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Concepto de carga no lineal

Serie de Fourier



Rectificador de onda completa



SCR: Rectificador controlado de silicio
1 SCR-R serie
2 SCR antiparalelo






GTO
IGBT perdidas de conmutacin en semiconductores


Rectificador monofsico controlado con carga resistiva






Rectificador monofsico con filtro inductivo

Rectificador monofsico semicontrolado

Rectificador trifsico no controlado

Rectificador trifsico con filtro inductivo

Rectificador trifsico controlado con filtro inductivo



Rectificador trifsico semicontrolado

Rectificador de 6 pulsos con carga R-Batera

}
= dt i
T
I
t EF
2
) (
1
}
= dt i
T
I
t DC ) (
1

=
=
1
2
n
n AC
I I
2 2
0
2
AC DC
n
n EF
I I I I + = =

=
R
V
dt i
T
I
m
t EF
2
1
2
) (
= =
} }
= =
2
0

1
T
m in
DC
R
V
dt
R
v
T
I
t
2 2
DC EF AC
I I I =
| | V senwt V v
m in
=
in(nwt)dt f(t)s
T
B
(nwt)dt f(t)
T
A
t f(t)d
T
A
(nwt) B (nwt) A A f(t)
T
n
T
n
T
n n
n
}
}
}
=
=
=
+ + =

=
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
cos
2
1
sin cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ =
+ + =

=
n
n
n
n n n
n n
n
B
A
B A C
) sen(nwt C A f(t)
1
2 2
1
0
tan u
u
R n
V
I
R
V
I
R
V
I
R
V
A I
m
n
m
m
m
2 ) 1 (
2
2 3
2
2 2

2
2
1
0 0
t
t
t

=
=
=
= =
% 48 % 100 ) 1
8
( % 100
2
= = =
t
q
DC
AC
V
V
}
= =
t
m
t DC
V
dt v
T
V
2 1
) (
m m DC EF AC
V V V V V 31 . 0
4
2
1
2
2 2
= = =
t
nwt
n
V V
t v
n
m m
cos
) 1 (
2 2
) (
.... 6 , 4 , 2
2 0

=

=
t t
2
1
2
) (
m
t EF
V
dt v
T
V = =
}
R
V
dt i
T
I
in
t DC
t
o
2
) cos 1 ( 1
) (
+
= =
}
t
o o
2
) 2 sin(
180
1
2
1
2
) (
+ = =
}
R
V
dt i
T
I
in
t EF
t
o o
2
) 2 sin(
180
1
1
2
) (
+ = =
}
R
V
dt i
T
I
in
t EF
EF EF S
I V P =
}
= dt i v
T
P
t t A ) ( ) (

1
t
o o
2
) 2 sin(
180
1 + = =
S
A
P
P
FP
2 2
) (

1

EF t A
I R dt i
T
R P = =
}
0 =
DC
I
t
o o
2
2
180
1 ) (
1
0
2
sen
V dt t v
T
V
in
T
EF
+ = =
}
EF EF
t t
S
A
I V
dt i v
T
P
P
FP

1
) ( ) ( }
= =
2
1
2
) (
EF
n
n
K
I
I n
Factor

=
=
% 100 1 % 100
2
1
2
1
2
2
(

= =

=
I
I
I
I
THD
EF n
n
i
R
V
k I
DC
DC
=
R
V
k I
DC
EF
= ) 2 cos( 1

k n
R n
V
I
DC
n
t
t
=
R
V
k P
DC
A
2
=
) ( ) ( ) ( 1 ) (
) (
t v t i t p e V t v
e
R
V
t i
t
t
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

t
t
2
2
0
1
) (
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

}
t
t
T
A
T
A
e
T R
V
P
dt t p
T
P
9 ln

1
9 ln

9 ln
2
2

9 ln
2
off t f off
A
on off
t f
R
V
e
t f
R
V
P
t t
off
~
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
~ ~

t
) cos 1 ( o
t
+ =
m
DC
V
V
%
V
V
%
V
V

DC
EF
DC
AC
100 1 100
2
2
= =
t
o o
2
2
180
1
2
sen V
V
m
EF
+ =
dwt senwt V V
m DC

