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ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO

ONLY IN INDIA

SLUM UPGRADING, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE & SCARCE RESOURCES

2012

NICHOLAS SOCRATES

SITE SURVEYS 4. 8. 10. 13. 14. 16. 18. 19. 20. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Land survey Water survey Cultural survey Site impressions Material survey Making the site model Nala direction Land use Landmark buildings on site: key Generic railway worker's housing blocks On-site Hindu temple Abandoned & built over old well Old / abandoned railway office New water tower Old water tower New railway office Meeting with the railway control officer

PHASE 3: THE BRIDGE 74. Danger crossing the tracks 75. Research: 15,000 deaths per year crossing the railway tracks in India 76. Danger crossing the tracks on-site 77. Initial concept sketches for the bridge 80. Research: Gandi & The Railways 81. Quantity survey: reusing the abandoned railway elements for the bridge construction 82. Initial structural diagrams for the bridge 83. Bridge construction sequence 84. Reconnecting two communities 85. Proposed figure ground 86. Renders showing the bridge's continuation of the existing access 87. Plan showing the bridge's continuation of the existing access 88. Bridge renders & sections 90. The market side 91. Examples of existing bridges within a walkable proximity to the site 92. Bridge renders 95. Making the bridge model 96. Stair access to the bridge 97. Bridge plan 98. Bridge isometric 99. Reused construction elements 101. Bridge assembly details 106. Bridge renders

MASTERPLAN 32. Initial masterplan sketches 34. Proposed masterplan 44. Phasing

PHASE 1: DEWAT 48. Location 49. Philosophy 50. Precedents 51. DEWAT Proposal 52. DEWAT and irrigation proposal 53. Research: Agriculture in India

PHASE 4: 'UNDER THE BRIDGE' MARKET & CONTAINER WALL 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 120. 121. Location Phase 4 proposal synopsis Shipping containers in site proximity Research: Health issues & the lack of affordable hospitals in the area Case Study: 'Smile on Wheels' Mobile medical clinic, Mumbai 3D cutout through the proposed plugin medical clinic container unit Research: Health in India (UNICEF) & 'Smile on Wheels' Mobile medical clinic Proposed 'Under the Bridge' market renders & sections Research: 'Doc-in-a-Box' Micro-Franchising model Research: Health situation in Agra

PHASE 2: CENTRAL BUILDING 56. 57. 58. 59. 64. 65. 66. 68. 69. 70. 71. Location Existing building Phase 2 proposal synopsis Sections & elevations Climate diagrams: Rain water harvesting Climate diagrams: Solar shading 1:1 prototype of the bamboo and sari silk shading wall & window element Research: Nutrition in India Ground floor restaurant / cafe proposal Research: Education in India Slum school proposal

CONTENTS

PHASE 5: UN-ZONED TRADING ROUTE / ROOF EXTENSION 126. 127. 128. 132. 133. 134. 135. Location Phase 5 project synopsis Sections & renders Research: To zone of not to zone Trading route market render Research: Why official planning does not work in hyper dense areas Trading route market render

PHASE 6-7 (b): VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER 176. 177. 178. 180. 182. 184. 185. Location Phase 6-7 (b) project synopsis Plans, sections & elevations Wireframe models Assembly details Detailed plan 3D assembly details

PHASE 6-8 (a): THE GRID. AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCKS 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 146. 147. 152. 153. 154. 158. 159. 161. 162. 163. 164. 168. 170. 171. 172. 173. Proposed masterplan Masterplan renders: Areas of density, enclaves, streets & squares. Case study: Residence Buffalo, Fernand Poullion Shipping containers in site proximity Research: Modifications shipping containers Making the 1:100 Housing block model 1:1 prototype for the bamboo and sari silk shading wall and window invention Affordable Housing / Container block occupied living units Wireframe model and mid-site section Sections & elevations 'Pour Flush Toilet' (composting latrine) plan 'Pour Flush Toilet' (composting latrine) section Affordable Housing / Container block elevations with shading wall and windows installed Climate diagrams: Rain water harvesting Climate diagrams: Solar shading 3D cutout through water tanks & toilet area Isometric housing block & elevations Isometric building elements Assembly details 3D assemblage drawings Affordable Housing / Container block occupied living units Render: Proposed idea Research: India's agriculture & composting process Render: Proposed idea

PROJECT SUMMARY 188. Proposed masterplan 194. Phasing 197. Proposal summary

CONTENTS

On location land survey, drawn on our first day on site. Here we had to map a part of the slum which was not present on any map before (centre). This preliminary survey shows signs of looking into nala flow direction, land use and locating areas of neglect. All of which were further realised on later surveys in the following days on site.

ON-SITE LAND SURVEY

The Map shows the flow and direction of the nalas (external drains), polluted swamps, areas of neglect and the flow of people (the routes they take and where they cross the railway tracks).

ON-SITE LAND SURVEY

On location sections through the route where the locals cross the railway tracks, from the slum dwellings to the market on the other side.

ON-SITE LAND SURVEY. SECTION: SLUM SETTLEMENT BLOCKS - MARKET

Sections through the route where the locals cross the railway tracks, from the slum dwellings to the market on the other side.

LAND SURVEY. SECTION: SLUM SETTLEMENT BLOCKS - MARKET

On location section through a polluted stagnant swamp. Several nalas flow into this polluted pond. It is the result of approxamately 40 homes wastewater. This neglected area has also fallen into a spiral decline as it now is also used as a small dumping ground. The pond is likely to exist at a very low point of the site, so therefore the water , due to gravity is not able to flow anywhere; creating a stagnant pond of polluted water. It may be possible that this pond has been man made as a flood relief zone, in times of monsoon. When on site we saw some children throw a live tortose into the polluted pond. For sure the tortose would die from this. This polluted area is an important area to clean and regenerate.

POLLUTED LAKE

On location drawings showing sections through a nala (an external drain, which was flooding on a regular basis and was causing dangerous situation for the locals. This polluted pond is the result of an overflowed nala. Many nalas from the site flow this way and this particular nala overflows because it is a bottle neck and uncapable of retaining all the dirty water. As well as the dirty water overflowing the area becomes a spiral of decline as much rubbish is then consequently dumped here. Luckily this overflow is naturally made better than I first thought as the naurally growing plants filter the dirty water. This nala in times of flood will not work as a filter and the dirty water will spread, polluting the surrounding area.

POLLUTED POND

Personal Experience Several events, over the 10 days we were on site, took me back to the reality of what it could be like to live in this area in this way. On our first day as we were departing the site with 30 children following us, asking for photos and pens and shaking our hands continuously - we were overwhelmed: it was our first day and unaccustomed to it - we thought it was time to leave as the intensity grew stronger and louder. The children stopped following us as we moved away from the area in which they lived in and we all said good-bye. At this point we all decided to sit down on an old bench and rest, slightly discombobulated from our first days experience. At this point of stillness we saw a man walking very slowly holding on to his wife who had a single crutch, which was too big. She was hobbling along

with her husband and a crutch as support. The lady sat down at the same bench as us and she was in great pain. We asked her husband what was wrong and it was either her hip or her leg, which was broken. She was in a lot of pain and moving made it hurt even more. Someone from our group asked, Are you going to a hospital? but for sure the answer was no. The second experience, which happened on site was when I was on my own. A boy was really insisting me to give him some money, I replied by saying that money was not a good idea and that he should continue to help me measure the water-tower, which he did, but was quite persistent asking me for money several times every twenty seconds or so, whilst holding the end of the tape. After a few minutes of this he got very annoyed at me, stopped helping with the measuring and started demanding money quite seriously.

This was quite disturbing, and he was very loud. I told him no and I continued to measure on my own, which isnt that easy for long distance measuring. The boy went away. One minute later he was back. This time holding his little sister of maybe only 6 months of age. He continued demanding and demanding, but I was busy measuring. I finally looked up and he was actually asking for money whilst showing me his little sisters wrist, which had a severe open wound on it. The babys wound was the size of a packet ten of cigarettes. It looked very bad, not that recent, and it was not being treated in any way. The third experience was the most sobering of all. Just as our fourth day on site was coming to an end our auto-rickshaw driver was there and waiting for us and we were all heading towards the tuc-tuc car to go to home to the hotel,

when we all , at the same moment, looked over at once, and there was a girl of probably one and a half to two years of age standing in a large puddle of very dirty sewage water, and then we witnessed her bending down and drinking the water using her hands to scoop the it up to her mouth. She was standing there alone she was thirsty and she did not know not to drink it. She must of drank at least half a dozen handfuls of this brown water. We did not see this girl again for our remaining 6 days on site. For sure she got very ill from this. There is no first aid or medical centre anywhere close to the site. Because hospitals are costly and far away to travel, especially when not well, locals who get ill or women who are pregnant deal with what they have by themselves, this may result in extended illness, continued disease or unnecessary death.

