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clarito g. lopez jr.

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CHAPTER 1 CONCEPT OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENT Document Defined Generally, defined as any material containing marks, symbols, or signs either visible, or partially visible that may present or ultimately convey a meaning to someone, maybe in the form of pencil, ink writing, typewriting, or printing on paper. Legal Definitions of Document 1 Any written document by which a right is established or an obligation is extinguished (People vs. Moreno, CA, 338 O.G. 119); 2 Every deed or instrument executed by person by whom some disposition or agreement is proved, evidenced or set forth (People vs. Nillosquin, CA, 48 O.G. 4453) ; 3 In relation to Criminal Jurisprudence under the Best evidence rule, document refers to any physical embodiment of information of ideas (e.g. a letter, a contract, a receipt, a book of account, a blue print, or an X-ray plate) Kinds of documents a PUBLIC DOCUMENT- notarized by a notary public or competent public official with solemnities required by law. (Cacnio vs. Baens, 5Phil.742) b OFFICIAL DOCUMENT- issued by the government or its agents or its officers having the authority to do and the offices, which in accordance with

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their creation, they are authorized to issue and be issued in the performance of their duties. c PRIVATE DOCUMENT- executed by a private person without the intervention of a notary public or of any person legally authorized, by which documents some disposition or agreement is proved, evidenced or set forth (US vs. Orera, 11Phil.596). d COMMERCIAL DOCUMENT- executed in accordance with the Code of Commerce or a Mercantile Law, containing disposition of commercial rights or obligations.

If a private document is intended to become a part of the public record and falsified prior thereto, the crime committed is falsification of a public document

Writings Which Do Not Constitute Document a A draft of a Municipal payroll which is not yet approved by the proper authority (People vs. Camacho, 44Phil. 484) b Mere blank forms of official documents, the spaces of which are not filled up (People vs. Santiago, CA, 48 O.G. 4558) c Pamphlets or books which do not evidence any disposition or agreement are not documents but are mere merchandise (People vs. Agnis, 47 Phil. 945)

Concept of Questioned Document

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Questioned document is one in which the facts appearing therein may not be true, and are contested either in whole or part with respect to its authenticity, identity, or origin. It may be a deed, contract, will, election ballots, marriage contract, check, visas, application form, check writer, certificates, etc. Questioned document examination is a branch of forensics which focuses on the analysis of documents which are disputed. A questioned document examiner will look at the document in question and use a variety of techniques to analyze it, and he or she may even be called as a witness in a case, depending on the outcome of the examination. Disputed Document Disputed Document is a term suggesting that there is an argument or controversy over the document, and strictly speaking this is its true meaning. Goal of Questioned Document Examination When a questioned document examination is ordered, the first goal is to determine whether or not the document is genuine. Once the veracity of the document can be proved or disproved, the questioned document examination focuses on identifying or eliminating potential authors of the document. The examiner will then produce a complete report, discussing the findings and their ramifications, and he or she may be asked to testify in court about the document.

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In comparison of questioned document, what constitute sufficient number of similarity? There is no set of standard to constitute a sufficient number. Instead, it's up to each expert to say what constitutes a sufficient number. Requirements to Become A Questioned Document Examiner The courts (State v. Evans 1991) have decided that a person needs both: study and practice - that is, a period of training (internship or apprenticeship is better than a self-study course) and a period of experience (twenty some previous cases worked on is a good average). Meant by the term EXPERT WITNESS? A legal term used to describe a witness who by reason of his special training or experience is permitted to express an opinion regarding the issue, or a certain aspect of the issue, which is involved in a court action. Who are DOCUMENT EXAMINERS? One who studies scientifically details and elements of documents in order to identify their source or to discover other facts concerning them

Divisions of Questioned Document Examination? a Criminalistic Examinationinvolves the detection of forgery, erasure, alteration or obliteration of documents. b Handwriting Investigation /Analysismore focused in determining the author of writing.

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Classes of Questioned Document QD. The following are the general classification of

a Documents with questioned signatures; b Questioned documents alleged to containing fraudulent alterations; have been

c Questioned or disputed holographic wills; d Documents investigated typewriting; on the question of

e Questioned documents on issues of their age or date; f Questioned documents on issues of material used in their production; and, g Documents or writing investigated because it is all alleged that they identify some persons through handwriting. Scientific Methods In Questioned Document Examination a Analysis (Recognition)properties characteristics, observed or measured. or

b Comparison- Properties or characteristics of the unknown determined through analysis are now compared with the familiar or recorded properties of know items. c Evaluation- Similarities or dissimilarities in properties will each have a certain value for identification, determined by its likelihood of occurrence.

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Concept of the Term Exemplars Exemplar is a term used by some document examiners and attorneys to characterize know materials. Standard is the older term. Standard documents are condensed and compact set of authentic specimens which, if adequate and proper, should contain a cross section of the material from a know source. Standard in questioned documents investigation, means those things whose origins are known and can be proven and which can be legally used as examples to compare with other matters in question. To help the document examiner support her opinion satisfactorily to the court, provide her with as many valid exemplars as possible at the beginning of the case. Exemplars, also called standards, are legally admissible authentic samples of handwriting used for comparison with questioned writing. They are used by the document examiner to enable her to form an opinion concerning the authenticity of handwriting in dispute. There are two kinds of exemplars (informal which are documents previously executed and known to be genuine) and formal (which are request writing samples). Exemplars are also called known handwriting samples.

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Handwriting identification depends on the quality of the known writing. One of the most important steps in the investigation of suspected or disputed writing is the procurement of sufficient genuine writing samples. Legal advisers and investigating officers must be able to anticipate the document examiner's needs in the way of comparative material. Sufficient suitable material facilitates the work of the expert in establishing the master pattern or habits of the writer in order to avoid errors and in conclusions. A document examiner who must work with insufficient writing has a more difficult task and may not be able to draw adequate conclusions from the limited material. Informal handwriting exemplars (Collected Standards) are more reliable for comparison purposes than request writing. Since informal writing was written in the normal course of business, it more accurately reflects the subconscious habits of the writer. Self-consciousness or conscious-awareness enters into the request writing process. Even when there is no attempt to disguise request writing, it may not represent the normal subconscious habits of the writer. If informal exemplars are not sufficient or suitable for comparison purposes, request writing should be taken from the victim as well as any suspects. Often the only way to obtain comparable handwriting samples is through request writing. There are some disadvantages to request writing that must be taken into consideration. Types of Handwriting Standards

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a Collected handwriting course of socials.

Standards are KNOWN (genuine) of an individual written in the daily life, both business and

b Request standards are signature or other handwritings (or hand printings) written by an individual upon request for the purpose of comparison with other handwriting or for specimen purposes. c Post Litem Motan Exemplars- writings produced by the subject after evidential writings have come into dispute and solely for the purpose of establishing his contentions. Disadvantages of Request Writing Samples Request writing taken after the incident may not be as close to the date of the questioned writing as informal documents executed in the normal course of business. Courts consider request writing taken after the fact as self-serving and may not allow it. Some writers will deliberately disguise their request handwriting. The person taking the request writing needs to take this into consideration. Suggestions for taking request writing are covered later in this chapter. It may be difficult or impossible to duplicate the writing environment of the suspect document in order to obtain comparable documents. The writer may not be available for request writing or circumstances may have caused changes that make it impossible to obtain similar request writing samples.

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SUGGESTED PROCEDURE FOR TAKING REQUEST HANDWRITING STANDARDS IN ALL TYPES OF QUESTIONED-DOCUMENT PROBLEMS: a Let subject seat in a natural position at table or desk having smooth writing surface. b Furnish subject with paper and writing instrument similar to those used in questioned writings, lie; paper should be same size, and ruled or unruled; as questioned document. c Never permit the subject to see any writing on the questioned document. d Dictate material to be written (or printed, if questioned material is hand printed): give no assistance in spelling or arrangement on page. Dictate at a rate of speed which will produce the subject natural writing habits. e Remove each specimen upon completion by subject number in consequence, date, time and identify by initiating each, and request subjects to sign each specimen. f Observe all writing done by subjects and indicate any attempt of disguise, and whether subjects appears to be normally right or left handed, etc. Collecting Informal Exemplars Exemplars must be suitable for comparison with the questioned writing. Since handwriting can be found on many different types of surfaces, comparison materials should, when possible, duplicate the conditions under which the questioned document was executed. While this is usually done

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with request writing, it may be harder to locate informal writing samples that meet these criteria. Locating material to be used as evidence may require considerable effort on the part of the investigator. Comparison materials should, when possible, is written under the same conditions under which the questioned documents were executed. While this is the standard method of taking request writing, it is impossible to control the writing environment of informal writing samples. Try to obtain signatures that are similar to the questioned signature. If the questioned signature is in ink, get signatures in ink, if it is in pencil, get documents written in pencil for comparison. If the questioned document is on lined paper, find documents written on lined paper. If the questioned document contains hand printing, collect documents that are hand printed. Where no similar documents are available, try to locate documents whose authenticity can be verified such as cancelled checks that have been accepted by a bank. Other documents executed in the regular course of business are also suitable. The date of the questioned writing must be taken into consideration when looking for suitable comparable documents. While an adult's handwriting may remain constant for many years, writing habits normally change over time so that an outdated standard may be unsatisfactory for comparison purposes. All writing samples are not of equal value and some may be of no value at all. When gathering handwriting for comparison purposes, it is necessary to keep in mind that

