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From " Examples
of Ancient

and Modern Furniture and Decoration," by B.
J. Talbert.)

J. Talbert.

(By permission of Mrs. B.




and makers of artistic furniture.M. published by Sampson Low & Co. John G. who by their courtesy have enublecl him . firms of art decorators.A. Some have been done specially for this work. JUS book is intended to show various specimens of modern decoration . has been Many j of the illustrations have already appeared in Decor athe monthly magazine of the decorative arts. The Author desires to express his thanks to the various architects. E. Sketched by J.S. decorative artists. Edward Armitage.. thought well to prefix a brief account of the systems in use among ancient nations. art manufacturers. Grace. Mr. The interest it literary part of the work has received enhancement of and value from the quotations which have been made in from lectures and articles by Mr. and others whose names are given in the book. PREFACE. and importers of artistic objects. and as all modern work is founded more or it less on ancient examples. whose names are attached to their respective contributions.FRIEZE FROM THE LOUVRE. while for others the author has been indebted to several publishers.

in the illustration of his notes on Ornamental Interiors. and describe many specimens of free to the public. he has in no case deliberately suppressed names likely to aid . artistic to inspect work not usually made some parts of the work attempts have been made to give some information concerning artists and manufacturers. that he has taken fairly representative names both in the department of design and in and while he has not pretended that of practical workmanship to exhaust the list of those by whom good work is produced. may think of equal The Author believes.IV PREFACE. the book does not pretend to be either a dictionary of decorative Though in artists or a directory of art manufacturers. Many names are necessarily omitted which some people importance with those mentioned. however. .



. . 5 Phrenico-Egyptian Cherubim Oriental Vase . Legend." Decoiative painting at the Sanatorium.18 . . .M. 6 . . Frieze from the Tuileries Warwick . Virginia Water . . (Tailpiece to Contents) . Boston. (Tailpiece to List of Plates) to List (Heading ( of Illustrations) Japanese Tailpiece " " The Departure Stained Glass Panel Stained Glass " Tailpiece to List of Illustrations) . . 14 Psychidion. . . . . .13 . . (Heading to Contents) . Joy. Virginia Water . . . . .S. . ." A Decorative Panel. Windsor Castle " The Dinner " . Leycester Hospital. (Title to Page) (Heading Preface) Author's Monogram . . . . 'History. . Gallery in Master's Lodge. ." Decorative painting at the Sanatorium. (Tailpiece to to List Preface) " The Arrival " (Heading of Plates) Throne Room. .4 . . or Little Psyche . Window Screen . . . ." Decorative picture at the Sanatorium. painted by J. LIST OF SMALLER ILLUSTRATIONS. Virginia Water 22 28 A Bath-room Panel . for Mr. "Epic Poetry." THE DINNER. . .

. C. . . By J. .. .. .. . . . . J. Comedy and Tragedy . .. Haite . .. By B. F.. .. . ... Talbert .. . . . from the Bayeux Tapestry from the Bayeux Tapestry Saxon Interior.. .108 . M. . Margetson 108 105 Side of Chimney-piece Chimney-piece Design Oriental Vase .. .. . . . ... ... .. . .68 76 87 ... .viii LIST OF SMALLER ILLUSTRATIONS. Voysey ' . .. Wall Paper. .. By Owen W... ..64 .... S. 60 C..62 .. .29 . .. . . Antwerp Decoration of a Ceiling in Geometrical Compartments Part of a Ceiling by Bernardino Poccetti ..89 97 By Fred. I'AGK . . . Erotideus..52 56 58 59 Sunflower Frieze. . . A. By By G. . A. .88 . . ... 39 Wall Decoration of the Salle de Leys. or Little Cupid Ornament Style of Thirteenth Century Indian Decorative Salver Drawing-room Frieze Decoration Decoration of Small Salon at Versailles Decoration of a Small Drawing-room Ceiling Design.. .. . . . .. .. in Byzantine Style Maria Maggiore Ceiling in Sculptured Stone Decoration of a Timber Ceiling . Wall Paper. .42 43 Ceiling of the Countess of Derby's Dressing-room Japanese Decoration of a Sword-hilt . By C. Davis ... .51 . . .... . . . . . . 38 . . . F. . .. ' . J. ... . .40 . . . Talbert . . . . ... .. Wall Paper. . Voysey . . . . . . 106 107 Indian Carved Furniture . By B. .... . . .61 .. Drawing-room.. ... .. Wall Paper. Drawing-room Cabinet..50 .... Pompeian Wall Painting Ornament Sta.. .31 33 34 36 37 Harold in Normandy. ".. . ... . . . . Over-door Decoration . .

. . . P. a Carving designed for . . . J. By E. . .- . 0.. ix PAGE .. .. By Joseph . By .136 . . ." a From . .. .127 128 . .. . . . Japanese Ornament Oriental Table for a . 131 Room or Hall Decoration. Sanatorium. .. Decorative Panel for Frieze . Stained Glass Window Screen . Antwerp The Grand Staircase. .152 .118 119 Drawing-room Chimney-piece. . . 120 122 123 " Taillefer Chanting the Song of Roland. ... Virginia Water . Hotel de Ville. . Buckingham Palace . .. . .159 . .153 Sappho. 133 Hall Decoration. 124 A Library Chair . . .. the Recreation ... J.. . 140 Oriental Table or Flower Stand 142 143 Hall Chair Indian Pottery Salle de Leys. Buckingham Palace " . .113 115 Carved Decoration of Arch.. ." One of the Figures in . .135 . . . . Berlin By W. . Buckingham Palace . . . . . .. . By F.. .. ..>. .. ..109 Dining-room Decoration . Abbaye of Helmsdale Cabinet in the Museum. Addey . Small Sideboard Stained Glass Panel By Robert A. Hall. Robinson . Young .116 117 Museum Bruges Carved Oak Screen. 144 145 . Abbaye of Helmsdale Old Flemish Table in the . . . Nightingale . at . . 148 The Blue Drawing-room..137 138 Smoking-room Alf. Briggs . . ..LIST OF SMALLER ILLUSTRATIONS. . . The White Drawing-room. . . . . Screen of By Charles W. . Jackson Mushrebiyeh Work . Broadwood Piano .. Chimney-piece. Parlour Decoration. . . . . Harris Wall Filling and Frieze. .. .. Choir Seats.112 Dining-room Recess and Fireplace.. . . Abbaye of Helmsdale . . 139 . .

Bishop. . . Hotel de Ville.. Cardou... ... Salle By M. Original Ornamental Initials to Chapters..x LIST OF SMALLER ILLUSTRATIONS..." Oriental Vase Panel in Broad wood puno . 168 180 A " Painted Bedstead Lap ine in soft Lydian . .184 Mural Painting. 181 A Bath-room Panel . Panel in Broadwood piano .... ... . 185 196 197 Specimens of Glacier Decoration (irate." .. . .. Brussels Oriental Vase Liberty's Printed Fabrics . .. 163 167 Stained Glass Window Screen . . 203 206 208 220 Japanese Ornament. des Manages... - . . . airs. . . .... . .. Oriental Vase By Hokusai .... & Barnard . A JAPANESE TAIL-PIECE. .... .. . . .. .. .. By Barnard. .... PGK- " The Story of Cainbuscan Bold. . .

. Brazen towers. Egyptian a completed. painted by J. Temple of the Sun at Cuzco. for Mr. TRADITIONAL AND HISTORIC. the Assyrian courts." A Decorative Panel. Extensive use of metal in early times. Egyptian tradition. CHAPTER III. mentioned in Plato's "Timaeus" and " Critias. The King Alciuoin.. as described by Homer. Mexican Decoration." claims Atlantis as the mother country. 8. as revealed in their sculpture.. Assyrian works in bronze. Boston. Peruvian and page 1 CHAPTER METAL palace of IN DECORATION.. Similarity of ornamentation to Assyrian . .'THE DEPAKTUKE.. of one Manner Fergusson's restoration Colours used by the Assyrians building. NT ENT CHAPTER . Mexican traditions referring to Atzlan . in Peru.. page 14 ... ASSYRIAN DECORATION. Joy. Solomon's temple and house... not a tentative style obviously an impoitation from another country.S.. II.. .. temples. and treasures.. of Characof of the Assyrians. Assyrian decoration contains the source of teristics many Greek ornaments..M. I.

BYZANTINE. Description of the palace of Menelaus artists at Sparta.C. Specimens of their furniture. CHAPTER VII. . page 18 CHAPTER V. Early examples discovered at Tiryns show various phases of archaism. Maria Maggiore. W. Chief decorative artists Excessive foreshortening. revival England. . The Bayeux tapestry. of their chief works. Alexandrian period. Runic. and Celtic examples. The use of domes and cupolas. Arabesques imitated . . Change wrought in architecture by the introduction of Christianity. Some .. Interiors in this style at Fontainebleau.C. paintings in the British Museum. for . Superseded in Fine examples of various periods style. Batley . 716 to the The staining . Mosaic decoration. . Grounds and Three periods of Roman painting. Colours used in early and later times... Gibbs. Resemblance of some to Danish. Mingling of opposing Western Europe by the pointed in England. Egyptian decoration well known. Sta. . EGYPTIAN DECORATION. 335. by H. in England superseded . and painting of statues . CHAPTER The characteristics of traditional IV. Mediaeval and modern tapestries. Materials used in decoration in Homeric times. page 22 CHAPTER VI. by Raphael from ancient Roman various styles. Designs regulated by conventionalism. Use of tapestry. Publication of Stuart and Revett's work on Greek Work a in Classic . Chambers. tion. GOTHIC. GREEK DECORATIONS. The Renaissance in Italy extends to other European their countries. page 29 . AND RENAISSANCE.XH CONTENTS. ROMAN AND POMPEIAN DECORATION. CLASSIC. . materials used for painting. decorations. Characteristics of Pompeian painted decoraRoom in this style. time by the Gothic page 33 . ruins. from B. . elements produces Byzantine. Celebrated Greek decorative B. Extensive range of Egyptian design. temples. . Manner of enlarging and executing the Wall decorative Style of design used for ceilings.. Style of decoration. Adam.

Influence of Japanese art.. and Jeffrey. Butterfield. Alfred Waterhouse. Mediaeval cabinet. B. Weakness of Ruskin as a judge architecture Fergusson . Tendency of later work towards Jacobean. Lady Decoon Lady Decorators. QUEEN ANNE AND LATER DEVELOPMENTS OF STYLE. Publishes his " Gothic Forms. Collinson and Lock's catalogue. E.. X. C. Street. and bad specimens of Queen Anne style...... architects some English and Scottish .. Viollet-le-Duc. due in part to over-extension of his aims. drawing rash conclusions from superficial knowledge of a subject.. Influence at the modern French work.. Venetian is tecture of not adopted in this country. Wm. Difficulties of the architect Characteristics of good ance of scale. Gamier Grand Opera. Modern workers Lefuel at the His imitators." Scott. Eastlake.. in examples of Doric columns. L. Talbert designs furniture for the Paris Exhibition.... xiii CHAPTEK The Great Exhibition. Haweis Denouncers of graining and natural flowers.. Mrs. arrangement. Talbert's "Examples of Decoration and Furniture. VIII. ImportMr.. Architect-Decorators. workers ....Woollams. in Influence of Norman Shaw. and other artistic page 52 CHAPTEK IX. by W." Wall papers... intuitive Their influence on the work of page 68 CHAPTER Rooms thirty years ago. - G. AMATEUR AND ARCHITECTURAL AMATEUR DECORATORS. Gothic superseded by the style called Queen Anne. The Grammar of Ornament. Barges. decorative art. THE RISE OF THE MODERN STYLES OF DECORATION.CONTENTS. Cynical disturbance of this rators. by Morris. Acknowledgment of the superiority of feminine taste looked for from the novelist.. styles to The diversity of the which the name Proportion : is attached. apparent when his work is compared with that of page 76 . J. Tuileries. Ruskin's want of influence on practical art due to his His archi- enthusiastic recommendation of Venetian architecture.

Examples of dining-room Decoration in the style of Flemish Renaissance. Crace. Margetson. Colours suitable for these styles. . Aristocratic Conservatism in Decoration. Elizabethan. Colours. and W. John G. . H. . A W. Wayman. Batley. belonging to Earl Cadogan. Lane. W. page 128 . 'Exceptions. and others . John G. and Liberty & Co. W.xiv CONTEXTS. Fred. Morris. House of an American millionaire. Crace on colour and arrangement of Decorations by J. W. decorations for the Duke of Westminster and Marquis of Bute page 8 CHAPTER Rich and dark colours the tions rule.. page 124 & Co. . . R. Specimens by J. Andrew Wells. 0. small drawing-room. Norman. . H.. & J. Batley. Young. Drawing-rooms l>y Johnstone. Mr. Mr. Nightingale. Kennard. THE DINING-ROOM. Halls. . some London houses. . Felix and and Mark Fisher.. Drawing-rooms at Chelsea House.. Rutland Cottage. page 109 CHAPTER Qualities necessary in Library Decoration. J. Pearce's house nt Staircases and Glasgow. F. A. Styles of Louis Quatorze and Louis Quinze considered especially suitable for drawing-rooms and boudoirs. and others. CHAPTER Marble used for Staircase in XIV. XII L THE LIBRARY. . Edis. STAIRCASES AND HALLS. & Co. Norman. W. Decorations by Joseph Sharp. Margetson. J. Colours used in original decoration for drawingrooms illustrated in Plate XIII. H. and Collinson & Lock. CHAPTER XL DRAWING-ROOM DECORATION.Gothic. Materials. . XII.. Young . Cooper. Decora- by F. Hall Harris. L. Griinshaw. Pearce's drawing-room. Examples by Johnstone.. F. Richard Q. . White.

St. STUDIES. page 137 CHAPTER The Palace of Westminster. XVIII. Persian colour arrangements. James's Palace. Contrasts of Colour by Examples of Colour Decoration at John G.. at DECORATION OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS. Sir Frederick Leighton's treatment. M. Jackson. Buckingham Holloway Sanatorium. AND THE TREATMENT OF BACKGROUNDS. The Lyceum.. James's.. style Colours used in a Studio Specimens of Oriental of the Prince of Wales Decollation. The Savoy . W. FIGURES IN FRIEZES AND CEILINGS. Marks. Examples hy Pavilion E. Robinson and Chas. The Adelphi. PARLOURS. Theatre Royal. Hall. Grace. Manages. Friezes executed by Walter Crane and H. Alma Tadema. . by Liberty & Co.. The Royalty.CONTENTS. The State Apartments Town Hall. . Windsor Castle page 145 CHAPTER XVIL THEATRICAL DECORATIONS AND SCENERY. Hints by Edward Indian colour arrangements. ETC. and other A Flemish Munich. Alf.. at Antwerp Town . Sir Frederick interior.. S. page 168 CHAPTER XIX. The true treatment. Drury Lane. Ceiling by Sir Frederick Leighton in Royal Academy Exhibition of 1886. NOTES ON COLOUR. Leighton. The Princess's. XVI.. AND SMOKING-ROOMS. page 181 . Friezes by J. Examples of Colour by Painters. Armitage. St. S. Salle des at Brussels. Greater freedom allowed in the Decoration of such rooms. xv CHAPTER XV.. Palace.- page 163 CHAPTER FRIEZES. Decoration of the House of Lords. . Manchester Salle de Leys..

Lincrusta Walton. page 209 APPENDIX . CHAPTEE XX. Glacier Decoration. Tynecastle Tapestry. Spirit page 185 CHAPTER XXI. PRACTICAL NOTES. page 211 . Tectorium. A new method of Painting. Mixtures of Colours. .. Iron and Brass Work. TABLE OF DECORATIVE STYLES IN ENGLAND FROM 1399 TO 1830 . Liberty's Fabrics for wall decoration.XVI CONTENTS.. DECORATIVE MATERIALS... Fresco Painting ... tion. Marble inlay. Marshall's new Embroidery.. Keramic Decora- Mosaic.. Indian Furniture. Mode of working. Conclusion page 197 . Silicine Painting.

Egyptian . OBMERLY cient to tecture. nowhere in Egypt do we find it had its tentative attempts at architecture or traces of of sculpture and painting in their The earliest Egyptian works may be different from those of a later period. suffi. but this has now been found In the first insufficient. . it was thought Painting. that prove it to be an importation from another land. and their the Decorative Arts from appearance in Egypt. where and noon the arts infancy. consistency. morn.- trace the rise of Archi- Sculpture. but they are in their own style perfected examples of arts which have been evolved after ages of experiment. HISTORIC AND TRADITIONAL. Egyptian art in its very earliest form shows a maturity. : for dawn. place we cannot believe that all the styles of orna- ment now existing sprang from the and in the second. and systematic conventionality.ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS CHAPTER I.

Assyria.* Situated opposite the mouth of the Mediterranean and its between Portugal and America. The former existence of till this land of it Atlantis was treated. on the one side direct from Egypt. the arts architecture Caspian. are still above water. part of which.M. The soundings taken in the Atlantic by H.S. Lydia. the nurse of the arts. Those on the west were not so fortunate as to receive from the mothercountry the arts in perfected form. the Ionic colonies. By way of Phoenicia. as a myth. and by the U. Greece received the arts in two streams. who were a Dorian colony. the fosterer of civilisation. the highest peaks. Thus Egypt received from Atlantis architecture and the ready-made. which are not . Thus it was on the lands lying to the east of Atlantis. and the colonising power of the antediluvian world. another colony of Atlantis. From Greece it was transmitted in very early times to Italy by the Etruscans. which was overwhelmed by the is last great deluge.S. and are known to geographers as the Azores Islands. which in antediluvian times probably formed one grand continuation of the Mediterranean. and but that they did thence receive them is Assyria had done testified by the traditions of Mexico and Peru. Plato relates that the Egyptians believed themselves to be a colony from the island of Atlantis. or by the Euxine. Note I. Dolphin. and on the other from Lycia. and the Sea of Aral.S. and the other countries of Asia Minor influenced by the Phoanico-Assyrian branch of the Atlantean arts of decoration. Phoenicia. Persia. but in reality no more a myth than the formerly mythic cities of Pompeii and Mneveh. still disclose the fact that the remains of Atlantis exist as a large submarine island. up lately. just as Australia now receives from us the and arts of the Victorian era. . * See Appendix. as Egypt.2 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. and India. Atlantis played in time a She was part similar to that enacted by the England of to-day. Challenger. the arts spread through Syria. Asia-Minor.

but they are Still not greater than might be expected traditions if the Egyptian and Mexican were true. by Catherwood. without some foundation in fact. on the other hand. This agreeably to the tradition.* A still greater resemblance exists between Mexican and Assyrian sculptures . were not discovered till after the publication of the books by Prescott and Cather- wood on Peru. an imitation of those architectural and ornamental forms with which they had been familiar in Atlantis. Note II. who escaping the Atlantic flood. and without proper tools. where they became seven between the customs and tribes. Mexico. and Egyptian and Assyrian on the other. are distinct. Mexican and Peruvian art. Mexico. it who were transplanted into Egypt for the purpose of giving examples of the arts of the mother country. set themselves to produce in their rude way. the differences between Mexican on the one hand. B 2 . and by every one who has given the subject his attention. the Assyrian works. Thus we see that many of the ornamental forms which flourish to-day had their seed-time and spring * in the ages before See Appendix. however. Egyptian art was produced by trained Atlantean architects. highlands of Peru. and Central America. The great resemblance existing architecture of the Egyptians and those of Mexico and Peru is continually the subject of remark by Prescott in his histories. 3 These traditions relate that when flood. displays a reminiscence of the leading characteristics of the styles we are accustomed to call Assyrian and Egyptian. these ancient American styles were produced by people iineducated in art. the land of Atzlan or Atlantis seven persons escaped to was overwhelmed by the America. but shows no skill in realising delicacies of proportion or refinement of detail. and Central America. and washed ashore on the seems to point out that.EGYPTIAN AND MEXICAN ART. the explorer and delineator of Mexican antiquities.

'. a content ourselves with the knowledge that the arts which bloomed in the distant past were carried from Atlantis westward to Mexico. Such were the Kunic. which at times to endless modifications was subjected and diversions by coming These. thence carried into Assyria. Norman. Greece. On the east we see the torch of art borne flaming into common origin. Sketched t>r J. to Lycia. and Saxon. subjected to a unique environment. This forms the main and leading stem of art. Persia. developed into something very different from the main or aristocratic stem. on the one side. into contact at intervals with phases of early ornament. and the Sassanian.. antiquarian research.. M. and perhaps its more comprehensive becomes more fully developed. thence. perhaps. to and India. Celtic. which in the foundations of the oldest pyramid were laid. ''-*' * * *_ * * * STAINED GLASS "WINDOW SCEEEN. Arabic. from Rome to England.4 URNA MENTAL INTERIORS. . S. to Japan and Mongolia. and Moorish on the other. we may discern that the germs of all our ornamental forms had when form is now only in its infancy. from Greece to Eorne. At present we must Egypt and Phoenicia. . ''* i ' *'ii *"-_ * * _ * *_.

silver. by J. S. But there are records which fixed the decorative by the nails plates to the walls. Virginia Water. HE use of metal both in construction tind decoration was not uncommon in very early times." Decorative Painting on gold ground. however. and in the . executed at the Sanatorium. remain." LEGEND. MKTAL IN DECORATION. CHAPTER II. M. No vestiges. for the value and portability of the materials were too tempting to those who robbed the temples and sacked the cities in the age of gold. and left brass.

From a Bronze in the British Museum. of brazen towers. In : his own house Solomon made great use of castings of brass PHCEN ico -EGYPTIAN CHERUBIM. the plays of the Greek dramatists. The enrichments in mentioned. and treasuries. consisting of checker-work. were among the decorations which are described in the First Book of Kings. and in historians. In Solomon's temple. "two pillars. in the poems of Homer." and it is . in mythologic traditions. built by Sidonian workmen. show also the same style of art. The decorative designs on the bases of the basin. all of eighteen cubits high apiece. but even the floor was covered with gold. or molten sea. Not only the carvings. Chronicles of the Kings of Judah." with enriched capitals. we find that it was overlaid with pure gold. we read of goldenriched palaces. of brass. show the Phoenician or Atlantean style of the decoration.6 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. for among nician artists the commonest of the forms used by the Phoe" were lions. oxen. and cherubim s. lily-work. altar. the pages of the Greek and Roman and Avails. pomegranates rows round about the capitals. temples.

thus describes the palace of Alcinoiis " The front appeared with radiant splendours gay. : Refulgent pedestals the wall surround. In sculptur'd gold and labour'd silver stand. . The walls were massy brass the cornice high : Blue metals crown'd in colours of the sky Rich plates of gold the folding doors incase . or orb of day. a long-continued feast. the description seems too grand to be true. And gold the ringlets that command the door. Where various carpets with embroidery blaz'd. Which boys of gold with flaming torches crown'd The polish'd ore. while the patriarchal despot who governed . Two rows of stately dogs on either hand. The pillars silver. possible to-day to see in the British 7 exact replicas to a small scale of the enrichments used in Solomon's house. kingdom." or hive-shaped huts. known after- wards as Corcyra and Corfu. Fair thrones within from space to space were rais'd. . Blaz'd on the banquets with a double day. so island of Pha3acia. the farther behind. difficult Homer. following day. and their king. Museum Jews themselves were poor Hiram there is of Tyre for his assistance. Bright as the lamp of night. and probably represented the entire wealth of the But the ancient times embellished. so that we need not be too ready to assume that in fine buildings could not be raised and richly The people were content to dwell in '' domes. only the little this magnificent palace ruled. The artificers." ." Jews were of course matter of casting in brass. reflecting every ray. . on a brazen base . says. who flourished about a hundred years : after Solomon. Silver the lintels deep-projecting o'er. in asking "Thou knowest that not among us any In the more still that can skill to hew timber like the Sidonians. . The work Day of matrons these the princes press'd.THE PALACE OF KING ALCINOVs. far As the king who resided in as we know. at first sight king's house in early Greek days was temple as well as palace.

though palaces have been sacked. Note III.8 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. brass. and * See Appendix. trod with golden-sandaled That the gold and silver.* Moreover. which the perplexed fathers of unmanageable princesses confined their daughters were not myths. the other of emerald stone. its temples . on their mummy-cases. is proved pretty conclusively by the gold ornaments and other rich spoils of primitive design discovered by Dr. which are spread so lavishly in the not poetical exaggeration. and even the more modern Pantheon at Eome was enriched in the same way. on their brazen work. embroidery. which they drew on a four-wheeled carriage . Our knowledge of the records of Egypt is not sufficient for us to say whether much use was made of metal as a decoration. but sober fact. a temple dedicated which there were two one of fine gold. It was only after the Macedonian : conquest that luxurious private dwellings became the fashion and it was in the country more than in the town that large and splendid dwellings were the rule. The brazen towers Mycenae. in to Tyre. Schliemann at pages of Homer is Mycenoe. though we know that at one of the Egyptian ceremonies they had a small temple. that Amasis sent a gilded statue of Pallas to Gyrene. for the lines of the streets restrained the expansion that was possible in the country. at in . and Herodotus tells us he sailed to Heracles. them. rich feet the brazen-walled palace. and content themselves with very humble private dwellings. who were cunning workers in naturally would use ornaments of gold." In Assyria. and "saw pillars. gilded all over. silver. and was their priest and king. and decoration. The Phoenicians. and that the Egyptians often used gold on their obelisks. There was a brazen temple at Sparta the treasury of Atreus. both shining exceedingly at night. metal. and on various parts of their coloured decorations. a peculiarity of the Greeks of the nobler periods was to concentrate their splendour on their temples and and their public buildings. was lined with brazen plates.

metal was used with lavish splendour. consisting of a human countenance looking forth from amidst innumerable rays of light. arid fine examples of work in bronze have been discovered. gold leaf for gilding. in minuteness of finish the work hear of the " golden house " of Nero. let into the stonework. these ceilings were roses and perfumes might be rained down In the west. and which was reflected back from the golden ornaments with sun fell it at its which the walls and in the figurative ceiling language of the people. Sun at Cuzco. the splendid bronze gates of King Shalmaneser. On the western wall was embla- Of the Temple of the zoned a representation of the Deity. In Eome we The dining-halls had made to slide so that on the carousers. encompassed the whole exterior of the edifice. in Peru. and pearls. jewels. . The figure was engraved on a massive plate of gold of enormous dimensions.THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN AT CUZCO. was the tears wept by ' the sun. Gold. was literally a mine of gold. we see that the Assyrians From were thorough masters of the art of working in metals : the best modern bronze does not excel of the old Assyrian artists. The cornices which surrounded the walls of the sanctuary were of the same r costl} material. were everywhere incrusted. ceilings of inlaid ivory. lighting up the whole apartment with an effulgence that seemed more than natural. It was so situated in front of the great eastern portal that the rays of the morning directly upon rising. and other examples in the British Museum. golden tablets. in the same manner as the sun is often personified with us. in Mexico. " The It interior of the temple was the most worthy of admiration. in which the walls of the rooms were covered with gold. and a broad belt or frieze of gold. which emanated from it in every direction. we read.' and every part of the interior of the temple glowed with burnished plates and studs of the precious metal. and especially in Peru. thickly powdered with emeralds and precious stones. 9 burnt.

It was in this Temple of the iii. whose many-coloured arch spanned the walls of the edifice with hues almost as radiant as " ch. were placed on chairs of gold and sat with their heads inclined downwards. as well building. as the mother of the Incas. shippers fixed in devotion. its own. (Prescott. . beautiful planet. less liable to change than the fresher colouring of a European complexion. one of which who formed the bright court another was consecrated to his dread of the sister of the sun ministers of vengeance. bodies. so true were the forms and lineaments The Peruvians were as successful as the Egyptians in to life. and their hair of raven black or silvered with age.10 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. on a vast plate that nearly covered one side of the apart- But this plate. the men on the right and their queens on the left of the great luminary which blazed in refulgent gold " The on the walls of the temple." i. " Adjoining the principal structure were several chapels of smaller dimensions. and a third to the rainbow. the miserable attempt to perpetuate the existence of the body beyond the limits assigned to it by nature." Peru. their countenances exhibiting their natural dusky hue. Of another temple we read that the door was garnished with ornaments of crystal. was of silver.) Sun that mummified bodies of the Incas were placed. There were three other chapels. vol. this temple Pizarro's men tore seven they were of the size of the lid hundred gold of a chest.. and coral. as all the decorations of tho to the pale silvery light of the was dedicated to the host of stars .. clothed in the princely attire they had been accustomed to wear. according to the period at It seemed like a company of solemn worwhich they died. turquoise. the deity held next in reverence. the thunder and the lightning . as suited ment. their hands placidly crossed over their bosoms. Her effigy was delineated in the same manner as that of the sun. and ten or twelve inches wide." From plates . One of them was consecrated to the moon.

. yet exhibiting several important differences. most ordinary menial wool. including the utensils devoted to the displayed the like wanton With these gorgeous decorations were mingled magnificence." Closely connected in architectural style with that of Peru.MEXICAN DECORATION. In the less richly harem "the Walls were incrusted with alabaster and richly tinted stucco. or hung with gorgeous and tapestries of variegated feather." Yucay.. able life skilfully imitated in gold and silver." long arcades intricate labyrinths of shrubbery led into gardens where the baths and sparkling fountains were overshadowed by tall groves of cedar and cypress. glowing with the various forms of vegettropics. Here too they loved to indulge in the luxury of their baths. and even much of the domestic furniture. "Here they wandered amidst groves and airy gardens that shed around their soft intoxicating odours and lulled the senses to voluptuous repose. n In their palaces " the sides of the apartments were thickly studded with gold and silver ornaments. Mches prepared in the walls were fitted with the images of animals and plants curiously wrought of the same costly materials . .. The spacious gardens were stocked with numerous varieties of plants and flowers that grew without effort in this temperate region of the while parterres of a more extraordinary kind were planted by their side. and the aviaries with birds glowing with the gaudy plumage of the tropics. was the favourite resort of the kings. Mexico was the style royal endowed with the precious metals. The basins of water were well stocked with fish of various kinds.work. and of decoration adopted was somewhat different. he that the Peruvian mountains teemed with gold. richly coloured stuffs of the delicate manufacture of the Peruvian services. may If this reflect dazzling picture staggers the faith of the reader. about four leagues distant from the capital. Mexican decoration next claims attention. replenished by streams of crystal water which were conducted through subterraneous silver channels into basins of gold.

The Egyptians may have had similar characteristics in their domestic architecture which has perished. Another difference between Mexican and Egyptian is the peculiarly Chinese character of some of the curling ornaments." " " by Nezahuatcoyotl to the Unknown God was incrusted inside with metals and precious stones. but they seem to be reproductions in that material of forms which belong to wood construction. In one place are warriors preparing for battle. diapers.iz ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. tassels. Castles are attacked. But perhaps much of the Mexican work is more closely allied little to Assyrian than to Egyptian. with forming it into large panels. in another the combat is at its height. them structed of light materials. and which becomes exuberant to excess in many of the Mexican bas-reliefs. some of " The interior was doubtless confifty yards square. were also liberally employed is proved by the remains at the present day. such as parts ploughing. Another Mexican decoration guilloche round it is a sculptured diaper dado. Mexican. and other ornaments which are so lavishly displayed in Assyrian sculpture. all Figures were sometimes painted over the walls. the labours represent husbandry. defended. especially of the rich woods which in that country are remarkable for the brilliancy and variety of That the more solid materials of stone and stucco their colours. Those writers who have dwelt so strongly on the resemblances existing between Egyptian. and Peruvian architecture . sowing. The palace contained three hundred apartments. it it differs from in having in some instances the colours blended. Mr. The Egyptians indulged in the carved fringes. and reaping. These are carved in stone. and or taken. Other of religious ceremonies. The temple built Though Mexican painting resembles Egyptian. Catherwood which was covered from mentions an apartment in a large building at Chicheu Itza floor to ceiling with paintings of figures each six or eight inches high.

MEXICAN DECORATION. . wrote before Layard and Botta startled the world by drawing aside the curtain which for more than twenty centuries had shrouded the palaces and temples of the Assyrian kings. ORIENTAL VASE. 13 and ornament.

now and with Egypt on the one hand. and Assyria on the other. done by J." HISTORY. Recreation Hall. ASSYRIAN DECORATION. we are enabled all is clear." Fergusson says truly that very " until the discoveries in Assyria were made." The decoration of the lower stories of the Assyrian palaces has been revealed to us by the discoveries of Layard and Botta." Decorative Painting on rough gold ground. for the CHAPTER III. half the architecture of Greece was a riddle and inexplicable mystery . Virginia Water. to trace every feature to its source. S. These . M. but the styles of architecture and decoration adopted for the stories upper have been indicated rather than shown. his " Handbook of Architecture. Sanatorium.

of the thought that the head represents the head of the Assyrian state. that they were fierce. humour is grim. Their architecture and ornament present. the same peculiarity noticeable in Egyptian we know that of being . and though they have their mummers and musicians. or Aschour. human-headed bulls formed the more striking features . portrait of the king. bold. Bearing in their severity and conventional formalism an air of majesty and mystery. the intelligence by the bull or . and of Persian remains.DECOXA TION. even the exaggerated muscular development of the figures tended to emphasise the silent dignity of these representations of a great people. the king of Assyria adopted the symbolical form of the " bull " in allusion to the name of his people the bull is called : Schour. upper stories 1 5 being of timber have perished. lion body. that is. or Assyria. by the head. an unknown religion. Columns and beams of cedar overlaid with gold would form the upper part of the courts and halls the columns would rest on the dado or stylobate. stern. cruel. and relentless in their combats and their punishments . so far as them. We should probably not be far wrong in assuming that the style of execution and mode of decoration of the palaces and temples of Assyria were similar to those made use of in Solomon's temple. It is and by the wings. There is no frivolity and exuberant fun. These and the other sculptures disclosed to the world a powerful monarchy. the strength . of which winged. the fragments. Assyrian power. and even their joyous feasts are formal and severe. Their sculptured records showed they delighted in war . the According to some. such as Assyrian we see depicted on the early vases of the Greeks. that the restoration of their construction and decoration has been possible. This peculiar development of the Phoenician cherubim is supposed to typify. the swiftness. Asshur. their very sports are warlike. and it is only by the study of the bas-reliefs. of the decoration.

overlaid with gold. is these pillars were probably of cedar. This decoration shows throughout admirable decorative and a wise and reticent conventionality which was not surpassed by the Greeks. like those in Solomon's temple. The Assyrians were well acquainted with the arch. and used it with fine effect. the publisher of the Handbook of Architecture. in the restoration is judicious as well as justifiable. a completed. subjects or patterns are in golden yellow. are usually faced with slabs of alabaster. and its flat decoration shows that in this respect the The ground is blue. and. The lower parts of the walls supporting the pillars. Mr." we are able beautiful drawing to the reader. " By the kindness of Mr. the Assyrians were splendid ornamentists. human-headed . not a tentative or progressive style. The decoration consists of a winged human figure and a patera alternately all round the arch. or the winged. It will be seen from this drawing that the upper part pillared . or carousing in his gardens . Fergusson's This gives a better idea of an to present Assyrian court than many pages of description could do. on which are delineated the sports or wars of the Assyrians. and forming a dado. Murray. has restored way the northern angle of the palace court of Khorsabad. which was situated about fifteen miles from Nineveh. Indeed. the winged archer Baal. "We see the king following the chase. Assyrians so It is much of their ornament. the earliest sculptures hitherto discovered have far more beauty and elegance than later examples. The enamelled archivolt of a large arch has been discovered. besieging cities. bull Aschour.1 6 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. all supposed that the bus-reliefs were painted. and . therefore. the temple walls show us the eagle-headed and winged god Nisroch. who borrowed from the skill. in a very able who has made a study of this subject. quite its use. fighting with lions. in conjunction with the symbolical trees or we view the king and Assyrian demi-gods worshipping in the halls of divination. Fergusson.

w H .


arid there is " scripture testimony to the fact that they were portrayed with " Nineveh vermilion. in and Palaces. in parts . golden yellow Other colour figures." Treating of this subject. yellowish green. the halls of Nineveh to the imagination a picture of regal. It is much more natural to suppose that the portions not at present coloured were coloured formerly. and a few accessories. and there is no reason why the Assyrians should have used these latter colours on their bricks and not have employed them to . Bonomi. traces of colour remain. drab-brown. and the magnificently rich dresses of the king and his court. 17 perhaps gilded. arrangements existing are blue and white . while the remaining portions of the figure were entirely colourless ? We it are without facts to enable us to give a decided answer ." In some enamelled work we find a blue ground. blue. Must we. black. . and. or by time and the earth in which they have been so long buried. and black we found yellow. and that this was done with some substances which. on the bricks there were other tints than red. restoring the golden or gilded the beauty of the designs of the pavements. present splendour of colour effect unsurpassed in any age of the world. and these merely on the hair. Thus. yellow-stemmed trees. blue. in the first place. the : its " We beards. and black. and that the whole surface of the bas-relief was covered with them. and stone-colour blue and stone-colour. Taking into consideration pillars. being less lasting than the others. c . and black. blue. white. recalling this likelihood of splendid colouring having been applied to the walls. white. have been destroyed either by fire at the time of the conflagration. that they were only used in those places where we found their traces. paint their sculptures. &c. green. but appears probable that the colours were more varied.. of the bronze gates." says did not find in the sculptures of Khorsabad any colours but red. if barbaric. believe that these were the only colours employed . golden-yellow. in the second.COLOURS USED BY THE ASSYRIANS. of the shining armour. and green-leaved.

mummy-cases. on pottery. The still colours used have. and from the engravings and photographs which have been made from Egypt. The practice was uniform from one generation to another. B. and retain their pristine freshness. on papyrus. religious or and conventional ornaments. Many of the temple walls historical were wholly covered with figures. so that Plato says Both the design and the painting were fixed he could discover no dif- ference between those which were done in his day and those which the priests said were done ten thousand years before. Sculpture and painting to enrich the interiors as well as some of the exteriors by traditional law. as a rule.: \ ' PSYCIIIDIOX. wall paintings on the flat. . M. HE the characteristics of Egyptian decoration are well-known from many specimens which have been brought to this country. those existing in were used of the buildings. The kinds : colour decorations left by the Egyptians are of various painted sculpture. on mummy-cloths. stood the test of time. CHAPTER IV. and glass. l>v J. emblems. EGYPTIAN DECORATION. A sketch for u Friezo." OR LITTLE PSYCHE. those on furniture.



The design was then cut experienced . The reds are red oxides of iron the yellows. c 2 supposed . transparent skin. in : Owen It Jones. natives of other lands than cattle are Egypt are painted yellow or black . the Egyptian colours analysed by Professor Jahn. or else painted directly on the flat which had previously been covered by a clear and beautiful relief coat of limewash. cobalt. green. and black. colours were sometimes lightened by the addition of chalk. colours The the white. blue (of which there are two The ground colour of the wall was used as tints). grey-spotted. From none contain . and enlarged by means of squared lines on the wall with red chalk by an inferior artist this was corrected by a more artist with black chalk. . when dissolved in warm water. and painted. and are usually laid on flat without shading. such as could be dissolved in turpentine." is Colour. " The architecture of the Egyptians." says thoroughly polychromatic like form. and dried into a horny.COLOURS USED BY THE EGYPTIANS. appear to be vegetable colours the greens are formed by mixing the yellow and blue the bluish green is a . Men and women are painted in brownish red. 19 The designs seem first to have been drawn to a small scale. used for the ordinary bas-relief and stuccopaintings are red. The medium colours . the blues are said to be oxides of copper with a small admixture of iron . showed a thready texture. mixed with lime faded blue. " is they painted everything. Egypt was used conventionally. the women being lighter in tint than the men . brown. or white. in low wall. this were used with a preparation of glue as a glue. black being The used as the outlining colour. From these qualities it is supposed to have been made from hip- popotamus hides. Other mediums or varnishes seem to have been of a resinous nature. yellow. which are sometimes of a bright sulphur colour.

The obelisk of Hatasu was The bronze plates of the temple doors gilded on all four faces. Red. which is merely a geometrical plan with the trees arranged conventionally . or late period. blue and yellow. and black and white. and books of gold leaf have been discovered in some of the tombs. green. and brown came into use . the inner leaves a lighter green. This is divided into two com- partments. were the early colours later. Macedonian. The British Museum contains.zo ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. plates. around it. the sport is seen to be taking place on one of the fens. Another design represents a fishpond and garden. one over the other. from the lotus and reed plants growing around. and so were the winged-globe decorations. by red leaves floating in a which gives the effect of the glowing bloom of the original. At the left-hand side are a couple of birds. and flowers. . his lady engaged in taking birds. which are displayed vases. baskets. the ladies and gentlemen are seated on chairs and hold lotuses in their hands. while the purple and yellow tones of the inner flower are represented field of yellow. one shows an entertainment. purple. The outer leaves of the lotus which were painted green in the Ptolemaic. He stands in a canoe with a boomerang in his hand . In the lotus the outer leaves are painted dark green. besides painted sculpture or bas-reliefs. while slaves are offering them wine-cups. that the elaborate lotus-headed or palm-leaved capitals originated in the custom of decorating the early Atlantean or Egyptian temple pillars with real flowers and leaves . these were after- wards copied into stone and painted into a conventional imitation of the original plants. examples of the flat wall paintings of the Egyptians. cattle sideboards. on fruits. Other pictures represent droves of which are brought as tribute another shows an Egyptian with . were often gilded. were painted blue in early times. Gold was used for gilding.



