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2012 Civil Law Syllabus

2012 Civil Law Syllabus

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Published by: Francisco Montefalco on Apr 17, 2012
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I. Effect and Application of Laws A. When law takes effect (Civil Code, Art. 2) B. Ignorance of the law (Civil Code, Art. 3) C. Retroactivity of laws (Civil Code, Art. 4) D. Mandatory or prohibitory laws (Civil Code, Art. 5) E. Waiver of rights (Civil Code, Art. 6) F. Repeal of laws (Civil Code, Art. 7) G. Judicial decisions (Civil Code, Art. 8) H. Duty to render judgment (Civil Code, Art. 9) I. Presumption and applicability of custom (Civil Code, Arts. 10-12) J. Legal periods (Civil Code, Art. 13, as amended by Book I, Sec. 31 of the Administrative Code of 1987 (EO 292)) K. Applicability of penal laws (Civil Code, Art. 14) L. Conflict of laws (Civil Code, Arts. 15-18) II. Human Relations (Civil Code, Arts. 19-22) Exclude: Independent Civil Actions and prejudicial questions which will be covered by the examinations in Remedial Law PERSONS I. Persons and Personality (Civil Code) A. Capacity to act 1. Civil personality (Art. 37) 2. Restrictions on capacity to act (Arts. 38-39) 3. Birth (Arts. 40-41) 1   

4. Death (Arts. 42-43) a) Compare Art. 43 with Rule 131, Sec. 3 (jj) presumption of survivorship 5. Juridical Persons, Civil Code, Arts. 44-46 B. Domicile and residence (Arts. 50-51) II. Marriage (Family Code) Exclude: Muslim Code (P.D. 1083) A. Nature of marriage B. Requisites 1. Kinds of requisites (Family Code, Arts. 2-3) 3. Effect of absence of requisites (Art. 4) 4. Essential requisites (Art. 5) a) Age b) Consent 5. Formal (Arts. 7, 31, 32) 6. Ceremony (Art. 6) 7. Solemnizing authority (Art. 7-8, 10) a) Exceptions (Art. 35 (2)) 8. License required (Arts. 3 (2), 9, 11, 20, 26) a) Foreign national (Art. 21) b) Exceptions (Arts. 27, 31-32, 34) 9. Marriage certificate (Art. 22) Exclude: Duties of a Civil Registrar under Arts. 12-19, 23-25 B. Effect of marriage celebrated abroad and foreign divorce (Art. 26) C. Void and voidable marriages 1. Void marriages (Arts. 5, 35, 36-38, 52-53) a) Absence of requisites (Art. 35) b) Psychological incapacity (Art. 36) c) Incestuous marriages (Arts. 37-38) 2. Prescription (Art. 39) 3. Subsequent marriage (Arts. 40-44) 4. Annullable marriage (Arts. 14, 45-46) 5. Voidable marriages (Art. 45-47) 6. Presence of prosecutor (Art. 48) 7. Pendency of action (Art. 49) 8. Effects of nullity (Arts. 50-54) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-10-SC, Rule on Declaration of Absolute Nullity of Void Marriages and Annulment of Voidable Marriages; R.A. 6955, entitled “An Act to 2   

Declare Unlawful the Practice of Matching Filipino Women for Marriage to Foreign Nationals on a Mail Order Basis and Other Similar Practices…”; R.A. 9208 or the
Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 III. Legal Separation A. Grounds (Art. 55 and R.A. 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) B. Defenses (Arts. 56-57) C. Cooling-off period (Art. 58) D. Reconciliation efforts (Art. 59) E. Confession of judgment (Art. 60) F. Effects of filing petition (Art. 61) G. Effects of pendency (Art. 62) H. Effects of legal separation (Arts. 63-64) 1. Reconciliation (Arts. 65-67) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-11-SC or the Rule on Legal Separation IV. Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife A. Essential obligations (Art. 68) B. Family domicile (Art. 69) C. Support (Art. 70) D. Management of household (Art. 71) E. Effect of neglect of duty (Art. 72) F. Exercise of profession (Art. 73) Exclude: R.A. 7192 or the Women in Development and Nation Building Act; R.A. 8187, or the Paternity Leave Act of 1996; R.A. 9710 or The Magna Carta of Women. V. Property Relations of the Spouses 3   

96-98) 5. enjoyment and disposition of the community property (Arts. 116-120) 4. 102-104) E. The family home (Arts. 126-128) 7. 105-108) 2. Conjugal partnership property (Arts. 172-174) 4    . 149-151) B. General provisions (Arts. Administration of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Charges upon and obligations of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. 94-95) 4. Dissolution of the regime of Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Separation of property of the spouses and administration of common property by one spouse during the marriage (Arts. 124-125) 6. 143-146) H. Ownership. Liquidation of the absolute community assets and liabilities (Arts. 50) C. 147-148) VI. 76-81) B. General provisions (Arts. 88-90) 2. administration. Conjugal Partnership of Gains 1.A. The Family A. 109-115) 3. 134-142) G. The family as an institution (Arts. 87) D. Proof of filiation (Arts. Liquidation of the conjugal partnership assets and liabilities (Arts. Regime of separation of property (Arts. 99-101) 6. 82-83. 121123) 5. Charges upon and obligations of the community property (Arts. Donations by reason of marriage (Arts. Void donations by the spouses (Art. 43(3). What constitutes community property (Arts. Legitimate children (Arts. 91-93) 3. Paternity and Filiation A. 157. Property regime of unions without marriage (Arts. 163-171) B. 75-85. Marriage settlements (Arts. 152-165) Exclude: Arts. Dissolution of community regime (Arts. 161 and 162 VII. 129-133) F. Exclusive property of each spouse (Arts. 86. Absolute Community of Property 1.

