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New Senior Secondary Mastering Biology Suggested answers to Exercise and Reading to learn

Book E1, Chapter 1 p.1/4

Suggested answers to Exercise and Reading to learn


(Note: The overseas examination boards bear no responsibility for the suggested answers contained in this publication. Answers for HKCEE and HKALE questions are not available due to copyright restrictions.

Chapter 1
P14

Regulation of water content

Quick Check Answers: 1. 2. 3. 4. A C (37%) D (29%) B

P18

1. A 2. B

Exercise
Multiple-choice questions (p. 24)
1 5 A D 2 6 D B 3 7 C C 4 C

Short questions (p. 25)


8 a Urea is a nitrogenous compound produced from deamination of excess amino acids in liver. 1m Urine is a liquid containing water, salts, urea and other unwanted substances. It is produced after ultrafiltration and reabsorption in the kidney. 1m b Plasma is the liquid portion of blood. It contains water and substances including glucose, amino acids, salts, urea and plasma proteins. 1m

Glomerular filtrate is the fluid that is filtered out of the glomerulus into the Bowmans capsule. Its composition is similar to plasma, except there are no plasma proteins. 1m c Excretion is the process of removal of metabolic waste from the body. 1m Osmoregulation is the regulation of water content in relation to the amount of salts in the body. 1m

Urea

1m

Oxford University Press 2010

New Senior Secondary Mastering Biology Suggested answers to Exercise and Reading to learn

Book E1, Chapter 1 p.2/4

b It is to maintain the diffusion gradient of urea between the blood and the dialysis fluid. 1m c It is to prevent infection / contamination of the blood / the body system. 1m

Structured questions (p. 25)


10 HKCEE Human Biology 2005 I Q4a (a) 180- (118 + 30 + 20 + 11) = 180-179 =1 L (1) (b) proximal convoluted tubule (1) (c) (i) all glucose is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule (1) by active transport & diffusion (1) (ii) The reabsorption of glucose from the glomerular filtrate increases the water potential of the glomerular filtrate (1) & thus enhances the water reabsorption by osmosis. (1) (d) On day 2, the person performs vigorous exercise & he has heavy sweating. (1) The water potential of blood decreases & it is detected by the hypothalamus. (1) Then pituitary gland is stimulated to secrete more ADH. (1) Therefore, the wall of the collecting duct becomes more permeable to water (1), so that a greater proportion of water is reabsorbed. (1) This results in a smaller volume of water lost in the urine on day 2. 11 9. HKCEE Biology 2006 I Q9a (a) (i) (1) 6566.7% 1

(2) The urea content in urine is much higher because the amount of water reabsorbed along the kidney tubule is relatively much greater than that of urea 1

(ii)

The water content of glomerular filtrate is greater than that of the plasma because protein is too large to pass the wall of the glomerulus and that of the Bowmans capsule The proportion of water in the glomerular filtrate thus increases

1 1 1

(iii) The person cannot produce sufficient insulin to stimulate liver cells to convert glucose into glycogen The level of glucose in the blood may become so high / exceed the threshold value that glucose cannot be completely reabsorbed in the kidney Thus it appears in the urine

1 1 1 1

Total: 9 marks

Oxford University Press 2010

New Senior Secondary Mastering Biology Suggested answers to Exercise and Reading to learn

Book E1, Chapter 1 p.3/4

12
1.

HKCEE Biology 2001 I Q1b


(b) (i) (ii) (iii) Proteins are present in the blood plasma but not in the fluid in the nephron...................................1 because proteins are too large to pass through the wall of the glomerulus / Bowmans capsule.....1 The reabsorption of water from the fluid as it passes along the collecting duct..............................1 (1) glucose / amino acids................................................................................................................1 (2) The concentration of substance X drops to zero along the nephron.........................................1 because X is reabsorbed from the fluid into the capillaries......................................................1 by active transport.....................................................................................................................1 (iv) The amount of urea excreted would increase...................................................................................1 because beans contain a lot of protein..............................................................................................1 which is digested into amino acids / is absorbed in the form of amino acids..................................1 Excess amino acids are broken down in the liver forming urea......................................................1 thus an increased amount of urea will be excreted Total: 11 marks

13

a b

Pituitary gland Any three from:

1m 1m x 3

Injection of ADH decreased urine production / urine production was inhibited in the first 10 minutes after the injection. In the next 15 minutes, urine production increased. The effect of ADH was temporary. After 30 minutes, the rate of urine production has not returned to the original level. The rate decreased 4.3 cm3 min1 in the first 10 minutes after the injection / the rate increased 3.5 cm3 min1 in the next 15 minutes / the overall rate decreased 0.8 cm3 min1. c ADH increases the permeability of collecting duct to water. More water is reabsorbed into the blood from the collecting duct by osmosis. d Sodium chloride increased the salt concentration of the blood. The change was detected by the hypothalamus. ADH production / secretion increased. 14 a b The differentially permeable membrane separates the blood and the dialysis fluid. Blood cells cannot pass through the membrane. No net diffusion of glucose occurs. 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m

Glucose is retained in the blood to stop water from passing into the blood by osmosis. 1m Urea is removed from the blood by diffusion. c Her problem may be temporary / could be cured by other means. 1m 1m

Oxford University Press 2010

New Senior Secondary Mastering Biology Suggested answers to Exercise and Reading to learn

Book E1, Chapter 1 p.4/4

Operation / transplant carries risk / may lead to rejection. d i ii No antigens are on the surface of red blood cells.

1m 1m 1m

Blood of different blood groups would cause agglutination / clumping of the blood cells. 1m

Reading to learn (p. 28)


1 2 Pituitary gland Alcohol and caffeine inhibit the release of ADH. A smaller proportion of water is reabsorbed in the collecting duct. 1m 1m 1m

Therefore, more water is lost in urine than the body has gained from alcoholic drinks or coffee. 1m 3 When the water content in blood is lower than normal, the hypothalamus sends signals to the brain to produce the feeling of thirst. 2m

Oxford University Press 2010