The and its ^\ coiling decoration was subordinated to the construction.of Edfou. of Phila3. they lavished on the interiors temples sculptured and painted columns. it was on a blue ground. conventional ornaments or decorations founded on the forms in the vegetable kingdom. and covered all their wall and ceiling spaces with of their forests symbolical paintings. plan was in many instances determined by the lintels and by the size of the flat stones that formed the ceiling proper. through the exceeding varied phases of those 'of the great temple at Karnac. In the great hall of Karnac. down to the more lax Ptolemaic period of Denderah. Those who look casually at Egyptian art may be inclined to think it monotonous. vividly coloured. but ran through all their domestic furniture. which with the usual appropriate symbolism of Egypt. which formed the ceiling of part of that temple. The architectural style ranges from the simplicity of the Doric-like capitals of Beni-Hassan and of the southern temple of Karnac. and . Some ceilings were decorated with coloured bas-reliefs. That this variety was not confined to their architectural forms.EGYPTIAN DECORATION. Some of these were very large thus Diodorus tells us that the . At Denderah was the famous zodiac.. bore powdered with some reference to the vault of heaven. but study discloses an immense variety in the constructional as well as in the decorative forms. were also used. Hieroglyphics. may be III. cared little The Egyptians seem while of to have for exterior effect. those of Kom-Omba. ceiling of the tomb stars of Osymandias was of one stone . the pillars from base to top of capital are sculptured and painted in vivid colours. which is lighted by a direct clerestory. gathered from the specimens delineated on Plates II. and many others.

A pattern similar to this occurs in Egyptian and in Danish ornament. The precision and elegance of this ornamentation contrast markedly with the wall paintings . S." Eric POKTRY. l>y J. disclose a sculptured a filling of scroll-work.. or Tirynthos. made by repetitions of a form resembling the letter S linked into each other ceiling with and carried between the scrolls all over the field . (9JARLY examples among the recent discoveries patera border and at Tiryns. M. GREEK DECORATION." Decorative Painting on gold ground. Virginia Water. the space being filled with what seems to be a modifi- cation of the lotus pattern. at the CHAPTER V. done Sanatorium.

This carved ceiling of Tirynthos. and the ruder forms discovered beside it may be the first attempts of the early Dorians Some the Pelasgoi in the Peloponnesus. unlike the Egyptian. representing a man dancing on a bull. and yellow. ornament occasionally shows marks of gradual degeneration. bear but slight resemblance to their subjects in another example. but show a strong family likeness to Eunic or the ruder forms of Celtic. the earlier. for the decorative arts had their rise and decadence more than once. may mark a phase of ornament during a high tide of Pelasgian or Germanic civilisation. Like some those of a more artistic character. blue. In the early Tirynthian wall decorations five colours are used white and black. The colours are not : mixed to form intermediate shades or secondary colours. is a kind of guilloche or curled wave pattern. of these rude Tirynthian designs have little resem- who superseded blance to later Greek work. of another part of the palace possible. Among the forms. The figures show various degrees of archaism: horses are in one vase painting the men and shown by very conventional forms which . as usually supposed. superior in design and work is later than the ruder forms The contrary is just as likely to be the discovered around it. 23 where the forms are the rudest inferior and are indeed greatly to Mexican and Peruvian. but are indeed later than series of coins. however. such as have been discovered in some parts of Scandinavia.DECORATIONS OF THE PALACE OF TIRYNS. and the ruder works are not. . shows very little the Greeks evidently preferred sculptured or symbolism . however. the work is decidedly a vigorous though rude imitation of nature. or to what we call savage It is not safe to assume because it finished execution that this " " is ornament. and red. Greek ornament. like some of the work discovered at Mycense. which was afterwards refined and used in late Greek art. painted figures for the purpose of indicating their thoughts in tin's rosppct. case.

The wall decorations of the second Greek period may have been similar in style and colour to those of their pottery work.) Ivory and amber were also used as materials for pro- ducing rich decorative effects. brown. The earliest decorations of the in' Greeks are. buff. red. form with Danish. buff. and the decoration in dark brown or black . in buff. buff or stone-colour ground and gold green. dazzling roofs "resplendent as the blaze of Homer tells us summer noon of the or the pale radiance of the midnight moon. around the palace shines the sunless treasures of exhausted mines . while identical they show the same colours as early Egyptian ornament. Besides colours laid on the walls. In the rather later work there is a more careful outline . elaborate metal decoration. Of the palace of Menelaus at Sparta. key. " the roof or ceiling is inlaid with the spoils of elephants (that is ivory). p. such as scale. Norse. (Metal in Decoration. in many instances. birds. 7. as we have seen. zigzag. and Celtic designs. and blue . beneath. red. . In many cases this embroidery was either enriched with threads of gold or had thin gold . vases of gold and silver are seen. patterns. and " above. with blue or red ornament. brown. this also formed part of the decoration of the rooms as well as of the dresses of the men and women. . Later work shows the following combinations chocolate and black : . As the Greeks had abundance of splendid embroidery. and enriched with studs of shining amber. Many clay images found in Greek tombs show traces of bright primary colours and gold.24 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. buff and black . black." Inside. . wave. and white reddish brown and black black and white blue. and represent animals. and black . and the ground colour is black and glossy. these early designs are usually silhouettes. figures are introduced. while the figures are and white. and early types of distinctively Greek ornament. the early Greeks had. red. . rosette. and similar.work. the ground of which was the natural colour of the clay.

with the mediaeval tapestries. ' architect or engineer who built the One of the famous decorative works of Magna Grascia was a magnificent purple shawl or pallium. and beams of the temples. to Egypt the patera. the bridge of boats. One of the earliest mentioned of these wall decorations B. thus Beni-Hassan and the southern temple at Karnac supply the prototype of the Doric order Asia the volutes of the Ionic Philse and Kom-Omba . and In later work the Greeks boldly stained and gilded and painted the marble walls. such as soffits. . meanders. with delicate patterns in primary colours and gold.C. was embroidered with the representation of gods. plates in the forms of to it. Hera by Mandrocles. Above was the city of Susa. and cities. and perfection of execution. is a battle piece it its painted by Bularchus about 716 weight in gold. spirals. covering the blue. the favourite ground colour being But the principal decorations after a time were pictorial representations which were either painted on panels affixed to the wail or done direct on the marble or plaster. Candaules paid for gold as would cover it.GREEK PICTORIAL DECORATIONS. or as much In the Heraion of Samos was a picture representing the It was dedicated to passage of Darius across the Bosphorus. flat portions. men. delicacy of detail. diapers. pillars. / 25 stamped or engraved paterae attached Greeks that Europe owes the science of proportions. the Greeks owe their honeysuckle and many other of their ornamental forms. in the use made of it. which probably corresponded. and below were figures of the It . The germs of many or of most of their architectural and ornaIt is to the later mental forms are found in other lands . the cities being allegorically shown as human forms. give the idea of the two kinds of Corinthian used in the Temple To Assyria of the Winds and the monument of Lysicrates.





the middle were the gods of

Hera, Themis, Athena, Apollo, and Aphrodite. so highly valued, that it was sold about 400

Olympus Zeus, This work was
B.C. for


the famous early painters or decorators and artists in monochrome were Philocles of Egypt Cleanthcs, Ardices,



and Cleophantes of Corinth Telephanes of Sicyon Hygiemon, Cimon of Cleonas is said to Dinias, Charmadas and Eumaras.
; ;

be the



natural folds
for vase

took oblique views of the figure and gave draperies. Sicyon and Corinth were famous

advanced in the decorative

and furniture painting, and ^Egina was also well arts. The fame of Athens in this
the coming of Polygnotus from Before his time paintings were used

was not remarkable

Thasos about 463

for decorating furniture

and architecture and

for the


used in religious mysteries ; but he developed the resources of the art and executed some very celebrated wall- decorations in
the Poicile or variegated gallery of the Ceramicus at Athens. He is said to have excelled in idealising his subjects. He

executed two important decorative pictures for the Lesche, or public place of entertainment attached to the temple at Delphi.

Pausanius says that one side was occupied by a picture of the Greeks at the destruction of Ilium. On the other was repre-

These were called the sented the visit of Odysseus to Hades. Each composition was Iliad and Odyssey of Polygnotus.
arranged in rows one above the other after the manner of the Egyptian painting referred to on page 20, or as if various
parts of the frieze of the Parthenon were placed over each other

instead of being in a continuous row.

Each group was thence

a distinct picture, and each figure would naturally be studied for its decorative effect individually, as well as for its forming part of a harmonious whole.

improbable that a rough copy, or at least a reminiscence, of one of the works of Polygnotus occurs in one of the
It is not

vuses in the Naples








Troy, with Aias seizing Cassandra, who is statue of Athena called the Palladia. But this must be very inferior to the original work, for Polygnotus, who painted the
figure of Laodice from his sweetheart Elpinice, threw a fine

the taking of at the feet of the

expression into the countenance, and showed the form of the limbs through the drapery. This last effect is indicated, in a

way, in the vase painting, as may be seen in the figure of Laodice, who threatens with a club the kneeling warrior.

who were

contemporaries of Polygnotus were Micon of Athens, Paneenus the nephew of Phidias, and Dionysius of Colophon.

Panamus painted the

decorations of the throne of the


pian Zeus of Phidias, and of the wall round the throne of the The subjects were Atlas supporting heaven and earth, statue.

with Heracles beside him


Theseus and Pirithous


Grsecia and

Salamis as allegorical figures Heracles and the Nemaean lion ; Cassandra and Aias, and other subjects taken from Greek history



Apollodorus introduced light and shade


Zeuxis introduced

a grand style of form, and decorated the palace of Pella, for which he was paid 1,600, which was a small sum compared

with the prices obtained by painters some years later. Parrhasius is said to have combined in some of his works the invention and
expression of Polygnotus, the design of Zeuxis, and the effect of



of his pictures

was valued



Timanthes, Eupompus, and Aglaophonwere
painters of the period.

also distinguished


painters of the Alexandrian period were Pamphilus,

Apelles, Melanthius, Protogenes, Nicomachus, Aristides, Pausias, Nicias, Euphranor, Athenion, and Asclepiodorus. Most of these

painters got very large prices for their work. Nicias was offered 14,000 for one of his pictures; he declined this amount, and

presented the


to the city of



this period not only

were walls highly decorated, but statues were often tinted all over, but in most instances the marble representing the flesh was simply varnished, and the
colouring was only applied to the eyes, eyebrows, dress, and ornaments.
lips, hair,



Sketched by






Carved Frieze, sketched by J. M.






are three periods






dates from the

conquest of Greece till the time of Augustus, when the artists were

The second period usually Greeks. extends from the time of Augustus
to that of Diocletian, that is,

from the

beginning of the Christian era


the latter part of the third century. third reaches to the time of the removal of the seat of

empire to Byzantium.


decoration usually consisted of ornamental forms diverportraits, figures,


and landscapes.
for the walls.

Mosaic was used

for the floors

and sometimes




and occasionally inlaid with ivory. The usual medium employed in painting was a species of distemper made
gilded, painted,


of egg, gum, or glue, which when hard completely resists water. decorative works which are painted entirely in the fresco

have been discovered in Pompeii, though the plain parts of the Another medium was walls were often done in tinted fresco.



wax, which was prepared so as

work with water



encaustic painting the wax colours were burnt in by going over the work with a hot iron.

The substances used

to paint

parchment, and canvas. time of Nero, who had his portrait painted on a canvas 120 feet

upon were stone, wood, clay, The last was not used till the

The usual

colours for grounds were red, inclining to orange,

orange, blue, black, and white.

Favourite combinations are

orange, blue, green, yellow, green, and orange on black ground and red on white ground ; golden yellow in shades, on red ground


yellow in shades

on blue ground; blue and green on yellow ground red, blue, green and brown on orange-buff ground. The colours, which are supposed to be similar to those used

by the Greeks, are almost exclusively minerals the slimy matter of the purple snail, however, was used, mixed with chalk, and
a vegetable charcoal formed the black. By the kindness of Messrs. Chatto and Windus, the publishers " Handbook of Architectural of Rosengarten's Styles," we are enabled to give a very characteristic example of Pompeian
interior wall decoration.

Though vaulted roofs were not used by the Greeks, they were common enough among the Romans. Many of these vaults were
done in concrete and decorated with sunken panels to which bronze ornaments were attached; the great dome of the Pantheon

was done

in this


made with marble powder and chalk was used by the Romans for the enrichments of cornices, walls, and ceilings. They made use, for the decoration of flat surfaces, of an elegant kind
of ornament, graceful in line and only slightly raised above the surface of the flat ground into which it retired in parts, giving a

very tender and delicate effect, which was afterwards imitated with great success by the architects and designers of the Italian



was a

series of these foliated

and tinted enrichments,


covered in the baths of Titus, that supplied Raphael with the style of decoration he adopted in the loggias of the

In ordinary Roman houses the chambers constituting the rooms, properly so called, were generally very small the chief




From the Pantheon at Pompeii. " Architectural Styles.")

(From Rosengarten's

apartment, called the atrium, was really a court partly roofed but open to the sky in the centre.



of the

Pompeian houses have

lost their ceilings,

and we

are only able to judge of their appearance by fragments and by the decorations on the walls, with which no doubt they would be






which furnish an

Sometimes it is cattle or horses that run among foliated scroll- work. gold. sphinxes. cedar. comic masks . is Batley (Plate IV. mostly and the design. alternated with flowers of impossible dimensions. but where charming. hipfoliage ." in parts distinct traces of Though showing design. always elegant. architecture of variegated colour. vivid.). mingling with peacocks and aquatic birds which play among the vine-leaves . and other woods. silver. winged boys sirens float on the water. modern English the Morning Boom and Conservatory. where nothing is possible. . a writer in the " Eevue des Arts Decoratifs " says: " The products of the vegetable kingdom are mingled with representations of real or fabulous animals. by H. ^chly embroidered tapestries. interior in the days a very successful revival of a Roman when mosaic. insects posed on stalks quaintly encircled by convolvulus. give to these decorations the cameos suspended by ribbons amidst aspect of an imaginary world created for the pleasure of the eye. Psyches with butterfly wings appear amidst the lions. and elaborate paintings formed the leading decorative materials. pocamps. seeks the decorative combinations most agreeable to the eye. The colours. and bronze.3 z ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. W. are never unsuitable . The paintings of Pompeii offer in this respect an immense variety. griffins. ebony. gracefully framed panels . where nothing all is is logical. ivory inlay. almost inexhaustible variety of graceful fantasies. dolphins carry combine themselves with tragic or little . In others we see winged horses terminating in the stalks of plants or of large leaves. goats or stags bound across the branches . figures seated on the calix of flowers female dancers enwreathed by . fish of fantastic colour .

*i**s > I -^ ..v.


It grew from the ancient indeed at first styles. the publisher of Fergusson's we "Handbook one of the the seat of Architecture. Though in some respects modernised. Sketched by J. Sta. AND RENAISSANCE. CHAPTER VII. beautiful view of this church For the ing kindness of Mr. Christianity HE introduction of brought a new style of architecture and decoration. BYZANTINE." to which splendid work it forms of to many admirable illustrations. Maria Maggiore at Eome is perhaps the finest example of this early union of the art of old pagan Eome with the forms of Christian architecture and decoration. of the empire to With the removal Byzantium came new elements . S. CLASSIC.ORNAMENT IN BYZANTINE STYLE. and was only a modifica- tion of classical work. GOTHIC. the pillars of the pagan temples being used in many instances to decorate basilicas the Christian and churches. John are again indebted to the obligMurray. M.

The effigies of the saints. west. north. The new style was fully as rich as the old.) of Architecture. John Murray. " (From Fergusson's Handbook of Mr. done in The use STA. but there was more than a touch of crudeness in of its gold its design and of barbarism in the lavish splendour and gem-spangled costumes and decorations.34 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. of domes and cupolas in Byzantine art and the introduction of Christian emblems naturally led to changes in the methods of decoration. From the east. took the place of the light arabesques which had decorated the pagan buildings. modify the old forms. MARIA MAOGIORE. and Lombardic styles were evolved." by permission mosaic on gold grounds. and thus by a variety of causes the Byzantine. Eomanesque. and south came to Byzantium .

a very complete adoption of the semi. Vital's at Ravenna. gives a very picturesque and refined example of a later period. Ascalon. Beginning with the simple semicircular Saxon vaults. from which the vaults branch out towards the walls. of supported by a single central pillar. or from brought with him who formed one From Anglo-Saxon ornaments. Though the Byzantine style exerted the decorative work of Western Europe. 35 new forms of design. with its had become fashionable in Byzantium. Mark's at Venice. came the treasures of the East. and St.GROWTH or THE POINTED the elements of the or Viking. sculpture or carving played a . still more important part in the decoration of the ecclesiastical interiors. Still later are the roofs of the choir at Oxford. The Norman period is illustrated by the chapel of Newcastle Castle and the early portion of Durham Cathedral. from Bagdad. however. or West. and passing through a varied series of groined. Henry VI I.E. and the spoils of Arabia and the South came to modify and change the design which had been imported from the England his Eunic. in construction. was superseded by the square or oblong vault and though paintingwas used for walls and ceilings. from Scandinavia. STVl. Celtic. mediaeval decoration reached its culmination in the pendulated style of vaulted ceiling.Arabic. Temple Church shows a favourable example of the Early Pointed : which the roof is the Chapter-house of Salisbury Cathedral. from Antioch. a decided influence on it was modified rather than imitated by the architects and ornamentists of Italy and France still we find in St. of the Beauchamp and Chant rey Chapels D 2 . ribbed. Western Europe the cupola style of accompanying method of decoration. of which Chapel is so beautiful an example. . 's England is peculiarly rich in specimens of the various periods of stone decoration. semi-Roman style that Generally. and richly bossed arches. from Scotland. The hardy Veering of the famous Varangian Guard.

Of these.36 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. Oxford. ) vaults. however. which is usually decorated with tiles of excellent colour and refined and spirited drawing. Christchurch Hall. St. 's Chapel at Westminster. The century style of furniture in use is from the tenth to the thirteenth shown in the examples given in Plate V. is still in existence. Court. the builders seeming to rely on the stainedglass windows rather than on carved work for rich effect. George's Chapel. Windsor. (From the Chapel of the Maison des Lallemand. Side by side with these specimens of the vaulted or pointed . the walls are elaborately panelled. Wolsey's Hall at Hampton St. Middle Temple Hall and Gray's Inn Hall. and has a place among the antiquities of the Louvre. and thus the richness of the roof is continued to the floor. Windsor. shown in the middle of the lower compartment. nt Warwick. fine examples are to be found at Westminster George's Hall. of the cloister at Gloucester. In many of these buildings the decoration of the walls is somewhat meagre. Most of these are taken from ancient manuscripts. London. and Henry VII. In others. In other buildings wooden roofs are used instead of stone CEILING IN SCULPTUBED STONE (1518). at Bourges. Hall. but the bronze chair of Dagobert.



Sixteenth century. occasionally these The walls less rich were carved. the Saxon embroidered or wove his fanciful borders with elaborate interlacings. DECORATION OF A CEILING. and filled the field of his tapestry with check or diaper. and intertwining dragons. billet. Each period of design style. wood in which the sometimes the panels moulded beams were boldly shown between the beams filled with carved or painted designs. such as zigzag. The Norman ornaments which appear in carvings. and would not always partake of the characteristics of the home style of design. or with grotesque animals. of such rooms were hung with tapestry more or to the and ornate according wealth and taste of the certain sorts of owner. to the Of rather later decorations we have examples in ancient illuminated manuscripts. The Bayeux tapestry fulfils the same purpose as the . to a though the more expensive tapestry were imported from abroad. while the Bayeux tapestry presents us with a specimen of the wall decoration of the early Normans. extent. and gilded as well. But in ordinary wall coverings. grotesque heads. 37 were flat panelled ceilings of . would be applied equally embroidered or woven wall decoration. painted.MEDIAEVAL INTERIORS. dog's-tooth. possess its own would of course. style of design. bird's-beak. Showing the beams and joists.

and Flanders. It is about it two hundred and could go all round a hall seventy feet long by thirty-seven feet in breadth. Spain. Sicily. It gives us. frieze to tapestry-covered walls. besides being exquisite speci- . Italy. The later styles Many of these wall hangings. This kind of storied tapestry was long a favourite decoration HAKOLD AT THE (JOUKT OF THE COUNT OF PONTHIEU. or : sculptural decorations of Assyria it is great events. in which the wall hangings in of a muleteer's wife are referred to as a thing of I. a pictorial history of It was probably intended for a dado-band. the time of Francis the chamber course. so that on this page is shown a sketch of the house of a Norman noble.) and pavilions of the kings and nobles that some cheaper kinds of hangings were in use among humbler folk down to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is shown by a tale of in the halls . were lavishly supplied with magnificent and appropriate wall decorations from Byzantium. (From the Bayeux Tapestry.38 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. views of the houses of the fourteen feet in length. India. and on page 39 is Saxons and Normans. in a conventional way. Germany. of France. In the illustration delineated an Anglo-Saxon interior of the period.

and as those of Flanders and Artois came again into the possession of that renown which they had won in the day of Rome's power. but the noble chatelaines of neighbouring castles soon found means to possess at first specimens of these rich pictorial hangings.THE USE OF TAPESTRIES. (From the Bayeux Tapestry. f ranging from damask and silk to figured velvet. the beauty of the material. were magnificent from the richness of the colours. adorned the walls of the ornamental interiors of the houses of the great. mens 39 of ornamental design. rich materials. The use of figures or pictorial representations as a means of decorating hangings for apartments was sometimes carried to great perfection. These monastic factories as lay factories lost their importance in proportion were established. and not content with subjects drawn from the Old and New Testament. From the twelfth to the seventeenth centuries.) work was used for church decoration. Specimens of these . and their INTERVIEW WITH KINO EDWARD ox HAROLD s RETURN FROM NORMANDY. demanded scenes borrowed from the epics of chivalry or the alluring fables of pagan antiquity. and the glowing splendour of the gold which formed part of the design. The monks were the early weavers.

however. may be seen at St. and in the South Kensington Museum. are painted. and VII.weaving work has been established at Windsor. of later a panelled In early times the tapestries descended to the floors. with this difference. though the style adopted in the painting is in some respects an imitation of the style of medieeval tapestries. Coventry. and not woven. Aubusson. Antwerp. Within the last few years a tapestry. Hotel de Ville. Flemish and Artesian woven during the Middle Ages. Baron Leys has adopted dado treatment for the decoration of the salle which bears his name. that the subjects. this In the Hotel de Ville of Antwerp. Mary's Hall. which relate to the ancient history of the city. as shown in Sometimes the tapestries were framed as pictures Plates VI. fourth part of the walls' height . or Gobelins.4o ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. and the Gobelins of France have long been famed all over the world. Forming part of the decoration of the Salle de Leys. at Wolsey's Hampton Court. . England established a manufactory at Mortlake. Hall. above this was displayed the beautiful pictorial fabrics from the looms of Arras. which has produced some excellent specimens. tapestries. Charles I. TAKING THE OATH ON HIS ENTRY INTO ANTWEBP. but dado of wood usually filled the lower third or CHAELES V.

> r jl E_i a- .


Another good example of
this treatment,


which has become


in decoration, is


in the Salle de Mariages

of the Hotel de Ville, Brussels.

(See Illustration, page 181.) "While one branch of art in England followed the development of the Gothic or Pointed style, another went to modify or
familiarise the Classic.

The Renaissance which sprang up
of time over France, Spain, and

in Italy spread in course



Germany, and reaching England, some curious transformations on the prevailwork

ing style. By alliance with the Tudor or domestic phase of the Gothic of the period, it begot the style called Elizabethan. Ridding itself by degrees of the Gothic element and approaching

more nearly

to the Classic, the national style passed through the of Jacobean and Carolian towards the style of Queen phases

This branch of English decoration gave us such interiors as those of the Bodleian Library at Oxford, Haddon Hall, the

Merchant Taylors' and Leathersellers' Halls, Barber-Surgeons' Court-room, Whitehall Chapel, and those of many baronial halls

England and Scotland. In France the classic

revival, or Renaissance,

produced the

fine interiors

of Fontainebleau, of which the Salle du Trone

(Plate VI.), the bedchamber of Pope Pius VII. (Plate VII.), and the other apartment illustrated on Plate VI., are good

examples. They show besides the fluctuations of the style from the time of Francis I. to that of Louis XV.

same building has ten deeply set and arched window openings, five being on each side of the apartment. The spaces above and between the window arches are
Salle des Fetes of the


richly ornamented with allegorical figures




and arched


of the

windows are adorned with nude

classical subjects

framed in carved mouldings. A high dado, The ceiling is panelled and carved, goes all round the room. flat, but is ornamented with three rows of deeply sunk octa-



gonal panels, richly moulded, carved, and embellished with gilded

and silvered ornaments.


old portion of the

Louvre and the


with the

chateaux of Chambord, Ecouen, and Anet present us with other excellent examples of early French Renaissance, which had able
exponents in Delorme, Lescot, Jean Goujon, Cousin, and others. A French writer, whose work I translate and condense, gives
the following account of Renaissance painted decoration " Though Renaissance was supposed to be a return to the


methods of antiquity, the style was nevertheless marked

Italy, Sixteenth Century.

The admiration of ancient work was tempered to the requirements of modern existence, and thus a new style was evolved. " The arabesques, grotesques, and other decorations of the
by a great deal
of originality.


school were to a great extent founded on ornamental forms discovered in the ruins of Puzzeola, at Baie, and at the baths

of Titus at



these transformed the decorative style during



part of the sixteenth century.

The ornament used


really a curious

mixture of such incongruous materials as


satyrs, masks, Cupids, animals, monsters,

temples, plants,

flowers, candelabra, lamps, armour,

thunderbolts, trellis-work,

chariots, aviaries,



mingled with scroll-work, hanging draperies, festoons, and other purely ornamental forms. " Eaphael and his pupils made great use of these in the

and other

decorations executed for the reigning pope. After the sack of Rome, these painters were dispersed over Italy, and carried with


their renascent style.



Udine had carried out

Raphael's designs, and was quite master of his decorative style. The same may be said of Julio Romano, who, however, always


Designed by Bernardino Poccetti.

gave more importance to figures than to ornamental forms in his decorations. Other decorative artists of the period were
Baldassare Peruzzi, and Bernardino Poccetti.

Baldassare was

both painter and architect, and contributed a good deal to the He was to some extent establishing of the newly revived style.
the originator of that perspective style of painting ceilings in which architectural forms are represented in perspective exactly
as they

might appear when viewed from a standpoint on the of the apartment; but he was above all an excellent

designer of grotesques or arabesques. "

Bernardino worked at

with Yasari, and


mentioned as



He studied the works of a painter of grotesques and of facades. at Rome, and was able to unite a Raphael, and of Michelangelo
grand style of figures with excellent decorative conceptions. His figures, whether in relief or painted, have a larger grandeur and
nobler simplicity

than pertains to the ordinary designer of

general tendency of the Roman school of decoration was towards a delicate style of ornamentation, inspired by the


antique, in which

was mingled elegant figures with historic or mythologic subjects, which were always divided into compartments or framed as medallions. " The Florentine school and the successors of Michelangelo
not only abandoned this ancient architectonic style of decoration, but they endeavoured to subordinate the ornamental and constructional parts of their ceilings to their historical compositions,

and replace arabesques by figures of grand form which are of
capital importance in the general effect.

" In dividing his famous ceiling of the Sistine Chapel into compartments, each containing a painted composition, and not

allowing himself to be tied by the architecture of the building, Michelangelo gave an example which could not fail to find many

not the inventor of this system, for many of his illustrious predecessors had used it before him, but by giving
the consecration of his genius he was the cause of the ancient

He was


methods being entirely abandoned. His pupils and his imitators, among them Giorgio Vasari and Francesco Salviati, carried still
farther this tendency.

eclipsed his artistic history of decoration.

work has rather renown, was an important mover in the



was both painter and
that he

Like most of the masters of the time, he architect, and had a profound knowledge

of all that pertained to his art, and though he may often be with hastiness and negligence, it cannot be denied

had an astonishing

fertility of invention.


only did he direct the construction of vast edifices and

K- H I - PH PH .


45 execute important historical compositions. absolute master of he had numerous pupils and imitators. " Unhappily Vasari wanted always a little personality. A striking example of this incongruity is seen in the ceiling of the Hall of Alexander de Medicis at the old palace of Florence. whose style he imitated in his great historical compositions. that the tendency to exaggerated foreshortening in the ceiling decoration with which It is " the school of Michelangelo has been reproached. But with an imagination less fertile and less varied. consider. he had more correctness in the design and unity of his style. besides. in which the composition. and his manner became preponderant in Italy during the second half of the sixteenth century. His high official position gave him. We know that Vasari was a great admirer of Michelangelo. not with them at all. It was also the great colourists of northern Italy who first abandoned the system of dividing into compartments. all that was done around him and if he was Le Brim at Versailles afterwards. and covered all the ceiling with one subject. shared the same principles. worth while noticing. but later at Venice or Parma. able influence on not.ITALIAN CEILING DECORATIONS. who was never a very great colourist. and always remained his friend. and the other internal ornaments. in this the figures play the important part. . This master. in passing. but the ornamentation which framed them in seemed rather meagre by the side of his powerful muscular figures. His talent. he designed or modelled the stucco and gilded work. and ornament only appears as a secondary consideration. had its origin. sought always to impart the Michelangelesque style to his composition . like the arts. " Francesco Salviati. lends itself marvellously to the skyey system of ceiling treatment of the figures. nearly all reminiscence. who had been a schoolfellow of Vasari. nearly always allegorical. often associated unsuitable decorative elements drawn from different sources.

46 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. same in the greater part of the ceilings of the Venetian school. has left us such fine so drawings. Invincible Force personifies the power of the a winged genie holding a book on the decisions of the Council. in which some figures seem to mount towards the heavens and others appear as diversity if descending to the earth. the arrangement of the lines is always learnedly thought out. in In -some. who preciThe composition. Paul Veronese. where it is hung as a picture.' that Paul Veronese painted chamber of the Council of Ten. and which is now in the Salon Carre of the Louvre. has been the cause of controversy. Treason. We call a ceiling plafonnantvfhvn the action developed by the painter is accounted for by taking place in the clouds above the head of the spectator. pitate themselves. Of this we have a superb example in the * Jupiter fulminating for the ceiling of the at the Vices. such as those which the composition fills the centre. " But there are also ceilings such as that which Correggio where all the figures painted for the famous dome of Parma. " In this picture. Below him Rebellion. Luxury. Jupiter to say. or foreshortened as if they were really seen in the sky from below. have an ascensional movement. the It is the of the movements prevents monotony. was Vices. and Eenaissance painters of great talent have sustained one theory or the other. " The is that allegory it presents is easily comprehended. and of which Carletto. in perfect accord with in spite of its mythological treatment. scourges the which are written Council of Ten. the son of adjuncts. and Exaction. the allegorical figures and emblems are distributed as to form a framework. as the subject represented is the 'Assumption of the Virgin. into the air. all affrighted. at the ducal palace of Venice. "The manner of presenting the figures in ceilings. the purpose of the hall which it was intended to decorate.' In this picture Correggio has . which is often enriched with architectural These works have generally a very fine treatment. either in their full development as in ordinary pictures.

pushed to its farthest limits the 47 system of plafonnement. and show as they rise in the air very strange foreshortenings. is but which demands more taste and discretion than possessed by the painters who very often employ it. works Correggio's charm colour and or showing his ability in distribution of effect. in the perspective of the sky as if from the earth. it does not agree with the new point it is The plane of the picture is changed in its relation to the eye as the head really is bent back slightly or greatly. They have thus done not a little to discredit a style of decoration which is logical in principle. "Correggio has had great influence on monumental decoration. ' was uncovered.THE DOME AT PARMA. So that more logical as well as more agreeable to the sight to paint . large and masterly distribution of its masses of light and shade and if we look at an outline engraving we shall be struck by the monotony and confusion produced by these groups of angels who present the soles of their feet to the spectator. I think. torted and offensive. and the poor churchwarden was ridiculed by all the world. that it is logically correct to represent much foreshortened figures drawn to suit a single point of view from is. It would be perhaps logical the picture could only be seen from one point of view. seen in figure foreshortening. not conceal that much of the success of the painting is due to . but without of imparting to their style. and the painters who have come after him often imitated the eccentric foreshortening of his ceiling figures. because of sight. "When this celebrated composition to the painter. of frogs. or ceiling the figures. because it was conceded that But we need Correggio in this work had done a chef-d'oeuvre. it is disif . a wrong one. enough and no other but the moment we move a step from the point of view for which the foreshortened picture is arranged." The below idea. a churchto give the last warden said gravely touches to his work.' who came You have given us up there a fine dish The saying was repeated.

Andrea Mantegna seems to have been the originator of the low point of sight: in his "Triumphal Procession of Ca3sar. eye remains the same although the level of the and the same result takes place if he it. and many others. This was the method adopted in the chief pictures of Pompeii.48 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. in Byzantine mosaics. ceiling pictures as ordinary pictures are painted. By the same absence of logic. however. " School of Athens. The other mode is to paint as in an ordinary picture. and his figures . imagined by the This seems to teach that such decorative that is." the point of sight is at or under the base line. and that the foreshortening should be suitable spectator to the is when standing in the room. Masaccio. This was the method used on the frieze of the Parthenon. the figures of the In prophets have the point of sight half way up the figure. where no allowance whatever is made for the fact that these sculptured bas-reliefs were placed high above the eye. in Giotto's "Obedience" at Assisi. he used the geometrical method. is. some artists think that decorative figure subjects which are placed high should have the point of sight far below the level of the base line of the picture. Leonardo da Vinci. that without excessive foreshortening. and in each of his tapestry cartoons the point of sight is above the centre of the picture. Fra Filippino Lippi. figure subjects should be treated geometrically as if the eye were on a level with each separate part." the point of sight will be found Eaphael's at the level of the topmost row of heads . In many of his works. and in decorative works Botticelli. But it eye of the obvious that a point of sight which suits the eye of the spectator when. by Fra Angelico. In the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel. is all wrong when he conies to be ten feet from . moves ten feet to the right or left of the central point of sight artist. with the point of sight well above the base line of the composition. Ghirlandajo.he is distant twenty feet from the decorative picture.

harpsichord designed for the Empress of Eussia. though richly In the reigns carved. 49 are subjected to the same rules as those that guide an architect in drawing a geometrical elevation. of which the first volume was published in the year 1762. whose was more attenuated and works a nice feeling effeminate. for the works by James Gibbs and Sir William Chambers showed that they had a fine sense of architectural proportion. of the earlier Georges an imitation of the French rococo predominated. presented and it cannot be said that they are attractive specimens of simplicity. E. The distinguishing blemishes of their style are the meagreness of some of their ornaments. and the too universal employment of the spread umbrella pattern as a decorative subject for filling circles. though there are here and there instances of elegance and probably with reliable truthfulness in the pictures of Hogarth. semicircles. is for the most part cumbrous and heavy. drew the attention of lovers of art to the beauty of detail .ENGLISH WORK OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. and the last in 1816. also evinced in for proportion many of and an appreciation of elegance in the disposition of their decorative lines. but the furniture of the period. There were exceptions. in some of for the effect their chimney-pieces. and knew style how to apply their decoration judiciously. Eeturning to English work. their fondness for poor and thin festoons. however. Countess of Derby. The ordinary run of Georgian interiors is internal decoration. but in such works as the ceiling in the of Lady Bute's dressing-room. to this rule of dulness. we note that in the reign of William and Mary the style of decoration showed some traces of Italian elegance. and in the ceiling designed design. being for the most part dull and tasteless imitations of French and Italian work. they show considerable mastery of and a graceful style of Stuart and Eevett's delineation of Greek antiquities. and quarter circles . Adam. and J. lacking in many respects the spirit and elegance of the originals.

which was in a great measure due to the taste. such as Jacobean and Carolian. This was succeeded by an equally strong current in favour of Gothic. twenty years Gothic has been forsaken. Adam. energy. but for which any debased form of classic seems to be admissible. and there was a strong classical revival. and perseverance of Augustine Welby Pugin. By R. 1777.50 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. & J. and the elegance of proportion shown in the Greek temples. but at the . What are called also Old English styles. Within the last 1 CEILING OF THE COUNTESS OF DERBY'S DRESSING ROOM. have been received with favour in many quarters. and there has been a run on what passes by the name of Queen Anne.

and Louis Seize. JAPANESE DECORATION OF A SWORD-HILT. Louis Quinze. 5 1 present time the Italian and Flemish Renaissance styles seem to be in the ascendancy for dining-room and library decoration . K 2 . while for drawing-rooms and boudoirs there is a tendency to indulge in imitations of the styles of Louis Quatorze.FA VOURITE MODERN STFLES.

showed the adaptation of Gothic forms to wrought iron. It included besides church furniture. The magnificent Hereford Screen. S. the " Grammar of Ornapublication of the ment." did much to give vitality to the arts of decoration. CHAPTER VIII. HE Great Exhibition of 1851. the erection of the courts at the Crystal Palace. Burges is due the credit of giving the London public a view of a species of furniture very different from the .OVER-DOOE DECORATION. It was about this time that the to attract notice in this country. Some of the works at the Exhibition of 1862 indicated to adopt the was a tendency teachings of medieval that there tecture. works of Yiollet-le-Duc began and attention was called to a medieval work opposed in treatment to the elaborately panelled and carved imitations of ecclesiastical architecture which style of had passed in this country as Gothic furniture. To Mr. M.chimney-pieces and domestic furniture richly decorated. an elaborate specimen of metal work. domestic . "Wm. art in the interior decorations of domestic archi- A special court was set apart for specimens of this class of work. THE RISE OF THE MODERN STYLES OF DECORATION. Sketched by J.

may be described as an oblong box set on legs. suggestive. 53 sideboards and cabinets that had done duty hitherto as the modern representatives of mediaeval craftsmanship. bright. and full of a good-humoured individuality which was enhanced by good drawing and beautiful colour. Owen Jones. oak qualities. but other fantastic conceits. such as galloping animals. John G. Mr. Mr. two after. striking fitness for their purpose. and imitations of Louis Quatorze. One of Mr. J. But their influence had little effect A year or on the general body of even high-class decorators. for the finer Of Grace course. Digby Wyatt. decorated with figures by E. pinnacled. and docketed \V. the colours being tifully The chief subject was vivid. were not much sought after by the ordinary decorator of the day. Quinze. Burges was a diligent student and sketcher of Continental work and it is probable that he was an equally diligent student " Dictionaries of Architecture and of Mobilier " issued of the by Viollet-le-Duc. happy. of furniture In these works are given various early examples and decoration which had strong individuality. and in design could not be considered beautiful but this simple structure was very beau. who executed much of the decoration of the Houses of Parliament. Poynter . now in Ken- sington Museum. L. his highest flight of design for ordinary houses. the struggle for supremacy between the Wines and the Beers.WIXE CABINET BY arched. SURGES. Burges's examples. Mr. and French stamped paper covered walls. and Seize work. Eastlake proceeded to develop . C. Mr. were masters of and practised other styles of ornament. In construction it was very simple. a wine cabinet. It was altogether a very interesting bit of work quaint. graining or enamel white doors. and a very simple style of construction. and harmonious. These however. Mr. there were exceptions to this rule . were introduced on the rails and square legs. who found in white and gold cornices.

born in Dundee. the quaintness of the hanging cupboards. architecture for awhile under Messrs. Holland secured the silver medal. attracted a good deal of attention. Messrs. Holland. the idea of which Burges's cabinet was the germ. who were then preparing furniture for the Paris to secure Exhibition of 18G7. Avhere indeed amplifications of Eastlake's designs continue to be offered to the public. By their cabinets Messrs. and in construction too much like that of a packing-case to suit simplicity. Holland and Son. had many of the characteristics of design suitable for stone construction. but the elegance of design in the small cabinets. he was fortunate an engagement with Messrs. He designed for them a large mediaeval several small cabinets and hanging cupboards. enough of Mount Street. The gold medal was awarded a satinwood cabinet of the ordinary Louis Quatorze style of to design exhibited by Wright and Mansfield. and was not in every respect a success. . Campbell Douglas and Stevenson in Glasgow. were made and sent to Paris. good as it was. which sideboard. particularly in America. studied made in England. Holland. The furniture and decoration designed by Eastlake was characterised by Perhaps in decoration it was too simple for richness. though they have almost ceased to be decorative artist began to appear in Mr. Simultaneously with his work for Messrs. make. and went thence to Coventry to design for Skidmore the iron-worker. and the medieval style was very thoroughly advertised. was inexpensive rules which were often but it received with a good deal of favour. Bruce James Talbert. those to who desired something substantial .54 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. and maker of the famous John J. Hereford Screen. The sideboard. as well as the thoroughness and spirit of the design and decoration throughout all the works shown by Messrs. Coming to London about 1865 or 1866. About this time another the field. and conformed to some sensible It seems to have been overlooked in more pretentious work.

