This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Powder metallurgy - introduction
Powder metallurgy involves powders for manufacturing metal parts. Powder metallurgy comprises the following general stages: • • • Powder preparation; Pressing (compacting) to obtain the desired shape; Sintering the pressed parts.
Powder metallurgy allows reducing machining operation due to forming parts with minimum tolerances. Powder metallurgy permits manufacture of materials, which can not be produced any other technologies: refractory materials, hard materials, wear resistant materials, permanent magnets, porous metals, mixtures of dissimilar metals, possessing different melting points or insoluble in liquid state, various combinations of mixtures of metals with non-metals. Powder metallurgy is used in the following industries: • • • • • • automotive (brake pads, gear parts, connecting engine bearings); aerospace (light weight composite materials); aluminum rods, planetary earners, materials, sintered
cutting tools (hard metals, diamond containing materials); medicine (dental implants, surgical instruments); abrasives (grinding and polishing wheels and discs); electrical, electronic and computer parts (permanent magnets, electrical contacts).
The following powder preparation methods are used: Atomization Atomization is one of the most effective industrial powder preparation methods. This method involves disintegration (atomizing) of liquid metal by means of high speed medium (air, inert gas, water) striking the melt streaming through a nozzle. • • • • • • The molten alloy is prepared in a furnace and then it is transferred to the tundish. The melt is poured from the tundish through the nozzle into the chamber. The water (air, gas) jets break the melt stream into fine droplets. The droplets solidify when they fall in the chamber. The powder is collected at the bottom of the chamber. The powder is removed from the chamber and dried (if necessary).
Compiled by Ankush N Nayak, Dept. of MME, NITK Surathkal
Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. involving breaking solid This method is generally applied for the preparation of powders of brittle materials.8*Ncr then the balls "stick" to the drum wall and no grinding ocurrs. which move in a rotating drum and crush the metal pieces into fine particles.6-0. D . IfN>O. Dept. vibratory. NITK Surathkal .Source: www.drum diameter. utilizing the energy of steel steel balls.substech. Maximum grinding effect is achieved at optimal rotation speed of the mill (N). hummer).com Water atomization Pump Powder www. The most widely used communition machine is ball mill.substech.acceleration due to gravity. of MME.com Comminution Comminution is a mechanical method of powder preparation particles in mills (ball.8*Ncr Ncr may be determined from the expression: Ncr = (g/2D)1I2/n (revolutions per second) where: g . N = O.
These methods are called chemical powder preparation methods. Chemical methods Metal powders may be prepared by reduction of the metal oxides (carbides) followed by mechanical crushing or precipitation of metals from solution (hydrometallurgical method). Flowability. which was freely (without pressing or tapping) poured into the container. Dept. dendrite like (electrolytic deposition). The scheme of the die pressing method is presented in the picture: Compiled by Ankush N Nayak.the mass of a unite volume of the powder. The grinding effect in this case is low (only rubbing). Apparent density. Powder may be also prepared by electrolytic deposition of a metal at the cathode followed by mechanical crushing of the deposited material.Source: www.substech. IfN = O.ability of the powder to flow through a calibrated orifice. of MME.8*Ncr then the balls go up together with the rotating drum and then fall down and roll providing grinding by combined action of strike and rubbing. This method is used for fabrication of copper powders.6-0.degree to which the powder compacts as a function of the applied pressure. Apparent density is a function of porosity of the particles. regularity of their shapes and variety of their sizes. Size distribution (relative quantities of different size fractions).com If N<O.6*Ncr then the balls roll without falling. Powder characteristics • • • • Particle shape.Particle may be spherical (gas atomization). irregularly shaped (water atomization). NITK Surathkal . porous (reduced oxides). Particle size. Compressibility. Die (uniaxial) pressing is effectively used for mass production of simple parts (alternative method is isostatic pressing). • • Die pressing of metallic powders Die pressing (molding) is the powder compaction method involving uniaxial pressure applied to the powder placed in a die between two rigid punches.
000 psi (69 MPa to 830 MPa).substech. NITK Surathkal . of MME. Dept. "Green" compact part ejection and removal ("green" compact. • • Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. Compaction.com Die fiU stage r Compactiom Upper punch t The pressing process consists of the following stages: • Die filling.000 psi to 120.unsintered powder compact). At this stage a controlled amount of the powder is fed into the die cavity.Source: www. Upper punch moves down and presses the powder with a predetermined pressure. The pressure varies between 10.
