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1. Teaching: Nature, Objective, Characteristics and Basic Requirements Teaching is a social process in which teacher influences less experienced pupil behaviour of the and helps him develop according to the needs of the society. The teaching aptitude means an interest in the teaching work orientation, implementing teaching principles and methods. Under the gamut of teaching aptitude, teaching skiu occupies a major place. Every student is a different entity from the viewpoint of his inteuigence, aptitude and interest. Under a particular situation, different students may have different perceptions, actions and reactions to a given issue/subject. Effecting coordination among them could be a very difficult task for a teacher and is put to test only on such occasions. The aptitude of a teacher about a situation is the decisive one and the entire process of teaching is based on this. His aptitude can be measured by learning about his discretionary ability in the context of the fouowing methods/parameters. Fulfiuing the needs of highly inteuigent students. Motivation and their apropriate use. Creation of problems related to discipline: identification of these reasons and their elimination. Teaching is an art and science as weu. It caus for exercise of talent and creativity. It is a professional activity involving teacher and student with a view to the development of the student. Teaching is a system of actions varied in form and related with content and pupil behaviour under the prevailing physical and social conditions. Teaching can be analysed, and assessed and this analysis and assessment provide a feedback for the improvement of the students. It is highly dominated by the communication skius. Teaching may have various forms as formal, informal, directional, instructional, training, conditioning, talking, showing etc. A good meaning of teaching should : (a) Teu whether teaching is a process or product; (b) Clearly indicates its constitutional factors; (c) Reveal objectives and (d) Say something about its organisational and structural aspect. Definition for TEACHING Smith (1947) considered teaching as a tripolar process involving (i) agent or source producing learning which may be human or material; (ii) a goal or target to be achieved; (iii) the intervening variables consisting of learning or teaching situation; involving human or physical conditions and instructional methods. Amidon (1967) considered/teaching as a process of interaction between the teacher and the taught as a cooperative enterprise, as a two-way traffic. Clarke broadened the scope of teaching and included au those organised activities that may result in modifying the behaviour of the learner. Nature and Characteristics of Teaching 1. The main character of teaching is to provide guidance and training. 2. Teaching is interaction between teacher and students. 3. Teaching is an art to give knowledge to students with effective way. 4. Teaching is a science to educate fact and causes of different topics of different subjects. 5. Teaching is continues process. 6. Teacher can teach effectively, if he has fuu confidence on the subject. 7. Teaching encourages students to learn more and more. 8. Teaching is formal as weu as informal. 9. Teaching is communication of information to students. In teaching, teacher imparts information in interesting way so that students can easily understand the information. 10. Teaching is tool to help student to adjust himself in society and its environment. Objectives of Teaching The most remarkable objectives of teaching are I. Au Round Development of a Learner: The prime objective of teaching is the au round development of the learner that includes his physical, mental and spiritual or moral development. This objective is the basis of Gandhiji's idea of basic education. 2. Behaviour change: The education should be imparted to a learner in such a way that it reflects the attitude, behaviour and personality of the learner.
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3. Development of Adjustment The manner of teaching should be such that it makes the pupils feel at home in his class room. The teacher has to ensure that the learner is well adjusted to the environment which includes his classmates, school mates and other members of his society at large. 4. Learner's Mental Ability The teacher should take into account the mental ability of the pupils while teaching. This will enable the teacher to make himself more communicative with his students and in turn the students will have a better understanding of what is being taught to them. S. Transmission of Knowledge The process of teaching should ensure that the knowledge is transmitted from the teacher to the pupil. For achieving this objective, the teaching need to be very communicative and the process of teaching should ensure the pupil participation in it. The more the pupil are encouraged to interact with the teacher, the more the chances of transmission of knowledge. 6. Assimilation of Lessons Teaching does not stop at delivering lectures and giving home tasks to the students. It has to be responsible for the assimilation of what is taught to the students. The manner of teaching should be pleasant enough to make the students grasp whatever they are taught. 