Designed by Lewis F. .PLATE IX. WALL DECORATION. for Jeffrey & Day Co.


for instance. which were perhaps sometimes improvements. entitled Forms. 55 Talbert was lithographing the first " Gothic sheets of his book. But in many The drawing-room furniture and the drawing-room decoration given in Sheets XX. and XXI. was too . the word in its application to movables . for the book soon found its way to the chief designers and cabinet-makers in the kingdom. ples of his views on furniture and decoration. and elegance rather than rugged strength is the thing aimed at. were without doubt the cause of the new style of decoration and furniture taking hold of the public . kind took the place of the unmeaning But as in works the design was directed to produce the greatest amount of effect at the smallest possible expenditure of design and workmanship. of the later sheets the design is much lighter. which is more Gargantuan than Victorian in it looks as if." using eyes now." which gives examThe earlier sheets. so large are the scantlings of his timbers. for Talbert's sideboard ing. The unadorned design of Eastlake. the result was net many of these imitative unalloyed good. Sheet I. and so massive the ironwork that garnishes the middle panel. and imitations. and the elegance of touch of the draughtsman help to disguise this characteristic. on the of which is depicted. so heavy his doors. were produced on all sides.TALBERT'S "GOTHIC FORMS. " looks too heavy for any piece of mobilier. the is Paris Exhibition sideboard. however honest.. in some cases.it should be built on a site intended to receive it. of his book. left-hand side shown the interior of a dining-room. ness. table on slender columns was succeeded by the occasional inlay and carving of an appropriate scrolls. shows a sideboard with a heavy solid fram- To our its style. In Sheet XI. show us instances of an archaic kind of massiveness united to a very skilful disposition of decorative accessories. with slight alteration. It is also characterised by heavi- though the goodness of the decoration." Cox and Son and others. The clumsy pillar table .

" Designed by Owcu W. WOOIXAJIS AND Co. satisfacsuggestive of a cheap style of construction to be entirely WM. Duvis .'s WALL PAPER " GBOSVESOK.5 6 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS.

MORRIS'S "DAISY" PATTERN. and Flanders. In this they followed many of the best examples of ancient design. and educated taste soon condemned this cheap and feeble substitute for artistic to detestable. If shown by a nameless young lady as her work it would probably have had no success at all and it by no means . to enrich. and its suitability as a background it for displaying pictures. approval. decoration. the clever drawings by Japanese artists of natural forms attracted designers always on the look-out for novelty. so that one half of the design was a reverse of the other. and weak though inoffensive in colour. Sicily. Mr. ordinary in design. Morris who gave it the prestige of their and Morris papers were looked on as highly aesthetic. tory. But a change was begin- ning . also possessed literary friends There was a good deal of nonsense in much of this talk about the Morris paper: for the "Daisy" pattern about which many aesthetic persons went into raptures is a very amateurish performance. 57 and as the careful and artistic work which Poynter had lavished on the Burges cabinet was beyond the purse of ordinary purchasers. . and with it the style of furniture it was employed The wall papers twenty years ago which were considered in the best taste were conventional in detail and somewhat formal in design. which was really a conventional arrangement of natural flower and leaf forms on a sadgreen ground. fascinated perhaps partly by the novelty of having a wall paper by the author of the " Earthly Paradise. and essays in the natural " all over " pattern were made. from excellent became the mode of decoration. took it up and recommended to their friends as the proper thing. and the most refined style of wall decoration possible. Mr. they were distinguished by a geometrical balance of parts." and partly by the quiet merit of the paper itself. Italy. as shown to us by the tapestries of Byzantium. Several architects who rated themselves as persons of great taste. France. that is to say. gold-ground flower-panels of all grades. William Morris brought out his "Daisy" pattern.

LAMS AXD Co. F.58 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS.'s " GiHOLAMO " WALL FApuu. many excellent designs afterwards produced equals the by Morris WM. . Voyscy. Designed by C. A. WOOJ.

Talbert turned his attention to this iiaturalesque form of and designed for Messrs. The new works had the patterns SUNFLOWER FRIEZE. Wm. and refined colours gave a splendour of effect which vied with that of the mixed cloth-of- gold and velvet patterns of mediaeval times. some Produced by a firm of undoubted taste papers in that style. and experience. Woollams and Co. were gilded and toned by transparent glazes into a variety of translucent tints. and Messrs. slightly raised above the ground. for united to a more masculine style of design were richer colours and a more attractive kind of execution. 59 by direct imitation of flowers and fruit. Jeffrey and Co. Wm.NEW STYLE OF WALL PAPER either DESIGNS. pleteness those to which they owed their birth. flock. J. Influenced by Morris and to some extent by Japanese work. or by following the designs of old Italian tapestries. Jeffrey and Co. both produced inexpensive papers of excellent design and of original. these new papers far excelled in artistic comdecoration. Talbert for Jeffrey & Co. Woollams and Co. and refined colour. beautiful. Simultaneously with the production of these magnificent wall decorations. Designed by B. Among the designers employed by these two firms were . brought out about the same time an array of papers in which gold.

L. Talbert. J. Owen W." Designed by G. Owen W. William Burges. G. WM. Robinson. Eastlakc.'a WALL PAPEE "AGRA.. B. Godwin. T. E. C. Walter Crane. Haite. C. Jones. Davis. WOOLLAMS AND Co.60 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. .

T. Voysey. 61 W. Sharp. Brophy." Designed by C. Voysey. Lewis F. A. WM. F.'s WALL PAPER " BLUET. PAPERS. F. A. .MODERN WALL C. A. F. Day. WOOLLAMS AND Co.

Here we may claim a small share in the art movement. W. the firm of Shortly after the appearance of Talbert's book. F. a much plainer. . C.b2 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. enough to be easily wrought. and the work was simple . J. T. simpler. Hay. so that the catalogue were imitated all to extend the influence of the examples given in the over the country and helped greatly new style. Weidemann. Collinson and Lock. manner than those by Talbert. Silver. DRAWING ROOM CABINET STYLE OF 1873. and G. Haite*. Dresser. A. and lighter subjects were treated in new style. which was about the first to recognise the vitality of the The brought out their catalogue. Louisa Aumonier. Dr. and in some cases were as bare of ornament as it was possible to be but there was practical knowledge displayed in the selection.

and other firms from the author's designs also tended in that direction. Mint on.. sance. elaborately mitred mouldings were used for framing the panels. he showed some additional phases of what was little A while after. that is eight years after the " Gothic appearance of his Forms. executed by firms of high standing. wall- which were papers. Mintons. were done in the studio of a well-known ornamentist. decorations. now called the Old English style. bloomed out into Flemish Renaisand passed thence into Italian Renaissance. which the style most in favour for high-class work. The illustrations to these books were. . a means of popularising the decorative treatment of figures . work were added and the style passing through the phases of Jacobean and Carolian work. metal work. In 1876. the varied sets of figure-tiles executed by Messrs. Hollins. by a collection of spirited and original sketches. we believe. tapestries. simplicity of" construction and decoration was no longer the chief aim . of these designs. by Messrs. carpets. and pottery. Many however. Like other things in which there is vigorous life. this new old style passed rapidly through various changes. 63 Besides contributing some of the designs and lithographing all the illustrations in Collinson and Lock's Catalogue.CHANGE FROM MEDIEVAL TO JACOBEAN. and cornices with dentils and modillions and other features of classic or Renaissance . Examples and Decoration. Talbert brought out " his of Ancient and Modern Furniture. Bernard Smith brought out a work on furniture and decoration in which. About this time the author designed Marcus Ward's new style of Christmas cards and fairytale books. boxwood exquisitely carved formed the decoration of the panels themselves next the mouldings were carved." Mr. and Co. and were given to the world as his work. is now We must notice that before this point was reached some books were published which show the influences at work during the transition period." In this work there are some designs which . the author made some thousands of designs for furniture. Tapestries.

But in 1873 we see a new phase of the to Hall. Tapestries. which belongs to the same period.64 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. (From " Examples of Ancient and Modern Furniture. is heavy. The "Entrance Cox and It patchy-looking and confused.) tality of effect which gives is this phase of the repose with its richness." designed for which cannot be considered an improvement on his earlier work. and South Kensington sideboard. show a good deal of the simplicity and spirit of Talbert's earlier designs.). Designed by B. which was done about 1870 or earlier. B. such as the drawing-room shown on the this page. shows a leaning to a more elaborate style. The hall and staircase Old English style done for Sir John Eamsden this period* another fine example of Talbert's work about artist's design. clumsy. J. Talbert." By permission of Mrs. and Decoration. while it is marked throughout by the breadth and horizon- DEAWINO ROOM. show very little of the spirit which inspired his former work. borrows some Old English decorative panels with which most other parts of the work are . Talbert. J. The dining-room (Plate X. Son. though some of the examples. which was exhibited at the Eoyal Academy in 1872.

i H w H .


and the picture above The it. and noble proportions. but a hybrid in which the mode of Flanders The last drawing of all done in plays a considerable part. cannot be considered a fit culmination to the noble and simple series of designs which had preceded it. and though an excellent example of its kind. and evince a fertility of design such as can be seen in the work of no other architect of the present day. the building presents incongruities in parts which cannot be defended as consistent with English medieval architecture but its spirit. is no longer Old English. forms an epitome of his knowledge and skill. happy The drawings of 1874 and 1875 are better. the practice of other members of the profession. He was an insatiable nothing was too great or too small for his notice. however. detail. and set an example of conscientious thoroughness in the designing and detailing of his work which has had a happy influence on much of the design of his contemporaries. which. effect in the works carried out from his designs. however. 65 quite out of sympathy. however. because less chaotic and more pronounced in style. used with superb sketcher . variety. a Jacobean staircase (see frontispiece to this volume). but they have no caps or bases . 1876. thorough mediaeval spirit. and the stores he had collected were by his good taste. are undeniable. is well detailed. Alfred F . Another architect who has been the happy recipient of important commissions for large public buildings. is Mr. and fine sense of proportion. cornice. The late George Edmund Street was the designer of some is a very bit of decorative effect. both in the mass and in . picturesqueness. very fine ecclesiastical interiors which scarcely come within the He. the Law Courts in the Strand. Judged by severely purist canons. exerted a great influence on scope of this work. shows a complete change of style. the frieze is a collection of harsh lines and violently contrasting forms of black and white. The pilasters are fluted.GEORGE EDMUXD STREET. depicting mediaeval ships. His great work.

St. Butterfield perhaps stands higher than any other man as the designer of ecclesiastic interiors. such as of large works a fine feeling for breadth and skill in picturesque grouping. Waterhouse. Mr. but never mean or petty. narrow. Mr. Waterhouse is content with two or . Undoubtedly possessing talents of a high order. and more commonplace. pleasantly diversified. milder. Street in the Waterhouse. and we meet which in his is work diffusion instead of the concentrated energy an instinct with Street. but . is imbued with the ascetic spirit of the Middle Ages . time when the arts in England were not a joyous exercise. recall a ornamental cross. we think. the restrained curves of the the thin but well grouped mouldings. But we must concede that much of his work has noble qualities. is soon exhausted. Mr. Waterhouse shows a tendency occasionally content to repeat it in a series. in his earlier work the Manchester Assize Courts for example he was more liberal with his design and produced the corresponding effect of more lasting interest. founded on medieval design. grandly picturesque in groupHe uses ing. This is a reason three alternated over the facade or interior. detail the same thing occurs hundred varieties where Street would have given a of design. Alban's. however. number executed from his designs. the less spirit that animates his work is at once more modern. to Sometimes. the grand medieval forms and inspires them with a modern individuality which is his own. Though exceeding Mr. the severe contour of the arches. simple in arrangement. would scarcely claim to rank side by side with that master.66 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. why the interest in this architect's later work. be saving of himself. following in this In his the spirit of classical rather than of medieval art. whereas. he find scarcely ever designs with the affluent lavishness which we he contrives a good form he is If in Street's best work. His sympathies are broader than Street's. Baldwin's Gardens.

it to a period anterior to the popular revival of domestic belongs medievalism which formed so active an element in the vivifying of the modern styles of decoration. F 2 . degrees of feeling in Butterfield's work. and have also given us fine interiors. L. at Oxford. Cornhill. Fine and vivacious as questionable if many of these they came up in richness of effect to works were. he does not aim at sensuous beauty of contour. style. Goldie (church at York). instance. Fionn Barr. Paley and Austin. and the refitting and decoration of St. St. James (St. J. a holy passion. belong almost to the class of popular Gothic. Among Many the authors of these works may be mentioned. showed repose. has produced some very effective 'interiors Exeter College Chapel. and many other buildings of classic or Italian design. Cork). have been produced since 1862. Alban's: distinction by severity. and the decorations ef Winchester. for some examples do not possess the lofty All Saints'. Arthur W. richness and compared very favourably with those of the new Gothic Gothic of the older branch of the revival is pre-eminently represented by the Palace of Westminster. Burges John Pritchard. many other architects. Sir Gilbert Scott was the exponent of a more easy and redundant kind of Gothic. George's Hall. W. Margaret Street. Emerson. but chooses rather to obtain however. Cross. being fine interiors among the number. for severity of St. Though modern. interiors that for dignity and splendour. : He Michael's. Glasgow. There are.SOME MODERN INTERIORS. bj The concentration which appears in Street becomes narrowed to intensity with Butterficld. it is some that had been produced before Gothic became the reigning style. Blomfield (EadclifFe Chapel). Liverpool. Brooks. is much more florid in style. Thomas Smith and Son (New Protestant church at Naples). G. The Union Bank Telling Eoom. Pearson. which represented the joviality and love of rich eifect rather than the asceticism of the Middle Ages. St.

The new-comer had so many characteristics of nationalities. such an armoury of charms. OB LITTLE CUPID. She was pure English. S. pure Flemish. when new Gothic or modern English medievalism was still in the heyday of her jocund youth. A Freize. original. a coquettish field. CHAPTER IX. appeared in the and soon lured far away from rival the English maid the lightly placed affections of the fickle architects. The former wor- shippers of bright. intelligent. pure Italian. sketched by J. diverse such a battery of airs and graces. One loved her and picturesque grace this admired her because she was so domestic and unpretending. that the bewildered wielders of the tee-square. QUEEN ANNE AND LATER DEVELOPMENTS OF T a time STYLE. vivacious Gothica. allured by her unknowableness. and trampled madly over each other favour of the in their frantic endeavours to gain the new divinity. another for her dignity . lost what heads they had. that other because she was so rich and so queenly. turned their backs on her.EROTIDEUS. to grovel in the dust before Queen Anne. M. Or was . for her homeliness.




she not a cross between the royal houses of art


did she not bear

on her shield the English mullion, the Flemish gable, the Italian She spoke now pilaster, and had rich carving for mantlings ? in soft bastard Latin, now in French, now in Dutch, and now
in pure Anglo-Saxon.

Her age was
dress and style

as varied as her other characteristics, for her

Julius Caesar,

showed that she must be the contemporary of of Francis I., William the Silent, the Grand

Monarque, Napoleon Buonaparte, the Brothers Adam, Norman Shaw, and John J. Stevenson.

lodges, dignified mansions,




and clumsy or picturesque temples called Board schools were erected in her honour, and she seemed to be installed as

The moral the architectural divinity, vice Gothica dethroned. of this allegorical prelude is that the name of Queen Anne has
been tacked to things of very opposite styles, periods, and countries, with which the style of the real Queen Anne had no
It is

Eichard Norman Shaw to


the credit or blame

Queen Anne style should be awarded. An architect of great talent and versatility, and a splendid draughtsman, Mr. Shaw has for many years exercised a strong influence over the weaker members of his profession.
of introducing and popularising the

Where he


it is difficult

hundreds follow, sometimes so slavishly that to say which is the work of the master and which

the imitation of the disciple. Occasionally, however, there is no such difficulty, for the imitators frequently copy the forms, ugly or otherwise, and leave out the spirit which informed the


of the master.

Mr. Norman Shaw has done many admirable interiors, and has done noble service in bringing before the public picturesque
a long time overlooked.

specimens of English domestic architecture, which had been for regret that we cannot award him


unqualified praise, for

some of


work contains





are anything but beautiful

in others

he seems

to revel in

curiously proportioned windows, uncouth architectural forms, and far-fetched details which are no doubt piquant as a

and are tolerated from ugly woman is piquant Mr. Shaw on account of his other excellences but their intro;

duction has had a disastrous effect on


of the weaker

members of the



finding strange forms and

proportions easily imitated, have adopted them with avidity, seemingly under the curious delusion that they were drinking the strong wine of Norman Shaw's style, whereas they were

only smearing their foolish faces with the


Some may say that this which is fixed by no canon.

subject of proportion

a thing

It is not narrowly fixed, perhaps,



bounds nevertheless.



or a statue

may be

heads high, and be well proportioned under each condition, but if we make our statue three heads high, or twelve heads high, it is out of proportion. Again, the Doric
six, seven, or eight

columns at Corinth are
the Parthenon

than four diameters high Parthenon are rather less than five diameters high.


those of the

Yet though

the better work, no one will say that the

sturdy pillars of Corinth are disproportioned. On the other hand, the columns of the temple at Delos arc over six diameters

high and are not good in proportion

if they were eight ; diameters high, everyone would say they were wildly disproportionate for Doric columns, though that or a greater diametrical



easily admissible

for instance, in the Corinthian

under different circumstances, as, and Composite orders. For the

same reason a


arch which

admissible in a Gothic design

quite out of place in classic work. In some respects a follower of Gr. E. Street, and




Norman Shaw,

T. E. Collcutt, in most of his designs for
to avoid

interior work,





fireplace of the



Hall, for instance,


guished by

a fine sense of masculine breadth, the sections aro



and simple, and the well-chosen ornament is most The tall dado of this chamber is finely judiciously applied. proportioned and well detailed, the decorations of the frieze and
ceiling are in admirable keeping with the style.

When, however, Mr. Collcutt indulges in curved and broken pediments, we do not like his work so well, nor can we say it is judicious in him
however remotely, in a sideboard design, a reminisYet cence of the Jacobean monuments of Westminster Abbey.
to suggest,

though we may differ from him in some points, we recognise in Mr. Collcutt one of our most thoughtful and earnest architects,
and one who spares himself no pains to give his work the stamp of individuality as well as of good proportion and consistent

and Lock
hand, and

of the admirable
at the last



work exhibited by Messrs. Collinson Paris Exhibition was from Mr. Collcutt's interiors at home and abroad are the outcare.

come of

his skill


Godwin, an architect with decided decorative and antiquarian tastes, has been a consistent worker in the cause of
Mr. E.
decoration for the last twenty years. He is perhaps better known to the general public for the taste, accuracy, and skill he has


displayed in fitting


plays with appropriate scenery,



and costumes, than as an architect or decorator. nevertheless, the architect of several works distinguished



fine grouping,

and the designer of

some excellent furniture and decorations.
Seddon, an architect of experience and taste, belongs the credit of striving to maintain and develop the influence of the Gothic style, upon which, so far as domestic work
J. P.

To Mr.

was concerned, many architects turned their backs. Mr. William Burges was as firm and consistent a supporter of Gothic, and mainly confined his practice to the earlier periods
of medieval art as practised on the Continent. In the decoration of Cardiff Castle, and of his own house, he showed with



masterly effect the variety and playfulness of treatment of which the style was capable.

Ernest George and Peto possess picturesque and decorative instincts of a

high order, and though followers in the path in which

Norman Shaw leads the way, they show plentiful individuality. Some of their interiors, those especially which are devoid of

though rich in parts, look a trifle empty and meagre as a whole some are rather more like hasty sketches than well

considered designs ; others, however, are thoroughly satisfactory examples of the Flemish Eenaissance which seems to constitute
the favourite style of these architects. The fine "Etched Studies for Interior

Decoration," by Batley, should not be passed over without remark. The author, a pupil of B. J. Talbert, excels chiefly in richness of deep effects, well contrasted with extreme delicacy and lightness in


other parts. Many of his examples are bold, broad, and rich, while in others the influence of a Japanese-like over-minuteness


A characteristic
so free a kind

specimen of this




morning-room decoration (Plate IV.).

that the furniture in

The style modern


given in the Eoman, but of




distributed throughout blends with the older kind of work.


harmony may be partly due to the fact that though there is a touch of medioevalism in some of the minor details, the framing
of the furniture has a closer sympathy with Egyptian and early Classic than with Gothic.


" Cutler should be mentioned for his excellent



of Japanese Ornament," Lewis F.


for his


Art," K. W. Edis and Fred. Miller for their books on Interior Decoration. J. B. Waring, J. K. Colling, F. E. Hulme, Dr. Dresser, and others contributed towards making ornament better
understood, for formerly it was rather imitation than design that was practised, as the designers, so-called, had scarcely

emancipated themselves from the dominion of the ancients, and

copied as



were the thoughts and words of others rather than used ornament to express their own.



who have done good

service to art without actually

being originators, Mr. Baffles Davison and H. W. Brewer Mr. Davison has a keen deserve most honourable mention.

eye for the picturesque and a fine taste for decorative effects ; his drawings, moreover, have an ease, elegance, and sprightliness of touch which make them very attractive, while he by

no means

Indeed, it may be said that his graceful drawings have far more of the spirit of the work they delineate than the heavy and laborious works of
sacrifices correctness to effect.

In pretend to far greater exactness of execution. the pages of the British Architect he has delineated with fine effect many of the best interiors designed by G. E. Street,

many who

Norman Shaw,
Sellars. J.

T. E. Collcutt, Alfred Waterhouse,

George and

Peto, Paley and Austin, George Aitchison, Campbell Douglas

D. Sedding,

J. P.

Seddon, John Douglas, R.


Edis, E.

Mr. H.

W. Godwin, and many others. W. Brewer is chiefly known by

his contributions to

the Builder in which he displays mature antiquarian as well as
architectural knowledge.

There are some features apparent in modern architecture and decoration which are due not to English, Flemish, or Italian art.
but which


be traced to the influence exerted by modern

French decorators and

Before the accession of the Emperor Napoleon III., Paris no doubt had picturesque features which were more attractive artistically than the somewhat monotonous boulevards that

The Emperor, possessing the building mania, down and re-erected on the right hand and on the left with great vigour and energy. If he made some blunders in One of the works building, he also made some grand successes. of his reign was the extension or completion of the Palace of the Louvre and the Tuileries, and it can scarcely be denied that the
replaced them.




design executed.
tion of

finely proportioned, artistically detailed,

and ably


of this

work was

carried out under the direc-

H. Lefuel, architect to the emperor. Though this archiexecuted some noble buildings, it is curious to find that his




in this country, while that of Viollet-



superintended the restoration of the ecclesiastical

England as that of Street or Scott. Viollet-le-Duc probably owes this fame less to his talents as an architect than to his restless vigour as a writer
edifices of France, is as well



and his picturesque talent with his

hold a foremost place, his actual means entitled to rank with the best Gothic work, either of France
or England.

Though his books architectural work is not by any

a cheap and easy look about some of his In decoration he details which the best work never possesses.



was not more

successful, as the chapels of



was an abler Gothic architect than Yiollet-le-Duc, and


have several decorative artists


could surpass

him both in form



Nevertheless, for the British architectural student at least, Viollet-le-Duc bears the laurel crown, and in one respect justly ; for whatever may have been his deficiencies as a practical archi-

drawings are marvels of clearness, skill in perspective, antiquarian knowledge, and dexterous draughtsmanship.
tect, his

M. Lefuel probably had not his

the pencil or the pen ; was much Viollet-le-Duc' s superior.

gifted countryman's skill with but his works testify that as an architect he


work has

a finished

harmony and surpassed by any work

an elegance of form

which in

its style is

not to be

Probably due to the excellence of his collaborateurs, designers, modellers, and sculptors; but the fact remains, that most of the decorative work produced under his direction is of

either ancient or modern.





the highest class of

its style,

and throughout bears the stamp of
finest order.

an architectural and decorative taste of the


works, such as the



were not without

well thought-out detail. a repose of style. who could appreciate good proportion. Burnet are other Glasgow architects who show favourably under this modern French Messrs. Campbell Douglas and Sellars of Glasgow. designs sent in. by Mr. H. 1882). is of the buildings which M. shows a refinement and delicacy of proportion and detail. But that some are fully alive to the value of these qualities recently erected in Messrs. Lindsay and Stark in their design for the Admiralty Offices in this style evinced a fine sense of decorative and picturesque effect which was not noticeable in many of the influence. Crossland. by Douglas and Sellars. Aston Webb and Ingress Bell also shows distinctive French influence. a picturesque originality. the same care in detail and proportion is apparent. Mr. but it is allied in this instance to a severity more Greek than modern French. to this earlier period that the excellent design. by whom a happy conceit. and rich but judicious decoration in sculpture and painting. their effect on 75 many British architects and decorators.INFLUENCE OF MODERN FRENCH WORK. W. . The design of Messrs. Andrew's Hall. In the St. or a cumbrous dignity is more appreciated than beauty of proportion or tenderness of feeling in detail. bear evidence in their work of the interest they felt in the modern French school of amply shown by many London and the provinces. Lefuel was one of the exponents. which was decorated by Andrew Wells. Their work. though the period chosen It is also belongs more to Renaissance than to modern French. in the as shown club at Glasgow (British Architect. though influenced by "Greek" Thomson to some extent. These works in Paris have a degree of finish and completeness which is too often lacking in the works of our island architects. October 13th. for the Holloway College at Egham rightly belongs. for which sometimes we may look in vain in new the works of Norman Shaw and his imitators. William Leiper and Mr.

AMATEUR AND ARCHITECTURAL AMATEUR DECORATORS.ORNAMENT. served to keep chair-backs from But a change was injuring the walls. furnished with if it which had no other use. is a taste at She could. But this intuitive delicate feminine taste has been dealt with rather harshly of late years. aspect. In those days acknowledgment of the intuitive superiority and delicacy of feminine taste was looked for as a matter of course from all the novelists. but for drawing-rooms both decorators and the ladies agreed that there was nothing so refined as enamel white and gold. and worse. and lovely woman reigned supreme in the choice of colours for house decoration. Style of Thirteenth Century. The first thing a high-class impending. that woman all. CHAPTER X. Some cynical being of the masculine sex discovered. made public his discovery. |||l BOUT a thirty years ago the chief rooms in many good houses were wooden dado rail. imitate a fashionable taste . mere imitator and does not possess any original it was said. decorator did when he got into a room of that kind was to wrench off the dado rail and cover the walls from skirting to cornice with a French paper of light and cheerful For dining-rooms the colours might be rich and dark.

satinwood. furniture. and at the same time taught the much- needed lesson of self-repression. tasteless creature. 77 and cookery. . it was been originated by that cynic. It genius. produced by the combined fashionable feminine taste of the civilised world was rather monotonous. there has not yet appeared a great composer or a great cook The moreover. however. and that she could crowd incongruous though perhaps expensive on unstable furniture so cunningly that ordinary persons of the clumsy masculine order. Perhaps she was right in her belief. but unfortunately it was also the belief of every other lady who had the slightest pretensions to fashionable taste. For the decoration of the drawing-room walls she at that time firmly believed there was nothing so chaste or so elegant as white and gold. all mode of cooking the food she eats had. music. the furniture and decoration of the rooms she lives in. the music she plays. The doors were white. when in her drawing-room. dress. man. they have denounced the sin and imposture deliberately perpetrated have been great changes . therefore. or maple . noble. in millinery. although many women have devoted a great deal of time to playing music and to cooking. or grained to represent satinwood or some other precious timber the carpet was light in the ground and spangled with roses or garlands of other gay flowers. almost amounted to of the feminine sex. It was likewise granted that she could choose vases of the slightest known degree trifles of stability as ornaments for a mantelpiece. The ladies' dresses that lead the fashion. but as a rule she originated nothing. said that was conceded. But since that time there high-souled men awful iniquity of graining doors in imitation of oak. were impressed with the feeling of her too exquisite refinement. that her gifts in the way of placing anti-macassars where they would make the clumsy male being most uncomfortable. The effect.LADYLIKE DECORATION. have come forward boldly and shown the by demons in the guise of wall-paper manu- . and the said.

It seems to us only a question of degree. say we. wood instead of solid gold . giving the forms of flat men and women is that we have colour of surfaces which pretend to give the roundness painting. so that though plain deal they would look and walnut or ebony. and all deception is wrong. who put attractive imitations of real flowers on walls and floors where no real flowers were likely facturers to be. ask the noble denouncers of graining why it is so very wicked to grain a door in imitation of oak. modes of If For while thinking there are better and truer decoration. however. or graining of doors as glaring We. exalted sort favoured by the denouncers of sham graining but a conglomeration of shams ? They would cover the walls with paper-hangings that is. and even a blind man would not mistake it for real oak. and human figures that Art is conventional imitation and what is decoration of the pure. they will probably reply that we intended to deceive." " Well. have not immorality. good. thoughtlessly would use veneer of they stain floors made wood or marble they would probably dark in some like places. in spite of the . we reply. the ordinary builder and decorator's oak graining is quite as conventional as your flowers. Yes. But. .78 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. mouldings which the wicked of builder has . sham hangings on which there would be sham leaves and flowers they would gild . and are not intended to deceive. but our flowers are conventional renderings. and carpet makers. we do not think it worth while to waste good indignation on such harmless fashions. But effigies is not all art founded on imitation ? We is have sham sculpture . you yourselves use flowers as decorations for it is walls. yet reached that transcendently high standpoint which would enable us to denounce imitations of real flowers as soul-destroying shams.

is that our houses." however. Her of Decoration. nothing so destructive to the germination of real taste flock. information seems to be very extensive. who have followed each other with sheep-like regularity during the last twenty years. sometimes on the ceilings as well. and to art feeling in England. which are shrewd. expounded Many their true principles of Art at Home with as much innocent con- fidence as if the subject had been the trimming of a dress. who is the author of a book called the "Art is entitled to a higher place than that usually accorded to the amateur author who attacks a subject that requires technical as well as practical knowledge. Of course. as the sheep-like English inclination thoroughly bad fashion would ever take a firm hold on society were it not for the indolence of those who run in a No . and furnished with a convenient apron or curtain to hide the emptiness of the fire-place. and her conclusions. with which they had most acquaintance. There is nothing so foolish. Haweis. Japanese fans were spluttered over the walls. and name for taste had her mantelpiece draped. are given in her book in a very lively and entertaining manner. She shows up in her book the absurdities " One of some of the lady decorators in the following fashion : of my strongest convictions.LADIES AS DECORATORS. Mrs. and the soul was cheered everywhere with the delectable sight of plates and other articles of crockery adorning the chief points of the apartment. elaborate distinctions 79 and explanations as to the rights and wrongs of imitation given by denouncers of graining. never the habits of a class. their delicate feminine instinct led them to advocate the style of decoration everyone aspiring to a befrilled. like the fish's shell or the bird's nest. feeling a call to convert the nations to the practice of high-toned decoration. and one of the first canons of good taste in house decoration. we persist in believing that graining is only terribly wicked because it is at present so very unfashionable. especially ladies. amateurs. ought to represent our individual tastes and habits.

waterlilies. moreover. founded neither taste ? on good sense nor good are quite gone out. some architects have endeavoured of art of decoration. show that they were masters of the he has a thorough knowledge of his proIf is an architect likely to make the interior decorations . is always the same doing it ' ! : all however. who dread what down the law in mantel.8o ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. every one has it sense tells us that a delicate fabric designed to adorn a lady's it is ' ! dress is as unsuited to the close to the ' rough and dusty service of furniture fire as ' therefore. so as to be more than a match for The modern the wiliest of builders on the one side. we adopt a freak of luxury. while on the other he claims to rub shoulders with the immortals who designed the Parthenon and gave Europe its grand cathedrals. but will not. one hears ladies laying You must have old point on your style ' : Yet good indispensable . architect has. with his building but it is perhaps too much to demand that a modern architect should mix all the tints and draw all the details of ornamentation with his own hand. in harmony. or a white satin ' I bow from the register am telling everybody of Besides the amateurs. Everything. a rockery of ferns. sometimes to be brother to the keenest of hucksters. this Plumbing and decorating are in country of anomalies . although the best ancient work was probably done under such conditions.shelf . must a pearl necklace or ostrich plumes. think for themselves. Why. or fill it Again we hear. and the timidity of those new. late years to the argument and they are it. fession. can. stove. as to scale at least. is supposed to be well within the powers of that combination of modern practical science and of genius made to order the modern architect. is this For instance. from the construction of a kitchen sink to the building and decorating of a St.' ' Fire ornaments you must stick a Japanese parasol in the with tinsel and It matters not how outrageous the notion primroses planted in the fender. Peter's. a scent fountain playing up the chimney.

has to dance from style to style according to the mood. Moreover the modern architect. and the most expected beautiful and refined series of decorations possible. she simply says she wears it because it is the fashion. a fierce supporter of foreign Gothic of severely early type. at another he gives up his soul to the soft allurements of the gentle Adam or the queer Queen it At one time requires great versatility to be abreast of the fashion in architecture .ARCHITECT-DECORA TORS. she does not defend the principle. so that mastered the principles of a style. Architects. or ignorance of those he calls his clients. discovers that some neglected relic of early Georgian art is a valuable example of what is excellent and appropriate in domestic architecture. may direct his attention to one style. Norman Shaw for instance. for no sooner has our second-rate man Anne. When fashion decrees that a violates the usual canons of woman shall wear a dress that good form. but who are in reality his patrons. he the enthusiastic adopter of the opinions and designs of those he considers leaders in the profession. what to him is the same thing. on the other hand. This in itself is rather against all his acquiring a thorough knowledge of is the details of any established as a leader of design who style. 8 1 yet we might be disappointed if we the highest type of sanitary plumbing. "Without fixed ideas himself. always manage to convince mode they adop't is the best possible and of . and begin to study with avidity the style he formerly despised. or want of principle. from the same hand. knowledge. than one of the architectural leaders. unless of a very high stand- ing indeed. and reach in it something architect like perfection . or. Mr. The unoriginal architect has to throw up the style he has just learned. The but the second or third-rate architect has no such is chance. is able to copy it without knowing its principles. while showing all a woman's eagerness to adopt a themselves that the new fashion. often coupled together .

and now. is usually in harmony. them in taste. and it is they and not the carved work that are As frequently meretricious . all their souls make room for painted ornament. the only tolerable things in the work by our really talented. decorates. exhibits It is an architect of the for some inartistic leaning his back against his noble profession. Holland & Son. in his book." who fill the house "with articles incongruous in design. and Jeffrey & Co.." If there is an upholsterer who can produce more uncomfortable architect's and commonplace designs than those which bear this fashionable name as the designer. and it is a curious commentary on his statement to find that the best. while much present day who is responsible and decidedly ugly concave and broken pediments." all a matter of fact. and are not seemingly due to the omniscient modern architect.. and clumsy. Gillow & Co. in a book of which he is the author. but in this instance much mistaken. author. for carving. indeed. and often utterly commonplace and uncomfortable. are those which are produced under the auspices of art manufacturers such as Wilcock & Co.8i ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. their At one time they you find revel in plaster enrichments. it irreproachable principles. spindly furniture. who laments that the designing of furniture is handed over to people he calls " upholsterers. whatever its faults may be. bad as examples for imitation. with the furniture it of the painted work used to enrich modern furnituro forms a violent contrast to the main body of the fabric. and who. . disjointed mantelpieces. at another to them cutting away the plaster Then. It is he. in colour at least. were bent on carved panels in furniture. he must be in truth a very extraordinary upholsterer. we find one of their number calmly writing " One a paragraph like this good painted panel is worth ten : thousand times more than which so much the meretricious carving with of our modern furniture is filled. painted panels are much too abundant in modern furniture.. else they would never give sanction.

but possess a fanciful playing with the lines not usual in . seventeenth and early eighteenth decoration and furniture. For example. good work in these styles is always more or less true to If an architect clever in Gothic. but classic principles. side of heaviness. in addition to selecting bad forms for his own work. Yet. classic. his frontispiece shows us part of a dining-room in which the frieze occupies about one third of the whole height between the floor and the under side G 2 . meddles with late a bad as a good specimen for imitation.be. perhaps. Queen Anne style have been produced by architects who have not had a training in classical architecture without this advantage. the furnished by the architectural decorator already examples referred to are rather commonplace. and he may. however clever The worst designs of the so-called . seeing their executed work. Queen Anne. the architect is very apt to err in his selection of features belonging to such bastard styles as the Adam. In their designs architects are often inclined to err on the till they have had repeated opportunities of This is natural enough. commends in a book intended for popular art instruction to be. much of the best work produced by the artistic manufacturers of the present day is done from gentlemen who have served an apprenticeship to architecture. ignorant of classic.ARCHITECT-DECORATORS. 83 In truth. and have added to this the study of decoration designs by and furniture. or Louis Seize. Georgian. The cause is versatile obvious they the styles mentioned are founded on classic work. however much they may vary from their parent stem. these bad forms as examples of what modern ought we fancy it is right politely to point out his error. for the hand that is used to designing for large masses of stone does not at first grasp the peculiar requirements of interior wood-work. however. he is just as likely to take If an architect. and lack in many instances Compared with the a just sense of proportion. artistic interiors in Talbert's book.

accepting the perspective effect of distance . is of the first Next to it comes harmony and contrast of colour. Nothing so readily destroys the effect of size and aerial space as having gigantic figures or ornament in one place and small figures in another. tyro. Now this same proportion of frieze space would have been quite appropriate if the artist had kept in his work to the scale of the other furniture and decorations of the room. but being unusual does not make it wrong but what does make it exceedingly unsuitable is that its details are on too large a of the cornice. small scaled pictures of the room itself.84 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. The and each makes the other ridicu- simply because they are not suited to each other. concludes that the figures which look so large cannot be so far distant as they really are. and the various accessories should have been smaller rather than larger than their natural size. the eye. This scale. the rustic porch. and garden-seat delineated on the frieze are all of gigantic proportions compared with the slightly framed scale. importance in interior decoration. which is too often misunderstood. Figures and ornaments in interiors should rather be gently diminished as they recede from the eye. The figure is too big and is furniture and frieze crushes the wall space lous. acting under the impression that things that are distant from the eye should be enlarged so as to tell more vividly. and those which are nearest the spectator as he stands on the floor should be rather larger in scale than the ornaments and figures on the roof. trained to the appreciation of perspective. The figures should have been smaller and there might have been more of them. does the thing which most surely destroys the spacious effect of The an interior. wall. not elegant in form . for the eye. This is an unusual proportion for a frieze. . but this diminution ought to be effected so gradually as to be imper- ceptible . or small ornaments here and large orna- ments there.

we cannot find that he has had much practical influence as a leader His power over the practice of contemporary art may be measured by the small amount of progress made in this of art. Perhaps we should not omit to mention in connection with this part of the subject Mr. John Euskin. Euskin enthusiastic exponent is the and recommender. His knowledge of his subject is often of a very superficial kind. of which Mr. RUSKIN'S ART TEACHING. receives an impression of vaster space than would be given if the work was rigidly to one inflexible scale. in his "Lectures on Architecture. Euskin does. him while his selections are so narrow in scope that they cannot commend themselves to those more catholic lovers of art who can enjoy the variety and picturesqueness of diverse they all styles. and the apartment would look infinitely larger than if an opposite course were adopted and the distant figures and ornaments were enlarged in proportion as they receded from the eye. But perhaps Mr. because not of the ordinary natural type. Euskin's qualifications as an sort to render were not of the acceptable to architects or decorative artists. They dislike the disingenuous method he has taken to glorify Gothic. a distinguished writer who has been for many years before the public as an exponent of art. country by Venetian architecture.MR. This superficiality of information and narrowness of selection are of course not noticed by those who know still less of art subjects than Mr. however may be. art teacher Mr. 85 thus conveyed. Notwithstanding the noise he has made in the world." and his futile condemnation of the exquisite conventionalism of it is Greek decorative sculpture. however successful he might be in influencing amateurs. Euskin no more expected to be taken seriously when he wrote that jeu d''esprit on art than he expects . but his deficiencies in these respects are painfully apparent to those who have given a life's study to comparative architecture and decoration.

of art. and it received its proper place. its which was not. Euskin became his champion ! as the With regard to Mr. faults duly noted.000 from the unappreciative public before Mr. the Turner. " But " Mr. we suppose. judge Turner. for did he not discover that neglected genius. design and form. we fancy. had. Both. " above the Parthenon and all that is great and beautiful in Greece. we think." say some. Allowance was made . the glamour of commended. Euskin's more pretentious works. or Gothic Europe. Mr. Euskin does not agree with those authors in their views of life. after all. Euskin to overlook the poor quality of the design. And. and colour of the marble have caused Mr. and. for the associations of the Doges' Palace. Kingsley. sheen. managed by the exercise of his art to extract a fortune of 150. Euskin must be a good surely. does not expect or wish his advice to be taken he merely desires to show the world what an original humorist he is. Egypt. Buskin has recently advised the extinction or banishment of the works of Thackeray.86 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. how'ever. "We understand that Mr. and others. had their admirers before he gave them the aid of his eloquent pen but they were not blindly worshipped. however. for extravagant if Some of these examples are so puerile in eloquent laudation. Euskin was not the discoverer of the architecture and decoration of the Doges' Palace any more than he was the discoverer of Turner's genius. and reveal him to the British public?" . its romantic situation." The difference between the work of an incompetent and a competent critic Its beauties were history and traditions. its may easily be perceived by comparing Euskin's ." weakness not necessary to read his books to detect his this is abundantly evident from the specimens he is has chosen for illustrations. that we can only imagine that the beauty. neglected genius. Venice. Mr. to be when writing of literature. Euskin. such "Seven Lamps of Architecture" or the "Stones of it . for the overwhelming reason that Mr.

