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Chapter 1
Research Topic: An assessment of Lord Alfred Tennysons life as a poet and the relevance of his poetic maxims in postmodern literature.

I.

Introduction
Tennyson was a craftsman who, with variety of styles consistently improved his works. His craft showed up very early in his childhood in with a strong mastery of the meter which he applied massively in early poems. He experimented, adapted the various metres of the Greek and Latin to his poetry in English. He is archetypal of writers at the peak of the Victorian age; with his longing for a structured living, and the tendency of moralising others while indulging himself in melancholy. Again, he duly portrays the antagonism artists of his age encountered in their attempt to reconcile faith and fast

growing scientific knowledge. His personality rings throughout his works. The works actually correspond to steps and stages of his life where peculiar circumstances affected both and his works by implication. His strong poetic ability produced, among the famous ones, Maud and Idylls of the King, and a number of plays.

II.

Background of the Study


Alfred Tennyson was born in the rock bottom of Lincolnshire to the rector of

Somersby, Dr. George Clayton Tennyson. The latter, a well-bread country clergyman by punishment, eased on his wife Elisabeth and his children, his bitterness which came from his disinheritance by his father; also by first name George, for not sharing ambitions of rising in social status. Mental instability run through the family a great deal; and Tennysons father stood a little representation of that; hence the term of "black 1

2 blood" known in the family. A strand of this inherited illness of their family was epilepsy, which then was a taboo disease, deemed as the outcome of sexual overindulgence. This unhappy setting then compelled A. Tennyson to find an escape through poetry writing. Basically, all his life he used poetry writing as a way of diverting his mind from his predicament. In his very early poetic attempts, he constructed phrases or specific lines of his poems and stored them in his memory and waited for the appropriate moment to use them. In those poems, his concerned himself on rhythm oftener than language and circumlocutory meanings. In his eighteen, he published his first

volume Poems by Two Brothers (1827), comprising a few poems by his elder brothers Frederick and Charles. The work proved very outstanding verse and imagery-wise for so young poets. This was the foreshadow of Tennyson's commitment to be a lifetime poet. He took part in a poetry competition where he submitted "Timbuctoo" that won the chancellor's prize in the summer of 1829, and marked a turning point in his life as he met the brilliant Arthur Hallam of Cambridge College, his dearest friend, who is at the heart of In Memoriam . Factually, the disappearance of this very friend was what allowed him to so overtly, and freely show his warm and deep affection for his dead friend Hallam though this collection. Tennysons integration of the the apostles, deemed elite of the whole college of their generation, amplified the sensuousness of his poetry. In 1830, his next publication Poems, Chiefly Lyrical appeared in June. The standard of the poems within it was inconsistent and it was fraught with a self centred introspection. Distinguishing poems of the volume encompassed "The Kraken, "Ode to Memory, and

3 "Mariana,". These poems demonstrated his bright strong ability to paint imagery and trigger emotional arousal through the use of objects and backgrounds. Tennysons trip to Spain and France through the Pyrenees gave a newer facet to his poetry as illustrated Marianna ; and the rest of his poetic life was inspired by the imageries of mountain landscapes as from the Pyrenees. This generated poems such as "Oenone," which he began writing there; "The Lotos-Eaters, inspired by a waterfall in those mountains, and "The Eagle," The little village of Cauteretz and the valley in which it lay kept their deal of emotional grip on Tennyson, strongly stirring imagery to brighten his poetry until his death six decades later. The death of his father the rector hardened his living conditions. Tennyson and his family were rejected by his granddad and his elder Uncle Charles, heir to his grandfather. Striving through the bleakness of his poetic career he published at the end of 1832 his third volume, with the title page dated 1833. Poems of this publication comprised "The Lady of Shalott," "The Palace of Art," "A Dream of Fair Women," "The Hesperides," and, "Oenone," "The Lotos-Eaters," and not short of Mariana in the South." These poems are strong portrayal of Tennysons own inner feelings and feeling about the social environment. Edward Bulwer among others, stimulated friend to Charles, Tennysons uncle virulently criticised him in the reviews repeatedly. But, the most scornful criticism came from John Croker, an avowed foe to romantic poetry, who was immersed in the ignorance of his age. Tennyson, normally overly sensitive to such criticisms found support and comfort in Hallam and the other apostles.

