Você está na página 1de 18

Transformer Protection Notes

16.15 OIL AND GAS DEVICES All faults below oil in an oil-immersed transformer result in localised heating and breakdown of the oil; some degree of arcing will always take place in a winding fault and the resulting decomposition of the oil will release gases. When the fault is of a very minor type, such as a hot joint, gas is released slowly, but a major fault involving severe arcing causes a very rapid release of large volumes of gas as well as oil vapour. The action is so violent that the gas and vapour do not have time to escape but instead build up pressure and bodily displace the oil. When such faults occur in transformers having oil conservators, the fault causes a blast of oil to pass up the relief pipe to the conservator. A Buchholz relay is used to protect against such conditions. Devices responding to abnormally high oil pressure or rate-of-rise of oil pressure are also available and may be used in conjunction with a Buchholz relay. 16.15.1 Oil Pressure Relief Devices The simplest form of pressure relief device is the widely used frangible disc that is normally located at the end of an oil relief pipe protruding from the top of the transformer tank. The surge of oil caused by a serious fault bursts the disc, so allowing the oil to discharge rapidly. Relieving and limiting the pressure rise avoids explosive rupture of the tank and consequent fire risk. Outdoor oil-immersed transformers are usually mounted in a catchment pit to collect and contain spilt oil (from whatever cause), thereby minimising the possibility of pollution. A drawback of the frangible disc is that the oil remaining in the tank is left exposed to the atmosphere after rupture. This is avoided in a more effective device, the sudden pressure relief valve, which opens to allow discharge of oil if the pressure exceeds a set level, but closes automatically as soon as the internal pressure falls below this level. If the abnormal pressure is relatively high, the valve can operate within a few milliseconds, and provide fast tripping when suitable contacts are fitted. The device is commonly fitted to power transformers rated at 2MVA or higher, but may be applied to distribution transformers rated as low as 200kVA, particularly those in hazardous areas. 16.15.2 Rapid Pressure Rise Relay This device detects rapid rise of pressure rather than absolute pressure and thereby can respond even quicker than the pressure relief valve to sudden abnormally high pressures. Sensitivities as low as 0.07bar/s are

attainable, but when fitted to forced-cooled transformers the operating speed of the device may have to be slowed deliberately to avoid spurious tripping during circulation pump starts. 16.15.3 Buchholz Protection Buchholz protection is normally provided on all transformers fitted with a conservator. The Buchholz relay is contained in a cast housing which is connected in the pipe to the conservator, as in Figure 16.21. A typical Buchholz relay will have two sets of contacts. One is arranged to operate for slow accumulations of gas, the other for bulk displacement of oil in the event of a heavy internal fault. An alarm is generated for the former, but the latter is usually direct-wired to the CB trip relay. The device will therefore give an alarm for the following fault conditions, all of which are of a low order of urgency. a. hot spots on the core due to short circuit of lamination insulation b. core bolt insulation failure c. faulty joints d. interturn faults or other winding faults involving only lower power infeeds e. loss of oil due to leakage When a major winding fault occurs, this causes a surge of oil, which displaces the lower float and thus causes isolation of the transformer. This action will take place for: i. all severe winding faults, either to earth or interphase ii. loss of oil if allowed to continue to a dangerous degree An inspection window is usually provided on either side of the gas collection space. Visible white or yellow gas indicates that insulation has been burnt, while black or grey gas indicates the presence of, dissociated oil. In these cases the gas will probably be inflammable, whereas released air will not. A vent valve is provided on the top of the housing for the gas to be released or collected for analysis. Transformers with forced oil circulation may experience oil flow to/from the conservator on starting/stopping of the pumps. The Buchholz relay must not operate in this circumstance. Cleaning operations may cause aeration of the oil. Under such conditions, tripping of the transformer due to Buchholz operation should be inhibited for a suitable period. Because of its universal response to faults within the transformer, some of which are difficult to detect by other means, the Buchholz relay is invaluable, whether