Waterborne Diseases
Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated fresh water is consumed. Contaminated fresh water, used in the preparation of food, can be the source of foodborne disease through consumption of the same microorganisms. According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal disease accounts for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY global burden of disease and is responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million people every year. It was estimated that 88% of that burden pollution. In many areas, the problem is exacerbated by falling levels of groundwater, mainly caused by increasing extraction for irrigation. In some parts of the country, Several million more su er from multiple episodes of diarrhea Access to protected sources of excessive arsenic and uoride in and still others fall ill on account drinking water has improved drinking water also pose a major of Hepatitis A, enteric fever, dramatically over the years. health threat. intestinal worms and eye and skin Most rural water supply systems, The lack of toilets also a ects infections caused by poor hygiene especially the hand-pumps girls school attendance. Of Indias and unsafe drinking water. generally used by the poor, 700,000 rural primary and upper are using groundwater. But primary schools, only one in six Unhygienic practices and unsafe inadequate maintenance and have toilets, deterring children drinking water are some of its neglect of the environment - especially girls - from going to main causes. More than 122 around water sources has led to school. million households in the country increasing levels of groundwater is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and is mostly concentrated in children in developing countries. are without toilets. Even though toilets are built in about 3 million households every year, the annual rate of increase has been a low 1 per cent in the past decade.

CULTURAL SURVEY: PERSONAL EXPERIENCE & INDIA HEALTH RESEARCH

10

Introduction - North Group Our site in India is situated, north of the Taj Mahal, across the river Yamuna, somewhat separated from main-land Agra. The site is adjacent to, but set back from the railway lines, relatively close to a the Yamuna Bridge railway station. The railway tracks are not too busy. One train, either full of passengers or cargo of industrial goods or building materials comes or goes once every hour or so; more times than not just passing by without stopping. With a busy market on one side of the railway tracks, and a collection of slum settlements on the other; the two sides are separated. The slums, somewhat isolated from mainland Agra; exist as Edge-Lands and they have a rural / urban-rural feel to them. As soon as we crossed the railway lines, from our site, to the side of the market, we noticed a sudden change in the infrastructure; where everything is paved, the sewers are concreted and they are working very well; the quality of living is evidently higher on the market side, where the proximity to the centre of Agra (across the near-by Yamuna bridge) is much more accessible. The market sells most things and has a general industrial feel to it; selling all types of building materials with various factories and workshops in the area; here, business is relatively booming. Our site (on the other side) is a large open space (owned by the railway company) and has 11 generic, low rise housing blocks, 7 of an identical type; handed and mirrored parallel to each other adjacent to the battered road parallel yet set back from the railway tracks - the other 4 blocks are of another type, existing at the back of the site in a similar way. These blocks are over 60 years old, built during the English rule in India, before 1945. They were built for railway workers and still today are occupied by only railway maintenance low-pay employees, which over the years, these buildings have become generally run-down, some seriously dilapidated, the majority of which are abandoned, only occupied by approximately 15%. The blocks are mirrored; they face each other, therefore all living and life takes place on the facing sides, but this leaves a dead space at the backs of the blocks, either swamped by dirty water or used as storage for railway material, however one back-to-back zone is actually used very regularly; it being the most direct path to get from the open space common ground (therefore the slum settlements) to the continuing path which crosses the railway tracks; to get to the other side; a journey made by many twice daily coming and going from work or school or visiting the near-by market. During our meeting with a superior railway controller in his, raised 6 metres first-floor railway control centre, over looking the tracks, situated adjacent to our site said that these blocks will be demolished in 3 years times; to be replaced by a nation-wide training centre or institute for the railway company. Many residents of the area said the same. These centres or institutes are large in size and are usually uncompromising in urban design strategy and awareness; whether this will actually go ahead or not, especially in India, is uncertain. The two end blocks, of the seven, are more known to be demolished, as they are both completely abandoned and dilapidated. More locals know this, but whether or not all 11 blocks will be knocked down to make room for a training centre, is unclear. Maybe one of our projects of regeneration or transformation, if shown in time and, to the right people in India, will persuade the railway company to save these housing units, hopefully they will see our projects and realise the necessity and the potentials of our site; these housing blocks and the open space, as the common ground for the 3 surrounding slum settlements. Hopefully in our proposals we will communicate the need and the importance of our site, not only to remain but, for the greater good of the local people, to be regenerated and transformed and will make them put their railway training centre somewhere else.

NORTH OF KACHPURA SITE INTORDUCTION

11

THE COMMUNITY OF SLUM RESIDENTS WE GOT TO KNOW

12

Photos taken from the 1st floor external gallery of the new railway control office: Overlooking the the site; the tracks and the Blocks.

Photos taken in front of the Blocks looking towards the railway tracks. Note: Railway control office in the centre of the image.

Photos taken behind the Blocks, looking at them from the side. Still looking towards the railway. Note: Railway control office in the centre of the image; looking through two back-to-back Blocks, which is the regualr path used to exit or enter the large open space to or from the tracks.

SITE MONTAGE PHOTOGRAPHS

13

MATERIAL SURVEY: MEASURING THE ELEMENTS

14

CONCRETE SLEEPER = The foundations for the container homes & the banks for the nalas channel.

WOODEN SLEEPER = Decking for bridge, ramp and decking for external galleries.

RAILWAY TRACK = Column for bridge and other constructions on site. Use four tracks back to back - in pairs

I-BEAMS = Beams for bridge, external galleries and other construction on site.

OHE PYLON 1 = Posts for the banisters of stairs and the saftey banister of the bridge..

OHE PYLON 2 = Beams for bridge and other construction on site and use for the cantilever of the bridge.

CONCRETE SEWER PIPE = Temporary accommodation, septic tank, possible large columns and idea for recycling unit.

On location, there was an abundance of railway material lying around not being used. Sleepers, railway tracks, OHEs, I-beams, etc, etc. I measured these materials with the intention to build with them. The theme of the project is Architecture of Rapid Change

& Scarce Resources, so therefore whatever materials which are readily avaliable must be utilized in the project. There were thousands of materials all over the place on the site, so not only is it wise to utilize them, they are already part of the sites aesthetic.

MATERIAL SURVEY: MEASURING THE ELEMENTS

15

Contour Thickness : 1mm

+4

+3

+2

+1

1 Story buildings Thickness : 3mm

2 Story buildings Thickness : 3mm

3 Story buildings Thickness : 3mm

MAKING THE MODEL

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104.500 103.000 101.500 100.000 98.500 97.000 95.500

98.000

98.000

99.500 98.500 99.000 99.500 100.000 100.500 100.000 100.000 99.500 100.000 100.000 99.500 100.000 101.000 100.500

100.500

100.000

101.500 102.000 102.500 103.000 103.500 104.000 104.500 105.000 103.500

103.500 103.000

100.000

102.000 102.500 101.500 101.000 100.500 100.000

MAKING THE MODEL

17

General Store

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station; Platform, Tickets, & Ofces

Abandonded and Dilapidated Railway Buildings

Muslim Tomb

Railway Maintanance Building & Storage

Outdoor Muslim Temple

Buffalo Farm Inside Dilapidated Building Abandoned Tunnel / Old Railway Station

Wastepickers Buffalo Farm on Street x4

Building Materials For Sale on Street Bricks For Sale

Parked Trucks x4

Parked Rickshaws x 5 Parked Rickshaws x 10 General Stall Wood Factory

General Store Parked Trucks Bricks Bike Shop Building Materials

Wastepickers

Handicraft on Street

Tyre Shops

Parked Truck Cement Ofce

Parked Rickshaws

Industrial Materials Clothes Washing Clothes Shop

Clothes Shop

General Store Building Materials

Food Stall Electrical Store Hair Dressers Waste Land

General Store

Abandoned / Outdate Railway Control Centre; part used for storage

DIRECTION OF NALA FLOW


School

Abandoned
18
1 2 14 x8 1/2" 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 = 9'-10" 4 5 3