7. Friendly Environment One of the primary objectives of teaching is to make the environment of the place of teaching more friendly and conducive to learning. His all attention should remain focused to the teaching and he, should not get irritated with the non-conducive atmosphere of the class room. BASIC REQUIREMENTS of Teaching Basic requirements of teaching include, I. The Teacher: The teacher is an innovator of information and knowledge. He is the creater and transmitter of knowledge, values and ethos to our youngsters for latters physical, mental, emotional and social development. In the process of teaching-learning, the teacher is the main vehicle, and he knows what is right and what is wrong in the society. The teacher masters over his subject and uses an effective language for the communication in order to bring a positive change in the behaviour of the learner. Since, it is the age of science and technology, the teacher ought to have a sound knowledge of science and technology. He should therefore use the latest means of media communication in the process of teaching. II. The Learner: The learner is a dependent one and immature. He has to cooperate in the teaching-learning process with the teacher and try to get as much information and knowledge as possible from him. He must follow the teacher for understanding and getting knowledge. The learners may be categorised as the students of primary schools, elementary schools, secondary schools, senior secondary schools, colleges or universities. III. The Subject (Topic): The subject is the main concern in the whole endeavour of teaching and learning process. The topic is generauy decided by the teacher but the learner can also contribute in deciding a topic, so that, a balanced and harmonious development takes place. It is for the teacher to prepare necessary charts, maps, tables and models that pertain to the decided topic. Media based technological and scientific aids may also be made available by the teacher to make the teaching more interesting and understandable. IV. The Environment: The leamer's growth and all round development are the main objectives of teaching. This is possible only when there is a suitable environment for the teaching-learning process. The teacher as such creates such environment and nurtures the' learner in that environment. Learners are not passive objects. For long, the child or the learner was viewed as a natural or given category. This undermined the importance of the fact that the development of the learner is intimately linked to changes in the sociocultural and historical conditions in a given society. Steps of Teaching In order to make teaching an effective process one needs to follow certain steps. These steps are so important that these cannot be removed from the process of teaching. If a teacher deviates from these steps, the outcome of the teaching may be biased. 1. Planning Without a plan one can not proceed in a resolution. In the teaching-learning process also a teacher has to make a plan according to the strength of the students, the locality of the school the environmental conditions of the school and the contents and the subjects he is going to teach. He has to take into consideration the language that he finds suitable for teaching. The planning includes the gradation of students, as to how many are present in the class, how many are absent, how many are high achieving and how many mediocres. The teacher has to plan for the arrangement of teaching aids like maps, charts, models, overhead projector etc. 2. Preparation During the preparation stage, the teacher has to follow the subject or topic systematically. As the present times are times of science and technology, the presentation mustl also be scientific in nature for which the teacher may need overhead projectors, slides TV and video tapes etc. for making his presentation more effective and understandable. 3. Presentation: After preparation, the teacher is prepared to present the topic in the class to the fuu satisfaction of students and the observer who is there to watch his presentation. 4. Comparison Comparison is an important characteristic of teaching. It allows a second chance, to all the three participants, the teacher, the learner and the observer to arrange one more programme of teaching-learning in order to remove, any shortcomings found in the first attempt.
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The plasma membrane encloses the cell, defines its boundaries, and maintains the essential differences between the cytosol and the extracellular environment. Ion gradients across membranes, established by specialized membrane proteins, can be used to ATP synthesis, to drive the transmembrane movement of solutes, or, in nerve and muscle cells, to produce and transmit electrical signals. In all cells the plasma membrane also contains proteins that act as sensors, allowing the cell to change its behavior in response to environmental cues; these protein sensors, or receptors, transfer information rather than ions or molecules across the membrane. In spite of their differing functions, all biological membranes have a common structure: each is a very thin film of lipid and protein molecules, held together mainly by noncovalent interactions. Cell membranes are dynamic, fluid structures, and the lipid molecules are arranged as a continuous double layer (5 nm thick). Actually the lipid bilayer provides the basic structure of the membrane and serves as a impermeable barrier to the passage of most water-soluble molecules. Protein molecules "dissolved" in the lipid bilayer mediate the other functions such as transporting specific molecules across it or catalyzing membrane-associated reactions, such as ATP synthesis.