2
1 2
}
=
t
o
t
dwt senwt V V
m EF
) (
2
1
2
2
}
=
t
o
t
AP
ACT
P
P
FP =
t
o
t
o
2
2
1
sen
FP + =
2 2
2
1
2
2
180
1
1

2
(

+ +
(

=
t
o o
o
t
sen
sen
R
V
I
m
EF EF
EF
I V
I R
FP

2
=
t
o o
2
2
180
1
2
sen
R
V
I
m
EF
+ =
o
t
cos
2Vm
V
DC
=
2
m
EF
V
V =
o
t
cos
2 2
= FP
DC EF
I I = R
V
I
DC
DC
=
) cos 1 ( o
t
+ =
Vm
V
DC
t
o
t
o
4
2
2 2
1 sen
Vm V
O
+ =
180
1
cos 1

2
o
o
t

+
= =
AP
ACT
P
P
FP
180
1
o
=
DC EF
I I
m DC
V V
t
3
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
t 2
3 3
1
2
m
EF
V
V

=

=
,.... 18 , 12 , 6
2 0
cos
) 1 (
6 3
v
n
m
m
nwt
n
V
V
t t
955 . 0
3
1
= = =
t
ef
I
I
FP
DC EF
I I =
3
2
R
V
R
V
I
m DC
DC

3
t
= =
DC
I I
6
1
t
=
) 2
2
3 3
(1
2
V
EF
o
t
COS
Vm
+ =
% 04 , 31
45
% 27 , 18
30
% 2 , 4
0
n
o
o
t
cos
3
V
DC m
V =
o
t
o cos
3
cos
1
= =
ef
I
I
FP
DC
I I
6
1
t
=
DC EF
I I =
3
2
) cos 1 (
2
3
o
t
+ =
Vm
V
DC
) ( cos
1
M
V
E

= u
R
E V
I
M
mx

=
) 30 cos(o
Rectificador de 6 pulsos con carga L-Batera
Funcionamiento continuo de corriente



Funcionamiento discontinuo de la corriente




Rectificador trifsico con filtro capacitivo



Rectificador trifsico en cuarto cuadrante

Rectificador de 12 pulsos serie



Rectificador de 12 pulsos paralelo
Con diodos Con tiristores




Rectificador de 18 pulsos serie

Trafo zig-zag -20 Trafo zig-zag +20



Rectificador de 24 pulsos serie paralelo con filtro inductivo
Trafo zig-zag -15 Trafo zig-zag +15




Rectificador de 6 pulsos Rectificador de 12 pulsos Rectificador de 24 pulsos




Rectificador Paralelo Rectificador Serie

FORMULARIO PEP2
Control on-off



Control de voltaje ca con control pwm






EF EF
S
V k V =
0 m n
n
k
+
=
R I P
EF
=
2
0 EF S S
I V P =
k FP =
F F
C L
X X % 7 =
q
EF
C
P
V
X
F
93 . 0
2
=
i
f f
7
100
0
=
(
(

c + c + c =
} } }


+

+

90
2
90
2
2
60
2
60
2
2
30
2
30
2
0
) ( sin ) ( sin ) ( sin
2
2
o
o
o
o
o
e e e e e e
t
t t t t t t V V
S
(

c + + c
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ c
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
} } }
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
90 sin ..... ..........
2
360 2
sin
2
360
sin
2
2
o
o o
e e e
t
t t
p
t
p
V V
S
) 2 (
360
0
+ = P V V
S
o
2
360
0
+
s s
P
o
dt
di
L E wt V v
m
= = cos
L
30 30 + s s o o wt
K
m
I wt
wL
E
senwt
wL
V
i + =
L
2
1
30
I I wt
I I wt
L
L
= ======> =
= ==> =
u
o
(