4 His feelings of isolation out the combined losses of his father, and his best friend, worsened by his social insecurity, the fear of turning epileptic, he became alcoholic like his father. Tennyson once out of hardship uttered. "I suffered what seemed to me to shatter all my life so that I desired to die rather than to live" (Lang, 1987, p. 290) This very trying moments turned out to produce some of his finest poems, as he centred his poetry around themes chiefly including grief, lost intimacy, passion, and loneliness. These themes are very pervasive in the poems "Ulysses," "Morte d'Arthur," "Tithonus," "Tiresias," "Break, break, break," and "Oh! That 'twere Possible". The first of these elegiac poems written in quatrains of iambic tetrameter was started shortly after Hallams death. He kept writing them for seventeen years before getting it into a collection that bear the name In Memoriam (1850), one of the greatest, if not the greatest of Victorian poems. Ultimately rejecting romantic adventure and breaking engagement with Emily Sellwood, for altruist reasons; as he believed it would be injustice to transmit to children through her the trances he had been experiencing. Tennyson broke ten years of silence with two volumes of poems. The first was a radical revision of the1832 publications into their currently know forms, and the second was inclusive of poems inspired by his Dead best friend, and a variety of poems. The dramatic monologue "St. Simeon Stylites" , is a stance he takes over widespread sexuality, "The Vision of Sin"; and the autobiographically disguised narrative "Locksley Hall," lays out his thoughts on the evils of worldly marriages Now praised by the reviews, he was at the summit of his art. Edgar Allan Poe , his contemporary wrote, 4

5 "I am not sure that Tennyson is not the greatest of poets." (Thompson, 1984, p.1331). Tennyson fell into a serious depression after losing 4,000 in a wood carving investment.To this, followed ups and downs from a sort water therapy, involving application of water throughout, regular wrappings in cold wet sheets, and a ban on alcohol and tobacco use. The most effective part of the treatment showed up when he received 2,000 from the insurance policy in the wake of his former partners death. The government s civil pension of 200 per annum out recognition helped nullify all his worries about finances, and enabled him re-engage to the unrelenting Emily Sellwood. This revived his poetic muse. Accordingly, he published The Princess, on Christmas (1847) whose ostensible theme is the education of women and the establishment of female colleges, which later fades into criticism of unrealistic identities people attempt to create for themselves in society. Tennyson ultimately married Emily Sellwood at her thirty seventh year at Shiplake Church in 1850, and apparently found peace, he later succeed Wordsworth as the English Poet Laureate.

III.

Purpose of the study

This study, accordingly, will examine some practical aspect of Tennysons life experiences as a poet. Also, there will be a detailed analysis of a number of his maxims from his poems. In addition, this study will try to establish a distinct relationship

between his poetry and personality. Ultimately, a perspective on the relevance of his poetics maxims in contemporary literature will be offered. 5

6 IV. Statement of the problem

Tennyson is well known and very much quoted in the literary world. Some scholars believe that among those quoted mostly in the English language, he ranks second after Shakespeare. The set of poems that compose In memoriam, as well as Someday , and Morte dArthur are among his repository of powerful maxims. One may argue that this is the case for Shakespeares works, those of John Milton, Alexander Pope in a non-exhausted list. However, Tennyson stands out. The point is that, his works, literally, appear flooded with maxims more than anyone elses. Beside the insightful content of his maxims, they very often turn rather prophetic; which have proven true with time. Someday is a typical evidence of such prophecies. This distinctive aspect of Tennyson in relation to his works therefore should merit, once again the attention of a peculiarly detailed analysis.

V.

Research questions 1. 2. What is peculiar about Tennysons life? What characterises his poetic maxims?

3. What is the distinctive connection between his personality and his poetic life? 4. VI. How far are his maxims reflected in postmodern literature?

Scope and limitation

This analysis will concern itself with the peaks of Tennysons life as a poet, and highlights number axioms from five of his prominent poems. As such, selections of poems from In Memoriam, and Someday, will constitute the basis for the analysis.

7 References will be made wherever the need arises. This delimitation makes ground for a more accurate and detailed analysis.

VII.

Methodology

1.

Run an investigation into Tennysons life as a poet.

2. Observe the similarities and dissimilarities between Tennyson and other similar writers. 3. Undertake a detailed analysis of Tennysons poetic maxims.

VIII.

