This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Powder metallurgy - introduction
Powder metallurgy involves powders for manufacturing metal parts. Powder metallurgy comprises the following general stages: • • • Powder preparation; Pressing (compacting) to obtain the desired shape; Sintering the pressed parts.
Powder metallurgy allows reducing machining operation due to forming parts with minimum tolerances. Powder metallurgy permits manufacture of materials, which can not be produced any other technologies: refractory materials, hard materials, wear resistant materials, permanent magnets, porous metals, mixtures of dissimilar metals, possessing different melting points or insoluble in liquid state, various combinations of mixtures of metals with non-metals. Powder metallurgy is used in the following industries: • • • • • • automotive (brake pads, gear parts, connecting engine bearings); aerospace (light weight composite materials); aluminum rods, planetary earners, materials, sintered
cutting tools (hard metals, diamond containing materials); medicine (dental implants, surgical instruments); abrasives (grinding and polishing wheels and discs); electrical, electronic and computer parts (permanent magnets, electrical contacts).
The following powder preparation methods are used: Atomization Atomization is one of the most effective industrial powder preparation methods. This method involves disintegration (atomizing) of liquid metal by means of high speed medium (air, inert gas, water) striking the melt streaming through a nozzle. • • • • • • The molten alloy is prepared in a furnace and then it is transferred to the tundish. The melt is poured from the tundish through the nozzle into the chamber. The water (air, gas) jets break the melt stream into fine droplets. The droplets solidify when they fall in the chamber. The powder is collected at the bottom of the chamber. The powder is removed from the chamber and dried (if necessary).
Compiled by Ankush N Nayak, Dept. of MME, NITK Surathkal
com Comminution Comminution is a mechanical method of powder preparation particles in mills (ball.6-0. involving breaking solid This method is generally applied for the preparation of powders of brittle materials.substech. The most widely used communition machine is ball mill. IfN>O.substech. Compiled by Ankush N Nayak.8*Ncr then the balls "stick" to the drum wall and no grinding ocurrs.acceleration due to gravity. Maximum grinding effect is achieved at optimal rotation speed of the mill (N).com Water atomization Pump Powder www. hummer). D .8*Ncr Ncr may be determined from the expression: Ncr = (g/2D)1I2/n (revolutions per second) where: g . of MME. NITK Surathkal . which move in a rotating drum and crush the metal pieces into fine particles. N = O.Source: www. vibratory.drum diameter. utilizing the energy of steel steel balls. Dept.
6*Ncr then the balls roll without falling.Source: www. Particle size. The grinding effect in this case is low (only rubbing).com If N<O.the mass of a unite volume of the powder. which was freely (without pressing or tapping) poured into the container. irregularly shaped (water atomization). This method is used for fabrication of copper powders. dendrite like (electrolytic deposition). Powder characteristics • • • • Particle shape.6-0. porous (reduced oxides).8*Ncr then the balls go up together with the rotating drum and then fall down and roll providing grinding by combined action of strike and rubbing. Size distribution (relative quantities of different size fractions). Die (uniaxial) pressing is effectively used for mass production of simple parts (alternative method is isostatic pressing). Dept. of MME. NITK Surathkal .ability of the powder to flow through a calibrated orifice. IfN = O. Apparent density is a function of porosity of the particles. • • Die pressing of metallic powders Die pressing (molding) is the powder compaction method involving uniaxial pressure applied to the powder placed in a die between two rigid punches.degree to which the powder compacts as a function of the applied pressure. Powder may be also prepared by electrolytic deposition of a metal at the cathode followed by mechanical crushing of the deposited material. Chemical methods Metal powders may be prepared by reduction of the metal oxides (carbides) followed by mechanical crushing or precipitation of metals from solution (hydrometallurgical method). regularity of their shapes and variety of their sizes.Particle may be spherical (gas atomization). These methods are called chemical powder preparation methods.substech. Apparent density. The scheme of the die pressing method is presented in the picture: Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. Compressibility. Flowability.
com Die fiU stage r Compactiom Upper punch t The pressing process consists of the following stages: • Die filling. At this stage a controlled amount of the powder is fed into the die cavity. "Green" compact part ejection and removal ("green" compact.000 psi (69 MPa to 830 MPa). of MME.unsintered powder compact).Source: www. Compaction. Upper punch moves down and presses the powder with a predetermined pressure. Dept.000 psi to 120. NITK Surathkal .substech. • • Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. The pressure varies between 10.