When demandable (Art. Rule on Adoption (A.C. Support during marriage litigation (Art. 176 as amended by R. 06-11-5-SC or the Rule on DNA Evidence VIII. Who can be adopted 3. No. 198) D. 02-6-02-SC ) 2. Who can adopt 2. 9255 allowing illegitimate children to use the surname of their father) D. 195-197. 199-200. Who are obliged (Arts. 175 and Art. entitled “An Act Requiring Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to Declare a “Child Legally Available for Adoption” as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings…. 183-188. 204) G. Adoption A. Options (Art. Who can be adopted Exclude: Arts.” B. 201-202) E. Attachment (Art. 203) F. Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (R. Legitimated children (Arts. 206-208) C. Support A.A.M. 8552) 1.A. Rights of an adopted child (include Family Code. 205) 5    .A. Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (R.A. Amount (Arts. Who can adopt 2. 8043) 1. 191-193 of the Family Code IX. Rescission of adoption Exclude: 1. 9523. 189 and 190 on successional rights) 4. 177-182) Exclude: A. Illegitimate children (Art. No. Arts. 194) B. R.M. What it comprises (Art.

Emancipation (Arts. General provisions (Arts.A. 9231. 03-02-05-SC) 2. Summary Judicial Proceedings in Family Law Cases XIII. 43. 234 and 236. Retroactivity of the Family Code (Art. 220-224) Exclude: 1. as amended by R. 228-233)   1. 216-219) C. 364-369. Effect of parental authority upon the persons of the children (Arts. Effects of parental authority upon the property of the children (Arts. Rule on Guardianship of Minors (A. No. Civil Code) XV.A.A. Child Abuse Law (R. 41 Family Code) 6    . 369-380 (other articles repealed by Family Code) XVI. 03-04-04-SC) 3. 257 of the Family Code XIV. Art.M. 356-363. Substitute and special parental authority (Arts. Parental Authority A. 254-255. 6809 which lowered the age of majority) XII.A. No. Use of Surnames Arts. 256) Exclude: Arts.X. Art.M. Rules on Custody of Minors and Writ of Habeas Corpus in Relation to Custody of Minors (A. 8980) D. Funerals (Civil Code. 225-227) Exclude: R. Suspension or termination of parental authority (Arts. Arts. 8972) 4. Absence (Civil Code. 209-215) B.A. 7610)  XI. 305-310) Exclude: Care and Education of Children (Arts. The Early Childhood Care and Development Act (R. entitled “An Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child…” which will be covered under Labor Law E. Solo Parents' Welfare Act of 2000 (R.

390-392) Exclude: Arts.A. sower in good faith (Arts. 1067 or the Water Code) 7    .389) D.D. 384-386) C. planter. Civil Registrar A. 415-418) A. 393-396 on contingent assets XVII. 438-439) B. planter. 461-462 and P. Arts. Correction of Clerical Errors (R. 381-383) B. Classification (Arts. 387. 407-413 B. 9048. Administration of the property of the absentee (Arts. 9048 PROPERTY I. Fruits (Arts. entitled “An Act Authorizing the City or Municipal Civil Registrar or the Consul General to Correct a Clerical or Typographical Error in an Entry and/or Change of First Name or Nickname in the Civil Register Without Need of a Judicial Order…. 457) b) Change of course of river (Arts. With respect to immovable property a) Builder. planter. 579) 3. Declaration of absence (Arts.A. Presumption of death (Arts. 440) 1. 448-456) (ii) Builder. Rules of Court Exclude: Act No. Lands adjoining river banks a) Alluvion (Art. 441-444) 2. sower on land of another in the concept of owner (i) Builder.A. Provisional measures in case of absence (Arts. 375 and the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R. Right of accession (Art. 449-450) b) Usufructuary (Art. Rule 108. Characteristics II. sower in bad faith (Arts. Hidden treasure (Arts.”) C.

easements voluntarily imposed by owner (servitudes. abutendi. Consumable/non-consumable vs. Right in general 1. state of necessity). Bundle of rights a) Jus utendi. police power 2. Of private ownership a) Patrimonial property (i) Distinction between private property of individual persons and of state entities E. accion interdictal (b) Distinction between forcible entry and unlawful detainer (ii) Actions for recovery of possession of movable property (iii) Requisites for recovery of property (a) Proof of right (b) Identity (c) Reliance on strength of own evidence. Modes of acquiring ownership 1. By object 1. Real or immovable 2. 464-465) C. fruendi. By nature 1. Distinction between real and personal rights B. Limitations 1. Islands (Arts. Fungible/non-fungible III. General limitations: taxation. accion publiciana. nuisance. Original 2. Of public dominion 2. Ownership A. disponendi (possidendi) (i) Actions to recover ownership and possession of real property (a) Distinctions between accion reivindicatoria. eminent domain. mortgages imposed by contract) 8    . vindicandi. By owner 1. not weakness of defendant’s claim 2. Derivative C. Specific limitations: those imposed by law (sic utere tuo.c) Avulsion (Arts. 459-463) 4. Personal or movable D.

