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. 2011 http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm

R. Kalaivani Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, India V. Kamaraj Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering SSN College of Engineering, Chennai, India E-mail: sridhar_kalaivani@yahoo.co.in Tel: 9884746914; Fax: 914427156640 Abstract Voltage instability problems increasing day by day because of demand increase. It is very important to analyze the power system with respect to voltage stability. This paper investigates the voltage stability analysis of IEEE 6BUS, 9BUS and 14BUS systems using SVC, STATCOM and UPFC devices. The system's reactive power handling capacity can be improved using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices. Voltage instability and voltage collapse can be prevented by using shunt FACTS devices. In this paper, the effects of FACTS controllers on voltage stability improvement will be studied. The objective of this paper is to keep the power system to remain in voltage stable condition when it experiences a load change and contingency. Continuation Power Flow analysis is done with Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) software.

Keywords: Voltage stability analysis, Voltage collapse, FACTS, SVC,STATCOM, UPFC, Continuation power flow, PSAT.

1. Introduction

Due to increase in demand, the transmission system becomes more stressed, which in turn, makes the system more vulnerable to voltage instability. Voltage stability has become an increasingly important phenomenon in the operation and planning of the present day power systems. Voltage collapse is a process in which the appearance of sequential events together with the voltage instability in a large area of system can lead to the case of unacceptable low voltage condition in the network. Load increasing can lead to excessive demand of reactive power, system will show voltage instability. If additional resources provide sufficient reactive power support, the system will be established in a stable voltage level. If there are not sufficient reactive power resources and the excessive demand of reactive power can lead to voltage collapse. A number of methods for voltage stability analysis have been suggested such as P-V curves, VQ curves, Modal analysis etc. A number of voltage stability indices such as Voltage Collapse Proximity Indicator (VCPI), the minimum singular value of power flow Jacobian matrix, the loading margin, minimum eigen value of reduced Jacobian Matrix have been proposed in the literature to estimate the proximity of the power system to voltage stability and voltage collapse. The application of

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PV curves is to evaluate the voltage stability of a power system for various loading conditions and contingencies. FACTS controllers are used to enhance power system performance. These controllers can reduce electrical distances, modify power flows, and absorb or provide reactive power. It increases all types of stability of the system. FACTS controllers provide fast and reliable control over the three main transmission parameters, i.e. voltage magnitude, phase angle and line impedance. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) plays important role in improving voltage stability compared to Static Var Compensator (SVC) and Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM).

2. Previous Research

Among several examples of voltage collapse, the 1987 occurrence in Japan was due to sudden large load increase, i.e. a demand disturbance, while the voltage collapse occurred in Israel in 1995 was caused by a contingency, i.e. an event disturbance and recent and worst North American power interruptions on August14th, 2003. Arthit Sode-Yome, and Nadarajah Mithulananthan (2005) investigate voltage stability assessment with appropriate representations of STATCOM, TCSC and SSSC. AC and DC representations of STATCOM, TCSC and SSSC are used in the continuation power flow process in static voltage stability study. Static voltage stability margin enhancement using STATCOM, TCSC and SSSC is compared in the modified IEEE 14-bus test system. Azemi, Vahidinasab and Mosallanejad (2006) investigate the effects of two FACTS controllers, STATCOM and UPFC, on voltage stability. Continuation Power Flow (CPF), with accurate model of these controllers, is used for this study. Applying saddle node bifurcation theory with the use of Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT), the optimal location of these controllers is determined. The study has been carried out on the 6-bus and IEEE 14-Bus Test Systems and results are presented. Bekri and Fellah (2011) investigate voltage stability assessment with appropriate representation of SVC and TCSC in the IEEE 6-bus system. Continuation power flow analysis, with accurate model of these controllers, is used for this study. The effects of these controllers on voltage stability are examined. It is found that these controllers significantly increase the loading parameter of power systems. Perez, Messina and Fuerte-Esquivel examine the co-ordinated application of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) technology to extend steady- state voltage stability margins in electric power system. A systematic analytical methodology based on the concept of modal analysis of the modified load flow equations and the study of controllability and observability characteristics of the equivalent state model is used to identify system areas prone to voltage instability, as well as to determine the most effective locations for placement of FACTS controllers. Results obtained using a practical system representative of the Central American intercomected network Farag Ali El-Sheikhi, Yousef Mabruk Saad, Saleh Omar Osman and Khalil M. El-Arroudi (2003) describe a voltage stability coniparison studv between two FACTS devices on static behavior of a transmission system SVC and TSSC. This study has been performed using modal analysis technique. The impact of these devices on voltage stability has been investigated using the 30 bus England system. A.Indira , S.Mandal, P.Acharjee and S.S.Thakur (2009) formulated the mathematical modeling of load margin as an optimization problem considering in-equality constraints - voltage limits and reactive power generation limits of PV buses. Two particle swarm optimization (PSO) techniques namely adaptive PSO (APSO) and Hybrid PSO (HPSO) are developed. In APSO technique, new formulas are designed to get adaptive tuning parameters. In HPSO technique, breeding and subpopulation of genetic algorithm (GA) are incorporated in PSO to add diversity & to overcome local optima. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed techniques is established giving different test results of IEEE standard systems.