(Procter and Co. as well as the exquisite sense of proportion displayed in Greek. that there is either nothing to follow but elegant words. who. Beside him Euskin appears like an uninstructed amateur. This position of Mr. or the examples he culls support very imperfectly sometimes very his pretensions to be a judge of what is beautiful ludicrously or appropriate. is quite well understood by and by architects they are pleased to listen to his eloquence. the virile strength and affluent design of ciate the decorative Gothic. the regal richness of Saracenic. Euskin artists ." Fergusson shows the mature judgment of a man who has studied all styles. and proceeds to claim for his shiny beads a place above the royal heirlooms which have justly commanded the admiration of centuries. INDIAN DECORATIVE SALVEE. concludes in his enthusiasm that it is a jewel of inestimable value. 87 "Stones of Venice" with Fergusson's " Handbook of Architecture.) . but they do not follow his precepts for the reason . RUSKIN'S ART TEACHING. whose sympathies are wide enough to apprebeauty of detail of Indian work.MR. discovering some glittering gewgaw.

The French was gradually evolved from of Pierre Lescot. rich. held themselves aloof. Philibert Italian Renaissance by the labours the Delorme. with a few exceptions. and Jean Bullant. the aristocracy. hallowed by preferred the styles which were some kind of historic association to the new work They which attempted to adapt ancient forms to The preferences of the aristocracy to adopt pure or early forms of decoration either in Gothic or classic. DRAWING-ROOM DECORATION. did not. and gave but slight encouragement to the modern style of design. Goujon. interior decoration was modified by Mansard and Berain. }HILE the new style received ample support from the rich middle classes. Cousin. their tastes directed classic or modern requirements. Later it was developed and by Jean Lepautre ficent gallery of into the dignified. as practised under Louis Quatorze and style Louis Quinze. M. earlier who were and the architects of the the Tuileries. Painted by J. portions of Louvre They were ably seconded by Jean decorative sculptors of great ability. S. CHAPTER XI. and well-proportioned style of interior decoration which we see to-day in the magni- Lepautre's style of Apollo at the Louvre. This . however. and mirrors became a distinctive feature of the decoration.DKAWINO-HOOM FRIEZE DECORATION. lead them to the them French versions of Eenaissance art. Pilon.

the ground . An illustration of the style of Louis Seize is given in Plate XL. DECORATION OF SMALL SALON. PALACE OF VEESAILLES. at Fontaine- The application of the French style to English interiors is fairly shown in the illustration of the Cedar Eoom.FRENCH STYL ES OF DECORA TION. in its 89 turn was followed by the rococo style of Louis Quinze. of which the decoration of the small salon at the palace of Versailles.) which delineates the boudoir of Marie Antoinette bleau. The rooms were lofty. is a very favourable example. " (From Architectural Styles. given on this page. Style of Louis Quinze. the ceilings usually coved ." published by Chatto & Windus.). Warwick Castle (Plate XII.

done in colours of such attractive stripes straight. they should be done in pure light tints. to avoid injuring the purity of the tints. however. Some of our London dealers have found it profitable to buy entire suites or fragments of the decorations of French chateaux. lightened to a pale hue with white. with silk. such as tints. the raised tints ornaments gilded. flowers. they were interspersed with branches. especially for drawing-rooms and boudoirs. having a foundation of primary or secondary colour. The ease with obtained in which copies of the decorations could be carton-pierre may have had something to do with the adoption of this style. When the grounds for this style of decoration are painted. is though pale tertiaries may with the primary and secondary Sometimes. and were famous for the exquisite delicacy was got by choosing first a pretty tint for the ground colour. were light. Many of these were of the kind called Bergerades. united to a playful elegance of effectj which rendered the style exceedingly attractive. usually of a light tint. decoration of English mansions deficiencies were easily made by the facility with which missing parts could be replaced by making a mould from the perfect parts. enriched by sparkling but minute parts of brilliant and gem-like positive colour. In some interiors done in this style the walls are covered good. which were resold for the . the toning of which should be done with extreme care. and making the pattern in an harmonious tone.90 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. blossoms. and recasting. though for plain work. of their effect. or shaped into pleasing forms. and groups of flowers and leaves. which The grounds were strewn with waved. or shepherdess patterns. and it is not to be denied that there was a palatial richness. and of the flowing elegance of pattern used during the time of the Grand Monarque and his successor. necessary to divide the tints and to bring out the full effect of the raised mouldings and enrichments . distinct be used with good effect to contrast Gold . had sweetness as to give a new joy to life.

X .


chimney-pieces are also works belonging to the seventeenth The furniture throughout century. usually white or cream. has a suite of three drawing-rooms. these are decorated in the styles of Louis Quatorze. gathered at various times on the Continent. ceiling. The ceilings are lofty. Norman. the rooms One gilded. Where the ornament was insufficient or defective. erected for Earl Cadogan from designs by Young. Hues of soft rose-colour are contrasted with equally soft tones of pale green intermingled with gold in the panels and stiles. contains two drawing-rooms on the first floor. upholsterers to the is by Johnstone. Chelsea House. Nearly all the ornament in these rooms is genuine seventeenth and eighteenth century work. The first of these has its walls covered by specially designed Aubusson tapestry. and are light in colour. bedroom decoration. The principal ceiling panel of the chief drawing-room is filled by a painting by De Witt. there Though the general any. Boucher. but the predominant tone is a deep vellum or very pale drab colour. while there is no monotony . The woodwork is decorated in harmonious its tints. there is a good deal of sky. and Queen and the Prince of Wales. so that the the contrasts are not violent. artists . and distant effect. which has the advantage of making the room appear larger than it really is. effect aimed at is sweetness and light. pure is little. the other panels being in raised and gilded ornament. panels. of the houses decorated and furnished Co. Louis Quinze. and are like the wall panels enriched by raised and gilded ornaments.CHELSEA HOUSE. aerial. in which a delicate greenish-grey and complementary colours . and as the subjects are chiefly pastoral. and other the designs are similar in style throughout. colour is soft and delicate. if white used in the decorations. The the necessary parts were reproduced from the old work. and Louis Seize. the whole of the walls. gi and enrichments are often painted in one colour.. W. with subjects after Watteau.

and has a charming effect. enamels. the large cabinet. The grand pianoforte. curved out to form a segmental bay of three windows. Altogether we have . distinctive in form. the valances correspond in sumptuousness of effect. ivory. panels of combed pinkish salmon- On the walls we an under-colour showing through the well-defined wave-toothed marks of the combing this gives the appearance . which is of walnut inlaid with various other woods. the ceiling has enrichments of Italian ornament. and in well-chosen delicate colours . yet the colour is so artistic and delicate that the work forms furniture The of the a mosaic of more than mosaic harmony. as well as the panels on the doors. brought out by light tints of colour and gold. sharp. The stiles between these panels. which is formed into a panelled . forming round the border a scroll. Corresponding with this is a circular table. of the first colour. with have. are painted by hand with arabesque designs. Amongst the furniture. beautiful in form and each touch is clear. of silk moire-antique. The other drawing-room Part of the front is is a still more beautiful room. extending from floor to ceiling this bay works very happily into the ceiling design. relieved ornaments brought out by pleasant tints and by gold. The ceiling has raised panels with delicately predominate. velvet and richly fringed. of which the top is elaborately inlaid with various woods. a magnificent cabinet is specially noticeable for the elegance of its design and the variety and subdued richness of its carvings and inlays. The curtains of the room are of fine tapestry bordered with. and the two smaller cabinets furniture.92 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. and beautiful repousse work in bronze. are specimens of the best art applied to The chairs are covered with Aubusson tapestry. room is of satinwood inlaid with amboyna. which rivals in elegance of form and rich harmony of colour the finest examples of the Italian Kenaissance. instead of the tapestry drawing-room. and splendid of the the curtains are same material. circle of which the window bay forms a part.

X H .


and there were between twenty and thirty of these musical subjects no two panels were alike. between the ornamented stiles were filled with silk of a colour that partook of bluish green grey . never seen a more charming room to its its : G. was a panel containing a figure-subject referring to a particular musical instrument. about six feet from the floor. but is chief beauty undoubtedly derived from the exquisite delicacy and harmony of its colouring. representing the Duke." Shakespeare.DRAWING-ROOM BY J. the zither. one of the long panels illustrated the " If music be the food of love. 93 happy part of its effect may be due shape and the beautiful proportion of its parts. John a drawing-room done G. it suggested all these colours. The room was large. The subjects were male and female players on ancient and modern . the magadis. frieze The Keeping up the idea of music hinted at in the stile subjects. the double flute. instruments. where Queen Catherine " Take . that is to say. In each stile.). The play of subject of the companion panel was taken from the says. As fitting the subject. the Assyrian dulcimer. King Henry VIII. the kithara. GRACE. The style chosen was that of the early illuminated manuscripts. the tamboura. though none of them could be said to predominate. the hautboy. By way of contrast to these rooms in French Eenaissance and Italian Eenaissance styles.. was formed by rich illuminated ornament on which were placed at intervals figure panels on gold grounds. the figures were on. his attendants. The dado was . enriched with dragon panels at intervals the walls were divided into panels by stiles enriched with illuminated ornament. The panels viole. the violoncello. of a brownish hue. the the serpent. and the minstrels (see heading to Chapter XII. play passage from Twelfth Night. the tambourine. for a Gothic we may mention mansion by Mr. the subjects of the frieze panels were taken from musical scenes in Thus. the guitar. such as the Egyptian harp. Grace. and so on through ancient instruments down to the more modern harp and harpsichord. all men and boys.

lute. At ornament. going on the . another drawing-room done by Messrs." "Who is "Under the greenwood tree." "Where the Hark hark the lark. from the design of Mr. jets of electric light are introduced ." bee sucks. and done from the design of Mr. thou winter wind!" "Orpheus with his lute.94 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. the dado is of mahogany. thy wench : disperse them. and thou canst. as is fitting. but show to advantage the exquisite delicacy of the modelled. The other panels had Sylvia. cornice. chimney-piece and panelled ceiling are all made of mahogany and satinwood. of graceful and flowing in line. belonging to the Earl of Cadogan." and " figure subjects such as "Blow. the figures subjects from Shakespeare's songs. or papers which reproduce the Genoese or other Italian fabrics of the Eenaissance. wood with the metal-work gilded. delicate carvings with fine effect. Some very fine drawing-room decorations have been executed Italian design. The walls are covered by a special design of tapestry silk. it is which shows the or ebony In with engraved ivory. W. these not only light the room with fine effect. if my soul grows sad with troubles." These musical were painted by the author. Young. and many of them ! ! have been illustrated in the pages of Decoration. The furniture used inlaid is sometimes enamel white. Sing. Collinson and Lock the ceilings are in plaster. In the drawing-room at Eutland Cottage." In this. white . or some other dark wood the door. and beautifully . silk of beautiful colour. The stiles are of delicate raised ornament in enamel the frieze and dado are in agreement with the design of the stiles and ceiling . the wall spaces are covered either by solidly gilded leather of Italian design. various points in the ornament. Batley. are all feminine (see heading to this chapter). the leading colours used are shades of terra-cotta. the general tone of which is bronze green picked out with gold and coral-colour the furniture is of satin. W. the ceiling has painted ornaments in the panels. Collinson and Lock. by Messrs. H.

and the panelled dado and A . after the were painted in cream with gold. . will be found on the other side of the Atlantic. Co.. Grace had a ceiling in low manner of the Jasper ware the cornice was in stronger tones of same colours. and most costly materials and exquisite design. the other panels A boudoir by had a delicate stencil border. lustrous and semi-transparent. Perhaps the richest furnished drawing-room. Norman. the panels in which terra-cotta colour predominates. about double the depth of the frieze. drawing-room decorated by Mr. Johnstone. The stiles were in tones of warm green and russet with a medallion enrichment. The frieze occupies about one fifth of the space between the floor and the under side of the skirting is cornice. line enrichments in drab and the same artist had the ceiling formed into a central octagonal panel by ribs of cedar. Alma Tadema's " A Eeading from Homer" is to be one of the wall subjects. while the furniture. made by Messrs. and the walls are filled in with a pattern of Liberty's beautiful Indian printed silk. walls were hung with silk of a small pattern of gold and greenish blue dado agreed with cornice in colour. For this house Sir Frederick Leighton has painted the ceiling with beautiful figures on a gold ground. No gold is used Stained glass decorates the windows .colour. in the house of an American millionaire. 95 one hand to rich dark brown and on the other ascending to tints of delicate yellow and cream white. All the woodwork is painted in these shades. Onyx in large single slabs. The cornice was of cedar-colour and gold . in the decoration of this room. is of the . however. the ceiling is panelled out into squares broken up into circles at the points of intersection of the delicate ribs.A MILLIONAIRE'S DRAWING-ROOM. The dado and woodwork relief tinted in Wedgwood colours. Eight circular panels round it contained paintings of children. are ornamented with flowing design of a light and graceful kind. the spaces between being filled with an imitation brocade paper of pale Indian blue.

the same general colour as the walls. and delicate blue are used for the sky. White. The coverings of the furniture are The designs for these veritable of silk richly embroidered. illustrated Plate XIII. greenish yellow ground with gold pattern the leading ornaments . C. and has the leading enrichments. moulding and ornaments round and over the doors are gilded. his superintendence To find furniture of equal beauty and intelligence of design and equal choiceness of material and workmanship. the rest of the door. round the arch and the scroll -work above it are gilded solid. The is seats at foot of arch. architrave. we should have to combine the palmy days of Greek art with the luxury of the Eoman Empire is at its best period of taste.. with touches of cadmium and Venetian red. W. . The sconces . seen beyond the arms of the yellowish green plush. and bronze wood. lacquered down green to bronze. there are no strong or dark colours used. cinnamon. but the tints are all delicate . and coral-colour. In the drawing-room with elliptical arch at end.96 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. it is carved and inlaid with ebony. shades varying from pale dado. and pinkish natural colours. and precious stones. The framework of the furniture is of forms the table-tops. and gold. The cornice is painted pale greenish yellow rather darker than the silk on the walls. The frieze of the room in sculptured statuary marble. but are picked out in The frieze is in parts with cinnamon. the dado bands into above being in gold. and modillions gilded. the walls are covered by Liberty's silk of pale on. coral-colour for the distances. Codman. Alma Tadema. and the ornaments between the modillions picked out with a coral The little columns dividing the frieze are nearly of ground. and have been admirably worked out under by Mr. coral-colour. and toned in parts by lacquer. and skirting are covered with silver. dentils. and so are the light The backgrounds of the figure panels and the mouldings round them . works of art in furniture have been done by Mr. metal. ivory.



fender. The chimney-piece is of onyx-coloured marble. moderately good Taking the room as it left the builder's hand. o. and fire-dogs of polished brass. when this The woodwork was . the dado band. 97 are gilded.A SMALL DRAWING-ROOM. in marone rather lighter than the skirting ii . The dado. was painted . In the small drawing-room illustrated on this page a obtained at a trifling cost. dark crimson or marone it was dusted in Japanese fashion with gold bronze and protected by varnish. the grate. . the walls were effect is DECOBATION OF SMALL DRAWING-ROOM. H. treated to as much linseed oil as they would take in was thoroughly dry the painting began.

picture moulding. A very pretty effect can be obtained in an ordinary room by using the dado fillings and friezes made by Wm. There is a figure panel in the frieze over the centre of chimney. For more expensive work nothing is finer in effect than a effect is good Lincrusta design. immediately between the frieze and the picture moulding. should be nailed just between the frieze and the filling. The frieze was divided into panels by wall paper. the fire standards and bead. figures tiles. Woollams and Co. This space was afterwards covered by a cretonne with a ground of low-toned green with small flowers of piquant colour among This cretonne was fringed with wool of the same tints as the cretonne itself. while the round them are dusted with bronze. E. well decorated. Jeffrey these are to be had in all kinds of . inner rim of chimney-piece are of brass. when only one hook is used. tends very much to disturb the repose of the room. direct with stained painted stiles of flowers on the marone ground of the woodwork. was a bluish green. The the pyramidal lines given by the picture cord. as appropriate colours. but the wall-paper decoration would have done nearly equally well if there had been any difficulty in obtaining the figure work. The simply in size colours. not a rod. The dado band was bordered top and bottom by a narrow paper border in dull blue and gold. band. this was also used at D. a darker paper being used for the square panels. was painted a pale colour. In the centre of the square panels are small The dado band cornice is is copied from Minton's music enriched in the same way as the frieze. at the point over the dado lighter green leaves. and the pictures should hang from two hooks by perpendicular cords.98 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. inclining to blue. The chimney-piece is ebonised. If a light wanted . up to the gilt picturemoulding. and the space above. filled The upper parts of the windows are The window panels have groups glass. or Messrs. the main tone being pale blue B is a gilt enriched with greenish yellow and coral colours.

may go against H 2 . or pale buff. the eminent shipbuilder. more daintily painted than any other part of the house. 99 and picked out in parts with transparent glazes of pure colour. or vellum colour. displays some very decorative work. but never in large masses : thus pale yellow leaf inclining to green may have the part turning over of a delicate purple or violet. As in the wall-papers already mentioned. The grounds may be in cream or very pale bluish green. or any other colour. Andrew Wells. this is contrasted by variThe corners are ous other effects in warm but delicate tones. and duckeggshell colour. pale but warm green may have touches of pink . or any other tint that is delicate and pleasing in effect. with flowers in cream. Plate XIV. Wells has a circular blue. parchment. ceiling is. bearing lightly blown wreaths of ivy. the pattern should be silvered all over. which fine was decorated by Mr. is in shades of ivory. The house of Mr. with textile centre. The leading colour is pale moonlight blue on a cream ground . a great part of the effect will depend on the delicacy. pale yellow green. The drawing-room and in the spaces between are groups of winged boys. with very elegant scroll-work spreading out from the centre towards the corners of the room.VARIOUS DRA WING-ROOMS. The walls The woodwork are rose colour. In the Drawing-room Decoration. by Joseph Sharp. with gold on the mouldings. perhaps. Another drawing-room ceiling by Mr. pale coral pink. and contrast of the colours. blue. and gold effects. It may afterwards be toned to any shade of oxidation required. enriched with draped female figures . The ceiling border is in darker shades of the same moonlight and gold. The ornament should be painted in distinct touches. harmony. cinnamon. Pearce. and guiding by gossamer bands birds flying in couples. complementary colours being used against each other throughout. dado and frieze designs to go with the fillings can be had in Lincrusta.. greenish white.

lately furnished A drawing-room J. portions. the lower members of the cornice working as a picture rod. interlacing in the outer rich in filling . and engravings which are rather under the line of the eye than above it.ioo ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. the dado rail. painted should serve. and round the Gold may be used in the cornice. The space between is the floor and ceiling is divided horizontally into four nearly The lower section is in wood panelling painted equal parts. . ivory colour. H. simply as a framework to the stiles and panels. miniatures. The frieze is a fine specimen of old Scottish plaster- and graceful in line. under which is a band of turned work with clear plate-glass behind it . and other enrichments the ceiling is enriched by a circular wreath pattern. and decorated by Messrs. a far better result than shading the colours into each other. Cooper. No umbery or mud-like colours should be allowed on the artist's palette for this class of decoration. also done the draught. but should not be mixed with the ornait ment. for the effect should be obtained by breaking up obtrusive parts by touches of pure colour of complementary or contrasting tint harmonised to the exact tone required. coupled medallions. but ought to be laid on side by side as in If the colours are properly matched this gives mosaic work. stiles. the second is an upper dado of celadon plush with cornice over it . there are heavy curtains under. prettiness of its worthy of notice for the quaintness and proportions and decorations. by Messrs. such as raw sienna laid on in transparent touches. indeed. the celadon plush forms the background to display the delicate drawings. and Cooper has a beautiful carved white mantelpiece with white stiles to the walls. skirting. The colours should not be softened into each other. dentils. the cornice has work. H. and J. and ornamented with festoons. the panels being filled with silk Rose du Barry. a pure golden brown. The screen at the end has the upper part filled with silk. which can be drawn to keep off A little parlour or drawing-room.

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and the finer parts of the work in the decoration and upholstery are executed by the hands of the masters themselves.. picked out with rail. the colour of the small lighter pattern of the panels could either harmonise or contrast with light Venetian red . shades of the dado colour. Plate XV. it is covered by a silk fabric with a dull coral ground. them is noticeable for the excellent effect got at very small expenditure of labour into an oval on which soft clouds delicately flitting. pilasters. They excel in the production of elegantly shaped furniture of the periods of Louis boudoir ceiling executed by Quatorze. The third section 101 the wall-filling. The upper fourth is devoted to the cornice and silver. which are in cream and amalgam of gold and specimens of the French style of decorating drawing-rooms have been executed by Messrs. If we assume by way of a change that this drawing-room may be in darker hues than is sometimes customary. is susceptible of various modes of treatment. The colour and material decided upon for the large panels would to a great extent influence the finishing of the other work.DECORATIONS BY FELIX AND WAYMAN. fine Some very Montefiore. Baron F. either mahogany or might walnut the dado might be citrine and gold. Quinze. Mrs. skirting. Cyril Flower. dado the borders round the panels might be in . . and Seize. Mr. Countess of Pembroke. Both partners of the firm are practical men. and blue. though it is only about a fourth of the whole height of the wall . and framing of the frieze be in the natural colour of the wood. but not intrusive it gives just enough of design and colour unduly. may be termed amber. Margetson. : A the main portion of the ceiling is framed is painted a summer sky with masses of . The design it interesting. frieze. consols. Felix and Wayman for the Princess Louise. de Kothschild. the wood chimney-piece. by Fred. to satisfy the eye without attracting The drawing-room decoration. and others. enriched in parts with flowers of cream. blended is across the sky a few birds are .

and gold. and either of the sets of colours used for the walls might be used in it. and the smaller case. between the floor amounting to one-third of the entire space and under side of cornice. Above. A drawing-room by H. cornices. ribs and colour. Thus pale coral. and clouds. The Jbeams. and have a carved cornice over them. W. and gold might be used in the one pattern of grey ground with small green. though they should be greatly lightened in hue. ebony-colour. as in the design by Fred. and shows the sun in the upper right-hand portion. could be If style. other groups of birds. might be in ivory-colour. so that they may be changed without trouble. golden brown. flowers. which should act as a base . Hanging foliage. Gold should be used in the cove. in like manner.io2 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. The ceiling. the upper third of the space between the pillars might be grounded in warm blue grey to give a skyey effect. Margetson. and should have a band of . and red in the other." has a low wooden dado and rail . should correspond or contrast with the walls. form the other features of the design. which in well-chosen colours . it is desired to treat a drawing-room in Gra3co-Eoman the ceiling might be panelled. is painted in Japanese style. above that a band of matting work. The frames are divided by pilasters. over which is a row of hinged frames on the line of the eye. illustrated in his " Etched Studies for Decoration. these colours. toward which a stream of birds fly upwards from the left- hand lower corner the birds diminish in size as they ascend. or . or a pale greenish warm mouldings of the woodwork. Batley. the cornice. These frames are intended to take engravings and etchings or water-colour drawings. the rest of the wall. primrose. pillars or pilasters The wall might be divided by extending from the entablature to the dado. on page 103 but all the panels should be decorated with scroll-work in colours on a light ground. cedarcoral-colour. made an exceedingly attractive decoration.

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I0 3 The lines of this band might be continued but they should be in round the pillars or across the pilasters.PANELLED CEILING. so as only to knit the pilasters to the band with- CEILING DESIGN. out cutting them in two. By Fred. Raw sienna might be used as a . bold colour beneath it. Margetson. freely. The ornament between the pilasters should upper spaces be of delicate scroll-work treated in these lightly. and elegantly. lighter colours.

but The effect got should be a gradual lightening of a similar kind. in the Adam style. black. or plain. Salviati. T. which . red. trimmed with plush and fringe. or by festoons and masks in the upper portions. Jackson. called It is Wedgwood follows : tints. with warm brown or deep in red outline. Pompeian red. and might be by scroll ornament. It described by the decorators as " The are architraves. dado. A boudoir. and brown. and other colours properly toned and in small quantities. colour. and general is sympathy of effect. Pompeian golden panelled into three perpendicular stiles in the colours of the band above. spaces by upright These panels might be decorated but rather lighter in tint. or all might be left of the pilasters rest. Plate XVL. good in keeping. should be in similar colours to the band above. is Jackson a very pretty room in delicate colours. " On the floor are some fine Persian The ornaments rugs. inlaid with satinwoodj and the chairs are covered with fancy silks. with touches of blue should be used for the dado the skirting ought to be in colours still darker. decorated by Messrs. might be used for the band. in this room are from the art studio of Dr. raw sienna. green. but should be darker. blue. cinnamon and gold. . overdoor. purple. which should however work into warm basis for the ornament. in Kegent is Street. not an unfavourable example of the Adam style. The dado band on which the bases Bed." The drawing-room decoration by J. by figures in the central one.io4 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. with the exception of the concave and broken pediment of the overmantel. and skirting mouldings exquisite examples of this charming style. and Graham. of tone from the floor to the ceiling. " The furniture of this room is of Spanish mahogany. bluish green. The two-thirds space below might be yellow.



as there are might either be in pale Wedgwood-blue. we might say. is very well proportioned.GOTHIC DRA WING-ROOMS. . is The artist. which is after the style of the Italian Eenaissance. or in tints of cream. SIDE OF CHIMNEY-PIECE. several shades of each being used. is intended to be done in a light-coloured marble. in Eaton Hall.. Eaton Hall. erected for the Duke of Westminster from designs by Mr. Though we have Kenaissance rooms. William B urges. exhibited at the Eoyal Academy of 1886 a life-size caryatide for a similar purpose. Alfred Waterhouse. as they approach the floor. designed for the Marquis of Bute by Mr. said that the nobility for have shown a marked preference decoration in French their drawing- there are two notable exceptions to this rule. and in good harmony throughLincrusta might be used for the dado out. in our opinion is 105 The rest of the work. however. Waterhouse. cinnamon. cream and gold. and in Cardiff Castle. by Mr. By Mark Rogers. and gradually deepening in tone coral. and gold. Jun. For this design designs in that material which have a good deal of the effect indicated in the The colours should be light. has a considerable tincture of modern feeling in its design. mouldings. citrine. a bad specimen of art. a touch of Italian Eenaissance in the arrangement. and details of the drawing-room. Burges at Cardiff follows uncom- . jun. and drawing. who a sculptor of great talent. there is even. Both of these buildings may be said to be medieval in style. The drawing-room chimney-piece by Mark Eogers. promisingly early Gothic forms. filling and frieze. but though the building by Mr.

Above the capitals are the caps being Italian in character. Jun. By Mark Rogers. CHIMNEY-PIECE DESIGN. the mouldings between each of the two arches being supported by a little carved bracket. with square-formed mouldings around them. are pilasters. the consoles over the opening have carved acanthus leaves and fluted ovolas over the consoles .io6 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. which is of cream-cploured marble with red veins. The chimney-piece. upright oblong spaces between the pilasters has . has a square opening . two pairs of tiny semicircular arches. fluted in the upper part and carved in the lower. Each of the a central panel.

DRA WING-ROOM AT EA TON HALL. . but with the corners cut off octagonally. the stiles between the groups are bracketed The dado . formed of groups of three upright panels. filled in \ 07 is This panel with green or blue marble carved. and the other members are more continental than English is medieeval in style. in form. other. the corners outside of these little panels are The cornice to the overmantel has corbels with semicircular arches connecting them with each ORIENTAL VASE FOR DRAWING -RooM DECORATION. and of one panel alternately.

lining with the paintings of birds. at the top to support the which has some considerable . . carried out by Messrs. and a figure frieze in panels the shafts of columns are of blue." painted by H. (Procter & Co. S. Marks the oak of ceiling . roundels of gold. dado rail. frames the wall space. Heaton. on which are fixed large space carved band or cornice. INDIAN CABVED FUKNITTTBE. above which is a painted frieze of a partly geometrical.) .io8 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. The mantelpiece is of white stone. while the mouldings round the fire-opening are of red granite. and Bayne. the flowers are arranged geometrically on circular . The is relieved with gold lines. while the stems or leaves are spread out This decoration has been naturally on the intervening spaces. and has carved columns. partly natural pattern that is to say. projection. is A cornice of the overmantel. and over that a deep frieze.grey marble. This wood panelling is painted green the wall covered with velvet or plush. representing the terbury Pilgrims. Butler. saloon of Eaton Hall has a high wainscot of panelled " Canlight oak.

James's Palace there is a house with the dining-room on the ground floor. ICHEK and darker colours are usually selected for this room . or Messrs. Where there abundance of light the decorator's choice is unlimited. CHAPTER XII. which is so overshadowed by the tall houses on the other side of the way. apartment than for the drawingbut it occasionally happens in town is houses that the light to agree not strong enough with a sombre style of decoration. M. Jeffrey. As this golden embossed reflects a large amount of light. THE DINING-ROOM. is This. and it is possible to obtain good an effect and quite as much light by using one of This material the embossed papers or leathers. any tint or tints may be chosen is for the woodwork to go with it. either . leather or paper harmonises with every colour. He may use for his walls one of the splendidly coloured papers produced by Wm. exceptional. and gives a much richer effect than could be obtained by cream tints. Woollams and Co. one of the aristocratic but rather narrow streets near St. In so a lighter style is sometimes adopted. S. Painted by J. gilded solidly. that the wise decorator has used cream tints and gold for the painting to make up for the want of as light.DECOEATIVE PANEL FOE FRIEZE. however.

the modes of decoration of which it is susceptible are still more beautiful and varied. plain. the raised Italian pattern spreading over the ground was in pale olive or tertiary greenish brown. a fabric. which is an imitation of embossed leather. and by a judicious arrangement of it in its natural colours secure a quiet and harmonious yet rich effect in the fine warm citrine greens. either painted. or brocade paper . for varied and beautiful as the designs are. and gold. the ornaments were in lighter olive. may use painted tapestry in panels. cretonne. He may plush . with fillets and other small parts brought out by pale olive-colour. which is specially suited for dining- rooms. with leaves ot The narrow upper band of dull red on dull green ground. similar to lower band. browns. Dado-band of wood. or may map out his walls into combed or sanded panels. above the cove . the colour arrangements of which a quiet rich effect is desired. or or Japanese stamped paper. had a dull Venetian red ground. real tapestry. That. The frieze ground with raised had a yellowish-green in gold. gilded over or partly gilt. take a Tynecastle tapestry. marone in two shades. touched in parts with lighter skirting. or he may take a specimen of tergorine. Frieze had a dull patera had a gold outside band and gold centre. Dado. as a flat paper. with the swags and scrolls brought out with bluish-green. black . He He may have Lincrusta. is only one of the phases of Lincrusta. coloured black and dark marone as in : were as follows Wood skirting. frieze was of yellowish-green The cove was yellowish-green in two shades . a flock paper. and stencil over the ground with transparent colours. and dull reds in which it is manufactured. or partly gilded. dark marone.no worked ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. The small band under the fillets frieze and paterae olive ground . as in a specimen of this material exhibited some years ago. of course. If gradually lightened from floor to ceiling. "Wall-filling tints. lower member. the colourings may be upper members.

shown in the illustration on the next page." from which spring broad and fluted pilasters with large panels between them. the decorator may use a scheme of decoration similar to that adopted by Fred. he may adopt the rich treatment shown by Mr. The author intends the work to be done in fumigated oak or walnut. The frieze or if full colour might be painted in shaded gold on a dark brown ground was desired.over the gilded or silvered leaves in the manner so often used with such good effect in Lincrusta. the be of stamped leather.panelled dado. olive-green sinkings. be adapted for more economical working by the elision of the more expensive wood panelling. Some purple flowers gave variety to various parts of the lively design. and citrine fillet round the cinquethe foil. the natural colours might be glazed . and between the figures and over the panels the space is filled with a closely filled pattern of leaves and flowers. . which though enough was by no means intrusive. Over each pilaster is a carved figure. or a similar design. in in shades of vermilionized Another Lincrusta decoration exhibited at the same time had the ground of the brown. Studies. instead of being . with the figures supporting cornice carved in low relief. Margetson. The figures. which would probably look best in carving or stamped leather. however. and by giving the effect in tints of colour. might. and ebony. satinwood. of his " Etched In this design the walls have a low. with the panels inlaid with pear-tree. frieze to This.DINING-ROOM DECORATIONS. If costliness be no objection. Batley in Plate II. the pattern had a bright red central point with dull black ground. band. with raised brownishgreen leaves turning to bluish-green at the points. If a special set of decoration be desired. Smaller leaves of a dull yellowish-green in several shades sprang from filling of brown stems and interspersed themselves throughout the The conventional flowers which were scattered through design. was a narrow horizontal Venetian red.

carved. brown. might be worked in natural colours on a toned gold ground. and gold. might be painted either in buff.ii2 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. or they WALL DECORATION. . By Fred. Margetson.

excepting over the chimney breast windows are filled . the dado is made of carmine and brown . to correspond with the oak.DECORATION OF A SMALL DINING-ROOM. W. As the ceiling is low. Young. there is no frieze. with stencil pattern in lighter tint of same colour the DINING-ROOM RECESS AND FIREPLACE. The inner tiles of chimneypiece are Dutch blue . not without a certain individuality. pink. bluish-grey and gold. 113 which dining-room. Architect. . which carry round the lines of the frieze the carpet has warm browns. dark bluish green . bluish-grey. with pattern in lighter tint of the same colour. the ceiling of . is as follows All the woodwork. upper part of the wall is in citrine. and the cornice is greens. chimney-piece of unis : A humbler style of decoration used for a small polished oak. the upper parts of the with stained-glass figures. with Minton's "Trades" and "Historical" tiles in brown. reds.

or leather. pattern in gold and colour. . soft and rich in colour. orange. the frieze under should have the figures treated flatly in natural colours on a matted or stippled gold ground. The dining-room decoration by Fred Margetson. greens. and thoroughly harmonised. red. The woodwork through the room should be in the natural colour of the oak. are of pitch pine polished the sconces. finger-plates. Plate XVII. pillars. gilded in large pendants. gas. some of the smaller members. indigo blue.fittings and other metal. the scroll-work under cornice should partake of the colours of the cornice and ribs . rich warm browns. chimney-piece. The panels in the cove are painted by hand.work are of brass . and shows in parts a slight infusion of German feeling. . the border round the floor should be in parquety oak filled . skirting. the ornamental gilding being outlined with warm gold brown. Young shown on page 113 is an example of very pretty effect got by simple means. the cornice should correspond with the ribs of the ceiling. and dado rail. All the woodwork. The dining-room by W. arches. gilded in parts to any degree of richness required. belongs to a late type of Gothic.. and crimson ornament. the colours being always in small quantities. The over with heraldic emblems over the mantelpiece should be coloured and . the ceiling is covered by a paper of Japanese pattern rail the walls . including doors. down dado to is have a raised Japanese paper gilded solid the a Japanese leather paper with deep crimson ground and dado floor is stained. have enriched indigo ground. The ceiling is panelled. well green. the carpet might warm citrines.ii4 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. and has These and the ribs might be in oak. might be used for the coverings of sofas and chairs . but might have a little colour introduced in the hollows. Citrine or rich greenish yellow plush. The and is covered by a bordered carpet of Oriental design. and orange in various shades being among the leading colours. velvet.

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and neutral tones of blue. framework is general effect mainly in lines of Persian red and gold. and panelled with darker shades of the same. ABBA YE OF HELMSDALE. The frieze has a solid gold is warm and delicate. the whole being outlined with soft red. decorated by Mr. The walls are painted dark red. the flowers being painted in shades of primrose-white. gilded. the panels being decorated with beautifully drawn Greek designs . ground decorated with a conventionally treated floral design.MR. The dado is coloured with dark russet browns. of green. Glasgow. "5 and the ceiling panels might with advantage be treated same way. orange. The The CHOIR SEATS. Wells. The woodwork is painted dark chestnut colour. The dining-room of Mr. PEARCE'S DINING-ROOM. Pearce's house. to form a good background for the splendid pictures which adorn the room. primrose. with hearts of citrine and delicate orange the leaves are in shades . has the ceiling grounded with rich cream colour. its decorations are hand painted in soft harmonious tones of in the olive-green.

u6 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. The dado is of panelled wood and is painted in toned Prussian blue the upper panels of the dado are enriched with figure subjects and painted fruit panels on a gold ground. of inlaid work.") by Messrs. BEELIN. " (From Bernard Smith's Sketches Abroad. in very thin lines of ivory colour. decorated K^MXrjKWiTO^ CABINET IN THE MUSEUM. with the projections in gold.. the caps bronzed and lacquered. the whole being highly polished. the upper . and give an effect The pillars at the end of the room are in dark chocolate and gold. which have the appearance of elegance and refinement. Morris & Co. part of the wall is in raised ornamental plaster of a delicate . is a good example of their style. The dining-room at South Kensington Museum.

recently decorated and furnished by Messrs. the walls above this being covered by richly decorated and emis stained glass. The style adopted is Renaissance. ABBAYE OF HELMSDALE. and has bosses at the intersections of the ribs . the In several dining-rooms of houses decorated and furnished . near Salisbury. the dado and richly carved is chimney-piece are of oak. pattern and is 117 tinted in soft green . In a house at Great Cumberland Place. ceiling is The ornaments in sea green and gold. and J.DINING-ROOM AT HAMPWORTH LODGE. there are many The dining-room walls are covered pretty and original effects. by sixteenth-century moulded ribs tapestries. all round the room. decorated and furnished throughout by Messrs. Cooper. the windows are filled with Hampworth Lodge. There a dado of oak. All the seats are covered with embossed leather. the window hangings of steel blue and gold silk. The candelabrum is of wrought CARVED DECORATION OF ARCH. panelled by deep thin working in conjunction with a rich cornice. steel . very quiet and grey in effect. the panels have raised bossed leather. 6 feet 6 inches high. There is a magnificent dining-room at ribbed and panelled. Felix and Wayman. the ceiling panels being richly ornamented. H.

with light green and gold leather filling-in. and were executed about 1650 for the old fix. Flemish Eenaissance style has by leading London been adopted with great success. if somewhat heavy and sombre style. Abbaye of Helmsdale. to be oak up to the cornice . Other examples of this Flemish Eenaissance style which approach more nearly to the Italian method are given in the three examples illustrated on pages 115. and dignity of line given by good examples of this style rooms where a substantial-looking. of a design of this period illustrated in Decoration describes the colouring and arrangement as follow : The author is for "My the side of a dining-room in a large mansion. OLD FLEMISH TABLE IN THE MUSEUM AT BRUGES. which was sketched from the original in the museum at Bruges. solidity of framing. These are of carved oak. is desired. The cabinet given on page 116 shows a phase of this style make it suitable for which is closely allied to what our designers call Jacobean.n8 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. reds and buffs. The rich carving. Another specimen of the style of the period is given in the table above. or leather . 117. the panels upon which the pictures are hung are to be covered with dark green and gold-embossed design the arched frieze is to be in plaster coloured in quiet . near Bruges. upholsterers. and 119. whence they were removed lately to Ghent.

silver. figures in the upper panels of Mr.. repousse bronze gives by far a more delicate and artistic result. White. which is another wood in favour for dining-room decoration. The materials It on page 120. The dining-room decoration by J. genuine. For instance. better still. may in used might be brown oak emphasised in parts with ebony. not amateur." An example of a somewhat more Anglican character is given some respects be considered as a specimen of one of the many moods of that period of art to which the name of Elizabethan has been given.ELECTRO PANELS AS DECORATIONS. in this kind of work. This is of course the way to get a good effect at a trifling cost. Or it might be Italian walnut. (From the Abbaye of Helmsdale. Similarly the three panels in the lower frieze might be done in copper deposit oxidised to bronze colour.) introduction of brass. but for really high-class work. is a . Plate XVIII. the Briggs's design might be . As a rule no colour or gilding it is used though is sometimes enlivened by the CARVED OAK SCREEN. 119 a series of painted panels representing incidents in the history of the family. and bronze. modelled or carved. and electros made in copper deposit this might be coated with oxidised silver either all over or in parts with very good effect.

flutes.120 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. the dado might be in chocolate lacquered. dignified specimen of the style of the Italian palaces.PIECE. for instance or it might be in coloured decoration throughout. and capitals of pilasters might be gilded solid. Brig-gs. the pilasters might also be chocolate. By Robert A. The mouldings in base. This could be treated either to show the natural wood mahogany. with perhaps a reminiscence of modern French in the pediment over the mirror. with some of the smaller mouldings gilded . DINING-EOOM CHIMNEY. and lacquered in parts to . but somewhat If the last-mentioned treatment is lighter than the dado. adopted.