18

15

1 2 3 14 x 8 1/2" = 9'-10" 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

14

13

12

11

10

= 9'-10"

1/2"

14

x8

9 8 7 6

10

11

13

14

x8

12

1/2"

= 9'-10"

4 3 2 1

14

New Water Tower


04

Dilapidated Building
15

02

General Store

Old Water Tower


15

19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

05 19
7 6

1/4"

9'-10"

5 4 3 2 1

14

14

#DrgID #LayID

School Railway Building / Generator Railway Control Center


01

LAND USE STUDY


General Store
#DrgID #LayID

School Factory Clothes Shop Electrical Store

Railway Maintainance / Warehouse

Abandoned / Dilapidated Old Railway Ofce


1 1/4" 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 x 8" = 14'-9

Hair Dressers
Hindu Temple

Building Materials Bike Shop Tyre Shop Buffalo Farm Waste Pickers Food Stall Handicraft Parked Rickshaws
Veg Shop Cooked Food

Waste Pickers

General Store

General Store

Parked Trucks Games Arcade Room Temple


Games Arcade Room Hair Dressers Electrical Store

Clothes Washing Egg Shop

Generic Housing Blocks


Cement Shop Hay

Railway Control Ofce Railway Buildings (Private)


General Store

General Store

Cement Shop

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station New Water Tower Old Water Tower Abandoned Building Waste Land / Toilet Foliage Over-Grown

General Store

1:1000

SITE SURVEY: NALA DIRECTION 1:5000

18

General Store

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station; Platform, Tickets, & Ofces

Abandonded and Dilapidated Railway Buildings

Muslim Tomb

Railway Maintanance Building & Storage

Outdoor Muslim Temple

Buffalo Farm Inside Dilapidated Building Abandoned Tunnel / Old Railway Station

Wastepickers Buffalo Farm on Street x4

Building Materials For Sale on Street Bricks For Sale

Parked Trucks x4

Parked Rickshaws x 5 Parked Rickshaws x 10 General Stall Wood Factory

General Store Parked Trucks Bricks Bike Shop Building Materials

Wastepickers

Handicraft on Street

Tyre Shops

Parked Truck Cement Ofce

Parked Rickshaws

Industrial Materials Clothes Washing Clothes Shop

Clothes Shop

General Store Building Materials

Food Stall Electrical Store Hair Dressers Waste Land

General Store

Abandoned / Outdate Railway Control Centre; part used for storage

Abandoned
18
1 2

18

15

14

x8

1/2"
6

= 9'-10"
4 5

1 2 3
14 x 8 1/2" = 9'-10"

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

= 9'-10"

1/2"

14

x8

11

13

14

x8

12

1/2"

= 9'-10"

New Water Tower


04

School

FLOW & MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE


General Store

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 9 10 14 14 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Dilapidated Building
15

02

Old Water Tower


15

19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

05 19
7 6

1/4"

9'-10"

5 4 3 2 1

14

14

#DrgID #LayID

School Railway Building / Generator Railway Control Center


01

LAND USE STUDY


General Store
#DrgID #LayID

School Factory Clothes Shop Electrical Store

Railway Maintainance / Warehouse

Abandoned / Dilapidated Old Railway Ofce


1
1/4"

2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Hair Dressers
Hindu Temple

22

x 8"

14'-9

Building Materials Bike Shop Tyre Shop Buffalo Farm Waste Pickers Food Stall Handicraft Parked Rickshaws
Veg Shop Cooked Food

Waste Pickers

General Store

General Store

Parked Trucks Games Arcade Room Temple


Games Arcade Room Hair Dressers Electrical Store

Clothes Washing Egg Shop

Generic Housing Blocks


Cement Shop Hay

Railway Control Ofce Railway Buildings (Private)


General Store

General Store

Cement Shop

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station New Water Tower Old Water Tower Abandoned Building Waste Land / Toilet Foliage Over-Grown

General Store

1:1000

SITE SURVEY: LAND USE 1:5000

19

KEY: LANDMARK BUILDINGS

20

KEY: LANDMARK BUILDINGS


THE MATHEMATICS OF THE IDEAL VILLA

21

Our site (on the other side) is a large open space (owned by the railway company) and has 11 generic, low rise housing blocks, 7 of an identical type; handed and mirrored parallel to each other adjacent to the battered road parallel yet set back from the railway tracks - the other 4 blocks are of another type, existing at the back of the site in a similar way. These blocks are over 60 years old, built during the English rule in India, before 1945. They were built for railway workers and still today are occupied by only railway maintenance low-pay employees, which over the years, these buildings have become generally run-down, some seriously dilapidated, the majority of which are abandoned, only occupied by approximately 15%. The blocks are mirrored; they face each other, therefore all living and life takes place on the facing sides, but this leaves a dead space at the backs of the blocks, either swamped by dirty water or used as storage for railway material, however one backto-back zone is actually used very regularly; it being the most direct path to get from the open space common ground (therefore the slum settlements) to the continuing path which crosses the railway tracks; to get to the other side; a journey made by many twice daily coming and going from work or school or visiting the near-by market.

GENERIC RAILWAY HOUSING BLOCKS

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The Hindu Temple based in a central position on the site is used infrequently, but it remains an important part of the community and can be opened and used when someone requires it.

ON-SITE HINDU TEMPE

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This existing building is abandoned. It was a water well which was later built over with this building. Now neither the building nor the well are being used

ABANDONED AND BUILT OVER OLD WELL

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This is an abandoned building. It was the origanal railway office control centre. This building is situated in on a concrete island in a no-mans land in the middle of the railway tracks. Since this building the railway control workers have moved twice from one building to another. As technology develops the control centres get abandoned and they move into a new one.

OLD / ABANDONED RAILWAY OFFICE

25

The new water tower is owned by the railway company. It supplies water to the railway office and the the generic blocks (owned by the railway company for railway workers). For the blocks water is only supplied from 7am -10am

NEW WATER TOWER

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The new water tower is owned by the railway company. It supplies water to the railway office and the the generic blocks (owned by the railway company for railway workers). For the blocks water is only supplied from 7am -10am The old water tower (like the new) is owned by the railway company. This tower is not in use and abandoned. When I was there on the last two days there were people on top demolishing it part by part (and then just throwing each part/panel from the top to the ground. Quite dangerous. Also children sometimes were using the rusty base as a climbing frame.

OLD WATER TOWER

27

This railway control centre is over looking the tracks, situated adjacent to our site

NEW RAILWAY OFFICE

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During our meeting with a superior railway controller in his first-floor railway control centre, over looking the tracks, situated adjacent to our site said that the generic railway workers accommodation blocks will be demolished in 3 years times; to be replaced by a nation-wide training centre or institute for the railway company. Many residents of the area said the same. These centres or institutes are large in size and are usually uncompromising in urban design strategy and awareness; whether this will actually go ahead or not, especially in India, is uncertain.

VIEWS FROM AND INSIDE THE NEW RAILWAY OFFICE

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INITIAL MASTERPLAN SKETCHES SHOWING ACCESS, CONNECTION AND FLOW, POTENTIAL BUILDING MASSING, IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURE

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INITIAL MASTERPLAN SKETCHES SHOWING ACCESS, CONNECTION AND FLOW, POTENTIAL BUILDING MASSING, IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURE

33

Muslim Tomb

Railway Maintanance Building & Storage

Outdoor Muslim Temple

Buffalo Farm Inside Dilapidated Building

Building Materials For Sale on Street Bricks For Sale

Parked Trucks x4

Parked Rickshaws x 5
#DrgID #DrgID #LayID #LayID

General Store Parked Rickshaws x 10 General Stall Wood Factory Parked Trucks Bricks Bike Shop Building Materials

Wastepickers

Abandoned Tunnel / Old Railway Station

99.500 98.500 99.000 99.500 100.000 100.500


100 .500

Handicraft on Street

Tyre Shops

Parked Truck Cement Ofce

Parked Rickshaws

Industrial Materials Clothes Washing Clothes Shop

Clothes Shop

General Store Building Materials

Food Stall Electrical Store Hair Dressers Waste Land

General Store

Abandoned / Outdate Railway Control Centre; part used for storage

Abandoned
18
1 2 14 x8 1/2" 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 = 9'-10" 4 5 3