articles and by-laws of the condominium corporation or the association. or dissolution of the condominium B. where applicable) b) Rights and obligations of condominium owners (i) Contributions/dues (ii) P. Accession A. commixtion/ confusion. rivers. industrial. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree and R. Distinction between quieting of title and removing/preventing a cloud C. 6552.IV.D. islands) 2. Source of co-ownership 9    . Prescription/non-prescription of action VI. avulsion. amendment (iv) Documents to consider (master deed.A. sowing in good faith or bad faith) c) Accession natural (accretion. Characteristics of co-ownership 1. civil fruits) and continua (over immovables: artificial/industrial and natural) b) Accession industrial (building. Realty Installment Buyer Act c) Grounds for partition of common areas. Co-ownership A. specification) b) Rules for determining the principal and accessory V. For movables: a) Accession continua (conjunction. Quieting of Title to or Interest in and Removal or Prevention of Cloud over Title to or Interest in Real Property (Arts. Special rules a) Concept of condominium (i) Condominium corporation (ii) Interest in real property (iii) Concept of common areas. Requirement B. declaration of restrictions. Right to hidden treasure B. For immovables: a) Accession discreta (natural. planting. In general 2. 476-481) A. 957. adjunction. General rules 1.

549. 544. Rights of co-owners 1. 1132. Right to redemption of co-owners share D. Classification 10    . 449. in one’s own name. Right to contributions for expenses (necessary expenses. Loss/termination VIII. How acquired (Art.C. in name of another F. Possessor in bad faith (Arts. 1140. taxes) 5. Partition in case co-owners cannot agree VII. Possession A. Distinguished from voidable title (Art. Termination/extinguishment 1. Rights of the possessor G. 545) b) Right to be reimbursed (i) Necessary and useful expenses (Arts. Distinction between right to property owned in common and full ownership over his/her ideal share 2. Loss or unlawful deprivation of a movable (Arts. Effect of partition 2. 1134. Rights against individual co-owners in case of partition 3. Characteristics B. 1506) E. 552) D. Period to recover (Arts. 531) C. holder. Right to partition 4. Characteristics B. Waiver 6. In concept of owner. Possessor in good faith (Arts. 1133) 2. 526-527) a) Right to pending fruits (Art. 719-720) 3. 559. 1505(3)) 1. Usufruct A. 546-547) (ii) Expenses for pure luxury (Art. Right to oppose acts of alteration 3. 548) 2. Finder of lost movable (Arts. Effects of possession 1.

C. Legal easements a) Right of way 2. Compulsory easements (Arts. Easement of light and view (Arts. Definition B. 746) 2. Characteristics a) Extent to which donor may donate property b) Reservations and reversions 11    . Easements (Arts. Nuisance (Arts. 615-616) A. Voluntary easements (Art. 620-624) 2. Rights of the owner E. 613. 712) A. Rights and obligations of usufructuary D. Definition (Arts. 725-726. How terminated X. Extinction/termination IX. Characteristics B. Remedies XI. 688) a) Effect of zoning ordinance C. Modes of Acquiring Ownership (Art. 713) B. Rights and obligations of dominant and subservient estate E. Classification 1. Donation 1. 694-707) A. 669-673) D. Classification C. Occupation (Art. Modes of acquiring easements 1.

769) Exclude: Intellectual creations PRESCRIPTION I. modal. grounds for reduction b) How done c) Effects c) Prescription e) Inofficious donations (Arts. 1106) A. 729) Donation by reason of marriage (Family Code. 748) (ii) Immovables (Art. Definition (Art. 86) Donation mortis causa (Art. Void donations (Arts. Ordinary a) Good faith (Art. Qualifications of donor. Arts. 1127) b) Just title (Arts. 739-740. 728) Onerous donation (Art. 82-83. 1117) 1.3. 760-761. Effects a) b) c) d) e) of donation/limitations In general Double donations Excessive/inofficious Scope of amount (Arts. personal properties (i) Movables (Art. 750-752) In fraud of creditors (Art. Revocation or reduction a) Grounds for revocation. Characteristics 2. 733) Simple. Kinds a) b) c) d) e) Donation inter vivos (Art. 759) 7. conditional 4. 771-773) f) Ingratitude (Arts. Formalities required a) How made and accepted b) Perfection c) Differences between formalities for donation of real. Acquisitive (Art. 765. 1027) 8. 749) 5. donee 6. 1129-1130) 12    .

1138) What cannot be required by acquisitive prescription B. 1137 and 1132. 1132. 4. Extraordinary (Arts. 1410) F. 1529) C. To abate a nuisance D. Action to demand partition (Art. Prescription or limitation of actions A. 1134. 6. 1143. 1140) B. 1141) C. Civil Code 1. Art. Registered lands (P. 1133) B.) Requisites (Arts. 1118-1125) Period (Arts. Requisites 3. To recover immovables (Art. 1155) OBLIGATIONS I. Characteristics 2. 5. Property of public dominion III. Periods II.3. Action to quiet title if plaintiff is in possession E. Interruption (Art. No Prescription Applicable A. To recover movables (Art. By offender (Art. Extinctive 1. second par. Void contracts (Art. Definition 13    . Distinguished from laches G. Other actions (Arts. Action legal to demand a right of way (Art.D. 1142-1149) IV. 649) 2. 494) 1.

