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Ariela Schear Chapter 40 and 41 Objectives

Thursday March 1, 2012

1. Distinguish between anatomy and physiology. Explain how functional anatomy relates to these terms. Anatomy is the physical structure of the organism and physiology is the actual functions that occur within an organism. Functional anatomy combines the structure of the animal with the functions that each part carries out. 2. Explain how physical laws constrain animal form. Physical laws constrain an animals form because evolution would not promote animals that have forms unsuitable for the environment. This includes the shape of an animal that needs to move through water or the surface area and weight of a bird that needs to fly. 3. Explain how the size and shape of an animal's body affect its interactions with the environment. For animals that require diffusion with the outside solution in order to do gas exchange/ acquire food/molecules a large surface area and thin layer of cells in necessary (ex. two layered sacs and flat designs). Other animals can still make up for smaller surface areavolume ratios by having highly folded tissues like the inside of lungs or the lining of the intestines. Animals living on land tend to have much more complex body systems because conditions on land can change a lot. 4. Define a tissue. Tissues are cells that are usually connected, of similar structure, and work together to perform a function. 5. From micrographs or diagrams, correctly identify the following animal tissues, explain how their structure relates to their functions, and note examples of each. a. Epithelial tissue- tightly packed cells that create the linings of organs. The cells are connected by tight junctions that prevent substances from passing through the tissues. Glandular epithelium absorb/secrete chemicals and the epithelium of the digestive and respiratory secrete a mucous membrane. i. Cuboidal- specialized for secretion. Line tubules of the kidneys and many glands. ii. Columnar- Lines the surface of the urethra (stratified). Lining of intestines- secretes digestive juices + absorbs nutrients (simple). Lining of respiratory tract (pseudostratified ciliated). iii. Squamous Lining of blood vessels and air sacs (simple). Outer skin, lining of esophagus, anus, and vagina (stratified). b. b. Connective tissue- binds and helps support other kinds of tissues. They have sparse cells that are in a matrix of collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers. i. Adipose- specialized cells that store fat (fuel) and provide padding for the body ii. Cartilage- flexible with a rubbery matrix full of collagenous fibers.

iii. Bone- mineralized connective tissue that provides support and structure for the animal. Bone cells are called osteoblasts and they secrete the materials that form the units of bone (osteons). c. c. Muscle i. Skeletal (striated) bundles of long thin cells called fibers that form bundles and is the tissue that allows animals to move. i. Cardiac- striated and is able to contract. Intercalated disks allow the cells to communicate so they can coordinate the beating of the heart. ii. Visceral (smooth)- Non striated and contract involuntarily. Contract more slowly but can stay contracted for longer periods of time. d. Nervous- neurons have dendrites and axons allow them to convey and transmit signals to muscles or to the brain. 6. Define bioenergetics. The flow energy through an animal and limits the growth, behavior, reproduction, and amount of food it needs. 7. Describe the basic sources of chemical energy and their fate in animal cells. Animals acquire most of their energy through their food, which is broken up by enzymes and then distributed to cells. Most energy is converted to ATP, but some is also converted to heat. Remaining energy containing molecules after the cell has done its basic functions are then used for growth and repair, storage, and production of gametes. 8. Define metabolic rate and explain how it can be determined for animals. The metabolic rate is the amount of energy an organism, consumes in a certain amount of time. It is measured in kilocalories or calories. Metabolic rate can be measured by testing heat loss or respiratory rate. 9. Distinguish between basal metabolic rate and standard metabolic rate. Describe the major factors that influence energy requirements. BMR- is the basal metabolic rate of an endoderm that is at rest and has an empty stomach. SMR: is the standard metabolic rate of an ectotherm is the same as BMR except is dependent on the temperature the animal is in. The main factor that affects the metabolic rate of animals is activity, how strenuous it is and how long it lasts. Also affecting the metabolic rate is age, sex, body, food, hormonal balance, and available oxygen. 10. Describe the relationship between metabolic rate and body size. It has been shown that the amount of energy to maintain each gram of a smaller animals is much higher than the amount of energy required to maintain each gram of a larger animal. Small animals tend to have a higher metabolic rate than bigger animals. . Of course the net amount of energy required for the larger animal is still bigger. This may be because in endoderms it is more difficult for smaller animals to maintain their