+
= = A
180
30
) 30 ( I
1 2 L
o u
t o u
m
m
V
E
sen sen
wL
V
I I
E V
m
< = o
t
cos
3
V
DC
E wt V v
m L
= cos 30 30 + s s o o o wt 60 < o
K
m
L
I wt
wL
E
senwt
wL
V
i + =
t
o
o o o
180
) 30 ( ) 30 (
m
V
E
sen sen = +
0 ) cos (
2
1 30
30
=
}
+

dwt E wt V
m
o o
o
t
(

= ) 30 (
180
30
o t
o
sen
V
E
wL
V
I
m
m
K
2
0 30
0 30
I I wt
I wt
I wt
L
L
L
= ==> =
= ==> + =
= ==> =
u
o o
o
0
I
I
r
C
A
=
1 , ) 1 ( )
13 . 7
1
46 . 6 1
( 100 =

+ = p k n
n
r
n
r
n
I
k
n
1 , ) 1 ( )
13 . 7
1
46 . 6 1
( 100 + =
+
+ = p k n
n
r
n
r
n
I
k
n
0 1
) 01 . 0
3
2
( I r I + =
o
t
cos
3
V
DC(1) m
V = ) 180 cos(
3
V
DC(2)
o
t
=
m
V
m
15
15
P dc
P
V

6
coswtdwt V
2
12
V
15 cos 2 V
= =
=
}


m
V
2
3
2
1
15 cos V 2 wtdwt cos V
2
12
V
m
15
15
2 2
P ef
+ = =
}


dc 1

6 2
= ( )
dc
3 2
3
2
ef + =
( )
100% 1
36
3 2
THD
2
i

+
=
t
% 03 , 1
2
3
2
1
15 cos V V
V

3
V
m ef
m dc
=
+ =
=
100% 1
V
V

2 cos
2
3
2
1
15 cos V V
cos V

3
V
2
dc
ef
m ef
m dc

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ =
=
o
o
dc 1

6
=
( )
dc
3 2
6
1
ef + =
o
o
o
cos V

9
coswtdwt V
2
18
V
m
10
10
P dc
= =
}
+
+
}
+
+
=
o
o
10
10
2 2
P ef
wtdwt cos V
2
18
V
| | | | | |
) 20 ( ) 60 (
) 20 cos( ) 60 cos(
20 60 0
2
2 1
2 1
=
= +
= +
Vsen sen V
V V V
V V V | | | | | |
20 60
20 cos 60 cos
20 60 0
2
2 1
2 1
Vsen sen V
V V V
V V V
=
= +
= +
V
sen
sen
V
V
sen
V
60
20
3
20
20 cos
2
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
| | | | | |
) 15 cos( ) 60 cos(
) 15 ( ) 60 (
15 60 0
2 1
2
2 1
= +
=
= +
V V V
Vsen sen V
V V V | | | | | |
15 cos 60 cos
15 60
15 60 0
2 1
2
2 1
V V V
Vsen sen V
V V V
= +
=
= +
V
sen
sen
V
V sen V
60
15
3
1
1 15
2
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
t
cos
6
V
DC m
V =
o
t
2 cos 15
6
5 . 0 ) 5 , 22 cos 5 , 7 (cos V
EF
sen V
m
+ + =
% 57 , 7
45
% 376 , 4
30
% 256 , 0
0
n
o
% 57 , 7
45
% 376 , 4
30
% 256 , 0
0
n
o
% 22 , 15
45
% 83 , 8
30
% 03 , 1
0
n
o
% 04 , 31
45
% 27 , 18
30
% 2 , 4
0
n
o
15,22% THD
i
= % 08 , 31 THD
i
=
675 . 0
45
827 . 0
30
955 . 0
0
FP
o
699 . 0
45
856 . 0
30
988 . 0
0
FP
o
D RECT
V N P
3
1
2

DC
=
D RECT
V N P
3

DC
=

Control de angulo de fase
monofas. R L








RL






Control. 3fas Y



Delt.



L



Facts




Cicloconv.







Inversores
Monof. Med puen. R




L

RL


Monof. Puent R





L R

Trif. Puent








R delt.