Classification of Obligations V. A single act or omission can give rise to different causes of action B. Natural obligations C. Obligation to give 1. Contravention of the tenor of obligation 6. Elements of an Obligation III. 1171) 4. Default. Remedies available to creditor in cases of breach 1. requisites D. Nature and Effect of Obligations A.II. Obligation to do or not to do C. A determinate or specific thing 2. Breaches of obligations 1. Different Kinds of Prestations IV. Sources of obligations (Arts. Extra-contractual obligations VI. An indeterminate or generic thing B. Specific performance 14    . delay or mora – no default unless creditors makes a demand. Negligence (culpa) in the performance of obligation a) Diligence normally required is ordinary diligence or diligence of a good father of a family b) Exception: common carriers which are required to exercise extraordinary diligence 5. 1156-1157) A. Fraud in the performance of obligation a) Waiver of future fraud is void (Art. 1169) a) Mora solvendi b) Mora accipiendi c) Compesatio morae 3. Legal excuse for breach of obligation: fortuitous event. Complete failure to perform 2. exceptions (Art.

through fault of debtor/creditor or through fortuitous events 15    . Pure (Arts. 1196) 2. 1177) a) Accion subrogatoria a) Accion pauliana c) Accion directa (Arts. 1190. Conditional (Art. Effect if given to debtor alone a) Instances when debtor losses benefit of period (Art. 1198) 2. par. Potestative: casual or mixed a) Obligations subject to potestative suspensive conditions are void (Art. loss or deterioration of specific thing before the happening of a suspensive condition in obligation to do or not to do (Art. 1187) a) Extent of retroactivity 5. 1181) 1. Resolutory condition 3. Resolutory period 3. 1197) b) Creditor must ask court to set the period before he can demand payment D. Subsidiary remedies of creditors (Art.a) Substituted performance by a third person on obligation to deliver generic thing and in obligation to do. Obligation with a period or a term (Art. 1182) 4. Definite or indefinite period a) Instances when courts may fix the period (Art. 1179-1180) B. unless a purely personal act 2. in any event 4. Alternative or facultative (Art. Effect of loss of specific things or impossibility of performance of alternative. 1652. Effect when a resolutory condition in obligation to do or not to do happens and there is improvement. Suspensive condition 2. Rescission (resolution in reciprocal obligations) 3. Presumption that period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor (Art. Effect of improvement. Effect of the happening of suspensive condition or resolutory condition (Art. 1893) VII. 3) C. 1193) 1. 1608. Effect if suspensive period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor 3. Difference between alternative and facultative obligations 2. loss or deterioration of the specific thing (Art. 1189) 6. 1729. Damages. Kinds of Civil Obligations A. 1199) 1.

therefore a joint debtor cannot be required to pay for the share of another with debtor. 1270) 1. Tender of payment and consignation (Arts. 1214. 1216. Mutual guaranty among solidary debtors (Arts. compensation. 1212). 1207) b) Obligation presumed to be divided into as many equal shares as there are creditors or debtors c) Each credit is distinct from one another. a) Effect of any novation. Extraordinary inflation or deflation (Art. 1236-1238) 1. there is default but only the guilty debtor shall be liable for damages C. 1252-1254) 5. Dation in payment (Art. unless otherwise indicated by the law or nature of obligation (Art. Joint and Solidary Obligation A. Application of payment (Art. Implied (Arts.VIII. 1226. 1256-1261) B. In case of failure of one joint debtor to perform his part (share). 1209) B. Joint (divisible) obligation 1. confusion or remission of debt executed by a solidary creditor D. 1262. 1228-1230) IX. Loss of determinate thing due or impossibility or difficulty of performance (Arts. Solidary obligation 1. 1209) d) Insolvency of a joint debtor. 1225) E. 1270) 2. Joint indivisible obligation 1. 1245) 2. 1249) 3. 1271. Obligation cannot be performed in parts but debtors are bound jointly 2. Extinguishment of Obligations A. 1250) 4. Concurrence of two or more creditors and or two or more debtors a) Joint obligation is presumed. Obligations with a penal clause (Arts. 1222) 3. 1272. Condonation or remission of debt (Art. 1274) 16    . Each one of solidary creditors may do whatever may be useful to the others. but not anything prejudicial to them (Art. 1266-1267) C. Mutual agency among solidary debtors (Arts. although he may pay if he wants to (Art. 1215) 2. Express condonations and required formality thereof (Art. Divisible and indivisible (Art. Payment (Arts. Form of payment (Art. others not liable for his share (Art. 1217.

