SYLLABUS FOR THE 2012 BAR EXAMINATIONS

CIVIL LAW

I. Effect and Application of Laws A. When law takes effect (Civil Code, Art. 2) B. Ignorance of the law (Civil Code, Art. 3) C. Retroactivity of laws (Civil Code, Art. 4) D. Mandatory or prohibitory laws (Civil Code, Art. 5) E. Waiver of rights (Civil Code, Art. 6) F. Repeal of laws (Civil Code, Art. 7) G. Judicial decisions (Civil Code, Art. 8) H. Duty to render judgment (Civil Code, Art. 9) I. Presumption and applicability of custom (Civil Code, Arts. 10-12) J. Legal periods (Civil Code, Art. 13, as amended by Book I, Sec. 31 of the Administrative Code of 1987 (EO 292)) K. Applicability of penal laws (Civil Code, Art. 14) L. Conflict of laws (Civil Code, Arts. 15-18) II. Human Relations (Civil Code, Arts. 19-22) Exclude: Independent Civil Actions and prejudicial questions which will be covered by the examinations in Remedial Law PERSONS I. Persons and Personality (Civil Code) A. Capacity to act 1. Civil personality (Art. 37) 2. Restrictions on capacity to act (Arts. 38-39) 3. Birth (Arts. 40-41) 1   

4. Death (Arts. 42-43) a) Compare Art. 43 with Rule 131, Sec. 3 (jj) presumption of survivorship 5. Juridical Persons, Civil Code, Arts. 44-46 B. Domicile and residence (Arts. 50-51) II. Marriage (Family Code) Exclude: Muslim Code (P.D. 1083) A. Nature of marriage B. Requisites 1. Kinds of requisites (Family Code, Arts. 2-3) 3. Effect of absence of requisites (Art. 4) 4. Essential requisites (Art. 5) a) Age b) Consent 5. Formal (Arts. 7, 31, 32) 6. Ceremony (Art. 6) 7. Solemnizing authority (Art. 7-8, 10) a) Exceptions (Art. 35 (2)) 8. License required (Arts. 3 (2), 9, 11, 20, 26) a) Foreign national (Art. 21) b) Exceptions (Arts. 27, 31-32, 34) 9. Marriage certificate (Art. 22) Exclude: Duties of a Civil Registrar under Arts. 12-19, 23-25 B. Effect of marriage celebrated abroad and foreign divorce (Art. 26) C. Void and voidable marriages 1. Void marriages (Arts. 5, 35, 36-38, 52-53) a) Absence of requisites (Art. 35) b) Psychological incapacity (Art. 36) c) Incestuous marriages (Arts. 37-38) 2. Prescription (Art. 39) 3. Subsequent marriage (Arts. 40-44) 4. Annullable marriage (Arts. 14, 45-46) 5. Voidable marriages (Art. 45-47) 6. Presence of prosecutor (Art. 48) 7. Pendency of action (Art. 49) 8. Effects of nullity (Arts. 50-54) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-10-SC, Rule on Declaration of Absolute Nullity of Void Marriages and Annulment of Voidable Marriages; R.A. 6955, entitled “An Act to 2   

Declare Unlawful the Practice of Matching Filipino Women for Marriage to Foreign Nationals on a Mail Order Basis and Other Similar Practices…”; R.A. 9208 or the
Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 III. Legal Separation A. Grounds (Art. 55 and R.A. 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) B. Defenses (Arts. 56-57) C. Cooling-off period (Art. 58) D. Reconciliation efforts (Art. 59) E. Confession of judgment (Art. 60) F. Effects of filing petition (Art. 61) G. Effects of pendency (Art. 62) H. Effects of legal separation (Arts. 63-64) 1. Reconciliation (Arts. 65-67) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-11-SC or the Rule on Legal Separation IV. Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife A. Essential obligations (Art. 68) B. Family domicile (Art. 69) C. Support (Art. 70) D. Management of household (Art. 71) E. Effect of neglect of duty (Art. 72) F. Exercise of profession (Art. 73) Exclude: R.A. 7192 or the Women in Development and Nation Building Act; R.A. 8187, or the Paternity Leave Act of 1996; R.A. 9710 or The Magna Carta of Women. V. Property Relations of the Spouses 3   

99-101) 6. 91-93) 3. 96-98) 5. enjoyment and disposition of the community property (Arts. 82-83. 134-142) G. Legitimate children (Arts. 129-133) F. administration. 172-174) 4    . Conjugal partnership property (Arts. 116-120) 4. Separation of property of the spouses and administration of common property by one spouse during the marriage (Arts. 161 and 162 VII. Regime of separation of property (Arts. Liquidation of the conjugal partnership assets and liabilities (Arts. 163-171) B. 86. 105-108) 2. The Family A. Charges upon and obligations of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Void donations by the spouses (Art. Paternity and Filiation A. Dissolution of community regime (Arts. 88-90) 2. Property regime of unions without marriage (Arts. 50) C. 43(3). 121123) 5. Charges upon and obligations of the community property (Arts. Proof of filiation (Arts. 126-128) 7. General provisions (Arts. Conjugal Partnership of Gains 1. Donations by reason of marriage (Arts. 94-95) 4. 87) D. 124-125) 6. General provisions (Arts. Liquidation of the absolute community assets and liabilities (Arts. Marriage settlements (Arts. 76-81) B.A. 149-151) B. What constitutes community property (Arts. 147-148) VI. Absolute Community of Property 1. The family home (Arts. 157. 102-104) E. 143-146) H. 152-165) Exclude: Arts. 75-85. Dissolution of the regime of Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Administration of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. The family as an institution (Arts. Exclusive property of each spouse (Arts. Ownership. 109-115) 3.

