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Company profile

Name Of The Company: - Hindustan Machine Tool Ltd. Pinjore Haryana . Established: - 1963 Owner: - Haryana Govt. Plant Head: - Om Parkash Batra Address of company:- HMT Limited Machine Tool Division, Chandigarh-Shimla Road Pinjore 134 101 Panchkula Dist., Haryana. Factory space:950 acre approx. Strength of workers:3350

HMT was conceived by the Government of India in 1949, and was incorporated in 1953, with the objective of producing a limited range of machine tools, required for building an industrial edifice for the country

Formation of HMT Machine Tools Limited as a wholly-owned subsidiary of HMT Limited. of Bangalore based manufacturing facilities. Merger of Praga Tools Limited, a subsidiary of HMT Limited with HMT Machine Tools Limited. The strategic plan of the subsidiary is coordinated by the holding company HMT Limited. To navigate through the challenges of the new millennium

HMTS BUSINESS OPERATION OR BRANCHES IN INDIA


1. MACHINE UNITS :Bangalore 1953 Pinjore 1966 Kalamassery 1967 Hyderabad 1975 Ajmer 2. WATCHES:Bangalore 1961 Tumkur 1978 Ranibagh 1985 Kalamassery 3. TRACTORS Pinjore 1967 4. DAIRY MACHINES Aurangabad - 1980

Corporate Objectives & Goals


1. To encourage the modernization of Indian Industry through the supply of engineering goods and services of world class excellence. 2. To maintain technological leadership through continuous efforts to update product technology and manufacturing methods. 3. To globalize our operations by developing a mix of international markets and businesses. 4. To ensure a satisfactory return on capital employed, to meet the growth needs and the aspirations of our stakeholders. 5. To present an active, pleasant and productive working environment.

PATTERN SHOP
The very first step in manufacturing of any component of machine tool is making its pattern. Materials used for making pattern: a) Wood: b) Thermo coal: c) Aluminum:

Contraction allowances: The pattern needs to incorporate suitable allowances for shrinkage; these are called contraction allowances, and their exact values depend on the alloy being cast and the exact sand casting method being used. Some alloys will have overall linear shrinkage up to 2.5%, whereas other alloys may actually experience no shrinkage or a slight positive shrinkage or increase in size in the casting process(notably type metal and certain cast irons). The shrinkage amount is also dependent on the sand casting process employed, for example clay-bonded sand, chemical bonded sands, or other bonding materials used within the sand. b) Draft allowances: The pattern needs to incorporate suitable allowances for draft, which means that its sides are tapered so that when it is pulled from the sand, it will tend not to drag sand out of place along with it. This is also known a taper which is normally between 1 and 3 degrees. Sprues, gates, risers, cores, and chills: the patternmaker or foundry engineer decides where the Sprues, gating system and risers are placed with repeat to the pattern. Where a hole is desired in a casting, a core may be used which defines a volume or location in a casting where metal will not flow into .Sometimes chills may be location on a pattern surface, which are then formed into the sand mould. Chills are heat sinks which enable location rapid cooling. The rapid cooling may be desired to refine the grain structure or determine the freezing sequence of the molten metal which is poured into the mould

STEPS IN MAKING PATTERN:


The drawing of the component is obtained. This is modified by adding various allowances to the dimensions. Thus the pattern is slightly larger in size than the actual component. The material of the pattern is selected. For pattern to be used time and again wood is used; for complex pattern aluminum is selected. If the single component is urgent, thermo coal is considered best. The material is machined and the pattern is made either in one piece or in two pieces, parted along the split plane of the component. Color codes are used on patterns to show their surface for different purposes. For example: Surface to be left un machined=Red Surface to be machine=Yellow UN machine core prints=black

FOUNDRY
A foundry is a factory that produces metal casting form either ferrous or nonferrous alloys. Metal are turned into parts by melting them into liquid, pouring the metal in mould, and removing the mould material or casting after the metal has solidified as it cools. The most common metals processed are aluminum and cast iron. Foundry is divided into following sections: Sand plant system Sand handling system Core making and baking section Mould making and handling Core setting section Melting Section Metal pouring section Testing lab fettling section painting and printing section

CASTING DEFFECTS
) Blow holes: blow holes or gas cavity are well rounded cavities having a clean and smooth surface. They appear either on the casting surface or in the body of a casting these defects occur when an excessive evolved gas is not able to flow through the mould. So, it collects into a bubble in high points of a mould cavity and prevents the liquid metal from filling that space.

) Scar: A scare is a hollow blow. It is generally occur on the flat surface, whereas a blow occurs on a convex casting surface.

Blister:
A blister is a shallow blow like a scar with a thin layer of metal covering it.