1272) E. 1286-1290) b) Agreement (Art. 1357. Antichresis (Art. 1275. 1278. 1287-1288) F. Formal or solemn 1. Defective Contracts A. 2134) 4. 1328-1344. Voidable contracts (Arts. 1381) 1. 1282) d) Judicial (Art. Formality (Arts. Novation (Arts. Stipulation limiting common carrier’s duty of extraordinary diligence to ordinary diligence (Art. Rescissible contracts (Art. Sale of large cattle III. 1356. 1956) 6.D. 1358) IV. 1279) a) Legal compensation (Arts. Partnership where real property contributed (Arts. Donations (Arts. Agency to sell real property or an interest therein (Art. 1191 B. 1283) e) Facultative 2. Essential Requisites (Art. Confusion or Merger of Rights (Arts. Chattel mortgage 8. 1771. 1773) 3. Compensation 1. Real C. 1390-1402) 17    . Kinds of Contracts A. 1744) 7. 1291-1304) CONTRACTS I. Obligations not compensable (Art. Consensual B. Difference with rescission (resolution) under Art. 748-749) 2. 1874) 5. Kinds (Arts. 1282) c) Voluntary (Art. 1261) II. Stipulation to charge interest (Art.

1346) 1. Pactum de non alienando (Art. 1459-1465) 18    . Contract of sale/contract to sell II. Parties to a Contract of Sale A. Void contracts (Arts. Effect of contracts (Art. 1397. 2088. Pactum commissorium (Arts. 1489-1492) B. 1470) B. Obligations created (Art. 1317) D. Absolute incapacity (Arts. 1399) C. Characteristics of a contract of sale F. Stages of contract of sale D. Requisites of a valid subject matter (Arts. 1327. Definition of sales (Arts.C. 1409. 1403-1408. Special disqualifications (Arts. Relative incapacity: married persons D. 1505) C. Sale distinguished from other contracts H. 1165) E. 2130) 3. Capacity of parties (Arts. Subject Matter A. Pactum leonina (Art. Unenforceable contracts (Arts. 1390) 2. 2130. Essential requisites of a contract of sale (Art. 1799) V. 1458. Introduction A. 1311) SALES I. 1491-1492) III. Sale is title and not mode G.

1505. 1475. Manner of transfer (Arts. 1403 (d) (e) VII. 1459) 1. Option contract (Arts. 1325. Art. When delivery does not transfer title 19    . 1326) C. 1475) 2. 1469-1474) B. Requisites for a valid price C. 1479) B. 1496-1501) B. Inadequacy of price (Arts. 1479) 1. 1470) E. 1324) 3. Transfer of Ownership A.B. 1506. 1319. Mutual promise to buy and sell (Art. Preparatory (Art. Right of first refusal 4. How price is determined D. Option money (Art. Sale by a person not the owner at time of delivery (Arts. 559) V. Offer (Art. Price A.1482) VI. When no price agreed (Art. Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership A. 1477. Manner of payment must be agreed upon G. 1462. Earnest money vs. Exceptions B. Particular kinds IV. Perfection (Arts. Formalities of the contract. Formation of Contract of Sale A. 1474) F. 1355. Meaning of price (Arts. Sale by a person having a voidable title (Arts. 1479.

Kinds of delivery D. 1544) E. Definition of unpaid seller (Art. 1525) B. 1493 and 1494) D. 1519. 1514. Performance of Contract 20    . When loss occurred before perfection C. General rule (Arts.C. Remedies of an Unpaid Seller A. Purpose of documents of title C. Rules on levy/garnishment of goods (Arts. Double sales (Art. Documents of Title A. 1504) IX. Property Registration Decree 1. Requisites for registration of deed of sale in good faith 2. 1520) X. Remedies of unpaid seller XI. payment of capital gains tax. Risk of Loss A. Warranties of seller of documents of title (Art. 1516) F. Non-negotiable documents of title E. Negotiable documents of title D. Definition (Art. When loss occurred at time of perfection (Arts. 1263. 1636) B. When loss occurred after perfection but before delivery E. and documentary tax registration fees VIII. 1189) B. When ownership is transferred (Art. Accompanied by vendor’s duplicate certificate of title.

Period of redemption (Art. Sale of immovables on installment (Maceda Law) D. 1484-1486) C. 1547) C. Inspections and acceptance B. Effects of warranties D. 23. 1601) C. Causes (Arts. P. Extinguishment of the Sale A. Effects of waivers E. 1594) 1. Sale of movable 2. Sale of immovables XIV. 1602) E.D. 1543) 3. Distinguished from option to buy (Art. Recto Law: sale of movables on installment (Arts. Delivery of thing sold 1. Payment of price XII. 1522. Conventional redemption (Art. Remedies of the buyer 1. Secs. 1600. Sale of movables B. Equitable mortgage (Arts. 1602-1604) D. 24 2. 1537. Remedies of the seller (Arts. 1480) 2. 1539. 1231) B. Implied warranties (Art. Sale of immovables (Arts.A. 1606) 21    . Breach of Contract A. Buyer’s options in case of breach of warranty (Art. 957. Sale of movables (Arts. 1636. Warranties A. Express warranties B. 1599) XIII. Sale of immovables 1.