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Whei-Min Lin, Kai-Hung Lu, Cong-Hui Huang, Ting-Chia Ou, and Yuan-Hui Li (2009) present a new Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) with Equivalent current Injection (ECI. This paper shows the application of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) plus Genetic Algorithms (GA) for optimal capacity and location of a new STATCOM with ECI model in a power system. Finally simulation shows the optimal location and capacity of new STATCOM with ECI model to enhance power system voltage stability by using GACO. The proposed method demonstrates the improvement of voltage stability margin.

The conventional power flow has a problem in the Jacobian matrix which becomes singular at the voltage stability limit. This problem can be overcome by using continuation power flow [1]. Figure 1. shows the predictor corrector scheme used in the continuation power flow.

Figure 1: The predictor corrector scheme

From the Newton-Raphson, load flow equations can be written as: (1) (2) The new load flow equations consists of load factor () are expressed as: PLi = PL0 + (KLiS basecos i) QLi = QL0 + (KLiS basesin i) where PL0, QL0=original load at bus i, active and reactive power respectively KLi = multiplier to designate the rate of load change at bus i as changes S base = a given quantity of apparent power which is chosen to provide appropriate scaling of The power flow equations can be written as F( , V, ) = 0 (5) Then the active power generation term can be modified to PGi =PGo(1+KGi) (6) where PGo = The initial value of active power generation PGi = the active power generation at bus i KG i = the constant of changing rate in generation To solve the problem, the continuation algorithm starts from a known solution and uses a predictor-corrector scheme to find subsequent solutions at different load levels. (3) (4)

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The UPFC consists of two switching converters operated from a common DC link. Series converter injects an AC voltage with controllable magnitude and phase angle in series with the transmission line. Shunt converter injects or absorbs an independently controllable reactive power to bus. It also supplies or absorbs the active power demanded by series converter through the common DC link. UPFC schematic diagram and equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

Figure 2: UPFC schematic diagram

The output voltage of the series converter is added to the nodal voltage at bus k to increase the nodal voltage at bus m. The voltage magnitude of the output voltage VcR provides voltage regulation, and the phase angle cR determines the mode of power flow control. In addition to providing a supporting role in the active power exchange that takes place between the series converter and the AC system, the shunt converter generate or absorb reactive power in order to provide independent voltage magnitude regulation at its point of connection with the AC system. From the equivalent circuit of UPFC the active and reactive power equations can be written as: At bus k: Pk = Vk2Gkk+Vk Vm [Gkmcos (k m) + Bkmsin (k m)] +VkVCR [Gkmcos (k cR) + Bkmsin (k cR) +VkVvR [GvRcos (k vR) + BvRsin (k vR)] (7)

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Qk = -Vk2Bkk -Vk Vm [Gkmsin (k m) - Bkmcos (k m)] + Vk VCR [Gkmsin (k cR) - Bkmcos (k cR)] +VkVvR [GvRsin (k vR) - BvRcos (k vR)] (8) At bus m: Pm = Vm2Gmm+Vm Vk [Gmkcos (m k) + Bmksin (m k)] +Vm VCR [Gmmcos (mcR) + Bmmsin (m cR)] (9) 2 Qm =- Vm Bmm+Vm Vk [Gmksin (m k)-Bmkcos (m k)] + VmVcR [Gmmsin (mcR)-Bmmcos (m cR)] (10) Series converter PcR = VcR2Gmm+VcR Vk[Gkmcos(cR k)+ Bkmsin(cR k)] +VcRVm [Gmmcos (cR m)+ Bmmsin(cR m)] (11) QcR=-VcR2Bmm+VcR Vk [Gkmsin (cR k)- Bkmcos(cR k)] + VcRVm[Gmmsin(cR m)-Bmmcos(cR m)] (12) Shunt converter PvR = -VvR2GvR+VvR Vk [GvRcos (vR - k) + BvRsin (vR k)] (13) 2 QvR = VvR BvR+VvR Vk [GvRsin (vR - k) - BvRcos (vR k)] (14)