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various factors cause changes in handwriting. Age and illness may lead to the deterioration of writing skills, which can be an important consideration in a disputed, will case. A teenager's handwriting may change drastically in as short a time frame as a year. A drug addict may undergo a radical change in handwriting as his addiction takes over. Handwriting samples taken prior to the addiction are not going to accurately reflect later writing. Handwriting changes gradually over a person's lifetime but some factors can cause drastic changes in handwriting in a short period of time; therefore it is essential to compare handwriting from a similar time frame and under similar conditions. Trauma such as stroke, illness, or loss of a spouse; or medication, or substance abuse can affect handwriting. If a person's writing has changed drastically around the time the questioned document was executed, there may not be comparable material available. Ideally, writing executed around the date of the questioned material should be used for comparison purposes, some dated shortly before and after the date of the questioned material. What time frame is considered suitable? Documents executed within two to three years are most suitable. If these are not available, documents dating further from the questioned material may be used. Do not rely on present-day writing exclusively, if possible. Make sure the handwriting exemplars are not in dispute and that they can be authenticated. Any uncontradicted testimony of competent eye witnesses who saw the execution of the writing can be used to verify its authenticity. Courts accept the testimony

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of the author admitting genuineness or someone to whom the author has admitted genuineness. The testimony of a person who received writing from the author and acted on it is also valid, though not necessarily accurate. Documents executed in the normal course of business are frequently used for comparison purposes which includes negotiable instruments such as checks, contracts, and other business documents. Document examiners have given erroneous conclusions based on forged exemplars. When the exemplars have been fabricated by the same writer as the forged material, an opinion of authenticity based on false information will occur. Document examiners mistakenly identified Adolph Hitler as the author of the Hitler Diaries because they used forged exemplars of Hitler for comparison. How Many Samples Of Handwriting Are Needed? The type of case determines the number of exemplars that the document examiner needs for comparison with the questioned documents. Always try to collect as many samples as possible because it is more important to have suitable undisputed samples than a large quantity of little comparable value. Cases have been won in court using a single known signature to support the authenticity of a questioned document. One signature is sufficient when all the characteristics of handwriting match. When proving that an individual did not write a questioned document, it is necessary to obtain a larger range of writing and one hundred signatures may not be enough. An average would be twenty to twenty-five signatures and four to five pages of

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normal handwriting and/or hand printing preferably written at different times. More known documents are needed if the writer has a wide range of variation or an oversimplified signature, while only a few signatures would suffice if the writer is consistent. An oversimplified signature is one that contains few changes of direction and is usually an illegible scrawl. Oversimplified signatures are easier to imitate than more complex signatures that contain more changes of direction and more stylized letter forms. When a questioned signature shows obvious signs of forgery not present in the known signature, one known signature should be enough to prove no genuineness. Forged writing often contains tremor or has a drawn look. A single signature would be sufficient to determine the facts when the questioned signatures are written with a higher skill level than the suspected writer could execute. However, it is better to have more exemplars whenever possible. The document examiner must evaluate the exemplars to determine if she has sufficient suitable material to render an accurate opinion.

SUITABLE EXEMPLARS Cancelled checks, contracts, applications, and business letters make suitable exemplars or standards. The writing can be properly identified, the date can be verified, and the habits of the writer can be studied. Additional standards may be

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needed if the words on the disputed writing do not match the exemplars. Ideally, original writing should be available for the scrutiny of the document examiner. Original writing is always better than a photocopy or a facsimile. If it is impossible to obtain original documents, a first generation photocopy should be supplied. The original documents should be requested whenever a photocopy is supplied by the adverse party. Intermediate tones are almost always lost in a photocopy because it aims to secure the greatest possible contrast. Subsequent generations of photocopies may drop sufficient detail, rendering them worthless to a competent document examiner. According to the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin published in September, 1970, handwriting identification depends on the quality of the known writing. A's cannot be compared with Gs John Jones' cannot be compared with 'Samuel Hansen' The J's must be compared with J's and the 'ohn's' with 'ohn's.' Handwriting cannot be compared with hand printing. Documents similar in nature will make the best exemplars. Contracts should be compared with contracts, and cancelled checks with cancelled checks. Try to procure like signatures. An A should be compared with A, an Al with Al, and hand printing with hand printing. Documents written with ink should be compared with other documents written in ink. Try to find writing on similar documents. People often have more than one style signature depending on the document being executed. Checks may be executed in a more careless manner than wills and contracts. Do not use signatures written while the

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writer was intoxicated unless the questioned documents were written under similar circumstances. Some hand printing can be compared with handwriting and vice versa. Some writers use hand printed letters and handwritten ones interchangeably. Most common is the use of hand printed capital letters in place of cursive. Other writers use the same letter form for both hand printed and cursive writing. While it may be possible to make a match with only a few exemplars, the more exemplars available the better. Collect as many samples of handwriting, including signatures, as possible. It is necessary to collect enough handwriting samples to enable the expert to render a professional opinion. How much is enough? Enough would be sufficient exemplars to eliminate any other writer as the author of a document. Cases In Which No Exemplars Are Needed There are some cases in which no exemplars are needed to prove spuriousness. Since no one can write his signature exactly the same way twice, identical signatures are generally evidence of no genuineness. This would include traced forgeries, scanned signatures, or even freehand simulations, as well as cut and paste signatures. Some writers use signature stamps and autopens as legitimate signatures making it are necessary to determine the nature of the signatures before an opinion of no genuineness is given. Signs of forgery are indicative of no genuineness. Documents that contain indications of

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tracing can be identified without known signatures. Evidence of tracing the signature would be a groove or guide line along the signature line or residue of pencil or carbon. When a questioned signature matches the handwriting of another writer, identification can be made that the writing was penned by that individual. In this case, no known signatures of the victim are needed for comparison. Writing of the impaired or illiterate can be identified as spurious if the questioned writing exceeds the ability of the known writer. A high skill level signature of an impaired individual can be rejected without comparison documents.

REQUEST WRITING Request writing exemplars are handwriting samples made at the request and under the supervision of the police, document examiners, or attorneys for comparison with questioned writing. The writer is asked to complete forms containing all the uppercase and lowercase letters plus numbers and punctuation marks. Care must be taken to insure that request writing is suitable for comparison purposes since the writer may attempt to disguise his writing. Normal writing is a result of subconscious habit. The quality of writing is recognized by repeated significant characteristics executed with ordinary attention to the writing act. Certain precautions can insure that the exemplars are suitable.

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The document examiner should take the request writing exemplars whenever possible. The examiner is then in a position to determine if the writing is normal writing or if the writer is trying to disguise his handwriting. Lawyers frequently have their clients write their name ten times on a sheet of paper. This is not an appropriate handwriting sample. When taking the request writing samples, follow established procedures. Use a dictation that contains all of the letters of the alphabet as well as the numerals. Dos AND DON'Ts FOR COLLECTING EXEMPLARS AND STANDARDS a DON'T rely on too little writing. How much is enough? Enough to show the range of handwriting characteristics of the writer. b DO obtain sufficient handwriting exemplars, at least twenty to twenty-five signatures or four to five pages of handwriting or hand printing. c DON'T rely exclusively on writing that differs significantly from the questioned. d DO collect similar samples: hand printing with hand printing, ink signatures with ink signatures, lined paper with lined paper, same size with same size. e DON'T rely on documents recently written if the comparison documents were written many years ago. f DO collect standards dated at approximately the same time as the questioned.

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g DON'T compare writing written under abnormal conditions (for example, when the writer was intoxicated) with normal writing. h DO collect documents that duplicate the writing environment: checks with checks, contracts with contracts. i DO instruct the writer in order to obtain similar exemplars. For example, print with all uppercase letters. SUMMARY Exemplars are known handwriting samples used for comparison with questioned documents. There are two types of exemplars, formal and informal. Formal exemplars are request writing samples. Informal exemplars consist of documents executed in the normal course of business. Proper procedures should be followed when taking request writing.

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HANDWRITING DEFINED Handwriting is the result of a very complicated series of facts, being used as whole, combination of certain forms of visible mental and muscular habits acquired by long, continued painstaking effort also knows as visible speech.

KINDS OF WRITINGS: a Cursive- connected writing in which one letter is joined the next. b Script- separated printed writing. c BLOCK- ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. BASIS OF HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION: a In Wignore`s Principles of judicial Proof, handwriting is defined as a visible effect of bodily movement which is an almost unconscious expression of fixed muscular habits, reacting from fixed mental impression of certain ideas associated with script form. b Environment, education and occupation affect individuals so variously in the formation of these muscular habits that finally the act of

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writing becomes an almost automatic succession of acts stimulated by these habits. c The imitation of the style of writing by another person becomes difficult because the other person cannot by mere will power reproduce in himself all the muscular combination from the habit of the first writer. Is handwriting / signature identification an exact science?- No because in the hand of a qualified examiner operating under proper conditions, identification by means of handwriting or signature is certain. Proper conditions include sufficient questioned writing; sufficient known writing; sufficient time; and use of scientific instruments. THEORY - HANDWRITING FACTS AND THEORY AND SIGNATURES SOME BASIC

Handwriting originates in the brain when a mental picture of letters and words is formed. The signal to try to duplicate the mental picture is sent to the arm and hand through the muscles and nervous system. The actual output is almost never an exact match of the original mental picture. When a baby is born, it is equipped with certain basic, automatic abilities. It can breathe, cry, suck, move its limbs randomly. To accomplish more complex tasks, the baby must learn. Patterns must be formed and stored in the brain which then will trigger messages to travel through the nervous system to the muscles to produce movements (behavior). Smiling is a simple behavior that a baby learns early in life. At first, he imitates his parents' smiles, and as this behavior is rewarded by

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more smiles and hugs from his parents (positive feedback), a pattern is built in the baby's brain. The baby learns to call upon that pattern to produce a smile. Soon, smiling becomes automatic, just like breathing. In a similar way, the baby learns to reach, grasp, speak and walk. More and more complex actions become possible as the baby builds the neural pathways that travel between the muscles and the brain via the nervous system. Handwriting is an extremely complex motor task, which is not usually learned until the child is 5 or 6 years old and has mastered simpler skills. The motor system controls the movement and posture needed for handwriting by contraction and relaxation of muscles. Messages go to and from the muscles and brain via the nervous system. During the learning process, the senses and muscles send messages (feedback) back to the brain to let it know how the sequence, timing and force applied worked out. The brain makes the adjustments needed to give a maximal outcome. Eventually a motor program is formed. This is a set of muscle commands that can be carried out with the correct timing and sequence automatically, without feedback, to give the best possible result. Handwriting is the result of such stored motor knowledge. Handwriting is distal, meaning that it occurs at the extremities and involves fine motor activity as opposed to a skill like walking which is proximal - a large, or gross motor skill. One reason individuals find it difficult to simulate the handwriting of others is that to do so successfully requires understanding the essence of the writer's

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motor control program and executing a motor control program that yields a very similar result.