Definition/what is transmitted (Arts. The Condominium Act (R. 788-794) (iii) Law governing formal validity (Art. Testamentary capacity and intent (Arts. Legal redemption (Art. 786) (ii) Rules of construction and interpretation (Arts. 781) B. Testamentary Succession A. Exercise of the right to redeem (Art. 1616) G. 796-803) a) Age requirement (Art. 8792). 776. 782) II. 3952) and SUCCESSION I. Retail Trade Liberalization Act. 4726) Exclude: Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (R. 957) XVI. Wills 1. 787) (a) Exception (Art. 1619) XV. 774.A.D. 774-780) A. In general a) Definition and characteristics (Arts.F. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree (P. Bulk Sales Law (Act No. Public Land Law. 797) b) Soundness of mind (Arts. Age redemption (Art. When succession occurs (Art.A. General Provisions (Arts. Kinds of successors: heirs. 783-787) (i) Act of making a will a strictly personal act (Arts. 777) C. 795) 2. devisees. legatees (Art. 798-801) (i) When testator is deemed to be of sound mind (ii) Presumptions (iii) Supervening incapacity 22    . 1619) H. 784-785.

839) B. 820-824) d) Holographic wills (i) Requirements (Arts.15. 804) (i) In writing (ii) Language/dialect requirement c) Notarial wills (i) Arts. devisees only entitled to completion of legitime 2. 840-856) 1. Allowance and disallowance of wills (Arts. 825-826) a) Definition and formal requirements 5. 906-918 23    . 17. Codicils (Arts. res judicata on formal validity b) Grounds for denying probate (Art. Incorporate by reference (Art. 839) (a) Exceptions: when practical considerations demand the intrinsic validity of the will be resolved (ii) Effect of final decree of probate. 828-834) a) Kinds (Art. Preterition vs. 815-817. 855. 838) (i) Issues to be resolved in probate proceedings (Art. 818-819) 4. 819) (i) See law governing substantive validity (Arts. 1039) b) Common requirements (Art. 16. 811) e) Joint wills (Arts. 854 3. 807-808) (iii) Substantial compliance (Art. 830) 7. 805-806 (ii) Special rules for handicapped testators (Arts. 814) (ii) Witnesses required for probate (Art. 838-839) a) Probate requirement (Art. Preterition (Art. 810-814) (a) Requirements in case of alterations (Art. 854) a) Definition b) Requisites c) Effects (i) Effects of preterition. Concept – Art. Revocation (Arts.3. Disposition less than legitime/donation inter vivos – Arts. Compulsory heirs in the direct line 4. Institution of heirs (Arts. 809) (iv) Witnesses to wills(Arts. Form a) Rules governing the formal validity of wills (Arts. 827) 6.

Legal or Intestate Succession (Arts. Definition (Art. 887-903) 3. Definition and requisites (Arts. Legacies and devisees (Arts. 923) b) Disinheritance without cause (Art. Effects of partition (Arts. 869) D. 886-914) 1. Partition (Arts. 863-866. 1015-1105) A. 1032) 2. Relationship (Arts. 1104-1105) 24    . 1015-1023) 1. 1078-1105) 1. 857-870) 1. Partition and distribution of estate (Arts. Disinheritance C. 924-959) III. Unworthiness vs. 1080) 2. Persons incapable of succeeding (Arts. 992) IV. 978-1014. 1100. General provisions (Arts. 963-969) 2. 857) 2. 1097. 1015-1016) B. 960-969) 1. Disinheritance a) Disinheritance for cause (Art. 739.C. Definition (Art. 858-860) 3. 918) 5. Conditional testamentary dispositions and testamentary dispositions with a term (Arts. Partition inter vivos 3. Right of accretion (Arts. Substitution of heirs (Arts. Capacity to succeed by will or intestacy (Arts. 891) 4. 1024-1040) 1. Collation (Arts. 908-910. Order of intestate succession (Arts. Acceptance and repudiation of the inheritance (Arts. 1061-1062) E. Fideicommissary substitution (Arts. Compulsory heirs and various combinations (Arts. 960-1014) A. 919) (i) Reconciliation (Art. 1091. Kinds (Arts. 1027. Simple substitution (Art.1041-1057) D. Legitime (Arts. 970-977) B. 886) 2. Right of representation (Arts. 1079. 871-885) E. Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession (Arts. 922) (ii) Rights of descendants of person disinherited (Art. Reserva troncal (Art. 859) 4.

Partnership term F. Contract of Partnership A. General vs. which will be covered under Remedial Law PARTNERSHIP I. Dissolution (Art.Exclude: Executors and administrators (Arts. How partnership is formed E. Universal vs. Partnership by estoppel H. Rules to determine existence D. Rights and Obligations of Partnership III. Particular. Definition 25    . 1800-1803) II. Limited Partnership A. Obligations of Partnership/Partners to Third Persons V. Joint venture I. Definition B. Partnership v. Elements C. 1058-1060). Professional partnership J. Limited G. Management (Arts. 1830) VI. Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves IV.

To bind principal (Arts. Special Agency VI. Agency by Operation of Law IX. Agency by Estoppel V.B. Definition of Agency II. Agency Requiring Special Power of Attorney VIII. General vs. How limited partnership is formed/amended C. 1877-1878) A. Rights and obligations of a limited partner Exclude: Questions requiring application of SEC opinions or regulations AGENCY I. 1927-1930) XI. Exception (Art. 1883) III. Irrevocable Agency (Arts. Agency Couched in General Terms VII. 1897-1902) B. Implied Agency IV. Modes of Extinguishment 26    . Powers (Arts. Express vs. Rights and Obligations of Principal X.