A shunt-connected static var generator or absorber whose output is adjusted to exchange capacitive or inductive current so as to maintain or control bus voltage of the electrical power system. Variable shunt susceptance model of SVC is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Variable shunt susceptance model

The current drawn by the SVC is ISVC = jBSVC VK (15) The reactive power drawn by the SVC, which is also the reactive power injected at bus k, is QSVC =Qk = - VK2 BSVC (16)

STATCOM is a self commutated switching power converter supplied from an appropriate electric energy source and operated to produce a set of adjustable multiphase voltage, which may be coupled to an AC power system for the purpose of exchanging independently controllable real and reactive power. The STATCOM is a solid-state-based power converter version of the SVC, operating as a shuntconnected SVC, its capacitive or inductive output currents can be controlled independently from its terminal AC bus voltage. STATCOM schematic diagram and equivalent circuit shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6.

Figure 5: STATCOM schematic diagram Figure 6: STATCOM Equivalent Circuit

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The following active and reactive power equations are obtained for the converter and at bus k (17) PvR = VvR2GvR+VvRVk [GvRcos (vR - k) + BvRsin (vR k)] 2 QvR =- VvR BvR+VvRVk [GvRsin (vR - k) - BvRcos (vR k)] (18) Pk = Vk2GvR+VkVvR [GvRcos (k vR) + BvRsin (k vR)] (19) Qk = -Vk2BvR+VkVvR [GvRsin (k vR) - BvRcos (k vR)] (20)

7. Case Studies

IEEE 6bus, 9bus and 14bus systems are modeled using PSAT software shown in Figure 7, Figure 8and Figure 9.

Figure 7: IEEE 6BUS

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Figure 8: IEEE 9BUS

8. Simulation Results

Simulation is done in PSAT software and results are compared with MATLAB M-file outputs. It was found from the PV curve analysis that bus 5 was the weakest bus for IEEE 6BUS system shown in Figure 10. Bus 9 was the weakest bus for IEEE 9BUS system shown in Figure 11. Bus 14 was the weakest bus for IEEE 14BUS system shown in Figure 12.

Figure 10: Lowest 3 Voltages PV Curve for IEEE 6BUS SYSTEM

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UPFC gives better result compared to SVC and STATCOM. UPFC is connected between bus5 and bus1 in IEEE 6bus system, UPFC is connected between bus 9 and bus 8 in IEEE 9bus system, in case of IEEE 14bus system UPFC is connected between bus 14 and bus9. Voltage magnitudes, angles, Real power and Reactive power flows and losses of the IEEE 6bus, 9bus and 14bus systems are shown from Table 1 to Table 6.

Table 1:

Bus No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Voltage magnitude (p.u.) without FACTS 1.05 1.05 1.07 0.98984 0.9884 1.0173 Angle (radians) without FACTS 0 -0.06514 -0.06668 -0.07331 -0.0884 -0.09344 Voltage magnitude (p.u.) with UPFC 1.05 1.05 1.07 0.99099 0.99765 1.0186 Angle (radians) with UPFC 0 -0.05904 -0.05877 -0.0688 -0.08096 -0.08616

Table 2:

Without facts 2.1698 1.8297 0.06979 -0.2703 With UPFC 2.153 1.876 0.05295 -0.22404

Total generation REAL POWER [p.u.] REACTIVE POWER [p.u.] TOTAL LOSSES REAL POWER [p.u.] REACTIVE POWER [p.u.]

For IEEE 6BUS system with help of UPFC, voltage is increased at buses 4,5 and 6, real power loss is also reduced from 0.06979 p.u. to 0.05295 p.u, reactive power generation is also increased from 1.8297 p.u. to 1.876 p.u.

Table 3:

Bus No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Voltage magnitude (p.u.) without FACTS 1 1 1 0.98701 0.97547 1.0034 0.98564 0.99619 0.95762 Angle (radians) without FACTS 0 0.16875 0.08327 -0.042 -0.07011 0.03361 0.01085 0.06631 -0.07592 Voltage magnitude (p.u.) with UPFC 1 1 1 0.98692 0.97456 1.0002 0.97581 0.98206 0.95801 Angle (radians) with UPFC 0 0.15354 0.0729 -0.04045 -0.07297 0.02313 -0.00412 0.04962 -0.06779

Table 4:

Without facts 3.1996 0.3488 0.04955 -0.8012 With UPFC 3.1728 0.63124 0.02281 -0.5188

Total generation REAL POWER [p.u.] REACTIVE POWER [p.u.] TOTAL LOSSES REAL POWER [p.u.] REACTIVE POWER [p.u.]

