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COMPUTERS & INFORMATION PROCESSING

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS DESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTED DESCRIBE STORAGE MEDIA DESCRIBE INPUT, OUTPUT, PROCESSING, MULTIMEDIA *

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
CONTRAST

MAINFRAME, MIDRANGE, PERSONAL COMPUTERS, SUPER COMPUTERS COMPARE ARRANGEMENTS OF COMPUTER PROCESSING: CLIENT/SERVER, NETWORK COMPARE INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES ANALYZE TRENDS *

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MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
WHAT

IS A COMPUTER SYSTEM?: CPU AND PRIMARY STORAGE SECONDARY STORAGE INPUT & OUTPUT DEVICES TECHNOLOGY TRENDS *

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COMPUTER COMPONENTS
CPU INPUT DEVICE S OUTPUT DEVICE S
PRIMARY STORAGE 6/13/12 SECONDARY STORAGE

BUSES
COMMUNICATION S DEVICES

HOW CHARACTERS ARE STORED


BIT: Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not BYTE: Group of bits for one character EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 bits per byte) ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Exchange (7 or 8 bits per byte) PARITY BIT: extra bit added to each byte

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EXAMPLES OF BYTES
EBCDIC ASCII C: (assume even-parity 1 1100 0011 0 100 0011 system) A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0 T: 1110 0011 1 101 0100 1 Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number *
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CPU & PRIMARY STORAGE


CPU
PRIMARY STORAGE

DATA BUS ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS


OUTPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE 6/13/12

INPUT DEVICES

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)


CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETIC/LOGI C UNIT

ROM

CLOC K

RA M

PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY


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ALU & CONTROL UNIT


ARITHMETIC-

LOGIC UNIT: CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations CONTROL UNIT: CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system *

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INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE


I-CYCLE: 1. FETCH 2. DECODE 3. PLACE IN INSTRUCTION REGISTER 4. PLACE INTO ADDRESS REGISTER *

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INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE


E-CYCLE: 5. SEND DATA FROM MAIN MEMORY TO STORAGE REGISTER 6. COMMAND ALU 7. ALU PERFORMS OPERATION 8. SEND RESULT TO ACCUMULATOR *

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COMPUTER TIME
NAME SECOND Millisecond Microsecond Nanosecond Picosecond LENGTH .001 second .001 millisecond .001microsecond .001 nanosecond # PER SECOND COMPARED TO 1

thousand 15min 40 sec million 11.6 days billion 31.7 years trillion 31,700 years

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TYPES OF MEMORY
RAM:

Random Access Memory

Dynamic: Changes thru processing Static: Remains constant (power on)

ROM:

Read Only Memory (preprogrammed)


PROM: Program can be changed once EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light EEPROM: Electrically erasable

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ADDRESSES IN MEMORY
Each location has an ADDRESS Each location can hold one BYTE
101 201 301 102 202 302 103 203 303
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MEMORY SIZE
KILOBYTE

bytes MEGABYTE (MB): 210 KB... million bytes GIGABYTE (GB): 210 MB... billion bytes TERABYTE (TB): 210 GB... trillion bytes *

(KT):

210 bytes... 1024

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MICROPROCESSOR
VLSI CIRCUIT WITH CPU
WORD LENGTH: bits processed at one time MEGAHERTZ: one million cycles per second DATA BUS WIDTH: bits moved between CPU & other devices REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING (RISC): embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speed MultiMedia eXtension (MMX): enhanced Intel chip improves multimedia applications *

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SECONDARY STORAGE
DISK TAPE

OPTICAL

STORAGE *

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DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE


HARD

DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC *

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DISK PACK STORAGE


LARGE SYSTEMS RELIABLE STORAGE LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE TYPICAL: 11 2-sided disks CYLINDER: Same track all surfaces *

DISK 1 READ/WRIT DISK E 2 HEADS DISK 3 DISK 4 CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK DISK) 5 6/13/12

TRACKS AND SECTORS


EACH TRACK HOLDS SAME AMOUNT OF DATA

TRA CKS

START OF TRACKS SECTO R

DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0 6/13/12

OPTICAL STORAGE

CD-ROM: 500-660 MEGABYTES


LAND: flat parts of disk surface reflects light PITS: small scratch on surface scatters light

WRITE

ONCE / READ MANY (WORM):

CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable CD-RW: CD - Rewritable

DIGITAL

VIDEO DISK (DVD): CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data *

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MAGNETIC TAPE
FOR SEQUENTIAL FILES SPOOL OF PLASTIC TAPE COVERED WITH FERROUS OXIDE (2400 feet per spool) RECORD GROUPS: BLOCKING FACTOR (e.g., 10 records per block) GROUPS SEPARATED BY INTER-BLOCK GAP RECORDS READ BLOCK AT A TIME *
STANDARD