Two Groups of Muscles Involve in Handwriting: a Extensor muscles- push up the pen to form the upward strokes. b Flexor muscles which push the pen to from the downward strokes. Generally speaking, four groups of muscles are employed in writing- those which operate the joints of the fingers, wrist, elbow, and shoulder. The delicate way in which the various muscles used in writing work together to procedure written form is known as motor coordination.

VARIATIONS IN HANDWRITING None of the factors that produce handwriting are rigid and unchanging. In addition to the organic factors (physical anatomy and health, mental acuity, etc.) there are environmental factors effecting the handwriting. These include the writing instrument itself, the writing surface and what lies beneath it, and other variables of the writing situation. Because the primary motor pattern is itself a fluid image and because there are so many organic and environmental variables that interact in the production of handwriting, it has become an accepted axiom that a person is unlikely to ever duplicate any signature exactly. Each person has a range of natural variation. But even with this range of variation, each person grows in his or her writing

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from the classic forms taught in childhood into an individual and identifiable form of written expression. Handwriting is a free-form activity, and there are an infinite number of ways to write even the simplest letter combination. It is highly unlikely that any person will write his or her own name exactly the same way twice in an entire lifetime. Actually, every person has a range of handwriting variation determined by his or her physical writing ability, training in "penmanship", and other factors. To the experienced expert, a study of known samples of writing can reveal a cluster of individual writing characteristics which can allow the expert to identify or exclude an individual as the author of some questioned writing. Handwriting characteristics come in two categories - general, or class characteristics, and individual characteristics. Depending on the cultural setting (time and place) when writing is learned, entire groups of individuals may be taught or trained to write in the same way. When these individuals are first learning to write, there are differences in their ability to do the task, and the results are not all the same, but the true individualizing differences appear over time. As we grow and mature physically and personally, our handwriting becomes more of an individual product through conscious changes made to fit a mental picture of how we want our writing to appear, or unconsciously. Handwriting can also be effected by other factors - injury, illness, medication, drug or

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alcohol use, stress, the writing surface, the writing instrument, or attempted disguise. It is the job of the document examiner to understand these factors as they might relate to a specific situation. The hand does not always produce a stereotyped duplicate of that pattern. The hand ordinarily is not an instrument of precision and therefore we may not expect every habitual manual operation to be absolutely uniform. The greater this skill ion the art of penmanship, the less the variations there will be in the form if individualize letters as well as in the writing as a whole. CAUSES OF VARIATION: a Function of some external condition influence of the available space. i.e.

b Abnormal conditions such as physical injury, toxic effects, inebriations, emotions and deception. c Position of letter- all the letters are to be found initially, medially, and finally. The fact may modify any of them in some way or another.

IMPORTANCE OF VARIATION a The qualities of personal variation include both its nature and its extent. It becomes necessary to determine the amount, extent, and exact quality of the variations.

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b When combined is what constitutes individuality in handwriting. c With a group of signatures of a particular writer, certain normal divergence in size, lateral spacing and proportions actually indicate genuineness. Variation in genuine writing is ordinarily in superficial parts and in size, proportions, degree of care given to the act, design, slant, shading, vigor, angularity, roundness and direction of stroke. The most common error in the identification of handwriting is due to the fact that the evidence of actual forgery is executed on the ground that here is variation in genuine writing.

TERMINOLOGIES RELATED TO HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATIONS ALIGNMENT- the relation of parts of the whole of writing or line of individual letters in words to the baseline. ANGULAR FORMS- Sharp, straight strokes that are made by stopping the pen and changing direction before continuing. ARCADE FORMS- look like arches rounded on the top and open at the bottom. CHARACTERISTICS- any property or mark which are commonly called the identifying details.

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COLLATION side by side comparison; collation as used in this text means the critical comparison on side by side examination. COMPARISON- the act of setting two or more items side by side to weigh their identifying qualities. DISTINGUISED WRITING-altered writing in hopes of hiding identity. DOWNSTROKE- The movement of the writer. pen toward the

FORM- The way the writing looks, whether it is copybook, elaborated, simplifier or printed GARLAND FORMS- A cup like connected form that is open at the top and rounded on the bottom. GESTALT- The German word that means complete or whole. A good gestalt needs nothing added or taken away to make it look right. GRAHOANALYSIS- the study of handwriting based on the two fundamental strokes, the curve and the straight strokes. GRAPHOMETRYmeasurement. analysis by comparison and

GRAPHOLOGY- the art of determining character disposition and amplitude of a person from the study of handwriting. It also means the scientific study and analysis of handwriting, especially with reference to forgeries and questioned documents.

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HANDLETTERING- Any disconnected style of writing in which each letter is written separately,; also called hand printing. LEFT-HANDED WRITING- See wrong hand writing. LETTER SPACEletters. The amount of space between

LINE DIRECTION- Movement of the baseline. May slant-up, down or straight across the page. LINE QUALLITY- the overall character of the link lines from the beginning to the ending stroke: Good Line quality and Poor Line quality. LINE SPACElines. The amount of the space between form around of the

MANUSCRIPT WRITING- A disconnected script or semi-script writing. MARGINS- The amount of space writing on all four sides. left

MICROSOPIC EXAMINATION- Any study or examination which is made with the microscope in other to discover minute details. MOVEMENT- an important element in handwriting which embraces all the factors which are related to the motion of the writing instrument skill, speed freedom, hesitation, rhythm, emphasis, tremors and the like. NATURAL WRITINGAny specimen of writing executed normally without any attempt to control

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or alter its identifying habits and its usual quality or execution. NATURAL VARIATION- normal found between repeated individual handwriting. or usual specimens deviation of any

PEN MPHASIS- The act of intermittently forcing the pen against the paper surfaces which produces shading, out with more rigid writing points heavy point emphasis can occur in writing without any evidence of shading. PEN HOLD- The place where the writer grasps the barrel of the pen and the angle at which he holds it. PEN POSITION- relationship between the pen point and the paper. PEN PRESSURE- the average force with which the pen contacts the paper. PRINTSCRIPT- A creative combination of printing and cursive writing. PROPORTION or RATIO the relation between the tall and the short letter QUALITY- A distinct or peculiar character. Also, quality is used in describibg handwriting to refer to any identifying factor that is related to the writing movement itself. RHYTHM- The element of the writing movement which is marked by regular or periodic recurrences: maybe smooth, intermittent, or jerky in its quality; the flourishing succession

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of motion record.






SHADING- widening of the ink strokes due to the added pressure on a flexible pen point or to the use of a stub pen. SIGNIFICANNT WRITIG HABIT- Any characteristic of handwriting that is sufficiently uncommon and well fixed to serve as a fundamental point in the identification. SIMPLIFICATION- Eliminating extra or superfluous strokes from the copybook model. SIZE- the overall size of the writing or the proportions between zones. SKILL- writers proficiency; degree, ability, or skill of a write proficiency.

SLOPE/ SLANT the angle or inclination of the axis of the letters relative to the baseline: Slant to the left; Slant to the right; and Vertical Slant.

SPEED OF WRITING- The personal pace at which the writers pen moves across the paper SPEED (SPEEDY)WRITING- Can be interpreted board terms of slow, moderate, or rapid. in

SYSTEM (OF WRITING) - The combination of the basic design of letters and the writing movement as taught in school make up the writing system. See also copy book.