18

15

100.000
99.500
04 02

1 2 3 14 x 8 1/2" = 9'-10" 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

= 9'-10"

1/2"

14

x8

11

13

14

x8

12

1/2"

= 9'-10"

New Water Tower

Dilapidated Building
15

General Store

05 19
7 6

1/4"

9'-10"

100

.000

Old Water Tower


15

14

100.000
01

100.000 99.500

101.000 100.500
99.500

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

99.500

100.500

School

14

13

12

11

10

9 8 7 6

10

4 3 2 1

14

97.500

14

School Railway Building / Generator Railway Control Center

LAND USE STUDY


General Store School Factory Clothes Shop Electrical Store Hair Dressers

Railway Maintainance / Warehouse

100.000
Abandoned / Dilapidated Old Railway Ofce
1 1/4" 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 x 8" = 14'-9

Hindu Temple
#DrgID #LayID

Building Materials Bike Shop Tyre Shop Buffalo Farm

101.500 102.000 102.500 103.000 103.500 104.000 104.500

Waste Pickers

Waste Pickers Food Stall Handicraft Parked Rickshaws


Veg Shop

General Store

General Store

Parked Trucks
Cooked Food

105.000
Clothes Washing Egg Shop

Games Arcade Room Temple


Games Arcade Room

103.500
105 .500

Hair Dressers

Electrical Store

Generic Housing Blocks


Cement Shop Hay

Railway Control Ofce Railway Buildings (Private)


General Store

General Store

Cement Shop

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station New Water Tower Old Water Tower Abandoned Building Waste Land / Toilet Foliage Over-Grown

103.500 103.000

100.000

102.000 102.500 101.500


General Store

#DrgID #LayID

1:1000

101.000 100.500
School

104.500 100.000 103.000 101.500 100.000 98.500 97.000

PROPOSED MASTERPLAN 1:5000

34

96.000

General Store

98.000
96.000
Yamuna Bridge Railway Station; Platform, Tickets, & Ofces

98.000
Abandonded and Dilapidated Railway Buildings Muslim Tomb
96.500

Railway Maintanance Building & Storage

Outdoor Muslim Temple

Buffalo Farm Inside Dilapidated Building

Wastepickers Buffalo Farm on Street x4

Building Materials For Sale on Street Bricks For Sale

Parked Trucks x4

Parked Rickshaws x 5
#DrgID #LayID

General Store Parked Rickshaws x 10 General Stall Wood Factory Parked Trucks Bricks Bike Shop Building Materials

Wastepickers

Abandoned Tunnel / Old Railway Station

99.500 98.500 99.000 99.500 100.000 100.500


100 .50 0

Handicraft on Street

Tyre Shops

Parked Truck Cement Ofce

Parked Rickshaws

Industrial Materials Clothes Washing Clothes Shop

Clothes Shop

Food Stall Electrical Building Materials Store Hair Dressers Waste Land

General Store

General Store

Abandoned / Outdate Railway Control Centre; part used for storage

DIRECTION OF NALA FLOW

Abandoned
18
1 2
14 x8 1/2" = 9'-10"

18

15

100.000
500
04

3 4

5 6

1 2 3

14 x 8 1/2" = 9'-10"

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

= 9'-10"

1/2"

14

x8

11

13

14

x8

12

1/2"

= 9'-10"

New Water Tower

99.

Dilapidated Building
15

02

General Store

x6

1/4"

9'-10"

100

.00

05 19
7 6

Old Water Tower


15

14

100.000
01

100.000 99.500

101.000 100.500
500 99.

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

99.

500

100.500

School

FLOW & MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 9 10 14 14 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

97.500

14

LAND USE STUDY


General Store School Factory Clothes Shop Electrical Store Hair Dressers

School Railway Building / Generator Railway Control Center

Railway Maintainance / Warehouse

100.000
Abandoned / Dilapidated Old Railway Ofce
1

14'-9

1/4"

2 3 4 5

22

8"

=
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Hindu Temple
#DrgID #LayID #DrgID #LayID

Building Materials Bike Shop Tyre Shop Buffalo Farm

#DrgID #LayID

101.500 102.000 102.500 103.000 103.500 104.000 104.500

Waste Pickers

Waste Pickers Food Stall Handicraft Parked Rickshaws


Veg Shop

General Store

General Store

Parked Trucks
Cooked Food

105.000
Clothes Washing Egg Shop

Games Arcade Room Temple


Games Arcade Room

103.500
105. 500

Hair Dressers

Electrical Store

Generic Housing Blocks


Cement Shop Hay

Railway Control Ofce Railway Buildings (Private)


General Store

General Store

Cement Shop

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station New Water Tower Old Water Tower Abandoned Building Waste Land / Toilet Foliage Over-Grown

103.500 103.000

104.500 102.000 102.500 101.500


General Store

103.000 101.500 100.000 98.500 97.000

100.000

101.000 100.500
School

100.000

1:2000

PROPOSED MASTERPLAN 1:5000

35

General Store

98.000
96.000
Yamuna Bridge Railway Station; Platform, Tickets, & Ofces

98.000
Abandonded and Dilapidated Railway Buildings Muslim Tomb
96.500

Railway Maintanance Building & Storage

Outdoor Muslim Temple

Buffalo Farm Inside Dilapidated Building

Wastepickers Buffalo Farm on Street x4

Building Materials For Sale on Street Bricks For Sale

Parked Trucks x4

Parked Rickshaws x 5
#DrgID #LayID

General Store Parked Rickshaws x 10 General Stall Wood Factory Parked Trucks Bricks Bike Shop Building Materials

Wastepickers

Abandoned Tunnel / Old Railway Station

99.500 98.500 99.000 99.500 100.000 100.500


100 .500

Handicraft on Street

Tyre Shops

Parked Truck Cement Ofce

Parked Rickshaws

Industrial Materials Clothes Washing Clothes Shop

Clothes Shop

General Store Building Materials

Food Stall Electrical Store Hair Dressers Waste Land

General Store

Abandoned / Outdate Railway Control Centre; part used for storage

DIRECTION OF NALA FLOW

Abandoned
18
1 2 14 x8 1/2" 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 = 9'-10" 4 5 3

18

15

100.000
99.500
04 02

1 2 3 14 x 8 1/2" = 9'-10" 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

= 9'-10"

1/2"

14

x8

11

13

14

x8

12

1/2"

= 9'-10"

New Water Tower

Dilapidated Building
15

General Store

05 19
7 6

1/4"

9'-10"

100

.000

Old Water Tower


15

14

100.000
01

100.000 99.500

101.000 100.500
99.500

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

99.500

100.500

School

FLOW & MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE

14

13

12

11

10

9 8 7 6

10

4 3 2 1

14

97.500

14

LAND USE STUDY


General Store School Factory Clothes Shop Electrical Store Hair Dressers

School Railway Building / Generator Railway Control Center

Railway Maintainance / Warehouse

100.000
Abandoned / Dilapidated Old Railway Ofce
1 1/4" 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 x 8" = 14'-9

Hindu Temple
#DrgID #LayID #DrgID #LayID

Building Materials Bike Shop Tyre Shop Buffalo Farm

#DrgID #LayID

101.500 102.000 102.500 103.000 103.500 104.000 104.500

Waste Pickers

Waste Pickers Food Stall Handicraft Parked Rickshaws


Veg Shop

General Store

General Store

Parked Trucks
Cooked Food

105.000
Clothes Washing Egg Shop

Games Arcade Room Temple


Games Arcade Room

103.500
105 .500

Hair Dressers

Electrical Store

Generic Housing Blocks


Cement Shop Hay

Railway Control Ofce Railway Buildings (Private)


General Store

General Store

Cement Shop

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station New Water Tower Old Water Tower Abandoned Building Waste Land / Toilet Foliage Over-Grown

103.500 103.000

104.500 102.000 102.500 101.500


General Store

103.000 101.500 100.000 98.500 97.000

100.000

101.000 100.500
School

100.000

MASTERPLAN 1:5000

1:2000

36

MASTERPLAN 1:5000

37

FIGURE GROUND OF PROPOSED MASTERPLAN 1:5000

1:2000

38

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

39

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

40

644 LIVING CONTAINERS. WITH A NEW AVERAGE OCCUPANCY OF 3.2 PEOPLE PER UNIT - THIS MASTERPLAN PROVIDES NEW HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR 2,000 PEOPLE.