HEAT TREATMENT
Heat treatment is a method use to alter physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material. Annealing: The main purpose of annealing treatment is to reduce the hardness of a material and facilitate the process of sub sequent manufacturing operation. Annealing is commonly used after casting, forging or rolling to soften materials and minimize residual stresses, improve much inability, and increase ductility by carefully controlling the micro-structure. Many steels inn strip form are annealed, as are the most tool steels and stainless steel. Non ferrous alloys are also annealed. There are several process variation that qualify as annealing treatments: Full annealing is performed on steels by heating to a high temperature (typically 830-950c), then cooling slowly to ambient temperature. Nonferrous materials are softened and refined by full annealing at temperatures appropriate for each alloy.

CASE HARDENING: After carburizing operation shifting of job to hardening furnace at 800820c. Then put the job stand in H.F. for 10-30 minutes. Then quench the job for 2-5 minutes. Wash it with water. Get the hardness checked, if hardness is ok. Temper it at 180c for 1-2 hours in 5% barium sol. Or pit furnace (2 hours) wash with water & get the hardness checked. If hardness is ok job is then shot ballasted sent for further operation.

HARDENING AND TEMPERING: Hardening and tempering of engineering steels is performed to provide components with mechanical properties suitable for their intended service. Steels are heated to their appropriate hardening temperature (usually between 800-900c), help at temperature, then quenched (rapidly cooled), often in oil or water. This is followed by tempering (a soak at a lower temperature) which develops the final mechanical properties and relieves stresses. The actual conditions used for all three steps are determined by steel composition, component size and the properties required. Hardening and tempering can be carried out in open furnaces (in air or combustion products), or in a protective environment (gaseous atmosphere, molten salt or vacuum) if a surface free from scale and decarburization (carbon loss) is required neutral hardening.

Operations performed on a cnc


CNC Turning Turning is the process whereby a single point cutting tool is parallel to the surface. It can be done manually, in a traditional form of lathe, which frequently requires continuous supervision by the operator, or by using a computer controlled and automated lathe which does not. This type of machine tool is referred to as having numerical control computer numerical control, better known as CNC and is commonly used with many other types of machine tool besides the lathe. When turning, a piece of material, plastic, or stone) is rotated and a cutting tool is traversed along 2 axes of motion to produce precise diameters and depths.

Facing It is part of the turning process. It involves moving the cutting tool at right angles to the axis of rotation of the rotating work piece. This can be performed by the operation of the cross-slide, if one is fitted, as distinct from the longitudinal feed (turning). It is frequently the first operation performed in the production of the work piece, and often the last- hence the phrase "ending up".

Grooving It is like parting, except that grooves are cut to a specific depth by a form tool instead of severing a completed/part-complete component from the stock. Grooving can be performed on internal and external surfaces, as well as on the face of the part (face grooving or trepanning).

Drilling - Drilling is used to remove material from the inside of a work piece. This process utilizes standard drill bits held stationary in the tail stock or tool turret of the lathe

Threading - The process of cutting a long, spiraling groove into a work piece with a single-point tool. Threading processes are essential for the creation of fasteners.

Machining codes

G codes
G00 Rapid Transverse Motion G01 Motion by a feed rate G02 Motion in an arc clockwise G03 Motion in an arc counter clockwise G04 Dwell G17 XY Plane selection G18 XZ Plane selection G19 YZ Plane selection G28 Return to Machine zero for axis selected G40 Cutter compensation Cancel G41 2D Cutter compensation Left G42 2D Cutter compensation Right G43 Tool length compensation + (add to tool length offset) G44 Tool length compensation (subtract tool length offset) G49 Cancels G43 G44 G50 Sets a speed limit for Constant surface speed (lathe) G52 Set Work Coordinate system G54 Work coordinate system #1 G55 Work coordinate system #2 G56 Work coordinate system #3 G57 Work coordinate system #4 G58 Work coordinate system #5 G59 Work coordinate system #6 G65 Macro Subroutine call G70 Bolt Hole Circle G71 Holt Hole Arc G72 Bolt holes along an Angle G73 High Speed Peck Drilling G74 Reverse Tapping G80 Turns off all canned cycles G81 Drilling G82 Spot Drilling G83 Peck drilling G84 Tapping cycle G90 Calls up an absolute Co-ordinate grid system Positioning G91 Calls up an incremental Co-ordinate grid system Positioning G92 Set Work Coordinate system shift value -(grid shift) G94 Feed per minute mode G95 Feed per spindle revolution mode G96 turns on Constant Surface Speed (lathe) G97 Turns off Constant Surface Speed (lathe) G98 Canned cycle initial point return G99 Canned cycle R Plande return

M codes
M00 Program stop - Tells the CNC machine to stop in the middle of a program. M01 Optional Program Stop - Tells the CNC machine to stop ONLY if the optional stop switch is active M02 Program end M03 Turns the Spindle on in a Clockwise direction M04 Turns the Spindle on in a Counter-Clockwise direction M05 Turns the Spindle off M06 Tool change M07 Optional coolant is not available on all machine configurations M08 Turns flood coolant on M09 Turns flood coolant off M10 Normally used to turn 4th Axis brake on (mill) M11 Normally used to turn 4th Axis brake off (mill) M19 Spindle Orientation M30 Program end and reset M31 Chip conveyor on (forward) M33 Chip conveyor off M88 Turns through the spindle coolant on M89 Turns through the spindle coolant off M97 Calls up sub program for local program M98 Sub Program Call M99 Loop or return to rerun a sub program