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It was thus described 1 by the furnishers this : 'The decoration of room consists of a panelled ceiling and a deep hand-painted frieze. darker colour. the colours of the upper panels of the walls. is suitable for a large mansion or hotel. and gold. and the scheme of colour . Lane. a good harmonious deep blue might be used instead.DINING-ROOM BY bronze colour . If the ceiling is K. and chairs are of oak. . sideboard. with the smaller members gilded. and triglyphs between. of Whitefriars. panelled the ribs should repeat the colours of the cornice and frieze. the upper panels might have same background as lower panels. shades of crimson and gold and bronze might be used for the panels behind the pictures . The style is a version of Italian Eenaissance. Plate XIX. with glass from Messrs. cinnamon colour. and the table is arranged as for dessert. might be in two shades of stiles with gold freely used throughout. Edis designed a dining-room for Jackson and Graham which had a very rich effect under candlelight. side-tables. WHITE. The cornice should correspond in colour and gilding with the brackets. and red. and the panels might have.. "W. and the covering of embossed morocco. delicately carved. 1 2 1 the margins round panels containing portraits might be in citrine. Powell & Sons. in a lighter key. light citrine being used in the round the square panels of frieze. J. " The room is one of Dr. which is supported by a red and gold Oriental paper and the woodwork of the room is an Indian red with enrichments of a of inexpensive construction. " The chimney-piece." The design for the decoration of a dining-room by Richard Q. or if variety was wished for. in the mouldings and ornaments of the panels themselves. the mouldings being in a lighter tint of the Eich damask silk in same. The brackets over the capitals citrine. the figures and festoons being in natural colours. Salviati's Venetian lighted by glass chandeliers. On the floor is an Indian carpet surrounded by Indian matting.

Either the natural wood might be shown polished. and ribs of ceiling. If we assume that mahogany or walnut was used for the dado. SMALL SIDEBOARD. adopted could be infinitely varied. the rest of the decorations would be arranged to suit the colour of the .Ill ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. cornice and frieze. or the work could be done in plaster painted and gilded. pilasters.

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and reds might be used for the band space where the pictures are hung. which is illustrated on preceding page. very simple and inexpensive style of dining-room furniture which has yet spirit and individuality is shown in the small sideboard by Messrs. and ornament in those of the sides. . but with the ornament in the natural colour of the wood. 123 pear-tree might be used for the carved panels of and a tapestry of mixed blues. . Q. The decoration of the ceiling panels ought to consist of delicate and graceful ornament in pure colours on a light ground. The frieze would be carved. citrines. with gold used in the lines round the panels to form a framework. Liberty & Co. greens. say with a figure in the centre circular panels. This has some of the qualities of design noticeable in the Burges wine cabinet referred to on page 53. and might have the ground figures gilded. The circular and side panels above should be painted. or the space might be filled with embossed leather.DINING-ROOM BY mahogany pilaster. These and ornaments should be in natural colours on a light ground.. R. A PAINTED GLASS PANEL. LANE.

S. THE LIBRARY. of the finished A used in and pliant kind In the the woodwork of the Houses of Parliament. comfortable. depressive. John stone. I13BARY decorations should be quiet and unobtrusive. usually a good deal of wall space very cheerful. and comfortable would express what is wanted . Rich. & Co. who do not possess so extensive a collection there visible. for a M. The style adopted is Perpendicular. In some books from but in the libraries of those is libraries there are floor to ceiling. and these form the leading decorations . quiet. nothing that should distract but plenty that would interest the eyes and mind of the student. .) CHAPTER XIII. and artistic library is one decorated and furnished by Messrs. Norman. or funereal. Broadwood Piano by (From a Carving designed J. but there is no reason that they should be sad. in the west end of London and looking on Hyde Park.TAILLEFEB CHANTING THE SONG OF ROLAND.

The door furniture is in bronze. bits of artistic carving and other pieces of furniture. 125 and go round is three sides of the room. the is bookcases are original in design. with the bands in toned Venetian red or gold ochre. which are 4 feet 6 inches high. under whose direction the work was carried out. in its black and white aspect. Plate XX. a lighter reddish brown for the medium parts. particularly on the chairs. its horizontal if bands rather too much pronounced. and excellent in artistic The chimney-piece and overmantel correspond with the effect. The linen panel on the happy in section. a ready and ingenious inventor. specially it designed and chased . The dado and woodwork might be done in deep brown for the darker parts. the ceiling is panelled in oak and decorated. of cabinet work must be covered with a specially designed tapestry. & oak bookcases. so as The walls are to overcome difficulties neatly and artistically. about the . Another library by the same firm the furniture is panelled in soft greens. is an excellent specimen of Eenaissance design. The library decoration by A. like the rest of the work in this room. of richly carved brown oak and ebony. greenish in hue and rich but quiet in effect. has. L. and arranged in exceptionally convenient style. and have embroidered valances. and brown. the design of each spandrel varied. The upper panels of the dado might have an old gold ground. with the mouldings brought out with lines of buff and gold. citrine. Norman. NORMAN. and there are exquisite tables. CO. The curtains are of copper-coloured plush..LIBRARY BY JOHNSTONE. The main part of the wall might be in lightish olive. with the festoons and other ornaments in olive green. combine piquant artistic effect with the utmost degree of comdoor is In several instances Mr. The aim of the furniture seems to be to other woodwork. Grimshaw. has shown that the successful master fort. but only a little less these bands were treated in a colour effect dark than the main body of the wall the would be satisfactory enough.

used in lighter tints than in the dado panels. The frieze and cornice are richly modelled and have raised ornaments in two tints of cream . the ornaments being in creamy white. the ground being a low-toned green and the raised work of gold. The ground tone of ceiling is in rich cream. Young. and red. colour. the panels being The coping of dado and top member of delicately moulded. touched in parts with soft green and red and outlined with brown. The centres of panels are octagonal enriched mouldings with paterae in the centres. same depth of colour as the body of the wall the lines on each side of the band might be buff rather lighter than the ground. or gold in some of the members. with gold colour. The mouldings round the openings of chimney-piece are in black marble. skirting The doors have also enriched with carving. The The cornices of the wingrate and dogs are of polished brass. dows are in carved oak corresponding . a the dado. diversified in others by tints of olive. is and finish with the formed by sets of two upright panels with one oblong horizontal panel over them. room correspond in The dado framing material. . citrine. and the overdoors are carried up to form are frames for old paintings of figures in chiaroscuro. and brown. The frieze and cornice of the elaborately carved chimney-piece were brought from an old French chateau. designed by "W. and the sides and hearth of the open fireplace are lined with dark brown glazed tiles with incised pattern. The walls are covered with Cordova leather embossed and picked out by colour. the ceiling is formed by a laurel-leaf enrichment running into geometrical forms of squares intersected by circles. The cornice may also be in buff. has dado of panelled oak fumigated to a rich tone and dead The doors. enriched mouldings. The library of Chelsea House. with the other woodwork.iz6 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. cream white. The frieze might have gold or dead gold-coloured background with the ornament in buff. chimney-piece. and other woodwork of polished.



LIBRARY AT CHELSEA HOUSE. The 127 curtains are of rich tapestry with dull green and dead gold as the predominating colours. A LIBEAET CHAIR. . The floor is of polished oak and is covered in the centre by Oriental carpets. By Liberty & Co.

introduced very skilfully. it will perhaps be as well staircases to give some instances of hall at with painted decoration. main source of colour when the are prepared for reception. executed The throughout by Andrew Wells. Glasgow. This has a splendid but somewhat cold effect. in various shades of light blue The grounds of ceiling are and gold. balusters. as in Persian Thin lines of Persian red. . divided into three parts by Corinthian pillars. to give emphasis to the framework The cornice is tinted in shades of pale of the panelling. CHAPTER XIV. ceilings and walls are richly decorated with hand-painted ornaments and figures. which is relieved to some extent by the colours of the doors. STAIRCASES AND HALLS. and gold are tile painting. Sketched by J. is stair and hall in the flowers But as Sicilian and plants with which they are decorated. M. Pearce's house.STAINED-GLASS WINDOW SCREEN. orange. many London mansions highly polished is the steps. each compartment being treated with special designs. S. marble is expensive. and the decorations generally in darker shades of blue freely modelled. is The entrance Mr. and stair grey marble used to line the walls. form Sicilian rail. which are in finely But the figured natural woods polished.

STAIRCASE DECORATED BY blue and fawn colour. from which depend festoons and wreaths . 129 The smaller enrichments and mouldings solid Persian red being used with happy effect to tone connect the colours of the ceiling and the walls. under the cornice and cupola. The cupola crowning the staircase is especially happy in The cupola panels are of pale duck-egg colour. which are divided into middle-space and dado. it is bounded by gold and vermilion. and gives value to the lighter colouring of the ceiling and frieze. while lighter and more delicate foliage fills up the background. The staircase upper frieze. relieved with gold and Persian red. and worked up with the colours of the panels to stiles in connect the whole together. Under the frieze is a Greek key and patera border. are gilt. other spaces being filled by Italian arabesques and floral designs. red. and contrasts well with the full. slightly modelled in delicate deeper shades of the stile colours. and cheerful. ANDREW WELLS. is about twenty-four immediately shades. produces a very rich and harmonious effect. and decorated with a very delicate arabesque in This combination of black. enriched with broad and narrow lines of Persian red. is about five inches broad. with ornaments in Persian majolica blue. in shades of chocolate . and varnished to give depth and support to the extreme richness of the walls above. The ground of is the mid-wall space is a delicate salmon on this planted a series of figure panels with gold backgrounds diapered with raw sienna. The cornice is in inches deep. cool. and is enriched with groups of boys alternating with floral dwarf Eenaissance columns. and gold ivory colour. figures represent the seasons. white. with design. colour . The general is light. cream colour. over each of these festoons is a gold patera. The panels have subjects emblematical of Ceres and Flora on mosaic gold ground. rich treatment of the walls. The dado is treated simply and broadly in various shades of dark brown. feature of the treatment of this panelling is The A This band the band of softened black which surrounds the golden centres.

" Where an open well-staircase exists. and floor. by bands of hand-painted ornament. and suitable for narrow staircases. in fact. much may be done with moderate use of colour in cornice and frieze to give a value to the whole. who have joints. and which paper still leads people to assert that a staircase looks larger with a marbled the sense of width being. The woodwork is painted with very dark Indian red toned with Prussian blue and finely polished. this fact. perhaps. staircases it is inserting a sort of string-course at the level firstof. it is possible. not to the figure of the marble. Grace gives his ideas on staircase decoration to " Where it is and it is so in the following effect practicable : some of these very desirable to make a broad distinction of colouring between the lower and upper storeys. working red in the lower part to a warm primrose colour at The various shade gradations are separated the stair-head.i jo ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. . helps to counteract that effect of perpetual treadmill which is so unpleasant in mounting an ordinary London staircase. Where it is not possible satisfactorily to effect this marked horizontal division. with stairs to the first or second floors only. this gives a good solid base for The main walls from a soft of the staircase are coloured in stages. the This at once gives breadth and stability of appearance. Mr. In such cases there should certainly be a well or string-course at the level at which the stairs "The soffits of the stairs may often be advantageously panelled out with mouldings. to adopt such a design of decoration or paperhanging as admits of the This was the one repetition of horizontal lines at brief intervals. block system. and black on a crimson ground the figures. now produce patterns arranged on the same perceived . and open wall above. but where they are the plain soffits of stone . defined frieze cease. John D. good feature of the old marbled papers in blocks. and frequently advantageous. due to the horizontal Designers.

Harris. and one must then have WALL-FILLING AND FRIEZE. A very simple use of even-coloured lines K 2 . By J. O. recourse to colour.STA IRCA SE DECORA TION. stairs this is 1 3 1 not very readily managed.

or say about twenty-one feet allowing twelve feet from ground floor to first floor. that in a moderately sized house.) suits a The following arrangement by Messrs. The hall decoration by ment for carrying the design of the wall up into the frieze.132 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS." frittering them away in driblets Mr. but because. for artists excel in this many of our English kind of work. they wear well. in two shades of one colour. or particularly required. Gentles & Co. is where quiet taste appreciated. and could be rendered very delicate and pleasing in shades of bluish grey. the the same. It might be done in Pompeian colours. and nothing 11 else is suggested. notwithstanding the little Gothicisms at the corner of panels. John G. Nightingale has throughout a strong Greek feeling. or dados of rooms. with light cream or . (See illustration.) The decoration by F. (See illustration. blue green. is preferable to marbling. being varnished. and concentrating there your richer colouring making a sort and ornamentation. This work might be done in two tints of brown-red and brownish-green ground and ornament of the frieze might be lighter than the filling. page 131. 1 think. which if done in an inferior manner. Harris shows a clever arrangeis any other quiet colours. J. and : nine feet from floor to ceiling of bedrooms frieze and small cornice might be about eighteen inches deep. Grace says u : On walls of staircases or entrance vestibules. embracing two storeys. 0. Again. instead of over the whole. imitations of marbles are often painted. but these imitations are adopted not always because they are appropriate to the place. with perhaps some touch of more positive but still delicate colour in the panels. be of considerable value. stencilling in geometric patterns. page 133." J. staircase that is. though the design remained or a most unsightly sham. however. much may be done meanness and monotony of a London staircase by will often to relieve the of vestibule or separate feature of one of the principal landings. and very beautifully painted too. cream.

On this ground may be placed upright conventional candelabra . with soft light green. the ornament in darker shades of the same. pale blue added the band under frieze have rather warm green lines and warm reddish brown. '33 cinnamon ground. might also be cream or little cinnamon. ROOM OR HALL DECORATION.XTA IRC A 8K DECORA T1ON. and buff. By F. Nightingale. J. might . but a at intervals darker than the frieze. to the top of skirting of The space extending from the under side of the frieze band bedroom floor.

olive. extending from the one These candelabra may be in raw sienna or . Eanging with the top line of the skirting a band in warm reddish brown or Venetian red. the lower parts dark brown. might with advan- tage have rather lighter than at present. Below it should be an ornamental band. The floor should be stained and polished and partially covered The hall by Oriental carpet. reds. may be tinted a rich warm brownish The top member by F. and greens may be used. red. so as to have the greatest weight of colour or shade in the dado. but with citrine or raw sienna may largely intermixed. with festoons dead gold colour. Addey. treated to the other. this may be The space left between under side of band and top of ground may be divided horizontally into five parts. warm red. flat. in any quiet colour. which will follow the rake of the stair. forms. The hall or dining-room Kennard is intended to be done in fumigated oak. in which browns. with stone and red brick showing in the the raised plaster pattern on walls might be tinted fireplace . runs round the This might be a couple of inches deep. of the skirting may be citrine and buff. This decoration might be either worked in citrine and red its filling . (See Plate XXI. such as soft green. Below the buff-tinted space should be a bold ornamental border about a foot in depth. should be similar to the narrow two-inch band above. Below this the triangular space to the skirting. similar to that used under frieze. done in darker and lighter shades of buff than the ground. below it.) decoration by Joseph P. with some arrangement of the key pattern introduced in contrast to laurel-leaves or stairs. The two upper parts should be tinted in buff and divided horizontally into spaces not exceeding a foot or ten inches.! 34 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. This band a reddish band ten inches deep . or brownish buff. citrines. by bands floor skirting about an inch in depth. flowers. J. without shading of any kind the festoons be in natural colours.

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deepening towards the floor. with orna- . Addey.HALL DECORATION. By Joseph P. peian treatment of golden yellow ground for frieze. shades. or it 135 might have a Pom- HALL DECOEATIOK.

and slender columns. The dado of entrance hall is panelled in same style. fitted In a hall and staircase lately and Lock the outer vestibule staircase. masks and buds. Walls cream white pilasters. and the upper portion of the wall is in embossed leather. blue. balustrade. marone in cornice. coloured ornament. with white or bone-coloured lines. marone in cornice above. yellow panel framed with lilac in centre of space the dado black. .136 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. The meiit iu bluish grey and cream white with brown outline. patterns. Collinson The grey Sicilian marble. and brown ground with ornament in golden yellow. subjects in them. The dado might be done in chocolate with greenish pilasters. black panels relieved by leaves and flowers . gold-coloured margins to panels with small ornament in white and green. Another Pompeian style suitable for hall decoration is black dado divided into panels. red Another Pompeian example has the walls in green. JAPANESE ORNAMENT. green margins. frieze. . the walls golden yellow with ornament in dull red. and ornament in shades of green. citrine. white enamel beautifully and rail are in decorated with bas-reliefs in the style of Italian Eenaissance. dado black with Another. with ivory lined . a buff ground with the decoration in natural filling might have colours toned with raw sienna. relieved by ivory-coloured pilasters and columns. is in up by Messrs. solidly gilt. Black wall with red pilasters enriched by gold- Another.

formal nor dignified enough for a dining-room. E.OKIENTAI. but be better . STUDIES. might be neither ception of visitors. AND PAVILIONS. CHAPTER XV. SMOKING-ROOMS. EEY great freedom may be allowed in treating rooms which are intended to suit individual tastes. and which do not pretend to be adapted primarily for the re- An odd-looking such as that designed by mantelpiece. Alf. PARLOURS. Robinson. TAHLE you A SMOKIXU-HOOM.

in its quaint originality for a study or master's parlour than a more restrained example.Alt'.ORNA MENTA L INTERIORS. T5\. is another example of appropriate parlour To such a room. decoration. E. Robinson. Jackson. odd schemes of colour which might not be . W.) The design by Chas. and pleasant ornament. (See illustration on this page. with its neat proportions CHIMNKYPIECE.

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.PARLOUR DECORATION. permissible in a drawing-room or dining-room. and to paint the walls and dado in some colour that would give an agreeable also admissible to paint the contrast. But it is woodwork blue or green. or both. work in its natural colour. Jackson. suitable so long as they were '39 pretty in effect would be quite and pleasantly wood- harmonious. Of course the obvious thing to do is to leave the PARLOUB DECORATION. W. By Chas.

The . and white. out with reddish brown. walls might have a ground of a ornament being lighter and greyer blue than the woodwork. and small members. might be picked of fireplace . indigo. Thus the framework SCREEX OF MUSHREBIYEH WoKK.ORNA MEKTA L INTERIORS. and dado might be painted blue formed by Prussian blue. the The frieze in pale green of various degrees from warm to cold. the panels might be in bronze green flutings.

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and or gold colour. The sloping ceiling is with gold backgrounds. and XXIV. covered with a geometrical pattern in pale greenish yellow on a creamy ground. The importation of Mushrebiyeh lattice. of a pale and rather bluish green the mouldings In the . and the Arabic forms used in the constructional lines of and this effect is further the apartments furnished by this house. Mohammedan Egypt. Lately a tendency has been shown decorators to fit up halls. to turn this exceedingly artistic material to practical account they have accordingly in . the tints of the 141' woodwork. such as the beam painted over recess.PARLOUR DECORATION. are used to proeffect . the skirting and doors are studio.) Plate XXII. The wall from skirting to picture moulding is covered by a chrysanthemum paper. has a bluish ground well covered with cream and pale buff flowers and leaves at intervals. Mushrebiyeh beaiitiful punkahs. with a drab ground.glass windows of flowing design and splendid colour. most of being light and elegant in form and moderate in price.work from Egypt has it probably induced Messrs. their Kharan chairs made very tasteful use of this fascinating artistic product of screens. above beam and picture moulding are gilt. camphor or sandalwood Arabic tables. could be used in addition in the cove ornament of the cornice. by some esteemed smoking-rooms. forming the ground.. work of the frieze. (See illustration. Liberty show a variety of art furniture in this style. Jackson and Graham. The space above. page 139. . and now Messrs. and Arabic traceried stained. figure panels on this groundwork are placed. the Eastern-patterned ceiling papers. and such-like apartJones executed designs of this ments in Oriental style Owen character for Messrs. Liberty & Co. duce an Oriental the rich emphasised by Turkish embroidery. traceried lamps. bronze green. cabinets. the upper woodwork. in lighter gold. might repeat. dull citrine leaves. colours. (See Plates XXIII. and brownish red and pale buff flowers.) .

and is replaced by a subdued harem-like light. light. crisp and and XXVI. Messrs. settees. Eound the sides the spaces are divided by . and J. the garish eye of day is excluded. spirited Specimens of the examples of design. In an Oriental interior by Messrs. screens. have lately published some richly illustrated books containing examples of chairs. overmantels. cabinets. and elegant. and general interior decoration. The illustrations screens are particularly ORIENTAL TABLE OR FLOWER STAND. beautiful drawing of foliage and spirited rendering of birds which are noticeable in these screens are given in Plates XXV. Liberty and Co. Their work is as a rule simple.1 42 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. Cooper. H. some of which are used as the illustrations to this chapter. as well as moderate of the in price.



In front of the fireplace are two splendid brass pillars. and having just the right amount of decoration to be There are also a couple of satisfactory. In the left-hand corner is a charming Arabic cabinet. and fitted up as recesses for In another nook there are specimens of delicate raised . proportion and well balanced. brought from the fronts of old houses in Cairo.ORIENTAL FURNITURE. done in the style of the stalactite vaulting of the lamps. and having every inch of their surface elaborately engraved. good in HALL CHAIR. rising to a height of about six feet. M3 quaint Oriental arches and lattice-work screens. Damascus niches in lacquered work. Moors.

Gillow & Co. The pavilion of the Prince of Wales.. at the Fisheries and Inventions Exhibition. decorated in gold and colours.144 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. Vincent Eobinson chandeliers & Co.) . Perry & Co. Persian tiles. nargilehs. Gillow. In addition to the and decoration artistic arranged by Messrs. INDIAN POTTERY. work. which has a very rich and yet refined effect. fitted up by Messrs. finest and metal-work lamps and of the Italian workmanship supplied by Messrs. from the far East. On and other objects of art workmanship the floor is amber Indian matting. Scattered about the apartment are portfolio stands in motherof-pearl. beautiful furniture. covered here and there by choice Oriental rugs. there were rich Oriental carpets by Messrs. tapestries. musical instruments. (Procter & Co. embossed chests and cabinets. consisted of a series of rooms decorated with subdued splen- dour. and furnished with excellent taste.

. .- '.i ? ? \ ' tfSfci / ^ ' ^ ^^^^ . .: . -' __ . .. ._... : ..-. . 1 y. ^ :Mg?rffi?*ffi?t^!^^^ -"^--^"^^^ : . ? .....^.




and the such work was unity. which is a but it is undeniably a regal building its in the noble simplicity of its lines. that good proportion. ANTWERP. excessive panelling. interior decorations and its external proportions. consistent and harmonious. HOUSE OF LORDS. HE building of the Houses of Parliament in Gothic of the Perpendicular period gave a splendid opportunity for the revival of this style. CHAPTER XVI.SALLE DE LEYS. DECORATION OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS. its the building It is a little mono- tonous. for its richness details. It is lavishly but judiciously detail are and minuteness of combined with destitute of breadth of effect. in the grouping of masses. and in the excellence of its rich. while from no point of view is it . some think. and consisit had its effect in recom- mending Pointed architecture very Both in its is favourably to the notice of the public. HOTEL BE VILLE. from characteristic of the style . carried out with tency.

and the frescoes end arches. being quite out of scale with the other decorative figures of the building. show that the architect did not allow his knowledge to override his taste. are a late introduction. perhaps. niches. the well-shaped arches.1 46 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. the brazen standards and balconies. which are two of its distinguishing characteristics. But probably as much is due to the one as the other if Pugin was master . The thrones richly carved and glowing with gold. one of the Internally it is a series of grand apartments. yet avoiding the exaggeration of Perpendicular period. It is worth while noticing that much of its excellence is due in the to the admirable unity of scale which is maintained throughout the architectural forms. To this accomplished architect is said to be due the excel- lence of the detail. however. is that dignified and stately picturesqueness which glories of noble examples of Gothic architecture. the emblazoned coving. and were done after the guiding hand of Fugin had been withdrawn. of Gothic detail. the rich stained-glass windows. and floor coverings. good enough in themportion is . and canopies of the figures as well as in the figures themselves. are a mistake in their present position. well detailed and richly decorated . though we must except from this general commendation the large figures in mosaic of the upper part of the octagonal hall these. a good sense of decorative pro- always maintained. make up a picture of regal magnificence which is almost beyond criticism and has scarcely its fellow. for Sir Charles Barry was more favourably known as an architect of classic than of Gothic work. the sculptured and painted decorations. the sculptured. gives richness without interfering with the breadth . These mosaics. gilded. In the groinings. and painted roof. selves. the panelling. pedestals. as in the exterior. Barry was able to impart to the building breadth and repose. The House of Lords is one of the finest of Gothic interiors. the crimson hues of the woolsack. the polished oak woodwork. cushions. good in proportion. many specimens of the full. . the rich panelling.

the figures in the frescoes are to the same scale as the sculptured figures of the niches nearly between the arches. rich draperies. and each window has eight compartments for This treatment of the windows is excellent from a it decorative point of view.the throne are. Ethelbert. isolated by their framework of arches. in and more scale of the rest of the building That they are so far satisfactory is doubtless due to the following circumstances. or painted decoration. The frescoes. although it may be open to question if a treatment more decorative harmony with the would not have been better. W. conferring the Order of the Garter on the Black Prince." . pillars. perhaps. carved. they have in most cases a monumental. decorative or semi-decorative treatment rather than a distinctively pictorial one. 147 There are no bold broad vacant spaces by which an inferior artist would endeavour to give what he called breadth. these frescoes are interesting as the first modern attempts at this kind of wall decoration in England. being rather faint in colour.THE HOUSE OF LORDS. This effect would have been destroyed if large pictorial representations had been used for filling the windows instead of the smaller decorative which by their form. It is lighted by twelve lofty windows. Though. forty-five feet broad. six on each side. and small parts greatly enhance the decorative effect. and groinings." painted by C. The House of Lords is ninety feet long. which repeat and harmonise with the real architectural forms of the apartment. but what other All is rich. have no destructive effect. figures. and forty-five feet high. Third. "Edward III. Cope. and figures. Those over. not great works of decorative art. for secures the effect of a uniform scale of decoration throughout the apartment. being brought to the scale of the rest of the work by the detail given to the sculptured. they are each furnished with architectural forms. as arches. large masses people would regard as emptiness. the centre arch shows "The Baptism of St. First. Second.

Religion. large splendidly proportioned They are and lofty. W." by Maclise. the frieze over the columns THE GRAND STAIRCASE. the third arch depicts " Prince Henry is also acknowledging the authority of Judge Gascoigne. Dyce . Flights of marble steps between each of the pedestals of the arcade lead to a higher level space." which Cope. through the three pictures . The designs by so this artist balance each other. C. by and there is a certain agreement W. building contains many apartments. The other end of the House of Lords has also three " : The Spirit of Justice. The GRAND ENTRANCE HALL has an arcade of coupled Sicilian marble columns with gilded Corinthian capitals. by D. emphasised in parts by gilding. these frescoes must be regarded as very creditable performances. and "The Spirit of Chivalry. has raised ornament in colours and gold. painted by C." J." by BUCKINGHAM PALACE. Maclisc . Horsley. and regal-looking from the materials used costly and the rich magnificently their of style decorations. " The Spirit of ]). the ceiling has heraldic and other emblematical devices in colours. which has walls of sienna or golden- .i 48 ORNA MENTA L INTERIORS. factory state of figure decoration in considering the unsatisEngland at the time. in the horizontal lines running that.

w .


and other constructional forms are of white marble. of the royal family of the last generation. are in cream and gold on a blue ground.BUCKINGHAM PALACE. is that The SUPPER BOOM is square in shape. there a 149 The door architraves. and has a To the left is the GRAND STAIR. lamps behind a cut-crystal corona the cupola is divided into a series of panels. are displayed. which around which are displayed portraits of various In each of The PROMENADE GALLERY. have the royal crown carved on the richly rayed Star of the Garter. the corners are richly gilded. when filled. which crimson colours predominate. chimney-pieces. is in shades of crimson. . corners is a large bronze caryatide. . Half-way up the grand stair we reach a and give. the upper. with a scroll-work balustrade of gilded metal work behind this balustrade on each side are the flower-stands which rise in tiers. which are in the form of lanterns. hued marble. chandeliers. members supports a candelabrum. is approached by doors splendidly worked in gilded metal. are in gilded metal. of cream colour. is On the main floor Turkey carpet. coloured marbles. the lower panels. which are square. and the decorations of the door are solidly gilded. as a whole. in the carpet for the stairs The scroll-work border in shades of gold and sienna colours. on which golden stars. are filled with silvered glass. leading from the staircase. silvered glass. and is roofed in by a magnificent cupola. gradually diminishing in size towards the centre. with a little blue picked in on the grounds but the effect of the doors. an additional glory of rich and The walls of the stair are in panels of various delicate colour. Above is a sculptured frieze with cream-coloured The ornaments under the cupola figures on a brown ground. The architraves and entablatures of the doors are of white marble. square the hall. which are long shaped. in the centre of electric-light which is an arrangement of . and richly gilt metal. . which is of white marble.

shamrock. From this cupola-cove large carved consoles. this splendid series of state apartments. pattern. a narrow ornamental border enclosing each set of five panels. These doors are chiefly in cream and gold each door has ten square panels with raised ornament in gold. and the spaces between them are decorated with paintings of Terpsichorean figures. are covered with crimson and the wall recesses are filled with . The walls are in various hued marbles . the sideboards. on which the gold plate is displayed. in which there is which is . showing the rose. green colour predominates of cream a and gold.i5o ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. Immediately below the cupola is a cove and cornice with raised ornament in gold on a cream ground. Immediately below the cove there is a frieze with a brown ground and raised ornament in cream and gold. while between the consoles are panels with enamel blue ground and raised gold ornament. and decorated with consummate this The lower which a soft dado is in panels of various coloured marbles. The CONCERT and BALL EOOM tioned is the most magnificent of It is finely proporskill. the sunk panels between the beams are formed into octagons. in . extend to the walls. and between the stiles -panels with raised ornaments also in cream and gold on enamel blue ground. silvered glass. this panel is framed by gold mouldings rounded and ornamented at the corners. their decoration. The floor is inlaid and polished. The deeply recessed doors are noticeable for their beauty of proportion. large horizontal by a cornice Above this the chief wall space is filled by panel of crimson silk damask of special is dado finished design. it where joins the walls . and the originality and richness of . and thistle . the windows are glass. The ceiling has coupled beams with carved drops at the intersections these beams are filled entirely by a large key or fretwork flat . filled Above this is the window space. richly gilt. gilded solid and burnished. The ceiling is coved with cut the cove has richly carved stiles in cream and gold.

X w H X! 5 .


and XXIX. are square in frieze form. and silvered glass give the leading colour characteristics. The general side entrances. of these is One . blue. are splendid specimens of Renaissance ture is work The furni- carved and gilded. a scries of rich 151 and delicate raised ornaments in gold. ways. below which are semicircular arches. large plates of silvered The candelabra in gilded bronze.BUCKINGHAM PALACE. sculptured doorway. The door through the arch at the end of the ball-room gives admission to the APPROACH GALLERY. with groups of figures in: the arch. and a square one at each side these square panels continue the lines of the side enrichments . of which tthere are in four. The organ is gilded and the gallery front is enriched by gilded metal and crimson silk The arch at the opposite end frames a splendid damask. and upholstered in crimson satin damask. seen from the side of the dining room.) This entrance door. The recesses of these entrances have very glass. with touches of cream on a blue ground the effect given by the . in panels framed by pilasters. long central. which has walls of crimson silk damask. and cream. (See Plates XXVIII. horizontal panel. portraits in frames of . This frieze has one of the doorways. gilded metal. in which white marble. ceiling is that of enamel work in gold. and has a presents a splendid appearance . broad framework of moulded and carved work with wreaths and festoons richly detailed and solidly gilded. it is deeply recessed. filled is by the organ and minstrels' gallery the gallery front corbelled over on rounded diminishing corbels. and have their upper portion a of statuary marble figures on a gold ground. of the The walls room arc of pinkish terra-cotta . which are decorated with paintings on a gold ground at each end are richly sculptured doorways. At each end of this ball-room is a fine arched recess. One of the doors opens upon the STATE DINING-ROOM. The panels have electric lights in their centres.

form a special feature. which have The centre of the ceiling is formed into gilt capitals and bases. the sides form a large cove with finely curved brackets springing from the caps of the Corinthian pillars . circular panels . (See Plate XXVII. The ceiling has its centre divided into three cupolas framed by massive beams of carved and gilded work . BUCKINGHAM PALACE. while at one end. between the brackets the ceiling has coffered panels in cream and gold. silvered glass panels with gold-work frames descending over part of the glass.) The BLUE DRAWING-ROOM has its walls covered by light blue silk damask between ranges of onyx columns.) . (Looking towards the State Dining-Room.i5* ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. the sides are coved with arches springing from projecting consoles coupled together by minor arches. Louis Quatorze design line the wall on one side. THE BLUE DKAWING-ROOM.

. ? -' *v ^*?&. THE WHITE DUAWINO-ROOM. the framework of the design being formed by interlacing circles of large radius. the pilasters being also carved and gilt. The WHITE DRAWING-ROOM is a fine example of the Louis --^^7^ - ~y~~^- << v5 . The THRONE ROOM has a ceiling with panels of heraldic forms and armorial bearings in enamel effects on a diamond Over the throne there is a dome of carved and gilded diaper. The SALOON has The caps and bases. BUCKINGHAM PALACE. Quatorze style of decoration. scale work with a large closely rayed star in the centre.BUCKINGHAM PALACE. ceiling is in a series of '53 imitation lapis-lazuli columns with gold domes covered by a diamond pattern diminishing towards the centre. The panels are enriched by carved and gilded work.

furniture is usually Eoman or Eoman Renaissance lines. such as the NEW GALLERY. which may be described roughly as centre nave and side aisles. The PICTURE GALLERY a long and lofty apartment well lighted from the roof. which is of open-work hammer-beam conThe beams are connected with each other by arched struction. In many of the apartments are splendid candelabra in metal. with wreaths and festoons also of carved work forming the frieze. and in parts burnished. which are in truth well worthy of the name. The . has the classic elegance and fulness in its is carved in masterly style. or metal. The construction of the roof naturally divides it transversely into three parts. wood. executed flower-vases standing against soft sky effects over tile semi-circular heads of the flower panels are horizontal . gilded. All these state apartments. is timbers which span the spaces between them. which opens from one side of the ball-room it is decorated in Another gallery has panels of beautifully cream and gold. but none of the divisions descend upon the wall space. There are several minor galleries. they are arranged for electric . crimson damask silk with gold ornaments and cream grounds. and marble. The GREEN DRAWING-BOOM has lattice-work pilasters in gilded carved work." by which Sir Frederick Leighton worthily made his first mark in the world of art. light. The chandeliers in some of the rooms are elaborate examples of crystal work made to receive wax candles in most of the others. are on the first floor. in style it The coverings are usually of crimson silk damask. and emerge again immense quadrangle of palatial . Another is finished in oblong panels with figure designs. It with masterpieces by the famous Flemish painters.154- ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. . which is throughout the entire length of the gallery. clear is filled In an adjoining room hangs the large painting of "Cimabue. Entering from the grand staircase we have gone in our imperfect survey around an buildings.

x .


grey panels in walls spaces are filled by portraits of royal personages. is in ivory colour Another room gilt the whole has a very regal has crimson figured silk on the walls. white and blue ceiling. in their royal robes.ST. The . the wall filling is a raised flock pattern painted terra-cotta colour. JAMES'S PALACE. and an amplitude of throne hangings. JAMES'S PALACE. Some portions of the wall have sunk oval panels into which portraits are inserted. have trimmings of violet and gold. the Prince Consort. those of the Emperor and Empress of the French. and George IV. and the two reception-rooms leading to it. HOUSEHOLD DINING-ROOM has Sicilian marble columns. Each picture is surrounded by a well-designed and massive carved . among them Stan" field's Opening of London Bridge. The ceiling is white and blue . Grand Staircase from which we On the the Ground Floor are some rooms devoted to the use of officials of The the Royal household. sky. The Room of 1853 has polished granitic pillars and pilasters. pillars. many of the among them The carpet as red ground with panels of black and brown. ST. walls in colour. the wood- The ball-room walls are covered the window draperies. the throne-room. There are some apartments of noble proportions in this building. the ceiling is cream and gold. with richly moulding and pilasters. being very fine in effect. the walls have panels of grey with white and gold mouldings. and steps around them." The doors on this floor are of polished mahogany with gold mouldings. matching the work effect. HOUSEHOLD DRAWING-ROOM has Sienna marbled pilasters. In the Presence Chamber three very large portraits of the Queen. with amber figured silk . There are some good pictures on the walls. the 155 on the other side of started. is the dado white and gold. and gold .

frame. corona. is carved and gilded. canopy enclose the throne on each side. and at least a yard in breadth the whole an unmistakable impression of royal magnificonveys gilt. gives an impression of dull green. The Picture Gallery. modillions. when one faces the throne. which contains portraits of the kings and queens of England. solidly effect cence. as they are quite overpowered by the massive gilding and the bold colourings of the wall coverings. The Eoyal light blue silk damask of Withdrawing Room is covered with the same pattern as that of the throneis room. and are fringed and of one of the a portrait walls are embroidered. The wall on the right. and other parts of the cornice. Most and details in these apartments are classic . little ornaments. if they have any style at all. carving. and over the royal arms in solid gilding. it The rich crimson velvet hangings behind the throne have the royal arms splendidly emblazoned in raised golden embroithe draperies hanging from the dery and heraldic colours . . The woodwork of the forms of pale greenish blue with gold mouldings. However. The deep valance hanging from the cornice is in crimson velvet embroidered in gold and colours. . are assuredly not classic. The covered with richly figured crimson silk damask . the curtains of the windows are of the same material. The woodwork Closet or is in pale green with gilded mouldings. which. has stencilled over the cymu recta. The Throne.156 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. very curiously. these ornaments are so small and the colours so modestly retiring that they injure the general effect very little. but the decorator. raised on three steps covered in crimson. is divided in the centre of each of these is members of the Eoyal Family. into three panels . and covered with rich silk velvet with gold The canopy above has a rich cornice of gilded embroidery.

as its principal feature. the grounds of the centres of ornaments are filled with carmine. is The walls are covered rich paper of very bold design. and silver white. the walls are covered with a pattern in which bluish grey and green are the prominent. is painted a light soft greyish blue . the dado bits of fine which bluish grey and warm red. paintings illustrating events in the history of Manchester from the Roman period till the present time. They are balanced by rich armorial paintings on the roof. The plaster work of the roof. The Avails are decorated with trophies of armour on a plain reddish background. The Recreation Hall of this building is very richly decorated. but not too prominent. The carpet is crimson. the woodwork is stained and varnished. Some of the staircase walls are covered with green and gold embossed leather paper. and has ornaments in gold. in grey are freely used. MANCHESTER TOWN HALL. The Entrance Hall has columns of deep crimson marone with gold ornament highly polished. colours. It 157 dingy red.7777? HOLLOWA1' SANATORIUM. is connected by THE HOLLOWAY SANATORIUM. and the gold ornament is . These are being executed by Ford Madox Brown. It is Gothic in style and has an open timbered roof. school of aesthetic decoration. representing the arms of the countries and cities with which Manchester its trade. The decoration of the Manchester Town Hall has. in the centre of each panel there is an ornament in gold . belongs to the melancholy The Banqueting Hall by a is much better. carpets are crimson. and there are several harmony in green and red. The The Guard Room has the woodwork in black witli Chinese ornament in gold and colours. which is in about one hundred and eighty panels.