41

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

42

MASTERPLAN: AREAS OF DENISTY CREATING ENCLAVES, STREETS & SQUARES

43

PHASE 3: BRIDGE

PHASE 4b: UNDER THE BRIDGE MARKET

PHASE 5: UNZONED TRADING MARKET

PHASE 2: CENTRAL BUILDING

PHASE 4a: CONTAINER WALL

PHASE 1: DEWAT

PHASES 1-5

44

PHASE 6b

PHASE 6a

PHASE 7b

PHASE 7a

PHASE 8a

PHASE 8b

PHASES 6-8

45

PHASE 1: DEWAT (DECENTRALISED WATER TREATMENT)

48

Personal Experience Just as our fourth day on site was coming to an end our auto-rickshaw driver was there and waiting for us and we were all heading towards the tuc-tuc car to go to home to the hotel, when we all, at the same moment, looked over at once, and there was a girl of probably one and a half to two years of age standing in a large puddle of very dirty sewage water, and then we witnessed her bending down and drinking the water using her hands to scoop the it up to her mouth. She was standing there alone she was thirsty and she did not know not to drink it. She must of drank at least half a dozen handfuls of this brown water. We did not see this girl again for our remaining 6 days on site. For sure she got very ill from this.

Waterborne Diseases
Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated fresh water is consumed. Contaminated fresh water, used in the preparation of food, can be the source of foodborne disease through consumption of the same microorganisms. According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal disease accounts for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY global burden of disease and is responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million people every year. It was estimated that 88% of that burden pollution. In many areas, the problem is exacerbated by falling levels of groundwater, mainly caused by increasing extraction for irrigation. In some parts of the country, Several million more su er from multiple episodes of diarrhea Access to protected sources of excessive arsenic and uoride in and still others fall ill on account drinking water has improved drinking water also pose a major of Hepatitis A, enteric fever, dramatically over the years. health threat. intestinal worms and eye and skin Most rural water supply systems, The lack of toilets also a ects infections caused by poor hygiene especially the hand-pumps girls school attendance. Of Indias and unsafe drinking water. generally used by the poor, 700,000 rural primary and upper are using groundwater. But primary schools, only one in six Unhygienic practices and unsafe inadequate maintenance and have toilets, deterring children drinking water are some of its neglect of the environment - especially girls - from going to main causes. More than 122 around water sources has led to school. million households in the country increasing levels of groundwater is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and is mostly concentrated in children in developing countries. are without toilets. Even though toilets are built in about 3 million households every year, the annual rate of increase has been a low 1 per cent in the past decade.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE. HEALTH & WATERBORN DISEASES

49

BENEFITS OF DECENTRALISED SANITATION MANAGEMENT Benefits of decentralised wastewater management such as with DEWATS include cost efficient investments as only locally available materials and only simplified sewers are required, low running costs and energy savings as no electrical devices are needed, minimal O&M needs and costs, high variety of local water reuse options (irrigation, toilet flushing, cooling, groundwater recharge), easy and effective local energy recovery (biogas for lighting and cooking), local reuse for nutrients (natural fertiliser), reduced groundwater pollution through leaking UGSS, efficient user involvement and participation, high user acceptance, easy and quick applicability in so far unconnected areas, applicability as bridge-solution until a centralised system is provided, as well as applicability on cluster and community level as well as for individual users.

AREAS FOR DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER TREATMENT Appropriate areas for decentralised sanitation management such as with DEWATS are settlements in the periphery, new settlements, villages on the outskirts, areas with low population density, provisional settlements (temporary solution), schools, training centres, hospitals, hostels, and all areas which are not connected or which are not scheduled to be connected to a centralised system. Hence, the coexistence of conventional centralised treatment systems for core areas, combined with decentralised systems for omitted locations is the most beneficial solution. Centralised and decentralised management strategies need to go handin-hand (hybrid solution).

DEWATS, by CURE & London Metropolitan in Kachpura. 10 minute walk south from the site..

DEWATS and septic tank process section

DEWAT (DECENTRALISED WATER TREATMENT) PRESCEDENTS

50

Consortium for DEWATS Dissemination Society, Bangalore (DEWATS picture Pondicherry).

DEWATS and septic tank process section

LARGE DEWAT PROPOSED WITHIN THE MASTERPLAN

51

Reused sleepers used to channel the nala water to stop it overflowing and seeping into and contaminating the soil. The sleepers are also used to channel the irrigation water after it is proccessed by the DEWATT (above).

LARGE DEWAT PROPOSED WITHIN THE MASTERPLAN. REUSE OF CONCRETE RAILWAY SLEEPERS FOR CHANNELLING THE NEW IRRIGATION WATER

52

Indias Agriculture
Agriculture and allied sectors are considered to be the mainstay of the Indian economy. They are the important source of raw material and demand for many industrial products, particularly fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural implements and a variety of consumer goods. They contribute nearly 22 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India. About 65-70 per cent of the population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Agriculture and allied industry is further divided into several segments, namely:- horticulture and its allied sectors (including fruits and vegetables, owers, plantation crops, spices, aromatic and medicinal plants); sheries sector; animal husbandry and livestock; and sericulture. Indias varied agro-climatic conditions are highly favourable for the growth of large number of horticultural crops, which occupy around 10 per cent of gross cropped area of the country producing 160.75 million tonnes. India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. It is also second largest producer of owers after China. It is also leading producer, consumer and exporter for spices and plantation crops like tea, co ee, etc. While, sericulture is an agro-based cottage industry. India is ranked as the second major raw silk producer in the world. Fisheries sector occupies a very important place in the socioeconomic development of the country. It is a big source of employment opportunities for the large number of people in the country, especially rural population. It has a huge export potential. Similarly, India has vast resource of livestock and poultry, which play a vital role in promoting the welfare of rural masses. The Indian Dairy Industry has acquired substantial growth momentum from 9th Plan onwards. Indias milk output during the year 2006-2007 reached the level of 100.9 million tonnes (provisional), which has placed the country on top in the world in this eld. The Ministry of Agriculture is the main authority in India for regulation and development of activities relating to agriculture, horticulture, shing, animal husbandry, etc. It is implementing various schemes and policies for the sector through its divisions like Department of Agriculture and Cooperation and Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries. Further, the Ministry of Food Processing Industries is actively engaged in promotion of entrepreneurial activities in the segments of sh processing as well as fruits and vegetables processing. Besides, commodity boards, like tea board, co ee board, rubber board, medicinal plants board, etc. have been set up to boost the growth of the sectors like tea, co ee, rubber, medicinal plants, respectively. Hence, there exists innumerable business opportunities in the agriculture and allied sectors. Investors from all over the world are making more and more investments into the sector for unleashing its existing potentialities as well as for exploring the untapped areas.

Indias Agriculture

42

INDIAS AGRICULTURE & COMPOSTING PROCESS

53

PHASE 2: CENTRAL BUILDING

56

This existing building is abandoned. It was a water well which was later built over with this building. Now neither the building nor the well are being used I will use the buildings existing structure as a start for a proposal for a central community building. The Central Building is part of Phase 1. A community building in the centre of the site, where the residents come together meet up, have food in the cafe, school on top floor then in the evening the school becomes a centre for activities and workshops. The cafe is run as a cooperative. Local farmers cook there in return for subsidised land rates; they have the opportunity to sell their produce on a weekly baisis. When we were surveying on site we never had lunch. There was nowhere to get cooked food. Food plays an important part in a community: bring people together. Aslo there is a huge importance for good nutrition especially for children.

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION

57

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION. PLAN, SECTIONS & ELEVATIONS 1:200

58

ELEVATION 3

SECTION 2

ELEVATION 1

SECTION 1

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION. SECTIONS 1:100. KEY 1:200

- TT

11

00

(5

01 1

litr

es

SECTION 1

SECTION 2

ELEVATION 2

59

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION. ELEVATION & PLAN 1:100.