In the plasma membrane some proteins serve as structural links that connect the membrane to the cytoskeleton and/or to either the extracellular matrix or an adjacent cell, while others serve as receptors to detect and transduce chemical signals in the cell's environment. All cell membranes are asymmetrical structures (not symmetric or same), i.e. the lipid and protein compositions of the outside and inside differ from one another.


The bilayer structure is attributable to the special properties of the lipid molecules and their spontaneous assembly into bilayers even in simple artificial conditions. Lipid molecules are water insoluble but soluble in organic solvents. They constitute about 50% of the mass of most animal cell membranes, nearly all of the remainder being protein (approx. 5 106 lipid molecules in a 1 m 1 m area of lipid bilayer) All of the lipid molecules in cell membranes are amphipathic, they have a hydrophilic (polar) end and a hydrophobic (nonpolar) end. The most abundant are the phospholipids. These have a polar head group and two hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. The tails are usually fatty acids, and they can differ in length (between 14 and 24 carbon atoms). One tail usually has one or more cis-double bonds (that is, it is unsaturated), while the other tail does not (that is, it is saturated). Differences in the length and saturation of the fatty acid tails are important because they influence the ability of phospholipid molecules to pack against one another, and for this reason they affect the fluidity of the membrane. It is the shape and amphipathic nature of the lipid molecules that cause them to form bilayers spontaneously in aqueous solution.
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When lipid molecules are dissolved in water (or surrounded by water molecules), they tend to aggregate so that their hydrophobic tails are buried in the interior and their hydrophilic heads are exposed to water. Depending on their shape, they can form spherical micelles, with the tails inward, or they can form bimolecular sheets, or bilayers, with the hydrophobic tails sandwiched between the hydrophilic head groups. Moreover, these lipid bilayers tend to close on themselves to form sealed compartments, thereby eliminating free edges where the hydrophobic tails would be in contact with water. For the same reason compartments formed by lipid bilayers tend to reseal when they are torn (self-sealing property). Initial work on lipid membranes came from studies of synthetic lipid bilayers. Two types of synthetic bilayers have been very useful in experimental studies: (1) bilayers made in the form of spherical vesicles, called liposomes and (2) planar bilayers, called black membranes, formed across a hole in a partition between two aqueous compartments Various techniques have been used to measure the motion of individual lipid molecules and their different parts. One such method, for example, whose polar head group carries a spin label such as a nitroxyl group (>N-O); this contains an unpaired electron whose spin creates a paramagnetic signal that can be detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The motion and orientation of a spin-labeled lipid in a bilayer can be deduced from the ESR spectrum and that show, phospholipid molecules in synthetic bilayers very rarely migrate from the monolayer on one side to that on the other (flip-flop). On the other hand, lipid molecules readily exchange places with their neighbors within a monolayer (~107 times a second). This gives rise to a rapid lateral diffusion, with a diffusion coefficient (D) of about 10-8 cm2/sec, which means that an average lipid molecule diffuses the length of a large bacterial cell (~2 m) in about 1 second. Similar studies of isolated biological membranes of mycoplasmas, bacteria, and nonnucleated red blood cells are shown similar results. The fluidity of a lipid bilayer depends on both its composition and temperature. A synthetic bilayer made from a single type of phospholipid changes from a liquid state to a rigid crystalline (or gel) state at a characteristic freezing point. This change of state is called a phase transition, and the temperature at which it occurs is lower (that is, the membrane becomes more difficult to freeze) if the hydrocarbon chains are short or have double bonds. A shorter chain length reduces the tendency of the hydrocarbon tails to interact with one another, and cis-double bonds produce kinks in the hydrocarbon chains that make them more difficult to pack together, so that the membrane remains fluid at lower temperatures. Microorganisms whose temperatures fluctuate with that of their environment adjust the fatty acid composition of their membrane lipids so as to maintain a relatively constant fluidity; as the temperature falls, for instance, fatty acids with more cis-double bonds are synthesized, so that the decrease in bilayer fluidity that would otherwise result from the drop in temperature is avoided. The lipid bilayer of many cell membranes is not composed exclusively of phospholipids, however; it often also contains cholesterol and glycolipids. Eukaryotic plasma membranes contain especially large amounts of cholesterol and enhance the permeability-barrier properties of the lipid bilayer. The lipid compositions of several biological membranes are compared in Table. Lipid Liver Plasma membrane
17 7 4 24 19 7 22

% of Total Lipid By Weight Myelin Mitochondrion RBC Plasma (inner & membrane outer membranes)
23 18 7 17 18 8 13 22 15 9 10 8 28 8 3 35 2 39 0 Trace 21


E. Coli

Cholesterol Phosphatidyl ethanolamine Phospotidyl serine Phospotidyl Choline Sphingomyelin Glycolipids Others

