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Preparation # 22 Peppermint Spirit Formula: OA Peppermint oil 100 mL Peppermint leaves 10 g Alcohol qs ad 1000 mL Procedures: 1.

Macerate the peppermint leaves in 7.5 mL of dH2O. Agitate for 1 hour. 2. Strain through filter paper. 3. Discard aqueous solution. Collect leaves. 4. Macerate leaves in 13.5 mL alcohol. Stand for 6 hours. 5. Filter. Collect the filtrate. 6. Mix peppermint oil. 7. qs ad alcohol to make 15 mL. Preparation # 23 Aromatic Ammonia Spirit Formula: OA Ammonium carbonate 34 g Strong ammonia soln. 36 mL Lemon oil 10 mL Lavender oil 1 mL Nutmeg oil 1 mL Alcohol 700 mL pH2O qs ad 1000 mL Procedures: 1. Dissolve ammonium carbonate and strong ammonia solution in 6 mL H2O. (1) 2. Stand for 24 hours. 3. Dissolve lemon oil, nutmeg oil and lavender oil in 21 mL alcohol. (2) 4. Mix the two solutions. 5. Stand for 24 hours. 6. Filter if turbid. 7. qs ad H2O to make 30 mL. Extractives: products prepared extraction of drug with suitable solvent by

o c)

Process E longer/narrower percolation

4. 5. 6.

Extract 2 to 6x more potent than crude drug Types: o Semi liquid syrupy; 20 mL solvent left o Pilular solid extract, plastic masses, all solvent has been evaporated o Dry powder powdered extract; starchy drugs; examples: cassava, radish

Set it aside for 24 hours, in a cool place. Filter. qs ad H2O to complete the volume.

Preparation # 24 Iodine tincture Uses: local antiseptic, germicide, fungicide NaI solubilizing agent; prevents formation of ethyl iodide NaI + I2 -> NaI3 (once formed, I2 will not react with alcohol to form acetaldehyde and HI causing pain when solution is applied) Formula: OA Iodine crystal Sodium iodide Alcohol pH2O qs ad

Glycerites Solution or mixture of medicinal substances in nlt 50% by weight of glycerin Most glycerites are viscous while some are jelly-like Used to prepare aqueous and alcoholic dilutions of subtances which are not readily soluble in H2O or alcohol Protectant, emollient, pill, excipient, substitute for fatty ointment Hygroscopic Glycerin Reducing agent Should not be triturated with strong oxidizing agent like KMnO4, chromium trioxide or KClO3 It produces coloration with phenol, salicylates, tannin, etc. due to contamination with iron Strong HNO3 / H2SO4 converts glycerin into an explosive nitroglycerin Contains 3-OH group Soluble in H2O Hygroscopic Preparation # 26 Starch glycerite Formula: OA Starch 100 g Benzoic acid 2g pH2O 200 g -> 200 mL Glycerin (1.25 g/mL)700 g -> ? mL 1000 g Procedures: 1. Triturate starch and benzoic acid in a mortar and rub in H2O, until a smooth mixture is formed (pasty). 2. Add glycerin, triturate. 3. Transfer to final container. 4. Heat mixture in a sand bath (140144C) with gentle, occasional agitation until a translucent, jelly-like mass is obtained. Mixtures: aqueous liquid preparation which contain suspended (suspensoids), insoluble, solid substance Uses suitable suspending or thickening agents Insoluble substances Very finely divided state Uniformly distributed Accomplished by colloid mill, special method, suspending agents 1. Very finely divided More active as adsorbents and protectives when in contact with inflamed area Suspended readily and settle slowly To increase palatability of the preparation with the use of colloidal suspending agents Easily dispersed Uniformly dispersed/distributed Does not settle easily

20 g 24 g 500 mL 1000 mL

Procedures: 1. Dissolve NaI in alcohol. 2. Add Iodine crystals. 3. Add enough pH2O to make 30 mL. Liniments: solution or mixture of various substances in oil, alcoholic solution of soap or emulsion intended for external application; also called as embrocation (rubbing/friction) Types: 1. Alcoholic Intended generally for their rubefacient, counterirritant, mild astringent and penetration effects Penetrates the skin readily than the oil base 2. Oily Milder in action but are more useful when massage is desired General use: protectant coating depending on the ingredient in the preparation * Should not be applied on bruises and broken skin Preparation # 25 Camphor & Soap Liniment Uses: local anesthetic for sprain and rheumatism Soaps from animals cause gelatinization Formula: Camphor Soap Rosemary oil Alcohol Water qs ad OA 45 g 60 g 10 mL 700 mL 1000 mL CA 1.35 g 1.8 g 0.3 mL 21 mL 30 mL

Process: Percolation Digestion with the aid of gentle heat Infusion blanching; addition of hot H2O Decoction boiling for 15 minutes Maceration submerging the solute Types: a) Tincture Alcoholic/hydroalcoholic solution prepared from vegetable or animal drug or from chemical substances 10-20% potency (10-20 g / 100 mL) 50% alcohol content Preparation: o Simple solution Iodine tincture o Percolation Belladonna tincture o Maceration Sweet orange peel tincture b) Fluidextract 1 g / 1 mL, 100% tincture Alcohol as solvent, potent, too bitter tasting Preparation: o Percolation o Process A extract is ready for assay o Process D hot H2O as menstruum

Procedures: 1. Dissolve camphor and rosemary oil in 21 mL of alcohol. 2. In a separate container, dissolve soap in 9 mL of pH2O. 3. Add #1 and #2.