6 - TT1100 (5011 litres)

60

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION. ELEVATIONS 1:50

61

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION WITH SARI SILK RIBBON SHADDING. ELEVATIONS 1:50

62

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION WITH SARI SILK RIBBON SHADDING. ELEVATION 1:50

63

Rain water harvesting: 168m2 (roof area) X 800mm (annual rainfall) = 134,400 litres / 20 (5%) = 6,700 litre tank

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION CLIMATE DIAGRAMS: RAIN WATER HARVESTING 1:100

64

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION CLIMATE DIAGRAMS: SARI SILK SOLAR SHADING 1:50

65

1:1 PROTOTYPE OF BAMBOO & SARI SILK SHADING WALL. SECTIONS 1:100

66

CENTRAL BUILDING: CAFE / RESTURANT DOWNSTAIRS. SLUM SCHOOL / COMMUNITY ROOM UPSTAIRS

67

Nutrition - UNICEF

Malnutrition is more common in India than in Sub-Saharan Africa. One in every three malnourished children in the world lives in India. Malnutrition limits development and the capacity to learn. It also costs lives: about 50 per cent of all childhood deaths are attributed to malnutrition. In India, around 46 per cent of all children below the age of three are too small for their age, 47 per cent are underweight and at least 16 per cent are wasted. Many of these children are severely malnourished. The prevalence of malnutrition varies across states, with Madhya

Pradesh recording the highest rate (55 per cent) and Kerala among the lowest (27 per cent). Malnutrition in children is not a ected by food intake alone; it is also in uenced by access to health services, quality of care for the child and pregnant mother as well as good hygiene practices. Girls are more at risk of malnutrition than boys because of their lower social status. 1 in 3 of the worlds malnourished children lives in India Malnutrition in early childhood has serious, long-term consequences because it impedes motor, sensory,

cognitive, social and emotional development. Malnourished children are less likely to perform well in school and more likely to grow into malnourished adults, at greater risk of disease and early death. Around one-third of all adult women are underweight. Inadequate care of women and girls, especially during pregnancy, results in low- birthweight babies. Nearly 30 per cent of all newborns have a low birthweight, making them vulnerable to further malnutrition and disease. Vitamin and mineral de ciencies also a ect childrens survival and

development. Anaemia a ects 74 per cent of children under the age of three, more than 90 per cent of adolescent girls and 50 per cent of women. Iodine de ciency, which reduces learning capacity by up to 13 per cent, is widespread because fewer than half of all households use iodised salt. Vitamin A de ciency, which causes blindness and increases morbidity and mortality among pre-schoolers, also remains a public-health problem.

Health

53

NUTRITION - UNICEF

68

CENTRAL BUILDING DOWNSTAIRS: CAFE / RESTURANT

69

Education

Despite a major improvement in literacy rates during the 1990s, the number of children who are not in school remains high. Gender disparities in education persist: far more girls than boys fail to complete primary school. The literacy rate jumped from 52 per cent in 1991 to 65 per cent in 2001. The absolute number of non-literates dropped for the rst time and gross enrolment in Government-run primary schools increased from over 19 million in the 1950s to 114 million by 2001. 90 million females in India are nonliterate But 20 per cent of children aged 6 to14 are still not in school and millions of women remain nonliterate despite the spurt in female literacy in the 1990s. Several problems persist: issues of social distance arising out of caste, class and gender di erences deny children equal opportunities. Child labour in some parts of the country and resistance to sending girls to school remain real concerns.

School attendance is improving: more children than ever between the ages of 6 and 14 are attending school across the country. The education system faces a shortage of resources, schools, classrooms and teachers. There are also concerns relating to teacher training, the quality of the curriculum, assessment of learning achievements and the e cacy of school management. Given the scarcity of quality schools, many children drop out before completing ve years of primary education; many of those who stay on learn little. Girls belonging to marginalised social and economic groups are more likely to drop out of school at an early age. With one upper primary school for every three primary schools, there are simply not enough upper primary centres even for those children who complete primary school. For girls, especially, access

to upper primary centres becomes doubly hard. Campaigners will hand over a charter of education demands to the President as well as to state governors. In India, UNICEFs strategy in support of the Governments Quality Education for All goals is built around three inter-linked themes: access, quality and equity in primary education: (with emphasis on gender parity) through a holistic and gender sensitive understanding of good quality education and demonstration of a scaleable quality package. strategies to reach out to girls, especially from socially disadvantaged groups - urban poor, tribal, scheduled caste, and working children - in order to eliminate gender and social disparity in access as well as achievement.

ensure e ective analysis, action and advocacy at all levels.Improving quality is a critical long-term strategy to signi cantly reduce the number of out-of-school children as well as to improve overall levels of retention and achievement. At the policy level, the Education programme endeavours to netune policies and strategies to increase the enrolment, retention, achievement and completion rates in elementary education. Success is contingent on strong linkages between families/ communities and school. Educational research and analysis is the cementing factor and provides critical inputs for e ective planning and implementation. In particular, the programme seeks to improve learning outcomes, completion rates and literacy levels amongst disadvantaged groups.

Primary School

Education

children especially girls from going to school, and if enrolled, in remaining there. In addition are cultural factors: continuing discrimination against the girl child plays a crucial role in The number of children attending creating resistance around sending school has gone up many-fold since girls to school. the time of Indias Independence The persistence of class and caste increasing from around 19.2 million di erences and the prevalence of in 1950-51 to 113.8 million in 2000- child labour further complicate 01. this scenario, obstructing both But several problems persist. girls and boys from having equal The environment in which Indias opportunities to education. children live, learn and grow frustrates their attempts to have Even though the rate of school attendance is better than ever equal access to education. Among the many contributing before with more and more children factors is the quality of the physical between the ages of 6 and 14 enrolling at schools, the education space that children inhabit. Of Indias 700,000 rural schools, system is inadequately developed only one in six have toilets deterring wracked by a shortage of resources, Among one of the leading priorities for the UNICEF worldwide is its commitment to ensure that every girl and every boy completes a quality, primary-school education.

schools, classrooms and teachers. Often, due to the resulting, poor quality of teaching, many children drop out before completing ve years of primary school and many of those who stay on, learn little. The government of India is constitutionally committed to ensuring the right of every child to basic education. Government e orts have been intensi ed in recent years following the launch of various programmes including the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) in 1992, the Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) initiative and more recently the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (or the National Programme for Universal Elementary Education). UNICEF is an active partner in the Sarva Shiksha

Abhiyan supporting its objective to ensure all children complete ve years of school and have access to 55 good quality education. UNICEF strategy is woven around three inter-linked themes: access, quality and equity in basic education. It supports initiatives that help provide equal opportunities for children from disadvantaged communities including the urban poor and working children. It implements a quality package across 14 states that aims at improving the quality of curricula and classroom environment. And, it supports alternative learning strategies including bridging courses for adolescent girls, who are out of school.

INDIAN EDUCATION - UNICHEF

70

CENTRAL BUILDING UPSTAIRS: SLUM SCHOOL BY DAY / COMMUNITY ROOM IN THE EVENING

71

PHASE 3: THE BRIDGE

74

India's 40,000 miles (64,000 kilometres) of railway track cut through some of the most densely populated cities, flanked by shanty towns, in the nation of 1.2 billion people. Railway experts say stopping pedestrians from crossing the tracks in congested areas would be virtually impossible.

15,000 INDIANS DIE EVERY YEAR FROM CROSSING THE RAILWAY TRACKS

75

India's 40,000 miles (64,000 kilometres) of railway track cut through some of the most densely populated cities, flanked by shanty towns, in the nation of 1.2 billion people. Railway experts say stopping pedestrians from crossing the tracks in congested areas would be virtually impossible.

DANGER ON THE TRACKS

76

INITIAL SKETCHES OF THE IDEA FOR A PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO CROSS THE RAILWAY TRACKS

77

INITIAL BRIDGE CONCEPT SKETCHES

78

INITIAL BRIDGE SKETCHES

79

Gandi did not like the speed of the railways. He said that materials should be sourced locally and that communites should be self sustainable. For him the railways were an imposition of globalization or modernisation which threatened the ancient traditions of India. The intentions of the railway construction, by the British chief engineer, was to unite India. Paradoxically on a local scale, the railways segrigated and isolated communities. The Indian railways, intially built by the British, is the largest rail network in Asia.

GANDI & THE RAILWAYS

80

868 concrete sleepers are used 1,384 wooden sleepers used on the throughout this masterplan as bridge for floor planks and railings. foundations for the containers and also for channelling clean and dirty water. The sleepers are thinned - decreasing their weight. 1860 halfs are used.

248 tracks are used on the bridge grouped in four for columns. Totalling 1,984 metres.