COMPROMISE I. Effect (Arts. Voluntary deposit B. Interest and the suspension of usury law II. Guaranty and Suretyship A. Legal and judicial bonds IV. 2041) CREDIT TRANSACTIONS I. 2028) II. Void Compromise (Art. 2035) III. Commodatum vs. Obligations of bailor and bailee C. Extinguishment of guaranty D. Pledge 27    . Nature and extent of guaranty B. Mutuum B. 2037. Effects of guaranty C. Definition (Art. Necessary deposit C. Deposit A. Judicial deposit III. Loan A.

1484) V. Definition and characteristics B. Essential requisites C. 2093. Foreclosure VI. Foreclosure (Arts. Pledge by operation of law (Art. Perfection (Arts. 2096) G. 2121-2122) I. Negotiorum gestio B.A. Antichresis A. 2140. Essential requirements D. Registration VIII. 2112. Quasi-contracts A. Obligations of antichretic creditor VII. Chattel Mortgage A. 2115) H. Obligation of pledge E. Rights of pledgor F. Definition B. Kinds C. Real Mortgage A. Distinguished from chattel mortgage (Arts. Solutio indebiti 28    . Definition and characteristics B. Definition and characteristics B.

Usury Law LEASE I. Suspension of payments C. Classification of credits E. Lease of Rural and Urban Lands A. Involuntary insolvency Exclude: Warehouse Receipts Law. Registration C. Concurrence and Preference of Credits A. Voluntary insolvency D. Exempt property D. Insolvency Law A. Lease of Things II. Qualified persons B. Meaning of concurrence and preference B. Lease of Work or Services III. Order of preference of credits X.IX. Definition of insolvency B. Prohibitions 29    . Preferred credits on specific movables C.

Individuals and corporations IV. Household Service VII. Certificate of title II. Original Registration A. Contract of Labor A.IV. Regalian Doctrine A. 1529 30    . Concept of native title.D. Citizenship Requirement A. time immemorial possession III. Under P. Special Rules for Lease of Rural/Urban Lands VI. Torrens System A. Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee V. Concept and background B. Who may apply 1. Obligation in case of death/injury of laborers VIII. Concept B. Contract for Piece of Work LAND TITLES AND DEEDS I. Effects C.

Liability without fault D. Under C. Remedies D. Dealings with Unregistered Lands Exclude: 1. Non-registrable Properties VII. Subsequent Registration A. Cadastral registration V. History of land laws 2. Unjust enrichment C. Administrative structure of the Register of Deeds 7.2. orders and partitions 4. Consultas. Acts contrary to law 31    . Voluntary dealings B. Registration process and requirements C. 141 3. Registration of patents 6. Principles A.A. 8371 B. Abuse of right. Registration of judgments. TORTS AND DAMAGES Book I--Torts I. Remedies sufficiently covered under Remedial Law 3. elements B. Assurance fund 5. Under R. Involuntary dealings VI.A.

Classification of Torts A. Persons made responsible for others 1. 2194. Joint tortfeasors (Art. Civil Code) 32    . In particular a) Parents b) Guardians c) Owners and managers of establishments and enterprises d) Employers (i) Meaning of employers (ii) Requisites (a) Employee chosen by employer or through another (b) Services rendered in accordance with orders which employer has authority to give (c) Illicit act of employee was on the occasion or by reason of the functions entrusted to him (d) Presumption of negligence (iii) Employer need not be engaged in business or industry (iv) Defense of diligence in selection and supervision (v) Nature of employer’s liability e) State f) Teachers and heads of establishments of arts and trades C. Juridical persons B. 221 (i) Elements. In general a) Quasi-delicts under Art. According to scope: general or specific III. Arts. negligent and strict liability B. and the Family Code. 218-219. According to manner of commission: intentional. The direct tortfeasor 1. joint or solidary? 2.E. The Tortfeasor A. Natural persons 2. definition (ii) Distinguished from culpa contractual and culpa criminal b) Indirect liability for intentional acts c) Presumption of negligence on persons indirectly responsible d) Nature of liability. Acts contrary to morals II. 2180.

Concept B. Concept of act V. Last clear chance VI. Violation of right or legal injury D. Definition 2. Foreseeability D. Legal Injury A. Injury to relations VII. Condition F. Efficient intervening cause E. Classes of injury 1. Test 3. Distinguished from intervening cause 5. Act of Omission and Its Modalities A. Proximate Cause A. Substantial factor test 2. Injury to persons 2. Concept 1. Cause vs. Legal cause 1. Distinguished from immediate cause 4. Injury to property 3.IV. Elements of right C. Concurrent causes C. Intentional Torts 33    . Distinguished from remote and concurrent B. Natural and probable consequences 2. Cause in fact 1.

33. Intentional non-physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of personal dignity c) Infliction of emotional distress d) Violation of privacy (i) Appropriation (ii) Intrusion (iii) Public disclosure of private facts (iv) False light in the public eye e) Disturbance of peace of mind f) Malicious prosecution g) Defamation (i) Defenses (a) Absence of elements (b) Privilege h) Fraud or misrepresentation (formerly deceit) i) Seduction j) Unjust dismissal C. General 34    . Civil Code) (i) Battery (physical injury) (ii) Assault (grave threat) c) False imprisonment (illegal detention) d) Trespass to land (i) Concept (ii) Elements e) Interference with personal property (i) Trespass to chattels (ii) Conversion 2. Classes a) Interference with persons and property (i) Physical harms (ii) Non-physical harms b) Interference with relations B. Intentional physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of persons security. Interference with relations 1. General 1. Interference with rights to persons and property 1.A. Concept 2. physical injuries (Art.

