose of ensuring that candidates reviewing for the bar examinations are guided on what basic and minimum amounts of laws. 3. Art. 2. Art. In crimes In quasi-delict (Civil Code. and principles they need to know and be able to use correctly before they can be licensed to practice law. 5. temperate. 2214) In contracts. liquidated or compensatory C. 39    . 2215) Liquidated damages (Civil Code. 4. 2012. Art. 2223) 2. Duty of injured party 1. Damages that cannot co-exist 1. Actual and liquidated (Art. Damages that must stand alone 1. 2203 B. Nominal with other damages (Art. quasi-contracts and quasi-delicts (Civil Code. Nominal damages (Art. 2227) Compromise X. Important note: This bar coverage description is not intended and should not be used by law schools as a syllabus or course outline in the covered subjects.A.

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