For IEEE 9 BUS system with help of UPFC, voltage is increased at bus 9, real power loss is reduced from 0.04955 p.u. to 0.02281 p.u, reactive power generation is also increased from 0.3488 p.u. to 0.63124 p.u.

Table 5:

Bus No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

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Voltage magnitude (p.u.) without FACTS 1.06 1.045 1.01 1.0436 1.0505 1.07 1.0409 1.09 1.034 1.0328 1.0477 1.0535 1.0472 1.0215 Angle (radians) without FACTS 0 -0.086 -0.21824 -0.18443 -0.15987 -0.26694 -0.24145 -0.24145 -0.2704 -0.27472 -0.27288 -0.28153 -0.28196 -0.29333 Voltage magnitude(p.u.) with UPFC 1.06 1.045 1.01 1.0433 1.0504 1.07 1.04 1.09 1.0323 1.0314 1.0468 1.0545 1.0498 1.0321 Angle (radians) with UPFC 0 -0.08599 -0.21836 -0.18454 -0.1595 -0.26241 -0.24359 -0.24359 -0.27361 -0.27655 -0.27154 -0.27549 -0.27481 -0.27674

Table 6:

Without facts 2.7279 0.89 0.13787 0.36685 With facts 2.7258 0.88526 0.13576 0.36211

Total generation REAL POWER [p.u.] REACTIVE POWER [p.u.] TOTAL LOSSES REAL POWER [p.u.] REACTIVE POWER [p.u.]

For IEEE 14BUS system with help of UPFC, voltage is increased at bus14, real power loss is reduced from 0.13787 p.u. to 0.13576 p.u, reactive power generation is also increased from 0.89 p.u. to 0.88526 p.u.

9. Conclusion

Static voltage stability analysis of IEEE 6 BUS, 9BUS and 14 BUS systems is done. Continuation power flow technique is used to identify weakest bus in the system. UPFC FACTS device is employed and voltage profile of the systems is enhanced. The transmission power loss is reduced and reactive power support is provided by UPFC and loadability margin is also increased. UPFC can prevent the voltage collapse. Further research will be focused on dynamic voltage stability analysis and optimal location of FACTS using Artificial Intelligence like PSO and GA.

References

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Venkataramana Ajjarapu, Colin Christy,1992. The continuation power flow a tool for steady state voltage stability analysis, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.7, No. 1. February. B. H. Lee and K. Y. Lee,1993 "Dynamic and Static Voltage Stability Enhancement of Power Systems," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 231-238. Federico Milano,2004. Power System Analysis Toolbox Documentation for PSAT, version 1.3.2. F. Milano,2005. "An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 20, No. 3,August. N.G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi Understanding FACTS concepts and technology of flexible AC transmission systems, IEEE Press, New York, 2000.

R. Kalaivani and V. Kamaraj M. Moghawemi, M. O. Faruque, 2000. Effects of FACTS devices on static voltage stability, IEEE proceedings. R. Natesan G. Radman,2004. Effects of STATCOM, SSSC and UPFC on voltage stability, IEEE proceedings. Arthit Sode-Yome and Nadarajah Mithulananthan (2005) Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement using STATCOM,TCSC AND SSSC , IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference & Exhibition: Asia and Pacific Dalian, China Sreekanth Reddy Donapati and M.K.Verma, 2008. An Approach for Optimal Placement of UPFC to Enhance Voltage Stability Margin under Contingencies, Fifteenth National Power Systems Conference (NPSC), IIT Bombay, December. H. I. Shaheen, G. I. Rashed, and S. J. Cheng, 2007. Optimal Location and Parameters Setting of Unified Power Flow Controller Based on Evolutionary Optimization Techniques, IEEE proceedings. Enrique Acha, Cludio R.Fuerte-Esquivel and Hugo Ambriz-Perez, Cesar Angeles-Camacho Modelling and Simulation in Power Networks, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England 2004. R.M. Mathur and R.K. Varma, Thyristor-based FACTS controllers for Electrical Transmission Systems. IEEE Press, Piscataway, 2002. P. Kundur, Power system stability and control, McGraw-Hill, New York 1994. Azimoh L.C and Folly K.A (2009) Mitigations of Voltage Instability in Power Systems ,IEEE Electrical Power and Energy Conference, University of Cape Town, South Africa

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