Legitimated children (Arts. 199-200. 176 as amended by R. 9523. Amount (Arts. Attachment (Art. 9255 allowing illegitimate children to use the surname of their father) D. Who can adopt 2. 195-197.A. 177-182) Exclude: A. Arts. Who can be adopted Exclude: Arts. 201-202) E. 8043) 1. 175 and Art.M. 204) G. No. Illegitimate children (Art.A. 06-11-5-SC or the Rule on DNA Evidence VIII. Support A. 8552) 1. 02-6-02-SC ) 2. What it comprises (Art. When demandable (Art. Rescission of adoption Exclude: 1. 203) F. Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (R.A. Who can be adopted 3.A. 189 and 190 on successional rights) 4. No. 205) 5    . 194) B. Who can adopt 2. Support during marriage litigation (Art. Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (R. 206-208) C. R. Adoption A. 183-188. entitled “An Act Requiring Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to Declare a “Child Legally Available for Adoption” as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings…. Rights of an adopted child (include Family Code.C.” B. 191-193 of the Family Code IX. Options (Art. 198) D. Rule on Adoption (A.M. Who are obliged (Arts.

A. 369-380 (other articles repealed by Family Code) XVI. 356-363. 256) Exclude: Arts. 7610)  XI. Emancipation (Arts. 220-224) Exclude: 1. Funerals (Civil Code. Retroactivity of the Family Code (Art. 03-04-04-SC) 3. No. as amended by R.A. 225-227) Exclude: R. Use of Surnames Arts. 305-310) Exclude: Care and Education of Children (Arts. Arts. Art.X.A. Parental Authority A. 209-215) B. The Early Childhood Care and Development Act (R. 228-233)   1. No.A. 6809 which lowered the age of majority) XII. Suspension or termination of parental authority (Arts. Child Abuse Law (R. Rule on Guardianship of Minors (A. Art. 41 Family Code) 6    .A. 257 of the Family Code XIV. Solo Parents' Welfare Act of 2000 (R. 8980) D. 43. 8972) 4. 364-369. Civil Code) XV. Effects of parental authority upon the property of the children (Arts. 03-02-05-SC) 2. entitled “An Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child…” which will be covered under Labor Law E. Summary Judicial Proceedings in Family Law Cases XIII. 254-255. 9231. Absence (Civil Code. General provisions (Arts. Substitute and special parental authority (Arts.M. Rules on Custody of Minors and Writ of Habeas Corpus in Relation to Custody of Minors (A. 234 and 236. 216-219) C. Effect of parental authority upon the persons of the children (Arts.M.

entitled “An Act Authorizing the City or Municipal Civil Registrar or the Consul General to Correct a Clerical or Typographical Error in an Entry and/or Change of First Name or Nickname in the Civil Register Without Need of a Judicial Order….”) C. Provisional measures in case of absence (Arts. 387. 438-439) B. Rule 108. Declaration of absence (Arts. With respect to immovable property a) Builder. Arts. 449-450) b) Usufructuary (Art. 1067 or the Water Code) 7    . Rules of Court Exclude: Act No.389) D. Lands adjoining river banks a) Alluvion (Art.A. Civil Registrar A. 375 and the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R. 407-413 B. planter. 390-392) Exclude: Arts.A.A. Administration of the property of the absentee (Arts. planter. Classification (Arts. 393-396 on contingent assets XVII. 461-462 and P. planter. Fruits (Arts. 384-386) C. 448-456) (ii) Builder. sower in bad faith (Arts. sower in good faith (Arts. 441-444) 2. 457) b) Change of course of river (Arts. 381-383) B. 9048 PROPERTY I. 579) 3. Presumption of death (Arts. Characteristics II. Correction of Clerical Errors (R. sower on land of another in the concept of owner (i) Builder. 9048. 440) 1.D. Hidden treasure (Arts. Right of accession (Art. 415-418) A.

Distinction between real and personal rights B. fruendi. state of necessity). Right in general 1. vindicandi. Fungible/non-fungible III. nuisance. Derivative C. General limitations: taxation. Of public dominion 2. Islands (Arts. not weakness of defendant’s claim 2. Modes of acquiring ownership 1. 459-463) 4. abutendi. Of private ownership a) Patrimonial property (i) Distinction between private property of individual persons and of state entities E. accion interdictal (b) Distinction between forcible entry and unlawful detainer (ii) Actions for recovery of possession of movable property (iii) Requisites for recovery of property (a) Proof of right (b) Identity (c) Reliance on strength of own evidence. Ownership A. Personal or movable D. Limitations 1. mortgages imposed by contract) 8    . By owner 1. police power 2. By object 1. By nature 1. Consumable/non-consumable vs.c) Avulsion (Arts. eminent domain. accion publiciana. Original 2. Specific limitations: those imposed by law (sic utere tuo. Bundle of rights a) Jus utendi. Real or immovable 2. 464-465) C. disponendi (possidendi) (i) Actions to recover ownership and possession of real property (a) Distinctions between accion reivindicatoria. easements voluntarily imposed by owner (servitudes.