regarded as a main protection or as a supplement to other protection schemes. Tests carried out by striking a high voltage arc in a transformer tank filled with oil, have shown that operation times of 0.05s-0.1s are possible. Electrical protection is generally used as well, either to obtain faster operation for heavy faults, or because Buchholz relays have to be prevented from tripping during oil maintenance periods. Conservators are fitted to oil-cooled transformers above 1000kVA rating, except those to North American design practice that use a different technique. 16.17 INTERTRIPPING In order to ensure that both the high and low voltage circuit breakers operate for faults within the transformer and feeder, it is necessary to operate both circuit breakers from protection normally associated with one. The technique for doing this is known as intertripping. The necessity for intertripping on transformer-feeders arises from the fact that certain types of fault produce insufficient current to operate the protection associated with one of the circuit breakers. These faults are: a. faults in the transformer that operate the Buchholz relay and trip the local low voltage circuit breaker, while failing to produce enough fault current to operate the protection associated with the remote high voltage circuit breaker b. earth faults on the star winding of the transformer, which, because of the position of the fault in the winding, again produce insufficient current for relay operation at the remote circuit breaker c. earth faults on the feeder or high voltage deltaconnected winding which trip the high voltage circuit breaker only, leaving the transformer energised form the low voltage side and with two high voltage phases at near line-to-line voltage above earth. Intermittent arcing may follow and there is a possibility of transient overvoltage occurring and causing a further breakdown of insulation

Generator Protection Systems

The following problems require consideration from the point of view of applying protection: 1 stator electrical faults 2 overload 3 overvoltage 4 unbalanced loading 5 overfluxing 6 inadvertent energisation 7 rotor electrical faults 8 loss of excitation

9. loss of synchronism 10 failure of prime mover 11 lubrication oil failure 12 overspeeding 13 rotor distortion 14 difference in expansion between rotating and stationary parts 15. excessive vibration 16core lamination faults

1.GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION: Setting : 0.5 Amp Time : Instantaneous It is one of the important protections to protect generator winding against internal faults such as phase-to-phase and three phase-to-ground faults. This type of fault is very serious because very large current can flow and produce large amounts of damage to the winding if it is allowed to persist. One set current transformers of the generator on neutral and phase side, is exclusively used for this protection. The differential protection can not detect turnto-turn fault and phase to ground within one winding for high impedance neutral grounding generator such as ours. Upon the detection of a phase-to-phase fault in the winding, the unit is tripped with out time delay. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker c. Stop command to Turbine thro Mark-IV Status : a. Unit is at coasting down. Once the differential protection operated, the unit can not be taken into service unless the generator winding is thoroughly examined by the maintenance staff of any internal faults 2.GENERATOR-TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION : Setting : 0.75 Amp Time : Instantaneous It protects 11KV bus duct, 11/0.440KV unit auxiliary transformer, 11/20KV step-up transformer against internal faults such as phase-to-phase and three phase-to-ground faults. This type of fault is very serious because very large current can flow and produce large amounts of damage to the winding if it is allowed to persist. One set current transformers of the generator on neutral side and another set current transformer on 220KV side after transformer, is exclusively used for the protection. Upon the detection of difference in current between these current transformers, the unit is tripped with out time delay.One the generator-transformer differential protection operated, the unit can not be taken into service unless the 11KV bus duct, unit auxiliary transformer, power transformer are thoroughly examined by the maintenance staff for any internal faults. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker

c. Stop command to Turbine thro Mark-IV Status : a. Unit is at coasting down. 3.LOSS OF FIELD OR EXCITATION PROTECTION : Setting : K1-2, K2-1, K3-2 Trip after 2 Sec. When the synchronous machine with excitation, is connected to the grid, it generates reactive power along with active power to the grid and the rotor speed is same as that of grid frequency. Loss of field or loss of excitation results in loss of synchronism between rotor flux & stator flux. The synchronous machine operates as an induction machine at higher speed and draws reactive power from the grid. This will result in the flow of slip frequency currents in the rotor body as well as severe torque oscillations in the rotor shaft. As the rotor is not designed to sustain such currents or to withstand the high alternating torques which results in rotor overheating, coupling slippage and even rotor failure. A loss of excitation normally indicates a problem with the excitation system. Some times it may be due to inadvertent tripping of filed breaker, open or short circuit of field winding or loss of source to the exciter. If the generator is not disconnected immediately when it loses excitation wide spread instability may very quickly develop and major system shutdown may occur. When loss of excitation alarm annunciates at annunciation panel, the machine may probably be running with less excitation at leading MVAR power. Increase the excitation on the machine until it reaches on lagging MVAR power. The machine trips on the same protection along with alarm resynchronize the machine and try to stabilize at required MVAR power. If not possible, trip the machine immediately and inform to the maintenance staff for thorough checking of the Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) and its associated parts. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker c. Stop command to Turbine thro Mark-IV Status : a. Unit is at coasting down. 4.NEGATIVE SEQUENCE OR CURRENT UNBALANCE PROTECTION : Setting : Alarm 75% of 12s Time - 5 Sec. Trip 75% of 12s Time - 300 Sec. When the machine delivering the equal currents in three phases, no unbalance or negative phase sequence current is produced as the vector sum of these currents is zero, when the generator is supplying an unbalanced load to a system, a negative phase sequence current is imposed on the generator. The system unbalance may be due to opening of lines, breaker failures or system faults. The negative sequence current in the stator winding creates a magnetic flux wave in the air gap which rotates in opposite direction to that of rotor synchronous speed. This flux induces currents in the rotor body, wedges, retaining rings at twice the line frequency. Heating occurs in these areas and the resulting temperatures depend upon the level and duration of the unbalanced currents. Under these conditions it is