Cnc assembly
In this area of machine tool automation, flexible automation is implemented in the machine tool in the form of NC & CNC technology. Often complex shapes required high precision and the need of high accuracy is fast, flexible production is always being felt. The unit has designed a wide range of horizontal and vertical machining centers CNC machining centers meet the stringent accuracy standards; provided high flexibility and productivity with enough mussels to remove large quantities of materials at high rpm. High processing speed is ensuring through CNC system has powerful graphics and use-friendly features. The machine can integrated with other machine tools into flexible manufacturing.

Major parts of CNC machine:


Bed Saddle Column Head Table Auto tool changer Tool magazine Hydraulic system 14.3 Operational parts: Pallet changer Indexable table Air conditioning Heat exchanger

More about CNC machine:

Linear motion hardened and preloaded guides are used for high precession machine tools. Hydraulic clamping chuck. Ball lead screw for preventing backlash and attaining high precision. 24, 30, 60 tool magazine and option. Servo motor for precise travel. Simultaneous travel in 3 axis is possible. For balancing purpose- nitrogen filled cylinders are used. Automatic cleaning of tool pockets with compressed air during every change. Sensors are fitted to control the various motions as motion of slides etc. In high tech. Special spindle is used which rotates at 360 degree in HTC 1200. Draw button is used which is easily release the tool from the spindle Push button is used which release the tool from the pocket. Tool changing arm for change the tool is used in CNC machines

PROJECT STUDY ON INDEXING


Indexing Fixture The indexing fixture is an indispensable accessory for the milling machine. Basically, it is a device for mounting work pieces and rotating Them a specified amount around the work pieces axis, as from one tooth space to another on a gear or cutter. The index fixture consists of an index head, also called a dividing head, and a footstock, similar to the tailstock of a lathe. The index head and the footstock are attached to the worktable of the milling machine by T slot bolts. An index plate containing graduations is used to control the rotation of the index head spindle. The plate is fixed to the index head, and an index crank, connected to the index head spindle by a worm gear and shaft, is moved about the index plate. Work pieces are held between centers by the index head spindle and footstock. Work pieces may also be held in a chuck mounted to the index head

Index Plate
The index plate (figure 11 on the following page) is a round metal plate with a series of six or more circles of equally spaced holes; the index pin on the crank can be inserted in any hole in any circle. With the interchangeable plates regularly furnished with most index heads, the spacing necessary for most gears, bolt heads, milling cutters, splines, and so forth, can be obtained. The following sets of plates are standard equipment: (a) Brown and Sharpe type, 3 plates of 6 circles, each drilled as follows: Plate 1- 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 holes. Plate 2- 21, 23, 27, 29, 31, 33 holes. Plate 3- 37, 39, 41, 43, 47, 49 holes. (b) Cincinnati type, one plate drilled on both sides with circles divided as follows: First side- 24, 25, 28, 30, 34, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43 holes. Second side- 46, 47, 49, 51,53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 62, 66 holes

Principle of indexing
The following principles apply to basic indexing of work pieces: (a) Suppose it is desired to mill a spur gear with 8 equally spaced teeth. Since 40 turns of the index crank will turn the spindle one full turn, one-eighth of 40, or 5 turns of the crank after each cut, will space the gear for 8 teeth. (b) The same principle applies whether or not the divisions required divide evenly into 40. For example, if it is desired to index for 6 divisions, 6 divided into 40 equals 6 2/3 turns; similarly, to index for 14 spaces, 14 divided into 40 equals 2 6/7 turns. Therefore, the following rule can be derived: to determine the number of turns of the index crank needed to obtain one division of any number of equal divisions on the work piece; divide 40 by the number of equal divisions desired (provided the worm wheel has 40 teeth, which is standard, practice).

Indexing Operation
Operation 1 (a) To Mill a Hexagon. Using the rule given in paragraph 4c(3)(b) above, divide 40 by 6, which equals 6 2/3 turns, or six full turns plus 2/3 of a turn on any circle whose number of holes is divisible by 3. Therefore, six full turns of the crank plus 12 spaces on an 18-hole circle, or six full turns plus 26 spaces on a 39-hole circle will produce the desired rotation of the work piece

To Cut a Gear of 42 Teeth. Using the rule again, divide 40 by 42 which equals 40/42 or 20/21 turns, 40 spaces on a 42-hole circle or 20 spaces on a 21-hole circle. To use the rule given, select a circle having a number of holes divisible by the required fraction of a turn reduced to its lowest terms. The number of spaces between the holes gives the desired fractional part of the whole circle. When counting holes, start with the first hole ahead of the index pin.