com The pressing cycle repeats 400 to 5000 times/hour. higher green compact density and higher (than in cold pressing) strength of the part. Hot pressing permits obtaining better compaction. com There are two types of cold isostatic pressing: wet bag and dry bag. This method is suitable for compaction of large and complicated parts. Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. If the pressing process is conducted at increased temperature it is called hot pressing. NITK Surathkal . Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) is conducted at room temperature.Source: www. In the wet bag method the mold is removed and refilled after each pressure cycle. Hydraulic and mechanical presses with load up to 750 tons are used for the powder die pressmg.substech. which is conducted at room temperature is called cold pressing. A flexible (commonly polyurethane) mold immersed in a pressurized liquid medium (commonly water) is used in the cold isostatic pressing method (see the scheme below): Cold h. depending on the press type. powder filling properties and the part size and geometry. Isostatic pressing of metallic powders Isostatic pressing is the powder compaction method involving applying pressure from multiple directions through a liquid or gaseous medium surrounding the compacted part. Die pressing.ostadc pressing -- Pressurization source WVv'W. substech. of MME. Dept.
when the material of the separate particles diffuse to the neighboring powder particles.com In the dry bag method the mold is an integral part of the vessel. forming sound high strength structure.substech. and then it is sintered in order to close the interconnecting porosity. The sintered (but still porous) part is then pressed isostatically at high temperature without any can (mold). of MME. which are applied in the hot isostatic pressing method.Source: www. Titanium alloys. resulting in densification of the part. During the diffusion process the pores. Hot isostatic method (HIP) combines pressing and sintering. In this case the part is first compacted by cold isostatic pressing method. taking place in the green compact. more complex forms (for example long thin-walled tubes) may be compacted. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) involves isostatic pressing conducted at increased temperature. hard alloys and vanous ceramics are Sintering of metals Sintering is a method involving consolidation of powder grains by heating the green compact part to a high temperature below the melting point. diminish or even close up. Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. The part shrinks and densifies. Dept. causing consolidation of powder particles. produced by the hot isostatic method (HIP). NITK Surathkal . are commonly between 15. As a pressure medium a gas (Nitrogen or Argon) is used. The work pressures. super-alloys. The dry bag method is used for compaction of simpler and smaller parts.000 psi (100 MPa to 300 MPa). or mild steel are used in the method. improvement of its mechanical properties.000 psi to 44. high speed steels. healing voids and pores. The cold isostatic pressing (CIP) method has the following advantages as compared to the die cold pressing method: • • better uniformity of compaction. Cans made of stainless steel. The method may be used without a mold.
Cooling zone. of MME. is determined by the level of the initial porosity of the green compact. where the sintered parts cool down. 2. www. Typical sintering furnace has three zones: 1. reducing atmosphere (containing Hydrogen or carbon monoxide) or in vacuum. Preheating zone for removing lubricant and other organic materials. NITK Surathkal . caused by the sintering process.corn particles Decrease of the porosity. In this machine a mesh belt conveyor moves the parts through a long tube like furnace. Sintering occurs simultaneously with pressing in the hot pressing processes (hot isostatic pressing. Sintering process may be conducted in different atmospheres: air. Dept.Source: www. Sintering zone.com Siatering 'owder Pores. inert atmosphere. than the melting point of the base metal (for example in copper-lead-tin bearing alloys). Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. Sintering is enhanced if a liquid phase takes part in the process.substech. hot die pressing). where the diffusion occurs. This occurs when the powder contains a component. 3. All commercially used metals may be sintered. Continuous belt furnaces are commonly used for the sintering process. sintering temperature and time. having the melting point lower.substech.
which may be cut into pieces of required length. of MME.substech. sanitary ware.com Extrusion The two possible schemes of extrusion are presented in the picture: . bars. fine china. thermocouple components.g.substech. Ram Container www. pipes) of regular cross-section.a stable suspension. gypsum). The slurry is poured into a mold made of a micro-porous material (e. Dept. thermal insulation Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. heat exchanger tubes. sinks. NITK Surathkal . which is capable to soak the liquid from the slurry. consisting of ceramic powders.' JE XItTUSIOn Dir. consolidating the ceramic part. Extrusion is used for manufacturing furnace tubes. Slip Casting Slip casting technique is used for shape forming ceramic slurry . long plates.eet e:xtrllJJsion. resulting in a long product (rods.Source: www.com Extrusion ram forces the ceramic paste through a die. Slip casting is used for manufacturing parts. processing additives and 20-35% ofliquid (water or solvent).
resulting in formation of ceramic sheet. evaporates. multilayer ceramics for capacitors and dielectric Metal injection molding Metal injection molding (MIM) is a method of compaction of a metal powder fed and injected into a mold cavity by means of a screw rotating in cylinder. Dept. The principal scheme of the injection molding method is shown in the picture: Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. When the slurry is poured into a mold. forming a gel that binds ceramic powder particles into a strong complex-shaped part. which may be stripped from the supporting surface. The slurry film thickness is controlled by a knife edge located above the moving carrier surface. The process is economical and it is used for manufacturing large complex shapes parts such as turbine rotors. Tape Casting is used for manufacturing insulators. The method is similar to the injection molding of polymers. containing in the slurry. the monomer polymerizes.com Gel Casting Gel Casting is a process of shape forming slurry prepared from ceramic powder mixed with a solution of organic monomer.substech. Tape Casting Tape Casting is a process of forming a thin film of ceramic slurry spread over a flat surface. The solvent. NITK Surathkal .Source: www. The parts may be machined before firing. of MME.