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TENSION- degree of exerted on the pen compared to the degree of relaxation. THREADY FORM- An indefinite connective form that looks flat and wavy. VARIABILITY- The degree to which varies from the copybook model . the writing

VARIATION- The act or process of changing. WORD SPACEwords. The amount of space left between

WRITING CONDITION- circumstances under which the writing was prepared and the factors in influencing the writers ability to write at the time of execution. It includes the writers position (sitting, standing, abed, etc.), the paper support and backing, and the writing instrument; writing ability may be modified by the condition of the writers health, nervous state or degree of intoxication. WRONG-HANDED WRITING- Any writing executed with the opposite hand that normally used; a.k.a. as with the awkward hand. WRITING IMPULSE- The result of the pen touching down on the paper and moving across the page, until it is raised from the paper. MOVEMENT IN HANDWRITING KINDS OF MOVEMENT 1 Finger Movement- The thumb, the first and second and slightly the third fingers are in actual

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motion. Most usually employed by children and illiterates. 2 Hand Movement- produced by the movement or action of the whole hand with thw wrist as the center of attraction. 3 Forearm Movement- movement of the shoulder, hand and arm with the support of the table. 4 Whole Forearm Movement- action of the entire arm without resting. i.e., blackboard writing. QUALITY OF MOVEMENT a Clumsy, illiterate and halting b Hesitating illness and painful due to weakness and

c Strong, heavy and forceful d Nervous and irregular e Smooth, flowing and rapid. SPEED 1 Slow and draw 2 Deliberate; 3 average; 4 and rapid DIFERENT MOVEMENTS EMPLOYED AFFECT WRITING 1 Smoothness; 2 Directness; 3 Uniformity;

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4 Continuity of strokes; 5 and connecting or curves between letters MOTOR COORDINATION- The special way in which the various muscles used in writing work together to produced written forms. CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTOR COORDINATION: 1 Free, smelt rounded curves 2 Gradual changes of directions 3 Pressure is always in a state of change, moving from light to heavy or from heavy to light. 4 Speed 5 The Shading impulse is distributed over a considerable length of the line whereas in writing produced with a slow motion as in the finger movement. FAULTY COORDINATION FOLLOWING: IS CHARACTERIZED BY THE

1 Wavering and very irregular line or strokes with uncertain and unsteady progress. There is no freedom of movement along the strokes of the letter-forms. 2 Angular Linea very common fault of coordination. Curves, large and small are not smoothly rounded and there is no gradual change of direction. On the contrary, and angle marks almost every change are direction in the line. RHYTHM IN connected, HANDWRITING- Rhythm is succession of uniform strokes in full coordination.

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This is manifested by clear-cut accentuated strokes which increase and decrease in which like perfect cones. LACK OF RHYTHM- Characterized by succession of awkward, independent, poorly directed and disconnected motions. IMPORTANCE OF RHYTHM- one can determine if the writer normally and spontaneously write with hesitation as if he is attempting to for another signature. LETTER OF CONNECTIONSDetermine the essential expression of the writer pattern. It is a mean indicator of the neuromuscular function. These types of connections are: Arcade- a rounded stroke shaped like an arch. It is slow mode of connection resulting from controlled movements. Garland- Links the downward stroke to the upstrokes with a flowing curve swinging from left right. It is an easy, effortless mode of connection, written with speed. Angular connective form- characterized by an abrupt stop and start in each turning point. The threadlike connective form- the joining of upward and downward strokes is slurred to a threadlike tracing or where rounded turns used at both top and bottom produce a double curve-appear both in the shaping of letters within the word. STROKE - series of lines or curves written in a single letter; one of the lines of an alphabet or

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series of lines or curves within a single letter; the path traced by the pen on the paper. TERMINOLOGIES CONCERNING STROKE CHARACTERISTICS ARCa curved formed inside the top curve of loop as in small letters h, m, n & p. ASCENDER- is the top portion of a letter or upper loop. ARCH- any arcade form in the body of a letter found in small letters which contain arches. BASELINEmaybe actually on a rules paper, it might be imaginary alignment of writing; is the ruled or imaginary line upon which the writing rests. BEARDis the rudimentary initial up stroke of a letter.

BEADEDPreliminary embellished initial stroke which usually occurs in capital letter.

BLUNTthe beginning and ending stroke of a letter (without hesitation).

BODY- the main portion of the letter, minus the initial of strokes, terminal, strokes and the

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diacritic. BOWLa fully rounded oval or circular form on a letter complete into O. BUCKLE/BUCKLEKNOTA loop made as a flourished which is added to the letters, as in small letter k & b, or in capital letter A, K, P; the horizontal end loop stroke used to complete a letter. CALLIGRAPHY- the art of beautiful writing. DIACRITICt crossing and dots of the letter I and j; an element added to complete a certain letter, either a cross bar or dot. EYE/EYELET/EYELOOP- a small loop or curved formed inside the letters inside the oval of the letters a, d, o. HABITS- any repeated elements or details, which may serve to



DESCENDERopposite of ascender, the lower portion of a letter.

ENDING/TERMINATE STROKE OF TOE- the end stroke of a letter.

FOOT- lower part which rust on the base line.

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individualize writing. HESITATIONthe irregular thickening of ink which is found when writing slows down or stop while the pen take a stock of the position. HOOKa minute curve or ankle at the end of the terminal strokes, or at the beginning of an initial stroke; the minute involuntary talon like formation found at the commencement of an initial up stroke or the end terminal stroke. KNOBthe extra deposit of ink in the initial and terminal stroke due to the slow withdrawal of the pen from the paper HIATUS/PEN JUMP- a gap occurring between a continuous stroke without lifting the pen; usually occurs due to speed; regarded also as a special form. HUMP- Upper portion of its letter m;n, k the rounded outside of the top of the bend stroke or curve in small letter.

LIGATURE/CONNECTIONThe stroke which connects two stroke of letter; characterized by connected stroke between letters.

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(usually applicable fountain pen).

to LOOP- a oblong curve such as found on the small letter f , g, l and letters stroke f has two which may be blind or open. MINUSCULEletter. a small

LONG LETTER- those letters with both upper and lower loops.

MAJUSCULEcapital letter.

MOVEMENT IMPULSESthe continuity of stroke, forged writing is usually produced by disconnected and broken movements and more motion or movement impulses than in genuine writing. PEN LIFTan interruption in a stroke caused by removing the writing instrument from the paper.

PATCHINGretouching or going back over a defective portion of a written stroke. Careful patching is comment defect on forgeries.

RETRACE/RETRACING- Any part of a stroke which is super imposed upon the original stroke; any stroke which goes back over another writing stroke.

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SHOULDEROutside portion of top curve, small letter m has three shoulders and the small letter n has two, the small letter h has one shoulder. STAFF- Any major long downward stroke of a letter that is the long downward stroke of the letter b , g. TICK/HITCHAny short stroke, which usually occurs at the top of the letters. WHIRLThe upstroke of a looping ascender.

SPUR- A short initial or terminal stroke.

STEM OR SHANK- the upright long downward stroke that is the trunk or stalk, normally seen in capital letters. TREMORA writing weakness portrayed by irregular shaky strokes is described as writing tremor


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1 AIRSTROKE- The movement of the pen as it is raised from the paper and continues in the same direction in the air. 2 COVERING STROKE- A stroke the unnecessarily covers another stroke in a concealing action. 3 FINAL- The ending stroke on a letter when it is at the end of the word. 4 UPSTROKEwriter. Movement of the pen away from the

5 SEQUENCE OF STROKE- The order in which writing strokes are placed on the paper is referred to as their sequence 6 SUPPORTED STROKES- Upstrokes partially covering the previous down strokes. Originally taught in European schools. 7 TRAIT STROKE- A school of handwriting analysis that assigns personality trait manners to individual writing strokes. QUALITIES OF THE STROKES: 1 Expansion- whether the movement is extended or limited in its range with respect to both vertical and horizontal dimension. 2 Co-ordination- whether the flow of movement is controlled or uncertain, smooth or jerky, continuous or interrupted. 3 Speed- whether the movement has been rapid or slow and whether the pace has been steady or variable.

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4 Pressure- whether the pressure exerted in the movement and its upward and downward reach. 5 Direction- Left ward and right ward trend of the movement and its upward and downward reach.

RHYTHM- in the sequence of movements that weave the total pattern, certain similar phases recur at more or less regular intervals.

HANDWRITING PROBLEMS: a A signature/handwriting contested by author which in reality is genuine corresponds perfectly to the ordinary habitual signatures of that person. its and and

b A signature/handwriting contested by its author which in reality was written by him but in a way which was different from the ordinary manner and which is more or less different from the common genuine signatures of that person. c A signature/handwriting contested by its author which in reality was written by a third person and which is a forgery written in an attempted imitation of a model. d A spurious /handwriting written by somebody who did not attempt to imitate the signature of a person and who uses a fictitious name and this to give his work the appearance of a signature. e An uncontested signature/handwriting, in fact, genuine but written by an unknown person whose name must be deciphered by the document examiner. GENERAL CLASSES OF QUESTIONED WRITING

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a Forged or simulated writings in which the attempt is made to discard one`s own writing and assume the exact writing personality of another person. b Those writing that are disguised and in which the written seeks to hide his own personality without adapting that of another. HANDWRITING FEATURES CHARACTERISTICS AND OTHER IDENTIFYING

Writing Habits- Writing by all its thousand of peculiarities in combination is the most personal and individuals thing that a man does that leaves a record which can be seen and studies. This is what constitutes individually in handwriting. Writing habits learned in the early years are those habits which are part of a basic system or which are modifications of the system of writing found among so large a group of writers that they have only sight identification value. A few of these early habits learned by the child are the slant of letters l, d, b, g, t with small letters like letters n, m, i, o, e, i, and also form and design of letters also called general or class characteristics. Individual habits: Any writing habit or character in writing maybe modified and individualized by different writers in many different ways in many varying degrees and the writing individuality of any particular writer

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is made up of all those common characteristics and habits.



Various individual characteristics in writing also grow out of the purpose for which writing is used and the amount of writing done. GENERAL (CLASS) CHARACTERISTICS- those habits are part of basic writing system or which are modifications of the system of writing found among so large a group of writes that have only slight identification value. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICSthe result of the writer`s muscular control, coordination, age, health, and nervous temperament, frequency of writing, personality and character found in the following: a Writing movement b Form and design of letters\ c Muscular control or motor control 1 Loose writingtoo much movement and lack of regulation. freedom of

2 Restrained writing- there is lack of freedom and inhibited movements. It gives you the impression that every stroke was made with great difficulty. d Motor Coordination e Shading f Skill g Alignment

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h Pen pressure i Connection j Pen hold k Rhythm l Disconnections or pen lifts between letters m Speed n Slant as a writing habit o Proportion of letters characteristic or habit as an individual

p Quality of stroke or line quality q Variation Indications of speed (speedy) writing: a Smooth, unbroken strokes and rounded forms. b Frequent signs or tendencies to the right.