R Y





L Y




RL

t
o
t
o
2
) 2 sin(
1
0
+ =
S
V V
t
o
t
o
2
) 2 sin(
1 + = FP
t
i
L v
L
c
c
=
s s
s s
180 90
2
o
o t e o t
| | ) cos( ) cos(
max
t
L
V
i
L
e o
e
=
( ) |
.
|

\
|
+ +

=
t
o
o
o
e
) 2 sin( 3
) 2 cos( 2 )
90
2 (
L
V
I
S
EF
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
t
o o
e
) 2 sin(
90
2
1
L
V
I
S
(


+
+
+

=
n
n sen
n
n sen
n
n sen
wL
V
I
S
n
) ( cos 2
1
) 1 (
1
) 1 ( 2 2

o o o o
t
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1
2
1
2
I
I
THD
EF
i
o t | t
t o u
| e o
s s
s s
s s
2
t
|
.
|

\
|
=

R
L e
u
1
tan
u tg
R
wL
Q
L
= =
t
i
L Ri t V
s
c
c
+ = ) sin( 2 e
( ) (
(


+
=

L Q
wt
s
wt
e wt
L R
V
i
o
u o u
e
) sin( ) sin(
2
2 2
) (
u o > si
L Q
e sen sen
) (
) ( ) (
| o
u o u |

=
disc
270 180 s s |
}
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=

|
o
e o
e u o u e
t
e
t d e sen t sen
L R
V
I
L Q
t
s
EF
2
) (
2 2
) ( ) (
2
) (
150 90 )
2
2
(
2
4 180
30
2
< < =
}
+
o
t
o
dwt senwt V V
AB an
90 60 )
2
2
(
2
4 90
30
2
< < =
}
+
+
o
t
o
o
dwt senwt V V
AB an
s < + = 60 0
4
) 2 sin( 3
2
3
1 o
t
o
t
o
A an
V V
= s + = 180 0
2
) 2 (
180
1 o
t
o o sen
R
V
I
ab
ab
ab a
I I 2 =
180 120 s Zo
disc 120 90 s so
cont
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
t
o o
e
) 2 sin(
90
2
1
L
V
I
AB
ab (


+
+
+

=
n
n sen
n
n sen
n
n sen
wL
V
I
AB
abn
) ( cos 2
1
) 1 (
1
) 1 ( 2 2

o o o o
t
F F
F
C L
q
EF
C
X X
P
V
X
% 7
93 . 0
2
=
=
F
F
C
FF
X
V
I
93 . 0 3
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
t
o o ) 2 sin(
90
2
2
3
1
L
FF
X
V
I
TCR
(


+
+
+

=
n
n sen
n
n sen
n
n sen
X
V
I
L
FF
n
) ( cos 2
1
) 1 (
1
) 1 (

6 o o o o
t
o
t
cos
3
m DC
V V =
1
0
1
6 ) 1 (
f
f
f
f
h
n p k n
h
= =
2
)
2
(
1
0
2 S
T
S
EF
v
dt
v
T
V = =
}

=
=
1
0
) (
2
n
S
nwt sen
n
v
v
t
S
v V
t
2
1
=
% 100 ) 1 ( % 100
2
1
2
1
2
2
= =

=
V
V
V
V
THD
EF n
n
V
1 2 ........ 7 , 5 , 3 , 1 = K n
3 8 3 L f
v i
I
S MX
EF
= =

=
=
1
2 0
) 90 (
) (
n
S
wt n sen
L f n
v
i
t
90 2 L f n Z
L
t =
) (

2
1
0

=
=
n
n
n
S
wt n sen
Z n
v
i u
t ) ( tan
) (
1
2 2
R
nwL
nwL R Z
n
n

=
+ =
u

=
+ =
1
) (
2
4
n
S
ab
wt n sen
n
sen
n
v
v o
u
t
180
u
S EF
v V = )
2
(
2 2
1
u
t
sen
v
V
S
=
)
2
(
2 2 u
t
n
sen
n
v
V
S
n
=
180 0 < <u
1 2 ........ 7 , 5 , 3 , 1 = K n
2
180 u
o