b. The molding cycle in the injection molding method is about 10 sec.40% of a binder. Solvent debinding.low melt polymer. than the molding time in the alternative methods. The method permits to produce part with close tolerance. This shrinkage is taken into account in the mold design. Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. stainless steels.the binder is heated above the volatilization temperature.removal of the binder. NITK Surathkal . There are two debinding methods: a. Removal of the part from the mold after cooling down of the mixture. Sintering the "green" compact at a temperature close (but below) to the melting point.com The processing technology comprises the following stages: 1.substech. tungsten and molybdenum. Debinding. Thermal debinding. 2. Mixing the metal powder with 30% . Metal injection molding method (MIM) is widely used for manufacturing small parts having complex shapes.com (ajieetiofl molding Powder Nozzle www. 4. 3. nickel alloys.the binder is dissolved by a solvent or by water. due to the consistent shrinkage.substeeh. of MME. 5. Metal injection molding method (MIM) is involved in processing carbon steels. Injection of the warm powder with molten binder into the mold by means of the screw. which much less. Dept.10-20 min.Source: www.
Spark plasma sintering mechanism The mechanism of the spark plasma sintering is still unclear therefore the process name pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) should be considered as more correct.e~d ClijJr~ent . However commercially the name SPS (spark plasma sintering) is more common.tering -(SPS) mechanism Plasma h~atin~Jou~c heating r~a. The spark plasma sintering process proceeds through three stages: 1.substech. Since the micro-plasma discharges form uniformly throughout the sample volume the generated heat is also uniformly distributed. . The electrical discharge between powder particles results in localized and momentary heating of the particles surfaces up to several thousands °C. Spark Plasma Si. of MME.Source: www.iscba. Compiled by Ankush N Nayak.com Spark plasma sintering Spark plasma sintering (SPS) or pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) is a sintering technique utilizing uniaxial force and a pulsed (on-off) direct electrical current (DC) under low atmospheric pressure to perform high speed consolidation of the powder. The purified surface layers of the particles melt and fuse to each other forming "necks" between the particles.rge EI!eetrl.sma 'I1. NITK Surathkal ..substech. Plasma heating. www.com The most accepted mechanism of the pulsed electric current sintering (PECS)is based on the micro-spark discharge in the gap between neighboring powder particles. Dept. The particles surfaces are purified and activated due to the high temperature causing vaporization of the impurities concentrated on the particle surface.
. Dept.Source: www. I I I I --. I I I I I I I I 1 ='='='='1 I I I :rowde~' l _ .com Compiled by Ankush N Nayak.I Vaeuam c!hamIM~.com 2. The joule heat is generated by the electrical current. Localized character of heating and its uniform distribution allow rapid temperature rise and drop.====. 3.11..snbstech.. The mechanical scheme of the process is similar to the Uniaxial (Die) Pressing..... The load (commonly up to 15000 psillOO MPa) is transferred to the powder through the upper punch. which diminish coarsening (growth) of the material grains.bl!te •..jtte dle www. Iltl-'h pIJJL(·~~ .. Spark plasma sintering technique Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is performed in a Graphite die..r Grap~. Joule heating.ra. At this stage the pulsed DC electrical current flows from particle to particle through the necks connecting them. Plastic deformation combined with diffusion result in the densification of the powder compact to over 99% of its theoretical density. Plastic deformation.=..substech. The heated material becomes softer and it exerts plastic deformation under the uniaxial force.----1---.-. of MME. The pulsed DC power supply is connected to the upper and lower punches/electrodes. The joule heat increases the diffusion of the atoms/molecules in the necks enhancing their growth. NITK Surathkal . Spark Plasma Sintterjjng (SPS) G.
composites) may be processed. Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. NITK Surathkal . The process is conducted under either low pressure (vacuum) or inert gas atmosphere. Disadvantages of spark plasma sintering: • • Only simple symmetrical shapes may be prepared. Compaction and sintering stages are combined in one operation. the average (monitored) temperature of the compact is relatively low: few hundred A °C lower than in conventional sintering process. Different materials (Metals. DC pulse time: few to tens of ms. Expensive pulsed DC generator is required. Spark plasma sintering process is fast. of MME. Current: several thousands amperes. Binders are not necessary. DC pause time: few to tens of ms. Advantages of spark plasma sintering: • • • • • • • • • Fast sintering process. Since only surface layers of the powder particles are heated in the spark plasma sintering process. Easy operation. High energy efficiency. Its overall duration is commonly 5-20 minutes. Dept. Ceramics. Better purification and activation of the powder particles surfaces. Uniform sintering.substech.com The pulsed DC electrical current parameters: • • • • Voltage: few volts. Low grain growth (nano-grain materials may be prepared).Source: www.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.