Marked uncertain as to the location of the dots of small letters I, j & crosses of small letter t

d Increased spontaneity of words or small letter t connected with the following words. e Letters curtailed or degenerated almost illegibility towards the end of words. to

f Wide writing- width of letters is greater than the connecting spaces adjoining it. g Great difference in emphasis between upstrokes and down strokes.

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h Marked simplification capital letters. i Rising line. j Increased pen pressure.




k Increase in the margin to left at the beginning of the line. Indications of slow writing: a Wavering forms and broken strokes. b Frequent signs or tendencies to the left. c Conspicuous certainly as to the location of the dots of small letters I, j, or t crosses with scarcely perceptible deviation from the intended direction. d Frequent pauses by meaningless divided letters and retouches. blobs, angles,

e Careful execution of detail of letters toward the end or names. f Narrow writing. g No difference in emphasis in up stroke and down stroke. h Ornamental or flourishing connections. i Sinking lines. EXAMPLES OF COMMON CHARACTERISTICS: a Ordinary copy-book form b Usual systematic slant

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c Ordinary scale of proportion or ratio d Conventional spacing CLASSIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS: a Permanent characteristics- found always in his handwriting. b Common or usual- found in a group of writers who studied the same system of writing. c Occasionalhandwriting. found occasionally in his in a

d Rare- found only in one or two persons group of one hundred individuals. HOW INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS ARE ACQUIRED: a Outgrowth of definite teaching b Result of imitation c Accidental condition or circumstances

d Expression of certain mental and physical traits of the writer as affected by education, by environment and by occupation. EXAMPLES OF SOME OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS: a Hook to the right and hook to the left. b Shape, position, size and angle of i dots t crossing c Idiosyncrasies d Bulbs and pressure distinctive initial and final pen

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e Embellishment, added strokes and free movement endings f Abbreviation of letters g Simple and compound curves and graceful endings h Labored movement producing ragged lines i Terminal shadings and forceful endings j Presence and influence of foreign writing, with the introduction of Greek e

PRINCIPLE IN HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION When any two specimens of handwritings contain a combination of corresponding or similar and specifically oriented characteristics of such number and significance as to preclude the possibility of their occurrence by mere coincidence, and there are no unaccounted for difference, it may be concluded that they are similar in writing characteristics and therefore written by one and the same person. Handwritings are fixed habits. These writing habits become so automatic and unconscious that even by the most strenuous effort, it is almost impossible to change them. No duplication of handwriting by two individuals. FUNDAMENTAL LAW WHICH GOVERNS THE HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS CONCLUSION IN

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A signature/handwriting naturally and genuinely written under normal condition contain all of the individual habits of the writer`s signature which are put into it in a way that is consistent with his writing ability and the writing quality of his signature. A signature/handwriting is fraudulent if it contains habits, qualities or elements which are significantly different from genuine signatures written under similar conditions. CONTROLLING PRINCIPLES IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF QD It is the combination of general qualities, features and characteristics that all together serve to prove identity. One or two or possibly three might coincide in two individuals but there comes a point where common sense says it is unreasonable to say that these various things would coincide. PROBATIVE VALUE OF WRITING CHARACTERISTICS- differ greatly with different writers and under varying conditions. SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES CAN BE STATED THAT APPLY IN MOST CASES a Those identifying or differentiating characteristics are of the most force which is most divergent from the regular system or national features of a particular handwriting under examination. b Those repeated characteristics which are inconspicuous should first be sought for and should be given the most weight.

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c Ordinary system or national features and element are not alone sufficient characteristics necessarily have as evidence of identity as stated above, it present in sufficient number and in combination with individuals qualities and characteristics.

CORRECT CONCLUSION a Two writings are written by the same handcharacteristics or dents and scratches should be in sufficient quantity to exclude the theory of accidental coincidence. b Writings are by different hands, we may find numerous likeliness in class characteristics but divergences in individual characteristics or we may find divergences in both but the divergence must be something more than mere superficial differences. c If the conclusion of identifying is reached, there must not remain significant differences that cannot reasonably be explained. d Although there is no specific approach, the document examiner always observed: Analysis; Comparison; and Evaluation. POINTS TO CONSIDER IN EXAMINING EXTENDED WRITING (Anonymous, threat, poison letters): a Uniformity- Does the questioned writing have smooth, rhythmic and free-flowing appearance

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b Irregularities- Does the questioned appear awkward, ill-formed slowly drawn


c Size & Proportion- Determine the height of the over-all writing as well as the height of the individual strokes in proportion to each other. d Alignment- Are they horizontally curving, uphill or downhill. aligned, or

e Spacing- Determine the general spacing between letters, spacing between words. Width of the left and right margins, paragraph indentations. f Degree of Slant- Are they uniform or not. g Formation and Design of the letters, bars, i dots, loops, circle formation h Initial, connecting and final strokes HANDWRITING a The procedure and the principle involved similar so that of cursive handwriting. are t (-)

b In block capital and manuscript writings, personal individual rests principally in design, selection, individual letter construction, size ratios and punctuation habits. The initial step in handwriting examination is to determine whether the questioned handwriting and standards were accomplished with: A fluency of movement and a certainty of execution indicative of familiarity with and a measure of skill in handwriting of conversely.

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conscious mental effort and non-rhythmic execution denoting either unfamiliarity with or disguise in the subject`s handwriting

DISGUISES IN HANDWRITING COMMON DISGUISES (SOME) a Abnormally large writing. b Abnormally small writing. c Alteration in slant (usually backhand). d Usually variation in slant within a single unit of writing (within a single signature). KINDS OF DISGUISES a Change versa. of slantfrom right to left or vice

b Change of letter, either from cursive to block style or vice versa. c Change from cursive (conventional block from or vice versa. style) to

d Change of style from small to big or vice versa. e Deteriorating one`s handwriting. f Using the wrong hand (AMBIDEXTROUS). EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL IN HANDWRITING a PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EFFECTS. Intoxication affects the physiological being of an individual hence; the manner of handwriting is all affected.

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1 Bizarre letter forms. 2 Greatly enlarged writing. 3 Illegible forms and writing generally 4 Uneven baseline. 5 Meaningless blobs or extraneous strokes in the writing. 6 7 Inconsistency in slant of writing. Inconsistency letters. in the form of repeated

B. SIGNATURE SIGNATURE is the name of a person written by him / her in a document as a sign of acknowledgement. Or, it is a name or mark that a person puts at the end of a document to attest that he is its author or that he ratifies its contests. Microsoft Encarta Reference Library has these to say about signature: 1. Signed name 2. Signing of name 3. Distinctive characteristics SIGNIFICANT TERMS a ASSISTED SIGNATURE. See Guided Signature. b CROSS MARK. If properly witnessed, it can legally stand for signature. Ballot marks are

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also referred to as cross marks because of the common practice of marking with an X. c EVIDENTIAL SIGNATURE- a signature, signed at a particular time and place, under particular conditions, while the signer was at particular age, in a particular physical and mental condition, using particular implements, and with a particular reason and purpose for recording his name. d FRAUDULENT SIGNATURE.A forged signature; the writing of a name as a signature by someone other than the person himself, without his permission, often with some degree of imitation. e FREEHAND SIGNATURE.A fraudulent signature that was executed purely by simulation rather than by tracing the outline or a genuine signature. f GUIDED SIGNATURE. It is executed while the writer`s hand or arm is steadied in any way: such a signature authenticates a legal document provided it is shown that the writer requested the assistance; written during a serious illness or on a deathbed.

IMITATED forgery.





h MODEL SIGNATURE A genuine signature that has been used to prepare an imitated or traced forgery THEORY OF COMPARISON- The act of setting two or more signature in an inverted position to weigh their identifying significance

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A POTENTIAL PROBLEM EXISTS WITH SIGNATURES People usually have three (3) different signatures: (1) a formal one, used on important documents; (2) a routine one, used on regular correspondence; and (3) an informal one, used for jotting quick notes. Also, other circumstances affect writing such as age, arthritis, emotional distress, medication, intoxication, and corrective vision. It's difficult to tell handedness, gender, and age from unknown samples. QDE experts must consider all these things, and make an informed judgement (usually in consultation with an investigator or attorney) based on their familiarity with handwriting dynamics (e.g., appearance, laborious movements, rhythm). With impairment like arthritis, for example, the writing function may become more of a conscious than subconscious effort, making for a more complex case. However, a paraphrasing of Larry Miller's (1987) indicia drawn from a review of the forgery literature might provide useful guidelines when dealing with impaired or deliberately deceptive writing:

Line Quality

Irregular, laborious, lack of rhythm Larger, wider, inconsistent, spacing after caps



higher, different

Pen lifts

Frequent lifts off paper

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Greater than 5 degree change, other-hand slanting Heavier than usual More teardrop or egg-shaped, frequent counter clockwise formations formal signature used, often retracing strokes, foreign marks present Wider spacing between, more squared, shorter, or broken loops Wider M's and W's, more squared or wedge-shaped stokes Change in baseline habits, more downward slants from baseline Heavier dots, changes Heavier vertical t-crossings and iposition placement