Besides these. to the smallest detail. These. are in gold on a pale green ground. . so that at no part is it possible to see the same design in two places at once. as well as the ornaments. ornaments are fifty in number. citrine. The arched windows have over them conventional roses. red. The figures. be remarked. touches of carmine. it was done the gold absorbed so that in some positions it did is not tell at all. though different in design. pink. on which conventional flowers in are placed. Whether from gives an appearance of jewel-like richness. somewhat The different designs used as resembling butterflies in form. that although some of the panels are forty or fifty feet from the floor. The spandrels filling fay-like. and delicate the spaces between and over the arches have figures in full colours standing on the band at the The rest of the spandrel is filled by springing of the arch. The gold throughout Till this is lacquered to pre- vent shining unduly. the reflections of darker colours. are in the same colours as the other panels. or the admirable lighting of the roof by the dormers. and has beneath tal frieze of scale work. firmly outlined with dark brown. the ornament. birds. amidst small ornament of natural form but semi-conventional arrangement. winged figures. The frieze or border at junction of sloping roof and perpendicular wall. the flowers being outlined with brown. The rest of each panel has the ground powdered over with small gold ornaments. has a darker blue ground. and gold. the birds. and other designs in tints of cream. shades of blue on a gold ground. flowers. outlined with brown.i 58 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. The cornice at the head of the wall it richly ornamented in gold and colours. is fairly seen. an ornamencitrine The frieze is in green. with figures in gold. or conventional ornaments in them are not exaggerated at all in size to It is to the power of the gold. there are special designs for the roof dormer panels. while its moderate size suit the great height.

with figures rather larger. Girodet. tends very much to give an appearance of greater size and space to a building. Virginia Water. Sanatorium. but placed as they are as wall decorations without frames they hardly seem in their proper place. The three-feet high figures. modern these dress. Mr. as it was his intention to introduce life-size portraits. which come under the corbels of the roof and between the windows. The portraits are harmony with the rest of the admirably painted by Mr. rejected this intended arrangement. The end walls have each two lunettes ranging with the arched window heads these have figures on a rough stippled gold . and then was intended to fill . By arrangement a nice proportion of scale would bo attained. we think. we think. which are some twenty feet from the ground. from the dado to six feet above were have historical subjects with still larger figures. This intention he has carried out to the detriment. Hollo way. of the decorative scheme of the hall. SAPPHO. for the large scale.THE HOLLOWAY SANATORIUM. so that there to should be a gradual diminution in the size of the figures as they receded from the eye. The panels beit. historical groups. with sitting figures depicting the sciences below these was to be a broad band of ornament. This. however. but none of the figures were to be quite life-size. low. It '59 the spaces below bet \veen the window with trefoil niches.- were to fill up the space down this to the top of dado. -Recreation Hall. One of the figures at the springing of tho arch. would be supplemented by a lower series rather larger in size. . and undecorative are style of portraits not in decoration.

and Y. SALLE DE LEYS AT ANTWERP TOWN HALL. Martin-Hollo way. The staircase and hall. The colours are strong. unfortunately. Imrie. but. and Legend and HisThere are no cast shadows in the pictures. but by the complete harmony that exists between the materials employed. in his decorative pictures. to har- monise with the elaborate decoration of the subjects are Lyric and Epic Poetry at the one end. which follow the style of the Sainteits Chapelle at Paris. got by any finikin imitation of medieval work. was The dining-hall has ornament by Mr. the arch. The Salle de Leys at in connection with its Antwerp. Though the work in this room is almost entirely modern. but they have an intense directness which is absent from many graceful pictures. to be rigidly true to costume and accessories with this truth he combines a rude force thoroughly medieval in character his pictures are . full.) The designing of the ornament and the colour arrangement. specimen of Flemish B-enaissance Baron Leys seems. . not graceful in design. tory at the other. without done by J. The shading or modelling is used to give roundness to the figures without forcing them unduly from their purpose as decorative subjects. as well as the painting of the figures down to the springing of art. South All the decorative works in the building were directed and superintended by Mr. with panels Watteau style by students of the Art Training School.. and decorative.160 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. Most of the fittings of the Salle are in dark veined .. Kensington. in gilding. ground. hall. Hewitt. already referred to on page 40 dado and wall treatment. III. presents a good style. are by the author. This effect is not. or causing them to trench upon the function of but sufficient purely pictorial (See headings to Chapters II. A. there is a true unity and completeness of effect which are masterly in their way.



clinging above to her wholesome form. In the decoration of the Salle des Manages the artist. Throughout there is this room worth attention as a notable example of Flemish is Renaissance. the chimney-piece. wreath. and in the other a diamond-shaped shield. and the architraves of the doors are in marble . dado. that is to say. (See illustration at beginning of this chapter. In the central compartment the good city of Brussels. M . The words Mariez et lenez. seems to She is seated in a chair preside at the union of her children. M. All the composition is backed by an imitation of tapestry . symbolises the purpose of the room and indicates the virtues of marriage. and classic mouldings are used throughout the marble work of the room. under the aspect of a young wife. The only important piece of carving the heraldic panel over the a noble simplicity which makes chimney. the prevailing colour of the textile fabrics of the room. Each holds in one hand the medieval representation of the torch of Hymen with the escutcheon of the city or province. enriched in Dull green harmonising with the marble is parts by gilding. is a winged figure displaying a broad gibbon of gold and offering a brief words.DECORATION AT ANTWERP AND BRUSSELS. which has a back of figured gold. with the emblematic device of male and female hands clasping each other. doors. 161 marble. of state. the and beams of the ceiling are in oak. At the sides are two pages. appear It is the spirit of the old loyal Flemings that speaks in these Above. which is carried up to the ceiling. and Unefois maries. on the other. Ionic columns appear in the chimney-piece. spreads out below into voluminous and somewhat stiff folds of soft yellow.) SALLE DES MARIAGES AT BRUSSELS. and her robe. Her veil descends from her forehead in the style familiar in the pictures of Memling. on the one. Cardon. maintenez. on each side of the chair of the city.

ground. . (See . blue. the pattern has the cypher of the town interwoven with leafage and flowers agreeing in symbolism with the intention of the figures.. The right-hand compartment has a winged figure. and in Plates XXX. the ceiling and cornice white and gold. colour with the walls. and gold. The Zuccarelli Room has crimson silk walls. partly gilded. and ceiling of cream. ceiling is in two tints of red and gold . standing on conventionalised clouds. The Vandyke Room has its walls covered by crimson silk damask. pleated at wide intervals. interspersed with symbolic devices. page vi. the dado is of cedar with gilded mouldings. soft green is used on beams and frieze. and heraldic colours on the shields. which form the ceiling into a series of sunk These have a gold field. It has five of the corporation amidst flowers of scarlet and blue. heading to Chapter XX. The left-hand figure represents Law. in the style of tapestries. brown and gold raised ornament on walls the for their ceiling decorations. ground of vert de chypre. and XXXI. with the devices and mottoes panels. and intended to personify Justice. dado and cornice of oak. .1 62 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. The corbels which sustain the beams are sculptured with the arms of the patrician families of the frieze of town they are relieved by a Gothic foliage.) WINDSOR CASTLE. soft this has a and warm. The ceiling accords in heavy beams finished inside with mouldings. The Grand Reception Room has raised ornaments gilded on a cream the wall panels are filled with figure subjects in Views of several of these apartments are given on tapestry. The State Ante-room and Presence Chamber have tapestry-covered walls and mythological subjects The "Waterloo Chamber has oak and gold dado.



lic bass sidi. The whole effect is one of simple. exceedingly good gilded The ornaments are in cream solid. Broadwood. should. the raised .A PANEL The Story of Camlmsoaii Bold. THE THEATRE ROYAL. for t. S. Gillow and Co. doubt the fine proportions and grand spaces of this theatre lend themselves readily to good decoration . M. DRURY LANE. THEATRICAL DECORATIONS AND SCENERY. CHAPTER XVII. of a Piano Designed by J. however. stately richness. RURY LANE decorated Theatre lias been very rapidly by Messrs. bv Messrs. have been glad if something had been done to enrich the ceiling and the We No parts of the gallery wall which abut on the proscenium. The style chosen is is very simple. much by the good use that is made of rich red plush in the draperies of the boxes and for the curtains of the stage. and the groundwork is The effect is enhanced very colour. but of its kind. moreover.

or rather that imitation of old Roman wall decoration that Eaphael made use of in the Loggias of the Vatican.1 64 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. it cannot be said that it is always remarkable for breadth of fulness. is ornament introduced some years ago so that only a very inferior decorator could or good and so effective would spoil it. The Lyceum it stage is small. The work is clever and spirited. and artistically designed costumes. effect. good grouping of crowds. make Drury Lane a pleasant contrast to the cramped condition of is The carpeting of the stalls in this part of the house in many other theatres. . The large stage gives scope for scenic effects of a grand is kind. effectively picturesque scenery. are sometimes unduly cramped and the pictures presented on and though the scenery is . The Lyceum has also been decorated recently. usually effective and picturesque. or even for exact truthto lean sometimes The taste which rules here seems more than to the refined . incongruities are allowed to appear which a severer taste would have banished thus in the exterior view of a church an otherwise excellent mediaeval to the florid : architectural effect was injured to some extent by the introduction of a delineation of some nineteenth-century cast-iron * r railings. the style chosen being Pompeian. from the strong contrast between the dark hues of the ornamental forms and the light colour of the ground. this taken advantage of to the full by the present which has shown excellent capacity for producing management. The ample space given to the stalls. harmony with the draperies of the boxes and of the curtain. THE LYCEUM. and the noble widths of passage between them. but looks almost too busy and disturbed. and thus realising very splendid stage pictures impossible on a smaller stage.

THE ADELPHI. Alma Tadema many of his pictures has been strongly felt by the painters of the scenery at the Princess's. and has light and graceful raised ornament on the front of the boxes and round the stage opening .THEATRICAL DECORATION. This theatre has lately become famous for its refined and beautiful realisations of classical scenes. and taste. theatre in pleasing views given at the Some of the plays put upon the boards of this recent years have been the occasion for some many of the excellent examples of consistent and . . liberality. In this matter of stage-dress the Lyceum management has shown knowledge. and by artistic groupings and arrangements of figures. the ceiling is curved in section and is encircled by lunette openings at the base . Great intelligence and energy have. which has been usually supplemented by rich and varied costumes. and to Tadema therefore be may traced the inspiration of Princess's.well-thought-out scenery. however. and correctness of the costumes. The interior of this theatre is very nicely proportioned. gas flames. No doubt the influence of the fine backgrounds and distances used in by Mr. and decorative accessories. effects of startling vividness or of A great part of the decorative effect of a stage picture sometimes depends on the richness. THE PRINCESS'S. coloured beams of light and clouds of 165 been shown enhance the Electricity. variety. the design and ornamentation throughout show originality and a fine taste for elegant effect. steam have been made use of to secure poetical beauty. the management in enlisting modern science to by weird situations of some of the plays produced. colours.

]66 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. This theatre has the fronts of the boxes and gallery covered with crimson velvet on which enwreathed plaques with gold grounds are displayed. JAMES'S THEATRE. But the due in part effect as a whole is one of lightness and elegance. THE ROYALTY. stage. and gold gold used only for backgrounds. in the colouring to the restraint shown and in part to the graceful lines of the raised ornament.work or mouldings. screen. This curtain is . The main colour- tones are white. or in large masses for gilding relief. curtain of creamy satin. having a fringe at the bottom. rather straggling and wanting painting immediately over the though quite in keeping with the style of the rest of the work. ST. red. two tones of Venetian No kerps up the consistency of the colour scheme. vase. and a valance of embroidery of the character of Spanish work. flowers. with the raised ornament gilded. The back walls of the boxes and the corridors are in painted act-drop is used. pale yellow. strikes one as out of place. The drop curtain has a Japanese and other accessories painted with bold. The style of decoration adopted here belongs to the Louis Quinze period. Gilding and mother-of-pearl are used for the pillars and frieze. rich. but a. and the decoration consists entirely of delicate plaster modelled after the manner of the Italian Eenaissance. quilted. and artistic effect. THE SAVOY. because it is unsupported by any similar kind of painting in other parts of the theatre. the groundwork being in dull cream or very The arrangement light drab. Ornamental subjects in painting have been discarded. at and over the stage opening while the Watteau is in unity.

while the curtains of the boxes are of yellowish silk.THEATRICAL DECORATION. . brocaded with a pattern of decorative flowers. The stalls are covered with blue plush of an inky hue. in broken colour. ORIENTAL VASE. 167 arranged to drape from the centre. and the balcony seats are of stamped velvet of the same tint.

The first nymph and is is painted of a lovely flesh colour. ETC." A mother. newly returned. NOTES ON COLOUR. FRIEZES. A shepherd and two nymphs are placed in a landscape swimming of a in warm mellow sunlight. S. which is backed by Pompeian square columns. M. while we catch. one of Sir Frederick Leighton's pictures we effective treatment have an instance of very of colour. The foliage is brownish green . the skin of the shepherd is warm brown.ASS WINDOW SCREEN.STAINED-("II.1. a glimpse of architectural forms standing out against the sky. but these colours are overpowered by the strong ruddy orange of the . Another very successful treatment of colour is found in nymph L. inclining in parts to yellow. Sketched l>v . Alma Tadema's picture. THE TREATMENT OF BACKGROUNDS. "A Hearty Welcome. embraces her daughter in a garden of poppies. over the garden wall. The other has equally lovely flesh tints. CHAPTER XVIII. draped by white. and he wears a leopard's skin and crimson drapery. but her drapery is orange and orange-yellow contrasted with purple. She reclines on blue drapery. The foreground is formed by poppies painted in all their glory of crimson and scarlet .

" Mrs. beauty of drawing." another picture by Sir Frederick Leighton. It is decorative rather than natural in colour effect. square pillars which catch 169 the light of the declining sun. as he thought the slatey blue and grey white colour of the walls unsuitable as background to his drawings. Niches for Statues should be painted a decided colour. red. and the was painted a yellowish citrine. "When exhibit- ing his Eoman sketches at the Arts Club dining-room. Haweis says : plain ultramarine ceiling dotted with gold stars is sometimes . is an arrangement of flesh colour of various tints "Fredegonda.ARRANGEMENTS OF COLOUR. and purple. bluish-green tints warm green of the front. In her book. If the statues are old and stained the tone of the background should be lowered to suit. " Cymon and Iphigenia. " The Art of Decoration. Keeley Halswelle hung ordinary brown wrapping paper on the walls as a background. . to show off his sketches in the Dowdeswelle the space above was covered with gold paper. Background to Prints and Photographs. Against the strong orange of the pillars. Another picture. foreground and right hand of the picture are in subdued tints. contrasting with the bold mingled with amber." has beautiful cool delictte in the background. and possesses great breadth of effect. M. this scheme of colouring proved too monotonous to be pleasing as a room decoration. such as marone red. and grace of painting and modelling. Background for "Water-Colour Sketches. A rich yellowbrown or leather colour gives lustre to the black of the print and the tones of the photograph. J. but it is a masterly painting nevertheless. "Whistler used a similar but lighter yellowish brown background Gallery floor . crimson. the garden wall appears of a yellowish green orange. A. something like enriched is yellow ochre the house appearing over the top of the wall The immediate white and shining against a blue sky. Though perhaps good for showing the drawings effectively.

It gold ceiling contrasts beautifully with almost any coloured wall and does not bring the roof down. and when blue manner. also in gold and black." the grey of the stone predominates.170 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. brilliant. A In the interiors of many Flemish churches after the style of the decorations of the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris. which. If softer or more broken colours had been used under the same conditions of light and surroundings it would probably have looked dull. and spiritless. with a room furnished with various reds. " A plain red c ailing sometimes has the happiest requires carrying out effect. or the frieze should partake noticeably of the tertiary citrine. The green. the green A nearest the red. and smaller towards the centre than towards the sides. and neither gaudy nor crude. muddy. softened together with spaces of Spanish leather. None . amber and yellow. Now though these decorations used in some of the minor parts. and splendid. but a bay or chapel behind the high-altar of one of the churches of Ghent is done with primitive colours by red in the furniture. tells as brown. colours used are alternate diapers of vermilion and These diapers are divided by gold outlined with black In the centre of each of the diapers is an or dark brown. A lighter shade of red is emblem. and though the green used when examined closely and in detail looks very crude. very agreeable but the stars must be very small. . though including many colours. which is formed by the admixture of orange and green. Of course they must be scattered at irregular intervals. not liked in other parts of the room the mass above carries out the right proportions in the least obtrusive is a considerable ehare of For instance. yet the effect as a whole is rich. " Venetian red wall and an olive green ceiling may have a frieze of orange containing these reds and greens. the red nearest the green. A blue ceiling painted with a conventional cloud border in a much paler blue is pretty also . are done in staringly strong red colour.

raw a touch and a touch of Indian yellow. and the bays are coloured alternately blue and red. made with emerald green and Antwerp blue. is in large masses. cool but pleasing effect may be got by a blue ground." gives the : following notes on colour contrasts " Black and warm brown. Violet and pale green. in his "lecture on Colour. The following arrangement of colours is rich and effective . Vandyke brown. gold. Violet and light rose colour. Great brilliancy is given by this interchange of colours and by Another scheme of decoration shows the base or lower wall the various modulations of the lines and ornaments. . of the Munich imitations of Pompeian decorations have been very successful. blue grey ornament edged with primrose or pale lemon-yellow gold colour on stems and details brown outline. made with indigo. deep chrome. with of burnt sienna. .A RRANGEMENTS of the colour. all worked in well together. painted deep red the upper walls are buff margined with grey. The colours used are marone. when used either as a wall filling. Light green. made with indigo. but broken with burnt sienna. Grace. * John G. The arches of the Allerheiligen Capelle show fine colour harmony. on which are red pilasters blue is introduced in the ceiling. Citrine. A Separate the different colours by a gold outline. blue. and at a distance the green has the effect of toning the red. and : little middle chrome. little it OF COL UR. . Orange. 1 7 1 is to be observed. made with ultramarine and indigo. The staircase of the Eoyal Library of Munich has a vaulted Some ceiling. and green. deep chrome. made with deep chrome and brown lake. Deep green. and little middle chrome sienna. Deep made with carmine. or for a frieze Blue. as for deep green. grey. red.

and that of contrast. Deep blue and golden brown. the tertiaries become essentially valuable. and then giving freshness. Claret and buff. it will be found that all colours have two kinds of harmony that of analogy or sympathy. Marone and warm green. They have the same relation to the secondary as to shade that the primary colours have to light.iyi ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. " In considering the question of harmony of colour as applied to decoration. and beauty to the whole by the introduction in small masses of the primary or secondary colours that may form the proper It should be always the prevailing colour. all the primaries are present in some shape or " In carrying out decorations. By a proportionate adjustment of the primaries with the of colour is produced. russet light green . harmony " In decoration it primary or a secondary. Chocolate and pea green. Deep blue and pink. be laid down as a principle that one may colour should predominate . remembered that the eye is never satisfied with any arrangement equivalents to of colour unless other. that this dominant should be a secondaries or tertiaries. yellow is to light violet . we will suppose the walls of a room to be of . is Thus each of the secondaries " neutralised by that tertiary in which the remaining primary predominates. harmony is produced by employing neutralised hues of colour for the larger masses. Chocolate and light blue. and that all colour should be subsidiary In the majority of cases the most perfect and beautiful to it. Black and warm green. Deep red and grey. Citrine is is to dark violet as to dark green as red is to olive is to dark orange as blue is to bright orange. cheerfulness. " For instance.

but it cornice and frieze. except in peculiar cases. it is desirable that the curtains be quiet in tone. whether in ornament or flowers. or by a colour referring to the curtains or other harmonising hue. that does not interfere with the decoration of the walls of a walls. various colours in ornament or flowers may be introduced with propriety in the carpet. and the woodwork. and harmonious in their colouring. the decorator will have to consider how best to relieve with colour his the ceiling. a : warm marone. for the well-designed distribution and worthy of particular study . curtains and carpet. which is the softer or more sympathetic harmony . a rich yellow-brown. and the carpets but it is by no . also that the carpet preserve a subdued effect. On the other hand. such as marone or green. retiring. and that curtains are required. ". particular care must be taken in the colouring of it. should always be borne in mind that. The cornice is a very important feature in a room . either by a soft contrast to the wall colour. which is the harmony of contrast. " As regards the colouring of carpets. to be as flat as possible. rich. either by arabesque painting or otherwise. it should be made to belong to the walls . the curtains. " There are three masses of colour to be considered in livingrooms the walls. Two colours are open to us on the one hand. and entirely without cast shadows. if the room are of a quiet tone. and with that view. " The principal colourings of a room being decided. on the other hand. The Indian carpets imported from Masulipatam are at all times quiet. or the .ARRANGEMENTS OF COLOUR. it acts as a kind of frame to the walls. means necessary that these should be all of different colours two of them may accord. either the walls and curtains. retiring colour.If the walls of a room are highly ornamented in colour. and not of contrasted colours . I should generally recommend the ground to be of a deep. between these and the ceiling . 173 a soft green colour. or are white and ornamented with gilding. and the patterns.

It is of their ornament. the combination necessary to carry out a pleasing effect is sufficiently simple and easy . and make it suitable in depth of tone to the size of the 11 What able as it room. or other moderating colour. have a very handsome effect. and displeasing. can be readily ornamented to any degree by painting dark lines and ornament. if it pitch pine for this. agreeable. if well finished by be plain deal or the joiner. however. agreeable tone. well relieved with light-coloured lines. or marone. as in the other they may be soft. " When rooms are papered or painted in tints of colour. and clean. . with a little sienna. There are greens : and greys and greys in the one case as ugly. and your skill and taste will make it as agreewould be otherwise repulsive. " In determining the colours for rooms. harmonious. even . Now I do not proscribe graining . The wear of this kind of when work is far beyond any painting. but even in these great care should be taken to have those tints of a soft. however. and greens. that the result should show such refinement and delicacy in the modulations of the colours. regard should be . discordant. These tinted colours may be made considerably more effective by an harmonious combination with a contrasting tone of colour in the stiles or margins. or grained in imitation of some wood. will. and to the sight. can be more incompatible than a crude emerald green? Soften it. offensive. " In the considered that woodwork of our rooms it seems to be too generally it must be either tinted white. on far the contrary. surprising. I like the real wood. as if inlaid upon it. raw. and to varnish it? Above all. and kept varnished.174 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. when we consider the at these poverty and general ignorance of the men who work carpets. taking care to face up the work to a very smooth surface. or black. and refreshing buffs buffs. I like too frequently. it occasionally but I think it is used Why not employ a good brown.

saying that a red room with a black ceiling. and says. one of the most useful colours of the palette for painting all .ARRANGEMENTS OF COLOUR.doubt it. . if not real cinnamon wood .' I . burnt sienna. renders it where there is bright and cheerful no external prospect. oxide of chromium. light red. red is an excellent colour for the walls it gives freshness and If. is very l bright and good. . recommends the pale greenish variety of Naples " The yellow as the most serviceable. Naples yellow. however. a room should also." Edward Armitage in his " " Lectures on Painting gives : the following as a good simple palette setting for figure painting white. already painted. . the cornice of the room might be vellum colour. vigour to the paintings it . also. vermilion. and black. and they are truly works of art. relieved with the cinnamon and dull violet in suitable parts of it the ceiling might be pale grey. writer in a popular magazine. raw sienna. In this case the windows and doors might be colour. If there are many in the room. yellow ochre. . of course. Light red is burnt ochre. ceiling of the room should be carefully toned. had to their aspect : 175 south. giving cool and refreshing shades to the The use of Then. comfortable colours to the north. the room be large and the pictures boldly painted. only violent yellow you ought ever to admit on your palette is cadmium also . the colour of the walls must be subservient to them. cobalt. He chromes of and is kinds are poison. so that nothing be too obstrusive but no special colours can be proposed. influence the colour. starred with dull sea green or yellow. sage green a good tone. pictures require particular consideration. Only I would warn my audience not to follow the advice of a clever . is and the colouring of them not dark or heavy. madder lake. may be black or vellum The cornice and colour. and if the room is lighted from above. if not undesirable qualities "The woodwork. If the pictures are not very large. and warm. properly relieved on the mouldings. . as they would depend on the design of the architecture.

especially English ones. and nothing else that I 1 1 of gives so effectively and pleasantly the grey hair and fur of animals. This is a bluish green. and I thought so myself a it however. Oxide of chromium is the best of the decided greens. It is a curious fact. colour for giving warmth to shades. I think. and I find it turns black very speedily. paint a red background to it. know As to backgrounds. it turned black. ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. but. however. Asphaltum and bitumen are very seductive colours. have not put any brown on I am quite aware that with many painters. Naturally one would suppose that on the principle of contrasts. A your rubicund gentleman would make him more objectionally rubicund. when mixed with white lead. Mixed with white and all flesh a very little yellow is it is the painting. which any one can verify. Terra verte has no body in it. .. the other hand. the proper remedy is to paint the background of a cool green or some cold colour. and for preparing draperies or stuffs which are ultimately to be blue or green. is tolerably safe. you will make it look getting " On . however. but a cool grey or green would have a contrary effect. and you find the colour too hot and red. it. that either colour. sine raw umber is considered a qua non. vermilion curtain behind Such. and a most excellent colour for painting skies. . You will observe I the palette.ij6 flesh. Burnt sienna the best . . and I fancy I have done better since I discarded It is very seldom seen on the palettes of foreign artists. foundation of . is not the case. as every one knows. but I think that . a dislike to from a conviction that few years ago. . if you want warmth of colour in your If you try to give warmth head. I took. and it is well to steer clear of them. that if you have painted a head.. they have been the ruin of many excellent pictures. the coolcoloured background would make the head appear redder. not even umber. the French vert de cobalt is more generally useful. to it by it in a cold background.

Some of his decorations reproduce the Alhambra colours. Give them a gold are how of making each individual figure appear less dull in colour. as may be seen in the Eastern courts of South Kensington Museum. the grounds are in diapers alternately red and blue. enlivens the whole work. Outer boundary lines top and bottom conred band. while blue and red in shades were the only other colours : used. but it has the effect bright background My you to remedy this withanswer would be. band with pattern N . and you find that your figures are dull and heavy in colour. and are in red. His decorations were often done on paper and pasted up in is their place afterwards. from dark to pale.ARRANGEMENTS OF COLOUR. and white . however." At one stage of his career Owen Jones introduced a scheme of decoration It consisted of a which was founded on ancient manuscript woik. In other work. laid over or side by side. PERSIAN FRIEZE. much easier working than painting on the ORIENTAL COLOUK ARRANGEMENTS. out repainting them ? It is not only that this or light bright. 177 more ghastly than it did. which produced the effect of shading from vellum to crimson . cream or vellum coloured groundwork with crimson lake in shades. he imitated the full glory of oriental colour. the gold in this case used for the ornament. The only explanation I can offer of this apparent anomaly is that the eye gets filled or saturated with the colour of the background until the head seems to Supposing you have painted a series of figures for the decoration of a pediment or frieze. the gold ground was picked in between the ornament. black. blue.coloured background. gold. blue was used also in shades . partake of " it. dark outline separating the ornament and the gold. By this treatment he considered he adopted a primary colour arrangement thus gold represented yellow. This of course admits of spot. thin gold line. sist of thin gold line.

yellow. green. From the green panels spring on each side broad blue ornamental forms with white outline and light interior ornament with gold stems. red. in the other. orange-red. well mingled. the leaves are green and gold. and white are used in one of the large flowers. This is repeated in reverse at the bottom. white. then thin gold line. pink. with pink grounds with flowers and blue the ornament enclosing ground is in cream. and black. of pink and black. which has a gold ground on which at intervals are is at waveled-diamond shapes. From the marone panels spring shapes similar in form to the . red. Between these is the frieze proper. broken by yellow diagonal leaves in first lilac divided Flower on lilac ground is white yellow hatched with red. that is to say. over which is spread a light ornament with thin black stems. are used tered over the ground.blue. deep Flower on red ground. Blue. second. deepening to yellow inwards . and black. orange. white edged with green. and blue. red outline and red. with red and white buds . The grounds are arranged thus : row. but having black grounds. The chief part of the border has a lightened indigo ground. &c..178 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. circles . green band the top and red at the bottom. . green from red by gold ornament. red. ornament in gold. the centre is gold with white star. formed alternately of green and marone brown these have a light conventional ornament of gold. or for smaller flowers scat- blue. A Persian fabric shows a ground with alternate threads of yellow and gold. and white. as in the blue panels. Another Persian example shows an arrangement of waveledcliamonds enclosed by ornament. red. yellow orange. gold and yellow intermingled leaves. the ornament has yellow stems. thin gold line. green band. red. Next two rows show in gold. Black is used throughout to separate the colours. with dark shade in centre. and yellow flowers and leaves. orange. and blue. Pink. blue. citrine. red. the large conventional flowers have strong blue. strong deep orange red. . red. black. and red.

gold details on flowers. with crimson flowers and gold flowers with blue and red touches. thin black outline. gold ornament. green foliage outlined with gold flowers outlined with black. SIXTH. touches of crimson and white on flowers . At panels. This drawing in composition is not laid with extreme exactitude. with little bits of touches of crimson. in pink. Cream ground. Cream white ground. particularly in the detailing of the flowers on the raised gold ornament. SECOND. green. gold ornament. the raised parts being sometimes larger than the flowers that partially cover them. 179 Lower rows have yellow ground with flowers and gold. centre of flowers . flowers laid in Crimson ground. with crimson and detailed by gold lines. Gold ground. touches of crimson and white dots on flowers. The following are some of the colour combinations FIRST. the Colonial Exhibition is a screen filled with coloured which gives admirable suggestions for the decoration of The patterns seem to be painted in with a composition which makes the design stand slightly raised above the ground. black outline. Pale blue ground. and a few The design is made out with a very thin black outline of hair-like fineness. green here and there. INDIAN COLOUR ARRANGEMENTS. Green ground. green and gold ornament. gold ornament. The work is lacquered or varnished all over. N 2 . and crimson flowers outlined with gold. SEVENTH. EIGHTH. FOURTH.ARRANGEMENTS OF COLOUR. Pale blue ground. cream. and dotting of cream-white round the THIRD. gold ornament with blue : flowers. and gold. doors. with touches of green on the leaves. very thin black outline. FIFTH. green ornament. and thin gold outline throughout. gold. gold ornament. Dark blue ground.

. cream. in colour.i8o ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. red. The centre is in solid gold embroidery. Sketched by J. S. . M. There are in in others. is Some of the Indian embroideries are very rich One shows an outer rim of gold. blue. purple. with red centres and gold outline. Next comes ornament in parts solid gold flowers greenish blue. inside of which ground with floral a black ornaments outlined with gold. and green flowers in various shades. and blue and white flowers. A PAINTET> BEDSTEAD.

S. Piano by Messrs. . ject of some discussion. The reclining figures were so foreshortened that much which otherwise might have been beautiful in drawing seemed Even when the artist had got a nicely only to be distorted. intended to give the figures a realistic effect when seen from the floor . M. Sir Frederick Leighton. Lap me in soft Lydian airs. but it caused.1AP. FIGURES IN FRIEZES OR CEILINGS. more loss than gain. was. for treble side of CHAPTER XIX. artistically. adopted a low point of sight." Designed by J. OMET1MES figures are used with and their very good proper treatment has been the subeffect in friezes.>* IN SOFT ' y LYQI AN At RS ' A PANEL. Broadwood. we This low point of sight suppose. in a frieze which was executed for a music-room and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1883.

The eye. resents attempts to deceive it by the enlarged feet and diminished heads of a false perspective. his colour treatment instead of aiding the grace of line tended rather to divide and disturb its perfect sweep. by what we consider a This treatment illogical is neither more nor less than a branch of the those plafonnement adopted by some Italian painters. These are. nor the floor of the Whispering Gallery. but as a whole the work was not what artist it might have been had the not allowed himself to be trammelled false treatment. and oblique planes given by the change of the head. according as the head is held back at an angle of ninety or forty-five degrees. a flat mural decoration. Paul's. for instance.1 82 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. . frieze of the Parthenon. in the works of the Greeks. The is The proper treatment true point of sight for the decoration of such an elevated space is assuredly not six feet above the floor line. nor any localised level objects are viewed. the plane of the picture is no longer perpendicular but horizontal or oblique. as a rule. find none of these infantile attempts. (See page 47. Notwithstanding these defects there was much sweetness in the colour arrangements and some admirably suggestive decorative effects . which is. for all argumentative purposes. irrespective of the variations of the perpendicular. but is worked geometrically as if it were intended to be viewed on the line. is not distorted in any way to allow for in a low point of sight. for every few steps taken by the spectator would demand . horizontal. if that were possible to be worked. balanced figure.) the geometrical. as opposed to a pseudo-perspective delineation of figures and architecture. Take such a subject as the dome of St. and by among the French artists who have imitated them. such as was in the dome at Parma by Correggio and by his imitators adopted We The Panatheniac France. for the simple reason that when high and the head and eyes are turned skyward. false in another way to their assumed point of sight.

In the " Canterbury Pilgrims. green. and show fine drawing. The figures are in beautiful draperies of warm brown. as well as an able. adopted by Walter Crane in the frieze " Skeleton in Armour " of illustrating the Longfellow. which must have been the case if he had carried out his composition in obedience to frieze decorations the low point of sight. rather quiet and inclined to dulness. was the ordinary pictorial one as to point of sight that is to say. and the underparts of the horses. Marks executed Eaton Hall." which Mr. fine colour. he also adopted the ordinary pictorial point of sight. and purple on a gold ground. In the ceiling painting executed for another room and exhibited in 1886. a keen appreciation indeed of beauty in all these qualities. and the whole formed an admirable of illustrations to Longfellow's poem.THE DECORA TIVE TREA TMENT OF FIGURES. In some done by the author for the library . for and artistic frieze decoration. far This was more satisfactory than any attempt at putting the point of The colours were sight lower than the base of the picture. consistent. 183 a new point of sight and an entire change of the treatment of the composition. Whether it is a good kind of for a ceiling may be doubted . and had given us the soles of the pilgrims' feet. but the design and composition series were excellent. as the prominent features of his design. Sir Frederick Leighton has discarded the attempt at a low point of sight. The treatment placed at about a third of the height of the picture. at any rate it is arrangement good so avoids the plafonnement or ceiling foreshortening of figures which has been carried to such a notable degree of confusion by many able Italian and French masters far that it who have allowed themselves to be misled by the false logic with which plafonnement beguiles the unwary. it was . fine painting. which is assuredly much better than if he had taken a low point pseudo-perspective view of the matter. and has painted his work geometrically.

The architecture and accessories were treated geometrically. though the lower fore- ground showed as in a picture with a moderately low point of sight. . BATH ROOM PANEL. of Mr. John G. the figures were treated in flat colours on a gold ground.184 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. and also in some executed for a drawingroom decorated by Mr. Joy at Boston. Grace.

Hotel de Brussels. and glazed with carmine. COLOUR MIXTURES. ments cannot be exactly fixed. Chocolate colour. In the Sallo des Manages. American journal gives the following reThe proportions ceipts for mixing colours. Add lake or carmine to burnt umber . or take Indian red and black to form a brown ) then add yellow to bring about the desired shade. . because pigare not always uniform. even when bearing French the same name and colour is general appearance. CHAPTER XX.MUEAL PAINTING. By M. PRACTICAL NOTES. This simply Indian red lightened with vermilion. Ville. red. Garden.

and one of Light luff. with the addition of a little red. Salmon one red. two of yellow. black. one umber. Take carmine. White. tinted with red and blue. Mix one part of lemon yellow with three parts Olive brown. two black. glaze with yellow lake. Bismarck brown. colour. of burnt umber. in proportions to suit Canary colour. vermilion to carmine. Deep Gold The same.186 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. or patent yellow. yellow. and mix together. Change proportions for different shades. Eaw sienna. Eight parts of white. Yelloiv lake. Eight parts of yellow. Take of umber and white equal . Oak colour. Lemon colour. and white lead. Mix flake white and chrome yellow. Brown. lightened with white. raw umber. one blue. and one of red. White and lemon Olive colour. French grey. blue. parts. One part red. and one yellow. colour. use vermilion in place of carmine. colour. Five parts of lemon yellow and two of white. then tint with chrome green. Pearl taste. Four parts of yellow. Yellow ochre. Rose colour. Clay drab. Jonquil yellotv. White. Copper black. Five parts of white. Three parts of colour. and two of carmine. and one black. equal parts. luff. and two 'of Vandyke Five parts of white. Eight parts of white. one yellow. . and add of black. one of black. bronze. and gold If a light shade is desired. tinted with ivory black. White and yellow. and red. Snuff brown. crimson lake. . Dutch pink and Prussian blue for ground Bottle green. Eight parts of white to two Lead colour. Medium grey. and one of yellow ochre. colour. add Naples yellow and scarlet lake glaze with yellow lake.

Five parts of white. Eight parts white. Drab Lilac. Nine parts white. Two parts of red. one blue. umber. Green. Two parts of ultramarine. Five parts white. one blue. Cadmium or Naples yellow should be used Flesh colour. Purple. or carmine and blue. Willow green. and two verdigris. Three parts of red. carmine. and one of Stone colour. burnt umber. Citron. and one of chrome green. and one blue. instead of chrome for fine work. Carnation red. but differently proportioned. say two parts of blue. . two yellow. two of yellow. Three parts of carmine. or black and yellow. two yellow. Nine parts of white. and three of chrome yellow. more red in than purple. Violet. Five parts of burnt sienna. and two chrome yellow. one black. Four parts of red. 187 Five parts of yellow. white. and one of uniber. and three of Blue and yellow. and one black. one red. and yellow. Cream Claret colour. and one Fawn colour. Light grey. one of red. Eight parts of white. two yellow. three white. Wine colour. Red and black. and one blue. and Five parts chrome green. colour. Pea green. two yellow. Red. Similar. Chestnut colour. and one one yellow. The same as lilac. but colour. Straw of red. Bronze green. two of white. and two of yellow. and one of umber. one black. Three parts lake and one white. Five parts white. Tan colour. Marone colour. Five parts of white. Peach-blossom. and one red. and one raw umber. colour. blue.COLOUR MIXTURES. Dove colour. Eight parts of white. three of red.

and linseed oil. Two parts yellow ochre. which need evenly. &c. Three parts raw umber. it is called. and next. care is taken to see that all paste.. the putty being made by adding whitening to stiff white lead.. Brick colour. most attention being paid to doors and shutters. Portland stone. dryers. one red. it is proper in every case to commence at the ceiling.. and one white. &c. MODE OF WORKING. Plum colour.88 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. This being done the ceiling and cornice should have first coat This is made by a mixture of white lead. Supposthis to be done. &c. as are which means that all dents. Grass green. water being used If freely . patent of colour. all soda water being washed off with clean water afterwards. the walls are washed thoroughly clean. some soda water and a piece of pumice-stone is used to rub down all the woodwork in the room. so as to . the brush being worked up and down so as to get the colour on The woodwork should now receive a coat. cracks. and one Prussian blue.. Three parts yellow. three yellow ochre. as these being generally the broadest work show irregularities most. they have been papered. Two parts white. and one red. turpentine. and one white. are removed. oily. condition. little If the woodwork is in good strips of paper. so as to be quite thin and done the walls are treated in the same way. " In preparing a room to be thoroughly done. it is allowed to stand until the next day to ing get thoroughly dry. with putty. this is "When not be quite so oily as that used for walls and ceiling. until it is of the same consistency as common putty (oil and whitening) all holes. free from dents or holes. the ceiling and cornice are thoroughly washed and cleaned off. joints. The work is then stopped or faced up. First. should carefully "stopped up" . be stopped quite level with the surface of the work. one blue.

your ceiling would. 189 avoid any bulgy appearance. This is called flatting colour. you should decide what the finishing colours are to be. is also allowed to is dry. Buff brighter. as the work is now all white. by adding more white lead to it. The ceiling should a coat of the ground colour (which. and of a may be got by a ceiling of a pale salmon colour. should dry glossy). so that when dry it shall have a good glossy a little surface. when flatted. and salmon equal to strength of colour on doors. as you only want to make your colour a harder. and stippled with a now have brush made for that purpose). Flatting should always be done quickly and on no account stippler (a touched after the colour has set. Let us suppose it is a dining-room that as it is called if and we are doing. as before intimated. ready grounding . and thinned with linseed oil. and then a third coat for is given to The work now not already arranged. little This it. according to the size of the ceiling. and stronger than ceiling. but by making it a little lighter it should dry until it is more white exactly the shade required). some of the white left from the third coat of colouring is tinted with yellow. until you Most of this colour is taken get the required colour for ceiling. however. not to go dead or flat). the colour being used freely. &c. flatting upon. A good effect buff. walls. Supposing this colouring is agreed on. walls of a rich darker salmon than Skirting darker inclining to a marone. The work should then receive another coat of colour. no washy colouring tone.. . but everything to look rich. It should look cheerful . and a little turps (not much of this. The cornice may have cool grey in it. which should be a little thicker than the last. and should finally receive a coat of flatting. as it always shows the least . be darker than you intended it. and then put sufficient turps to until it is it quite thin.MODE OF WORKING. Now to ground colour for take the remainder of this colour and add is it This called the a good shade lighter (if this were not done. warm warm Doors and windows much still. This is a work that requires two or more to do.