industrial. commixtion/ confusion. Quieting of Title to or Interest in and Removal or Prevention of Cloud over Title to or Interest in Real Property (Arts. Requirement B.D. For movables: a) Accession continua (conjunction. or dissolution of the condominium B. rivers. Co-ownership A. civil fruits) and continua (over immovables: artificial/industrial and natural) b) Accession industrial (building. Characteristics of co-ownership 1. Right to hidden treasure B. 6552. specification) b) Rules for determining the principal and accessory V. amendment (iv) Documents to consider (master deed. Realty Installment Buyer Act c) Grounds for partition of common areas. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree and R. General rules 1. islands) 2. 957. Special rules a) Concept of condominium (i) Condominium corporation (ii) Interest in real property (iii) Concept of common areas. In general 2. Source of co-ownership 9    . sowing in good faith or bad faith) c) Accession natural (accretion.IV. For immovables: a) Accession discreta (natural. adjunction. declaration of restrictions. 476-481) A. Prescription/non-prescription of action VI. Distinction between quieting of title and removing/preventing a cloud C. where applicable) b) Rights and obligations of condominium owners (i) Contributions/dues (ii) P. articles and by-laws of the condominium corporation or the association. avulsion. Accession A.A. planting.

545) b) Right to be reimbursed (i) Necessary and useful expenses (Arts. Distinguished from voidable title (Art. 531) C. Right to oppose acts of alteration 3. 1506) E. Finder of lost movable (Arts. Right to redemption of co-owners share D. taxes) 5. Possession A. Loss/termination VIII. Right to partition 4. Characteristics B. Rights of co-owners 1. Period to recover (Arts. 1140. 548) 2. 1132. Usufruct A. Termination/extinguishment 1. Classification 10    . Right to contributions for expenses (necessary expenses. Waiver 6. 559. 526-527) a) Right to pending fruits (Art. in one’s own name. Effects of possession 1. 719-720) 3. 546-547) (ii) Expenses for pure luxury (Art. 1505(3)) 1. in name of another F. 544. Rights against individual co-owners in case of partition 3. 449. 549. Loss or unlawful deprivation of a movable (Arts. Possessor in bad faith (Arts. In concept of owner. Possessor in good faith (Arts. holder. How acquired (Art. Rights of the possessor G.C. Distinction between right to property owned in common and full ownership over his/her ideal share 2. 1133) 2. Partition in case co-owners cannot agree VII. 552) D. Characteristics B. 1134. Effect of partition 2.

746) 2. Rights and obligations of usufructuary D. Definition (Arts. Classification 1. 688) a) Effect of zoning ordinance C. Modes of acquiring easements 1. 713) B. Classification C. 694-707) A. Rights of the owner E. 669-673) D. Modes of Acquiring Ownership (Art. Voluntary easements (Art. Easements (Arts. Rights and obligations of dominant and subservient estate E. 620-624) 2. 613. Easement of light and view (Arts. Definition B. Characteristics a) Extent to which donor may donate property b) Reservations and reversions 11    . Compulsory easements (Arts.C. Occupation (Art. How terminated X. 712) A. 615-616) A. Donation 1. Extinction/termination IX. Characteristics B. Nuisance (Arts. Remedies XI. Legal easements a) Right of way 2. 725-726.

3. Kinds a) b) c) d) e) Donation inter vivos (Art. 1117) 1. Arts. 1127) b) Just title (Arts. modal. grounds for reduction b) How done c) Effects c) Prescription e) Inofficious donations (Arts. donee 6. 771-773) f) Ingratitude (Arts. conditional 4. 86) Donation mortis causa (Art. Acquisitive (Art. 760-761. Definition (Art. 728) Onerous donation (Art. Characteristics 2. Formalities required a) How made and accepted b) Perfection c) Differences between formalities for donation of real. 729) Donation by reason of marriage (Family Code. Revocation or reduction a) Grounds for revocation. Void donations (Arts. 1106) A. 759) 7. Effects a) b) c) d) e) of donation/limitations In general Double donations Excessive/inofficious Scope of amount (Arts. 765. 769) Exclude: Intellectual creations PRESCRIPTION I. personal properties (i) Movables (Art. 1129-1130) 12    . 750-752) In fraud of creditors (Art. 749) 5. 1027) 8. 739-740. Qualifications of donor. 733) Simple. 748) (ii) Immovables (Art. 82-83. Ordinary a) Good faith (Art.

4. Definition 13    .D. Extinctive 1. second par. 1133) B. 6. To abate a nuisance D. 1118-1125) Period (Arts. Prescription or limitation of actions A. 1141) C. 1142-1149) IV. Characteristics 2. Registered lands (P. Interruption (Art. 1155) OBLIGATIONS I. 5. Action to demand partition (Art. 1410) F. Art. Distinguished from laches G. 1140) B. 1132. 1134. Requisites 3. 494) 1. 1143.3. 1529) C. Extraordinary (Arts. Action to quiet title if plaintiff is in possession E. 1137 and 1132. Void contracts (Art.) Requisites (Arts. To recover movables (Art. To recover immovables (Art. By offender (Art. Action legal to demand a right of way (Art. Periods II. 1138) What cannot be required by acquisitive prescription B. Other actions (Arts. No Prescription Applicable A. 649) 2. Civil Code 1. Property of public dominion III.