possible to reach temperatures at which the rotor material no longer contain the centrifugal forces imposed on them resulting in serious damage to the turbine-generator set. Any machine as per design data will permit some level of negative sequence currents for continuous period. An alarm will annunciate at annunciation panel if negative sequence currents exceeds a normal level. Reduce the MVAR power on the machine if necessary load also and keep the machine for some time till the alarm vanishes at annunciation panel. If the machine trips on the Negative sequence protection never take the machine into service until the temperatures on the rotor parts settle down to its lower value. Resynchronize the machine to the grid after considerable time under grid & feeder parameters are within limits. If the unit trips again on the same protection, stop the machine after consideration time so as to cool down the rotor parts and inform to the maintenance staff for thorough examination of the system. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker Status : a. Unit is at FSNL. 5. OVER FLUXING OR EXCITATION OR VOLTS PER HERTZ PROTECTION: Setting : Alarm 1.17 Time - 10 Sec. Trip 1.17 Time - 30 Sec. Per unit voltage divided by per unit frequency commonly called Volts/Hertz is a measurable quantity that is proportional to flux in the generator or step-up transformer cores. Moderate over fluxing (105-110%) increases core loss resulting in increase of core temperatures due to hysterics & eddy currents loss. Long term operation at elevated temperatures can shorten the life of the stator insulation. Severe over fluxing can breakdown inter-laminar insulation followed by rapid local core melting. Over fluxing normally can be caused by over speed of the turbine or over excitation during Off-line condition, and load rejection or AVR mal-functioning during On-line condition. If alarm annunciation panel, Increase/Reduce the speed of the turbine to rated generator speed (3000RPM) and reduce the generator voltage to rated during Off-line condition. Reduce the MVAR power on the generator during On-line condition. If the machine trips on over fluxing protection during On-line, Keep the machine at FSNL till the grid parameters stabilize and resins. Again the machine trips on the same stop the machine for examination of the AVR & Governor systems by maintenance staff. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker c. Stop command to Turbine thro Mark-IV Status : a. Unit is at coasting down. 6.OVER CURRENT WITH VOLTAGE RESTRAINT PROTECTION : Setting : Alarm 85% Time - 10 Sec.

Trip 100% Time - 0.5 Sec. Normally generators are designed to operate continuously at rated MVA, frequency and power factor over a range of 95 to 105% rated voltage. Operating the generator at rated MVA with 95% voltage, 105% stator current is permissible. Operating of the generator beyond rated KVA may result in harmful stator over current. A consequence of over current in winding is stator core over heating and leads to failure of insulation. If alarm annunciates at annunciation panel, Reduce the stator current to the below the rated by reducing the MVAR power on the machine. When the trips on the same protection, Resins the machine after keeping the machine at FSNL for some time, and keep the stator current below the rated. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker Status : a. Unit is at FSNL. 7 STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION : Setting : 70% Time - 5 Sec. Normally the generator stator neutral operates at a potential close to ground. If a faulty phase winding connected to ground, the normal low neutral voltage could rise as high as line-to-neutral voltage depending on the fault location. Although a single ground fault will not necessarily cause immediate damage, the presence of one increases the probability of a second. A second fault even if detected by differential relay, may cause serious damage. The usual method of detection fault is by measuring the voltage across the secondary of neutral grounding transformer (NGT). Here are two over lapping zones to detect stator ground faults in a high impedance grounded generator system, the two zones are put together cover 100% stator winding for earth faults. A fundamental frequency neutral over voltage relay covers about 0-95% of the stator zonal winding for all faults except those near the neutral. Another third harmonic neutral under voltage relay covers remaining 96100% of the stator zone 2 winding on neutral side. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker c. Stop command to Turbine thro Mark-IV Status : a. Unit is at coasting down. 8.ROTOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION (64R) : Settings : Less than 80K ohm Any rotor field winding of the generator is electrically isolated from the ground. Therefore the existence of one ground fault in the field winding will usually not damage the rotor. However the presence of two or more ground faults in the winding will cause magnetic and thermal imbalance plus localized heating and damage to the rotor metallic parts. The rotor earth fault may be caused due to insulation failure of winding or inter-turn fault followed by localized heat.

Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker c. Stop command to Turbine thro Mark-IV Status : a. Unit is at coasting down. 9.RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION: Settings : 0.1 Amp. Time : Instantaneous It is similar to generator differential protection in working. It protects the high voltage winding of 11/220KV power transformer against internal faults. One set current transformers of the power transformer on neutral and phase side, is exclusively used for this protection. The protection can not detect turn-to-turn fault within one winding. Upon the detection of a phase-to-phase or phase-to-ground fault in the winding, the unit to be tripped without time delay. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker c. Stop command to Turbine thro Mark-IV Status : a. Unit is at coasting down. Once the restricted earth fault protection operated, the unit can not be taken into service unless the transformer winding is thoroughly examined by the maintenance staff for any internals faults. 10.BACKUP IMPEDANCE PROTECTION: Settings ; K1-3, K2-0.71 Time 1.5 Sec. As in name implies, it is used to protect the generator from supplying the over loaded or faulty system. It is backup protection of the generator over current protection. In measures ratio of the voltage and current supplied by the generator and initiates trip signal when the measured impedance is less than the preset value. If the machine trips on the Backup protection, never take the machine into service until the temperatures of the generator settle down to its lower value. Resynchronize the machine to the grid after considerable time when grid & feeder parameters are within limits. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker c. Stop command to Turbine thro Mark-IV Status : a. Unit is at coasting down. 11.LOW FORWARD POWER PROTECTION: Setting : 0.5% Time : 1 Sec. The generator will not develop output power when turbine input is less than the no load losses and motoring action develops on the turbine. The generator is able to generate power, usually 55 to 10% of generator capacity, within pre-determined time after closing of

220KV breaker. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker Status : a. Unit is at FSNL with potential. The unit trips on the low forward protection, Resins the machine and increase input power to the turbine as quickly as possible within low forward power time setting. Even after two to three attempts, the machine is tripping on the same protection; probably the governor of turbine is faulty. Inform to maintenance staff for rectification of the same. 12.REVERSE POWER PROTECTION: Setting : 0.5% Time - 2.0 Sec. It is backup protection to the low forward protection. Motoring of a generator will occur when turbine output is reduced such that it develops less than no-load losses while the generator is still on-line, the generator will operate as a synchronous motor and driving the turbine. The generator will not be harmed by synchronous motoring and a steam turbine can be harmed through over heating during synchronous motoring if continued long enough. The motoring of the turbine output can be detected by reverse power protection. The avoid false tripping due to power swings a time delay is incorporated before tripping signal is generated. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker c. Stop command to Turbine thro Mark-IV Status : a. Unit is at coasting down. The unit trips on the reverse power protection. Resins the machine and increase the input power to the turbine as quickly as possible within low forward power time setting. Even after two to three attempts, the machine is tripping on the same protection; probably the governor of turbine is faulty. Inform to maintenance staff for rectification of the same. 13.POLE SLIP OR OUT-OF-STEP PROTECTION: Setting : 6.9 ohm. When a generator loses synchronism, the resulting high current peaks and off-frequency operation may cause winding stresses, pulsation torques and mechanical resonances that have the potential danger to turbine generator. Therefore, to minimize the possibility of damage, it is generally accepted that the machine should be tripped without time delay preferably during the first half-slip cycle of the loss of synchronism condition. The electrical center during loss-of-synchronous conditions can occur in the generator as a result of increased impedance of the generator while decrease system impedance. The protections normally applied in the generator zone such as back-up impedance, loss of excitation etc., will not protect a generator during loss of synchronism under normal generator conditions. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay

c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker c. Stop command to Turbine thro Mark-IV Status : a. Unit is at coasting down. The unit trips on the Pole slip protection, Resynch the machine after stabilization of the grid parameters 14.POLE DISCREPANCY PROTECITON: Setting : 0.5 Sec. If One or two poles of generator breaker fail to close during synchronization, all poles of the breaker trip on this protection. It may be due to mechanical failure of the breaker un equal distribution of closing signal to the breaker from protection system. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at 220KV Breaker panel. b. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. tripping of 220KV breaker Status : a. Unit is at FSNL with potential. The generator breaker trips on the pole discrepancy protection, Resynch the generator. Even after two to three attempts, the machine is tripping on the same protection, probably the generator breaker is faulty. Inform to maintenance staff for rectification of the same. 15.LOCAL BREAKER BACKUP PROTECTION: Setting : 25% Time : 0.8 Sec. For most of the faults, the generator breaker involves tripping the generator from the system. Failure of the breaker to open probably results in loss of protection and other problems such as motoring action or single phasing, If one or two poles of the generator breaker fail to open due to mechanical failure in breaker mechanism, the result can be a single phasing and negative phase sequence currents inducted on the rotor. The LBB protection is energized when the breaker trip is initiated after a suitable time interval if confirmation of the confirmation of breaker tripping from three poles is not received. The energized tripping signal from LBB protection will trip all 220KV generator breakers and all 220KV feeder breakers through Bus-bar protection. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay for all units. c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker of all units. Status : a. all Units are at FSNL. Once the LBB protection operated, the entire station is in dark. First restore all essential services to all units such as lube oil system and turning gear etc., from battery backup and. Checkup the faulty 220KV breaker and isolate the breaker from the system by opening the both side of the isolators. After restoring all services from station supply, Close 220KV feeder breakers first and take all units into service one after the other duly co-coordinating with the DE/LD. Since it involves complex operation, it is necessary to get help from maintenance staff for restoring the normally in the station. Never attempt to close the faulty 220KV generator in

panic as it causes permanent damage to the generator and transformer. 16.BUS BAR PROTECTION: Setting : 0.8 Amp. There are mainly three protection zones namely called generator zone, bus duct transformer zone, 220KV breakers zone. The protection of generator zone and bus duct & transformer zone are covered in previous schemes. All 220KV breakers at switchyard will come under Bus-Bar protection. Functioning of this scheme is similar to the generator differential protection or generator-transformer differential protection. It measures all incoming currents from the generators at 220KV side and all outgoing currents in 220KV feeders, and initiates trip signal if it detects any deviation more than the preset value as the algebraic sum of all currents at 220KV bus must be less than the preset value. It isolates all 220KV generator breakers and all 220KV feeder breakers connected to 220KV bus. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay for all units. c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker of all units. Status : a. all Units are at FSNL. Once the Bus-Bar protection operated, the entire station is in dark. First restore all essential services to all units such as lube oil system and turning gear etc., from battery backup and 6.6/0.44KV Stage II reserve power supply. Checkup the entire 220KV switch yard for any wire snapping or equipment damage. After restoring all services from station supply, Close 220KV feeder breakers first and take all units into service one after the other duly co-ordinating with the DE/LD. Since it involves complex operation, it is necessary to get help from maintenance staff for restoring the normalcy in the station. Never attempt to restore the 220KV supply at switch yard in panic unless the entire system is thoroughly examined and satisfy yourself as it causes permanent damage to the equipment or injury/death to the person working at switch yard. 17.OVER FREQUENCY PROTECTION: Setting : 52 Hz Time - 2 Sec. For a generator connected to a system, abnormal frequency operation is a result of a severe system disturbance. The generator can tolerate moderate over frequency operation provided voltage is within an acceptable limits. The machine operated at higher speeds at which the rotor material no longer contain the centrifugal forces imposed on them resulting in serious damage to the turbine-generator set. The abnormal over frequency on the machine may be due to improper speed control adjustment or disoperation of the speed controller or severe grid disturbance or sudden load through off. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker

c. Stop command to Turbine thro Mark-IV Status : a. Unit is at coasting down. The unit trips on the over frequency protection, Resins the machine. Even after two to three attempts, the machine is tripping on the same protection; probably the governor of turbine is faulty. Inform to maintenance staff for rectification of the same. 18.UNDER FREQUENCY PROTECTION: Setting : 48 Hz Time : 2.0 Sec. For a generator connected to a system, under frequency operation is a result of a severe system disturbance. The generator can tolerate moderate under frequency operation provided voltage is within an acceptable limits. The machine operated at lower higher speeds causes severe over fluxing in the generator-transformer. The abnormal under frequency on the machine may be due to improper speed control adjustment or disoperation of the speed controller. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Indication at Annunciation Panel Consequences : a. NIL Status : a. Unit is at lower speed with potential. Increase governor speed until machine reaches full speed. Even after two to three attempts, the machine are running at lower speed, probably the governor of turbine is faulty. Inform to maintenance staff for rectification of the same. 19.OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION : Setting : a. 110% Time - 2.0 Sec. b. 120% Time - 0.3 Sec. Generator voltage is at present value under normal operating conditions as selected by operator in AVR. If it parts from preset value, May be due to AVR mal-functioning or a system disturbance. Severe over voltage can cause over fluxing and winding insulation failure. The over voltage protection can be considered as a backup to the Volts-per-Hertz protection. Relays acted : a. Flag operation at Protection panel. b. Acting of Master relay c. Indication at Annunciation Panel. Consequences : a. Tripping of 220KV breaker b. Tripping of Field breaker Status : a. Unit is at FSNL without potential. Raise the generator voltage slowly with manual mode in AVR and keep generator voltage within the limits of normal voltage. If it is unable to control the generator voltage, trip the field breaker and inform to the maintenance staff for rectification of the AVR.
12.2.1 Generator faults (a) Stator faults: Stator faults involve the main current carrying conductors and must therefore be cleared quickly from the power system by a complete shutdown of the generator. They may be faults to earth, between phases or between turns of a phase, singly or in combination. The great danger from all faults is the possibility of damage to the laminations of the stator core and stator windings due to the heat generated at the point of fault. If the damage so caused is other than superficial, the stator would have to be dismantled, the damaged laminations and windings replaced and the stator rebuilt, all of which is a lengthy and costly process.

Limitation of generator stator earth-fault current by means of resistance earthing is normal practice (see Chapter 1) and serves, among other things, to minimise core burning. Phase-to-phase faults and interturn faults are both less common than earth faults. It is relatively easy to provide protection for phase-to-phase faults, but interturn faults are, on the other hand more difficult to detect and protection is not usually provided. Generally speaking, interturn faults quickly involve contact with earth via the stator core and are then tripped by stator earth-fault protection. (b) Rotor faults: Rotor faults may be either to earth or between turns and may be caused by the severe mechanical and thermal stresses acting upon the winding insulation; these are aggravated by a variable load cycle.

cleared by the appropriate protection. The main condition of interest is that of an unsymmetrical fault producing negative phase sequence currents in the stator winding. The effect of these currents is to produce a field rotating in opposite sense to the d.c. field system producing a flux which cuts the rotor at twice the rotational frequency thereby inducing double frequency currents in the field system and the rotor body. These currents produce severe rotor heating and modern machines have a limited negative phase sequence current capability. Automatic tripping is therefore required for the higher negative phase sequence current conditions. This capability limit applies to all modem hydrogen-cooled machines and many air-cooled machines, but some of the older air-cooled machines are designed to withstand full negative sequence currents continuously. In large modern alternators, particularly those employing direct cooling of the stator and rotor conductors, the temperature rise caused by abnormally high stator currents is more rapid than in the less highly rated machines and the capability limit is therefore lower.

Negative phase-sequence protection Generator transformer Buchholz surge Generator transformer winding temperature trip Emergency push button Generator stator E/F relay (1 st i.d.m.t., high resistance) Loss of excitation protection Loss of vacuum trip Low steam inlet pressure trip Unit transformer 1.v. standby E/F Pole-slipping protection Loss of stator water flow Loss of lubricating oil Loss of speed governor trip Loss of boiler water Power station, second supply Generator feeder, second main protection relay 2 Unit transformer 1.v. restricted E/F Unit transformer h.v. overcurrent Generator stator E/F relay (2nd i.d.m.t., high resistance) Generator stator E/F relay (i.d.m.t., low resistance) Generator transformer, h.v. restricted E/F Negative phase-sequence protection