Organisation of the work

The study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter will consist of the introduction, and discuss the background of the study, the statement of the problem, , the scope and limitation and research questions. The second chapter will come out with a literary review on Tennysons biography and works, as well as comparative criticisms between him on one side and other writerson the other. Chapter three will then lay bare the techniques employed in gathering, and processing the data. Chapter four, as the centre of this study, will critically analyse the distinctiveness of Tennysons poetic maxims highlighted, their contents, and the connection between his personality and his poetic work. Eventually, a perspective on the contribution of Tennyson maxims in postmodern literature will be offered in the fifth chapter.

Chapter 2 : Literature Review


I. Introduction Reactionaries governed the literary field during the Victorian era. As such, very little was to be expected from them if anyone was to attempt a slight motion off what they strictly believed to be good poetry. This rejection was very stiff and is echoed in the letters sent to each other by later contemporaries of Tennyson. From 50 Wimpole Street, February 17, 1845 Barrett wrote to Browning: The denial of contemporary genius is the rule rather than the exception. No one counts the eagles in the nest, till there is a rush of wings; and lo! they are flown (Browning & Barrett, 2005, p. 23).

Brownings reply displayed his perspicacious outlook about poetry and about Tennyson of whom he says: he had shaken that grand head of his at 'singing,' so thoroughly does he love and live by it on Wednesday MorningSpring! (p. 24). II. Tennyson, His Time, and The Art 1833 was a year of uncertainty for the English literary world. A gap of twelve years, eleven years, nine years respectively after Keats death, Shelleys drowning at Spezzis bay in Italy, Lord Baron death and the extraction of his heart for burial at Missolonghi in Greece. Yet, there were still Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Thomas Moore. The first hid himself behind his Ecclesiastical Sonnets, the second busied himself with transcendental metaphysics, while the third spent his time warbling his poems which, in fact, old to audiences, were gradually being found insipid. Dickens was then just a Shorthand reporter in the House of Commons. Thackeray and Carlyle were suffering abject poverty. Robert browning was then a travelling youth of 20 while Matthew Arnold 8

9 and Arthur Clough were just boys. Tennyson then came at this point to fill the gap. The reviewers having been little challenged out of the literary vacuum had become real lords. Van Dyke outlines what the reviewers represented: Criticism with a large C, you will please to observe ; for the reign of their mighty Highnesses, the Reviewers, was still unshaken. Seated upon their lofty thrones in London and Edinburgh, they weighed the pretensions of all new-comers into their realms with severity if not with impartiality, and meted out praise and blame with a royal hand. In those rude days there was no trifling with a book in little " notices " of mUd censure or tepid approbation, small touches which, if unfavorable, hardly hurt more than pin-pricks, and if favorable, hardly help more than gentle pats upon the head (Van Dyke, 2004, p. 22) III. Tennysons early life and poetry Tennyson did not have it easy in his early poetry with critics. He was often reproached as overindulging in the form of the poems, and leaving the contents unattended to; thus, creating some poems of low standards. Actually, Tennyson did battle against regiments of reactionary reviewers who were determined lord it over all new writers who deviated from their standards; and, demand and command respect or rather fear abusing their status. Many of them including John Croker were poets, ignorantly drowned in their poetic pedantry; and therefore could see no good from anything creative whatsoever. Any innovation was then seen as a dilution of the existing artistic norms, or a deviation altogether. One the radical pioneers of such grotesque one-way reviews was Edward Bulwer. This very man first reproached Tennyson of being

obsessed with the form of the poem than anything else. He wrote:

10 ...You will do well to begin with Melodies and Pictures because Tennyson began with them., and because they belong to lowest form of his art, although it is the form in which he has done some of his most exquisite work. There are many people- and not altogether illiterate people- who still think of him as a maker of musical phrases (Van Dyke, 2004, p. 295) To such many attacks on Tennyson, added another by the same Bulwer. This time it was pertaining to his pension on the grounds that he was already well off and so did not deserve that government pension. Tennyson did not fail to respond in a swift way through a poem called The New Timon, and Alfred Tennysons pension. This poem took a biting swipe at Bulwers frustrations. It described him as raucous pup theatrically exerting itself as though it could harm the strong mastiff standing before it; while the latter, unperturbed, offered a contemptuous look. In Ledbetter (2007) an early stanza reads: Youve seen a lordly mastiffs port, Bearing in calm, contemptuous sort The snarls of some oerpetted pup, Who grudges him his bit and sup: So stands the bard of Locksley Hall, While puny darts around him fall, Tippd with what TIMON takes for venom; He is the mastiff, TIM the Blenheim. (Ledbetter, 2007, p. 48) Tennyson here portrayed those poets as jealous, who grudge him, uncritical and ridiculous in their attacks The snarls of some oerpetted pup against him. To another stinking criticism in the row against Bulwer and his sympathisers Tennyson came out with a The New Timon, and the Poets where he ridiculed his chief opponent as being a dandy. He accordingly labelled him as a padded man-- that wears the stays, a rather vain braggart. Aware of the nobility of his position he scorned having lost his temper in this poem thereby stooping as low as the other contenders. So he wrote a rather

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11 apologetic poem called After-Thought. Here, he grieved over the row of the petty fools of rhyme who blindly fall into pigmy wars and hate each other for a song. As a wise man he acknowledged his share of guilt in fighting back unnecessarily, as portrayed in: And I too talk, and lose the touch, I talk of Surely, after all, The noblest answer to such, Is kindly silence when they brawl (Tennyson, 1846, p. 106). IV Poetry and reviews So, just as Gifford was thrashed, Wilson, Croker, Lockharts, Blackwood, The Quarterly and the other marauding reviewers were to see it that their next victim, Tennysons Chiefly Lyrical with it diversified metre, and waywardness in style, was properly sieved. Van Dyke is emphatic: Blackwood, the Quarterly still clothed them-selves with Olympian thunder: " And that two-handed engine at their door, Stood ready to smite once and smite no more." (Van Dyke, 2004, p. 23)

The undeterred Tennyson did not water down is poems to suit the predator-reviewers. His poems showed a delicate refining that depicted in a detailed manner mosses, flowers with a subtle shading of emotions, in a musical fashion as did the preRaphaelites, yet, thematically modern. Mariana, The Poet, Ode to Memory, and The Deserted House chiefly, are epitomic this. The praises received from Arthur Henry Hallam, the Westminster Hevieio, and Leigh Hunt were all deemed biased;

respectively because they were: his friend, a literary rebel, and the leader of a the Cockney school." As one may now expect of a fowl in the foxes court, or of the judges in Mr. Lomos criminal court in Djelotos The Strange Man, Christopher North broke the 11

12 silence in the Blackwood review with a castigation that deemed imperative and urgent to deter an erring soul and move it back to a reformatory path. He called Tennyson work drivel. Adding about the song The Owl, he assaulted: "Alfred himself is the greatest owl; all he wants is to be shot, stuffed, and stuck in a glass case, to be made immortal in a museum." (Stanford, 1921) Well versed in his matter, Tennyson was not to be deterred. He came out with a new volume with the title-page: Poems by Alfred Tennyson. London : Edward Moxon, 64, New Bond Street. MDCCCXXXIII. Tennyson did not change his style but kept the blend of classical and romantic spirit which could not be obvious to his reviewers. A review of Tennyson's poems in the Quarterly in July, 1833, by its editor, also nicknamed the scorpion James Gibson Lockhart, proved one of the sourest for Tennyson. He begins in a tone of ironical compliment, apologizing for never having seen Mr. Tennyson's first volume, and proposing to repair his unintentional neglect by now introducing [it] to the admiration of sequestered readers " (Van Dyke, 2004, p. 27) He further added ...a new prodigy of genius, another and a brighter star of that galaxy or milky way of poetry of which the lamented Keats was the harbinger." (Holland & Gilder, 1876, p. 752) He proceeds to offer what he calls a tribute of unmingled approbation," and selecting a few specimens of Mr. Tennyson's volume, to point out now and then the peculiar brilliancy of some of the gems that irradiate his poetical crown." (Van Dyke, p. 27)This means, in plain words, to hold up the whole performance to ridicule by commending its weakest points in extravagant mock-laudation, and passing over its best points in silence. reported Van Dyke. This Mockery was very biting because it looked like a 12

13 sportsman being lauded for piling up failures one after the other. Lockhart, though locked in his of anti-cockney logic, admittedly found solid evidence of what he criticized, even though those flaws being very minimal. This hushed Tennyson into silence for ten years. V Tennysons poetic maturity & critics