1156-1157) A. Fraud in the performance of obligation a) Waiver of future fraud is void (Art. A determinate or specific thing 2. Obligation to give 1. Sources of obligations (Arts. delay or mora – no default unless creditors makes a demand. An indeterminate or generic thing B. 1171) 4. Natural obligations C. 1169) a) Mora solvendi b) Mora accipiendi c) Compesatio morae 3. Remedies available to creditor in cases of breach 1. Specific performance 14    . Nature and Effect of Obligations A. Obligation to do or not to do C. Different Kinds of Prestations IV. Contravention of the tenor of obligation 6. A single act or omission can give rise to different causes of action B. Elements of an Obligation III. requisites D. Complete failure to perform 2. Breaches of obligations 1. Extra-contractual obligations VI. Default. exceptions (Art. Negligence (culpa) in the performance of obligation a) Diligence normally required is ordinary diligence or diligence of a good father of a family b) Exception: common carriers which are required to exercise extraordinary diligence 5.II. Classification of Obligations V. Legal excuse for breach of obligation: fortuitous event.

through fault of debtor/creditor or through fortuitous events 15    . 1177) a) Accion subrogatoria a) Accion pauliana c) Accion directa (Arts. 1652. Effect when a resolutory condition in obligation to do or not to do happens and there is improvement. Conditional (Art. Resolutory period 3. 1893) VII. 1189) 6. Subsidiary remedies of creditors (Art. 1196) 2. Obligation with a period or a term (Art. 3) C. 1181) 1. loss or deterioration of the specific thing (Art. Definite or indefinite period a) Instances when courts may fix the period (Art. 1193) 1. Rescission (resolution in reciprocal obligations) 3. Effect of the happening of suspensive condition or resolutory condition (Art. 1187) a) Extent of retroactivity 5. 1199) 1. 1198) 2. Effect of loss of specific things or impossibility of performance of alternative. Effect of improvement. Alternative or facultative (Art. Damages. 1182) 4.a) Substituted performance by a third person on obligation to deliver generic thing and in obligation to do. Presumption that period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor (Art. 1729. par. Suspensive condition 2. Potestative: casual or mixed a) Obligations subject to potestative suspensive conditions are void (Art. 1608. loss or deterioration of specific thing before the happening of a suspensive condition in obligation to do or not to do (Art. Pure (Arts. in any event 4. Resolutory condition 3. 1190. Kinds of Civil Obligations A. unless a purely personal act 2. Difference between alternative and facultative obligations 2. Effect if given to debtor alone a) Instances when debtor losses benefit of period (Art. 1197) b) Creditor must ask court to set the period before he can demand payment D. 1179-1180) B. Effect if suspensive period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor 3.

but not anything prejudicial to them (Art. Joint (divisible) obligation 1. therefore a joint debtor cannot be required to pay for the share of another with debtor. 1214. Joint indivisible obligation 1. Loss of determinate thing due or impossibility or difficulty of performance (Arts. Mutual guaranty among solidary debtors (Arts. 1225) E. 1262. 1270) 1. 1266-1267) C. Implied (Arts. although he may pay if he wants to (Art. Payment (Arts. Extraordinary inflation or deflation (Art. 1245) 2. Form of payment (Art. Joint and Solidary Obligation A. 1272. Divisible and indivisible (Art. 1271. compensation. Extinguishment of Obligations A. Tender of payment and consignation (Arts. In case of failure of one joint debtor to perform his part (share). 1256-1261) B. 1216. 1249) 3. 1250) 4. Application of payment (Art. Condonation or remission of debt (Art. unless otherwise indicated by the law or nature of obligation (Art. 1270) 2. there is default but only the guilty debtor shall be liable for damages C. 1209) B. 1215) 2. 1217. others not liable for his share (Art. Obligation cannot be performed in parts but debtors are bound jointly 2. a) Effect of any novation. Each one of solidary creditors may do whatever may be useful to the others. Dation in payment (Art. 1274) 16    . Express condonations and required formality thereof (Art. Obligations with a penal clause (Arts. 1226. confusion or remission of debt executed by a solidary creditor D. 1236-1238) 1. 1209) d) Insolvency of a joint debtor. 1207) b) Obligation presumed to be divided into as many equal shares as there are creditors or debtors c) Each credit is distinct from one another. Solidary obligation 1. 1228-1230) IX. Mutual agency among solidary debtors (Arts.VIII. Concurrence of two or more creditors and or two or more debtors a) Joint obligation is presumed. 1252-1254) 5. 1222) 3. 1212).