HEADER

IBG

BLOCK 1

BLOCK 2

BLOCK 3

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MAGNETIC CARTRIDGE

ENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPE USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS INEXPENSIVE STORED IN SAFE LOCATION CAN BE REUSED *

STORAGE AREA NETWORK (SAN)


HIGH-SPEED

NETWORK CONNECTS VARIOUS STORAGE DEVICES


TAPE LIBRARIES DISK ARRAYS

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INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES
POINTING DEVICES SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION OUTPUT DEVICES *

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POINTING DEVICES
KEYBOARD MOUSE

WIRED INFRA-RED TRACKBALL TOUCH PAD JOYSTICK TOUCH SCREEN

*
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SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION


CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORM AT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR): saves characters, format BAR CODE: identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipments MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR): special ink identifies bank, account, amount *
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SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION


PEN-BASED

INPUT: Digitizes signature DIGITAL SCANNER: Translates images & characters into digital form VOICE INPUT DEVICES: Converts spoken word into digital form SENSORS: Devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges) *

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OUTPUT DEVICES
CATHODE PRINTER PLOTTER VOICE

RAY TUBE (CRT)

OUTPUT DEVICE MULTIMEDIA *

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DATA PROCESSING
BATCH

PROCESSING: Transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions. ON-LINE PROCESSING: Transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices. *

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BATCH PROCESSING
BATCH OF TRANSACTIONS SORTED TRANSACTION FILE VALIDATE AND UPDATE ERROR REPORTS KEYBOARD INPUT

OLD MASTER FILE

REPORTS

NEW MASTER FILE


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ON-LINE PROCESSING
TRANSACTIONS PROCESS / UPDATE MASTER FILE IMMEDIATE PROCESSING

KEYBOARD

MASTER FILE

IMMEDIATE INPUT

IMMEDIATE FILE UPDATE


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INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA
INTEGRATES

TWO OR MORE MEDIA TEXT, GRAPHICS, SOUND, VOICE, VIDEO, ANIMATION STREAMING TECHNOLOGY MP3: Audio compression standard *

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CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS
MAINFRAME MIDRANGE SERVER PERSONAL

& MINICOMPUTER

COMPUTER (PC) WORKSTATION SUPERCOMPUTER *

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MAINFRAME
5O

MIPS: Millions of Instructions per second LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER

MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS MASSIVE DATA COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS *

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MIDRANGE/MINICOMPUTER
MIDDLE-RANGE 10

MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME *

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MICROCOMPUTER
DESKTOP

OR PORTABLE 64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS AFFORDABLE MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS CAN BE NETWORKED *

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CLIENT / SERVER
NETWORKED

COMPUTERS CLIENT: user (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application, communications it does not have SERVER: component (computer) having desired data, application, communications *

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CLIENT / SERVER
CLIENT SERVER REQUESTS DATA, SERVICE USER INTERFACE APPLICATION FUNCTION DATA APPLICATION FUNCTION NETWORK RESOURCES
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WORKSTATION
DESKTOP

COMPUTER POWERFUL GRAPHICS EXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIES MULTI-TASKING USUALLY CONFIGURED TO SPECIAL FUNCTION (e.g.; CAD, ENGINEERING, GRAPHICS) *

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SUPERCOMPUTER
TERAFLOP: TRILLION CALCULATIONS/SECOND
HIGHLY

SOPHISTICATED COMPLEX COMPUTATIONS FASTEST CPUs LARGE SIMULATIONS STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS EXPENSIVE *

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CENTRALIZED / DISTRIBUTED
CENTRALIZED:

PROCESSING BY CENTRAL COMPUTER SITE


ONE STANDARD GREATER CONTROL

DISTRIBUTED:

PROCESSING BY SEVERAL COMPUTER SITES LINKED BY NETWORKS


MORE FLEXIBILITY FASTER RESPONSE

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DOWNSIZING
TRANSFER APPLICATIONS FROM LARGE COMPUTERS TO SMALL REDUCES COST SPEEDS RESULTS TO USER COMPUTER ASSIGNED TASK IT DOES BEST COOPERATIVE PROCESSING *

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NETWORK COMPUTERS
NETWORK

COMPUTER: simplified desktop computer stores minimum data to function (uses server) TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO): total cost of owning technology resources (hardware, software, upgrades, maintenance, technical support, training) *

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TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
INTERACTIVE

MULTIMEDIA VIRTUAL REALITY ENHANCED WORLD WIDE WEB SUPERCHIPS FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS MASSIVELY PARALLEL COMPUTERS SMART CARDS MICROMINIATURIZATION *
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Connect to the INTERNET


Laudon/Laudon Web site: http://www.prenhall.com/laudon Additional Internet Resources related to this chapter: http://www.intel.com http://www.dell.com http://www.apple.com http://www.ibm.com http://www.sun.com http://www.cisco.com http://www.motorola.com
2001 Laudon & Laudon, Essentials of Management Information Systems 4/e

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