Pen Pressure Circle formation


Loop formation

Stroke formation



Begin/end strokes

pressure, blobbed, position change or

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slanting THE EXAMINATION OF SIGNATURES IS CONSIDERED A SPECIALIZED BRANCH OF HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION, FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS: a It is a word most practiced by many people and therefore most fluently written. b It is a means to identify a person and have a great personal significance. c It is written with a little spelling and some other details. attention to

d It is a word written with conscious thought about the mechanics of its production and is written automatically. e It is the only word the illiterate can write with confidence. TYPES OF SIGNATURES a FORMAL (CONVENTIONAL or COPYBOOK FORM) complete correct signature for an important document such as will. b INFORMAL (CURSORY) usually for routine documents and personal correspondence. Personalized Semi-personalized c CARELESS SCRIBBLE for the mail delivery boy or the autograph collector. carrier,


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a STEP 1- Place the questioned and the standard signatures in the juxta-position or side-by-side for simultaneous viewing of the various elements and characteristics. b STEP 2 - The first element to be considered is the handwriting movement or the manner of execution (slow, deliberate, rapid, etc.). The fundamental difference existing between a genuine signature and an almost perfect forgery is in the manner of execution. c STEP 3 Second elements to examine is the quality of the line, the presence or tremors, smooth, fluent or hesitation. Defect in line quality is only appreciated when simultaneous viewing is made. d STEP 4 Examine the beginning and ending lines, they are very significant, determine whether the appearance blunt, club-shaped, tapered or/vanishing. e STEP 5 Design and structure of the letters. Determine as to roundness, smoothness, angularity and direction. Each individual has a different concept of letter design. f STEP 6 Look for the presence of retouching or patching. g STEP 7 Connecting strokes, slant, ratio, size, lateral spacing. h STEP 8 Do not rely so much in the similarity or difference of the capital letters, for theses are the often changed according to the whim of the writer.

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CHARACTERISTICS PRINCIPLES THAT SUPPLY MOST CASES: a Pen pressure b Movement c Proportion d Unusual distortion of the forms of letters. e Inconspicuous characteristics f Repeated characteristics g Characteristics written with speed INDICATION OF GENUINENESS a Carelessness b Spontaneity c Alternation of thick and think strokes d Speed e Simplification f Upright letters are interspersed with slanting letters g The upward strokes to a threadlike tracing h Rhythm i Good line quality j Variation PROCEDURE IN THE COMMON SIGNATURE PROBLEMS a Genuine Signature which the writer refuses to admit not genuine. Generally presence of

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tremors, remnants of carbon, retouching (patching) indicates forgery. Produced, the probability of genuineness b Genuine Signature Deliberately Modified discover that the modification is only on the prominent features of the letter designs that are pointed out by the disclaimer, while the rest appear to be normal. There are unnatural tremors and retouching. The minute details in genuine signatures are present.

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A. Writing Materials While an expert analyst can detect many instances of forgery, a good simulation can be undetectable. One example of a forgery the experts missed is the case of the "lost" Hitler diaries. (Although there's a good reason why they missed it.) In the 1980s, a man named Konrad Kujau, a supposed collector of Nazi memorabilia, approached a German publishing company with 60 handwritten journals purported to be written by Adolf Hitler that had, according to Kujau, just been discovered in the wreckage of an airplane that had left Germany

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after World War II. The texts seemed to be genuine, and Kujau had an apparently good reputation, so the publishing company paid $2.3 million for the lot. The diaries were immediately published in installment form in a German newspaper owned by the same publishing company, and syndication rights were sold to several international publications, including The London Times. It was The Times that requested a professional handwriting analysis to ensure authenticity. Three international experts in forensic handwriting analysis compared the diaries to exemplars that were apparently known to be written by Hitler. All agreed that the diaries were written by the same person who wrote the exemplars. The diaries were for real. It was an analysis of the ink and paper used to write the diaries that revealed them as fakes. An ultraviolet-light examination revealed that the paper contained an ingredient that wasn't used in paper until 1954. Hitler died in 1945. Further forensic tests on the ink showed it had been applied to the paper within the last 12 months. As it turns out, though, the handwriting analysis was in fact correct the person who'd written the diaries had also written the exemplars. Kujau, later found out to be an experienced con artist, had also forged the exemplars the police were using as comparison documents. The Hitler diaries debacle is an extreme case of fraud and expert forgery that spanned every stage of the analysis. And while this level of expertise is seldom found in forgeries, the fact remains that if the investigation had relied on handwriting analysis

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alone, the "lost Hitler diaries" would now be part of the history books. ANACHRONISM Anachronism is refers to a something wrong in time and in place; the forger has trouble matching the paper, ink, or writing materials to the exact date it was supposed to have been written PAPER These are sheets of interlaced fibers usually cellulose fivers from plants, but sometimes from cloth rags or other fibrous materials, that is formed by pulping the fibers and causing to felt, or mat, to form a solid surface. In one case, a document dated 1213 A.H. (A.D. 1790) was found to be written on paper composed entirely of chemically prepared wood cellulose. Considering that this type of paper was not introduced not until about 60 years later, the document is obviously a fake one. WATERMARKS Watermarks is a figure or design incorporated into paper during its manufacture and appearing lighter than the rest of the sheet when viewed in transmitted light. The earliest way of identifying the date of manufacture of the paper is by the WATERMARK a brand put on the paper by the manufactures. How watermark is made? It is made when the semi-fluid paper pulp (mixture of cotton or other fibers) was being

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drained on a grid of laid (warp) and chain (woof) wire. Fine wires forming the desired design were tied on top of the grid and impressed into the pulp. This impression made the paper thinner, and therefore, more transparent, where it appeared. Origin First appeared on papers produced in Italy around 1270, less than 100years after the art of papermaking was introduced to Europe by Muslims from the Middle East. Early in the 19th century, papermakers began to solder the watermark wires to the grid frame, thus insuring uniformity of impression and aiding in the detection of counterfeiting and forgery. The first British postage stamps of 1840 bore a watermark, but stamps of the United States were not so marked until 1895. When paper began to be machine-made, the watermark wiring was simply transferred to the grid cover of the dandy roll, a turning cylinder that passed over the paper. Concept of watermarks. document`s age detection thru

a Sometimes a LIMIT may be placed to the age of the document by means of watermark, the earknown dating from 1282. Unfortunately, not all papers contain watermarks. b It is impressed into the paper by wire on the roller called DANDY ROLL that makes the paper, and these designs are changed from time to time.

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c Usually watermarks are requested by their owners / manufacturers with the patient office. d If present, it is one of the most reliable means of tracing the age of the paper. However the questioned documents examiner`s finding is limited only to the APPROXIMATE DATE (YEAR) of the paper manufacture. e In determining the age of the paper by watermarks, it is necessary to ascertain the owner of the watermark in question or its manufacturer. f In the FBI, this is done by checking the reference file of the laboratory. One the manufacture is determine, then consideration is given to changes in design and defects of individual design.

g In recent years, some large manufacturers have cleverly incorporated inconspicuous changes in their watermark design in order to date their products. h Obviously, document is fraud if it contains a watermark which was not in existence at the time the document purports to have been executed. In cast the watermark following is applied: did not change, the

a Consider any defect in the individual design may furnish a clue as to the age of the paper.

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b The dandy roll, through constant usage, will somehow be damaged. This damage is also known as caused by WEAR AND TEAR which becomes progressively more and more as time goes by. c The damage on the dandy roll will leave some peculiar markings on the watermark of the paper manufactured. d The investigator, carefully determining the distinct markings caused by the dandy roll`s damaged surface, will coordinate will the paper manufacture regarding when such damage occurred on the dandy roll used. DISCOLORATION One way of tracing the age of the papers is through the observance of the changes in its physical characteristic particularly DISCOLORATION. Naturally, they start to discolor at edges from 2 to 3 years. While RUG-SHIP QUALITY papers, they are very old before discoloration starts. CAUSES OF DISCOLORATION a Due to process natural means. of oxidation brought about by

b Brown spots due to molds that are very obvious characteristics both in appearance and distribution. c Exposure to dust and dirt. d Occasional staining of fruit juice, grease. a Excrete of rats, mice and other insects. b May also due to heat, partial burning, etc.

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DETAILED EXAMINATION OF WRITING MATERIAL a Collect standard document from the issuing institution, company or individual and compare. Consider the physical characteristics of both questioned and standard documents such as the size, the thickness, the surface (glossiness, opacity, etc.) and the general texture of the paper. b Check with the issuing institution, company or individual about the dissimilarity of writing material used in the questioned document. c Conduct further physical or chemical examination such as folding endurance test, folding test, bursting test, etc. B. Writing Instrument HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A. REED PENS / SWAMP REED a From especially selected water grasses found in Egypt, Armenia and along the shores of the Persian Gulf, were prepared by leaving them under dung heaps for several months. b First writing tool that had the writing end slightly frayed like a brush. About 2,000 years B.C., this reed pen was first used in NEAR EAST on papyrus and later on parchment. B. QUILL PEN

Although quill pens can be made from the outer wing feather of any bird, those of goose, swan, crow, and (later) turkey, were preferred. The

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earliest reference (6th century AD) to quill pens was made by the Spanish Theologian ST. ISIDORE OF SEVILLE, and this tool was the principal writing implement for nearly 1300 years. b To make a quill pen, a wing feather is first hardened by heating or letting it dry out gradually. The hardened quill is then cut to a broad edge with a special pen knife.