Kinds (Arts. 1272) E. 1261) II. Sale of large cattle III. Essential Requisites (Art. Formal or solemn 1. 1356. 1291-1304) CONTRACTS I. 2134) 4. Rescissible contracts (Art. 1279) a) Legal compensation (Arts. Partnership where real property contributed (Arts. Defective Contracts A. 1874) 5. 1282) c) Voluntary (Art. Real C. Antichresis (Art. 1282) d) Judicial (Art. 1381) 1. 1773) 3. Consensual B. 1357. Donations (Arts. 1286-1290) b) Agreement (Art. 1771. 1956) 6. Agency to sell real property or an interest therein (Art.D. Voidable contracts (Arts. Difference with rescission (resolution) under Art. Stipulation to charge interest (Art. 1191 B. 1283) e) Facultative 2. 1328-1344. Stipulation limiting common carrier’s duty of extraordinary diligence to ordinary diligence (Art. 1744) 7. Chattel mortgage 8. Obligations not compensable (Art. Kinds of Contracts A. 1287-1288) F. 748-749) 2. 1278. Confusion or Merger of Rights (Arts. Formality (Arts. Compensation 1. 1390-1402) 17    . 1275. Novation (Arts. 1358) IV.

Subject Matter A. Stages of contract of sale D. Definition of sales (Arts. Sale is title and not mode G. Absolute incapacity (Arts. Requisites of a valid subject matter (Arts. 1403-1408. 1491-1492) III. Contract of sale/contract to sell II. Characteristics of a contract of sale F. Void contracts (Arts. 1399) C. Unenforceable contracts (Arts. 2130. Pactum commissorium (Arts. Essential requisites of a contract of sale (Art. Parties to a Contract of Sale A. 1390) 2. Pactum de non alienando (Art. Pactum leonina (Art. 1459-1465) 18    . 1165) E. Sale distinguished from other contracts H. Obligations created (Art. Introduction A. 1397. Relative incapacity: married persons D. 1489-1492) B. Effect of contracts (Art. 1458. 1317) D. 1346) 1. 2088. 2130) 3.C. Capacity of parties (Arts. 1311) SALES I. 1409. 1327. 1470) B. 1505) C. Special disqualifications (Arts. 1799) V.

1496-1501) B. 1479) B. Sale by a person having a voidable title (Arts. Formalities of the contract. Inadequacy of price (Arts. 1319. Particular kinds IV. Exceptions B. Transfer of Ownership A. Right of first refusal 4. 1355.B. 1459) 1. Formation of Contract of Sale A. 1324) 3. Offer (Art. Price A. 1470) E. Requisites for a valid price C. Perfection (Arts.1482) VI. How price is determined D. 1505. Manner of payment must be agreed upon G. 1403 (d) (e) VII. Option contract (Arts. Sale by a person not the owner at time of delivery (Arts. Meaning of price (Arts. Mutual promise to buy and sell (Art. 1326) C. 1462. 1477. 1469-1474) B. 1325. Manner of transfer (Arts. 1479. 1479) 1. Option money (Art. When no price agreed (Art. 1475) 2. Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership A. Earnest money vs. When delivery does not transfer title 19    . 1475. Art. 1474) F. 1506. Preparatory (Art. 559) V.

and documentary tax registration fees VIII. 1636) B. Definition (Art. When loss occurred after perfection but before delivery E. Definition of unpaid seller (Art. Property Registration Decree 1. Documents of Title A. Warranties of seller of documents of title (Art. Risk of Loss A. 1525) B. 1514. 1263. Performance of Contract 20    . Double sales (Art. 1189) B. Purpose of documents of title C. 1520) X. 1504) IX. 1493 and 1494) D. payment of capital gains tax. When ownership is transferred (Art. Negotiable documents of title D. Rules on levy/garnishment of goods (Arts. Kinds of delivery D.C. When loss occurred before perfection C. Non-negotiable documents of title E. Remedies of unpaid seller XI. 1544) E. Remedies of an Unpaid Seller A. Accompanied by vendor’s duplicate certificate of title. 1519. General rule (Arts. When loss occurred at time of perfection (Arts. 1516) F. Requisites for registration of deed of sale in good faith 2.

Equitable mortgage (Arts. Effects of warranties D. 957. Remedies of the seller (Arts. 1539. 24 2. Implied warranties (Art. Sale of immovables XIV. Delivery of thing sold 1. Causes (Arts. 1602) E. Buyer’s options in case of breach of warranty (Art. Breach of Contract A. 1231) B. Conventional redemption (Art. Effects of waivers E. Sale of immovables on installment (Maceda Law) D. Sale of movables B. 1600. Express warranties B. Sale of movables (Arts. 1547) C. 1601) C.A. 1602-1604) D. 1606) 21    . 1537. 1594) 1. Warranties A.D. P. Recto Law: sale of movables on installment (Arts. Payment of price XII. Secs. Sale of immovables (Arts. 1543) 3. 1599) XIII. Inspections and acceptance B. 1522. Remedies of the buyer 1. Distinguished from option to buy (Art. Sale of movable 2. 23. 1484-1486) C. Sale of immovables 1. Period of redemption (Art. 1636. 1480) 2. Extinguishment of the Sale A.