At length, after ten years of silence he published his Poems., in Two Volumes, in 1842, and gained recognition with the grand blank-verse of Morte d' Arthur, the involving passion of Locksley Hall, the English beauty of Dora, The Gardeners Daughter among others. Wordsworth praised him in this as being decidedly, the first of our living poets. (Mackail, 1926, p. 242) Tennyson arrived at this through self scrutiny that allowed him to perfect his poetry and now escape the censure of reviewers going on rampage. This self-criticism from Tennyson, sign of full maturity is traceable in his process of creating The Palace of Art, the longest of his 1833 poems, an allegory. VI Milton and Tennyson: Comparison and Contrast. Tennyson refers to Milton on two occasions in his works. VI.1 First, it happened in The Palace of Art where the soul royal throne have above it the portrait of four wise men as depicts the following lines : There deep-haired Milton like an angel tall Stood limned, Shakespeare bland and mild, Grim Dante pressed his lips, and from the wall The bald blind Homer smiled. (1833 edition) In a later edition the verses read:

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14 For there was Milton like a seraph strong. Beside him, Shakespeare bland and mild ; And there the world-worn Dante grasped his song And somewhat grimly smiled. And there the Ionian father of the rest ; A million wrinkles carved his skin ; A hundred winters snowed upon his breast, From cheek and throat and chin. A true picture of Miltons genius has been constructed. This is the gage of a sound understanding, and important quality, which once again lays bare the strength, the serenity, orderliness, and beauty of his poetic ability. VI.2 The second reference can be traced from his 1863 experiments with the Cornhill Magazine. Once again, with clear, and strong conviction he unfolds with a magnificence of tone his theme. The verse reads: O, mighty-mouth'd inventor of harmonies, O skill'd to sing of Time or Eternity, God-gifted organ-voice of England, Milton, a name to resound for ages ; Whose Titan angels, Gabriel, Abdiel, Starr'd from Jehovah's gorgeous armouries. Tower, as the deep-domed empyrean Rings to the roar of an angel onset, Me rather all that showery loneliness The brooks of Eden hazily murmuring And bloom profuse and cedar arches Charm, as a wanderer out in ocean, Where some refulgent sunset of India Streams o'er a rich ambrosial ocean isle. 14

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And crimson-hued the stately palm-woods Whisper in odorous heights of even. Thus the brief ode finds its perfect close, De Quincey, a derisive critique called the Miltonic movement an organ voluntary (Van Dyke, 2004). This was seized upon by genius Tennyson and turned into this high resounding metaphor: The great organ, pouring forth its melodious thunders, becomes a living thing, divinely dowered and filled with music, an instrument no longer, but a voice, majestic, potent, thrilling the heart, the voice of England pealing in the ears of all the world and all time. Swept on the flood of those great harmonies, the mighty hosts of angels clash together in heaven-shaking conflict. But it is the same full tide of music which flows down in sweetest, lingering cadence to wander through the cool groves and fragrant valleys of Paradise. Here the younger poet will more gladly dwell, finding a deeper From these we come to terms with the kind of perception common to Tennyson and Milton, namely their common love for beauty in nature and art which are vividly found in their very early writings. They had other similarities. Both were of modest backgrounds yet having polished leisurely activities. Both their parents were disinherited. Curiously pride had been part of their character right from their respective fathers. Music also linked the two men. Milton and Tennysons fathers were musicians; and, as such they inculcated that skil into their children. Milton played their home organ to find solace when he felt

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16 itroubled, while his counterpart called on his sister to play while he composed songs. They were all admirers of the Greek, and Latin great minds, and absorbed them with heavy appetite. Tennysons favourite biblical allusion is to Eden and the mystical story of Adam and Eve. This is recurrent, in The Day-Dream, Maud, In Memoriam, The Gardener's Daughter, The Princess, Milton, Enid; on the other hand, mentioning Paradise Lost alone suffices to exemplify Miltons use biblical allusions. Tennyson is thus linked very tightly to his work which is difficult to detach from his personality as a moraliser.