The write had to re-cut the quill pen frequently to maintain its edge. By the 18th century, the width if the edge had diminished and the length of the slit had increased creating a flexible point that produced thick and think strokes by pressure on the point rather than by the angle at which the broad edge was held.



Although pens of bronze may have been known to Romans, the earliest mention of BRAZEN PENS was in 1465. The 16th century Spanish calligrapher JUAN DE YCIAR mentions brass pens for very large writing in his 1548 writing manual, but the use of metal pens did not become widespread until the early part of the 19th century.

b The first patented steel pen point was made by the English engineer: BRYAN DONKIN in 1803.

The leading 19th century English pen manufactures were WILLIAM JOSEPH GILLOT, WILLIAM MITCHELL, AND JAMES STEPHEN PERRY.


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a In 1884, LEWIS WATERMAN, a New York insurance agent, patented the first practical FOUNTAIN PEN containing its own ink reservoir. Waterman invented a mechanism that fed ink to the pen point by capillary action, allowing ink to flow evenly while writing. b By the 1920`s the fountain pen was the chief writing instrument in the west and remained so until the introduction of the ball point pen after WORLD WAR II. E. BALL POINT PEN: a JOHN LOUD, in 1888, point writing tool. patented the first ball

b The ball is set into a tiny socket. In the center of the socket is a hole that feeds ink to the socket from a long tube (reservoir) inside the pen.

As early as the 19th century, attempts had been made to manufacture a open with a rolling ball tip, but not until 1938 did Hungarian inventor brother LADISLAO and GEORGE BIRO invent a viscous, oil-based ink, that could be used with such a pen. Hence, they are attributed for the invention of the first practical ballpoint pen.

d Early ball point pens did not write well; they tended to skip, and the slow-drying oil-based ink smudged easily. Advantages of ball pen over the fountain pen are: e The ink was waterproof and almost un-erasable; f The ball point pen could write on many kinds of surfaces;

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g Could be hold writing; and






h The pressure required to feed the ink was ideal for making carbon copies. i Ink formulas were improved for smoother flow and faster drying, and soon the ball point replaced the fountain pen as the universal tool. F. FIBER TIP PENS a In 1963, fiber tip markers were introduced into the U.S. market and have since challenged the ball point as the principal writing implement. b The first practical fiber tip pen was invented by YUKIO HORIE of Japan in 1962 traditionally done with a pointed ink brush. c Unlike its predecessors, the fiber tip pen uses dye as a writing fluid. As a result, the fiber tip pen can produce a wide range of color unavailable in ball point and fountain pen inks. The tip is made of fine nylon or other synthetic fibers drawn to a point and fastened to the barrel of the pen. d Felt-tip markers are made of dense natural or artificial fibers impregnated with a dye. These markers can be cut to a variety of shapes and sizes, some up to an inch in width. A modification of the ball point pen using a liquid dye fed to a metal/plastic hall was introduced in the U.S. from Japan in 1973. COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF INKS

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a Indian Inks The oldest form of Indian ink consisted of a suspension of carbon black (soot or lampblack) in water to which glue or a vegetable gum was added. Inks of these compositions are still on the market mostly in the shape of sticks or cakes. In modern carbon ink, the glue or gum is replaced by a solution of shellac in borax or ammonia. b Log wood Inks These inks which were used extensively about a century ago, have now because of obsolete and are no longer manufactured. They were made from an aqueous extract of logwood chips and potassium chromate. These inks will be found only on old. c Iron Gallotanate Inks This ink has been used as writing for over a thousand years. Formerly it was made of a fermented infusion of gall nuts to which iron salts were added. The ink was composed of suspension of the black, almost insoluble ferric tannate. d Fountain Pen Inks These inks are regarded as a special fountain pen inks, and consisting of ordinary iron gallotannate inks with a lower iron content in most cases but with a higher dyestuff content than normal inks. This type of ink is placed on the market under the name of blue-black permanent. e Dyestuff Inks These inks are composed of aqueous solution of synthetic dyestuffs, to which a preservative and a flux are added. The writing qualities of the ink are improved by addition of substances such as glycerol, glucose or dextrin. The dark blue and black inks are

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often composed of four or more dyes because no black dyestuff of sufficient tinctorial capacity is known. f Water Resistant Writing and Drawing Inks These inks are special group of dyestuff inks. They consist of a pigment paste and a solution of shellac made soluble in water by means of borax, liquid ammonia or ammonium bicarbonate. Sometime the pigment suspension is combined with acid or basic dyestuff. g Alkaline Writing Inks These are quick drying inks which possess a ph of from 9 to about 11. They penetrate quickly through the size of the paper allowing the ink to penetrate quickly into the paper. The dyestuff in these inks consists of acid dyes, sometimes combined with phthalo cyanide dyes. These inks are not much in demand because they are rather expensive and because the material of many fountain pens is affected by them. The best known of these inks are the Parker super chrome inks which in the colors black, blue-black, blue, red and green. h Ballpoint Pen Inks did not appear one the European market before 1945. The development of the present pen was accomplished during World War II because the Army and the Air Force needed a writing instrument which would not leak at high altitude and which supplied quick drying water resistant writing. o In principle, the construction of all ballpoint pens is the same. The differences are in the finish, the precision with which the instrument is made, the size and the

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material of the ball, and the composition of the ink. o As a rule, the diameter of the ball lies between 0.6 and 1.0 mm, the cheapest makes having the largest diameter. The ball is made of steel while the more expensive makes of sapphire. o The quality of the pen is chiefly to be judged by the writing angle. The best writing angle for a ballpoint pen is 90 degrees, but a normal hand of writing seldom uses this angle. o The cheaper makes have a minimum writing angle 55-60 degrees. If one writes at too small an angle, the brass socket holding the ball will scratch a lined into the paper, parallel with ink line.

i Stamp Pad Inks They are made with the acid of substances such as glycerol, glycol, acetin or benzyl alcohol and water. Airline dyes are added as coloring matter. j Hectograph Inks These inks very much resemble stamp pad inks and are exclusively made with basic dyes. To the dyestuff solution several other substances are added such as glycerol, acetic and acetone. k Typewriter Ribbon Inks These inks are usually composed of a blend of aniline dyes, carbon black and oil such as olein or castor oil. The

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two-tone ribbons however contain no dyes, but pigments suspended in oil base. l Printing Inks Printing inks mixture of colored pigments, base which may consist synthetic resins or a mixture often consist of a carbon black and a of oil, resins, of these.

m Canceling Inks These inks often contain carbon and this fact should be burned in mind when it is required to decipher faint cancellation marks on a postage stamp and wrappers. Carbon is opaque to infra-red sensitive plate and be relied upon to improve the legibility of any marking affected by a carbon containing canceling ink. n Skrip Ink These are manufactured by W.A. Chaffer Pen Company since 1955. The inks contain a substance which is colorless in visible light and has strong affinity for the fibers of the paper, and yet is not bleached by hypochlorite ink eradicators or washed out by soaking on water. THE EXAMINATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF INK a In most cases the inks to be examined are not available in liquid form. One kind of examination centers on the question as to whether the ink of some writing or of alterations in a police blotter is identical with ink found in the possession of the suspect. b The examination of questioned documents is restricted to a comparative examination of certain properties of these inks. However the examination carries with it certain difficulties

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as the quantity of material available for examination is small and the examination can be done only one. c It is necessary then that before a chemical examination is attempted, which results in a partial destruction of writing, an exhaustive examination by non-destructive methods be carried out. d These non-destruction methods include visual examination with the aid of a binocular microscope as well as photographic examination. They should be used first before any chemical examination is resorted to. e It is necessary therefore to be acquainted with the composition and developmental history, method of manufacture of the types of ink most commonly used. Sometimes, antedating can only be proven by identifying a component of the ink, which was not yet included in inks at the alleged date of the document. THE CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF INK A. THE CHROMATOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION AND SEPARATION OF THE DYESTUFFS IN THE INK a This is restricted to a comparison of the dyestuff, in the ink but sometimes it is also possible to identify one or more of the components of the dyes. b Regarded as examination. the principal method of ink

c To identify a dyestuff, it is necessary to possess a collection as complete as possible of

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the various inks.







d The chromatographic separation of the dyes maybe carried out by paper chromatography. e Procedure: Collection of the ink material 1 Extraction of the inks stroke by scraping fragments from the ink stroke or by dissolvent such as ethanol, acetone or butanone. Pyridine is the best solvent for ball point inks. 2 It is also possible to cut a small pocket at starting line in the chromatographic paper into which the ink fragments are placed. The pocket is firmly pressed. The vessel which is a beaker or a flask is filled with the solvent; then the flittered paper strip containing the ink material is lowered into the vessel with the ends just touching the surface of the solvent and let it hang on the side of the vessel for 15-20 minutes. The chromatography should be carried out in shaded light. B. DETERMINATION OF THE AGE OF THE INK In general, in order to determine the age of writing or the difference in the ages of different writings, the document examiner makes use of a property of the ink writing which changes in the

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course of time. This selection of properties will be determined by the composition of ink and the circumstances under which the writing ages. Procedure: a. Ball Point Pen Inks a If a document has been written with a ballpoint pen, the writing in question is bound to date in all probability from a point of time later than 1945. b The analysis of ballpoint inks may important clue to the age of the ink. yield an

c The first ballpoint inks were practically without exception based on oleic acid. These inks will flow out when a drop of benzene or petroleum ether is applied to them.