781) B. The Condominium Act (R. General Provisions (Arts.F. 797) b) Soundness of mind (Arts. 774. 795) 2. 1616) G. 774-780) A. Wills 1. 783-787) (i) Act of making a will a strictly personal act (Arts. 784-785. Definition/what is transmitted (Arts. 798-801) (i) When testator is deemed to be of sound mind (ii) Presumptions (iii) Supervening incapacity 22    . 3952) and SUCCESSION I. Bulk Sales Law (Act No. 1619) XV. devisees. Age redemption (Art. 776. Testamentary Succession A. Retail Trade Liberalization Act. legatees (Art. Legal redemption (Art. 8792). Testamentary capacity and intent (Arts. 796-803) a) Age requirement (Art. Kinds of successors: heirs. 786) (ii) Rules of construction and interpretation (Arts. 4726) Exclude: Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (R. When succession occurs (Art. 777) C. 1619) H. Exercise of the right to redeem (Art. 782) II.A.D. 787) (a) Exception (Art. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree (P. 788-794) (iii) Law governing formal validity (Art. 957) XVI. Public Land Law. In general a) Definition and characteristics (Arts.A.

15. 825-826) a) Definition and formal requirements 5. 809) (iv) Witnesses to wills(Arts.3. 807-808) (iii) Substantial compliance (Art. Preterition (Art. 16. 1039) b) Common requirements (Art. 839) B. 819) (i) See law governing substantive validity (Arts. 854) a) Definition b) Requisites c) Effects (i) Effects of preterition. 827) 6. 17. devisees only entitled to completion of legitime 2. 814) (ii) Witnesses required for probate (Art. Codicils (Arts. 906-918 23    . 838-839) a) Probate requirement (Art. 854 3. 838) (i) Issues to be resolved in probate proceedings (Art. 839) (a) Exceptions: when practical considerations demand the intrinsic validity of the will be resolved (ii) Effect of final decree of probate. Compulsory heirs in the direct line 4. Incorporate by reference (Art. 811) e) Joint wills (Arts. 805-806 (ii) Special rules for handicapped testators (Arts. 855. 840-856) 1. Concept – Art. 815-817. Form a) Rules governing the formal validity of wills (Arts. Revocation (Arts. Institution of heirs (Arts. 804) (i) In writing (ii) Language/dialect requirement c) Notarial wills (i) Arts. Allowance and disallowance of wills (Arts. Preterition vs. res judicata on formal validity b) Grounds for denying probate (Art. 828-834) a) Kinds (Art. 818-819) 4. Disposition less than legitime/donation inter vivos – Arts. 820-824) d) Holographic wills (i) Requirements (Arts. 810-814) (a) Requirements in case of alterations (Art. 830) 7.

Right of representation (Arts. 858-860) 3. Effects of partition (Arts. Partition (Arts. Disinheritance C. Kinds (Arts. 1032) 2. 1100. 922) (ii) Rights of descendants of person disinherited (Art. 886-914) 1. Right of accretion (Arts. 891) 4. Partition inter vivos 3. 1091. 863-866. Compulsory heirs and various combinations (Arts. 960-1014) A. 871-885) E. Simple substitution (Art. Legitime (Arts. Order of intestate succession (Arts. Partition and distribution of estate (Arts. 908-910. Substitution of heirs (Arts. Disinheritance a) Disinheritance for cause (Art. General provisions (Arts. 1015-1105) A.1041-1057) D. 923) b) Disinheritance without cause (Art. 886) 2. Conditional testamentary dispositions and testamentary dispositions with a term (Arts. 1061-1062) E. 887-903) 3. 1080) 2. Fideicommissary substitution (Arts. 857) 2. 1015-1016) B. Definition (Art. Relationship (Arts. Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession (Arts. 869) D. Persons incapable of succeeding (Arts. 739. 1024-1040) 1. Collation (Arts. Definition and requisites (Arts. 1079. 919) (i) Reconciliation (Art. 1015-1023) 1. 924-959) III. 1104-1105) 24    . 1097. 857-870) 1. 992) IV. Definition (Art. 859) 4. Unworthiness vs. Acceptance and repudiation of the inheritance (Arts. Legacies and devisees (Arts. 960-969) 1.C. Capacity to succeed by will or intestacy (Arts. 1078-1105) 1. Reserva troncal (Art. 978-1014. 1027. Legal or Intestate Succession (Arts. 970-977) B. 963-969) 2. 918) 5.

Contract of Partnership A. How partnership is formed E. Management (Arts. Universal vs. which will be covered under Remedial Law PARTNERSHIP I. Limited G. Partnership by estoppel H. Rights and Obligations of Partnership III. Particular. 1800-1803) II. Obligations of Partnership/Partners to Third Persons V. Definition B. Partnership v.Exclude: Executors and administrators (Arts. 1830) VI. 1058-1060). Dissolution (Art. Joint venture I. Professional partnership J. Definition 25    . Limited Partnership A. Rules to determine existence D. Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves IV. General vs. Elements C. Partnership term F.

Agency Requiring Special Power of Attorney VIII. 1897-1902) B. To bind principal (Arts. General vs. 1877-1878) A. Express vs.B. Powers (Arts. Rights and Obligations of Principal X. 1883) III. Modes of Extinguishment 26    . 1927-1930) XI. Definition of Agency II. Rights and obligations of a limited partner Exclude: Questions requiring application of SEC opinions or regulations AGENCY I. Implied Agency IV. Irrevocable Agency (Arts. Agency Couched in General Terms VII. Agency by Estoppel V. Exception (Art. How limited partnership is formed/amended C. Agency by Operation of Law IX. Special Agency VI.