temperature due to higher surface area to volume ratios, this does not explain why the same inverse relationship is found in ectotherms. 11. Define homeostasis. Describe the three functional components of a homeostatic control system. Homeostasis refers to the state of balance within an organism (in particularly temperature). receptor- detects a change in the environment. control center- uses the signal from the receptor sends an appropriate signal to the effector. effector- responds to the control center to do what ever needs to be done. 12. Distinguish between positive and negative feedback mechanisms. Positive feedback: when a change in a particular variable causes a mechanism to increase or turn on. Negative feedback- when a change in a particular variable causes a mechanism to turn off. 13. Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic organisms. Endotherm- use metabolic heat to maintain their body temperature without external heat sources. Ectotherm- gain the majority of their heat from their environment. 14. Describe the natural variations found in the energy strategies of endotherms and ectotherms. Endoderms are able to use their own metabolic heat in order to maintain their body temperature and because of this have much more complex respiratory and circulatory systems. Endoderms can also do strenuous exercise for longer periods of time than ectotherms. Ectotherms are unable to live in conditions with drastic temperature changes unlike endoderms. Endoderms require more food than ectotherms because it requires a lot of energy to maintain their high metabolic rates. Ectotherms therefore are able to survive in environments with limited food supplies. Chapter 41 Objectives 1. Compare the dietary habits of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. Herbivores- eat autotrophs (plants) Carnivores- eat mainly meat Omnivores- eat a combination of meat and plants 2. Compare the following types of feeders and note examples of each: suspension feeders, substrate feeders, deposit feeders, fluid feeders, and bulk feeders. 3. Explain how glucose is a regulator.

A rise of glucose level in the blood causes the pancreas to produce insulin, a hormone that enables cells to take up glucose. Liver and muscle cells begin storing glucose as glycogen and the glucose level in the blood drops. 4. Define essential nutrients and describe the four classes of essential nutrients. 5. Define and compare the four main stages of food processing. a. Ingestion- the first stage of food processing, this is the act of eating food. b. Digestion- the process of breaking the food into molecules that are small enough for the body to absorb (macromolecules to monomers). c. Absorption- the molecules are absorbed by the body and can then be distributed. d. Elimination- the remaining undigested material is excreted out of the body. 6. Compare intracellular and extracellular digestion. 7. Describe the common processes and structural components of the mammalian digestive system. Mammalian digestive systems include an alimentary canal and accessory glands that include the salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver, and the gallbladder. The alimentary canal starts in the mouth and includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and ends in the anus. Sphincters are ring-like muscles that prevent digestive contents from leaving or entering one area/organ. Along most of the digestive system, peristalsis (waves of muscle contraction) moves the food along. 8. Compare the digestive processes of the major types of macromolecules. 9. Explain how hormones influence the digestive process. Cholecystokinin- release is triggered by presence of amino acids/fatty acids in the small intestine and causes the release fo digestive enzymes from the gall bladder and pancreas. Enterogastrone- release is triggered when acid chyme with lots of fat enters the small intestine and its release causes peristalsis to be slowed down and lowers acid release by the stomach (slowing digestion). Gastrin- is produced in the stomach enters the blood stream then returns the stomach and promotes the production of gastric juices. Secretin- produced by the lining of duodenum, it causes the pancreas to produce sodium bicarbonate, which neutralizes acid. 10. Describe the major functions of the large intestine. 11. Relate variations in dentition and lengths of the digestive system to the feeding strategies and diets of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. Teeth are specicialized based on the mode of nutrition of the particular animal and they type of food that they need to eat. Some snakes also have specialized teeth that inject venom into their prey. Herbivores also have much longer intestines which help them to

absorb as many nutrients as possible from their food and also digest more difficult materials like cell walls.