6 17 5 40 5 Trace 27

0 70 Trace 0 0 0 30

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E. Microbial Physiology:
1. A bacteria growing exponentially with doubling rate of 10 minutes. The intrinsic rate of growth would be maximum when bacterial numbers are a. at carrying capacity b. half of carrying capacity c. start of log phase d. remains constant at all phases 2. Nutritional medium was supplied to growing bacteria. If whole nutrient get depleted in 20 cycles, then stage at which the amount of nutrient was half used a. At end of 10 cycle b. At beginning of 19 cycle c. At end of 19 cycle d. At end of 11 cycle 3. If a bacteria doubles itself in 5 minutes. What would be number of bacteria at end of 20 minutes if you start with 4 bacteria a.48 b. 32 c. 64 d. 16 4. It has been observed the bacteria secrete a toxin at high population density to check the population size. This phenomenon is termed as a. Qu0urem sensing b. Population control c. Allelopathy d. Inter specific Competition 5. The correct graphical representation of a bacteria growing exponentially under depleting nutrient condition is [CSIR 2006 Dec] 9. Bacteria divide by a. Binary fission b. Mitosis c. Fragmentation d. Meiosis 10. Exponential growth in bacteria would be expected during a. lag phase b. log phase c. Stationary phase d. Deceleration phase 11. Under which phase of bacterial growth bacteria increases in size but do not divide a. Lag b. Log c. Stationary phase d. Death phase 12. On exposure to desiccation, which of the following bacteria are least likely to experience rapid water loss 6. If two bacterial culture are growing exponentially with different in their intrinsic rate of growth. The difference in population of both will differ a. Isolated rods b. Rods in chain c. Cocci in chain d. Cocci in ciusters a. Increase linearly b. Decrease linearly c. Increase exponentially d. Decrease exponentially 7. A bacterial population become half after one minute, the reduction in population depends on population at time t, what would the remaining population after 2 min of original population a. b. c. 1/8 d. 1/16 8. Which equation best describes the bacterial population growth

A Answers 1 c 2c 3c 4d 5b 6c 7d 8b 9b 10c 11c 12a 13a 14b 15c 16c 17a 18c 19a 20c 21a 22d 23b 24d 25c 26c 27a 28b 29c 30c B Answers 1 c 2b 3b 4b 5b 6a 7c 8a 9b 10c 11a 12c 13a 14d 15c 16c 17b 18c 19c 20d 21a 22d 23a 24d 25a 26b 27c 28a 29b 30a 31a 32b 33b 34d 35a 36b 37c C Answers 1 a 2d 3b 4b 5b 6c 7d 8a 9d 10a 11a 12b 13b 14b 15a 16b 17d 18b 19b 20b 21c 22a 23a 24c 25a 26c 27d 28c 29a 30c D Answers 1 d 2b 3b 4a 5a 6d 7a 8a 9b 10a 11a 12b 13a 14c 15a 16a 17c 18b 19a 20b 21a 22c 23a 24b 25b 26b 27d 28a 29b 30a 31a 32d E Answers 1 b 2c 3c 4a 5c 6c 7a 8a 9a 10b 11a 12d

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Final Test 1
SCHEME OF THE TEST Paper I and II: Paper I & II contains 60 and 50 questions each questions, respectively. A candidate shall be required to answer a maximum number of questions. All questions shall be of two marks each. Paper III: Part III will consist of 10 questions (in depth questions). The candidate is required to answer all questions. All questions shall be of two marks each. The answers to these multiple choice questions have to be marked (). There will be no negative marking for wrong answer. Note: This is not actual model paper of APSET. Please go through New Scheme. Good Luck Paper I
1. Which of the following comprise teaching skill ? (A) Black Board writing (B) Questioning (C) Explaining (D) All the above 2. Which of the following statements is most appropriate? (A) Teachers can teach. (B) Teachers help can create in a student a desire to learn. (C) Lecture Method can be used for developing thinking. (D) Teachers are born. 3. The first Indian chronicler of Indian history was: (A) Megasthanese (B) Fahiyan (C) Huan Tsang (D) Kalhan 4. Which of the following statements is correct? (A) Syllabus is a part of curriculum. (B) Syllabus is an annexure to curriculum. (C) Curriculum is the same in all educational institutions affiliated to a particular university. (D) Syllabus is not the same in all educational institutions affiliated to a particular university. 5. Which of the two given options is of the level of understanding? (I) Define noun. (II) Define noun in your own words. (A) Only I (B) Only II (C) Both I and II (D) Neither I nor II 6. Which of the following options are the main tasks of research in modern society ? (I) to keep pace with the advancement in knowledge. (II) to discover new things. (III) to write a critique on the earlier writings. 8. What do you consider as the main aim of inter disciplinary research? (A) To bring out holistic approach to research. (B) To reduce. the emphasis of single subject in research domain. (C) To over simplify the problem of research. (D) To create a new trend in research methodology 9. One of the aims of the scientific method in research is to (A) improve data interpretation (B) eliminate spurious relations (IV) to systematically examine and. Critically analyse the investigations/sources with objectivity. (A) IV, II and I (B) I, II and III (C) I and III (D) II. III and IV 7. Match List-I (Interviews) with List-II (Meaning) and select the correct answer from the code given below:

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