&c. then the stiles. these being grounded and flatted in the same manner as ceiling. called flat varnishing. and solid in colour. all beads that are intended to be various colours are run in afterwards.. For light colours. and adding size to it until it is first the same consistency as stiff distemper colour. to give the whiting something to hold to. There are two methods of doing this one is by mixing some whiting and a little plaster together. before the first coat of colour is put on. The woodwork is then done in the same way. and instead another is work coat of the ground colour used. a kind of varnish used for that purpose. should look good. black. which is rubbed down perfectly smooth with glass paper. The wood is painted over with a thin coat of oil colour. is If the is nished. but the panels of doors and shutters are flatted first. A ceiling requires four coats of oil colour and one If the it of flatting to look first class. and varnish added to it. it must be "filled : up " as it is termed. as by it a bright varnished surface may be made as dull as flatted work. the plaster to the whiting is to enable the glass paper to cut . pale oak varnish. if A ceiling. knots and places that show any sap are touched over with patent knotting. woodwork has been painted will not require so before. and is in good condition. and when dry gone over with the whiting. brown. and The addition of painted over with some linseed oil and dryers. maple and for the darker ones such as generally used. all many coats. There is another method varnish is of varnishing. Some white wax is cut up thin. and some If this is used over work quickly. the coat of flatting colour required to be varleft out. and melted in turpentine and a little dryers. and will stand washing. White is then directed. But if it is new wood. as do also the walls. if properly done as touched before dry. mark tinted until the required colour for walls is obtained. and the mouldings last.igo ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. goes quite dull. Should the woodwork stippled lightly when dry. It is very useful. it be in such a bad condition that four coats of colour will not make it perfectly smooth.

and when the hard rubbed down with pumice-stone and oil. a library should be retiring. Size is then added to the water stain. well. water. and the floor stained to a distance of about two or three feet from the skirting. make good dark and rich. the stain would sink If many of the boards were done at once. and look dark and patchy. this is laid on thickly. as it becomes very hard and durable. in a dining-room. that being the most suitable for the purpose. . the best way. drawing-rooms. If the floor of the room is required to be stained. all tinted so as to match the new wood. and a touch of stains for flooring. This is much either in oil or water. and Venetian red and white. holes and joints in the floor are stopped up with a mixture of whiting and size as strong as it can be made. and used in same manner as for water. and The other method of filling up is to give no end of trouble. without being staring. otherwise the 19 r whiting would only clog the paper up. indigo. being raw sienna. or another shade by raw sienna. When dry. it in. burnt umber. by an admixture of raw green lake (light). and have a good but quiet appearance. In colouring for rooms is simply a matter of taste. mix white lead with some pumice powder. it can be done is to the distemper. Dutch pink and white . and then varnished with best hard oak varnish. For water stain. If stained in oil. and afterwards varnished with same varnish as above. You may get a good soft green. and finished. colours should be generally light and cheerful. or water pumice powder is added to this for the same purpose as plaster .MODE OF WORKING. the brush being used the way of the grain of the wood. which may be used in large quantities sienna. they "The may be dark but rich. two or three boards being done along at a time. a capital stain. the floor is stopped in the same manner as for size. adding japanners' gold size and a little varnish . and is only done in the best work. or Vandyke brown and Prussian blue make Vandyke brown. has a couple of coats of strong size. then given a couple of coats of The stain is mixed with turpentine and boiled oil.

thin colour. effect to You may get a door. or Prussian blue. rather thin. and brown lake. pink. and you will find that in Decoration. and white. burnt sienna. can be for a library wall by middle chrome. Vandyke rich. dining-room would vermilion. blue black. J. A good colour. reddish brown may be got with orange chrome. and burnt sienna (Dutch pink also make a good soft green. the stiles to be painted a rich though somewhat dark a light reddish brown. red. so as to show the ground. A beautiful though rather a cold grey. and then Vandyke. and perhaps to it gold. by painting it stippling over the panels coarsely. and helps to make a number of those soft light greens used on the grounds of their papers). however. little . Antwerp blue. rich buff A by orange chrome. and Vandyke. made somewhat resem- bling the old tapestries. and white. and sunk hollows a little be Vandyke. burnt umber. A stippled over afterwards with Indian red and burnt sienna. sufficiently solid. and Venetian red. with some brown lake in it. but stippled very close and fine. or raw sienna. and burnt sienna with white. walls same colour. and mineral green. Vandyke brown. much used by paper-stainers. by middle or orange chrome.. and Vandyke. ochre. the Rev. mouldings to be the light reddish brown ground colour. look well with the woodwork a soft dull yellow. A looks remarkably rich and good. quite solid. with good white. to look several The prominent members of shades darker than the panels. and white." NEW METHOD OF PAINTING. A rich salmon colour. A brown. and white. a brighter one. and burnt umber. and white brown lake. Rivington read a paper on a process which is said to produce permanent and At . burnt sienna. A. or Dutch A soft warm by Indian clear.') (J. Venetian red. the Society of Arts. grey. with a mixture of brown lake. and a raw sienna. by ultramarine. A. by vermilion.1 92 is ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. H. Add ornament on the panels in the light brown.

and produce a smooth surface . the second or painting ground is applied. slate. again. is mixed with quicklime. &c. The process is 193 indestructible mural paintings. and upon this. when dry. The ground can be prepared in any tint or colour. canvas. such as stone. infusorial earth. a chemist of Munich. marble sand artificially prepared and free from dust. perfectly smooth and polished surface presents. A absorbent qualities being necessarily less. to fill up all inequalities. o . Upon this surface a thin squirting is cast. The wall must or decaying stones or bricks. and. and calcined ground fossil is meal (infusorial earth). it wire gauze. The painting composed of the finest white quartz sand. If applied to canvas. to remove the thin crust of crystallic carbonate of lime which has formed on the surface and thus closed the pores. and the mortar is to be picked out between the bricks to a depth of about three- contain no damp quarters of an inch.A NEW METHOD OF PAINTING. not exceeding one-eighth of an inch to one-quarter of an inch in depth. in the This proportion of eight parts sand to one part slaked lime. but perfectly absorbent. mortar applied to the wall as thin as possible. slaked distilled water. slaked with two parts of the distilled water. it is is treated with a solution of hydrofluosilicic acid. the invention of Herr Adolph Keim. with Upon this squirting cast follows mortar of ordinary consistency. composed of the following mortar: Coarse quartz sand. down to the stone or brick of the wall. however. and can be applied to any from its suitable substance. can in this form be fixed to wood tile. materials. Of mixture four parts are taken to one part of quicklime. and This ground can be prepared in various ready for painting. When perfectly dry. composed of the same ingredients. this and powdered marble mixed in certain proportions. carefully mixed in The sand composed of these proper proportions. greater difficulties in the subsequent process of fixation. It is then soaked with potash water-glass (silicate of potassium). the ground will be found hard. degrees of coarseness of grain to suit the artist's requirements. marble meal.

of four varieties of white. and unites with the colours and ground in one homogeneous mass of artificial stone. according to the requirements of the painting. They consist. as the hydrates of alumina. two of five of green. soluble only by hydrofluoric Painting. two of ultramarine. &c. Colours. completely enclosing the colour in a hard casing of silicate of potassium.. three of black. the most part. They are thirty-eight in number. acid. and admits of being rolled with panels. powdered glass. ceilings. or metals. and there are several colours which could be added if required. six of ochre. magnesia. two of sienna. Several applications. thrown against the surface in the form of a fine spray. Every variety of treatment . millboard. treated with carbonate of ammonia. &c. by means of a specially constructed machine. felspar. Naples yellow.J94 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. sinks into the porous ground. since experience has proved that the most permanent colours are those derived from such These are. and are further prepared with certain admixtions (of potash or ammonia) to anticipate tures. The fixing of the painting is effected by means of Fixing. and these must be absoAll those found available for lutely free from any adulteration. as required by their peculiar properties. which has already absorbed the colours applied to it. in order to ensure permanence. are necessary. perfect safety. or silica. stereochromy can be employed. The colours found available present a very complete scale. ten of red. composed of natural earths. and cobalt blue. oxide of zinc. Certain pigments only are admissible for this process. The colours are treated beforehand with alkaline solu- any change of hue which might result from the use of the alkaline liquids which form the fixative. The process oil or is far easier and pleasanter to work in than ordinary water colour. for sources. speaking in general terms. carbonate of baryta. till The fixative the ground will no longer absorb the preparation. two of brown umber.. a hot solution of potash water-glass.

and the colours go a long way. which helps to give texture to large figures. both in cleanliness. damage to This is the invention of Gambier Parry. Caustic potash also has no injurious effect upon it. If the remainder of the colours on the palette be kept moist with distilled water. is 195 possible. like good ordinary stucco need not be smooth. luminous effect. simplicity. The finished painting will admit of sulphuric. Eetouching and correction are effected with the greatest ease. power of . therefore. the thinner the coat of painting at the will fix. It may be suffered to lie in cold or hot water. and by Ford Madox Brown in his decorations at Manchester Town Hall. Frederick Leighton. In these respects. The advantages claimed for it are durability. with absolute impunity. a dead surface. If scratched with the finger-nail. in tho least degree alter their tone or darken over them. as in oils. when laid over dark tones. and economy. save hydrofluoric. facility for transparent Distilled water is the body only medium used in painting. like those used by it Sir Frederick Leighton in his "Arts applied o 2 to War. they will be perfectly available for the next occasion. but may have a granulated surface. the only result will be the nail. even in an undiluted form. and freedom from The surface to be painted . resisting external damp and changes of all temperature chemical action on the colours. as in oils. as i>lazing or for painting in they can be used thin the better it . acetic. or any other acid." . in fact. the system presents decided advantages.SPIRIT FRESCO PAL\TL\(J. and there need be no waste of paint end of the day's work. and the method presents equal colour. SPIRIT FRESCO PAINTING. and it may be scrubbed with a brush and soap. nor do the most delicate shades of light colours. being poured on it. who used it for It has also been used by Sir painting some church decorations. in his wall pictures in South Kensington Museum. should be perfectly dry and porous.

must be mixed the colours in dry powder. and the finest preparation of artist's copal .ig6 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. as for oil-colours. and placed in tubes. finally. diluted with one and a half of its bulk of turpentine. If mixed on a slab. and. slightly diluted with turpentine. pure white wax. with two coats of a solution composed of equal quantities of pure white-lead and of gilder's whiting in the medium. . oil of spike lavender. ORIENTAL VASE. The surface to be painted on is prepared with two washes of the medium. The medium is composed of Elemi resin. when incorporated by heat. they will last for years. with these.

harmonious. command The colours of the splendid silks begin with white. HE fabrics introduced by Messrs. or a flush of gold. and are in such a variety of refined.LIBERTY'S FEINTED FABEICS. DECORATIVE MATERIALS. The greens. go in like manner from pale to dark. or deep. and beautiful tints that there is no lack of ample means at the of the artist. Liberty & Co have done not a little to render artistic decoration a matter of comparative ease. . go through cream to pale primrose yellow. CHAPTER XXI. which have a blush of red . FABRICS FOR WALL DECORATION. The colours are rich. rare. and advance by exquisite shades from that to ruddy orange pale moonlight-greenish-blue advances in like manner to deep indigo. clear.

two or more colours may be used contrast. pale bluish grey. INDIAN FURNITURE. warm warm and delicate warm doubt part these colours is attributable to contrast. Richness of detail. but never loud.temperatures. to gain any required harmony or Besides these fabrics. which cannot Avhich alike in tone tinted with rich and splendid dyes. The Umritzar cashmere. both on account of beautiful shape and its choice and refined colour. pale pink. or reddish in colour. or warm brown red cotta colour. tender neutral green. pale rose. lemon. but for decorative effects. or citrine. The greens go from deep The thinner kinds of this cashmere are in lighter tints. and so onward through a wide range of tertiary citrines. But for tenderness of colour perhaps the palm should be awarded to the Alwan cloth. artists are further indebted to Messrs. for there are they are russet. No grey. and in colours which contrast or harmonise with the colour of the ground . and rich. cold greeny blue to warm golden yellow. and possibly one by itself would not be so attractive. powerful. and various other tender tones. pale- brown crimson. excellence of decorative form. yet no two are may . Then there are more deep.198 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. which is in a variety of very delicate tints. and include olive of various shades and. its which is of great decorative value. Mnny of the silks are printed with Indian designs of graceful pattern. in various tones. and delicacy of workmanship. Sketches of some are given in several tailpieces to the chapters of this book. of the charm of for covering furniture. deep warm brown crimson. twenty patterns be called red. these are especially well adapted for wall decoration as well as for curtains. easily be described. Liberty for the introduction of their richly decorated Oriental pottery. up to terra- distinctively crimson shades. render many specimens of Indian furniture . soft coral. such as pale cool neutral green. such as sea-shell.

are some of India's other contributions to the decoration of our . tinted glass. and the more refined kinds of coloured pottery. supply a touch of piquant refinement which gives interest and contrast to the more familiar forms used in drawing- & room decoration. there are no strong contrasts to produce crudeness of effect. It is modelled in high or in low relief.INDIAN DECORATIVE WORK. are also valuable for the play of light and shade and the refined richness of effect they help to impart to the aspect of an apartment. and in the decorations of the Eefreshment same building. vases. upholstered in quiet renders A materials suiting with other decorative fabrics of a room. valuable for the enrichment of ornamental interiors. not by plain surfaces. 199 The chief quality that distinguishes Indian from European work is that breadth of effect is obtained. (See illustrations on pages 87 and 108. The Procter lion-headed console tables imported by Messrs. Eenaissance. and some of the work seems of the Eoom The to style is Italian be a reproduction. but by the equability of richness in the various parts. Thus. Co. the beautifully ornamented and admirably outlined vases in niello work. few of the carved Indian chairs. printed or painted. engraved all over with gracefully flowing ornament. or delicately decorated oriental enamels. Some very fine examples of this beautiful and durable kind of decoration have been produced of late years. . The colour of these tables being dark and them suitable for the display of richly coloured brass work. The best examples of the high relief style are on the staircase to the Keramic Gallery at the South Kensington Museum. modern ornamental interiors. though there is a lavish use of ornament.) KERAMIC DECORATION. brass salvers. the richly chased silver work with its contrasts of frosting The and burnishing.

The style in which the work due. and R. Dunill. & Co. . cornice. Marble mosaic is the favourite material for floors. Mintons. and in a lesser degree for the enrichment of walls. to whose enterprise the successful splendid examples of keramic executed by Messrs.. is executed is highly creditable to Messrs. Later there has come into the field the Burmantofts Faience..200 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. Co. those of Messrs. The columns. and with its rich glaze has a magnificent effect. the last being used for backgrounds of figures in high relief as well as for the flat panelling of the walls. W. Maw & & Co.. both in England and on the Continent. Among other firms whose Edge. Mintons at South Kensington. figures or ornament revival of this art relief is Some work have also been The flat tiles enriched by Ilollins. at and walls white and golden yellow. This has been used for some time very extensively as a decoration for floors. of both firms are very widely appreciated. Minton. T. This is a darker clay than that used by Messrs. Smith & Co. England & Sons. MOSAIC. Some very rich tiles in relief have been produced by W. Edward Boote. Craven.. but it receives and retains a sharp and spirited style of modelling. which has been applied very successfully to several of the larger dining-rooms of London. by Peter Paul or at least an imitation. have been used extensively. which reproduce in brown and buff the fine ecclesiastical floor decorations of medieval England. Godwin & Son. productions in keramic art have become notable. Doulton & Co. Malkin. & Co. and their cathedral tiles. and Steele and "Wood may be mentioned. which has the advantage of being The chief colours are cream fire-proof as well as damp-proof.. South Kensington are finished throughout in this attractive material. of the style adopted Minocci for the Palazzo Yecchio at Florence.



and glass mosaic for walls but some fine specimens of keramic wall mosaic have been executed by Messrs. Mintons and by
Messrs. Minton, Holline, & Co. in the decorative portraits of the painters in the South Court of the Kensington Museum.

A. Cappello & Co., and Burke noted workers of mosaic in both glass and marble.
Dr. Salviati




Co. are



excellent specimens of this class of

are in seen at the Memorial Chapel at Windsor. and backone tint of marble, and the draperies, accessories,

work are The figures

to be

Features, hair, grounds in deeper shades of similar tone. and architectural details are incised and filled with draperies,
black, giving to the design

somewhat of the appearance of a

sheen of carefully outlined drawing slightly tinted; but the the polished marble, and its natural and delicate gradations of
tone, impart a richness of effect

which renders


kind of work,

in proper hands, exceedingly attractive.

" This material, which was formerly


as Muralis, or like

Sunbury Wall Decoration,






carving. It is waterproof, impermeable to moisture or damp, and can be washed with soap and water; it will not absorb



therefore highly sanitary.

It has a

warm and

comfortable appearance." No one who looks at the attractive display of beautiful, rich, and delicately coloured designs in this material can wonder at

Lincrusta is constantly adding to our stores of popularity. beautiful wall coverings ; the designs are usually good in style,

and are coloured with excellent

Its suitability for the

ornamentation of door panels and of door architraves has been demonstrated very attractively at various exhibitions, and the


effect of this


when combined with

the rich


wall-filling is successfully

and well-balanced dado and delicate shown. Its beauty is by no means
it is is

only recommendation



washable, and damp-proof
it is

we may

say that







a material similar in appearance to Lincrusta, but
It can

with an embossed canvas facing.
effective designs.

be had in a variety of




material, manufactured

by Storey Brothers &


may be

described as a thin cloth prepared like ordinary artist's

canvas for painting in oil, on which the design is printed in It can be washed like ordinary oil paint, and is oil colours. not discoloured by damp it is thus much more durable than


Tectorium in marble colours varnished




invaluable for bath-rooms, lobbies, kitchens,

any other place

which wall-paper would be by

likely to be

injured by


or soiled

rubbing, as in every


it is


very durable, as well as a nicely ornamented material.




new mode

of embroidering has been invented as good, or even a better, effect


by which

by L. G. than hand

secured at a


less cost.


it is

declared to

be produced by machinery, there is nothing in the work to indicate that it is not hand work, unless it is the superior firmness with which the silk is affixed to the ground. The

new embroidery seem to be capable of infinite variation, and the process may be regarded as a union of hand and mechanical work. At least, this is the impression conveyed
designs of this

by the freedom of drawing, varied nature of the colouring, and

come under our



general artistic feeling displayed in the specimens which have
process can be applied to deep plush and long pile on which hand work is lost, as well as to fabrics with velvets, smooth surfaces. Architects' and artists' new designs can be
carried out as easily as


by hand work but

at a

more moderate


materials used are said to be the best quality of

Eastern dyed

which are famous

for their durability.



This new method of window decoration

was introduced by Messrs. McCaw, Stevenson, and Orr, and is not intended to supersede stained glass, but is offered as a cheap and


substitute for


in cases

where there

a disagreeable outlook.

It is just to say

purpose, for many of the designs and effects are better than some of the stained glass in ordinary use,

more than answers



does not pretend to compete with

the higher and more expensive qualities. Apart from the designs, the material itself is well fitted for its purpose, and is susceptible of an endless variety of treat-


The material on which the designs

are printed appears




be a preparation of gelatine, which imitates the transparency and lustre of real glass. The glass intended to be covered is

wetted with a sponge, and the sheets of gelatine bearing the designs are pressed on the wetted surface. The work is done in a

few minutes and the inventors claim that the decoration cannot be




window or

defaced, as

it is affixed,

not transferred.

The designs

are on pieces varying from five to twenty-two
artistic skill,

in the

Many of the designs show considerable way in which an irregular powdering of

one colour


printed over another colour, to give richness
to the ground.

and transparency

For instance, a delicate green powdering

printed over a bluish ground, green over yellow, blue over blue Some of the floral (two shades), orange over yellow, and so on.
patterns are well chosen and nicely rendered. The patentees have also introduced a series of designs, which

These perfectly represent the effect of ground-glass patterns. coloured borders. may be used as centre fillings along with the


the material cuts easily with knife or scissors, the arrangeeffects

ments and

may be

infinitely varied.


Messrs. G. C. Beissbarth Son have introduced a

new method

This does not consist of any transof imitating stained glass. is a preparation parent printing to be affixed to the glass, but can be applied to glass in the same way as of colours which
ordinary oil colours, so that an artist or amateur who desires to decorate his windows may readily do so without incurring the
trouble and risk of firing.
Silicine glass painting, can

be applied

windows, magic-lantern slides, lamps, &c., with soap and water without injury to the work.

and may be washed






the last




expensive, but the


undoubtedly worth

increased cost


for just as gold, judiciously used,

produces an

effect superior in richness to all others, so fittings of brass


modelled, chiselled, frosted, lacquered, gilded, the cunning workman, give a regal splendour to the appearance of a room which cannot be got by any other means.

and burnished by






from the firm of Messrs.

Barnard, Bishop, & Barnard, is a large Jacobean dog-grate, which has full rounded standards, moulded, tapered, and turned, with as exquisite a regard to beauty of line and grace of contour
as a


of the old Greeks.

tions of brass is to

Another of their notable applicabe found in their oval sconces, which possess


advantages over the ordinary well-known sconces in

The design

carefully considered, the contrast of

frosting and burnishing skilfully managed, the modelling truthful



while the balance between the framework and the

central bas-relief






their superior effect, they are

much cheaper than the ordinary hand- wrought repousse sconces now so common. In too
" u handof this latter kind the term wrought
palliate poverty of design

many works

on to

and weakness in draw-

Messrs. Barnard's


though necessarily finished
in the ordinary sense of the

by hand, are not hand- wrought term, which accounts for the moderate
are sold.
It is not beauty of the

price at

which they

workmanship alone that distinguishes the works of this firm; to scientific and common-sense constructive principles they have united grace of design and excellence of workmanship. They have not sacrificed principle to
beauty, but made comfort and elegance go hand in hand. Their well-known grates offer excellent examples of this union of the practical with the beautiful. The art aspects of

two of their many
page 206.

styles are


in Plate

XXXII., and on

They look far more splendid in brass than in any material, but when Barnard's iron grates have received a

coat of gold paint, the inexpensive ironwork looks almost as

well as the costly brass. Among others deserving mention for their metal-work for


the firms of Messrs.



Garland, George



Messrs. Barnard, Bishop,



Wright &





Coalbrookdale Companj*. Newman & Co. stand pre-eminent

A. Ball, and the For fine-wrought ironwork Messrs.




while for such works

as cabinet and gas fittings,

the firms of Messrs. Richardson,



IRON AND BRASS WORK. Formerly it was almost impossible for an architect to get artistic materials unless they were specially designed now the . Cox & Sons. in filling. The thing that strikes one most forcibly in reviewing the Ornamental Interiors of the past twenty years. though we cannot. and a bad work of the present period of design. and other branches of common workmanship. and what The splendid designs and take the credit and commission for the decoration. at present. from linoleum to velvet pile . At no time was but he arranges the combination of dado. however. is the great little of the advance which has been made by the manufacturers. Ellson. in metal-work. so many cases. At the present time it is not the architect that is ahead of the manufacturer. rich colourings offered in keramic decorations for walls and floors . the manufacturer not only provides the designs and gives choice of beautiful colourings. In fabrics.. a general view of the subject as we see We have it given. Jones & Willis. have summed up as briefly as possible the leading points connected with " Ornamental Interiors " of the present day. CONCLUSION.pretend to have exhausted a subject which is We constantly growing and changing. the furnishing and decoration of houses artistically so easy as at present . and Hurt & Co. and frieze. ordinary stock patterns are so excellent in style and so beautiful in colour that not one architect in a hundred could design the patterns of the high-class wall-paper manufacturer. take a high position. 207 & Co. but rather the manufacturer that is ahead of the architect in art excellence of design. some of the ordinary. and have endeavoured to show some of the good. that the architect has. the same progress is apparent. in keramics. the variety of other floor cover- ings from mosaic to parquetry. nothing to do but select he desires from a store of rich and artistic materials.

Cuth- & Co. the varied phases of Lincrusta. of Tergorine. and cotton . . an embarrassment of admirable deprive the architect of his long-standing complaint about the difficulty of getting artistically There colours. wool.208 ORNAMENTAL INTERIORS. and the magnificent effects in design and colour produced by bertson Wm. is now materials. the wall-paper manufacturer. in their wall-papers. . now justifies the complaints that were common and reasonable fifteen or twenty years ago. designed materials. the upholsterer. Scott. and neither the work of the fabric weaver. Jeffrey & Co. Woollams & Co.. and designs.. JAPANESE OKNAMENT. of Japanese paper . of stamped leather. the production of such decorative materials as Liberty's fabrics in silk. carpets of Tynecastle tapestry. BY HOKUSAI. and other manufacturers.. nor the metalworker.

's Chapel begun 15C3 (Prior Bolton supposed Ford's Hospital. .Commonwealth first Charles H. founded its architect). &c. 14611483 Crosby Hall. . Henry VII. London. 1760-1820 B. Adam built Admiralty Oflice Gateway. Haddon Hall. . 1760. . ARCHITECTS. Mary's Hall. 1671-1677 (Wren). . Paul's Cathedral commenced 1675 (Wren). Malherbe. Italian Renais.. 1689 * including the introduced 1540. Chippendale. Eltham Palace. 14831483 Oxborongh Hall. 1619. and J. 18201830 John 1825. Hans -Holbein. Magdalen College. James Gibbs died 1754 aichitect for Radcliffe Library.. Nottinghamshire. III. died 1595. St. architect. finished 1515. W. 1649-1660 Inigo Jones died 1651. Losely House. Hampton Court begun 1520-1540. Coventry. Mary . NOTES. architect. Robert Adams (elder). architect. surveyor to the Queen. Nash. died 1788. . died 1748. 1773 (Adam). 1604. architect. 1619 finished Gar1621. 1476. Alban's. architect). 1562. 14131422 Late Pointed. Henry IV."} EXAMPLES. Cheetham Hospital and Library. James I. Inigo Jones visited Italy. finished 1414. died 17*8. Audley End.LATER STYLES OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. sance. 1476-1484. Weston Hall. 16031625 Hatfield House. THE HOUSE OF TUDOR. jACOBKAV. Boughton. under Prior Bolton. George I. introduced Italian Renaissance. $ . Dance. 1485-1509 Henry VII. 14221461 begun 1446. Henry Vir. Kent. publishes first work. 1754. about 1539 (when the monasteries were dissolved). 1696 (Wren). George's Chapel. 1522. Henry Holland died 1796. Windsor. Crewe Hall. &c. St.. died . The Monument. Paul's Cathedral.. Anne . In this reign John of Padua. Charles I. Somerset House begun 1776 (Chambers. . 1580. died 1734. . Eton College begun 1441. architect.commenced about 1399. Surrey. and St. THE HOUSE OF YORK. Kent. architect. St. begun 1391 (founded by- Edward III. . 1663. Sir Robert Taylor. . Richard III. . 1589. Gilling Castle and Wollaton Hall. 1573. Hampton Court finished 1540. archi. Hengrave Hall. George II. George IV. Earl Derby's House. architect. (Taken from Talbert's "Ancient and Modern Furniture and Decoration.'s TUDOR. 14831485 Altar Screen in St. Henry VI. Cambridge. Oxford Edward IV. William in. Mary's Hall. 16251649 Inigo Jones commenced Banqueting House. York Stairs built 1626 (probably Jones).aboutl603. died Sir 1313. Eton College finished. carver. William Chambers. 17021714 1694 Grinling Gibbons. 1475.1340). . Dance. 1616. founded 1422. . 1603. Sir Christopher Wren finishes St. College Chapel. senior. 1470. 16851688 U702 Greenwich Hospital. New j sham. 15091547 King's 1509 (finished about 1525). Norfolk. John Thorpe. . T. Thombury Castle finished 1521 (begun 1511). 1710 THE HOUSE OF HANOVER.) . den Front of Somerset House. by Sir Christopher Wren. Suffolk. James Wyatt. architect. . carver. . Kent. G. Hampshire. . 17271760 Colin Campbell.abont 1717 George . Nicholas Hawksmoor died 1736. . . about James U. King's College. Coventry. Edward VI. built 1538 also later parts of Kenilworth Castle. 1482. architect to the King. Sir John Vanburgh. Grosvenor Square. Warwickshire. 161 1.. GKOROiAN. . architect. Elizabeth . 1632 (Jones) . 16601685 Greenwich Palace built. . Sir Christopher Wren died 1723. THE HOUSE OK STUART. Temple. Bramhill House. Chapel finished 1519. died 1806. 1545. begun 1476. College. and . 1714 1727 Blenheim House built 1715. 1399-1413 "Windsor Castle rebuilt under William of Wykeham. Higham Ferrers. Coventry. . junior. Mary II. Henry VIII. . THE HOUSE OP LANCASTER. James Stuart. tect. Edward V. Henry V. . 15471553 15531558 15581603 Moreton Hall built 1559. . died 17t>8. .


Adhemar supplies this theory. and on one occasion with ten thousand fathoms. NOTE I. while. the distribution it is of the architectural necessary to have an intellistyles gent theory of deluges. When the northern hemisphere is so turned to the sun that it more heat and light during each year obtained by the southern hemisphere.500 larger scale every larger fluctuation this orbit. there is a similar fluctuation on a much This years. while in the Antarctic regions the sounding-Hue has been tried with four thousand fathoms. He demonstrates that just as there is a miniature deluge caused by the fluctuation of the tides from low to high water every six hours. Besides being deeper. called a deluge. without touching bottom. a glance at the map of the world r 2 will show . THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL understand one subject STYLES.APPENDIX. fairly it is some- times necessary to take into consideration To comprehend several other subjects. These give rise to the changes known as the precession of the equinoxes. the ice at the north pole melts and floats away as sea towards the south. owing to the paucity of heat. receives for a series of ages than is sea nearest the north pole is never found deeper than three hundred fathoms. the ice at the southern pole gradually grows At present the larger and larger and the water deeper and deeper. The cause of these great periodic floods is the elliptical orbit of the earth round the stm and the position of the sun with regard to is 10.

% if When we undulating. The distribution of art styles to America may have been effected through the eastern side of Asia. is still connected with the main ocean . the Caspian. that the seas of the southern hemisphere are also much greater in area than those of the northern. Even the style of New Zealand. the shore is many pools of salt water left by the receding tide. we shall find that the distribution of styles becomes much comprehend. the Sea of Aral. and other relics of the last high tide. and Assyria. similar go to the seashore at low tide we observe.300 years. England was also four islands. according to Adhemar. Atlantean artists. Egypt. Sea of Okotsk. For we have. the others are isolated pools gradually drying up. Lake Balkash. the Mediterranean would be connected with the great Northern Ocean Southern Asia would thus form one great island which might be coasted on all sides without the vessel going out of sight of land. One. in 6. an communication by water between Atlantis. the grand northern mass of ice reached very nearly as far south as 66 degrees that the sites of most of the principal European cities were under water that Ireland was a group of four . and divided from Scotland by All Siberia and part of Mongolia were then under water. the Red Sea. which is supported both by geology and astronomy. Consequently we may say that it is now high water in the southern hemisphere and low water in the north. and Central America. Communication with other and more distant countries may have been effected by the same means.212 APPENDIX. islands . Lake Baikal. or it may have been the result of the deluge sweeping some of the inhabitants of Atlantis to Mexico. however. If we adopt this theory. these conditions were reversed. easy The Dead Sea. shows that at the period of greatest cold. China. and one vast northern ocean stretched from the Mediterranean to the a strait. . as they will be reversed again. and Japan. Previous to the last deluge. about five thousand years before Noah's deluge would be the period of the high water point in the northern hemisphere from that date the north began to receive gradually the . India. Peru. which in some instances is identical in form and decoration with some specimens of Indian work. . According to Adhemar. and consequently at the high water point in the northern hemisphere. may owe its birth to the influence of early easier to . while the high tide lasts. a disciple of Adhemar. as related by Mexican traditions. . Phoenicia. the Dead Sea. the Black Sea. Le Hon. A thing may be seen on a larger scale in Asia here the pools are the Black Sea.

may have diverted it in an oblique direction. the turning-point is reached the seas in the north have greatly diminished and those in the south have greatly increased. 213 preponderance of light and heat during the year which had for five thousand years before been given to the south. as shown by masses of rock carried by the ice. But a still greater change approaches. pole at last breaks up and Boats away as icebergs. and submerges on its route . attracted by the greater mass in the south . and the cataclysm may have taken on occasion a south-easterly or a south-westerly course. It is probable. that is about the year 2348 B. the sea began to encroach on the : land. such as ranges of mountains or highlands. in the last deluge.APPENDIX.C. The melted ice of the while that at the south begins to increase. that . On the other hand. The great bulk of ice still unmelted at the north In five . Hence the Egyptians . the pole does not always continue in the same position wherever. and the water coming in contact with volcanoes or other subterranean fires produces earth- quakes. though an exceptional case may have occurred in this instance. the centre of the mass became the south pole. in the south and west. some momentarily while behind in the north what were small islands before become by the retiring of the waters the mountain peaks of mighty continents. not by imperceptible degrees. Though the water movement at this last great deluge. thousand years after. too. immediately the centre of gravity is changed. geographical peculiarities. where to the continents. .. The results are these the ice at the north pole instead of growing larger begins to diminish. knitting them. was mainly from north to south. the greatest bulk of the masses of ice and water from the north united with those of the south. but suddenly and rapidly the great mass of the northern seas and ice sweeps across the equator towards the south. north floats away southward. as heretofore. the preponderance of water now is. Atlantis It is the change in the level of the water produced by corresponding change in the earth's centre of gravity that causes the old lands . related to Plato that their mother country was destroyed and sunk by earthquakes and showers of cinders and ashes but these agents as a rule play but a small part in the revolutions going on in the earth. and the part of the world directly opposite would be the north pole. in some instances. some permanently. and the waters of the north gradually retire inch by inch from the islands. This breaking away of the ice and consequent deluge is naturally accompanied by great atmospheric disturbances. islands and continents.

more than two hundred yards thick. and bears The likelihood of direct communicatidn with every mark of truth. and China. and erratic boulders have been found as far south as Fontainebleau. and Mexican may be stated thus. when communication by water between these four countries was much more direct than at present. judging both from the inherited instincts of the Phoenicians. Poland. and animals. and the geographical position of their It is likewise evident that Assyria. now separated by what seem to be insuperable obstacles. Chinese. The whole of America which is situated between Newfoundland and the Upper Mississippi is thickly strewn with boulders from regions near the pole carried by the ice and stranded at the altitude of five hundred yards. which covers Holland belong to this deposit. New England can show blocks of considerable size that are situated four hundred yards higher than the rocks from which they have come. Some blocks. This flood has left its mark in Europe vast blocks of stone have been carried on the ice from times twenty or thirty feet thick. . though the greater part of what was once a and America very plainly Sweden and Finland to Germany. torn from Canada. one Those countries in which adapted for stone. Peruvian. The icy flood which could carry boulders of such dimensions could also carry wooden houses. the other for wood.M. men. ship Challenger and the United States ship Dolphin show that Atlantis still juts boldly up high above the level of the bed of the Atlantic. between the art works of peoples. Phoenicia is also very probable. and the stratum of sand and clay. or by transmission from one to the other at a time before the flood. partook of the benefits of the Atlantean arts either by direct contact between the natives of Atlantis and those of Assyria. and a limited part of the work of distribution of nature and art may have been done in that way and this may account for startling similarities . the sands of Gascony. such as the Egyptians and PeruBut vians. disappear and new continents to disclose themselves indeed the soundings taken by H. and China also country. India.2i4 to APPENDIX. women. . who succeeded the Atlanteans as a colonising and trading power. Japanese. The mother country had probably two styles of construction. the main part of the distribution of the styles was undoubtedly done by direct exportation from the mother country. five hundred miles away. The Egyptian evidence in the case between Egypt and Atlantis is very clear. have been carried to Ohio. These fragments are some. The steppes of Russia. The similarities and differences between Egyptian. Indian. and Russia. India. ships. flourishing land is now covered by water. Assyrian.

are not only formed into the resemblance of this Egypto-Greek door. THE RESEMBLANCE BETWEEN THE ANTIQUITIES OF EGYPT. but the form ture." (Prescott' s His. palaces of Peru. in Mexico. as they did in Egypt. Again. J. For the end of a wall at Nara. The Mexicans also show in some of their works stone ornamentation which has obviously been designed in the first instance for woodwork." Donnelly's AtMer. Prescott tells us that the Peruvians . AND MEXICO. " " Japan for drawings of Egypto-Greco-Japanese doorways. because the wooden buildings have perished. is walls of Greece placed upon a substructure which exactly imitates the Cyclopean " and Italy. 215 Where Some would show a combination of the two. especially their hieroglyphical writing and their astronomy. ASSYRIA. Egyptian art. Adhemar's " " Periodicite' des Grands Deluges. and vice versd.) NOTE II. in general effect and with much of similar detail. and others might show in stone treatment adapted to wood. and another in Kioto. Their architecture bore a strong resemblance to that of Egypt the of the tapering doorway is observed in the Egyptian peculiarity . are reproduced. in Etruscan. appears very often in Peruvian architec- and curiously enough in Japanese. office." Le Hon's " lantis for section of Azores and bed of the Atlantic Dresser's . The people were divided into castes the calling. and as they still do in India. reproduces the pyramidal structures which Egypt probably reproduced from the mother country and in the palace of Zayi. stone was scarce the wood treatment would be the mode. tory of the Conquest of Mexico. embalmed their kings. or trade descended from father to son. but there are delineations of such wooden erections in some of their art works. Revolution de la (See A. PERU. stone was abundant would adopt the design adapted to stone. Mexico. the forms and ornamentation which mark . Egypt shows the stone treatment only. in Japan. Moreover Beni-Hassan and the southern Temple of Karnac show in stone a kind of architecture which seems to have had its origin in wood. Examples of all these are apparent in the works of the nations we have mentioned.) . and these same forms appear as woodwork in some specimens of Chinese architecture.APPENDIX. " We have already had occasion to notice the resemblance borne the Mexicans to the ancient Egyptians in their religious ceremonies by we shall be more struck with it in their scientific culture. which was a characteristic of Egyptian and Greek architecture. again. the tapering doorway.

the king seems to have been the chief owner of the wealth that came from conquest. tinder another form of patriarchal despotism. similar marks of the same Ophite worship. In Rome. all emolument . . If we take into consideration the patriarchal despotisms which were the rule in early times. " the sovereign was king and for religion. He imposed taxes. : Another writer says " The first and strongest conviction which on the mind of every ripe antiquarian whilst surveying the series of Mexican and Toltecan monuments is their similarity to long will flash the monumental records of ancient Egypt. rights. in person. the European despot. and from all other sources other than the cultivation of the land. ' ' and enduring works are most In Egypt we can see the great pyramids. for and seventy feet long were brought from a distance of six hundred miles. in short. himself the State. made laws. but the king had his halls. carved and ornamented with gold. RICHNESS OF THE HOUSES OF EARLY KINGS." of the : NOTE III.216 APPENDIX. In Peru we find stones thirty-eight feet long broad and six feet thick transported fifteen leagues withby eighteen out the aid of beasts of burden carried over rivers and ravines. It is under such a despotism. which stones sixty . and presided at the most important He raised armies and usually commanded them religious festivals. we can understand how the king's palace may In Peru represent the entire wealth of the inhabitants of a realm. this last being taxed both for the With the Incas at least. . his treasure-house. from commerce. and raised to a height on the sierra. and vestiges same triune and solar deity. in Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar. in the well-known phrase of power. adjusted with hair-breadth accuracy to their brother stones. at immeasurable distance above his subjects he stood at the placed head of the priesthood. and provided for their execution by the appointment of judges whom he removed at pleasure. and there. we find a St. He was the source from which everything flowed all dignity. from mines. all he was. that great when man has no easily carried out. under the Incas which was a survival of primitive rule in Palestine under Solomon. and for the points of difference between them.' In islands of early Greece the habitations of the people would probably be mere huts." Another says " Researches in Yucatan have rendered yet more evident the existence of a style of art in ancient Mexico interesting alike for the analogies it presents to that of Egypt. without the aid of any iron tool. We see similar graduated pyramids.

that it greatly helped the variety and attractiveness of the interiors His arguments are broadly stated as follow a rule all Greek Doric peristylar temples were lighted by opaions or clerestories. Fergusson claims that the Greek mode of lighting the interior of the building as beautiful as the exterior. but a little study of the subject will show that this was not the case. Peter's 2 1 7 and a Vatican built and decorated throughout by the noblest But in England the vastness and stability of many of our pictures. times. houses are to are read. by a great courtyard or hypsethron at the east or west end. or pseudo-hypoethra . and so well suited to varying circumstances. are of opinion that the interiors of Greek temples must have been monotonous. First.APPENDIX. renders Mr. LIGHTING OF GREEK TEMPLES." so ingenious. and the Dutch mixture built. as demonstrated is by Fergusson in his The mode of lighting. Third. were generally lighted by Avindows. was lighted by a direct horizontal as contra-distinguished from a vertical opening. " The Style of the following article. the light being admitted to these clerestories by an ingenious arrangement of the roof. and is a more perfect mode of lighting statues than has been seen or practised any" where in modern V. so artistic. book entitled " The Parthenon. to a mere spectator of the ways of architects. That Corinthian temples were as a rule lighted by hypsewindow in an open Fourth. NOTE Some IV. and laudatory papers which Queen Anne's name is . the interiors were wonderfully varied. which was headed Future. with the solitary exception of the Pantheon at Rome. Though there is a similarity in many of the exteriors. works are circumscribed by the rights of the workers and the question of wages." appeared in the Building News for April 16. such as we would use when glass was not of their temples. thra." NOTE The THE INTRODUCTION OF THE QUEEN ANNE STYLE. Second. that is. That no temple in the ancient world. That Ionic temples. except of the largest class. 1875 " There has been an amount of gratulation over the reintroduction : of what is called the Queen Anne style that. seems to be as misplace 1 as the enthusiasm of a French modiste over the introduction of an old-new jupon a style that has been treated with contempt for a long series of years has . That as : available. become all at once the fashion .

indebted for at least one specimen of ecclesiastical work which has a quaint elegance of feeling that is as So it is not to be expected that in the hands refreshing as it is rare. It has no aim. J. to be obliged to confess that the game was not worth the candle. will dress as their mistresses. Glasgow is. then after years of trying to confessedly bad as a foundation a drivelling style have some meaning. in his BlackStreet warehouse. no principle. tacked seems to be iu a fair way of running some time. We ' A And patchwork of Japan. J. so that it must depend for these on sources outside itself. and build on that. we gather. queer bits ot Queen Anne All mixed. Bride of the finest Domestic English Mr. that it is a bad foundation for an archiupon if so. (Gothic) work of this century burn Museum and St. Hence it would surely be far wiser to choose a good style now. it must also be a bad foundation for our tectural education future architecture. Collcutt has shown.. or as you can. J. we believe. dressing it up in the best bits from other styles. those who we take the liberty of calling the follow fashion in art as a woman does fashion in dress) will run on the line that the leaders have begun. of men like these its shakiness as a style. The most bitter opponent of this style could scarcely desire a more candid confession of weakness than that given by Mr. and to Mr. that that class of architects which ' headless ' (i. a Gothic power of . make over its shaky imbecility. when he says. it is not to be thought but servant-girls Queen Anne. . rather than spend time and thought on a style that ' ' " . " We think it will be Norman Shaw.zi8 APPENDIX. with such splendid talents for dealing with English . Stevenson. But whither How can it run any way except backwards ? The it run ? natural outcome of outside ornamental plaster is surely the stucco will front of " modern London ! Mr. simple effect that is akin in feeling to the Greek Stevenson. and no particular beauty. upon the plan Of as you like. and generally endeavouring to throw a cloak is . J. it is a bad style for students to cut their teeth meaning. much to be regretted if an architect like Mr. which will But as prevent the eye from dwelling on its slipshod weakness. shall have and then chaos in architecture will have come again.e. Norman Shaw has done some . and the want of backbone in the enrich will be at first very apparent they cannot but with something with which it has no affinity. it .' arid the headless ones will at last have a style of architecture exactly suited to their powers.

perhaps. and truth in art. . Mr.' and Lamps. he adapts himself to the style. as everybody thought that Greek was perfected a couple of thousand Mr. so far as we can gather. " It would be an endless task to point out the Queen Anne weaknesses they will become visible even to the headless ones by-and-by. the style advanced in flexibleness and fulness mastered the style. with mild tastes for maudlin classic and outside ornamental plaster the opposing .' the the rest of the elegant patter of the Seven plaster-ornament-breaker and stucco. let him adopt it by not all means. principles which. should be led for any reason whatsoever to adopt permanently as his style what has been called the Queen Anne style. not very surtranprising. think a perfectly level arch a weak monstrosity. He was acquainted more or less with all styles. it is true. ' The rampant worshipper ' of Savageness. was thoroughly imbued with the Greek feeling. are so irreconcilable that we are tempted to doubt if the majority of architects reason on the subject at all. Thomson. but convenience is not at all sacrificed by using for windows a segmental arch rising one or two inches in three feet this arch is quite compatible with a good English style of building. but the . 219 Domestic Gothic as he has shown in his GYagside and other works. from that of many of our architects. if not. such as the entrance at Cragside but if a perfectly flat lintel is desirable. and the chief set-off against these is. was able to produce perfect specimens of civic and domestic architecture. were different years ago. " If a man has the head power he can use a style and adapt it to himself. and gathering kindred riches from sources unknown to or overlooked by the later Greeks. which is rather extraordinary. surely the English style furnishes plenty of precedents in the Tudor and other periods . but to read the remarks of some of the apologists for the Dutch style of Queen Anne. which were at the same time perfect as specimens of advanced Greek.scorner of toall day becomes to-morrow your Queen Anne's man. agreeable contrast to a pointed archway. of Glasgow. and selected Greek as the basis of his future work he . while they are the fashion.APPENDIX. we are told are each the representatives of honesty. Thomson's life and practice. From materials supplied by a far less promising and far less tractable style than the English. beauty. the If there is anybody who does perfectly flat line of the window arch. . . one would think there were no square tops except in that delectable style. " The readiness with which second-class architects adopt whatever has obtained the sanction of their betters is.arguments they use to justify their startling sitions are wonderful in the extreme. and forms an .

has happened with the English style in past has been led away by ornament to the Decorated style. a reward greater than has been vouchsafed to any other of design under his hands. To carry out this work consistently he had not full power to use his own but his steady progress must have amply repaid him for the style sacrifices he made. he refused all work in which . Vincent Street Church. Burges. architect of this century. Street. it would indeed be a drifting to the Queen Anne Dutch Mixture. not be done with Gothic by a similar steady Pointed or square heads is a very small part of the persistence matter both are equally admissible in the proper hands. was. " And what might on a " slight provocation or difficulty desert it. who will not try steadily to overcome the slight intractabilities of Gothic. ever did before. The source of mischief is in the flightiness of some of our chief men. Butterfield. rightly considered. and reached an equally inappropriate culmination in the Perpendicular and now.22O APPENDIX. when by the labours of Pugin. and Shaw. or try to lead it to an ignoble termination. it bids fair to reach a more excellent point after time this . Time ages and present it ." than it ' ' sorry sight to see it OKIENTAL VASE. and the consciousness of reviving and carrying "out a style till it reached the splendid culmination shown in the Union Street building and St. . but must ? .