62 I Beams of are used on the bridge. I Beams at 9.5m (x 62)

62 OHE columns are used on the bridge as banister posts. One column is cut in 5 to make the posts. (5 x 62 = 310 parts)

186 OHE beams are used on the bridge as beams.

On location, there was an abundance of railway material lying around not being used. Sleepers, railway tracks, OHEs, I-beams, etc, etc. I measured these materials with the intention to build with them. The theme of the project is Architecture of Rapid Change

& Scarce Resources, so therefore whatever materials which are readily avaliable must be utilized in the project. There were thousands of materials all over the place on the site, so not only is it wise to utilize them, they are already part of the sites aesthetic.

QUANTITY SURVEY: RE-USING THE ABANDONED RAILWAY ELEMENTS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE

81

INITIAL STRUCTURAL DIAGRAMS FOR THE BRIDGE

82

BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE

83

Pedestrian bridge only crossing one track. The community we got to know well over the two weeks on site

Rail and pedestrian bridge 750m long.

There is a big difference between the quality of living on the market side, campared to the side of the slum settlements.

Ramp leading onto the centre of the site

RECONNECTING COMMUNITIES: THE BRIDGE WILL LINK THE SLUM SETTLEMENTS WITH THE MORE DEVELOPED MARKET SIDE

84

PROPOSED MASTERPLAN FIGURE GROUND 1:5000

1:2000

85

INITIAL RENDERS SHOWING THE CONTINUATION OF ACCESS FROM THE MARKET ACROSS THE TRACKS AND TO THE SITE

86

Railway Maintanance Building & Storage

Outdoor Muslim Temple

Buffalo Farm Inside Dilapidated Building

d Trucks

Parked Rickshaws x 5
#DrgID #LayID

General Store Parked Rickshaws x 10 General Stall Wood Factory Parked Trucks Bricks Bike Shop Building Materials

Wastepickers

Abandoned Tunnel / Old Railway Station

Handicraft on Street

98.500 99.000 99.500 100.000 100.500


100. 500

Parked Rickshaws

Industrial Materials Clothes Washing Clothes Shop

Clothes Shop

General Store Building Materials

Food Stall Electrical Store Hair Dressers Waste Land

General Store

Abandoned / Outdate Railway Control Centre; part used for storage

Abandoned
18
1 2 14 x8 1/2" 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 = 9'-10" 4 5 3

18

15

100. 100.500
04 02

1 2 3 14 x 8 1/2" = 9'-10" 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

= 9'-10"

1/2"

14

x8

11

13

14

x8

12

1/2"

= 9'-10"

New Water Tower

School

14

13

12

11

10

9 8 7 6

10

4 3 2 1

Dilapidated Building
15

14

General Store

Old Water Tower


15

05 19
7 6

1/4"

9'-10"

14

100.000
01

100.000 99.500

19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8

5 4 3 2

14

School Railway Building / Generator Railway Control Center

Railway Maintainance / Warehouse

100.000
Abandoned / Dilapidated Old Railway Ofce
1 1/4" 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 x 8" = 14'-9

Hindu Temple
#DrgID #LayID #DrgID #LayID

#DrgID #LayID

101.500 102.000 102.500 103.000

Waste Pickers

General Store

105.000 103.500 104.000 MASTERPLAN 1:2000 SHOWING THE CONTINUATION OF ACCESS FROM THE MARKET ACROSS THE TRACKS AND TO THE SITE 104.500

103.500

87

INITIAL BRIDGE RENDER & SECTIONS 1:1000 & 1:2000

88

ON-SITE SECTIONS THROUGH THE ROUTE TAKEN BY LOCALS CROSSING THE TRACKS & NEW SECTION THROUGH THE BRIDGE 1:1000

89

THE WRONG SIDE OF THE TRACKS; Slum settlements segregated / cut off by the railway tracks. With a busy market on one side of the railway tracks, and a collection of slum settlements on the other; the two sides are separated. The slums, somewhat isolated from main-land Agra; exist as Edge-Lands and they have a rural /urban-rural feel to them. MARKET SIDE As soon as we crossed the railway lines, from our site, to the side of the market, we noticed a sudden change in the infrastructure; where everything is paved, the sewers are concreted and they are working very well; the quality of living is evidently higher on the market side, where the proximity to the centre of Agra (across the near-by Yamuna bridge) is much more accessible. The market sells most things and has a general industrial feel to it; selling all types of building materials with various factories and workshops in the area; here, business is relatively booming. There is a big difference between the quality of living on the market side, campared to the side of the slum settlements. Here, on the market side, there are many things being sold, there is business and activity. Also, importantly the nalas are cemented - they are still open air sewers, but opposed to the slum settlements, where the waste water get discharged into the soil, which then spreads and pollutes the ground., here many things have developed much more rapidly. It appears that the railway tracks have secluded or divided a community.

THE MARKET SIDE

90

(Top left). This pedestrian bridge is 5 minutes walk from our site by the actual Yamuna Bridge train station/stop. The only thing is is that this bridge only crosses two out six tracks; it is to get to the other side of the platform for when there is a train already parked in the way (like in the photograph). This bridge does not tackle the saftey issue for the other four tracks. As these railways get more and more busy in the years to come crossing the tracks will become more and more difficult and dangerous. (Top right). This bridge is for trains and pedestrians. It is a 20 minute walk from the site. It crosses the Yamuna river connecting to main-land Agra. The pedestrian walkway is 2 metres from the tracks! The bridge is 750 metres long and also a long way down. In places the pedestrain banister has come away completey and also the metal sheet floor plates are erroding, in some places there quite large holes. This pedestrian route is rather busy. with people going in both directions, sometimes on bycycle. The walkway is no more than one metre wide!

Proposed pedestrian, motor-rickshaw and motorbike bridge. As Indias railways develop even further and they are upgraded, more and more of this railway material will become avaliable to reuse for the construction of these types of bridges all over India. Making crossing the railway tracks safe therefore saving many lives.

EXAMPLES OF EXISTING BRIDGES WITHIN A WALKABLE PROXIMITY TO THE SITE

91

CROSSING THE TRACKS SAFELY. SAVING 15,000 LIVES PER YEAR. AN EXAMPLAR / PROTOTYPE CONSTRUCTION FOR ALL RAILWAY CROSSINGS IN INDIA

92

THE JOURNEY FROM THE SLUM SETTLEMENTS TO THE MARKET IS MADE BY MANY TWICE DAILY. NOW PEOPLE CAN CROSS THE TRACKS IN A SAFE AND COMMUNAL WAY

93

BECAUSE THE BRIDGE IS MADE UP OF THE VERY FABRIC OF THE RAILWAYS IT EXISTS AS CAMOUFLAGE; LIKE IT HAS ALWAYS BEEN THERE

94

Due to the heavy work loads, with deadlines drawing closer and the sheer complexity of the contruction of the bridge; An executive decision was made to outsource the physical modelling for the proposed bridge. The best candidate for this job was Leonardo Socrates (aged 14 months young). The model here really emphasises the joy and exuberance this symbolic construction will bring to the Yamuna Bridge area.

MAKING THE BRIDGE MODEL

95

STAIR ACCESS PLAN AND RENDER FROM THE TRACKS (VIEW FROM THE TRAIN)

96

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. PLAN & ELEVATIONS 1:100

147

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. ELEVATION 1:50

148

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. ELEVATIONS 1:50

149

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. PLAN 1:50

150

SECTION 5 SECTION 4

SECTION 2

ELEVATION 2

SECTION 3

ELEVATION 1

ELEVATION 3 SECTION 2

SECTION 3

SECTION 1

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. SECTIONS 1:100. KEY 1:200

- TT5

60

(254

litre

s)

- TT5

60

(254

litre

s)

SECTION 1

SECTION 5 SECTION 4

151

POUR FLUSH TOILETS (COMPOSTING LATRINE). PLAN 1:50

-T

T5

60

(2

54

litr

es

-T

T5

60

(2 5

42

litr

es

POUR FLUSH TOILET A Pour Flush Toilet is like a regular Flush Toilet except that instead of the water coming from the cistern above, it is poured in by the user. When the water supply is not continuous, any cistern Flush Toilet can become a Pour Flush Toilet. Just like a traditional Flush Toilet, there is a water seal that prevents odours and flies from coming back up the pipe. ADVANTAGES - The water seal effectively prevents odours - The excreta of one user are flushed away before the next user arrives - Suitable for all types of users (sitters, squatters, wipers and washers) - Low capital costs; operating costs depend on the price of water. MAINTENANCE It is easy to construct, operate, and maintain: Operation consists of regular water cleansing of the slab (with soap or detergent, if available) to remove any excreta and urine, and daily cleansing of the floor, squatting pan, door handles and other parts of the superstructure. Maintenance consists of monthly inspections to check for cracks in the floor slab and damage to the vent pipe and fly screen, and digging out of part of the feces at the end of the dry season. These feces should be handled with care and buried in a pit covered with soil. After at least a year, when the contents of the pit have decomposed into harmless humus, the humus can be can be used as fertilizer. It is relatively inexpensive to construct, operate, and maintain.