Not until 1950 were these inks made on a basic polyethylene glycols, which are resistant to treatment with benzene or petroleum ether. However, the presence of oleic acid is not yet proof that the writing in question is old for oleic acid is sometimes also used in modern ballpoint inks.

e In the later case, however, the ink will as a rule not flow out with petroleum ether because these inks, no water soluble coloring matter is worked out. Instead pigments and dyestuff are used that will not dissolve in petroleum ether. f The presence of phthalocyanine dyestuff is an indication of an ink produced later than 19541956.

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g Thus it is not possible to determine the absolute age of ballpoint inks. Neither it is possible to determine the relative ages of two ballpoint ink writings, not even if they are of the same kind. The ink dries rather quickly because the base is absorbed by the paper. h Recent ballpoint writing can be offset, and efforts have been made to used the copying power for age determination. Dyestuff inks a The dyestuff inks lack properties that would permit age determination but the presence of an obsolete or modern dyestuff may indicate age of writing. b If a phthalocyanine dye is found in the ink, it would be improbable for the document to be dated prior to 1953. c Iron Gallotannate Inks These inks show a remarkable change of color in maturing. This based on the chemical change of ferrous to ferric in the course of time. d Method based on the change of the Color of the Ink useful in those cases where the ink writing received for examination is too recent that the process of maturing can be observed visually. The kind of ink must be known and one or more writing of know age must be available for comparison. e Methods based on the Solubility of the Ink The solubility of iron gallotanate ink decreases considerably as the ink matures. As with the

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color changed, it can only be applied successfully to a very recent writing. This method can establish a difference in the age of writings on one and the same document. The solubility is determined by visual estimate of the quantity of ink which can be withdrawn with a drop of water from a stroke. It is necessary however that the drop of water be applied to ink stroke of the same intensity. f Method based on the amount of ferrous iron in the ink In iron gallotannate ink, the iron is mainly present in the complex bound ferrous form. As the manufacturing process goes on, the ric gallotannate is formed. A drop of aa1dipyridyl reagent (1% of aa1-dipyridyl in 0.5N HCL (normal hydrochloric acid)) is applied to the ink stroke. The reagent is left in contact with ink for 1 minute and then recovered with a piece of filter paper. If ferrous iron is stil present in the ink, the paper will show a red zone of ferrous aa1-dipyridyl around the stain of blue dyestuff. By repeating this test daily, it is possible to check the decreases in the ferrous iron in the ink by the changes in the coloration of this red zone. However, this method is applicable when the questioned writing is not more than a few days old. g Estimation of age based on the detection of the dyes Iron gallotannate inks contain an organic dye, (soluble blue) which is oxidized or at least becomes insoluble complete or partially as the ink ages. It is claimed that the organic dye becomes completely insoluble in four to five

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years. However, the application of this method appears to yield results in practice.

CHAPTER V FORGERY, COUNTERFEITING AND FALSIFICATION A. Forgery FORGERY- Strictly speaking, a legal term which involves not only a non-genuine document but also and intent to fraud. However, it is also used synonymously with fraudulent signature or spurious document. CATEGORIES OF FORGERY A. STIMULATED OR FREEHAND IMITATION FORGERYexecuted purely by simulation rather than by tracing the outline of a genuine signature can

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be referred as freehand imitation or simulated forgery. 1 SIMULATED WITH THE MODEL BEFORE THE FORGER a DIRECT TECHNIQUE forger works directly with ink. b INDIRECT forger works first with pencil and afterwards covers the pencil strokes with ink. 2 SIMULATED FREE HAND FORGERY (TECHNIQUE)- used by forgers who have a certain skill in writing; After some practice, the forger to write a copy of the model quickly. B. TRACED FORGERY (TRACED SIGNATURE) 1 DIRECT TRACINGtransmitted light. tracing is made by

2 INDIRECT TRACING- forger uses a carbon paper and place document on which he will trace the forged signature under the document bearing the model signature with carbon paper between the two. TYPES OF TRACED SIGNATURE; 1 CARBON PROCES 2 INDENTATION PROCES 3 TRANSMITTED LIGHT PROCESS C. SPURIOUS SIGNATURE (SIMPLE FORGERY) Forger does not try to copy a model but writes something resembling what we ordinarily call a signature.

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a Tremulous and broken connecting strokes between letters. b No rhythm c Carefulness or unusual care and deliberation d No contrast between upward and downward strokes e Slow writing angular writing f Blunt beginning and endings g Placement of diacritical stem of letters. marks just over the

h Absence of spontaneity lack of smoothness of letters i Restrained writing there is lack of freedom or inhibited movements THAT gives the impression that every stroke is made with great difficulty. This writing is small. j No variation.

INDICATIONS OF SIMPLE OR SPURIOUS FORGERY Writing habits of the writer (forger) is evident in the forged signature.

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INDICATIONS OF FORGERY BY MEANS OF STAMPED FACSIMILE OF A GENUINE SIGNATURE a Flat strokes b No contrast between upstrokes and down strokes c Deposit of ink at the junction of two strokes or where two strokes cross each other. d No variation all signatures will superimpose over each other. WHAT ARE THE CRIMES CALLED FORGERIES? a Forging the seal of the government, signature or stamp of the chief Executive (161). b Counterfeiting coins (163) c Mutilation of coins (164) d Forging treasury or bank notes or other document payable to bearer (166). e Counterfeiting instruments not payable to bearer (167) f Falsification of legislative documents (172) g Falsification by public officer, employee notary or ecclesiastical minister (171) h Falsification by private individuals (172) i Falsification of wireless, cable, telegraph and telephone messages (173). j Falsification of medical certificates, certificates of merit or service (174). B. Counterfeiting or

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COUNTERFEITING It is the crime of making, circulating or uttering false coins and banknotes. Literally, it means to make a copy of; or imitate; to make a spurious WHEN IS A COIN FALSE OR COUNTERFEITED? A coin is false or counterfeited, if it is forged or if it is not authorized by the Government as legal tender, regardless of its intrinsic value. DEFINITION Import, means to bring them into port. The importation is complete before entry at the Customs House. (U.S. vs. Lyman, 26 Fed. Cas. 1024) Utter, means to pass counterfeited coins. It includes their delivery or the act of giving them away. A counterfeited coin is uttered when it is paid, when the offender is caught counting the counterfeited coins preparatory to the act of delivering them, even though the utterer may not obtain the gain he intended. Hence, damage to another is not necessary. Mutilation means to take off part of the metal either by filing it or substituting it for another metal of inferior quality.


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Together with ultraviolet light, the investigator should look at the banknote with a hand lens. He should pay particular attention to the quantity of the portrait in the bank note. This is the one extremely fine detail of a good engraved plate. The color of the ink should be compared with color of a genuine banknote. It is very difficult for counterfeiter to match exactly the same shade of ink by genuine manufacturer. COINS These are pieces of metal stamped authority, for use as money or referring to metal currency. MAKING OF COINS CASTING is the most common method of making gold coins. Plaster molds bearing an image of gold coins are filled (within a low temperature) with alloy made with lead or tin. Some molds are used for high temperature metal such as copper or silver alloy STRIKING OR STAMPING is the making of an impression of a coin or metal blank by pressure. CHARACTERISTICS Genuine grains coins show an even flow of metallic by government collectively

Counterfeit coins feel greasy & appear slimy. The beading composed of tiny round dots surrounding the genuine coin appear irregular &

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elongated depressions & are not sharp & prominent as in the genuine. The letterings & numerals are low & worn out due to the lack of sharpness of details. The readings are uneven & shown signs of filing.

COUNTERFEIT METAL MONEY OR COIN Coin made of gold was to widely use but are not now often see. Government kept their gold in the form of heavy bars called bullions and then issue papers for the value of gold. Metal coins issued nowadays are mostly in amount for less than its face value. In most countries, the possessions of gold coins are now forbidden except for coin collectors. EXAMINATION OF examined by: COUNTERFEIT COINS should be

a A magnifying lens b Comparing it with a know coin DEFECTS IN CAST COIN ARE USUALLY CAUSED BY: a Formation of air bubbles, or b Removal of small parts of the sole along with the coin. The best place to examine a counterfeit coin is on the edge since there are usually special milling marks or designs which are added to a genuine coin by machinery. COUNTERFEIT PASSPORT

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Passports are rarely counterfeit, because they are quite complicated in design and manufacture. The most usual method of forgery is to steal a genuine passport and make change in it. Many safety features are incorporated in passport and are easily detected by close inspection. Ultraviolet light is very useful in this type of examination. The investigator should look particularly at the photograph in any passport as identification card. This is always necessary because sometimes forgers remove and change or substitute the picture. Hence, the position of perforation caused by staples and another pasting device should be studied carefully.

C. Falsification

ACTS OF FALSIFICATION (Art. 171 & 172) Counterfeiting or imitating signature or rubric; any handwriting,

Causing it to appear that persons have participated in any act or proceeding when they did not in fact so participate; Attributing to persons who have participated in act or proceeding statements other than those in fact made by them; Making untruthful statements in a narration of facts;

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Altering true dates;

Making any alteration or intercalation genuine document which changes its meaning;


Issuing in an authenticated form a document purporting to be a copy of an original document when no such original exists, or including in such copy a statement contrary to, or different from, that of the genuine original; or Intercalating any instrument or note relative to the issuance thereof in a protocol, registry or official book.

DOCUMENTS MAY BE SIMULATED OR FABRICATED. a In falsification of public document, the falsification need not be made on an official form. It is sufficient that the document is given the appearance of, or made to appear similar to, the official form. (People vs. Tupasi, C.A., G.R. No. 290-292, March 22, 1937). b The simulation of public, official or mercantile document is also contemplated in falsification of those documents (People vs. David, C.A., G.R. No. 44368, Nov.27, 1936)