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Lotion: colloidal dispersion 1um 0.5 um Magmas & gels: fine dispersion 0.5-10 um Mixtures: fine dispersion > 0.5 um Preparation # 27 Chalk mixture Formula: OA CA Prepared chalk (CaCO3) 60 g 0.9 g Glycerin 100 mL 1.5 mL (viscosity modifier) Cinnamon water 400 mL 6 mL (flavorant) PH2O qs ad 1000 mL 15 mL Procedures: 1. Triturate chalk in 5 mL water. 2. Add glycerin and triturate to form a smooth paste. 3. Add cinnamon water and triturate. 4. Transfer mixture in a graduated cylinder. 5. Wash mortar with pH2O and add rinsing to mixture in the graduated cylinder 6. qs ad H2O Emulsion: two phase system in which one liquid is dispersed in the form of small globules throughout another liquid in which it is immiscible Components: 1. Dispersed liquid/Internal/Discontinuous 2. Dispersion medium/External/Continuous 3. Intermediate agent/Emulsifying agent/Dispersing of solubilizing agent Types of emulsifying agent: 1. Natural a. Animal egg yolks, gelatin, casein, wool fat, cholesterol b. Vegetables acacia, tragacanth, pectin, chondrus, carageenan 2. Synthetic a. Finely divided solid Al(OH)3, Mg(OH)2, Mg trisilicate b. Colloid colloidal clays, bentonite magma, kaolin c. Anionic sodium lauryl sulfate d. Cationic benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride e. Non-ionic sorbitan esters and polysorbates, PEG 400, spans and tweens f. Amphoteric lecithin (used in IV; fat emulsions) Anionic, Cationic, Non-ionic Wetting agents Types of emulsion: 1. Simple: o/w or w/o 2. Multiple: w/o/w, o/w/o 3. Microemulsion: 100 A 1000 A 10 millimicrons 100 millimicrons 1 A = 0.1 nm Method of preparation: 1. Wet or English 4:2:1 2. Dry or Continental same proportion, different order of mixing 3. Bottle or Forbes volatile oils or low viscosity oleaginous substances Problems: Creaming Cracked/Broken Phase inversion (w/o -> o/w)

Method of identification of emulsion: 1. Drop dilution method 2. Dye solubility test a. Sudan red oil b. Amaranth green water 3. Electric conductivity test 4. Fluorescence test Preparation # 28 Mineral oil emulsion Cathartic o/w Formula: Mineral oil (internal) Acacia (emulsifying agent) Syrup (sweetening agent) Vanillin (flavorant) Alcohol (preservative) pH2O qs ad (external) OA 500 mL 125 g 100 mL 40 mg 60 mL 1000 mL

Lotion Liquid suspension or dispersion intended for external application to the body applied without friction Insoluble matter are finely divided as particles approaching colloidal dimensions are more soothing to inflamed areas and are more effective in contact with infected surface Method of preparation: 1. Triturating ingredients to a smooth paste and then cautiously adding the remaining liquid phase (high speed mixers, homogenizers) Calamine lotion 2. By chemical interaction in the liquid White lotion (freshly prepared and does not contain suspending agent) ZnSO4 + K2S3 -> ZnS + 2S + K2SO4 K2S3 sulfurated potash ZnS white sulfide Clear solution which the active ingredient is H2O-soluble Demethisoquin HCl lotion Lotions are preferred over semi-solid preparation because of nongreasy character and high spreadability over large areas of skin.

Procedures: a) Dry gum 1. Triturate mineral oil. 2. Add acacia in portion and triturate. 3. Add H2O and triturate. 4. Add syrup in portion with trituration. 5. Dissolve vanillin in alcohol then and portion with trituration. 6. Add enough water to make 30 mL. b) Wet gum 1. Triturate acacia. 2. Add H2O and continue triturating. 3. Add oil in portion. 4. Add syrup in portion. 5. Dissolve vanillin in alcohol, then and portion with trituration. 6. Add enough H2O to make 30 mL. Gels Suspension in a water medium of insoluble drugs in hydrated from wherein, the particle size approaches or attain colloidal dimension Thixotropy Have very fine particle size to achieve large surface thus maximum absorption capacity May contain peppermint oil, glycerin, sorbitol, sucrose, saccharin or other suitable flavor and preservative in a total amount of not exceeding 0.5% Preparation # 29 Aluminum hydroxide gel Formula OA CA Ammonium alum 800 g 12 g Sodium carbonate 1000 g 15 g Peppermint oil 0.01% 0.01% - 1 gtt Sodium benzoate 0.1% 0.1% pH2O 2000 mL 30 mL Procedures: 1. Dissolve sodium carbonate in 60 mL hot H2O. 2. Dissolve alum in 30 mL hot H2O. 3. Filter the alum solution in the carbonate solution. 4. Add 60 mL hot H2O with stirring to allow gas to escape (5 mins). 5. Dilute to 1200 mL with cold water. STAND. DECANT. 6. Suspend residue in 30 mL purified water flavored with peppermint oil and preserve with sodium benzoate. 7. Homogenize the resulting gel.

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Preparation # 30 Calamine lotion Antipruritic Formula: Calamine Zinc oxide Glycerin Bentonite magma Ca(OH)2 top. soln. qs ad OA 80 g 80 g 20 mL 250 mL 1000 mL CA 2.4 g 2.4 g 0.6 mL 7.5 mL 30 mL

Procedures: 1. Dilute bentonite magma with an equal volume of Ca(OH)2 topical solution. 2. Mix calamine and ZnO alternately with glycerin to form a smooth paste. 3. Add 7.5 mL of diluted magma. 4. Triturate and add the remaining magma. 5. Add enough Ca(OH)2 topical solution to complete the volume.