152

CALCULATING POO Rain water harvesting section 1:200 Harvested and stored rainwater is utilized for the bathroom taps, which is used for washing and manually flushing (pouring). 180m2 (roof area) X 800mm (annual rainfall) = 143,856 litres / 20 (5%) = 7,193 litre tank (2 tanks at 3,600 litres). 1 poo = 50 - 100 grams, Therefore an average 2kg of poo / per month, So that is 25kg of poo per person per year. So for a housing block of 120 people; 120 people x 25kg = 3000kg of poo per year The estimated density of poo is the same as water. So therefore the volume of poo = 1 litre/ 1kg. Therefore, 3000kg of poo = 3000 litres of poo. Therefore, the volume is 3m3 (per year). The size of an individual container/pit is; 2m (long), 1m (wide), 2.5 (deep) 2 x 1 x 2.5 = 5m3 There are 6 pits, but only 3 are being used at one time, so therefore; 3 pits x 5m3 = 15m3 120 people will use up 3m2 per year so therefore the pits need to be switched/ changed every 5 years.

POUR FLUSH TOILETS (COMPOSTING LATRINE). ELEVATION 1:50

153

SECTION 5 SECTION 4

SECTION 2

ELEVATION 2

SECTION 3

ELEVATION 1

ELEVATION 3 SECTION 2

SECTION 3

SECTION 1

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. KEY 1:200. ELEVATION 1:00

- TT5

60

(254

litres

- TT5

60

(254

litres

SECTION 1

SECTION 5 SECTION 4

154

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. ELEVATIONS 1:00

155

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. ELEVATION 1:50

156

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. ELEVATIONS 1:50

157

Rain water harvesting section 1:50 Harvested and stored rainwater is utilized for the bathroom taps, which is used for washing and manually flushing (pouring). 180m2 (roof area) X 800mm (annual rainfall) = 143,856 litres / 20 (5%) = 7,193 litre tank (2 tanks at 3,600 litres).

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. CLIMATE DIAGRAMS: RAIN WATER HARVESTING 1:50

158

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. CLIMATE DIAGRAMS: SARI SILK SOLAR SHADING 1:50

159

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. CLIMATE DIAGRAMS 1:100

160

Harvested and stored rainwater is utilized for the bathroom taps, which is used for washing and manually flushing (pouring). 180m2 (roof area) X 800mm (annual rainfall) = 143,856 litres / 20 (5%) = 7,193 litre tank (2 tanks at 3,600 litres).

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. 3D CUTOUT THROUGH WATER TANKS & TOILET AREA

161

10

11

12

DO NOT SCALE DRAWING

REVISION

TITLE:

DWG NO.

Assem3
SHEET 1 OF 1

A3

SCALE:1:200

ISOMETRIC & ELEVATIONS

162

10

11

12

Stairs

Bannister

Non Load Bearing Bamboo Structure

Rain Water Harvesting

DO NOT SCALE DRAWING

REVISION

TITLE:

ISO VIEWS
DWG NO.

A3
SHEET 1 OF 1

SCALE:1:50

ISOMETRIC ELEMENTS

163

ASSEMBLY DETAILS 1

164

ASSEMBLY DETAILS 2

165

ASSEMBLY DETAILS

166

ASSEMBLY DETAILS

167

3D ASSEMBLAGE DRAWINGS

168

3D ASSEMBLAGE DRAWING

169

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. 3D CUTOUT THROUGH CONTAINER LIVING UNITS

170

644 LIVING CONTAINERS. WITH A NEW AVERAGE OCCUPANCY OF 3.2 PEOPLE PER UNIT - THIS MASTERPLAN PROVIDES NEW HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR 2,000 PEOPLE.

171

Indias Agriculture
Agriculture and allied sectors are considered to be the mainstay of the Indian economy. They are the important source of raw material and demand for many industrial products, particularly fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural implements and a variety of consumer goods. They contribute nearly 22 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India. About 65-70 per cent of the population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Agriculture and allied industry is further divided into several segments, namely:- horticulture and its allied sectors (including fruits and vegetables, owers, plantation crops, spices, aromatic and medicinal plants); sheries sector; animal husbandry and livestock; and sericulture. Indias varied agro-climatic conditions are highly favourable for the growth of large number of horticultural crops, which occupy around 10 per cent of gross cropped area of the country producing 160.75 million tonnes. India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. It is also second largest producer of owers after China. It is also leading producer, consumer and exporter for spices and plantation crops like tea, co ee, etc. While, sericulture is an agro-based cottage industry. India is ranked as the second major raw silk producer in the world. Fisheries sector occupies a very important place in the socioeconomic development of the country. It is a big source of employment opportunities for the large number of people in the country, especially rural population. It has a huge export potential. Similarly, India has vast resource of livestock and poultry, which play a vital role in promoting the welfare of rural masses. The Indian Dairy Industry has acquired substantial growth momentum from 9th Plan onwards. Indias milk output during the year 2006-2007 reached the level of 100.9 million tonnes (provisional), which has placed the country on top in the world in this eld. The Ministry of Agriculture is the main authority in India for regulation and development of activities relating to agriculture, horticulture, shing, animal husbandry, etc. It is implementing various schemes and policies for the sector through its divisions like Department of Agriculture and Cooperation and Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries. Further, the Ministry of Food Processing Industries is actively engaged in promotion of entrepreneurial activities in the segments of sh processing as well as fruits and vegetables processing. Besides, commodity boards, like tea board, co ee board, rubber board, medicinal plants board, etc. have been set up to boost the growth of the sectors like tea, co ee, rubber, medicinal plants, respectively. Hence, there exists innumerable business opportunities in the agriculture and allied sectors. Investors from all over the world are making more and more investments into the sector for unleashing its existing potentialities as well as for exploring the untapped areas.

Indias Agriculture

42

INDIAS AGRICULTURE & COMPOSTING PROCESS

172

THIS MASTERPLAN PROVIDES NEW HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR 2,000 PEOPLE. THE MASTERPLAN INTERGRATES IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE PLOTS FOR SELF SUSTAINABILITY

173

PHASE 6-7 (b): VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWERS (x4)

176

VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWERS & AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK & MID-SITE MASTERPLAN SECTION 1:500

177

SECTION 1

-T

T1 10

(5

01 1

litr

es

ELEVATION 1 ELEVATION 2 SECTION 1

VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER ELEVATION 1:200. KEY 1:100

178

VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER ELEVATION 1:200

179

WIREFRAME MODEL OF THE VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER

180

WIREFRAME MODEL OF THE VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER

181

ASSEMBLY DETAILS 1

182

ASSEMBLY DETAILS 2

183

6 - TT1100 (5011 litres)

VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER PLAN 1:50

184

3D ASSEMBLY DETAILS

185

PROJECT SUMMARY: PROPOSED MASTERPLAN 1:2000

188

PROPOSED MASTERPLAN 1:5000

189

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

190

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

191

MASTERPLAN: AREAS OF DENISTY CREATING ENCLAVES, STREETS & SQUARES

192

644 LIVING CONTAINERS. WITH A NEW AVERAGE OCCUPANCY OF 3.2 PEOPLE PER UNIT - THIS MASTERPLAN PROVIDES NEW HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR 2,000 PEOPLE.

193

PHASE 3: BRIDGE

PHASE 4b: UNDER THE BRIDGE MARKET

PHASE 5: UNZONED TRADING MARKET

PHASE 2: CENTRAL BUILDING

PHASE 4a: CONTAINER WALL

PHASE 1: DEWAT

PHASES 1-5

194

PHASE 6b

PHASE 6a

PHASE 7b

PHASE 7a

PHASE 8a

PHASE 8b

PHASES 6-8

195

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

196

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

197