2028) II. Loan A. Mutuum B. Nature and extent of guaranty B. Legal and judicial bonds IV. 2037. Obligations of bailor and bailee C. Guaranty and Suretyship A. Interest and the suspension of usury law II. Voluntary deposit B. Necessary deposit C. 2041) CREDIT TRANSACTIONS I. Definition (Art. Commodatum vs. Effects of guaranty C. 2035) III. Deposit A. Void Compromise (Art. Judicial deposit III. Pledge 27    . Extinguishment of guaranty D.COMPROMISE I. Effect (Arts.

Obligations of antichretic creditor VII. Quasi-contracts A. 2096) G. Distinguished from chattel mortgage (Arts. Definition B. Essential requisites C. Definition and characteristics B. Foreclosure (Arts. Negotiorum gestio B. Definition and characteristics B. Solutio indebiti 28    . 2121-2122) I. 2112. Perfection (Arts. 1484) V. Registration VIII. Definition and characteristics B. 2115) H.A. Real Mortgage A. Rights of pledgor F. Chattel Mortgage A. 2093. Obligation of pledge E. Kinds C. Antichresis A. Foreclosure VI. Pledge by operation of law (Art. 2140. Essential requirements D.

Prohibitions 29    . Registration C.IX. Exempt property D. Usury Law LEASE I. Lease of Things II. Meaning of concurrence and preference B. Order of preference of credits X. Qualified persons B. Involuntary insolvency Exclude: Warehouse Receipts Law. Classification of credits E. Preferred credits on specific movables C. Suspension of payments C. Voluntary insolvency D. Definition of insolvency B. Lease of Rural and Urban Lands A. Lease of Work or Services III. Concurrence and Preference of Credits A. Insolvency Law A.

Citizenship Requirement A. Household Service VII.D. time immemorial possession III. Who may apply 1. Original Registration A. Special Rules for Lease of Rural/Urban Lands VI. Effects C.IV. Contract for Piece of Work LAND TITLES AND DEEDS I. Torrens System A. Concept B. Obligation in case of death/injury of laborers VIII. Under P. Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee V. Concept and background B. 1529 30    . Certificate of title II. Contract of Labor A. Concept of native title. Individuals and corporations IV. Regalian Doctrine A.

Cadastral registration V. Under R. Voluntary dealings B. Non-registrable Properties VII. Consultas. Assurance fund 5. Involuntary dealings VI. Abuse of right.A. orders and partitions 4. Acts contrary to law 31    . Under C.2. Registration of judgments. 8371 B. Remedies D. Principles A. Registration of patents 6. Subsequent Registration A. Liability without fault D. History of land laws 2. Remedies sufficiently covered under Remedial Law 3. elements B. 141 3. TORTS AND DAMAGES Book I--Torts I.A. Registration process and requirements C. Unjust enrichment C. Administrative structure of the Register of Deeds 7. Dealings with Unregistered Lands Exclude: 1.

Joint tortfeasors (Art. 2194. 2180. negligent and strict liability B. definition (ii) Distinguished from culpa contractual and culpa criminal b) Indirect liability for intentional acts c) Presumption of negligence on persons indirectly responsible d) Nature of liability.E. Juridical persons B. The direct tortfeasor 1. According to scope: general or specific III. Classification of Torts A. 218-219. Acts contrary to morals II. Arts. Civil Code) 32    . and the Family Code. According to manner of commission: intentional. In general a) Quasi-delicts under Art. Persons made responsible for others 1. The Tortfeasor A. Natural persons 2. In particular a) Parents b) Guardians c) Owners and managers of establishments and enterprises d) Employers (i) Meaning of employers (ii) Requisites (a) Employee chosen by employer or through another (b) Services rendered in accordance with orders which employer has authority to give (c) Illicit act of employee was on the occasion or by reason of the functions entrusted to him (d) Presumption of negligence (iii) Employer need not be engaged in business or industry (iv) Defense of diligence in selection and supervision (v) Nature of employer’s liability e) State f) Teachers and heads of establishments of arts and trades C. joint or solidary? 2. 221 (i) Elements.

Injury to persons 2. Distinguished from immediate cause 4. Legal cause 1. Test 3. Concurrent causes C. Concept of act V. Cause vs. Concept B. Legal Injury A. Classes of injury 1. Intentional Torts 33    . Last clear chance VI. Violation of right or legal injury D. Distinguished from remote and concurrent B. Injury to property 3.IV. Concept 1. Elements of right C. Definition 2. Act of Omission and Its Modalities A. Proximate Cause A. Injury to relations VII. Foreseeability D. Cause in fact 1. Condition F. Natural and probable consequences 2. Distinguished from intervening cause 5. Substantial factor test 2. Efficient intervening cause E.

Interference with rights to persons and property 1. 33. Intentional physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of persons security. General 1. Interference with relations 1. Classes a) Interference with persons and property (i) Physical harms (ii) Non-physical harms b) Interference with relations B. Concept 2. physical injuries (Art.A. General 34    . Intentional non-physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of personal dignity c) Infliction of emotional distress d) Violation of privacy (i) Appropriation (ii) Intrusion (iii) Public disclosure of private facts (iv) False light in the public eye e) Disturbance of peace of mind f) Malicious prosecution g) Defamation (i) Defenses (a) Absence of elements (b) Privilege h) Fraud or misrepresentation (formerly deceit) i) Seduction j) Unjust dismissal C. Civil Code) (i) Battery (physical injury) (ii) Assault (grave threat) c) False imprisonment (illegal detention) d) Trespass to land (i) Concept (ii) Elements e) Interference with personal property (i) Trespass to chattels (ii) Conversion 2.