George. 95 Antioch. Barry. G.. "A READING FROM HOMER. C. 73. 27 Apollodorus. 75 Blomfield. W. 7 Alexander de Medicis. Abbaye dale. James. 168 Adam. 70. 160 Apelles. 73 "Agra" 60 wall paper. C. Town Hall.. Homer's description of his Brooks. a relic of last flood. R. Ai'as seizes Cassandra. 73. "A by Alma the Salle de Leys. 67.. Central. designs ^Egina.. 45 Alexandrian period. 67 Bullant. Hall of.. 27 All Saints. . America. by G." by Alma Tadema.. 88 palace. Chateau of. 75 Butterfield. 71. . 95. 165. Arabic. 220 Alma Tadema.. 67. T. Margaret Street. 67 Burges. 35 Antwerp. 73 . 3 Amber used in Greek decoration. 211. A. 24 Amateur decorators. 49 Aitchison.INDEX. 73 Alcinoiis.. 77 Anet. 71. 66. 75 Delorme.. 52. Haite. E. 134. boudoir in. 67 Aitchison.. 215 Arch decoration. and J. R. 60. 27 for. 168 Chambers. and J. 42. 53. . 117 of Helms- Admiralty Offices. 27 W. J. 220 Burnet. 75 Architects mentioned : Adam. Sea of.. 2 1 2 Adelphi Theatre decorations. 76. 146 Bell. 49 . 40.. drawing-room 135 104 Aral.. 104 in. P. Ingress. 2 . 105.. 88 Douglas. 26 Aglaophon. 35 style. 165 Adliemar. 54. 75 . 35 H. and Sellers. theory of. decoration of Hearty Welcome. painters of. 49 Collcutt. Addey. Crossland. Sir C. 57." Tadema. 96. 218 42 Anglo-Saxon ornament in Byzantium. 27 4. 54 John..

. 220 Scott. 80. 175 Asclepiodorus. 52. F. Emerson. 85 by Euskin. Louisa. 81. 161 Charmadas.. 220 Stuart and Eevett.. 75.. 73 Pearson. 27 Gibbs. 72. 16. 27 95. Sir Gilbert. 113." by Mrs. G. 50. 67 Stevenson. A. 169 Artesian tapestry. 195 Bularchus. W. Thos. Ford Madox. D. artist. The. and Assyrian. 73 70. 88 Botticelli. Lefuel. 53. 114. 46 Webb. 73. L. 67 72. 71. 67 79. 53. 27 Pugin. and BeU.. 67. Codman. 3. 74 Waterhouse. 182 . Ardices. 72 Architecture. Lectures by.. 42. 63 Baldassare. 218. J. 47. 25 Carletto. Apelles.. 96. 168 Apollodorus. 26 Architectural styles. 61 Brown. 62 Author. W. 54. E. 91. Aumonier. Norman. 165. 81 Cardon. Edward.. J. 0. 55. H. 14.. "Greek. 74.. W. P. 214 Cleophantes. 26 Colling.. 66. 26 Aristides. 43 Batley. of. Eobert A. Brophy. 121 Aristides. E. 73. 67 Pritchard. versatility necessary to. 67." Vasari. H. J. W. 71. 67. W. 70. 40 72. P. distribution 211 Architecture. 27 Athenion. M. 44 75. 88 Artists mentioned : Addey. Lectures on. C. 67 AlmaTadema. 73 George and Peto... 105 I. 39. 49 Armitage. 69. Architecture. 94.. J. J. 73 Armitage. 26 Cleanthes. H. a Greek 26 W. 65. 26 Egyptian. 126 Architects. 96 Cimon of Cleonee.. Peruvian. A. 60 Edis. 73 Godwin. 157. W. 220 69. 74 Sodding. Handbook of. Shaw.. 135 Aglaophon... 175 " Art of Decoration. E. 86 Eastlake. 27 Ardices. 65. 46. Cope. K. J. 75 Young. 49 Boucher. 75 Lescot. Smith.. 120 Viollet-le-Duc. 48 72. 75 Paley and Austin. 73 Briggs.. 134. 102. 73.222 Architects mentioned (continued] INDEX. 73. resemb- lance between. and Son. 91 Thomson. Ha \veis. 111 Berain. 74. W. 66. Mexican.. 27 Lindsay and Stark. 219 Brewer. 148 Correggio. 27 Seddon. 218 Street. 60. Goldie. E. 75 Leiper. 146.

121 . 73 Mantegna. Artists 223 mentioned (continued'} Artists mentioned (continued") Cousin. 62 Harris. 27 Peruzzi. 132.. 93. 48. C. 0. W. 164 Robinson. 62. D. 42. John.. 27 Poynter. E. 169 Hay. Lepautre. Raffles. 43 Halswelle. A. 45 Sharp. 53.. 27 Hogarth.. G. jun. 26 Pilon. 102. 168. 130132. 48 Ghirlandajo. 27 Philocles of Egypt. 62 Phidias. W. T.. 57. 59 Fra Angelico. 27 Felix and Melanthus. 111... 27 Eupompus. 61. 58.. 114 De Witt. T.. 104 Jones. A... P. 112. 44 Miller. 88 Poccetti. Mark.. 181. 88 Leys. 86. 27 Dresser. 61 J.. 132 Heaton. H. 48 Dyce. 26 Imrie. F. 27 Nicomachus. 27 101. Lewis F. Owen. 19. Leighton.... F. 103. Fred. L. 60. 88 Grimshaw. 137 Rogers. W. 48 Fra Filippino Lippi. 108 Hewitt. 148 Owen W. Dr. 53. W... 200 Euphranor. Andrea. 160 Polygnotus. 101. 48 Girodet. 26. 48 Nicias. T. 72 Minocci. 60.. 133 Giovanni d' Udine. Morris. Butler. Baron. 49 Hulme. 43. 117 Wayman. W. T. 72 Davis. 184 Crane. 48 Margetson. 125 Haite. Julio.. 27 Nightingale. 27 Micon of Athens. 195 171.. 60 A. E.. F. 108. 53. 154. F. 159 Pansenus.... 183 Cutler.INDEX. S. 105. W. 56. 139 J. 44. Jean. 140. 42. 91 Dinias. 148 Eumaras. Walter. 27 Parrhasius. 57 Protogenes. 72. 95. J. 183. 72 Davison.. 134 Lane.. J. Q. J. 60 Mansard. T. John G. 26 Michelangelo. F. Keeley. 88 Crace. P.. 43 Jackson... 60. J. 43 Goujon. 43 Giotto. Sir F. 40. 72 Hygiemon. J. Pamphilus. 88 Day. 26 Marks. 183 Dionysius of Colophon.. 106 Romano. E. 87 Salviati. 177 Ruskin. 27 J. 215 Masaccio. 85. 99 Kennard. G. 160 Maclise. 131.. Chas. 169. 160 Raphael. R. and Bayne.

46. Oxford. 54. Asia Minor. 16 . 17 .. 27 1 5 Beni-Hassan. 37. Asclepiodorus. 88 ' ' of. relic of last flood. A. names of Assyria. 4.. 58. 28. 115. Warwick.. Backgrounds. 91. 25. 35 Bedstead. 62 Balkash. J. 111 Wyatt. F. C. Sir Charles. 62. 67 212214 Bodleian Library. 116 Stanfield... Louisa. Blomfield... 104 Brass and iron work. 26 " Arts applied to War. 41 Assyrian decoration. 63. J. 86 Vinci. F. by C. Digby. at Mycenre. 38. 43 Watteau. 169 White. 35 morning-room decora- tion by. H. 46 Baikal. 16 1 4 Boucher. 72 Baldassare. 3. 180 Aschour. treasury Atzlan. Lake. 60. 90 Bluet " wallpaper.. M. 120 Brewer. 64. 212 Voysey. ruins at. by Jackson and Graham. H. 91 Boudoir decoration. 47 Assyria. 61 Waring. 213 Atlas. 42 Batley. Voysey. 14 construction. capitals Berain." ceiling by Correggio. 102. 2 Smith. 2 48 " Bergerades. Leighton.. 26 Timanthes.. Asshur. 48 BAAL. 62 Australia. 75. 16 colours. 204 j Atreus. 2. relic of last flood. 42 16 Veronese. B. A. IV. Grace. Arthur W. ASSYRIAN GOD.. 61 Assumption of the Virgin. 41 Barry. 21. W. Lake. Andrew.. 27 man. by Felix and Way- Athenion. 8 Briggs. W. 92 Silver. 62 Aumonier. 27 Athens. 53 Zeuxis. by J. 4. J. 83 Atlantis still peaks of the ancient above water. 169 BaYe. G. 15. 212. da. palaces discovered. 195 Ascalon. A. A. 99. L. 101 Boudoir in Adam style. 128 Whistler. 72. Bernard. 72. painted." fresco by Sir F. F. B. the Talbert.. 3 of. 2 Telephanes of Sicyon. 212 Barber-Surgeons' Court Room. 72. . 59. 155 Azores. 39 Beauchamp Chapel. 215 Assisi. 13. J. 26. mentioned (continued^ Aubusson tapestry. sculpture. A.. . 124 Baths of Titus at Rome. 17 Botta. Robt. . 27 Atlantis. 73 . 2. J. 63.. 95 Boudoir ceiling. 3. Bonomi. 55. 146 Wells. 91 Weidemann. Bayeux tapestry. 27 Turner.. PI.224 Artists INDEX. 119 Bath-room panels.

60. 43. 2. 42 CABINET. 63 Chimney - piece. Margetson. 26 Challenger. 101 Ceilings. Collinson and Lock's. Florence. resemblance to early Greek.M. 66... Jean. 118 i drawing-room. Burrnantoft's faience. 119. Briggs. 4 . 73. A. 46. by Brussels. Ceramicus at Athens. 73 155 by Felix and Way- Bularchus. H.. decorations at. 50 Ceiling of Sistine Chapel. ornament. 33 35 by. 148 Builder. Salisbury Cathedral. 105. 94 Candaules buys picture painted by Bularchus. 35 Chapel. Venetian school of. 49 Chambord. 67. Manages. 71. 161 Carletto. 44 . Charles V. George's. sculptured stone.JNDEX. Cabinet in the Berlin Museum.. 67 .. geometrical.. 214 Chimney-piece. 67 Brophy. 35 Canterbury Pilgrims. Marks. Warwick. Mexican explorer. 41. at Antwerp. M. British 225 Museum. mosaics. 45.. 36 St. Sir William. Oxford. 120 Caspian Sea. . 105. Venice.. 26 Chelsea House. A. 46 Ceiling of Hall of Alexander de Medicis. 75 Butterfield. F. 46 Cherubim. early Greek Bullant. 200 Burnett. 116 wine. 195 Bruges. 220 . 36 Sir F... 36 Cadogan. examples of Egyp- tian decoration at. 24 Byzantine decoration in Italy. 20 British Architect. 12. jun. Wm. soundings taken 214 Chambers. 2. foreshortening in. decoration of. 46 Celtic Art." frieze by H. Italian. IN style of 1873.. 185 Buckingham Palace. 53 of HenryVII. 161. 220 52. 1 2 Chinese decoration. Windsor. 126 Cardiff Castle. 61 Ceiling of Countess of Derby's dress- ing-room. 25 " Chapter House. 67. 91. K)fi by Catherwood. 25 man. 183 of. 62. 6 Chicheu Itza. interiors by. Ford Madox. 45 Bronze chair of Dagobert. . 53. 48 .. 45 . Westminster. 184 Ceilings. dining-room. 42 Ceilings. 3 Mark Q Rogers. decorations of. 88 artist. 42. Earl. 43 . 214 \ Catalogue. by Burges. decoration 105 Cardon. James.. 54. 35 . Phoenico-Egyptian. boudoir.. Chateau of. 91. 57. Mr.. Brown. by F. 108.S. 157. drawing . 181 71. 103 . 36 Brooks. Burges. S. by Eobt. 37. 62 Chantrey Chapel. Exeter College. 44. 95 Ceiling design. old Flemish table in museum at. 75 Ceiling of Ducal Palace.room. 40 Charmadas. decoration of the Salle des Leighton. DKAWING-KOOM. Ceiling decoration.

171 Delphi. and Cope. at Eavenna Diodorus. 96 Davison. 171 Delorme. 114 W. by F. influence of. 118 Every-day Art. 80 Colling.S. 123 Palace. 63 Cimon of Cleonse. 115 Correggio.. 61 " his Decoration. Walter. Michael's. Cork. 86 " Cymon and Iphigenia.. decorations at. Coventry. 114 E. Grace.. Leighton. 88 Dining-room at South Kensington Q. 67 Mobilier. 64 J.. 71. Margetson. Young. 40.. or Corfu. 121 .. White. 7 Corinth. 36 Christianity. 65 . 26 W. 94. 27 Doge's Palace. Cuzco. a Greek artist. Plate V. Christmas cards. 73. 25 Dining-room 117 at Hampworth Lodge. 120 Cupola style of Byzantium and Venice. 21 Colour mixtures. W. 91 " Dictionaries of Architecture . K. 138 Christchurch Hall.226 INDEX. famous for decorative painting. 57 Darius. J. 26 Corcyra. 177 180 Colour. 109 . 148 Fionn Barr. Pearce's House.Decorators. origin of the two kinds. 73 Day. at Buckingham 151 Corinthian order. 26 Witt. Philibert. Mary's Hall. on decoration. 60. Baffles. St. Eobinson. 53 Dinias. W. E. Cleophantes of Corinth. J. W. Dolphin. 42. 2. Strand. 67 Dining-room at Mr. Lane.. 25 Davis.." Morris's. C.. chair of. Oxford. 113. St. 56. 184 Crane. Crace. 218 . CornhiU. 72 Colour arrangements. by John G. Edis. Chimney-piece. U. 76 architectural amateur.." 72 Collcutt. 70. 53. E. 40 John G." Viollet-le-Duc's. soundings taken by. C. Manchester. by Eichard 121 171.. St. Venice. 169 214 . 72 at. Assize. Marcus Ward's. 26 Cleanthes.. 26 Dining-room decoration. B. H. 116 Dining-room. 183 Crossland.. wall paper by.. painting of. 93. 60 26 Codrnan. T. 35 Cutler. Museum. 182 Courts of Law. 185 . famous Zodiac decoration at. 130132. 21 W. lecture on. 46.'' by Sir F. Talbert.. 42. Owen W. 75 Dining-room. T. 66 Cousin. 36 " Daisy Pattern. Phseacia. De contrasts. 88 Denderah. amateur. 41 33 Dagobert. Glasgow. F. L. 119. by Alf.S. temple 9 Dionysius of Colophon. Oriental.. DADO TEEATMENT AT ANTwerp. 47.

46. S. 148 decorations. 72. 2 Doric order." 22 " decorative painting. 65 64. 26 Euphranor. by H. Chateau of. decoration of a small. 72 Examples of Ancient and Modern Furniture.INDEX.. 73. 37 . W. jun. Talbert. 94." Batley's. and III. Drawing-room decoration. Drawing-room decoration.. 121 105 108 Dorians. by John G. decorations Ecouen. 65 Drury Lane Theatre Dyce. decoration. 35 " Entrance to Hall. 63. 14 20. by Joseph Sharp. 68 " Etched Studies for Interior Decoration.. 18. Paris. 47 Eaton Hall. Drawing-room decoration. 27 Grace. Egypto-Greek door. torial representations in the British 20. C. 202 . Egyptian tradition regarding Atlan- Egyptian decoration. 55.. 54. 27 " " Every-day Art. 215 Elpinice. 2 frieze Drawing-room 109 Eumaras. Margetson. Moyr J.. L. 64 "Epic Poetry. Dome at Parma. by Johnstone. by B. Drawing-room. Use of gold. Cooper. Dr. Drawing-room at Buckingham Palace. 95 Drawing-room decoration. Oxford. 92 Drawing-room decoration. Batley... Eeseniblance to As- Drawing-room decoration. 104 J. a Dorian colony. 95. W. 25 Egypt: Egyptian a completed style 1 . J. ceiling of. Plates II. Emerson." Talbert' s. 2. M. 96 decoration. 64.. Day. by Mark Eogers. 215 227 of. Egyptian furniture. 95 Drawing-room decoration. 2. 20. 53. Douglas. syrian. Tapestries. Norman. tis. Drawing-room decoration.room chimney-piece. 111 Graeco-Eoman style. 88. by J. 37 Normans. and pointed styles. 62. W. John.. by son and Lock. by F. Embroidery used by the Greeks.. 98 Sellers. 152155 Drawing-room 102 in Erotideus. and J. 72. Drawing-room decoration. 72. 1867. Talbert. 102 by H. 99 Drawing-room Smith. 91. ." by L. F. PicCeiling decoration. 60 Exhibition. 67 English examples of Saxon. 19. 102. and Co. Etruscans. 25 7. Douglas and 97. 27 Drawing. 19. Colours used. 105. 100 Collin- Museum. Norman. by Jackson. 42 Edis. 101 Embroidery used by the Saxons. E. 21. 106 Dresser. 54 o . 73 in its earliest existing examples. 93. 75 Probably of Atlantean origin. Marshall's new. 163 Exeter College Chapel. 215 Eupompus. 3." by B. 67 EASTLAKE." frieze by J. Donnelly. T. 24. and Decoration.

FAIEY TALE BOOKS. resembles Danish and Scandinavian work. of Wm. of. James. 198 Exhibitions. 125 of. James.228 INDEX. 88... 18. Paris. 117 Fergusson. decorations at." 14.Marks. Andrew's Hall. S. " Skeleton in Frieze. 78.. 74 Gray's Inn Hall.. 75 Union Bank telling-room. 1851 and 1862. 36 "Greek Antiquities. 73. proportion of. Tal59 bert. 203 Foreshortening in ceiling decoration. drawing-room. 101. W. by Sir F. 26. J. James. 2 "Sunflower. " Girolamo " wall paper. Francis I. "Fredegonda.. 60. London. Fontainebleau. 8. A. 181184 69 Glasgow. 90 French styles. Furniture. . his restoration of Assyrian court. G." Talbert's. 43 159 Girodet. 28 by H. designed by Alma Tadema. 195 . Jean. 72 . 147 Cutler's. 195 Frieze. 109 . 73 Goldie. 42. 49 Stuart and Parry. E." 52 " Grammar of Japanese Ornament. spirit. House of Lords. new club at. Glasgow. 71.. 128 99.. Greek temples. 183 bvJ. 29. 38. invented by Gambier Grand Opera. Longfellow's Armour.. Plates VI. 23 Greek painted decoration of various periods. Leighton. 52 Exhibitions. St. 88. 73 at.. 79 " Grammar of Ornament. Pearce's house.." Frescoes at the ." by Walter Crane. 84 Greece. 77. 75 . Sistine Chapel. " Handbook of Woollams and Co.. ornament. 49 Giotto... styles. "Parthenon. MARCUS Ward's new style of.M. 1 6 Fergusson. 108. 88 " Glacier" decoration. lighting Grimshaw. 48 170 63 Fashion in architecture. 217 . 81." 169 French work. 25. 45.. influence . 89. decoration of church Gibbs. 115. 63 Forms." by B. tions in. Giovanni d' Udine. James. 41. 46. 27.. 48 . 58 Architecture. 96 144 GEOEGE AND PETO. 101 Graining. Ghent. L. 82 Felix and Wayman. 72." Eevett's. VIII. XL Goujon. application to English 67 interiors. 7 early. 67 " Gothic 55. Fisheries and Inventions. VII. 40 Godwin. 44 Gobelins tapestry. 109 Greek metal decoration. drawing-room decoraby Felix and "Wayman. 75 Mr." 217 Flemish tapestry. 16. Indian.. 183 Friezes. 40 Florentine school of decoration. 86 Fergusson. 68.

131. Imrie.. IMITATION IN ART. 'Grosvenor" wall paper. 148 Hall decoration." F. 25 Japanese ornament. 177 160 7 Hiram. 25 Heracles. dining-room 117 at.. 24 . C. Mr. 128136 Hall at decoration Buckingham Palace. J. i "History. 75 H ADDON HALL. 134 J... at Tyre. king of Tyre.. 212 78 Hampworth Lodge. 0. . Butler. Woollains and Co. CHAS. 62 41 . 132 Haweis. J. 215 Heraion at Samos. 4. 4. decorations of. 24 Horsley. Miller's. 49 Hollo way College. 208 . Harris. 2 . Haite.INDEX. Pompeian 136 by 135 J.. 67 Hall decoration. decorations at. 131. Harris. 169 Ivory used in Greek decoration. 60. 36. 72 Ionic colonies. W.. 60. 7 Jones.. 108 Helmsdale.. 8 Hewitt.. 43 . furniture. Owen... 9 JACKSON. 132.. 6 Julio 140.. by J. 19. king Menelaus. Mrs. P. 136. C. Jackson. 208 Jews poor artificers. W. 8 and the Nemsean lion. 134. 198 " Interior Decoration. Indian colour arrangements. 169 volutes. G. 56 of 229 Decorative picture at Wra. temple of. 52 Herodotus. 104 Japan. Houses of Parliament. 72 53. T. Romano. Hay." Sanatorium. J. Keeley. Judah. 53. 132 House of Lords. of Hall decoration. paper. 119 Eomau decoration. Hall decoration. 7 Homer's description of the palace style. Virginia Water.. Addey. 148 King Alcinoiis." 14. 27 . "Handbook 86 of Architecture. 179 .. Wolsey's Hall. J. 14 Hogarth. 51. 0. by F. and Bayne. decoration Hereford screen. F. 204 79. origin of.. 115. T. 169 Hampton 40 Court.. Hygiemon. Nightingale. 79. by F. E. richness 216 of. 160 India. 25 "Art of -Decoration. of. . 117. Sanatorium. 62 Heaton. 157160 Homer's description of the palace of Hall decoration. A. 139 Hera. 16. 145 148 Houses of early kings. Kennard." Iron and brass work.. Hulme. 133 J. 26 Halswelle.

and J. 5 Leighton. 48 Manufacturers mentioned : "Legend. Kioto. 175 Lefuel.. 88 Hall. 88 Lyceum Theatre decorations. Library decoration. 201 Lepautre. 126 .. 195 95. 184 at Chelsea House. EICHAED Laodice.. H. 199 J. 41 "Lecture on Colour. Sir F. 125 KAENAC. I "Jupiter Fulminating at the Vices.2 3 INDEX. decorative panel. . 91.. 74. picture of. 25 Louvre. St. 4 Lydia. 25 Mansard. 67 Khorsabad. Boote. 20. 171 "Lectures on Architecture. 73.. 195 Painting. 13. Cooper. 25 Manchester Assize Courts. 71. 66 Le Hon. 201. 192195 134 at. Grace. 154. 91. Armitage. 88. 88 Lescot. Wm. F. and Co. 75 Liverpool. 75 Mantegna. Japan. 62. 184 Mr. 124 127. restoration of court Plate I Louis Quatorze and Quinze 89. Bishop. 53. 85 " Lectures on by by J. Capello and Co. 42. D. Virginia Water. embroidery of. 136 H. 46 Library decoration. 183. Khorsabad.. 4 Lysicrates. 93 Louis Seize style. 157. by Johnstono.. 42. 125 Herr Adolph.." by John G." Shakesperean. 143 . Joy of Keramic decoration. decoration at Antwerp by. BaU. new method of painting by. Plate XI. 142. George's Hall. 166 styles. 100. Grimshaw. and Barnard. 105. 124. Town Mandrocles. 21. 88. 206 Collinson and Lock." Decorative painting at Sanatorium. Keiro. Baron. colours found at. 181. 215 40. 148 Magna-Grsecia. by A. 21 Maclise. 206 Barnard. C. 75 Burke and Co. 25. for Norman. Lindsay and Stark. Library decoration.. 171. Library decoration Boston. Lincrusta. 25 LANE. 199 21. Jean. 121 27 MACEDONIAN PEEIOD Greece. 205 G. Leiper. 164 Lycia. 65 Layard. 8 IN Law Courts. Strand. and E." E. 116. Kensington Museum. 215 Kom-Omba. 204 T. 63.. 160 A. 88 Leys." Euskin. 17 " King Henry VIII. Beissbarth Son. 208 Kennard. 40. 14 Macedonian or Ptolemaic period in Egypt.. H. by Paul Veronese. 89.. 177. 101. 95. A.L. 212 Leathersellers' Hall. monument of. 169.. 153. Q. 110. 195. 200 168. 201 Coalbrookdale Co.

Fred.. 201 Minton. Dunnill. 124. 3. 144. 200 and Co. Maw and Co. 201 Metal in bronze gate of King Shalmanezar. and Mintons. 200 208 W... Manufacturers mentioned (continued} Cox and Son. 54 Mongolia. 63 Vincent Eobinson and Co. Fred. 56... temple God. 96. H. 207 Craven. temple consecrated Moorish. and Co.. 7 . Ellson. Malkin. 12 Michelangelo. Temple of the Sun.. 202 palace of King Alcinoiis. and Steele Steele 200 Moon. 206 Wright and Mansfield. 207 Liberty and Co. 206 and Wood. 141 Jeffrey and Co. Godwin and Son.. 95. Norman. 201 Hart and Co... 208 Skidmore. 54. 91. 9 Mexico. Cuzco. 101. 59. 98. 104. 4. 114 Holland and Son. 200 Morning-room decoration. 207 Margetson. Marshall. S. 10 McCaw. and Bayne. 27 Jones and Willis.. Peter Paul. 11. 12. 54 Gillow and Co. 144 Mortlake tapestry. 57. and J. 206 painting at Chicheu the Itza.. . 202 Marcus Ward. 215 Mexican decoration. Butler.. William.. 40 . 109. 200 231 Manufacturers mentioned (continued} Wilcock and Co. 108 Jackson and Graham.. H. 55. Plate Storey Bros. 6 .. Micon of Athens. Edge. 143. 200. 48 furniture.. 4 and Garland. 9. 41 Metal in decoration. frieze by.. . 200. 64.. 63. Woollams 60. 109. 201 Scott. 200 Felix and Wayman. 101. Morris.. 141. 6 Solomon's Temple. 59.. 111. 82 Wm. 197. 200 Orr. 58. 112. examples of. 200 Marble inlay.. 123. 36 Miller. 206 Dr. 199 to . Co. 208 Memorial Chapel. 95... 125 Marks. 82 Heaton. 203 9. 206 E. 144 Procter and Co. 82.. 122." 72 Minocci. Wright and Co. and Co. and Co. 104. 82. 116 Alfred Newman and Co. 10 Edward Smith. Windsor.. Melanthius. 121 Eichardson. 27 Middle Temple Hall. 214 Morris and Co. Mediaeval Plate V.INDEX. 59 72.. and Co.. "Interior Decoration.. IV. 200 L. 212 to the. 121. 201 Merchant Taylors' Hall. Stevenson. DoultonandCo. and Co. Pearson. 163 W. 103. 98. 44 Unknown Powell and Sons. Cuthbertson. 108.. 12 Perry and Co. 58. and Co. Salviati and Co. 142. 208 Johnstone.. England and Sons. and Co. 117 Geo. G. 63. 102.. 121. Hollins. 183 Masaccio. 212. 2.

143 23. Runic. Parthenon at Athene. spirit fresco invented by. III. 74 Sainte-Chapelle. 217 Pausias. 27 Notre-Dame. W. 37 house in Bayeux tapestry. an early people of Greece. 201 . 27 73. Bodleian Library.. 73 . 67. Prince of Wales's. nephew of Phidias. decoration of. works in his reign. 71 . 26 Pavilion. 74 Pausanias. Mr. Niches 169 for statues. palace of. spirit fresco. Gambier. 63.. 67 Pelasgoi.. 48 Pearce. 48. J. tomb of. of. 115. 41 . 27 Nicias. 54. 52 Oxford. Old English style. 128 of. 177 Osymandias. NEW MODE OF. 195 1 Mosaic. 200 Palladia of Ilium.. 132. 141 . Nero. 17 Jackson.. "Nineveh and its Palaces. 1 Palazzo Vecchio. decorations at house 99. Parlour decoration. architecture of. 21 Pelasgian design to Danish. 182 ''Parthenon. 74 Oriental furniture. 27 Nicomachus. F. J.2J2 INDEX. 8.." 17 deco- Cooper. ornaments. 46. Grand Opera. 171 ." BY GIOTTO. 139 Parma. Runic.. 170 of. . 23. 192 Byzantine. Grand. Pearson. similar in Overdoor decoration. Pamphilus. 24 art. 144 " OBEDIENCE. PAINTING. 133 by H. 48 7 Munich Royal Library. 2 J. 178 Persia. a Greek artist. 27 67.217 75 Paris. 140 Nightingale. Florence. 177. 67 Pansenus.. 26. 100 Parlour decoration. 38 vaults. 217 Norse. 9 Pantheon at Rome. 138. resemblance to early Greek. 160. 35 Parry. 16 Parrhasius. Pella.. 27 Paley and Austin. 195 . Paris. 64 Opera. ceiling of dome 182 Nisroch. 36 Exeter College Chapel. 2 . 73 Church Napoleon 74 at. 24 colour arrangements. 145. Greek artist. 2 Christchurch Hall." Fergusson's.. Scandinavian. 195 Painting. . 27 Persian colour arrangements.. 26. Celtic. .. L. Allerheiligen Capelle. splendid colour and ration at. a Parliament. 137 .. 24 frieze of.. Nineveh. AT Assisi. 27 Norman . Houses 148 53. . 67 Peru. and by Charles at. Golden House Newcastle Chapel. 35 Exhibition. Assyrian god..

215 . 105 Robinson. 26. 9. John. GK T. 164 124. . 26 Phoenicia. 87 J. 43 Phceacia. . PARIS. hall decoration. 4. 2. 3 Proportion in architecture. 165 .. 50. 146. 21. 160 French. room Mexico and Peru. 105. 137 Robinson. 10. 21 Pugin. 83 Philocles of Egypt. mummies metal decoration. Alf. 42 Phidias. 95 11. 233 Pritchard.. or Corfu.. 34 style.. 42. 70 . E. his description of the destruction of Atlantis. 27 Prescott. . "W. historian of 3. ornament. 220 Puzzeola. 106 Romano. 163. 7 KADCLIFFE CHAPEL. 41 Pilon. 35 Pompeii. 88 Pirithous. 43. 32. characteristics design Batley. 2. Romanesque. Pointed style exemplified in the Temple Church. 179 Renaissance. Ruskin. jun. 27 Pizarro. 81. E. 181. 27 Ptolemaic period Peruvian Temple of the Moon. 68. 214 i of. Roman 30. Phcenico-Egyptian cherubim. of design.. decoration. 43 Rome. Pompeian decoration. 2 Poynter. 35 Portugal.. 182 Roman. three periods of. 166 136 Pompeian style.. 215. 75.. 7 1 in Egypt. Mark. 48.M.INDEX. 86. 9. 30 decoration. Eaphael. 57 Rutland Cottage.. 32 Royalty Theatre decorations.. 27 Philce. 170 160. .. Peruvian antiquities. Poicile at Athens. 10 Protogenes.. A. 2. 12. introduction 212. 43 Flemish. 44 colours used in.. 6 Pianaforte panels by J. 6. 118. 10. 6 Roman . 67 art characteristics. 136 .. colours used during. W. John. 25 QUEEN ANNE STYLE.. 84 the Sun. 31 Pompeian decoration. 85. 10 Plato. 217220 67 Phoenicians as metal-workers and artificers. 24. SAINTE-CHAPELLE. characteristics 48 Roman . Julio.216 at. in. 53. Runic.S. Plate IV. decoration of dining- Polygnotus.. 11 in the Temple of interior decoration. Rogers. 29.. 213 Poccetti. 94. 4. 6. 29 . 60 . 26 42 Point of sight in decorative pictures. by H. 48. Peruzzi. 72. 4 Baths of Titus at. Princess's Theatre decorations. colours and mediof ums used. ruins at. Corcyra.

67. 73. 73. Saxon house. 65. St. Francesco. 6 72. 67 George's Hall. 195. 130 Staircase 69. 185 South Kensington Museum diningroom. J. 128. Joseph. 218. 67 James's Palace. and Son." Walter Crane. from Bayeux 39 tapestry. 155 157 Saxon ornament. Theatre decorations. 70. . " School of Athens. gates Shams. city Syria." 49 Studio decoration. Fontainebleau." St Alban's. Virginia Water. on glass. Buskin's." Ruskin's. 37 St. 35 . Staircase decoration. by Andrew Shaw. Fionn Barr. 40. J. 78 Sharp. 99 Sharp. St. Sistine Chapel. D. 81.. 67 St.. 35 "Seven Lamps of Architecture. P. 48. Talbert. Cork. 44. 4. 48 Scott.. St. ceiling of. Fontainebleau. 86 Street. 41 45 8 Salviati. by B. 63. 41 . at Buckingham Shalmanezar. by B. Maria Maggiore at Rome. 168 window screens. Venice. frieze. 40 Sparta. decoration. illus- Sassanian. Bernard. Cornhill. 94. 183 by Stuart and Revett's " Greek Antiquities. 4 tration of.. 182 Silicine painting Silver." Raphael's.. Grace.. J. 181. 71. Eichard Norman. brazen temple Sta. 204 George Edmund. 75 Winchester. in decorative pictures. 48 frieze "Skeleton in Armour. Andrew's Hall." Stained-glass 128. A. 155 Stevenson. 61 9 Palace. point of. 141 Smith. Glasgow. de Leys. interiors by. 74. 67 Sedding.. at. 62 65 (Frontispiece) Stanfield. J. 73 St. 88. 136 109 of. . 149 Staircase decoration. 218 " Stones of Venice. 160 des Mariages at Brussels. 4. 123. interiors by.. Smith. 66 St.. Sight. 116 "Sunflower" 59 Susa.. St. W. 67. 41. 129 Staircase. 44 . Michael's. . 73 Ravenna. 35. 86 Shakespearean decorative panels for frieze.. 2 of. 159 Savoy Theatre decorations.. Talbert. J. 220 frescoes.. by John G. 74 Seddon. Salle du Trone. T.INDEX. 177. 67 Solomon's Temple. Antwerp. 220 Sidonians. 75. J. Vital's. 128 . Wells. Cross. 69. 16 South Kensington Museum decorations. Sir Gilbert. 116 South Kensington Museum. 34 Decorative painting at Sanatorium.. 25 199 . tapestry at. 70. 161. 66. 6. Baldwin's Gardens. Liverpool. 166 "Sappho. Jacobean. Salle des Fetes. 93. 166 Mark's. Thos.

. Temple of the.. French styles. 36 . 35 Vasari. 60." Tiles. 63.. Glasgow. J. at. 72 similar Denmark Water-colour sketches. wall papers by. . 207. and Minton. 157. 72. Harris. 160 Hall. 65. decoration. by B urges. Telephones of Sicyon. F.. early examples pattern to work found in Plate XII. F. 62. 42 Waterhouse. 63. Manchester. 37 . 91 Tynecastle. 55. 86 " Twelfth Night. 163 Wall 167 .. 91 Town Town Hall.. 39.. 73 Whistler. Antwerp. 25 Windsor. 93. 42. 36.. 44 works .. A. at Mortlake. 40 Castle. trades and historical. B. C. 66. 75 Weidemann. 2 35 54. . 89 Viollet-le-Duc. Wall papers. 200 Tiles. and Co. J. 58. 89. in Thomson. 67 A. 195 Wakefield. TALBERT. 40 Arras.." White. by Mintons. 105 Watteau. George's Chapel. Windsor. 62 Wells.. Aubusson. for. 169 119 Shakespearean Wine cabinet. 74 Gobelins. decoration of palace. State apartments at. 110. Margetson. Bayeux. "Greek. . 5661. or Tirynthos. 37 Tapestry. 22 in J. 75. 208 Voysey... Taste. baths of. 70. J. 40 . 83 Tapestry. 36 40. 73. 59. 27 Tiryns. Saxon. Castle cedar room. 219 Wall . 90 by F. coverings. 41 Winchester. 208 Theatrical decorations..INDEX.. 113 Hollins.. 76 Tectorium. 53 decorative panel. Webb and Bell. Windsor UNION BANK TELLING-ROOM. tapestry. Cross. 208 Warwick Waring. M. St. 26 Tergorine. 36. 61 . 48 Tuileries. 202. 23 Titus. figure. 7 1 Hall. . and Minton. discoveries .. Whitehall Chapel. Turner. 40 Veronese. at Athens. 99. Andrew. by Mintons. 64. 0. 75. Hollins. 131 fabrics for. 52. 40 . 110. 208 Winds. 46 Versailles. 40 . 115. and Co. 112 by J. 71 70. 197 ... VARANGIAN GUARD AT BYZANtium. 202. BRUCE JAMES. Salle de Leys. 71 "Triumphal Procession of Csesar. Giorgio. Hampton Court. Timanthes.. 67 162 Wolsey's Hall. 22 Tirynthian decorative colours. Paul. Alfred.." Mantegna's. 169 backgrounds and Egypt. feminine. St. 202 WAKEFIELD TOWN HALL. 128 Westminster Abbey. 38. 40. 109 Tynecastle tapestry.

palace of.. Digby. 27 PRINTED BY J. 27 Yucay. LONDON. S. ZAYI. 67 91.. Young.236 INDEX. 94. 215 of. . MEXICO. Zeus. 1 1 Zeuxis introduces a grand style of form. W. 26 113. CHUECH AT. 53 PALACE OF. VIRTUE AXD CO. CITV ROAD. 126 architect. Wyatt. 114. Zeus of Phidias. in Peru. LIMITED. embroidered representation YOEK.

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