of MME. depending on the press type. which is conducted at room temperature is called cold pressing. Die pressing. This method is suitable for compaction of large and complicated parts. Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) is conducted at room temperature. NITK Surathkal . com There are two types of cold isostatic pressing: wet bag and dry bag.substech.com The pressing cycle repeats 400 to 5000 times/hour.Source: www. powder filling properties and the part size and geometry. Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. Hydraulic and mechanical presses with load up to 750 tons are used for the powder die pressmg. A flexible (commonly polyurethane) mold immersed in a pressurized liquid medium (commonly water) is used in the cold isostatic pressing method (see the scheme below): Cold h. Hot pressing permits obtaining better compaction. higher green compact density and higher (than in cold pressing) strength of the part. In the wet bag method the mold is removed and refilled after each pressure cycle.ostadc pressing -- Pressurization source WVv'W. substech. If the pressing process is conducted at increased temperature it is called hot pressing. Isostatic pressing of metallic powders Isostatic pressing is the powder compaction method involving applying pressure from multiple directions through a liquid or gaseous medium surrounding the compacted part. Dept.
when the material of the separate particles diffuse to the neighboring powder particles. Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. The work pressures. healing voids and pores. In this case the part is first compacted by cold isostatic pressing method. The part shrinks and densifies. hard alloys and vanous ceramics are Sintering of metals Sintering is a method involving consolidation of powder grains by heating the green compact part to a high temperature below the melting point. Cans made of stainless steel. As a pressure medium a gas (Nitrogen or Argon) is used.000 psi to 44. super-alloys. and then it is sintered in order to close the interconnecting porosity. Hot isostatic method (HIP) combines pressing and sintering. taking place in the green compact. resulting in densification of the part.Source: www. improvement of its mechanical properties. high speed steels. Titanium alloys. diminish or even close up. The cold isostatic pressing (CIP) method has the following advantages as compared to the die cold pressing method: • • better uniformity of compaction. causing consolidation of powder particles. produced by the hot isostatic method (HIP). or mild steel are used in the method. are commonly between 15. Dept. which are applied in the hot isostatic pressing method. During the diffusion process the pores.000 psi (100 MPa to 300 MPa). of MME. more complex forms (for example long thin-walled tubes) may be compacted. The method may be used without a mold. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) involves isostatic pressing conducted at increased temperature. forming sound high strength structure.com In the dry bag method the mold is an integral part of the vessel.substech. The dry bag method is used for compaction of simpler and smaller parts. The sintered (but still porous) part is then pressed isostatically at high temperature without any can (mold). NITK Surathkal .
substech. Sintering process may be conducted in different atmospheres: air. inert atmosphere. hot die pressing). All commercially used metals may be sintered. Sintering occurs simultaneously with pressing in the hot pressing processes (hot isostatic pressing. 3. In this machine a mesh belt conveyor moves the parts through a long tube like furnace. Sintering zone. sintering temperature and time. Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. Preheating zone for removing lubricant and other organic materials.com Siatering 'owder Pores. This occurs when the powder contains a component. having the melting point lower.Source: www. Sintering is enhanced if a liquid phase takes part in the process. Typical sintering furnace has three zones: 1. NITK Surathkal . than the melting point of the base metal (for example in copper-lead-tin bearing alloys). Continuous belt furnaces are commonly used for the sintering process. where the sintered parts cool down. caused by the sintering process. where the diffusion occurs. www. of MME. Cooling zone. is determined by the level of the initial porosity of the green compact. Dept.substech.corn particles Decrease of the porosity. reducing atmosphere (containing Hydrogen or carbon monoxide) or in vacuum. 2.
heat exchanger tubes.com Extrusion ram forces the ceramic paste through a die. bars. Extrusion is used for manufacturing furnace tubes.g. Ram Container www. which may be cut into pieces of required length.com Extrusion The two possible schemes of extrusion are presented in the picture: . Slip Casting Slip casting technique is used for shape forming ceramic slurry .Source: www. sanitary ware. NITK Surathkal . thermal insulation Compiled by Ankush N Nayak.' JE XItTUSIOn Dir. Dept. gypsum). long plates. Slip casting is used for manufacturing parts. fine china.eet e:xtrllJJsion. thermocouple components. which is capable to soak the liquid from the slurry.a stable suspension.substech. resulting in a long product (rods. of MME. sinks.substech. consisting of ceramic powders. pipes) of regular cross-section. The slurry is poured into a mold made of a micro-porous material (e. consolidating the ceramic part. processing additives and 20-35% ofliquid (water or solvent).
When the slurry is poured into a mold. which may be stripped from the supporting surface. The slurry film thickness is controlled by a knife edge located above the moving carrier surface. forming a gel that binds ceramic powder particles into a strong complex-shaped part. Tape Casting Tape Casting is a process of forming a thin film of ceramic slurry spread over a flat surface. of MME. The parts may be machined before firing. Dept. the monomer polymerizes. NITK Surathkal . multilayer ceramics for capacitors and dielectric Metal injection molding Metal injection molding (MIM) is a method of compaction of a metal powder fed and injected into a mold cavity by means of a screw rotating in cylinder. Tape Casting is used for manufacturing insulators. evaporates. The method is similar to the injection molding of polymers. resulting in formation of ceramic sheet. The principal scheme of the injection molding method is shown in the picture: Compiled by Ankush N Nayak.Source: www.com Gel Casting Gel Casting is a process of shape forming slurry prepared from ceramic powder mixed with a solution of organic monomer. containing in the slurry.substech. The solvent. The process is economical and it is used for manufacturing large complex shapes parts such as turbine rotors.