Civil Code. Economic relations a) Interference with contractual relations b) Unfair competition 5. assembly and petition. Negligence A. press.a) Concept b) Kinds 2. 1173 2. Unreasonable risk of harm E. Art. Concept B. Art. Art. Evidence 35    . Family a) b) c) relations Alienation of affection Loss of consortium Criminal conversation (adultery) 3. Emergency rule D. 32) b) Violation of other political rights (freedom of speech. etc. Social relations a) Meddling with or disturbing family relations b) Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from his friends 4. Defenses a) Absence of element b) Privilege (i) Consent (ii) Self-defense and defense of others (iii) Necessity (Civil Code. Good father of a family or reasonably prudent man C. 429) (iv) Defense of property (v) Authority of law c) Prescription d) Waiver e) Force majeure VIII. Standard of care 1.) 6. Political relations a) Violation of right to suffrage (Civil Code.

Concept B. Legal provisions 2. and 1150) h) Waiver i) Double recovery (Civil Code. Products liability 1.F. Proprietor of building or structure or thing I. Art. Attractive nuisance D. Res ipsa loquitur G. Special Liability in Particular Activities A. 92-107. Public nuisance and private nuisance 3. Head of family 36    . Owner of motor vehicle H. Arts. Violation of constitutional rights 1. Presumption of negligence 1. Defenses 1. 7394. 1146. Violation of rights committed by public officers F. Violation of civil liberties E. 694-707) 1. Manufacturers or processors a) Elements b) Consumer Act [R. (Ch. 1144. Nuisance per se and nuisance per accidence 2. 1)] C.A. Complete a) Absence of element (i) Due diligence (ii) Acts of public officers b) Accident or fortuitous event c) Damnum absque injuria d) Authority of law e) Assumption of risk f) Last clear chance g) Prescription (Civil Code. Nuisance (Civil Code. cities and municipalities G. Secs. 2177) IX. Arts. Provinces. General 1.

General Considerations A.X. Strict Liability A. Concept B. unrealized profit 2. Consumer act Book II--Damages I. Extent or scope of actual damages 1. Easement against nuisance C. Special and ordinary II. Alleged and proved with certainty 2. Interest D. Nuisance (supra) 1. Component elements 1. Classification 1. According to purpose 3. Classes a) Per se or per accidents b) Public or private 2. In contracts and quasi-contracts 2. Possessor and user of an animal B. Actual and Compensatory Damages A. According to manner of determination 4. Requisites 1. Attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation 3. Products liability (supra) 1. Under Art. Animals 1. Not speculative C. 2197 of the Civil Code 2. Moral Damages 37    . Value of loss. In crimes and quasi-delicts III.

Liquidated Damages A. Art. 2217-2218) B. 2234 VIII. 2229) B. Concept B. When awarded VI. Concept B. Concept (Civil Code. In seduction. 2230) 2.A. In cases of malicious prosecution IV. Concept (Civil Code. Art. 28. Nominal Damages A. When awarded V. abduction. 2232) C. Art. In quasi-delicts (Civil Code. 2231) 3. Art. 32. Temperate or Moderate Damages A. 27. 3. Requisites 1. Damages in Case of Death A. 26. Arts. 2233. Exemplary or Corrective Damages A. Civil Code. 29. 21. 2219-2220) 1. In death caused by breach of conduct by a common crime IX. In acts referred to in Arts. Rules governing in case of breach of contract VII. When recoverable (Arts. 2226) B. 34 & 35. Concept (Arts. When recovered 1. rape and other lascivious acts 2. In crimes and quasi-delicts causing death 1. In contracts and quasi-contracts (Civil Code. Graduation of Damages 38    . In criminal offenses (Civil Code. Art.

4. 3. quasi-contracts and quasi-delicts (Civil Code. temperate. Nominal with other damages (Art. In crimes In quasi-delict (Civil Code. Damages that cannot co-exist 1. and principles they need to know and be able to use correctly before they can be licensed to practice law. Art. 2012. It has been drawn up for the limited purpose of ensuring that candidates reviewing for the bar examinations are guided on what basic and minimum amounts of laws. More is required for excellent and distinguished work as members of the Bar. 2203 B. Duty of injured party 1. 2. doctrines. 5. 2214) In contracts. Important note: This bar coverage description is not intended and should not be used by law schools as a syllabus or course outline in the covered subjects. Miscellaneous Rules A. 2226) B. Nominal damages (Art. Exemplary with moral. 39    . Actual and liquidated (Art. 2215) Liquidated damages (Civil Code. Art. 2223) Exclude: Distinction between tort and quasi-delict Include: Pertinent Supreme Court decisions promulgated up to January 31. Damages that must stand alone 1. Art. 2227) Compromise X. liquidated or compensatory C. 2223) 2. Rules 1. Art.A. Damages that must co-exist 1.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.