Defenses a) Absence of element b) Privilege (i) Consent (ii) Self-defense and defense of others (iii) Necessity (Civil Code. Art. 1173 2. Good father of a family or reasonably prudent man C. Concept B. Art. Emergency rule D.a) Concept b) Kinds 2. press. assembly and petition. Standard of care 1. Art. Negligence A. etc. Civil Code. 429) (iv) Defense of property (v) Authority of law c) Prescription d) Waiver e) Force majeure VIII. 32) b) Violation of other political rights (freedom of speech.) 6. Unreasonable risk of harm E. Family a) b) c) relations Alienation of affection Loss of consortium Criminal conversation (adultery) 3. Evidence 35    . Economic relations a) Interference with contractual relations b) Unfair competition 5. Political relations a) Violation of right to suffrage (Civil Code. Social relations a) Meddling with or disturbing family relations b) Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from his friends 4.

Nuisance per se and nuisance per accidence 2. Violation of rights committed by public officers F. Legal provisions 2. 2177) IX. Art. Attractive nuisance D. Violation of constitutional rights 1. (Ch. Special Liability in Particular Activities A. Concept B. Nuisance (Civil Code. 694-707) 1. 1144. Owner of motor vehicle H.F. Complete a) Absence of element (i) Due diligence (ii) Acts of public officers b) Accident or fortuitous event c) Damnum absque injuria d) Authority of law e) Assumption of risk f) Last clear chance g) Prescription (Civil Code. Head of family 36    . 1146. Violation of civil liberties E. Arts. Manufacturers or processors a) Elements b) Consumer Act [R. cities and municipalities G. Arts. 7394. 92-107. Secs. Products liability 1. General 1. Res ipsa loquitur G. Public nuisance and private nuisance 3. and 1150) h) Waiver i) Double recovery (Civil Code. Provinces. Proprietor of building or structure or thing I. Presumption of negligence 1. Defenses 1.A. 1)] C.

According to purpose 3. General Considerations A. Value of loss. Under Art. Easement against nuisance C. Classes a) Per se or per accidents b) Public or private 2. Actual and Compensatory Damages A. Moral Damages 37    . Strict Liability A. Concept B. Requisites 1. Alleged and proved with certainty 2. According to manner of determination 4. Classification 1. Not speculative C. Interest D. Products liability (supra) 1. In crimes and quasi-delicts III. Component elements 1. Consumer act Book II--Damages I. Extent or scope of actual damages 1. In contracts and quasi-contracts 2. unrealized profit 2. Special and ordinary II. Animals 1. Nuisance (supra) 1. Possessor and user of an animal B. Attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation 3.X. 2197 of the Civil Code 2.

In acts referred to in Arts. Art. 2231) 3. Graduation of Damages 38    . In seduction. In quasi-delicts (Civil Code. 34 & 35. 2234 VIII. Art. Nominal Damages A. When recoverable (Arts. Civil Code. 2217-2218) B. Art. 26. When awarded V. 2230) 2. Arts. In criminal offenses (Civil Code. 2219-2220) 1. 29. 28. In cases of malicious prosecution IV. Damages in Case of Death A. 2233. 21. 2232) C. 32. rape and other lascivious acts 2. 3. 2226) B. Rules governing in case of breach of contract VII. When awarded VI. Temperate or Moderate Damages A. In contracts and quasi-contracts (Civil Code. Concept B. 27. Concept (Arts. Concept (Civil Code. Art. Exemplary or Corrective Damages A. When recovered 1. Concept B. abduction. Concept (Civil Code. Requisites 1. Liquidated Damages A. In crimes and quasi-delicts causing death 1.A. 2229) B. Art. In death caused by breach of conduct by a common crime IX.

Nominal damages (Art. 3. 39    . Art. 2203 B. doctrines. Damages that must stand alone 1. Damages that cannot co-exist 1. 2226) B. Art. Duty of injured party 1. 2012. liquidated or compensatory C. Important note: This bar coverage description is not intended and should not be used by law schools as a syllabus or course outline in the covered subjects. temperate. 5. 2214) In contracts. 2223) 2. 4. 2. It has been drawn up for the limited purpose of ensuring that candidates reviewing for the bar examinations are guided on what basic and minimum amounts of laws. In crimes In quasi-delict (Civil Code.A. Art. Miscellaneous Rules A. 2223) Exclude: Distinction between tort and quasi-delict Include: Pertinent Supreme Court decisions promulgated up to January 31. Exemplary with moral. Damages that must co-exist 1. quasi-contracts and quasi-delicts (Civil Code. 2215) Liquidated damages (Civil Code. Actual and liquidated (Art. More is required for excellent and distinguished work as members of the Bar. Art. 2227) Compromise X. Rules 1. Nominal with other damages (Art. and principles they need to know and be able to use correctly before they can be licensed to practice law.

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