Injection of the warm powder with molten binder into the mold by means of the screw. b. 4. 3. This shrinkage is taken into account in the mold design.low melt polymer.Source: www.substeeh. Solvent debinding.40% of a binder. 2.10-20 min. NITK Surathkal . nickel alloys.the binder is dissolved by a solvent or by water.removal of the binder. Sintering the "green" compact at a temperature close (but below) to the melting point. Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. Dept.substech. Mixing the metal powder with 30% . which much less.com The processing technology comprises the following stages: 1. of MME. tungsten and molybdenum. There are two debinding methods: a. Metal injection molding method (MIM) is widely used for manufacturing small parts having complex shapes. Debinding. Metal injection molding method (MIM) is involved in processing carbon steels. stainless steels. due to the consistent shrinkage. Removal of the part from the mold after cooling down of the mixture. Thermal debinding.com (ajieetiofl molding Powder Nozzle www.the binder is heated above the volatilization temperature. 5. The method permits to produce part with close tolerance. than the molding time in the alternative methods. The molding cycle in the injection molding method is about 10 sec.
substech. The particles surfaces are purified and activated due to the high temperature causing vaporization of the impurities concentrated on the particle surface. Spark Plasma Si.tering -(SPS) mechanism Plasma h~atin~Jou~c heating r~a. The purified surface layers of the particles melt and fuse to each other forming "necks" between the particles.. Compiled by Ankush N Nayak.Source: www.rge EI!eetrl. The spark plasma sintering process proceeds through three stages: 1. However commercially the name SPS (spark plasma sintering) is more common.com The most accepted mechanism of the pulsed electric current sintering (PECS)is based on the micro-spark discharge in the gap between neighboring powder particles.iscba. Spark plasma sintering mechanism The mechanism of the spark plasma sintering is still unclear therefore the process name pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) should be considered as more correct. of MME. Since the micro-plasma discharges form uniformly throughout the sample volume the generated heat is also uniformly distributed. Plasma heating. www. The electrical discharge between powder particles results in localized and momentary heating of the particles surfaces up to several thousands °C. Dept. .com Spark plasma sintering Spark plasma sintering (SPS) or pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) is a sintering technique utilizing uniaxial force and a pulsed (on-off) direct electrical current (DC) under low atmospheric pressure to perform high speed consolidation of the powder.substech.sma 'I1.e~d ClijJr~ent . NITK Surathkal .
Dept. The joule heat increases the diffusion of the atoms/molecules in the necks enhancing their growth.-... Plastic deformation.====.. Localized character of heating and its uniform distribution allow rapid temperature rise and drop.. The heated material becomes softer and it exerts plastic deformation under the uniaxial force.bl!te •. 3. Plastic deformation combined with diffusion result in the densification of the powder compact to over 99% of its theoretical density.. of MME.r Grap~. The joule heat is generated by the electrical current.snbstech. Iltl-'h pIJJL(·~~ . Joule heating. Spark plasma sintering technique Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is performed in a Graphite die.I Vaeuam c!hamIM~. At this stage the pulsed DC electrical current flows from particle to particle through the necks connecting them.ra.=..jtte dle www.substech. The load (commonly up to 15000 psillOO MPa) is transferred to the powder through the upper punch. Spark Plasma Sintterjjng (SPS) G.. NITK Surathkal . which diminish coarsening (growth) of the material grains..Source: www.----1---. The pulsed DC power supply is connected to the upper and lower punches/electrodes. I I I I I I I I 1 ='='='='1 I I I :rowde~' l _ ..com Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. The mechanical scheme of the process is similar to the Uniaxial (Die) Pressing. I I I I --...11.com 2.
Source: www. Uniform sintering. DC pulse time: few to tens of ms. Ceramics. Expensive pulsed DC generator is required. Better purification and activation of the powder particles surfaces.substech. Dept. NITK Surathkal . Compaction and sintering stages are combined in one operation. Easy operation. Advantages of spark plasma sintering: • • • • • • • • • Fast sintering process. the average (monitored) temperature of the compact is relatively low: few hundred A °C lower than in conventional sintering process. Different materials (Metals. Binders are not necessary. Since only surface layers of the powder particles are heated in the spark plasma sintering process. composites) may be processed. Spark plasma sintering process is fast. Its overall duration is commonly 5-20 minutes. of MME. The process is conducted under either low pressure (vacuum) or inert gas atmosphere. DC pause time: few to tens of ms.com The pulsed DC electrical current parameters: • • • • Voltage: few volts. Current: several thousands amperes. Compiled by Ankush N Nayak. High energy efficiency. Disadvantages of spark plasma sintering: • • Only simple symmetrical shapes may be prepared. Low grain growth (nano-grain materials may be prepared).