=
)
90
3 (
3
u
=
MX
EF
I
I
)
2
(
2
2
2
1
1
u
t t
sen
fL
v
fL
V
I
S
= =
( )

=
+ =
1
0
) (
2
4
n
n
n
S
wt n sen
n
sen
Z n
v
i u o
u
t

=
+ =
1
) 30 ( ) 60 (
4
n
S
ab
wt senn n sen
n
v
v
t
1 2 ........ 7 , 5 , 3 , 1 = K n

=
=
1
2
n
S
ao
sennwt
n
v
v
t

=
=
1
) 120 (
2
n
S
bo
wt senn
n
v
v
t

=
=
1
) 240 (
2
n
S
co
wt senn
n
v
v
t

=
=
1
) 90 ( ) 60 (
4
n
S
bc
wt senn n sen
n
v
v
t

=
=
1
) 210 ( ) 60 (
4
n
S
ca
wt senn n sen
n
v
v
t
t
S
v
V
2
1
=
2
S
EF
v
V =
t
S
v
V
6
1
=
S EF
v V
3
2
=
1 6 ........ 7 , 5 , 1 = K n

=
=
1
) 60 (
3 4
n
S
a
sennwt n sen
R n
v
i
t

=
=
1
) 120 ( ) 60 (
3 4
n
S
b
wt senn n sen
R n
v
i
t

=
=
1
) 240 ( ) 60 (
3 4
n
S
c
wt senn n sen
R n
v
i
t

=
=
1
) 60 (
3
4
n
S
an
sennwt n sen
n
v
v
t

=
=
1
) 120 ( ) 60 (
3
4
n
S
bn
wt senn n sen
n
v
v
t

=
=
1
) 240 ( ) 60 (
3
4
n
S
cn
wt senn n sen
n
v
v
t
1 6 ........ 7 , 5 , 1 = K n
9
.......
13
1
11
1
7
1
5
1
1
2
2 2 2 2
t
= + + + + +
.....
13
1
11
1
7
1
5
1
1
2
2 2 2 2
1
2
+ + + + + = =

=
R
v
I I
S
n
n EF
t R
v
R
v
I
S S
EF
3
2
9
2
2
= =
t
t

=
=
1
2
) 90 ( ) 60 (
3
4
n
S
a
wt senn n sen
wL n
v
i
t wL
v
I
S

2
1
t
=
wL n
v
I
S
n

2
2
t
=
L f
v
wL
v
I
S S
EF
54
15
.....
13
1
11
1
7
1
5
1
1

2
4 4 4 4
= + + + + + =
t
4
4 4 4 4
3

6
5
. ..........
13
1
11
1
7
1
5
1
1 : |
.
|

\
|
= + + + + +
t
Nota
% 08 , 31 % 638 , 4 < <
I
THD

=
+ =
1
) (
2
4
2 1
n
S
a a
wt senn
n
sen
n
v
v o
u
t

=
+ =
1
) 120 (
2
4
2 1
n
S
b b
wt senn
n
sen
n
v
v o
u
t
2
180 u
o

=
Trif. VSI


Trif. CSI





PWM (FORMULARIO PEP3)


PWM senoidal 3 PWM un pulso

PWM rectangular PWM trapezoidal



PWM escalera PWM Histresis





Modulacin programada




Motor de corriente continua








Conv 2 cuad
1er cuad 2do cuad
Reg dinamico




Tl=0 Wr=0


2 1 2 1 b b a a ab
v v v =

=
=
1
cos
2
4
n
S
ab
nwt
n
sen
n
v
v
u
t

=
=
1
cos
2
4
n
S
a
nwt
n
sen
n
i
i
u
t
c
r
a
A
A
m =
0
f
f
m
c
f
=

=
=
1
0
n
n
sennwt B v
1 2 ........ 7 , 5 , 3 , 1 = K n
2 2
1
) ( 0
1
S
a rms
v
m V =