Chapter 3 : Methodology
I. Introduction The methodology for analysing the data promises to be somewhat complex. In fact a combination of techniques that include an adaptation of Glaser etal.s Comparative

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17 Method down to stylistics will play in the production of the work. This approach is typically qualitative, as it covers targeted range of techniques. II. Analytical approach Qualitative technique is privileged in this study; in order to satisfy the meticulous demands of the study. Consequently, in this technique, the Comparative

Method Introduced by Glaser and Strauss (1967) as quoted in (Westbrook, 1994) will substantially be applied to the study. Sampling is done randomly for this work. As requires the sampling, the maxims involved in the study, are taken from a set of poems by Tennyson. Accordingly, a selection of poems from In Memorian, and someday from Locksley Hall will be at the centre of the analysis. This choice is then expected to back up considerably the claim made earlier about the Tennyson and his maxims, and their impact in the postmodern literature. The analysis will systematically follow specific steps. III. Analytical process It will offer interpretations and discuss the maxims in their primary contextual occurrences as well as their possible generalisations. Stylistically It will by textual evidence exhibit the personality of Tennyson, and its peculiar link to his poetry. Then, support the arguments with general & specific instances of usual occurrences and also specific echoes in the postmodern literature. It will draw nuances, parallels through juxtaposition with other classical Greek, Latin, and/or post modern alike maxims.

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18 It will undertake a close comparison between the lines of other poems by other writers with those of Tennyson. Ultimately, present a global assessment of the contribution, and/or usage of Tennysons maxims in the postmodern literature at large.

Matthieu Zongo May, 2012 Accra, Ghana

Works Cited
1. Browning, R., & Barrett, E. B. (2005). The Letters of Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett 1845 to 1846 Part One. Whitefish, Montana, USA: Kessinger Publishing. 2. Holland, J. G., & Gilder, R. W. (1876). The Century illustrated monthly magazine, Volume 12. New York: Scribner & Co.; The Century Co. 3. Lang, C. Y. (1987). The Letters of Alfred Lord Tennyson. In A. Tennyson, The Letters of Alfred Lord Tennyson (p. 290). Cambridge, Massachussets, USA: Havard University Press. 4. Ledbetter, K. (2007). Tennyson And Victorian Periodicals: Commodities in Context. Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 5. Mackail, J. W. (1926). Studies of English Poets. stratford: Ayer Publishing. 6. Stanford, H. M. (1921). The Standard reference work: for the home, school and library, Volume 7. Standard Education Society. 7. Tennyson, A. L. (1846). After-Thought. Punch, or the London Charivari, 48-49. 8. Thompson, G. R. (1984). Marginalia. In E. A. Poe, Marginalia (p. 1331). New York: Library of America. 9. Van Dyke, H. (2004). The Poetry of Tennyson. In E. Bulwer, The Study of Tennyson (Vol. I, p. 295). Montana, Westfield, USA: Kessinger Publishing. 10. Westbrook, L. (1994). A Qualitative Research Method: A Review of Major Stages,Data Analysis Techniques and Quality Controls. In B. G. Glaser, & L. Westbrook (Ed.), Social Problems (pp. 436-445.). Michigan: LISR. 11. Alfred Lord Tennyson (p. 290). Cambridge, Massachussets, USA: Havard University Press. 12. Thompson, G. R. (1984). Marginalia. In E. A. Poe, Marginalia (p. 1331). New York: Library of America. 13. Poems by Two Brothers, anonymous, by Tennyson and Frederick and Charles Tennyson (London: Simpkin & Marshall/Louth, U.K.: Jackson, 1827). 18

19 14. Timbuctoo: A Poem (in Blank Verse) Which Obtained the Chancellor's Gold Medal at the Cambridge Commencement (Cambridge: Smith, 1829). 15. Poems, Chiefly Lyrical (London: Effingham Wilson, 1830). 16. The Princess: A Medley (London: Moxon, 1847; Boston: Ticknor, 1848). 17. In Memoriam, anonymous (London: Moxon, 1850; Boston: Ticknor, Reed & Fields, 1850). 18. Tiresias and Other Poems (London: Macmillan, 1885). 19. Locksley Hall Sixty Years After, Etc. (London & New York: Macmillan, 1886). 20. The Death of Oenone, Akbar's Dream, and Other Poems (London: Macmillan, 1892; New York: Macmillan, 1892). 21. The Poems of Tennyson, edited by Christopher Ricks (London: Longmans, Green, 1969). 22. The Letters of Alfred Lord Tennyson: 1821-1850, volume 1, edited by Cecil Y. Lang and Edgar F. Shannon, Jr. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981).

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