S a S a rms LL
v m v m V 612 . 0
2 2
3
) (
1
~ =
n
V
L f n
V
I
n n
n
43 . 0
2
= =
t

=
=
1

2
4
n
S
ab
sennwt
n
sen
n
v
v
u
t
360
o p
v V
S EF
=
S
S
mx
v
v
V % 90
2 2
) ( 1
= =
t
mx c
r
a
A
A
m
u
u
= =
) (

mx r r
A A o =
c
mx r
a
A
A
m
) (
o
=
t o | ) 1 ( 2 =
S mx
v V % 74
) ( 1
=
2
% 5 . 66
) ( 1
S
mx
v
V =
2
% 7 . 70
) ( 1
S
mx
v
V =
t senw I i
m r 0
=
2
2
0 2
0 1
0
H
m r
H
m r
m r
I
t senw I i
I
t senw I i
t senw I i
=
+ =
=
t
L
v
i
s
2
0
=
90
2 1
< <u u
(

+ + =
} } } } }
1 2
1
3
2
4
3 4
0
2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 o o
o
o
o
o
o
t
o
t
dwt nwt sen dwt nwt sen dwt nwt sen dwt nwt sen dwt nwt sen
v
B
s
n
| |
4 3 2 1
cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 1
2
o o o o
t
n n n n
n
v
B
s
n
+ + =
(

+ =

=
m
k
k
k s
n
n
n
v
B
1
cos ) 1 ( 2 1
2
o
t
1 2 ........ 7 , 5 , 3 , 1 = K n
2
.......
3 2 1
t
o o o o < < < <
k
L m D
a T D
m E g
f
f f f f
g
a
a a a a
T D
dt
d
J T
I K T
K E
dt
di
L i R V
E
dt
di
L i R V
+ + =
=
=
+ =
+ + =
e
e
e
a
m
a
a
a
D
J
T
R
L
T
=
=
L m D
a T D
m E g
f f f
g a a a
T D T
I K T
K E
i R V
E i R V
+ =
=
=
=
+ =
e
e
(

+
= =

V
V
) sen( sen
wL
V
I I I
m
a m
a
180
30
30
1 2
1
1
2
cos
V
V

a
=
f m V g
f a I L D
f
f
f
I w K E
I I K T T
R
V
I
=
= =
=
a
a
I
I
r =
1 , ) 1 ( )
13 . 7
1
46 . 6 1
(
1
=

+ = p k n
n
r
n
r
n
I I
k
n
1 , ) 1 ( )
13 . 7
1
46 . 6 1
(
1
+ =
+
+ = p k n
n
r
n
r
n
I I
k
n
a
I r I + = ) 01 . 0
3
2
(
1
k
v
E
S

=
1
S
v k E =
a
S
a
L f
v k k
i

) 1 (
= A
1 1 4
2
1
2
1
,
1
1
1 1 2 1

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
=
=
m
a
a
T E
a
a
T
T
D R
K K
T
w
T
jw s s
o
o
| || |
| || |
T E m a a
a a
L
m
T E m a a
T
a
m
K K sT D sT R
sT R
T
w
K K sT D sT R
K
V
w
+ + +
+
=
+ + +
=
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 (
) 1 ( ) 1 (
1

4
2
1
2
1
1
1
=
= =
A
A T E
A
A A
A
A
R J
T K K
T
w
T R
L
T o
( )( )
w a i w T T E i a i a a
a i w T
r
K C C K K K sJ K C R sL
K C C K
w
w
o o + + + +
=
( )( ) sJ K C R sL
K
K K C C
K C C
sJ
sJ
T
w
i a i a a
T
E w a i w
w a i w
o o
o
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1
1
1
1
o
t
cos
3
V
DC m
V =
( )
( )
i a i a
w a i w T T E
m
e
e
e i a i a
a
e
K C R D
K C C K K K
T
T
T
w
T K C R
L
T
o
o
| |
o
o
+
+
= + =
=
+
=
; 1 1 4
2
1
2
1
1
1